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Sample records for levels results revealed

  1. Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 FOUNDATION DETAIL REVEALED AS RESULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 FOUNDATION DETAIL REVEALED AS RESULT OF HOUSE DEMOLITION - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  2. [Munchhausen syndrome by proxy revealed by falsely toxic methotrexate levels].

    PubMed

    Charfi, Rim; Trabelsi, Sameh; Salouage, Issam; Gaïes, Emna; Jebabli, Nadia; Lakhal, Mohamed; Klouz, Anis

    2012-01-01

    Methotrexate is an antifolate drug used intravenously at high-dose in acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Therapeutic drug monitoring is required to identify patients at risk of developing toxicity and to control folinic acid rescue. We report a case of Münchausen syndrome by proxy revealed by high and persistent falsely toxic methotrexate plasmatic levels. A 12 year-old child was treated with chemotherapy including methotrexate every 70 days for an ALL. The last methotrexate plasmatic level was 0.15 μmol/L at the 72th hour of the infusion. Then, he was treated by oral rout low-dose methotrexate. Ten days after methotrexate infusion, the patient consulted for asthenia, vomiting and presented a mucositis. Methotrexate plasmatic level was 2323 μmol/L. Renal function was normal. All drugs' intake was stopped. Folinic acid rescue was instituted. Even though there was no clinical sign of toxicity, therapeutic drug monitoring showed persistent high methotrexate plasmatic levels. Investigations eliminated measurement errors and pharmacokinetic problems. A deliberate methotrexate addition in each child blood sample brought by the mother was highly suspected. We confirmed this hypothesis by measuring methotrexate plasmatic levels in three samples: one brought by the mother, the second brought by the child's doctor and the last collected in our laboratory. Methotrexate plasmatic levels were respectively over 10,000 μmol/L (first sample) and lower than 0.02 μmol/L (the two others). The diagnosis of Munchausen's syndrome by proxy revealed by falsely toxic methotrexate plasmatic levels was made and the mother was addressed to the psychiatric department.

  3. Family level phylogenies reveal modes of macroevolution in RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Andrew; Shackelton, Laura A; Holmes, Edward C

    2011-01-04

    Despite advances in understanding the patterns and processes of microevolution in RNA viruses, little is known about the determinants of viral diversification at the macroevolutionary scale. In particular, the processes by which viral lineages assigned as different "species" are generated remain largely uncharacterized. To address this issue, we use a robust phylogenetic approach to analyze patterns of lineage diversification in five representative families of RNA viruses. We ask whether the process of lineage diversification primarily occurs when viruses infect new host species, either through cross-species transmission or codivergence, and which are defined here as analogous to allopatric speciation in animals, or by acquiring new niches within the same host species, analogous to sympatric speciation. By mapping probable primary host species onto family level viral phylogenies, we reveal a strong clustering among viral lineages that infect groups of closely related host species. Although this is consistent with lineage diversification within individual hosts, we argue that this pattern more likely represents strong biases in our knowledge of viral biodiversity, because we also find that better-sampled human viruses rarely cluster together. Hence, although closely related viruses tend to infect related host species, it is unlikely that they often infect the same host species, such that evolutionary constraints hinder lineage diversification within individual host species. We conclude that the colonization of new but related host species may represent the principle mode of macroevolution in RNA viruses.

  4. Contamination Revealed by Indicator Microorganism Levels during Veal Processing.

    PubMed

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Wang, Rong; Luedtke, Brandon E; Wheeler, Tommy L; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    During site visits of veal processors, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) has reported processing deficiencies that likely contribute to increased levels of veal contamination. Here, we report the results of measuring aerobic plate count bacteria (APC), Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms (CF), and Escherichia coli during eight sample collections at five veal processors to assess contamination during the harvest of bob veal and formula-fed veal before (n = 5 plants) and after (n = 3 plants) changes to interventions and processing practices. Hides of veal calves at each plant had mean log CFU/100 cm(2) APC, Enterobacteriaceae, CF, and E. coli of 6.02 to 8.07, 2.95 to 5.24, 3.28 to 5.83, and 3.08 to 5.59, respectively. Preintervention carcasses had mean log CFU/100 cm(2) APC, Enterobacteriaceae, CF, and E. coli of 3.08 to 5.22, 1.16 to 3.47, 0.21 to 3.06, and -0.07 to 3.10, respectively, before and 2.72 to 4.50, 0.99 to 2.76, 0.69 to 2.26, and 0.33 to 2.12, respectively, after changes were made to improve sanitary dressing procedures. Final veal carcasses had mean log CFU/100 cm(2) APC, Enterobacteriaceae, CF, and E. coli of 0.36 to 2.84, -0.21 to 1.59, -0.23 to 1.59, and -0.38 to 1.45 before and 0.44 to 2.64, -0.16 to 1.33, -0.42 to 1.20, and 0.48 to 1.09 after changes were made to improve carcass-directed interventions. Whereas the improved dressing procedures resulted in improved carcass cleanliness, the changes to carcass-directed interventions were less successful, and veal processors are urged to use techniques that ensure uniform and consistent delivery of antimicrobials to carcasses. Analysis of results comparing bob veal to formula-fed veal found bob veal hides, preintervention carcasses, and final carcasses to have increased (P < 0.05) APC, Enterobacteriaceae, CF, and E. coli (with the exception of hide Enterobacteriaceae; P > 0.05) relative to formula fed veal. When both veal categories were harvested at the same plant on

  5. Integrative analysis of RNA, translation, and protein levels reveals distinct regulatory variation across humans.

    PubMed

    Cenik, Can; Cenik, Elif Sarinay; Byeon, Gun W; Grubert, Fabian; Candille, Sophie I; Spacek, Damek; Alsallakh, Bilal; Tilgner, Hagen; Araya, Carlos L; Tang, Hua; Ricci, Emiliano; Snyder, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    Elucidating the consequences of genetic differences between humans is essential for understanding phenotypic diversity and personalized medicine. Although variation in RNA levels, transcription factor binding, and chromatin have been explored, little is known about global variation in translation and its genetic determinants. We used ribosome profiling, RNA sequencing, and mass spectrometry to perform an integrated analysis in lymphoblastoid cell lines from a diverse group of individuals. We find significant differences in RNA, translation, and protein levels suggesting diverse mechanisms of personalized gene expression control. Combined analysis of RNA expression and ribosome occupancy improves the identification of individual protein level differences. Finally, we identify genetic differences that specifically modulate ribosome occupancy--many of these differences lie close to start codons and upstream ORFs. Our results reveal a new level of gene expression variation among humans and indicate that genetic variants can cause changes in protein levels through effects on translation. © 2015 Cenik et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  6. Integrative analysis of RNA, translation, and protein levels reveals distinct regulatory variation across humans

    PubMed Central

    Cenik, Can; Cenik, Elif Sarinay; Byeon, Gun W.; Grubert, Fabian; Candille, Sophie I.; Spacek, Damek; Alsallakh, Bilal; Tilgner, Hagen; Araya, Carlos L.; Tang, Hua; Ricci, Emiliano; Snyder, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the consequences of genetic differences between humans is essential for understanding phenotypic diversity and personalized medicine. Although variation in RNA levels, transcription factor binding, and chromatin have been explored, little is known about global variation in translation and its genetic determinants. We used ribosome profiling, RNA sequencing, and mass spectrometry to perform an integrated analysis in lymphoblastoid cell lines from a diverse group of individuals. We find significant differences in RNA, translation, and protein levels suggesting diverse mechanisms of personalized gene expression control. Combined analysis of RNA expression and ribosome occupancy improves the identification of individual protein level differences. Finally, we identify genetic differences that specifically modulate ribosome occupancy—many of these differences lie close to start codons and upstream ORFs. Our results reveal a new level of gene expression variation among humans and indicate that genetic variants can cause changes in protein levels through effects on translation. PMID:26297486

  7. Revealing the planar chemistry of two-dimensional heterostructures at the atomic level.

    PubMed

    Chou, Harry; Ismach, Ariel; Ghosh, Rudresh; Ruoff, Rodney S; Dolocan, Andrei

    2015-06-23

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals and their heterostructures are an intense area of study owing to their unique properties that result from structural planar confinement. Intrinsically, the performance of a planar vertical device is linked to the quality of its 2D components and their interfaces, therefore requiring characterization tools that can reveal both its planar chemistry and morphology. Here, we propose a characterization methodology combining (micro-) Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to provide structural information, morphology and planar chemical composition at virtually the atomic level, aimed specifically at studying 2D vertical heterostructures. As an example system, a graphene-on-h-BN heterostructure is analysed to reveal, with an unprecedented level of detail, the subtle chemistry and interactions within its layer structure that can be assigned to specific fabrication steps. Such detailed chemical information is of crucial importance for the complete integration of 2D heterostructures into functional devices.

  8. Decreased eicosapentaenoic acid levels in acne vulgaris reveals the presence of a proinflammatory state.

    PubMed

    Aslan, İbrahim; Özcan, Filiz; Karaarslan, Taner; Kıraç, Ebru; Aslan, Mutay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine circulating levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and measure circulating protein levels of angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3), ANGPTL4, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in patients with acne vulgaris. Serum from 21 control subjects and 31 acne vulgaris patients were evaluated for levels of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n- 6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, C20:3n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3). PUFA levels were determined by an optimized multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method using ultra fast-liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Lipid profile, routine biochemical and hormone parameters were assayed by standard kit methods Serum EPA levels were significantly decreased while AA/EPA and DGLA/EPA ratio were significantly increased in acne vulgaris patients compared to controls. Serum levels of AA, DGLA and DHA showed no significant difference while activity of sPLA2 and LPL were significantly increased in acne vulgaris compared to controls. Results of this study reveal the presence of a proinflammatory state in acne vulgaris as shown by significantly decreased serum EPA levels and increased activity of sPLA2, AA/EPA and DGLA/EPA ratio. Increased LPL activity in the serum of acne vulgaris patients can be protective through its anti-dyslipidemic actions. This is the first study reporting altered EPA levels and increased sPLA2 activity in acne vulgaris and supports the use of omega-3 fatty acids as adjuvant treatment for acne patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. What Do the California Standards Test Results Reveal about the Movement toward Eighth-Grade Algebra for All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jian-Hua; Heckman, Paul E.; Abedi, Jamal

    2012-01-01

    In California, an increasing number of 8th graders have taken algebra courses since 2003. This study examines students' California Standards Test (CST) results in grades 7 through 11, aiming to reveal who took the CST for Algebra I in 8th grade and whether the increase has led to a rise in students' taking higher-level mathematics CSTs and an…

  10. Resonant nature of intrinsic defect energy levels in PbTe revealed by infrared photoreflectance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bingpo; Cai, Chunfeng; Jin, Shuqiang

    2014-07-14

    Step-scan Fourier-transform infrared photoreflectance and modulated photoluminescence spectroscopy were used to characterize the optical transitions of the epitaxial PbTe thin film grown by molecular beam epitaxy on BaF{sub 2} (111) substrate in the vicinity of energy gap of lead telluride at 77 K. It is found that the intrinsic defect energy levels in the electronic structure are of resonant nature. The Te-vacancy energy level is located above the conduction band minimum by 29.1 meV. Another defect (V{sub X}) energy level situated below valance band maximum by 18.1 meV is also revealed. Whether it is associated with the Pb vacancy is still not clear.more » It might also be related to the misfit dislocations stemming from the lattice mismatch between PbTe and BaF{sub 2} substrate. The experimental results support the theory prediction (N. J. Parada and G. W. Pratt, Jr., Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 180 (1969), N. J. Parada, Phys. Rev. B 3, 2042 (1971)) and are consistent with the reported Hall experimental results (G. Bauer, H. Burkhard, H. Heinrich, and A. Lopez-Otero, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1721 (1976)).« less

  11. Resonant nature of intrinsic defect energy levels in PbTe revealed by infrared photoreflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bingpo; Cai, Chunfeng; Jin, Shuqiang; Ye, Zhenyu; Wu, Huizhen; Qi, Zhen

    2014-07-01

    Step-scan Fourier-transform infrared photoreflectance and modulated photoluminescence spectroscopy were used to characterize the optical transitions of the epitaxial PbTe thin film grown by molecular beam epitaxy on BaF2 (111) substrate in the vicinity of energy gap of lead telluride at 77 K. It is found that the intrinsic defect energy levels in the electronic structure are of resonant nature. The Te-vacancy energy level is located above the conduction band minimum by 29.1 meV. Another defect (VX) energy level situated below valance band maximum by 18.1 meV is also revealed. Whether it is associated with the Pb vacancy is still not clear. It might also be related to the misfit dislocations stemming from the lattice mismatch between PbTe and BaF2 substrate. The experimental results support the theory prediction (N. J. Parada and G. W. Pratt, Jr., Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 180 (1969), N. J. Parada, Phys. Rev. B 3, 2042 (1971)) and are consistent with the reported Hall experimental results (G. Bauer, H. Burkhard, H. Heinrich, and A. Lopez-Otero, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1721 (1976)).

  12. Development of diagnostic test instruments to reveal level student conception in kinematic and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handhika, J.; Cari, C.; Suparmi, A.; Sunarno, W.; Purwandari, P.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a diagnostic test instrument to reveal students' conceptions in kinematics and dynamics. The diagnostic test was developed based on the content indicator the concept of (1) displacement and distance, (2) instantaneous and average velocity, (3) zero and constant acceleration, (4) gravitational acceleration (5) Newton's first Law, (6) and Newton's third Law. The diagnostic test development model includes: Diagnostic test requirement analysis, formulating test-making objectives, developing tests, checking the validity of the content and the performance of reliability, and application of tests. The Content Validation Index (CVI) results in the category are highly relevant, with a value of 0.85. Three questions get negative Content Validation Ratio CVR) (-0.6), after revised distractors and clarify visual presentation; the CVR become 1 (highly relevant). This test was applied, obtained 16 valid test items, with Cronbach Alpha value of 0.80. It can conclude that diagnostic test can be used to reveal the level of students conception in kinematics and dynamics.

  13. The Evolution of Vicia ramuliflora (Fabaceae) at Tetraploid and Diploid Levels Revealed with FISH and RAPD.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Haoyou; Liu, Xiangjun

    2017-01-01

    Vicia ramuliflora L. is a widely distributed species in Eurasia with high economic value. For past 200 years, it has evolved a tetraploid cytotype and new subspecies at the diploid level. Based on taxonomy, cytogeography and other lines of evidence, previous studies have provided valuable information about the evolution of V. ramuliflora ploidy level, but due to the limited resolution of traditional methods, important questions remain. In this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to analyze the evolution of V. ramuliflora at the diploid and tetraploid levels. Our aim was to reveal the genomic constitution and parents of the tetraploid V. ramuliflora and the relationships among diploid V. ramuliflora populations. Our study showed that the tetraploid cytotype of V. ramuliflora at Changbai Mountains (M) has identical 18S and 5S rDNA distribution patterns with the diploid Hengdaohezi population (B) and the diploid Dailing population (H). However, UPGMA clustering, Neighbor-Joining clustering and principal coordinates analysis based on RAPD showed that the tetraploid cytotype (M) has more close relationships with Qianshan diploid population T. Based on our results and the fact that interspecific hybridization among Vicia species is very difficult, we think that the tetraploid V. ramuliflora is an autotetraploid and its genomic origin still needs further study. In addition, our study also found that Qianshan diploid population (T) had evolved distinct new traits compared with other diploid populations, which hints that V. ramuliflora evolved further at diploid level. We suggest that diploid population T be re-classified as a new subspecies.

  14. The Evolution of Vicia ramuliflora (Fabaceae) at Tetraploid and Diploid Levels Revealed with FISH and RAPD

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ying; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Haoyou; Liu, Xiangjun

    2017-01-01

    Vicia ramuliflora L. is a widely distributed species in Eurasia with high economic value. For past 200 years, it has evolved a tetraploid cytotype and new subspecies at the diploid level. Based on taxonomy, cytogeography and other lines of evidence, previous studies have provided valuable information about the evolution of V. ramuliflora ploidy level, but due to the limited resolution of traditional methods, important questions remain. In this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to analyze the evolution of V. ramuliflora at the diploid and tetraploid levels. Our aim was to reveal the genomic constitution and parents of the tetraploid V. ramuliflora and the relationships among diploid V. ramuliflora populations. Our study showed that the tetraploid cytotype of V. ramuliflora at Changbai Mountains (M) has identical 18S and 5S rDNA distribution patterns with the diploid Hengdaohezi population (B) and the diploid Dailing population (H). However, UPGMA clustering, Neighbor-Joining clustering and principal coordinates analysis based on RAPD showed that the tetraploid cytotype (M) has more close relationships with Qianshan diploid population T. Based on our results and the fact that interspecific hybridization among Vicia species is very difficult, we think that the tetraploid V. ramuliflora is an autotetraploid and its genomic origin still needs further study. In addition, our study also found that Qianshan diploid population (T) had evolved distinct new traits compared with other diploid populations, which hints that V. ramuliflora evolved further at diploid level. We suggest that diploid population T be re-classified as a new subspecies. PMID:28135314

  15. Organism-Level Analysis of Vaccination Reveals Networks of Protection across Tissues.

    PubMed

    Kadoki, Motohiko; Patil, Ashwini; Thaiss, Cornelius C; Brooks, Donald J; Pandey, Surya; Deep, Deeksha; Alvarez, David; von Andrian, Ulrich H; Wagers, Amy J; Nakai, Kenta; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S; Soumillon, Magali; Chevrier, Nicolas

    2017-10-05

    A fundamental challenge in immunology is to decipher the principles governing immune responses at the whole-organism scale. Here, using a comparative infection model, we observe immune signal propagation within and between organs to obtain a dynamic map of immune processes at the organism level. We uncover two inter-organ mechanisms of protective immunity mediated by soluble and cellular factors. First, analyzing ligand-receptor connectivity across tissues reveals that type I IFNs trigger a whole-body antiviral state, protecting the host within hours after skin vaccination. Second, combining parabiosis, single-cell analyses, and gene knockouts, we uncover a multi-organ web of tissue-resident memory T cells that functionally adapt to their environment to stop viral spread across the organism. These results have implications for manipulating tissue-resident memory T cells through vaccination and open up new lines of inquiry for the analysis of immune responses at the organism level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tapping natural variation at functional level reveals allele specific molecular characteristics of potato invertase Pain-1.

    PubMed

    Draffehn, Astrid M; Durek, Pawel; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Stich, Benjamin; Fernie, Alisdair R; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2012-12-01

    Biochemical, molecular and genetic studies emphasize the role of the potato vacuolar invertase Pain-1 in the accumulation of reducing sugars in potato tubers upon cold storage, and thereby its influence on the quality of potato chips and French fries. Previous studies showed that natural Pain-1 cDNA alleles were associated with better chip quality and higher tuber starch content. In this study, we focused on the functional characterization of these alleles. A genotype-dependent transient increase of total Pain-1 transcript levels in cold-stored tubers of six different genotypes as well as allele-specific expression patterns were detected. 3D modelling revealed putative structural differences between allelic Pain-1 proteins at the molecule's surface and at the substrate binding site. Furthermore, the yeast SUC2 mutant was complemented with Pain-1 cDNA alleles and enzymatic parameters of the heterologous expressed proteins were measured at 30 and 4 °C. Significant differences between the alleles were detected. The observed functional differences between Pain-1 alleles did not permit final conclusions on the mechanism of their association with tuber quality traits. Our results show that natural allelic variation at the functional level is present in potato, and that the heterozygous genetic background influences the manifestation of this variation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. RNA-Seq and molecular docking reveal multi-level pesticide resistance in the bed bug

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) are hematophagous nocturnal parasites of humans that have attained high impact status due to their worldwide resurgence. The sudden and rampant resurgence of C. lectularius has been attributed to numerous factors including frequent international travel, narrower pest management practices, and insecticide resistance. Results We performed a next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) experiment to find differentially expressed genes between pesticide-resistant (PR) and pesticide-susceptible (PS) strains of C. lectularius. A reference transcriptome database of 51,492 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was created by combining the databases derived from de novo assembled mRNA-Seq tags (30,404 ESTs) and our previous 454 pyrosequenced database (21,088 ESTs). The two-way GLMseq analysis revealed ~15,000 highly significant differentially expressed ESTs between the PR and PS strains. Among the top 5,000 differentially expressed ESTs, 109 putative defense genes (cuticular proteins, cytochrome P450s, antioxidant genes, ABC transporters, glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases and acetyl cholinesterase) involved in penetration resistance and metabolic resistance were identified. Tissue and development-specific expression of P450 CYP3 clan members showed high mRNA levels in the cuticle, Malpighian tubules, and midgut; and in early instar nymphs, respectively. Lastly, molecular modeling and docking of a candidate cytochrome P450 (CYP397A1V2) revealed the flexibility of the deduced protein to metabolize a broad range of insecticide substrates including DDT, deltamethrin, permethrin, and imidacloprid. Conclusions We developed significant molecular resources for C. lectularius putatively involved in metabolic resistance as well as those participating in other modes of insecticide resistance. RNA-Seq profiles of PR strains combined with tissue-specific profiles and molecular docking revealed multi-level insecticide resistance in C. lectularius

  18. Electrical Neuroimaging of Music Processing Reveals Mid-Latency Changes with Level of Musical Expertise

    PubMed Central

    James, Clara E.; Oechslin, Mathias S.; Michel, Christoph M.; De Pretto, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This original research focused on the effect of musical training intensity on cerebral and behavioral processing of complex music using high-density event-related potential (ERP) approaches. Recently we have been able to show progressive changes with training in gray and white matter, and higher order brain functioning using (f)MRI [(functional) Magnetic Resonance Imaging], as well as changes in musical and general cognitive functioning. The current study investigated the same population of non-musicians, amateur pianists and expert pianists using spatio-temporal ERP analysis, by means of microstate analysis, and ERP source imaging. The stimuli consisted of complex musical compositions containing three levels of transgression of musical syntax at closure that participants appraised. ERP waveforms, microstates and underlying brain sources revealed gradual differences according to musical expertise in a 300–500 ms window after the onset of the terminal chords of the pieces. Within this time-window, processing seemed to concern context-based memory updating, indicated by a P3b-like component or microstate for which underlying sources were localized in the right middle temporal gyrus, anterior cingulate and right parahippocampal areas. Given that the 3 expertise groups were carefully matched for demographic factors, these results provide evidence of the progressive impact of training on brain and behavior. PMID:29163017

  19. Electrical Neuroimaging of Music Processing Reveals Mid-Latency Changes with Level of Musical Expertise.

    PubMed

    James, Clara E; Oechslin, Mathias S; Michel, Christoph M; De Pretto, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This original research focused on the effect of musical training intensity on cerebral and behavioral processing of complex music using high-density event-related potential (ERP) approaches. Recently we have been able to show progressive changes with training in gray and white matter, and higher order brain functioning using (f)MRI [(functional) Magnetic Resonance Imaging], as well as changes in musical and general cognitive functioning. The current study investigated the same population of non-musicians, amateur pianists and expert pianists using spatio-temporal ERP analysis, by means of microstate analysis, and ERP source imaging. The stimuli consisted of complex musical compositions containing three levels of transgression of musical syntax at closure that participants appraised. ERP waveforms, microstates and underlying brain sources revealed gradual differences according to musical expertise in a 300-500 ms window after the onset of the terminal chords of the pieces. Within this time-window, processing seemed to concern context-based memory updating, indicated by a P3b-like component or microstate for which underlying sources were localized in the right middle temporal gyrus, anterior cingulate and right parahippocampal areas. Given that the 3 expertise groups were carefully matched for demographic factors, these results provide evidence of the progressive impact of training on brain and behavior.

  20. Systems-level Proteomics of Two Ubiquitous Leaf Commensals Reveals Complementary Adaptive Traits for Phyllosphere Colonization.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel B; Schubert, Olga T; Röst, Hannes; Aebersold, Ruedi; Vorholt, Julia A

    2016-10-01

    Plants are colonized by a diverse community of microorganisms, the plant microbiota, exhibiting a defined and conserved taxonomic structure. Niche separation based on spatial segregation and complementary adaptation strategies likely forms the basis for coexistence of the various microorganisms in the plant environment. To gain insights into organism-specific adaptations on a molecular level, we selected two exemplary community members of the core leaf microbiota and profiled their proteomes upon Arabidopsis phyllosphere colonization. The highly quantitative mass spectrometric technique SWATH MS was used and allowed for the analysis of over two thousand proteins spanning more than three orders of magnitude in abundance for each of the model strains. The data suggest that Sphingomonas melonis utilizes amino acids and hydrocarbon compounds during colonization of leaves whereas Methylobacterium extorquens relies on methanol metabolism in addition to oxalate metabolism, aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis and alkanesulfonate utilization. Comparative genomic analyses indicates that utilization of oxalate and alkanesulfonates is widespread among leaf microbiota members whereas, aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis is almost exclusively found in Methylobacteria. Despite the apparent niche separation between these two strains we also found a relatively small subset of proteins to be coregulated, indicating common mechanisms, underlying successful leaf colonization. Overall, our results reveal for two ubiquitous phyllosphere commensals species-specific adaptations to the host environment and provide evidence for niche separation within the plant microbiota. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Systems-level Proteomics of Two Ubiquitous Leaf Commensals Reveals Complementary Adaptive Traits for Phyllosphere Colonization*

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Daniel B.; Schubert, Olga T.; Röst, Hannes; Aebersold, Ruedi; Vorholt, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    Plants are colonized by a diverse community of microorganisms, the plant microbiota, exhibiting a defined and conserved taxonomic structure. Niche separation based on spatial segregation and complementary adaptation strategies likely forms the basis for coexistence of the various microorganisms in the plant environment. To gain insights into organism-specific adaptations on a molecular level, we selected two exemplary community members of the core leaf microbiota and profiled their proteomes upon Arabidopsis phyllosphere colonization. The highly quantitative mass spectrometric technique SWATH MS was used and allowed for the analysis of over two thousand proteins spanning more than three orders of magnitude in abundance for each of the model strains. The data suggest that Sphingomonas melonis utilizes amino acids and hydrocarbon compounds during colonization of leaves whereas Methylobacterium extorquens relies on methanol metabolism in addition to oxalate metabolism, aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis and alkanesulfonate utilization. Comparative genomic analyses indicates that utilization of oxalate and alkanesulfonates is widespread among leaf microbiota members whereas, aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis is almost exclusively found in Methylobacteria. Despite the apparent niche separation between these two strains we also found a relatively small subset of proteins to be coregulated, indicating common mechanisms, underlying successful leaf colonization. Overall, our results reveal for two ubiquitous phyllosphere commensals species-specific adaptations to the host environment and provide evidence for niche separation within the plant microbiota. PMID:27457762

  2. Production of individualized V gene databases reveals high levels of immunoglobulin genetic diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcoran, Martin M.; Phad, Ganesh E.; Bernat, Néstor Vázquez; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Sumida, Noriyuki; Persson, Mats A. A.; Martin, Marcel; Hedestam, Gunilla B. Karlsson

    2016-12-01

    Comprehensive knowledge of immunoglobulin genetics is required to advance our understanding of B cell biology. Validated immunoglobulin variable (V) gene databases are close to completion only for human and mouse. We present a novel computational approach, IgDiscover, that identifies germline V genes from expressed repertoires to a specificity of 100%. IgDiscover uses a cluster identification process to produce candidate sequences that, once filtered, results in individualized germline V gene databases. IgDiscover was tested in multiple species, validated by genomic cloning and cross library comparisons and produces comprehensive gene databases even where limited genomic sequence is available. IgDiscover analysis of the allelic content of the Indian and Chinese-origin rhesus macaques reveals high levels of immunoglobulin gene diversity in this species. Further, we describe a novel human IGHV3-21 allele and confirm significant gene differences between Balb/c and C57BL6 mouse strains, demonstrating the power of IgDiscover as a germline V gene discovery tool.

  3. Production of individualized V gene databases reveals high levels of immunoglobulin genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, Martin M.; Phad, Ganesh E.; Bernat, Néstor Vázquez; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Sumida, Noriyuki; Persson, Mats A.A.; Martin, Marcel; Hedestam, Gunilla B. Karlsson

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge of immunoglobulin genetics is required to advance our understanding of B cell biology. Validated immunoglobulin variable (V) gene databases are close to completion only for human and mouse. We present a novel computational approach, IgDiscover, that identifies germline V genes from expressed repertoires to a specificity of 100%. IgDiscover uses a cluster identification process to produce candidate sequences that, once filtered, results in individualized germline V gene databases. IgDiscover was tested in multiple species, validated by genomic cloning and cross library comparisons and produces comprehensive gene databases even where limited genomic sequence is available. IgDiscover analysis of the allelic content of the Indian and Chinese-origin rhesus macaques reveals high levels of immunoglobulin gene diversity in this species. Further, we describe a novel human IGHV3-21 allele and confirm significant gene differences between Balb/c and C57BL6 mouse strains, demonstrating the power of IgDiscover as a germline V gene discovery tool. PMID:27995928

  4. Evaluating forensic biology results given source level propositions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Duncan; Abarno, Damien; Hicks, Tacha; Champod, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    The evaluation of forensic evidence can occur at any level within the hierarchy of propositions depending on the question being asked and the amount and type of information that is taken into account within the evaluation. Commonly DNA evidence is reported given propositions that deal with the sub-source level in the hierarchy, which deals only with the possibility that a nominated individual is a source of DNA in a trace (or contributor to the DNA in the case of a mixed DNA trace). We explore the use of information obtained from examinations, presumptive and discriminating tests for body fluids, DNA concentrations and some case circumstances within a Bayesian network in order to provide assistance to the Courts that have to consider propositions at source level. We use a scenario in which the presence of blood is of interest as an exemplar and consider how DNA profiling results and the potential for laboratory error can be taken into account. We finish with examples of how the results of these reports could be presented in court using either numerical values or verbal descriptions of the results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Open-system coral ages reveal persistent suborbital sea-level cycles.

    PubMed

    Thompson, William G; Goldstein, Steven L

    2005-04-15

    Sea level is a sensitive index of global climate that has been linked to Earth's orbital variations, with a minimum periodicity of about 21,000 years. Although there is ample evidence for climate oscillations that are too frequent to be explained by orbital forcing, suborbital-frequency sea-level change has been difficult to resolve, primarily because of problems with uranium/thorium coral dating. Here we use a new approach that corrects coral ages for the frequently observed open-system behavior of uranium-series nuclides, substantially improving the resolution of sea-level reconstruction. This curve reveals persistent sea-level oscillations that are too frequent to be explained exclusively by orbital forcing.

  6. Uprated OMS Engine Status-Sea Level Testing Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertolino, J. D.; Boyd, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    The current Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) is pressure fed, utilizing storable propellants. Performance uprating of this engine, through the use of a gas generator driven turbopump to increase operating pressure, is being pursued by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Component level design, fabrication, and test activities for this engine system have been on-going since 1984. More recently, a complete engine designated the Integrated Component Test Bed (ICTB), was tested at sea level conditions by Aerojet. A description of the test hardware and results of the sea level test program are presented. These results, which include the test condition operating envelope and projected performance at altitude conditions, confirm the capability of the selected Uprated OME (UOME) configuration to meet or exceed performance and operational requirements. Engine flexibility, demonstrated through testing at two different operational mixture ratios, along with a summary of projected Space Shuttle performance enhancements using the UOME, are discussed. Planned future activities, including ICTB tests at simulated altitude conditions, and recommendations for further engine development, are also discussed.

  7. Swabbing of waiting room magazines reveals only low levels of bacterial contamination

    PubMed Central

    Charnock, Colin

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that toys in waiting rooms of general practice surgeries can be contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria. The question was raised as to whether magazines might also be sources of contamination. Swabbing of the front page of 15 magazines from 11 general practice surgeries, followed by analysis for total and specific bacteria, revealed low levels of contamination. Among targeted groups of pathogens only two colonies of Staphylococcus aureus were detected. Magazines do not seem to be potentially important vectors of bacterial transfer in the setting examined. PMID:15667764

  8. Width-Dependent Band Gap in Armchair Graphene Nanoribbons Reveals Fermi Level Pinning on Au(111)

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We report the energy level alignment evolution of valence and conduction bands of armchair-oriented graphene nanoribbons (aGNR) as their band gap shrinks with increasing width. We use 4,4″-dibromo-para-terphenyl as the molecular precursor on Au(111) to form extended poly-para-phenylene nanowires, which can subsequently be fused sideways to form atomically precise aGNRs of varying widths. We measure the frontier bands by means of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, corroborating that the nanoribbon’s band gap is inversely proportional to their width. Interestingly, valence bands are found to show Fermi level pinning as the band gap decreases below a threshold value around 1.7 eV. Such behavior is of critical importance to understand the properties of potential contacts in GNR-based devices. Our measurements further reveal a particularly interesting system for studying Fermi level pinning by modifying an adsorbate’s band gap while maintaining an almost unchanged interface chemistry defined by substrate and adsorbate. PMID:29049879

  9. High-resolution tide projections reveal extinction threshold in response to sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Field, Christopher R; Bayard, Trina S; Gjerdrum, Carina; Hill, Jason M; Meiman, Susan; Elphick, Chris S

    2017-05-01

    Sea-level rise will affect coastal species worldwide, but models that aim to predict these effects are typically based on simple measures of sea level that do not capture its inherent complexity, especially variation over timescales shorter than 1 year. Coastal species might be most affected, however, by floods that exceed a critical threshold. The frequency and duration of such floods may be more important to population dynamics than mean measures of sea level. In particular, the potential for changes in the frequency and duration of flooding events to result in nonlinear population responses or biological thresholds merits further research, but may require that models incorporate greater resolution in sea level than is typically used. We created population simulations for a threatened songbird, the saltmarsh sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus), in a region where sea level is predictable with high accuracy and precision. We show that incorporating the timing of semidiurnal high tide events throughout the breeding season, including how this timing is affected by mean sea-level rise, predicts a reproductive threshold that is likely to cause a rapid demographic shift. This shift is likely to threaten the persistence of saltmarsh sparrows beyond 2060 and could cause extinction as soon as 2035. Neither extinction date nor the population trajectory was sensitive to the emissions scenarios underlying sea-level projections, as most of the population decline occurred before scenarios diverge. Our results suggest that the variation and complexity of climate-driven variables could be important for understanding the potential responses of coastal species to sea-level rise, especially for species that rely on coastal areas for reproduction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    PubMed Central

    Brink, LuAnn L.; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Sharma, Ravi K.; Marsh, Gary M.; Wu, Wen Chi; Rager, Judith R.; Strosnider, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs) of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007) by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas. PMID:23983719

  11. School-Level Genetic Variation Predicts School-Level Verbal IQ Scores: Results from a Sample of American Middle and High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Wright, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently revealed that average IQ scores vary significantly across macro-level units, such as states and nations. The reason for this variation in IQ, however, has remained at the center of much controversy. One of the more provocative explanations is that IQ across macro-level units is the result of genetic differences, but…

  12. A detailed transcript-level probe annotation reveals alternative splicing based microarray platform differences

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joseph C; Stiles, David; Lu, Jun; Cam, Margaret C

    2007-01-01

    Background Microarrays are a popular tool used in experiments to measure gene expression levels. Improving the reproducibility of microarray results produced by different chips from various manufacturers is important to create comparable and combinable experimental results. Alternative splicing has been cited as a possible cause of differences in expression measurements across platforms, though no study to this point has been conducted to show its influence in cross-platform differences. Results Using probe sequence data, a new microarray probe/transcript annotation was created based on the AceView Aug05 release that allowed for the categorization of genes based on their expression measurements' susceptibility to alternative splicing differences across microarray platforms. Examining gene expression data from multiple platforms in light of the new categorization, genes unsusceptible to alternative splicing differences showed higher signal agreement than those genes most susceptible to alternative splicing differences. The analysis gave rise to a different probe-level visualization method that can highlight probe differences according to transcript specificity. Conclusion The results highlight the need for detailed probe annotation at the transcriptome level. The presence of alternative splicing within a given sample can affect gene expression measurements and is a contributing factor to overall technical differences across platforms. PMID:17708771

  13. Seismic Data Reveal Lake-Level Changes in Lake Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, C.; Spiess, V.; Keil, H.; Sauermilch, I.; Oberhänsli, H.; Abdrakhmatov, K.; De Batist, M. A.; Naudts, L.; De Mol, L.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Issyk-Kul is located in an intramontane basin of the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, at 1607 m above sea level. It has formed in a tectonically active region with W-E striking major thrust zones both N and S of the lake. The lake is elongated with 180 km in W-E and 60 km in S-N direction and a water depth of roughly 670 m at its central plain. With a surface area of 6232 km2 and a total water colume of around 1736 km3, Lake Issyk-Kul is the second largest lake in the higher altitudes (De Batist et al., 2002). Two large delta areas have formed at the E and W end. Steep slopes at both the N and S shore separate rather narrow, shallow shelf areas from the central deeper plain. First seismic data of lake Issyk-Kul were acquired in 1982 by the Moscow University with a total of 31 profiles across the lake. In 1997 and 2001, a second and third seismic survey of the lake were carried out by the group of Marc De Batist (Ghent, Belgium) in cooperation with the Royal Museum of Central Africa (Tervuren, Belgium) and the SBRAS (Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia) using a sparker system with a single-channel streamer. These surveys were recently completed by a fourth expedition carried out by the University of Bremen in April 2013. During this expedition, 33 additional profiles were acquired with an airgun and a multi-channel streamer. The sparker surveys mostly cover the delta and shelf areas in high detail, while the airgun survey covers the deeper parts of the lake with penetration beyond the first multiple. Bathymetry data reveal that at the delta areas, the shelf is divided into two parts. The shallower comprises the part down to 110 m water depth with an average inclination of 0.5°, while the deeper part reaches from 110 m to 300 m water depth with an average slope inclination of 1°. Incised paleo-river channels of up to 2-3 km width and 50 m depth are visible both on the eastern and western shelf, but are limited to the

  14. Proteomics Analysis of Tissue Samples Reveals Changes in Mitochondrial Protein Levels in Parathyroid Hyperplasia over Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    AKPINAR, GURLER; KASAP, MURAT; CANTURK, NUH ZAFER; ZULFIGAROVA, MEHIN; ISLEK, EYLÜL ECE; GULER, SERTAC ATA; SIMSEK, TURGAY; CANTURK, ZEYNEP

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aim: To unveil the pathophysiology of primary hyperparathyroidism, molecular details of parathyroid hyperplasia and adenoma have to be revealed. Such details will provide the tools necessary for differentiation of these two look-alike diseases. Therefore, in the present study, a comparative proteomic study using postoperative tissue samples from the parathyroid adenoma and parathyroid hyperplasia patients was performed. Materials and Methods: Protein extracts were prepared from tissue samples (n=8 per group). Protein pools were created for each group and subjected to DIGE and conventional 2DE. Following image analysis, spots representing the differentially regulated proteins were excised from the and used for identification via MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. Results: The identities of 40 differentially-expressed proteins were revealed. Fourteen of these proteins were over-expressed in the hyperplasia while 26 of them were over-expressed in the adenoma. Conclusion: Most proteins found to be over-expressed in the hyperplasia samples were mitochondrial, underlying the importance of the mitochondrial activity as a potential biomarker for differentiation of parathyroid hyperplasia from adenoma. PMID:28446534

  15. Cisplatin Binding to Biological Ligands Revealed at the Encounter Complex Level by IR Action Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Corinti, Davide; Coletti, Cecilia; Re, Nazzareno; Chiavarino, Barbara; Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Fornarini, Simonetta

    2016-03-07

    Cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] was the first platinum-based antineoplastic agent and is still a cornerstone for the treatment of various solid tumors. Reactive events responsible for cisplatin activity are unveiled here at the molecular level. Simple ligands (L) representing ubiquitous functional groups in the biological environment likely to be encountered by administered cisplatin have been allowed to react with cis-[PtCl(NH3)2 (H2O)](+), the primary intermediate from cisplatin hydrolysis. The substitution reactions have been examined by a combined experimental and computational approach and the structural features of the substitution product, cis-[PtCl(NH3)2(L)](+), have been probed by IR multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. Furthermore, IRMPD spectroscopy has been exploited to elucidate the structure of [PtCl(NH3)2(L)(H2O)](+) clusters, also obtained by electrospray ionization (ESI) from the aqueous solution and representing the major focus of this investigation. These ions conform to the encounter complex of cis-[PtCl(NH3)2 (H2O)](+) with the incoming ligand and represent the first direct evidence of a prototypical Eigen-Wilkins encounter complex in solution, lying on the reaction coordinate for ligand substitution and extracted by ESI for mass spectrometric analysis. Activated [PtCl(NH3)2(L)(H2O)](+) ions dissociate by the loss of either H2O or L, the former process implying a ligand substitution event. IRMPD spectroscopy has thus revealed both structural details and reaction dynamics at the level of the isolated encounter complex. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Sac surgery results as a function of preoperative distress level.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Isha; Goyal, Amit; Syal, Rajan

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the postoperative status of the patients after endolymphatic sac decompression (ESD) for intractable unilateral definite Ménière's disease (MD) using the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) 1995 criteria and to discuss the current status of ESD in the management of MD, especially after the wide use of intratympanic administration of gentamicin for the treatment of intractable MD. Retrospective questionnaire-based analysis. Thirty-nine patients who had undergone ESD between 1996 and May 2003 at Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, were evaluated via a set format according to AAO-HNS 1995 guidelines. Their preoperative and postoperative data were compared. We found significant improvement in functional level scales (FLSs) in 84.6%, Class A vertigo control in 82%, and improved disability outcome in 87% of cases after surgery at a median postoperative follow-up of 29 months. All the patients showing significant improvement in FLS were preoperatively in scale 4 or more, and all the patients whose treatment failed were in scale 3 or less. We recommend continued use of ESD in indicated patients. We found a positive relation between preoperative distress level of the patient and postoperative improvement in FLSs; any such relationship should be investigated with a larger sample.

  17. Quantitative Glycoproteomics Analysis Reveals Changes in N-Glycosylation Level Associated with Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylation plays an important role in epithelial cancers, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. However, little is known about the glycoproteome of the human pancreas or its alterations associated with pancreatic tumorigenesis. Using quantitative glycoproteomics approach, we investigated protein N-glycosylation in pancreatic tumor tissue in comparison with normal pancreas and chronic pancreatitis tissue. The study lead to the discovery of a roster of glycoproteins with aberrant N-glycosylation level associated with pancreatic cancer, including mucin-5AC (MUC5AC), carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5), insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP3), and galectin-3-binding protein (LGALS3BP). Pathway analysis of cancer-associated aberrant glycoproteins revealed an emerging phenomenon that increased activity of N-glycosylation was implicated in several pancreatic cancer pathways, including TGF-β, TNF, NF-kappa-B, and TFEB-related lysosomal changes. In addition, the study provided evidence that specific N-glycosylation sites within certain individual proteins can have significantly altered glycosylation occupancy in pancreatic cancer, reflecting the complexity of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer-associated glycosylation events. PMID:24471499

  18. Quantitative glycoproteomics analysis reveals changes in N-glycosylation level associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pan, Sheng; Chen, Ru; Tamura, Yasuko; Crispin, David A; Lai, Lisa A; May, Damon H; McIntosh, Martin W; Goodlett, David R; Brentnall, Teresa A

    2014-03-07

    Glycosylation plays an important role in epithelial cancers, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. However, little is known about the glycoproteome of the human pancreas or its alterations associated with pancreatic tumorigenesis. Using quantitative glycoproteomics approach, we investigated protein N-glycosylation in pancreatic tumor tissue in comparison with normal pancreas and chronic pancreatitis tissue. The study lead to the discovery of a roster of glycoproteins with aberrant N-glycosylation level associated with pancreatic cancer, including mucin-5AC (MUC5AC), carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5), insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP3), and galectin-3-binding protein (LGALS3BP). Pathway analysis of cancer-associated aberrant glycoproteins revealed an emerging phenomenon that increased activity of N-glycosylation was implicated in several pancreatic cancer pathways, including TGF-β, TNF, NF-kappa-B, and TFEB-related lysosomal changes. In addition, the study provided evidence that specific N-glycosylation sites within certain individual proteins can have significantly altered glycosylation occupancy in pancreatic cancer, reflecting the complexity of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer-associated glycosylation events.

  19. A Systems-Level Analysis Reveals Circadian Regulation of Splicing in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    El-Athman, Rukeia; Fuhr, Luise; Relógio, Angela

    2018-06-20

    Accumulating evidence points to a significant role of the circadian clock in the regulation of splicing in various organisms, including mammals. Both dysregulated circadian rhythms and aberrant pre-mRNA splicing are frequently implicated in human disease, in particular in cancer. To investigate the role of the circadian clock in the regulation of splicing in a cancer progression context at the systems-level, we conducted a genome-wide analysis and compared the rhythmic transcriptional profiles of colon carcinoma cell lines SW480 and SW620, derived from primary and metastatic sites of the same patient, respectively. We identified spliceosome components and splicing factors with cell-specific circadian expression patterns including SRSF1, HNRNPLL, ESRP1, and RBM 8A, as well as altered alternative splicing events and circadian alternative splicing patterns of output genes (e.g., VEGFA, NCAM1, FGFR2, CD44) in our cellular model. Our data reveals a remarkable interplay between the circadian clock and pre-mRNA splicing with putative consequences in tumor progression and metastasis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Individual differences in ensemble perception reveal multiple, independent levels of ensemble representation.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Jason; Brady, Timothy F; Alvarez, George A

    2015-04-01

    Ensemble perception, including the ability to "see the average" from a group of items, operates in numerous feature domains (size, orientation, speed, facial expression, etc.). Although the ubiquity of ensemble representations is well established, the large-scale cognitive architecture of this process remains poorly defined. We address this using an individual differences approach. In a series of experiments, observers saw groups of objects and reported either a single item from the group or the average of the entire group. High-level ensemble representations (e.g., average facial expression) showed complete independence from low-level ensemble representations (e.g., average orientation). In contrast, low-level ensemble representations (e.g., orientation and color) were correlated with each other, but not with high-level ensemble representations (e.g., facial expression and person identity). These results suggest that there is not a single domain-general ensemble mechanism, and that the relationship among various ensemble representations depends on how proximal they are in representational space. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. High levels of variation in Salix lignocellulose genes revealed using poplar genomic resources

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the levels of variation in lignin or other wood related genes in Salix, a genus that is being increasingly used for biomass and biofuel production. The lignin biosynthesis pathway is well characterized in a number of species, including the model tree Populus. We aimed to transfer the genomic resources already available in Populus to its sister genus Salix to assess levels of variation within genes involved in wood formation. Results Amplification trials for 27 gene regions were undertaken in 40 Salix taxa. Twelve of these regions were sequenced. Alignment searches of the resulting sequences against reference databases, combined with phylogenetic analyses, showed the close similarity of these Salix sequences to Populus, confirming homology of the primer regions and indicating a high level of conservation within the wood formation genes. However, all sequences were found to vary considerably among Salix species, mainly as SNPs with a smaller number of insertions-deletions. Between 25 and 176 SNPs per kbp per gene region (in predicted exons) were discovered within Salix. Conclusions The variation found is sizeable but not unexpected as it is based on interspecific and not intraspecific comparison; it is comparable to interspecific variation in Populus. The characterisation of genetic variation is a key process in pre-breeding and for the conservation and exploitation of genetic resources in Salix. This study characterises the variation in several lignocellulose gene markers for such purposes. PMID:23924375

  2. FECAL CORTISOL LEVELS IN SCIMITAR-HORNED ORYX, ORYX DAMMAH, REVEALS DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CAPTIVE ENVIRONMENTS.

    PubMed

    Pauling, Cassandra D; Lankford, Scott E; Jackson, Victoria L

    2017-12-01

    Due to the intensive management of the scimitar-horned oryx, Oryx dammah, involving both captivity and reintroductions, understanding the stress associated with environmental situations this endangered species might experience would be particularly helpful. Fecal cortisol levels were measured across seasons, between captive management programs, and among varying reproductive states in animals held at Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (FRWC) and Kansas City Zoo (KCZ). A total of 72 samples were collected from FRWC and 69 samples were collected from KCZ. The herd size and sex ratio changed for both locations in the middle of sampling due to translocations and birth. The herd sizes ranged from 25 to 28 individuals at FRWC and 22 to 24 individuals at KCZ. An ELISA was optimized and utilized to investigate fecal cortisol variances across seasons, captive management programs, and among varying reproductive states. Fecal cortisol levels ranged from 68.9 to 668.7 pg/g throughout this study, but key differences were found in response to reproductive status, environmental conditions, and social status. The highest level of fecal cortisol measured (668.7 pg/g) was in a pregnant female 9 days prior to parturition. During winter months, an increase in fecal cortisol levels occurred in both herds (FRWC 160.3 pg/g to 335.1 pg/g and KCZ 118.8 pg/g to 505.0 pg/g). In addition, when intact males were held together in an enclosure, the dominant males had lower fecal cortisol levels compared with submissive males during three of the four sampling periods. Understanding how these data relate to the physiologic stress response will require further study, but these results can be utilized to help establish expected fecal cortisol ranges in multiple environments and can aid current captive scimitar-horned oryx management programs, as well as future reintroduction efforts.

  3. Phylogeny of a genomically diverse group of elymus (poaceae) allopolyploids reveals multiple levels of reticulation.

    PubMed

    Mason-Gamer, Roberta J

    2013-01-01

    The grass tribe Triticeae (=Hordeeae) comprises only about 300 species, but it is well known for the economically important crop plants wheat, barley, and rye. The group is also recognized as a fascinating example of evolutionary complexity, with a history shaped by numerous events of auto- and allopolyploidy and apparent introgression involving diploids and polyploids. The genus Elymus comprises a heterogeneous collection of allopolyploid genome combinations, all of which include at least one set of homoeologs, designated St, derived from Pseudoroegneria. The current analysis includes a geographically and genomically diverse collection of 21 tetraploid Elymus species, and a single hexaploid species. Diploid and polyploid relationships were estimated using four molecular data sets, including one that combines two regions of the chloroplast genome, and three from unlinked nuclear genes: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, β-amylase, and granule-bound starch synthase I. Four gene trees were generated using maximum likelihood, and the phylogenetic placement of the polyploid sequences reveals extensive reticulation beyond allopolyploidy alone. The trees were interpreted with reference to numerous phenomena known to complicate allopolyploid phylogenies, and introgression was identified as a major factor in their history. The work illustrates the interpretation of complicated phylogenetic results through the sequential consideration of numerous possible explanations, and the results highlight the value of careful inspection of multiple independent molecular phylogenetic estimates, with particular focus on the differences among them.

  4. Stereotyping at the undergraduate level revealed during interprofessional learning between future doctors and biomedical scientists.

    PubMed

    Lewitt, Moira S; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Scheja, Max; Brauner, Annelie

    2010-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) involving undergraduate health professionals is expected to promote collaboration in their later careers. The role of IPE between doctors and biomedical scientists has not been explored at the undergraduate level. Our aim was to introduce IPE sessions for medical and biomedical students in order to identify the benefits and barriers to these groups learning together. Medical and biomedical students together discussed laboratory results, relevant literature, and ideas for developing new diagnostic tools. The programme was evaluated with questionnaires and interviews. While there was general support for the idea of IPE, medical and biomedical students responded differently. Biomedical students were more critical, wanted more explicit learning objectives and felt that their professional role was often misunderstood. The medical students were more enthusiastic but regarded the way the biomedical students communicated concerns about their perceived role as a barrier to effective interprofessional learning. We conclude that stereotyping, which can impede effective collaborations between doctors and biomedical scientists, is already present at the undergraduate level and may be a barrier to IPE. Effective learning opportunities should be supported at the curriculum level and be designed to specifically enable a broad appreciation of each other's future professional roles.

  5. Steroid profiling reveals widespread local regulation of glucocorticoid levels during mouse development.

    PubMed

    Taves, Matthew D; Plumb, Adam W; Sandkam, Benjamin A; Ma, Chunqi; Van Der Gugten, Jessica Grace; Holmes, Daniel T; Close, David A; Abraham, Ninan; Soma, Kiran K

    2015-02-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are produced by the adrenal glands and circulate in the blood to coordinate organismal physiology. In addition, different tissues may independently regulate their local GC levels via local GC synthesis. Here, we find that in the mouse, endogenous GCs show tissue-specific developmental patterns, rather than mirroring GCs in the blood. Using solid-phase extraction, HPLC, and specific immunoassays, we quantified endogenous steroids and found that in tissues of female and male mice, (1) local GC levels can be much higher than systemic GC levels, (2) local GCs follow age-related patterns different from those of systemic GCs, and (3) local GCs have identities different from those of systemic GCs. For example, whereas corticosterone is the predominant circulating adrenal GC in mice, high concentrations of cortisol were measured in neonatal thymus, bone marrow, and heart. The presence of cortisol was confirmed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes was detected across multiple tissues, consistent with local GC production. Our results demonstrate that local GCs can differ from GCs in circulating blood. This finding suggests that steroids are widely used as local (paracrine or autocrine) signals, in addition to their classic role as systemic (endocrine) signals. Local GC regulation may even be the norm, rather than the exception, especially during development.

  6. Graph coarse-graining reveals differences in the module-level structure of functional brain networks.

    PubMed

    Kujala, Rainer; Glerean, Enrico; Pan, Raj Kumar; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Sams, Mikko; Saramäki, Jari

    2016-11-01

    Networks have become a standard tool for analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. In this approach, brain areas and their functional connections are mapped to the nodes and links of a network. Even though this mapping reduces the complexity of the underlying data, it remains challenging to understand the structure of the resulting networks due to the large number of nodes and links. One solution is to partition networks into modules and then investigate the modules' composition and relationship with brain functioning. While this approach works well for single networks, understanding differences between two networks by comparing their partitions is difficult and alternative approaches are thus necessary. To this end, we present a coarse-graining framework that uses a single set of data-driven modules as a frame of reference, enabling one to zoom out from the node- and link-level details. As a result, differences in the module-level connectivity can be understood in a transparent, statistically verifiable manner. We demonstrate the feasibility of the method by applying it to networks constructed from fMRI data recorded from 13 healthy subjects during rest and movie viewing. While independently partitioning the rest and movie networks is shown to yield little insight, the coarse-graining framework enables one to pinpoint differences in the module-level structure, such as the increased number of intra-module links within the visual cortex during movie viewing. In addition to quantifying differences due to external stimuli, the approach could also be applied in clinical settings, such as comparing patients with healthy controls. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Revealing Atomic-Level Mechanisms of Protein Allostery with Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Hertig, Samuel; Latorraca, Naomi R; Dror, Ron O

    2016-06-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have become a powerful and popular method for the study of protein allostery, the widespread phenomenon in which a stimulus at one site on a protein influences the properties of another site on the protein. By capturing the motions of a protein's constituent atoms, simulations can enable the discovery of allosteric binding sites and the determination of the mechanistic basis for allostery. These results can provide a foundation for applications including rational drug design and protein engineering. Here, we provide an introduction to the investigation of protein allostery using molecular dynamics simulation. We emphasize the importance of designing simulations that include appropriate perturbations to the molecular system, such as the addition or removal of ligands or the application of mechanical force. We also demonstrate how the bidirectional nature of allostery-the fact that the two sites involved influence one another in a symmetrical manner-can facilitate such investigations. Through a series of case studies, we illustrate how these concepts have been used to reveal the structural basis for allostery in several proteins and protein complexes of biological and pharmaceutical interest.

  8. Different Levels of Food Restriction Reveal Genotype-Specific Differences in Learning a Visual Discrimination Task

    PubMed Central

    Makowiecki, Kalina; Hammond, Geoff; Rodger, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In behavioural experiments, motivation to learn can be achieved using food rewards as positive reinforcement in food-restricted animals. Previous studies reduce animal weights to 80–90% of free-feeding body weight as the criterion for food restriction. However, effects of different degrees of food restriction on task performance have not been assessed. We compared learning task performance in mice food-restricted to 80 or 90% body weight (BW). We used adult wildtype (WT; C57Bl/6j) and knockout (ephrin-A2−/−) mice, previously shown to have a reverse learning deficit. Mice were trained in a two-choice visual discrimination task with food reward as positive reinforcement. When mice reached criterion for one visual stimulus (80% correct in three consecutive 10 trial sets) they began the reverse learning phase, where the rewarded stimulus was switched to the previously incorrect stimulus. For the initial learning and reverse phase of the task, mice at 90%BW took almost twice as many trials to reach criterion as mice at 80%BW. Furthermore, WT 80 and 90%BW groups significantly differed in percentage correct responses and learning strategy in the reverse learning phase, whereas no differences between weight restriction groups were observed in ephrin-A2−/− mice. Most importantly, genotype-specific differences in reverse learning strategy were only detected in the 80%BW groups. Our results indicate that increased food restriction not only results in better performance and a shorter training period, but may also be necessary for revealing behavioural differences between experimental groups. This has important ethical and animal welfare implications when deciding extent of diet restriction in behavioural studies. PMID:23144936

  9. Different levels of food restriction reveal genotype-specific differences in learning a visual discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Makowiecki, Kalina; Hammond, Geoff; Rodger, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In behavioural experiments, motivation to learn can be achieved using food rewards as positive reinforcement in food-restricted animals. Previous studies reduce animal weights to 80-90% of free-feeding body weight as the criterion for food restriction. However, effects of different degrees of food restriction on task performance have not been assessed. We compared learning task performance in mice food-restricted to 80 or 90% body weight (BW). We used adult wildtype (WT; C57Bl/6j) and knockout (ephrin-A2⁻/⁻) mice, previously shown to have a reverse learning deficit. Mice were trained in a two-choice visual discrimination task with food reward as positive reinforcement. When mice reached criterion for one visual stimulus (80% correct in three consecutive 10 trial sets) they began the reverse learning phase, where the rewarded stimulus was switched to the previously incorrect stimulus. For the initial learning and reverse phase of the task, mice at 90%BW took almost twice as many trials to reach criterion as mice at 80%BW. Furthermore, WT 80 and 90%BW groups significantly differed in percentage correct responses and learning strategy in the reverse learning phase, whereas no differences between weight restriction groups were observed in ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice. Most importantly, genotype-specific differences in reverse learning strategy were only detected in the 80%BW groups. Our results indicate that increased food restriction not only results in better performance and a shorter training period, but may also be necessary for revealing behavioural differences between experimental groups. This has important ethical and animal welfare implications when deciding extent of diet restriction in behavioural studies.

  10. Association of serum prostate-specific antigen levels with the results of the prostate needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Janbaziroudsari, Hamid; Mirzaei, Arezoo; Maleki, Nasrollah

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the relationship of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels with outcomes of prostate needle biopsy in men 50 or more years old. We measured serum PSA levels in 1472 healthy men 50 or more years old. Men who had serum PSA values 4.0ng/mL or higher underwent digital rectal examination. If there were either an elevated PSA level (≥4ng/mL) or abnormal digital rectal examination, a transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy was performed. The mean serum total PSA level was 13.73±11.44ng/mL, and the mean serum free PSA level was 4.99±0.97ng/mL. Of the 260 men who had serum total PSA levels of≥4ng/mL, 139 underwent biopsy. Of these 139 men, 45 (32.4%) had prostate cancer. Benign prostatic hyperplasia with or without prostatitis was diagnosed in 94 patients (67.6%). There was no significant correlation between age and histologic results of prostate needle biopsy (P-value=0.469). The serum free PSA showed no significant correlation with histologic results of prostate needle biopsy, whereas the serum total PSA level had a significant correlation in patients with adenocarcinoma compared with other diagnosis. The overall frequency of detection of prostate adenocarcinoma was 32.4%. This study revealed that no level of PSA was associated with a 100% positive predictive value and negative biopsy can occur virtually at any PSA level. There is a need to create awareness among the general population and health professionals for an early diagnosis of this common form of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Transcriptome analysis reveals a stress response of Shewanella oneidensis deprived of background levels of ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoping; Schilkey, Faye; Smith, Geoffrey B.

    2018-01-01

    Natural ionizing background radiation has exerted a constant pressure on organisms since the first forms of life appeared on Earth, so that cells have developed molecular mechanisms to avoid or repair damages caused directly by radiation or indirectly by radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we investigated the transcriptional effect of depriving Shewanella oneidensis cultures of background levels of radiation by growing the cells in a mine 655 m underground, thus reducing the dose rate from 72.1 to 0.9 nGy h-1 from control to treatment, respectively. RNASeq transcriptome analysis showed the differential expression of 4.6 and 7.6% of the S. oneidensis genome during early- and late-exponential phases of growth, respectively. The greatest change observed in the treatment was the downregulation of ribosomal proteins (21% of all annotated ribosomal protein genes during early- and 14% during late-exponential) and tRNA genes (14% of all annotated tRNA genes in early-exponential), indicating a marked decrease in protein translation. Other significant changes were the upregulation of membrane transporters, implying an increase in the traffic of substrates across the cell membrane, as well as the up and downregulation of genes related to respiration, which could be interpreted as a response to insufficient oxidants in the cells. In other reports, there is evidence in multiple species that some ROS not just lead to oxidative stress, but act as signaling molecules to control cellular metabolism at the transcriptional level. Consistent with these reports, several genes involved in the metabolism of carbon and biosynthesis of amino acids were also regulated, lending support to the idea of a wide metabolic response. Our results indicate that S. oneidensis is sensitive to the withdrawal of background levels of ionizing radiation and suggest that a transcriptional response is required to maintain homeostasis and retain normal growth. PMID:29768440

  12. Systems level analysis of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii metabolic network reveals variability in evolutionary co-conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiboonchoe, Amphun; Ghamsari, Lila; Dohai, Bushra

    Metabolic networks, which are mathematical representations of organismal metabolism, are reconstructed to provide computational platforms to guide metabolic engineering experiments and explore fundamental questions on metabolism. Systems level analyses, such as interrogation of phylogenetic relationships within the network, can provide further guidance on the modification of metabolic circuitries. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a biofuel relevant green alga that has retained key genes with plant, animal, and protist affinities, serves as an ideal model organism to investigate the interplay between gene function and phylogenetic affinities at multiple organizational levels. Here, using detailed topological and functional analyses, coupled with transcriptomics studies on a metabolicmore » network that we have reconstructed for C. reinhardtii, we show that network connectivity has a significant concordance with the co-conservation of genes; however, a distinction between topological and functional relationships is observable within the network. Dynamic and static modes of co-conservation were defined and observed in a subset of gene-pairs across the network topologically. In contrast, genes with predicted synthetic interactions, or genes involved in coupled reactions, show significant enrichment for both shorter and longer phylogenetic distances. Based on our results, we propose that the metabolic network of C. reinhardtii is assembled with an architecture to minimize phylogenetic profile distances topologically, while it includes an expansion of such distances for functionally interacting genes. This arrangement may increase the robustness of C. reinhardtii's network in dealing with varied environmental challenges that the species may face. As a result, the defined evolutionary constraints within the network, which identify important pairings of genes in metabolism, may offer guidance on synthetic biology approaches to optimize the production of desirable metabolites.« less

  13. Systems level analysis of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii metabolic network reveals variability in evolutionary co-conservation

    DOE PAGES

    Chaiboonchoe, Amphun; Ghamsari, Lila; Dohai, Bushra; ...

    2016-06-14

    Metabolic networks, which are mathematical representations of organismal metabolism, are reconstructed to provide computational platforms to guide metabolic engineering experiments and explore fundamental questions on metabolism. Systems level analyses, such as interrogation of phylogenetic relationships within the network, can provide further guidance on the modification of metabolic circuitries. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a biofuel relevant green alga that has retained key genes with plant, animal, and protist affinities, serves as an ideal model organism to investigate the interplay between gene function and phylogenetic affinities at multiple organizational levels. Here, using detailed topological and functional analyses, coupled with transcriptomics studies on a metabolicmore » network that we have reconstructed for C. reinhardtii, we show that network connectivity has a significant concordance with the co-conservation of genes; however, a distinction between topological and functional relationships is observable within the network. Dynamic and static modes of co-conservation were defined and observed in a subset of gene-pairs across the network topologically. In contrast, genes with predicted synthetic interactions, or genes involved in coupled reactions, show significant enrichment for both shorter and longer phylogenetic distances. Based on our results, we propose that the metabolic network of C. reinhardtii is assembled with an architecture to minimize phylogenetic profile distances topologically, while it includes an expansion of such distances for functionally interacting genes. This arrangement may increase the robustness of C. reinhardtii's network in dealing with varied environmental challenges that the species may face. As a result, the defined evolutionary constraints within the network, which identify important pairings of genes in metabolism, may offer guidance on synthetic biology approaches to optimize the production of desirable metabolites.« less

  14. Electrophysiological signals associated with fluency of different levels of processing reveal multiple contributions to recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Li, Bingbing; Taylor, Jason R; Wang, Wei; Gao, Chuanji; Guo, Chunyan

    2017-08-01

    Processing fluency appears to influence recognition memory judgements, and the manipulation of fluency, if misattributed to an effect of prior exposure, can result in illusory memory. Although it is well established that fluency induced by masked repetition priming leads to increased familiarity, manipulations of conceptual fluency have produced conflicting results, variously affecting familiarity or recollection. Some recent studies have found that masked conceptual priming increases correct recollection (Taylor & Henson, 2012), and the magnitude of this behavioural effect correlates with analogous fMRI BOLD priming effects in brain regions associated with recollection (Taylor, Buratto, & Henson, 2013). However, the neural correlates and time-courses of masked repetition and conceptual priming were not compared directly in previous studies. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify and compare the electrophysiological correlates of masked repetition and conceptual priming and investigate how they contribute to recognition memory. Behavioural results were consistent with previous studies: Repetition primes increased familiarity, whereas conceptual primes increased correct recollection. Masked repetition and conceptual priming also decreased the latency of late parietal component (LPC). Masked repetition priming was associated with an early P200 effect and a later parietal maximum N400 effect, whereas masked conceptual priming was only associated with a central-parietal maximum N400 effect. In addition, the topographic distributions of the N400 repetition priming and conceptual priming effects were different. These results suggest that fluency at different levels of processing is associated with different ERP components, and contributes differentially to subjective recognition memory experiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Systems level analysis of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii metabolic network reveals variability in evolutionary co-conservation.

    PubMed

    Chaiboonchoe, Amphun; Ghamsari, Lila; Dohai, Bushra; Ng, Patrick; Khraiwesh, Basel; Jaiswal, Ashish; Jijakli, Kenan; Koussa, Joseph; Nelson, David R; Cai, Hong; Yang, Xinping; Chang, Roger L; Papin, Jason; Yu, Haiyuan; Balaji, Santhanam; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh

    2016-07-19

    Metabolic networks, which are mathematical representations of organismal metabolism, are reconstructed to provide computational platforms to guide metabolic engineering experiments and explore fundamental questions on metabolism. Systems level analyses, such as interrogation of phylogenetic relationships within the network, can provide further guidance on the modification of metabolic circuitries. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a biofuel relevant green alga that has retained key genes with plant, animal, and protist affinities, serves as an ideal model organism to investigate the interplay between gene function and phylogenetic affinities at multiple organizational levels. Here, using detailed topological and functional analyses, coupled with transcriptomics studies on a metabolic network that we have reconstructed for C. reinhardtii, we show that network connectivity has a significant concordance with the co-conservation of genes; however, a distinction between topological and functional relationships is observable within the network. Dynamic and static modes of co-conservation were defined and observed in a subset of gene-pairs across the network topologically. In contrast, genes with predicted synthetic interactions, or genes involved in coupled reactions, show significant enrichment for both shorter and longer phylogenetic distances. Based on our results, we propose that the metabolic network of C. reinhardtii is assembled with an architecture to minimize phylogenetic profile distances topologically, while it includes an expansion of such distances for functionally interacting genes. This arrangement may increase the robustness of C. reinhardtii's network in dealing with varied environmental challenges that the species may face. The defined evolutionary constraints within the network, which identify important pairings of genes in metabolism, may offer guidance on synthetic biology approaches to optimize the production of desirable metabolites.

  16. Metabolomic assessment reveals an elevated level of glucosinolate content in CaCl₂ treated broccoli microgreens.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianghao; Kou, Liping; Geng, Ping; Huang, Huilian; Yang, Tianbao; Luo, Yaguang; Chen, Pei

    2015-02-18

    Preharvest calcium application has been shown to increase broccoli microgreen yield and extend shelf life. In this study, we investigated the effect of calcium application on its metabolome using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The data collected were analyzed using principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structural discriminate analysis. Chemical composition comparison shows that glucosinolates, a very important group of phytochemicals, are the major compounds enhanced by preharvest treatment with 10 mM calcium chloride (CaCl2). Aliphatic glucosinolates (glucoerucin, glucoiberin, glucoiberverin, glucoraphanin, pentyl glucosinolate, and hexyl glucosinolate) and indolic glucosinolates (glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin) were increased significantly in the CaCl2 treated microgreens using metabolomic approaches. Targeted glucosinolate analysis using the ISO 9167-1 method was further employed to confirm the findings. Results indicate that glucosinolates can be considered as a class of compounds that are responsible for the difference between two groups and a higher glucosinolate level was found in CaCl2 treated groups at each time point after harvest in comparison with the control group.

  17. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Qinglin; Van Gaal, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue, we extracted oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded while human participants performed a modified version of the Stroop task. Crucially, in this task conflict awareness was manipulated by masking a conflict-inducing color word preceding a color patch target. We isolated semantic from response conflict by introducing four color words/patches, of which two were matched to the same response. We observed that both semantic as well as response conflict were associated with mid-frontal theta-band and parietal alpha-band power modulations, irrespective of the level of conflict awareness (high vs. low), although awareness of conflict increased these conflict-related power dynamics. These results show that both semantic and response conflict can be processed in the human brain and suggest that the neural oscillatory mechanisms in EEG reflect mainly “domain general” conflict processing mechanisms, instead of conflict source specific effects. PMID:26169473

  18. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Qinglin; Van Gaal, Simon

    2015-07-14

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue, we extracted oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded while human participants performed a modified version of the Stroop task. Crucially, in this task conflict awareness was manipulated by masking a conflict-inducing color word preceding a color patch target. We isolated semantic from response conflict by introducing four color words/patches, of which two were matched to the same response. We observed that both semantic as well as response conflict were associated with mid-frontal theta-band and parietal alpha-band power modulations, irrespective of the level of conflict awareness (high vs. low), although awareness of conflict increased these conflict-related power dynamics. These results show that both semantic and response conflict can be processed in the human brain and suggest that the neural oscillatory mechanisms in EEG reflect mainly "domain general" conflict processing mechanisms, instead of conflict source specific effects.

  19. Introduction of e-learning in dental radiology reveals significantly improved results in final examination.

    PubMed

    Meckfessel, Sandra; Stühmer, Constantin; Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Kupka, Thomas; Behrends, Marianne; Matthies, Herbert; Vaske, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rücker, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Because a traditionally instructed dental radiology lecture course is very time-consuming and labour-intensive, online courseware, including an interactive-learning module, was implemented to support the lectures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of students who have worked with web-based courseware as well as the effect on their results in final examinations. Users (n(3+4)=138) had access to the e-program from any networked computer at any time. Two groups (n(3)=71, n(4)=67) had to pass a final exam after using the e-course. Results were compared with two groups (n(1)=42, n(2)=48) who had studied the same content by attending traditional lectures. In addition a survey of the students was statistically evaluated. Most of the respondents reported a positive attitude towards e-learning and would have appreciated more access to computer-assisted instruction. Two years after initiating the e-course the failure rate in the final examination dropped significantly, from 40% to less than 2%. The very positive response to the e-program and improved test scores demonstrated the effectiveness of our e-course as a learning aid. Interactive modules in step with clinical practice provided learning that is not achieved by traditional teaching methods alone. To what extent staff savings are possible is part of a further study. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Decoding Reveals Plasticity in V3A as a Result of Motion Perceptual Learning

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Kazuhisa; Chang, Li-Hung; Kim, Dongho; Náñez, José E.; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2012-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is defined as visual performance improvement after visual experiences. VPL is often highly specific for a visual feature presented during training. Such specificity is observed in behavioral tuning function changes with the highest improvement centered on the trained feature and was originally thought to be evidence for changes in the early visual system associated with VPL. However, results of neurophysiological studies have been highly controversial concerning whether the plasticity underlying VPL occurs within the visual cortex. The controversy may be partially due to the lack of observation of neural tuning function changes in multiple visual areas in association with VPL. Here using human subjects we systematically compared behavioral tuning function changes after global motion detection training with decoded tuning function changes for 8 visual areas using pattern classification analysis on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals. We found that the behavioral tuning function changes were extremely highly correlated to decoded tuning function changes only in V3A, which is known to be highly responsive to global motion with human subjects. We conclude that VPL of a global motion detection task involves plasticity in a specific visual cortical area. PMID:22952849

  1. Chromosome-level assembly of Arabidopsis thaliana Ler reveals the extent of translocation and inversion polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Luis; Ding, Jia; Willing, Eva-Maria; Hartwig, Benjamin; Bezdan, Daniela; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Patel, Vipul; Velikkakam James, Geo; Koornneef, Maarten; Ossowski, Stephan; Schneeberger, Korbinian

    2016-07-12

    Resequencing or reference-based assemblies reveal large parts of the small-scale sequence variation. However, they typically fail to separate such local variation into colinear and rearranged variation, because they usually do not recover the complement of large-scale rearrangements, including transpositions and inversions. Besides the availability of hundreds of genomes of diverse Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, there is so far only one full-length assembled genome: the reference sequence. We have assembled 117 Mb of the A. thaliana Landsberg erecta (Ler) genome into five chromosome-equivalent sequences using a combination of short Illumina reads, long PacBio reads, and linkage information. Whole-genome comparison against the reference sequence revealed 564 transpositions and 47 inversions comprising ∼3.6 Mb, in addition to 4.1 Mb of nonreference sequence, mostly originating from duplications. Although rearranged regions are not different in local divergence from colinear regions, they are drastically depleted for meiotic recombination in heterozygotes. Using a 1.2-Mb inversion as an example, we show that such rearrangement-mediated reduction of meiotic recombination can lead to genetically isolated haplotypes in the worldwide population of A. thaliana Moreover, we found 105 single-copy genes, which were only present in the reference sequence or the Ler assembly, and 334 single-copy orthologs, which showed an additional copy in only one of the genomes. To our knowledge, this work gives first insights into the degree and type of variation, which will be revealed once complete assemblies will replace resequencing or other reference-dependent methods.

  2. Steady subsidence of Medicine Lake volcano, northern California, revealed by repeated leveling surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, D.; Poland, Michael P.; Burgmann, R.

    2002-01-01

    Leveling surveys of a 193-km circuit across Medicine Lake volcano (MLV) in 1954 and 1989 show that the summit area subsided by as much as 302 ?? 30 mm (-8.6 ?? 0.9 mm/yr) with respect to a datum point near Bartle, California, 40 km to the southwest. This result corrects an error in the earlier analysis of the same data by Dzurisin et al. [1991], who reported the subsidence rate as -11.1 ?? 1.2 mm/yr. The subsidence pattern extends across the entire volcano, with a surface area of nearly 2000 km2. Two areas of localized subsidence by as much as 20 cm can be attributed to shallow normal faulting near the volcano's periphery. Surveys of an east-west traverse across Lava Beds National Monument on the north flank of the volcano in 1990 and of a 23-km traverse across the summit area in 1999 show that subsidence continued at essentially the same rate during 1989-1999 as 1954-1989. Volcano-wide subsidence can be explained by either a point source of volume loss (Mogi) or a contracting horizontal rectangular dislocation (sill) at a depth of 10-11 km. Volume loss rate estimates range from 0.0013 to 0.0032 km3/yr, depending mostly on the source depth estimate and source type. Based on first-order quantitative considerations, we can rule out that the observed subsidence is due to volume loss from magma withdrawal, thermal contraction, or crystallizing magma at depth. Instead, we attribute the subsidence and faulting to: (1 gravitational loading of thermally weakened crust by the mass of the volcano and associated intrusive rocks, and (2) thinning of locally weakened crust by Basin and Range deformation. The measured subsidence rate exceeds long-term estimates from drill hole data, suggesting that over long timescales, steady subsidence and episodic uplift caused by magmatic intrusions counteract each other to produce the lower net subsidence rate.

  3. High level of cryptic species diversity revealed by sympatric lineages of Southeast Asian forest frogs

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Bryan L; Inger, Robert F; Voris, Harold K

    2006-01-01

    Amphibians tend to exhibit conservative morphological evolution, and the application of molecular and bioacoustic tools in systematic studies have been effective at revealing morphologically ‘cryptic’ species within taxa that were previously considered to be a single species. We report molecular genetic findings on two forest-dwelling ranid frogs from localities across Southeast Asia, and show that sympatric evolutionary lineages of morphologically cryptic frogs are a common pattern. These findings imply that species diversity of Southeast Asian frogs remains significantly underestimated, and taken in concert with other molecular investigations, suggest there may not be any geographically widespread, forest-dwelling frog species in the region. Accurate assessments of diversity and distributions are needed to mitigate extinctions of evolutionary lineages in these threatened vertebrates. PMID:17148433

  4. Revealing List-Level Control in the Stroop Task by Uncovering Its Benefits and a Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugg, Julie M.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Scullin, Michael K.; Braver, Todd S.

    2011-01-01

    Interference is reduced in mostly incongruent relative to mostly congruent lists. Classic accounts of this list-wide proportion congruence effect assume that list-level control processes strategically modulate word reading. Contemporary accounts posit that reliance on the word is modulated poststimulus onset by item-specific information (e.g.,…

  5. Your Mind Wanders Weakly, Your Mind Wanders Deeply: Objective Measures Reveal Mindless Reading at Different Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schad, Daniel J.; Nuthmann, Antje; Engbert, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Time Factors (Learning);When the mind wanders, attention turns away from the external environment and cognitive processing is decoupled from perceptual information. Mind wandering is usually treated as a dichotomy (dichotomy-hypothesis), and is often measured using self-reports. Here, we propose the levels of inattention hypothesis, which…

  6. The Purpose of State Level Textbook Adoption: What Does the Legislation Reveal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulley, Michael A.; Farr, Roger

    1985-01-01

    A content analysis of textbook adoption statutes of 22 states was undertaken to gain insight into the reasons behind state textbook adoption. Findings indicate the intent of state-level textbook adoption may be to control marketing practices of the publishing industry. (DF)

  7. Revealing List-Level Control in the Stroop Task by Uncovering Its Benefits and a Cost

    PubMed Central

    Bugg, Julie M.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Scullin, Michael K.; Braver, Todd S.

    2012-01-01

    Interference is reduced in mostly incongruent relative to mostly congruent lists. Classic accounts of this list-wide proportion congruence effect assume that list-level control processes strategically modulate word reading. Contemporary accounts posit that reliance on the word is modulated poststimulus onset by item-specific information (e.g., proportion congruency of the word). To adjudicate between these accounts, we used novel designs featuring neutral trials. In two experiments, we showed that the list-wide proportion congruence effect is accompanied by a change in neutral trial color-naming performance. Because neutral words have no item-specific bias, this pattern can be attributed to list-level control. Additionally, we showed that list-level attenuation of word reading led to a cost to performance on a secondary prospective memory task but only when that task required processing of the irrelevant, neutral word. These findings indicate that the list-wide proportion congruence effect at least partially reflects list-level control and challenge purely item-specific accounts of this effect. PMID:21767049

  8. Porewater salinity reveals past lake-level changes in Lake Van, the Earth's largest soda lake.

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, Yama; Brennwald, Matthias S; Livingstone, David M; Kwiecien, Olga; Randlett, Marie-Ève; Stockhecke, Mona; Unwin, Katie; Anselmetti, Flavio S; Beer, Jürg; Haug, Gerald H; Schubert, Carsten J; Sturm, Mike; Kipfer, Rolf

    2017-03-22

    In closed-basin lakes, sediment porewater salinity can potentially be used as a conservative tracer to reconstruct past fluctuations in lake level. However, until now, porewater salinity profiles did not allow quantitative estimates of past lake-level changes because, in contrast to the oceans, significant salinity changes (e.g., local concentration minima and maxima) had never been observed in lacustrine sediments. Here we show that the salinity measured in the sediment pore water of Lake Van (Turkey) allows straightforward reconstruction of two major transgressions and a major regression that occurred during the last 250 ka. We observed strong changes in the vertical salinity profiles of the pore water of the uppermost 100 m of the sediments in Lake Van. As the salinity balance of Lake Van is almost at steady-state, these salinity changes indicate major lake-level changes in the past. In line with previous studies on lake terraces and with seismic and sedimentological surveys, we identify two major transgressions of up to +105 m with respect to the current lake level at about 135 ka BP and 248 ka BP starting at the onset of the two previous interglacials (MIS5e and MIS7), and a major regression of about -200 m at about 30 ka BP during the last ice age.

  9. Systems-level analysis of risk genes reveals the modular nature of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiewei; Li, Ming; Luo, Xiong-Jian; Su, Bing

    2018-05-19

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex mental disorder with high heritability. Genetic studies (especially recent genome-wide association studies) have identified many risk genes for schizophrenia. However, the physical interactions among the proteins encoded by schizophrenia risk genes remain elusive and it is not known whether the identified risk genes converge on common molecular networks or pathways. Here we systematically investigated the network characteristics of schizophrenia risk genes using the high-confidence protein-protein interactions (PPI) from the human interactome. We found that schizophrenia risk genes encode a densely interconnected PPI network (P = 4.15 × 10 -31 ). Compared with the background genes, the schizophrenia risk genes in the interactome have significantly higher degree (P = 5.39 × 10 -11 ), closeness centrality (P = 7.56 × 10 -11 ), betweeness centrality (P = 1.29 × 10 -11 ), clustering coefficient (P = 2.22 × 10 -2 ), and shorter average shortest path length (P = 7.56 × 10 -11 ). Based on the densely interconnected PPI network, we identified 48 hub genes and 4 modules formed by highly interconnected schizophrenia genes. We showed that the proteins encoded by schizophrenia hub genes have significantly more direct physical interactions. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that cell adhesion, cell cycle, immune system response, and GABR-receptor complex categories were enriched in the modules formed by highly interconnected schizophrenia risk genes. Our study reveals that schizophrenia risk genes encode a densely interconnected molecular network and demonstrates the modular nature of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Simple Test of Class-Level Genetic Association Can Reveal Novel Cardiometabolic Trait Loci.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jing; Nunez, Sara; Reed, Eric; Reilly, Muredach P; Foulkes, Andrea S

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the genetic determinants of complex diseases can be further augmented by incorporating knowledge of underlying structure or classifications of the genome, such as newly developed mappings of protein-coding genes, epigenetic marks, enhancer elements and non-coding RNAs. We apply a simple class-level testing framework, termed Genetic Class Association Testing (GenCAT), to identify protein-coding gene association with 14 cardiometabolic (CMD) related traits across 6 publicly available genome wide association (GWA) meta-analysis data resources. GenCAT uses SNP-level meta-analysis test statistics across all SNPs within a class of elements, as well as the size of the class and its unique correlation structure, to determine if the class is statistically meaningful. The novelty of findings is evaluated through investigation of regional signals. A subset of findings are validated using recently updated, larger meta-analysis resources. A simulation study is presented to characterize overall performance with respect to power, control of family-wise error and computational efficiency. All analysis is performed using the GenCAT package, R version 3.2.1. We demonstrate that class-level testing complements the common first stage minP approach that involves individual SNP-level testing followed by post-hoc ascribing of statistically significant SNPs to genes and loci. GenCAT suggests 54 protein-coding genes at 41 distinct loci for the 13 CMD traits investigated in the discovery analysis, that are beyond the discoveries of minP alone. An additional application to biological pathways demonstrates flexibility in defining genetic classes. We conclude that it would be prudent to include class-level testing as standard practice in GWA analysis. GenCAT, for example, can be used as a simple, complementary and efficient strategy for class-level testing that leverages existing data resources, requires only summary level data in the form of test statistics, and adds

  11. A simple atomic-level hydrophobicity scale reveals protein interfacial structure.

    PubMed

    Kapcha, Lauren H; Rossky, Peter J

    2014-01-23

    Many amino acid residue hydrophobicity scales have been created in an effort to better understand and rapidly characterize water-protein interactions based only on protein structure and sequence. There is surprisingly low consistency in the ranking of residue hydrophobicity between scales, and their ability to provide insightful characterization varies substantially across subject proteins. All current scales characterize hydrophobicity based on entire amino acid residue units. We introduce a simple binary but atomic-level hydrophobicity scale that allows for the classification of polar and non-polar moieties within single residues, including backbone atoms. This simple scale is first shown to capture the anticipated hydrophobic character for those whole residues that align in classification among most scales. Examination of a set of protein binding interfaces establishes good agreement between residue-based and atomic-level descriptions of hydrophobicity for five residues, while the remaining residues produce discrepancies. We then show that the atomistic scale properly classifies the hydrophobicity of functionally important regions where residue-based scales fail. To illustrate the utility of the new approach, we show that the atomic-level scale rationalizes the hydration of two hydrophobic pockets and the presence of a void in a third pocket within a single protein and that it appropriately classifies all of the functionally important hydrophilic sites within two otherwise hydrophobic pores. We suggest that an atomic level of detail is, in general, necessary for the reliable depiction of hydrophobicity for all protein surfaces. The present formulation can be implemented simply in a manner no more complex than current residue-based approaches. © 2013.

  12. A Single-Granule-Level Approach Reveals Ecological Heterogeneity in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Ran; Narihiro, Takashi; Bocher, Benjamin T. W.; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor has served as an effective process to treat industrial wastewater such as purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater. For optimal UASB performance, balanced ecological interactions between syntrophs, methanogens, and fermenters are critical. However, much of the interactions remain unclear because UASB have been studied at a “macro”-level perspective of the reactor ecosystem. In reality, such reactors are composed of a suite of granules, each forming individual micro-ecosystems treating wastewater. Thus, typical approaches may be oversimplifying the complexity of the microbial ecology and granular development. To identify critical microbial interactions at both macro- and micro- level ecosystem ecology, we perform community and network analyses on 300 PTA–degrading granules from a lab-scale UASB reactor and two full-scale reactors. Based on MiSeq-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing of individual granules, different granule-types co-exist in both full-scale reactors regardless of granule size and reactor sampling depth, suggesting that distinct microbial interactions occur in different granules throughout the reactor. In addition, we identify novel networks of syntrophic metabolic interactions in different granules, perhaps caused by distinct thermodynamic conditions. Moreover, unseen methanogenic relationships (e.g. “Candidatus Aminicenantes” and Methanosaeta) are observed in UASB reactors. In total, we discover unexpected microbial interactions in granular micro-ecosystems supporting UASB ecology and treatment through a unique single-granule level approach. PMID:27936088

  13. Transcriptional profiling at whole population and single cell levels reveals somatosensory neuron molecular diversity

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Isaac M; Barrett, Lee B; Williams, Erika K; Strochlic, David E; Lee, Seungkyu; Weyer, Andy D; Lou, Shan; Bryman, Gregory S; Roberson, David P; Ghasemlou, Nader; Piccoli, Cara; Ahat, Ezgi; Wang, Victor; Cobos, Enrique J; Stucky, Cheryl L; Ma, Qiufu; Liberles, Stephen D; Woolf, Clifford J

    2014-01-01

    The somatosensory nervous system is critical for the organism's ability to respond to mechanical, thermal, and nociceptive stimuli. Somatosensory neurons are functionally and anatomically diverse but their molecular profiles are not well-defined. Here, we used transcriptional profiling to analyze the detailed molecular signatures of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. We used two mouse reporter lines and surface IB4 labeling to purify three major non-overlapping classes of neurons: 1) IB4+SNS-Cre/TdTomato+, 2) IB4−SNS-Cre/TdTomato+, and 3) Parv-Cre/TdTomato+ cells, encompassing the majority of nociceptive, pruriceptive, and proprioceptive neurons. These neurons displayed distinct expression patterns of ion channels, transcription factors, and GPCRs. Highly parallel qRT-PCR analysis of 334 single neurons selected by membership of the three populations demonstrated further diversity, with unbiased clustering analysis identifying six distinct subgroups. These data significantly increase our knowledge of the molecular identities of known DRG populations and uncover potentially novel subsets, revealing the complexity and diversity of those neurons underlying somatosensation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04660.001 PMID:25525749

  14. Cytokine profiling reveals decreased serum levels of CCL2 in active ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Rey, Amanda; Molins, Blanca; Llorenç, Victor; Pelegrín, Laura; Mesquida, Marina; Adán, Alfredo

    2013-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection is an important cause of ocular disease. Although parasite-mediated host cell lysis is probably the principal cause of tissue destruction in immunodeficiency states, hypersensitivity and inflammatory responses may underlie severe disease in otherwise immunocompetent individuals. The purpose of the current investigation was to study the cytokine profiles in serum from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis and to compare them with those obtained from healthy control subjects. Using a multiplex assay, we determined the serum concentration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF), interferon γ (IFNγ), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) in patients with inactive ocular toxoplasmosis (n=48), active ocular toxoplasmosis (n=21), and an age-matched and sex-matched healthy control group (n=25). In a subgroup of 17 patients with active disease, a second serum sample was obtained when the disease was inactive. Cytokine profiles were correlated with disease activity, severity and visual outcome. Levels of CCL2 were significantly reduced in patients with active ocular toxoplasmosis compared to the control group (564 ± 42 pg/mL vs 455 ± 35 pg/mL, p<0.05). Moreover, CCL2 levels were significantly lower during active ocular toxoplasmosis compared to inactive disease (569 ± 32 pg/mL vs 433 ± 32 pg/mL, p<0.01). GCSF and TNFα were elevated in patients with toxoplasmosis with poor visual outcome. No significant correlations were found with specific cytokine profiles and disease severity. Decreased serum levels of CCL2 may be associated with active ocular toxoplasmosis and could therefore serve as a marker of disease activity.

  15. RNA-Seq study reveals genetic responses of diverse wild soybean accessions to increased ozone levels.

    PubMed

    Waldeck, Nathan; Burkey, Kent; Carter, Thomas; Dickey, David; Song, Qijian; Taliercio, Earl

    2017-06-29

    Ozone is an air pollutant widely known to cause a decrease in productivity in many plant species, including soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr). While the response of cultivated soybean to ozone has been studied, very little information is available regarding the ozone response of its wild relatives. Ozone-resistant wild soybean accessions were identified by measuring the response of a genetically diverse group of 66 wild soybean (Glycine soja Zucc. and Sieb.) accessions to elevated ozone levels. RNA-Seq analyses were performed on leaves of different ages from selected ozone-sensitive and ozone-resistant accessions that were subjected to treatment with an environmentally relevant level of ozone. Many more genes responded to elevated ozone in the two ozone-sensitive accessions than in the ozone-resistant accessions. Analyses of the ozone response genes indicated that leaves of different ages responded differently to ozone. Older leaves displayed a consistent reduction in expression of genes involved in photosynthesis in response to ozone, while changes in expression of defense genes dominated younger leaf tissue in response to ozone. As expected, there is a substantial difference between the response of ozone-sensitive and ozone-resistant accessions. Genes associated with photosystem 2 were substantially reduced in expression in response to ozone in the ozone-resistant accessions. A decrease in peptidase inhibitors was one of several responses specific to one of the ozone resistant accessions. The decrease in expression in genes associated with photosynthesis confirms that the photosynthetic apparatus may be an early casualty in response to moderate levels of ozone. A compromise of photosynthesis would substantially impact plant growth and seed production. However, the resistant accessions may preserve their photosynthetic apparatus in response to the ozone levels used in this study. Older leaf tissue of the ozone-resistant accessions showed a unique down-regulation of

  16. Patterns of Storage, Synthesis and Changing Light Levels Revealed by Carbon Isotope Microsampling within Eocene Metasequoia Tree Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahren, H.; Sternberg, L.

    2005-12-01

    Fossil tree rings from Axel Heiberg Island were microanalyzed for δ13C value in order to assess patterns of tree growth and carbon storage within the Middle Eocene (~45 Ma) Arctic paleoenvironment. Wood from four Metasequoia-type individuals was subsampled for analysis: each individual fossil consisted of between 4 and 10 large (~1 cm thick) consecutive tree rings. One of the fossils displayed an obvious concentric pattern, allowing for the determination of the direction of growth with isotopic pattern. Each ring was divided into ~1 mm thick subsamples, resulting in 5-10 δ13C value determinations per period of ring growth (i.e., growing season). All rings revealed a distinct pattern that was characteristic across growing seasons and across individual fossils. Early in the season, δ13C was at its highest value but descended systematically and sharply to its lowest value at the end of the growing season. Total decrease ranged between 3 and 5 ‰ over the course of each growing season. Identical patterns were observed in the δ13C value of alpha-cellulose isolated from each subsample, indicating that the trends observed did not represent changing levels of secondary metabolites, but rather a seasonal adjustment in the bulk source of carbon used during biosynthesis. Our results are consistent with the following annual pattern of wood synthesis 1.) complete dependence on the mobilization of stored carbon compounds early in the growing season; 2.) systematically increasing use of actively-acquired photosynthate during the growing season; 3.) complete reliance on active photosynthate by the end of the growing season. An additional and significant source of 13C discrimination is declining light levels late in the growing season, and likely contributes to the extreme pattern of δ13C decrease seen across each ring. Our results mimic those seen from modern broadleaf deciduous trees (Helle & Schlesser 2004), but differ from those seen in modern conifers (Barbour et al 2002

  17. Detection of interferon alpha protein reveals differential levels and cellular sources in disease.

    PubMed

    Rodero, Mathieu P; Decalf, Jérémie; Bondet, Vincent; Hunt, David; Rice, Gillian I; Werneke, Scott; McGlasson, Sarah L; Alyanakian, Marie-Alexandra; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Barnerias, Christine; Bellon, Nathalia; Belot, Alexandre; Bodemer, Christine; Briggs, Tracy A; Desguerre, Isabelle; Frémond, Marie-Louise; Hully, Marie; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Melki, Isabelle; Meyts, Isabelle; Musset, Lucile; Pelzer, Nadine; Quartier, Pierre; Terwindt, Gisela M; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wiseman, Stewart; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Rose, Yoann; Neven, Bénédicte; Hertel, Christina; Hayday, Adrian; Albert, Matthew L; Rozenberg, Flore; Crow, Yanick J; Duffy, Darragh

    2017-05-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) are essential mediators of antiviral responses. These cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, most notably systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), diabetes mellitus, and dermatomyositis, as well as monogenic type I interferonopathies. Despite a fundamental role in health and disease, the direct quantification of type I IFNs has been challenging. Using single-molecule array (Simoa) digital ELISA technology, we recorded attomolar concentrations of IFNα in healthy donors, viral infection, and complex and monogenic interferonopathies. IFNα protein correlated well with functional activity and IFN-stimulated gene expression. High circulating IFNα levels were associated with increased clinical severity in SLE patients, and a study of the cellular source of IFNα protein indicated disease-specific mechanisms. Measurement of IFNα attomolar concentrations by digital ELISA will enhance our understanding of IFN biology and potentially improve the diagnosis and stratification of pathologies associated with IFN dysregulation. © 2017 Rodero et al.

  18. Detection of interferon alpha protein reveals differential levels and cellular sources in disease

    PubMed Central

    Rodero, Mathieu P.; Rice, Gillian I.; Werneke, Scott; Alyanakian, Marie-Alexandra; Barnerias, Christine; Bellon, Nathalia; Belot, Alexandre; Bodemer, Christine; Desguerre, Isabelle; Meyts, Isabelle; Musset, Lucile; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wiseman, Stewart; Rose, Yoann; Neven, Bénédicte; Hertel, Christina; Hayday, Adrian; Albert, Matthew L.; Rozenberg, Flore

    2017-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) are essential mediators of antiviral responses. These cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, most notably systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), diabetes mellitus, and dermatomyositis, as well as monogenic type I interferonopathies. Despite a fundamental role in health and disease, the direct quantification of type I IFNs has been challenging. Using single-molecule array (Simoa) digital ELISA technology, we recorded attomolar concentrations of IFNα in healthy donors, viral infection, and complex and monogenic interferonopathies. IFNα protein correlated well with functional activity and IFN-stimulated gene expression. High circulating IFNα levels were associated with increased clinical severity in SLE patients, and a study of the cellular source of IFNα protein indicated disease-specific mechanisms. Measurement of IFNα attomolar concentrations by digital ELISA will enhance our understanding of IFN biology and potentially improve the diagnosis and stratification of pathologies associated with IFN dysregulation. PMID:28420733

  19. Ocean impact on decadal Atlantic climate variability revealed by sea-level observations.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Gerard D; Haigh, Ivan D; Hirschi, Joël J-M; Grist, Jeremy P; Smeed, David A

    2015-05-28

    Decadal variability is a notable feature of the Atlantic Ocean and the climate of the regions it influences. Prominently, this is manifested in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) in sea surface temperatures. Positive (negative) phases of the AMO coincide with warmer (colder) North Atlantic sea surface temperatures. The AMO is linked with decadal climate fluctuations, such as Indian and Sahel rainfall, European summer precipitation, Atlantic hurricanes and variations in global temperatures. It is widely believed that ocean circulation drives the phase changes of the AMO by controlling ocean heat content. However, there are no direct observations of ocean circulation of sufficient length to support this, leading to questions about whether the AMO is controlled from another source. Here we provide observational evidence of the widely hypothesized link between ocean circulation and the AMO. We take a new approach, using sea level along the east coast of the United States to estimate ocean circulation on decadal timescales. We show that ocean circulation responds to the first mode of Atlantic atmospheric forcing, the North Atlantic Oscillation, through circulation changes between the subtropical and subpolar gyres--the intergyre region. These circulation changes affect the decadal evolution of North Atlantic heat content and, consequently, the phases of the AMO. The Atlantic overturning circulation is declining and the AMO is moving to a negative phase. This may offer a brief respite from the persistent rise of global temperatures, but in the coupled system we describe, there are compensating effects. In this case, the negative AMO is associated with a continued acceleration of sea-level rise along the northeast coast of the United States.

  20. Observations and operational model simulations reveal the impact of Hurricane Matthew (2016) on the Gulf Stream and coastal sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezer, Tal; Atkinson, Larry P.; Tuleya, Robert

    2017-12-01

    In October 7-9, 2016, Hurricane Matthew moved along the southeastern coast of the U.S., causing major flooding and significant damage, even to locations farther north well away from the storm's winds. Various observations, such as tide gauge data, cable measurements of the Florida Current (FC) transport, satellite altimeter data and high-frequency radar data, were analyzed to evaluate the impact of the storm. The data show a dramatic decline in the FC flow and increased coastal sea level along the U.S. coast. Weakening of the Gulf Stream (GS) downstream from the storm's area contributed to high coastal sea levels farther north. Analyses of simulations of an operational hurricane-ocean coupled model reveal the disruption that the hurricane caused to the GS flow, including a decline in transport of ∼20 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1). In comparison, the observed FC reached a maximum transport of ∼40 Sv before the storm on September 10 and a minimum of ∼20 Sv after the storm on October 12. The hurricane impacts both the geostrophic part of the GS and the wind-driven currents, generating inertial oscillations with velocities of up to ±1 m s-1. Analysis of the observed FC transport since 1982 indicated that the magnitude of the current weakening in October 2016 was quite rare (outside 3 standard deviations from the mean). Such a large FC weakening in the past occurred more often in October and November, but is extremely rare in June-August. Similar impacts on the FC from past tropical storms and hurricanes suggest that storms may contribute to seasonal and interannual variations in the FC. The results also demonstrated the extended range of coastal impacts that remote storms can cause through their influence on ocean currents.

  1. Face adaptation aftereffects reveal anterior medial temporal cortex role in high level category representation.

    PubMed

    Furl, N; van Rijsbergen, N J; Treves, A; Dolan, R J

    2007-08-01

    Previous studies have shown reductions of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal in response to repetition of specific visual stimuli. We examined how adaptation affects the neural responses associated with categorization behavior, using face adaptation aftereffects. Adaptation to a given facial category biases categorization towards non-adapted facial categories in response to presentation of ambiguous morphs. We explored a hypothesis, posed by recent psychophysical studies, that these adaptation-induced categorizations are mediated by activity in relatively advanced stages within the occipitotemporal visual processing stream. Replicating these studies, we find that adaptation to a facial expression heightens perception of non-adapted expressions. Using comparable behavioral methods, we also show that adaptation to a specific identity heightens perception of a second identity in morph faces. We show both expression and identity effects to be associated with heightened anterior medial temporal lobe activity, specifically when perceiving the non-adapted category. These regions, incorporating bilateral anterior ventral rhinal cortices, perirhinal cortex and left anterior hippocampus are regions previously implicated in high-level visual perception. These categorization effects were not evident in fusiform or occipital gyri, although activity in these regions was reduced to repeated faces. The findings suggest that adaptation-induced perception is mediated by activity in regions downstream to those showing reductions due to stimulus repetition.

  2. DNA sequence-level analyses reveal potential phenotypic modifiers in a large family with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Niamh M; Lihm, Jayon; Kramer, Melissa; McCarthy, Shane; Morris, Stewart W; Arnau-Soler, Aleix; Davies, Gail; Duff, Barbara; Ghiban, Elena; Hayward, Caroline; Deary, Ian J; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Lawrie, Stephen M; McIntosh, Andrew M; Evans, Kathryn L; Porteous, David J; McCombie, W Richard; Thomson, Pippa A

    2018-06-07

    Psychiatric disorders are a group of genetically related diseases with highly polygenic architectures. Genome-wide association analyses have made substantial progress towards understanding the genetic architecture of these disorders. More recently, exome- and whole-genome sequencing of cases and families have identified rare, high penetrant variants that provide direct functional insight. There remains, however, a gap in the heritability explained by these complementary approaches. To understand how multiple genetic variants combine to modify both severity and penetrance of a highly penetrant variant, we sequenced 48 whole genomes from a family with a high loading of psychiatric disorder linked to a balanced chromosomal translocation. The (1;11)(q42;q14.3) translocation directly disrupts three genes: DISC1, DISC2, DISC1FP and has been linked to multiple brain imaging and neurocognitive outcomes in the family. Using DNA sequence-level linkage analysis, functional annotation and population-based association, we identified common and rare variants in GRM5 (minor allele frequency (MAF) > 0.05), PDE4D (MAF > 0.2) and CNTN5 (MAF < 0.01) that may help explain the individual differences in phenotypic expression in the family. We suggest that whole-genome sequencing in large families will improve the understanding of the combined effects of the rare and common sequence variation underlying psychiatric phenotypes.

  3. Ecosystem-level studies of terrestrial carbon reveal contrasting bacterial metabolism in different aquatic habitats.

    PubMed

    Attermeyer, Katrin; Premke, Katrin; Hornick, Thomas; Hilt, Sabine; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2013-12-01

    aquatic food web via microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) directly associated with t-POM(L) and via benthic macroinvertebrates by shredding of t-POM(L). The latter pathway represents a "benthic shortcut" which efficiently transfers t-POM(L) to higher trophic levels.

  4. Molecular Phylogeny of the Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiae p) Reveals an Unexpected High Level of Spicule Homoplasy

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Paco; Xavier, Joana R.; Reveillaud, Julie; Schander, Christoffer; Rapp, Hans Tore

    2011-01-01

    Background The Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiae p) is geographically and bathymetrically widely distributed. Systema Porifera currently includes five families in this order: Ancorinidae, Calthropellidae, Geodiidae, Pachastrellidae and Thrombidae. To date, molecular phylogenetic studies including Astrophorida species are scarce and offer limited sampling. Phylogenetic relationships within this order are therefore for the most part unknown and hypotheses based on morphology largely untested. Astrophorida taxa have very diverse spicule sets that make them a model of choice to investigate spicule evolution. Methodology/Principal Findings With a sampling of 153 specimens (9 families, 29 genera, 89 species) covering the deep- and shallow-waters worldwide, this work presents the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the Astrophorida, using a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene partial sequence and the 5′ end terminal part of the 28S rDNA gene (C1-D2 domains). The resulting tree suggested that i) the Astrophorida included some lithistid families and some Alectonidae species, ii) the sub-orders Euastrophorida and Streptosclerophorida were both polyphyletic, iii) the Geodiidae, the Ancorinidae and the Pachastrellidae were not monophyletic, iv) the Calthropellidae was part of the Geodiidae clade (Calthropella at least), and finally that v) many genera were polyphyletic (Ecionemia, Erylus, Poecillastra, Penares, Rhabdastrella, Stelletta and Vulcanella). Conclusion The Astrophorida is a larger order than previously considered, comprising ca. 820 species. Based on these results, we propose new classifications for the Astrophorida using both the classical rank-based nomenclature (i.e., Linnaean classification) and the phylogenetic nomenclature following the PhyloCode, independent of taxonomic rank. A key to the Astrophorida families, sub-families and genera incertae sedis is also included. Incongruences between our molecular tree and the current classification

  5. A low level of extragalactic background light as revealed by gamma-rays from blazars.

    PubMed

    Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berge, D; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Bolz, O; Borrel, V; Braun, I; Breitling, F; Brown, A M; Chadwick, P M; Chounet, L-M; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Degrange, B; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Feinstein, F; Fontaine, G; Fuchs, Y; Funk, S; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Gillessen, S; Glicenstein, J F; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; de Jager, O C; Khélifi, B; Klages, S; Komin, Nu; Konopelko, A; Latham, I J; Le Gallou, R; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Leroy, N; Lohse, T; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; McComb, T J L; de Naurois, M; Nolan, S J; Noutsos, A; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Ouchrif, M; Panter, M; Pelletier, G; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Raux, J; Rayner, S M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rolland, L; Rowell, G; Sahakian, V; Saugé, L; Schlenker, S; Schlickeiser, R; Schuster, C; Schwanke, U; Siewert, M; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Tavernet, J-P; Terrier, R; Théoret, C G; Tluczykont, M; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Wagner, S J

    2006-04-20

    The diffuse extragalactic background light consists of the sum of the starlight emitted by galaxies through the history of the Universe, and it could also have an important contribution from the 'first stars', which may have formed before galaxy formation began. Direct measurements are difficult and not yet conclusive, owing to the large uncertainties caused by the bright foreground emission associated with zodiacal light. An alternative approach is to study the absorption features imprinted on the gamma-ray spectra of distant extragalactic objects by interactions of those photons with the background light photons. Here we report the discovery of gamma-ray emission from the blazars H 2356 - 309 and 1ES 1101 - 232, at redshifts z = 0.165 and z = 0.186, respectively. Their unexpectedly hard spectra provide an upper limit on the background light at optical/near-infrared wavelengths that appears to be very close to the lower limit given by the integrated light of resolved galaxies. The background flux at these wavelengths accordingly seems to be strongly dominated by the direct starlight from galaxies, thus excluding a large contribution from other sources-in particular from the first stars formed. This result also indicates that intergalactic space is more transparent to gamma-rays than previously thought.

  6. Event-related potentials reveal the relations between feature representations at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Samuel D; Shedden, Judith M; Brooks, Lee R; Grundy, John G

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we use behavioural methods and event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the relations between informational and instantiated features, as well as the relation between feature abstraction and rule type. Participants are trained to categorize two species of fictitious animals and then identify perceptually novel exemplars. Critically, two groups are given a perfectly predictive counting rule that, according to Hannah and Brooks (2009. Featuring familiarity: How a familiar feature instantiation influences categorization. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale, 63, 263-275. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1037/a0017919), should orient them to using abstract informational features when categorizing the novel transfer items. A third group is taught a feature list rule, which should orient them to using detailed instantiated features. One counting-rule group were taught their rule before any exposure to the actual stimuli, and the other immediately after training, having learned the instantiations first. The feature-list group were also taught their rule after training. The ERP results suggest that at test, the two counting-rule groups processed items differently, despite their identical rule. This not only supports the distinction that informational and instantiated features are qualitatively different feature representations, but also implies that rules can readily operate over concrete inputs, in contradiction to traditional approaches that assume that rules necessarily act on abstract inputs.

  7. A-Level Results in Comprehensive Schools: The COMBSE Project, Year 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitz-Gibbon, Carol T.

    1985-01-01

    Results of the first year of the ongoing Confidential, Measurement-Based, Self-Evaluation Project that examines variables related to A-level English and Mathematics achievement in 10 comprehensive schools in the United Kingdom are presented. A-level results were found to be strongly predicted by teacher assessments and by prior O-level achievement…

  8. Wolbachia association with the tsetse fly, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, reveals high levels of genetic diversity and complex evolutionary dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wolbachia pipientis, a diverse group of α-proteobacteria, can alter arthropod host reproduction and confer a reproductive advantage to Wolbachia-infected females (cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI)). This advantage can alter host population genetics because Wolbachia-infected females produce more offspring with their own mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes than uninfected females. Thus, these host haplotypes become common or fixed (selective sweep). Although simulations suggest that for a CI-mediated sweep to occur, there must be a transient phase with repeated initial infections of multiple individual hosts by different Wolbachia strains, this has not been observed empirically. Wolbachia has been found in the tsetse fly, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, but it is not limited to a single host haplotype, suggesting that CI did not impact its population structure. However, host population genetic differentiation could have been generated if multiple Wolbachia strains interacted in some populations. Here, we investigated Wolbachia genetic variation in G. f. fuscipes populations of known host genetic composition in Uganda. We tested for the presence of multiple Wolbachia strains using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and for an association between geographic region and host mtDNA haplotype using Wolbachia DNA sequence from a variable locus, groEL (heat shock protein 60). Results MLST demonstrated that some G. f. fuscipes carry Wolbachia strains from two lineages. GroEL revealed high levels of sequence diversity within and between individuals (Haplotype diversity = 0.945). We found Wolbachia associated with 26 host mtDNA haplotypes, an unprecedented result. We observed a geographical association of one Wolbachia lineage with southern host mtDNA haplotypes, but it was non-significant (p = 0.16). Though most Wolbachia-infected host haplotypes were those found in the contact region between host mtDNA groups, this association was non-significant (p = 0

  9. Global Sea-level Changes Revealed in the Sediments of the Canterbury Basin, New Zealand: IODP Expedition 317

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, C. M.; Fulthorpe, C.; Blum, P.; Rios, J.; Chow, Y.; Mishkin, K.

    2012-12-01

    Continental margins are composed of thick sedimentary sections that preserve the record of local processes modulated by global sea-level (eustatic) changes and climate. Understanding this regional variability permits us to extract the eustatic record. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 317 drilled four sites in the offshore Canterbury Basin, eastern South Island of New Zealand, in water depths of 85 m to 320 m. One of the objectives of the expedition was to understand the influence of eustasy on continental margins sedimentation and to test the concepts of sequence stratigraphy. A high-resolution multiproxy approach that involves geochemical elemental analyses, lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy is applied to understand the margin's sedimentation for the past ~5 million years. Multichannel seismic data (EW00-01 survey) provide a seismic sequence stratigraphic framework against which to interpret the multiproxy data. The mid- to late Pleistocene sedimentation is characterized by variable lithologies and changing facies. However, elemental compositions and facies follow predictable patterns within seismic sequences. Oxygen isotope measurements for the latest Pleistocene indicate that 100 ky Milankovich astronomical forcing controlled this variability. In contrast, Pliocene and early Pleistocene sediments are composed of repetitive siliciclastic and carbonate mud lithologies with less facies variability. Results of our analyses suggest that repetitive alternations of green and gray mud were deposited during warmer and cooler periods, respectively. Oxygen isotopes suggest that this cyclicity may reflect 40 ky Milankovich forcing. Ocean Drilling Program Legs 150 and 174A drilled on the New Jersey continental margin with similar objectives to those of Expedition 317. Results from this northern and southern hemisphere drilling reveal that eustasy, controlled by Milankovich forcing, strongly influences margin sedimentation and the formation of basin

  10. Cellar-Associated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Population Structure Revealed High-Level Diversity and Perennial Persistence at Sauternes Wine Estates

    PubMed Central

    Börlin, Marine; Venet, Pauline; Claisse, Olivier; Salin, Franck

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Three wine estates (designated A, B, and C) were sampled in Sauternes, a typical appellation of the Bordeaux wine area producing sweet white wine. From those wine estates, 551 yeast strains were collected between 2012 and 2014, added to 102 older strains from 1992 to 2011 from wine estate C. All the strains were analyzed through 15 microsatellite markers, resulting in 503 unique Saccharomyces cerevisiae genotypes, revealing high genetic diversity and a low presence of commercial yeast starters. Population analysis performed using Fst genetic distance or ancestry profiles revealed that the two closest wine estates, B and C, which have juxtaposed vineyard plots and common seasonal staff, share more related isolates with each other than with wine estate A, indicating exchange between estates. The characterization of isolates collected 23 years ago at wine estate C in relation to recent isolates obtained at wine estate B revealed the long-term persistence of isolates. Last, during the 2014 harvest period, a temporal succession of ancestral subpopulations related to the different batches associated with the selective picking of noble rotted grapes was highlighted. IMPORTANCE High genetic diversity of S. cerevisiae isolates from spontaneous fermentation on wine estates in the Sauternes appellation of Bordeaux was revealed. Only 7% of all Sauternes strains were considered genetically related to specific commercial strains. The long-term persistence (over 20 years) of S. cerevisiae profiles on a given wine estate is highlighted. PMID:26969698

  11. Cellar-Associated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Population Structure Revealed High-Level Diversity and Perennial Persistence at Sauternes Wine Estates.

    PubMed

    Börlin, Marine; Venet, Pauline; Claisse, Olivier; Salin, Franck; Legras, Jean-Luc; Masneuf-Pomarede, Isabelle

    2016-05-15

    Three wine estates (designated A, B, and C) were sampled in Sauternes, a typical appellation of the Bordeaux wine area producing sweet white wine. From those wine estates, 551 yeast strains were collected between 2012 and 2014, added to 102 older strains from 1992 to 2011 from wine estate C. All the strains were analyzed through 15 microsatellite markers, resulting in 503 unique Saccharomyces cerevisiae genotypes, revealing high genetic diversity and a low presence of commercial yeast starters. Population analysis performed using Fst genetic distance or ancestry profiles revealed that the two closest wine estates, B and C, which have juxtaposed vineyard plots and common seasonal staff, share more related isolates with each other than with wine estate A, indicating exchange between estates. The characterization of isolates collected 23 years ago at wine estate C in relation to recent isolates obtained at wine estate B revealed the long-term persistence of isolates. Last, during the 2014 harvest period, a temporal succession of ancestral subpopulations related to the different batches associated with the selective picking of noble rotted grapes was highlighted. High genetic diversity of S. cerevisiae isolates from spontaneous fermentation on wine estates in the Sauternes appellation of Bordeaux was revealed. Only 7% of all Sauternes strains were considered genetically related to specific commercial strains. The long-term persistence (over 20 years) of S. cerevisiae profiles on a given wine estate is highlighted. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. DNA hydroxymethylation profiling reveals that WT1 mutations result in loss of TET2 function in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rampal, Raajit; Alkalin, Altuna; Madzo, Jozef; Vasanthakumar, Aparna; Pronier, Elodie; Patel, Jay; Li, Yushan; Ahn, Jihae; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Shih, Alan; Lu, Chao; Ward, Patrick S.; Tsai, Jennifer J.; Hricik, Todd; Tosello, Valeria; Tallman, Jacob E.; Zhao, Xinyang; Daniels, Danette; Dai, Qing; Ciminio, Luisa; Aifantis, Iannis; He, Chuan; Fuks, Francois; Tallman, Martin S.; Ferrando, Adolfo; Nimer, Stephen; Paietta, Elisabeth; Thompson, Craig B.; Licht, Jonathan D.; Mason, Chris; Godley, Lucy A.; Melnick, Ari; Figueroa, Maria E.; Levine, Ross L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Somatic mutations in IDH1/2 and TET2 result in impaired TET2 mediated conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC). The observation that WT1 inactivating mutations anti-correlate with TET2/IDH1/2 mutations in AML led us to hypothesize that WT1 mutations may impact TET2 function. WT1 mutant acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients have reduced 5-hmC levels similar to TET2/IDH1/2-mutant AML. These mutations are characterized by convergent, site-specific alterations in DNA hydroxymethylation, which drive differential gene expression more than alterations in DNA promoter methylation. WT1 overexpression increases global levels of 5-hmC, and WT1 silencing reduced 5-hmC levels. WT1 physically interacts with TET2 and TET3, and WT1 loss of function results in a similar hematopoietic differentiation phenotype as observed with TET2 deficiency. These data provide a novel role for WT1 in regulating DNA hydroxymethylation and suggest that TET2 IDH1/2, and WT1 mutations define a novel AML subtype defined by dysregulated DNA hydroxymethylation. PMID:25482556

  13. Revealing climate modes in steric sea levels: lessons learned from satellite geodesy, objective analyses and ocean reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, J.; Tregoning, P.; Purcell, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    Due to increased greenhouse gases emissions, the oceans are accumulating heat. In response to the ocean circulation and atmospheric forcing, the heat is irregularly redistributed within the oceans, causing sea level to rise at variable rates in space and time. These rates of steric expansion are extremely difficult to assess because of the sparsity of in-situ hydrographic observations available within the course of the 20th century. We compare here three methods to reconstruct the steric sea levels over the past 13, 25 and 58 years based on satellite geodesy, objective analyses and ocean reanalyses. The interannual to decadal variability of each dataset is explored with a model merging six climate indices representative of the natural variability of the ocean and climate system. Consistent regional patterns are identified for the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in all datasets at all timescales. Despite the short time coverage (13 years), the combination of satellite geodetic data (altimetry and GRACE) also reveals significant steric responses to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), Indian Dipole (IOD) and Indian ocean basinwide (IOBM) mode. The richer information content in the ocean reanalyses allows us to recover the regional fingerprints of the PDO, ENSO, NPGO, IOD and IOBM, but also of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) acting over longer time scales (40 to 60 years). Therefore, ocean reanalyses, coupled with climate mode analyses, constitute innovative and promising tools to investigate the mechanisms triggering the variability of sea level rise over the past decades.

  14. Comparing GWAS Results of Complex Traits Using Full Genetic Model and Additive Models for Revealing Genetic Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Monir, Md. Mamun; Zhu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Most of the genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for human complex diseases have ignored dominance, epistasis and ethnic interactions. We conducted comparative GWASs for total cholesterol using full model and additive models, which illustrate the impacts of the ignoring genetic variants on analysis results and demonstrate how genetic effects of multiple loci could differ across different ethnic groups. There were 15 quantitative trait loci with 13 individual loci and 3 pairs of epistasis loci identified by full model, whereas only 14 loci (9 common loci and 5 different loci) identified by multi-loci additive model. Again, 4 full model detected loci were not detected using multi-loci additive model. PLINK-analysis identified two loci and GCTA-analysis detected only one locus with genome-wide significance. Full model identified three previously reported genes as well as several new genes. Bioinformatics analysis showed some new genes are related with cholesterol related chemicals and/or diseases. Analyses of cholesterol data and simulation studies revealed that the full model performs were better than the additive-model performs in terms of detecting power and unbiased estimations of genetic variants of complex traits. PMID:28079101

  15. Ordinary Level as Results Predictors of Students' Academic Performance in Chemistry in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolawole, E. B.; Oginni, O. I.; Fayomi, E. O.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined ordinary level result as predictors of students' academic performance in chemistry in South-west Nigeria universities. It also examined the relationship between the academic performance of students in each level of the university examinations and their corresponding secondary school certificates examination. The sample of the…

  16. Technical Note: Relationships between gamma criteria and action levels: Results of a multicenter audit of gamma agreement index results.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Scott B; Sutherland, Bess; Wilks, Rachael; Seshadri, Venkatakrishnan; Sylvander, Steven; Trapp, Jamie V; Kairn, Tanya

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to use a multicenter audit of modulated radiotherapy quality assurance (QA) data to provide a practical examination of gamma evaluation criteria and action level selection. The use of the gamma evaluation method for patient-specific pretreatment QA is widespread, with most commercial solutions implementing the method. Gamma agreement indices were calculated using the criteria 1%/1 mm, 2%/2 mm, 2%/3 mm, 3%/2 mm, 3%/3 mm, and 5%/3 mm for 1265 pretreatment QA measurements, planned at seven treatment centers, using four different treatment planning systems, delivered using three different delivery systems (intensity-modulated radiation therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and helical tomotherapy) and measured using three different dose measurement systems. The sensitivity of each pair of gamma criteria was evaluated relative to the gamma agreement indices calculated using 3%/3 mm. A linear relationship was observed for 2%/2 mm, 2%/3 mm, and 3%/2 mm. This result implies that most beams failing at 3%/3 mm would also fail for those criteria, if the action level was adjusted appropriately. Some borderline plans might be passed or failed depending on the relative priority (tighter tolerance) used for dose difference or distance to agreement evaluation. Dosimeter resolution and treatment modality were found to have a smaller effect on the results of QA measurements than the number of dimensions (2D or 3D) over which the gamma evaluation was calculated. This work provides a method (and a large sample of results) for calculating equivalent action levels for different gamma evaluation criteria. This work constitutes a valuable guide for clinical decision making and a means to compare published gamma evaluation results from studies using different evaluation criteria. More generally, the data provided by this work support the recommendation that gamma criteria that specifically prioritize the property of greatest clinical importance for each

  17. A water availability gradient reveals the deficit level required to affect traits in potted juvenile Eucalyptus globulus

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Brad M.; Hovenden, Mark J.; Brodribb, Timothy J.; Davies, Noel W.; Rodemann, Thomas; McAdam, Scott A. M.; O’Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Drought leading to soil water deficit can have severe impacts on plants. Water deficit may lead to plant water stress and affect growth and chemical traits. Plant secondary metabolite (PSM) responses to water deficit vary between compounds and studies, with inconsistent reports of changes to PSM concentrations even within a single species. This disparity may result from experimental water deficit variation among studies, and so multiple water deficit treatments are used to fully assess PSM responses in a single species. Methods Juvenile Eucalyptus globulus were grown for 8 weeks at one of ten water deficit levels based on evapotranspiration from control plants (100 %). Treatments ranged from 90 % of control evapotranspiration (mild water deficit) to 0 % of control evapotranspiration (severe water deficit) in 10 % steps. Plant biomass, foliar abscisic acid (ABA) levels, Ψleaf, leaf C/N, selected terpenes and phenolics were quantified to assess responses to each level of water deficit relative to a control. Key Results Withholding ≥30 % water resulted in higher foliar ABA levels and withholding ≥40 % water reduced leaf water content. Ψleaf became more negative when ≥60 % water was withheld. Plant biomass was lower when ≥80 % water was withheld, and no water for 8 weeks (0 % water) resulted in plant death. The total oil concentration was lower and C/N was higher in dead and desiccated juvenile E. globulus leaves (0 % water). Concentrations of individual phenolic and terpene compounds, along with condensed tannin and total phenolic concentrations, remained stable regardless of water deficit or plant stress level. Conclusions These juvenile E. globulus became stressed with a moderate reduction in available water, and yet the persistent concentrations of most PSMs in highly stressed or dead plants suggests no PSM re-metabolization and continued ecological roles of foliar PSMs during drought. PMID:28073772

  18. Freight Demand Characteristics and Mode Choice: An Analysis of the Results of Modeling with Disaggregate Revealed Preference Data

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-12-01

    This paper analyzes the freight demand characteristics that drive modal choice by means of a large scale, national, disaggregate revealed preference database for shippers in France in 1988, using a nested logit. Particular attention is given to priva...

  19. Identification of Lygus hesperus by DNA barcoding reveals insignificant levels of genetic structure among distant and habitat diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changqing; Kandemir, Irfan; Walsh, Douglas B; Zalom, Frank G; Lavine, Laura Corley

    2012-01-01

    The western tarnished plant bug Lygus hesperus is an economically important pest that belongs to a complex of morphologically similar species that makes identification problematic. The present study provides evidence for the use of DNA barcodes from populations of L. hesperus from the western United States of America for accurate identification. This study reports DNA barcodes for 134 individuals of the western tarnished plant bug from alfalfa and strawberry agricultural fields in the western United States of America. Sequence divergence estimates of <3% reveal that morphologically variable individuals presumed to be L. hesperus were accurately identified. Paired estimates of F(st) and subsequent estimates of gene flow show that geographically distinct populations of L. hesperus are genetically similar. Therefore, our results support and reinforce the relatively recent (<100 years) migration of the western tarnished plant bug into agricultural habitats across the western United States. This study reveals that despite wide host plant usage and phenotypically plastic morphological traits, the commonly recognized western tarnished plant bug belongs to a single species, Lygus hesperus. In addition, no significant genetic structure was found for the geographically diverse populations of western tarnished plant bug used in this study.

  20. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of current hand amputees reveals evidence for neuronal-level changes in former sensorimotor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In-Young; Lee, Phil; Peng, Huiling; Kaufman, Christina L.; Frey, Scott H.

    2017-01-01

    Deafferentation is accompanied by large-scale functional reorganization of maps in the primary sensory and motor areas of the hemisphere contralateral to injury. Animal models of deafferentation suggest a variety of cellular-level changes including depression of neuronal metabolism and even neuronal death. Whether similar neuronal changes contribute to patterns of reorganization within the contralateral sensorimotor cortex of chronic human amputees is uncertain. We used functional MRI-guided proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to test the hypothesis that unilateral deafferentation is associated with lower levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA, a putative marker of neuronal integrity) in the sensorimotor hand territory located contralateral to the missing hand in chronic amputees (n = 19) compared with the analogous hand territory of age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 28). We also tested whether former amputees [i.e., recipients of replanted (n = 3) or transplanted (n = 2) hands] exhibit NAA levels that are indistinguishable from controls, possible evidence for reversal of the effects of deafferentation. As predicted, relative to controls, current amputees exhibited lower levels of NAA that were negatively and significantly correlated with the time after amputation. Contrary to our prediction, NAA levels in both replanted and transplanted patients fell within the range of the current amputees. We suggest that lower levels of NAA in current amputees reflects altered neuronal integrity consequent to chronic deafferentation. Thus local changes in NAA levels may provide a means of assessing neuroplastic changes in deafferented cortex. Results from former amputees suggest that these changes may not be readily reversible through reafferentation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study is the first to use functional magnetic resonance-guided magnetic resonance spectroscopy to examine neurochemical mechanisms underlying functional reorganization in the primary somatosensory and

  1. Mediation analysis reveals a sex-dependent association between ABO gene variants and TG/HDL-C ratio that is suppressed by sE-selectin level.

    PubMed

    Teng, Ming-Sheng; Hsu, Lung-An; Wu, Semon; Chou, Hsin-Hua; Chang, Chi-Jen; Sun, Yu-Zen; Juan, Shu-Hui; Ko, Yu-Lin

    2013-06-01

    Previous investigations have revealed an association between the ABO locus/blood group and total cholesterol and inflammatory biomarker levels. We aimed to test the statistical association of ABO locus variants with lipid profiles and levels of thirteen inflammatory markers in a Taiwanese population. A sample population of 617 Taiwanese subjects was enrolled. Five ABO gene region polymorphisms were selected and genotyped. After adjusting for clinical covariates and inflammatory marker levels, the genetic-inferred ABO blood group genotypes were associated with sE-selectin level (P = 3.5 × 10(-36)). Significantly higher total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were noted in individuals with blood group A (P = 7.2 × 10(-4) and P = 7.3 × 10(-4), respectively). Interestingly, after adjusting for sE-selectin level, significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level as well as higher triglyceride (TG) level and ratio of triglyceride to HDL-C (TG/HDL-C ratio) were noted in individuals with blood group A comparing to non-A individuals (P = 0.009, P = 0.004 and P = 0.001, respectively); these associations were also observed in the group A male subjects (P = 0.027, P = 0.001, and P = 0.002, respectively). Mediation analysis further revealed a suppression effect of sE-selectin level on the association between genetic-inferred ABO blood group genotypes and TG/HDL-C ratio in total participants (P = 1.18 × 10(-6)) and in males (P = 5.99 × 10(-5)). Genetic variants at the ABO locus independently affect sE-selectin level in Taiwanese subjects, while the association of ABO locus variants with TG/HDL-C ratio is suppressed by sE-selectin level in Taiwanese males. These results provided further evidence for the mechanism in the association of ABO blood groups with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prion subcellular fractionation reveals infectivity spectrum, with a high titre-low PrPres level disparity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prion disease transmission and pathogenesis are linked to misfolded, typically protease resistant (PrPres) conformers of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC), with the former posited to be the principal constituent of the infectious 'prion'. Unexplained discrepancies observed between detectable PrPres and infectivity levels exemplify the complexity in deciphering the exact biophysical nature of prions and those host cell factors, if any, which contribute to transmission efficiency. In order to improve our understanding of these important issues, this study utilized a bioassay validated cell culture model of prion infection to investigate discordance between PrPres levels and infectivity titres at a subcellular resolution. Findings Subcellular fractions enriched in lipid rafts or endoplasmic reticulum/mitochondrial marker proteins were equally highly efficient at prion transmission, despite lipid raft fractions containing up to eight times the levels of detectable PrPres. Brain homogenate infectivity was not differentially enhanced by subcellular fraction-specific co-factors, and proteinase K pre-treatment of selected fractions modestly, but equally reduced infectivity. Only lipid raft associated infectivity was enhanced by sonication. Conclusions This study authenticates a subcellular disparity in PrPres and infectivity levels, and eliminates simultaneous divergence of prion strains as the explanation for this phenomenon. On balance, the results align best with the concept that transmission efficiency is influenced more by intrinsic characteristics of the infectious prion, rather than cellular microenvironment conditions or absolute PrPres levels. PMID:22534096

  3. Individual changes in clozapine levels after smoking cessation: results and a predictive model.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J M

    2001-12-01

    Published reports document 20-40% lower mean serum clozapine concentrations in smokers compared with nonsmokers due to enzyme induction. Despite the increase in nonsmoking psychiatric facilities in the United States, previous studies have not tracked individual changes in serum clozapine levels after smoking cessation. Clozapine level changes were analyzed in 11 patients at Oregon State Hospital who were on stable clozapine doses, before and after implementation of a hospital-wide nonsmoking policy. A mean increase in clozapine levels of 71.9% (442.4 ng/ml +/- 598.8 ng/ml) occurred upon smoking cessation (p < .034) from a baseline level of 550.2 ng/ml (+/- 160.18 ng/ml). One serious adverse event, aspiration pneumonia, was associated with a nonsmoking serum clozapine level of 3066 ng/ml. Elimination of statistically extreme results generated a mean increase of 57.4 % or 284.1 ng/ml (+/- 105.2 ng/ml) for the remaining cases (p < .001) and permitted construction of a linear model which explains 80.9% of changes in clozapine levels upon smoking cessation (F = 34.9;p = .001): clozapine level as nonsmoker = 45.3 + 1.474 (clozapine level as smoker). These findings suggest that significant increases in clozapine levels upon smoking cessation may be predicted by use of a model. Those with high baseline levels should be monitored for serious adverse events.

  4. Quantitative analysis of commensal Escherichia coli populations reveals host-specific enterotypes at the intra-species level.

    PubMed

    Smati, Mounira; Clermont, Olivier; Bleibtreu, Alexandre; Fourreau, Frédéric; David, Anthony; Daubié, Anne-Sophie; Hignard, Cécile; Loison, Odile; Picard, Bertrand; Denamur, Erick

    2015-08-01

    The primary habitat of the Escherichia coli species is the gut of warm-blooded vertebrates. The E. coli species is structured into four main phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2, and D. We estimated the relative proportions of these phylogroups in the feces of 137 wild and domesticated animals with various diets living in the Ile de France (Paris) region by real-time PCR. We distinguished three main clusters characterized by a particular abundance of two or more phylogroups within the E. coli animal commensal populations, which we called "enterocolitypes" by analogy with the enterotypes defined in the human gut microbiota at the genus level. These enterocolitypes were characterized by a dominant (>50%) B2, B1, or A phylogroup and were associated with different host species, diets, and habitats: wild and herbivorous species (wild rabbits and deer), domesticated herbivorous species (domesticated rabbits, horses, sheep, and cows), and omnivorous species (boar, pigs, and chickens), respectively. By analyzing retrospectively the data obtained using the same approach from 98 healthy humans living in Ile de France (Smati et al. 2013, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79, 5005-5012), we identified a specific human enterocolitype characterized by the dominant and/or exclusive (>90%) presence of phylogroup B2. We then compared B2 strains isolated from animals and humans, and revealed that human and animal strains differ regarding O-type and B2 subgroup. Moreover, two genes, sfa/foc and clbQ, were associated with the exclusive character of strains, observed only in humans. In conclusion, a complex network of interactions exists at several levels (genus and intra-species) within the intestinal microbiota. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Systems Level Analysis of Histone H3 Post-translational Modifications (PTMs) Reveals Features of PTM Crosstalk in Chromatin Regulation*

    PubMed Central

    Schwämmle, Veit; Sidoli, Simone; Ruminowicz, Chrystian; Wu, Xudong; Lee, Chung-Fan; Helin, Kristian; Jensen, Ole N.

    2016-01-01

    Histones are abundant chromatin constituents carrying numerous post-translational modifications (PTMs). Such PTMs mediate a variety of biological functions, including recruitment of enzymatic readers, writers and erasers that modulate DNA replication, transcription and repair. Individual histone molecules contain multiple coexisting PTMs, some of which exhibit crosstalk, i.e. coordinated or mutually exclusive activities. Here, we present an integrated experimental and computational systems level molecular characterization of histone PTMs and PTM crosstalk. Using wild type and engineered mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) knocked out in components of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2, Suz12−/−), PRC1 (Ring1A/B−/−) and (Dnmt1/3a/3b−/−) we performed comprehensive PTM analysis of histone H3 tails (50 aa) by utilizing quantitative middle-down proteome analysis by tandem mass spectrometry. We characterized combinatorial PTM features across the four mESC lines and then applied statistical data analysis to predict crosstalk between histone H3 PTMs. We detected an overrepresentation of positive crosstalk (codependent marks) between adjacent mono-methylated and acetylated marks, and negative crosstalk (mutually exclusive marks) among most of the seven characterized di- and tri-methylated lysine residues in the H3 tails. We report novel features of PTM interplay involving hitherto poorly characterized arginine methylation and lysine methylation sites, including H3R2me, H3R8me and H3K37me. Integration of the H3 data with RNAseq data by coabundance clustering analysis of histone PTMs and histone modifying enzymes revealed correlations between PTM and enzyme levels. We conclude that middle-down proteomics is a powerful tool to determine conserved or dynamic interdependencies between histone marks, which paves the way for detailed investigations of the histone code. Histone H3 PTM data is publicly available in the CrossTalkDB repository at http

  6. Different levels of UV-B resistance in Vaccinium corymbosum cultivars reveal distinct backgrounds of phenylpropanoid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Luengo Escobar, Ana; Magnum de Oliveira Silva, Franklin; Acevedo, Patricio; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Alberdi, Miren; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie

    2017-09-01

    UV-B radiation induces several physiological and biochemical effects that can influence regulatory plant processes. Vaccinium corymbosum responds differently to UV-B radiation depending on the UV-B resistance of cultivars, according to their physiological and biochemical features. In this work, the effect of two levels of UV-B radiation during long-term exposure on the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and the expression of genes associated with flavonoid biosynthesis as well as the absolute quantification of secondary metabolites were studied in two contrasting UV-B-resistant cultivars (Legacy, resistant and Bluegold, sensitive). Multivariate analyses were performed to understand the role of phenylpropanoids in UV-B defense mechanisms. The amount of phenylpropanoid compounds was generally higher in Legacy than in Bluegold. Different expression levels of flavonoid biosynthetic genes for both cultivars were transiently induced, showing that even in longer period of UV-B exposure; plants are still adjusting their phenylpropanoids at the transcription levels. Multivariate analysis in Legacy indicated no significant correlation between gene expression and the levels of the flavonoids and phenolic acids. By contrast, in the Bluegold cultivar higher number of correlations between secondary metabolite and transcript levels was found. Taken together, the results indicated different adjustments between the cultivars for a successful UV-B acclimation. While the sensitive cultivar depends on metabolite adjustments to respond to UV-B exposure, the resistant cultivar also possesses an intrinsically higher antioxidant and UV-B screening capacity. Thus, we conclude that UV-B resistance involves not only metabolite level adjustments during the acclimation period, but also depends on the intrinsic metabolic status of the plant and metabolic features of the phenylpropanoid compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Revealing energy level structure of individual quantum dots by tunneling rate measured by single-electron sensitive electrostatic force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Roy-Gobeil, Antoine; Miyahara, Yoichi; Grutter, Peter

    2015-04-08

    We present theoretical and experimental studies of the effect of the density of states of a quantum dot (QD) on the rate of single-electron tunneling that can be directly measured by electrostatic force microscopy (e-EFM) experiments. In e-EFM, the motion of a biased atomic force microscope cantilever tip modulates the charge state of a QD in the Coulomb blockade regime. The charge dynamics of the dot, which is detected through its back-action on the capacitavely coupled cantilever, depends on the tunneling rate of the QD to a back-electrode. The density of states of the QD can therefore be measured through its effect on the energy dependence of tunneling rate. We present experimental data on individual 5 nm colloidal gold nanoparticles that exhibit a near continuous density of state at 77 K. In contrast, our analysis of already published data on self-assembled InAs QDs at 4 K clearly reveals discrete degenerate energy levels.

  8. From Mahan excitons to Landau levels at high magnetic fields: 2DFT spectroscopy reveals hidden quantum correlations (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaiskaj, Denis

    2017-02-01

    Two-dimensional electron gases have been the subject of research for decades. Modulation doped GaAs quantum wells in the absence of magnetic fields exhibit interesting many-body physics such as the Fermi edge singularity or Mahan exciton and can be regarded as a collective excitation of the system. Under high magnetic fields Landau levels form which have been studied using transport and optical measurements. Nonlinear coherent two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy however provides new insights into these systems. We present the 2DFT spectra of Mahan Excitons associated with the heavy-hole and light-hole resonances observed in a modulation doped GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum well [1]. These resonances are observed to be strongly coupled through many-body interactions. The 2DFT spectra were measured using co-linear, cross-linear, and co-circular polarizations and reveal striking differences. Furthermore, 2DFT spectra at high magnetic fields performed at the National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) in Tallahassee, Florida will be discussed. The spectra exhibit new features and peculiar line shapes suggesting interesting underlying physics. [1] J. Paul, C. E. Stevens, C. Liu, P. Dey, C. McIntyre, V. Turkowski, J. L. Reno, D. J. Hilton, and D. Karaiskaj, Phys. Rev. Lett.116, 157401 (2016).

  9. 25 CFR 1000.363 - What if the trust evaluation reveals problems that do not rise to the level of imminent jeopardy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rise to the level of imminent jeopardy? 1000.363 Section 1000.363 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... Trust Evaluations § 1000.363 What if the trust evaluation reveals problems that do not rise to the level of imminent jeopardy? Where problems not rising to the level of imminent jeopardy are caused by...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.363 - What if the trust evaluation reveals problems that do not rise to the level of imminent jeopardy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rise to the level of imminent jeopardy? 1000.363 Section 1000.363 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... Trust Evaluations § 1000.363 What if the trust evaluation reveals problems that do not rise to the level of imminent jeopardy? Where problems not rising to the level of imminent jeopardy are caused by...

  11. Four-trophic level food webs reveal the cascading impacts of an invasive plant targeted for biocontrol.

    PubMed

    López-Núñez, Francisco A; Heleno, Ruben H; Ribeiro, Sérgio; Marchante, Hélia; Marchante, Elizabete

    2017-03-01

    Biological invasions are a major threat to biodiversity and as such understanding their impacts is a research priority. Ecological networks provide a valuable tool to explore such impacts at the community level, and can be particularly insightful for planning and monitoring biocontrol programmes, including the potential for their seldom evaluated indirect non-target effects. Acacia longifolia is among the worst invasive species in Portugal, and has been recently targeted for biocontrol by a highly specific gall-wasp. Here we use an ambitious replicated network approach to: (1) identify the mechanisms by which direct and indirect impacts of A. longifolia can cascade from plants to higher trophic levels, including gallers, their parasitoids and inquilines; (2) reveal the structure of the interaction networks between plants, gallers, parasitoids and inquilines before the biocontrol; and (3) explore the potential for indirect interactions among gallers, including those established with the biocontrol agent, via apparent competition. Over a 15-month period, we collected 31,737 galls from native plants and identified all emerging insects, quantifying the interactions between 219 plant-, 49 galler-, 65 parasitoid- and 87 inquiline-species-one of the largest ecological networks to date. No galls were found on any of the 16 alien plant species. Invasion by A. longifolia caused an alarming simplification of plant communities, with cascading effects to higher trophic levels, namely: a decline of overall gall biomass, and on the richness, abundance and biomass of galler insects, their parasitoids, and inquilines. Correspondingly, we detected a significant decline in the richness of interactions between plants and galls. The invasion tended to increase overall interaction evenness by promoting the local extinction of the native plants that sustained more gall species. However, highly idiosyncratic responses hindered the detection of further consistent changes in network

  12. O-Level Grades and Teachers' Estimates as Predictors of the A-Level Results of UCCA Applicants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, R. J. L.

    1981-01-01

    This investigation studied the relationship between both GCE O-level examination grades and teachers' estimates of A-level examination grades, and actual A-level grades obtained by a sample of university applicants. Moderate levels of correlation were reported in both cases, although teachers' estimates appeared to be slightly better predictors.…

  13. Statistical Analysis of Readthrough Levels for Nonsense Mutations in Mammalian Cells Reveals a Major Determinant of Response to Gentamicin

    PubMed Central

    Floquet, Célia; Hatin, Isabelle; Rousset, Jean-Pierre; Bidou, Laure

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of translation termination depends on the nature of the stop codon and the surrounding nucleotides. Some molecules, such as aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin), decrease termination efficiency and are currently being evaluated for diseases caused by premature termination codons. However, the readthrough response to treatment is highly variable and little is known about the rules governing readthrough level and response to aminoglycosides. In this study, we carried out in-depth statistical analysis on a very large set of nonsense mutations to decipher the elements of nucleotide context responsible for modulating readthrough levels and gentamicin response. We quantified readthrough for 66 sequences containing a stop codon, in the presence and absence of gentamicin, in cultured mammalian cells. We demonstrated that the efficiency of readthrough after treatment is determined by the complex interplay between the stop codon and a larger sequence context. There was a strong positive correlation between basal and induced readthrough levels, and a weak negative correlation between basal readthrough level and gentamicin response (i.e. the factor of increase from basal to induced readthrough levels). The identity of the stop codon did not affect the response to gentamicin treatment. In agreement with a previous report, we confirm that the presence of a cytosine in +4 position promotes higher basal and gentamicin-induced readthrough than other nucleotides. We highlight for the first time that the presence of a uracil residue immediately upstream from the stop codon is a major determinant of the response to gentamicin. Moreover, this effect was mediated by the nucleotide itself, rather than by the amino-acid or tRNA corresponding to the −1 codon. Finally, we point out that a uracil at this position associated with a cytosine at +4 results in an optimal gentamicin-induced readthrough, which is the therapeutically relevant variable. PMID:22479203

  14. A quantile regression approach can reveal the effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma homocysteine levels.

    PubMed

    Verly, Eliseu; Steluti, Josiane; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo

    2014-01-01

    A reduction in homocysteine concentration due to the use of supplemental folic acid is well recognized, although evidence of the same effect for natural folate sources, such as fruits and vegetables (FV), is lacking. The traditional statistical analysis approaches do not provide further information. As an alternative, quantile regression allows for the exploration of the effects of covariates through percentiles of the conditional distribution of the dependent variable. To investigate how the associations of FV intake with plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) differ through percentiles in the distribution using quantile regression. A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted among 499 residents of Sao Paulo City, Brazil. The participants provided food intake and fasting blood samples. Fruit and vegetable intake was predicted by adjusting for day-to-day variation using a proper measurement error model. We performed a quantile regression to verify the association between tHcy and the predicted FV intake. The predicted values of tHcy for each percentile model were calculated considering an increase of 200 g in the FV intake for each percentile. The results showed that tHcy was inversely associated with FV intake when assessed by linear regression whereas, the association was different when using quantile regression. The relationship with FV consumption was inverse and significant for almost all percentiles of tHcy. The coefficients increased as the percentile of tHcy increased. A simulated increase of 200 g in the FV intake could decrease the tHcy levels in the overall percentiles, but the higher percentiles of tHcy benefited more. This study confirms that the effect of FV intake on lowering the tHcy levels is dependent on the level of tHcy using an innovative statistical approach. From a public health point of view, encouraging people to increase FV intake would benefit people with high levels of tHcy.

  15. Flow cytometric analysis reveals the high levels of platelet activation parameters in circulation of multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Morel, Agnieszka; Rywaniak, Joanna; Bijak, Michał; Miller, Elżbieta; Niwald, Marta; Saluk, Joanna

    2017-06-01

    The epidemiological studies confirm an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in multiple sclerosis, especially prothrombotic events directly associated with abnormal platelet activity. The aim of our study was to investigate the level of blood platelet activation in the circulation of patients with chronic phase of multiple sclerosis (SP MS) and their reactivity in response to typical platelets' physiological agonists. We examined 85 SP MS patients diagnosed according to the revised McDonald's criteria and 50 healthy volunteers as a control group. The platelet activation and reactivity were assessed using flow cytometry analysis of the following: P-selectin expression (CD62P), activation of GP IIb/IIIa complex (PAC-1 binding), and formation of platelet microparticles (PMPs) and platelet aggregates (PA) in agonist-stimulated (ADP, collagen) and unstimulated whole blood samples. Furthermore, we measured the level of soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) in plasma using ELISA method, to evaluate the in vivo level of platelet activation, both in healthy and SP MS subjects. We found a statistically significant increase in P-selectin expression, GP IIb/IIIa activation, and formation of PMPs and PA, as well as in unstimulated and agonist-stimulated (ADP, collagen) platelets in whole blood samples from patients with SP MS in comparison to the control group. We also determined the higher sP-selectin level in plasma of SP MS subjects than in the control group. Based on the obtained results, we might conclude that during the course of SP MS platelets are chronically activated and display hyperreactivity to physiological agonists, such as ADP or collagen.

  16. Electrophysiological indices of anterior cingulate cortex function reveal changing levels of cognitive effort and reward valuation that sustain task performance.

    PubMed

    Umemoto, Akina; Inzlicht, Michael; Holroyd, Clay B

    2018-06-21

    Successful execution of goal-directed behaviors often requires the deployment of cognitive control, which is thought to require cognitive effort. Recent theories have proposed that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) regulates control levels by weighing the reward-related benefits of control against its effort-related costs. However, given that the sensations of cognitive effort and reward valuation are available only to introspection, this hypothesis is difficult to investigate empirically. We have proposed that two electrophysiological indices of ACC function, frontal midline theta and the reward positivity (RewP), provide objective measures of these functions. To explore this issue, we recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) from participants engaged in an extended, cognitively-demanding task. Participants performed a time estimation task for 2 h in which they received reward and error feedback according to their task performance. We observed that the amplitude of the RewP, a feedback-locked component of the event related brain potential associated with reward processing, decreased with time-on-task. Conversely, frontal midline theta power, which consists of 4-8 Hz EEG oscillations associated with cognitive effort, increased with time-on-task. We also explored how these phenomena changed over time by conducting within-participant multi-level modeling analyses. Our results suggest that extended execution of a cognitively-demanding task is characterized by an early phase in which high control levels foster rapid improvements in task performance, and a later phase in which high control levels were necessary to maintain stable task performance, perhaps counteracting waning reward valuation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum apolipoprotein A-1 quantification by LC–MS with a SILAC internal standard reveals reduced levels in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingqing; Zhang, Suhong; Guo, Lili; Busch, Christine M; Jian, Wenying; Weng, Naidong; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Rangiah, Kannan; Mesaros, Clementina; Blair, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Absolute quantification of protein biomarkers such as serum apolipoprotein A1 by both immunoassays and LC–MS can provide misleading results. Results: Recombinant ApoA-1 internal standard was prepared using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture with [13C615N2]-lysine and [13C915N1]-tyrosine in human cells. A stable isotope dilution LC–MS method for serum ApoA-1 was validated and levels analyzed for 50 nonsmokers and 50 smokers. Conclusion: The concentration of ApoA-1 in nonsmokers was 169.4 mg/dl with an 18.4% reduction to 138.2 mg/dl in smokers. The validated assay will have clinical utility for assessing effects of smoking cessation and therapeutic or dietary interventions in high-risk populations. PMID:26394123

  18. High-resolution study of levels in the astrophysically important nucleus 26Mg and resulting updated level assignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adsley, P.; Brümmer, J. W.; Faestermann, T.; Fox, S. P.; Hammache, F.; Hertenberger, R.; Meyer, A.; Neveling, R.; Seiler, D.; de Séréville, N.; Wirth, H.-F.

    2018-04-01

    Background: The 22Ne(α ,n )25Mg reaction is an important source of neutrons for the s -process. Direct measurement of this reaction and the competing 22Ne(α ,γ )26Mg reaction are challenging due to the gaseous nature of both reactants, the low cross section and the experimental challenges of detecting neutrons and high-energy γ rays. Detailed knowledge of the resonance properties enables the rates to be constrained for s -process models. Purpose: Previous experimental studies have demonstrated a lack of agreement in both the number and excitation energy of levels in 26Mg. To try to resolve the disagreement between different experiments, proton and deuteron inelastic scattering from 26Mg have been used to identify excited states. Method: Proton and deuteron beams from the tandem accelerator at the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratorium at Garching, Munich, were incident upon enriched 26MgO targets. Scattered particles were momentum-analyzed in the Q3D magnetic spectrograph and detected at the focal plane. Results: Reassignments of states around Ex=10.8 -10.83 MeV in 26Mg suggested in previous works have been confirmed. In addition, new states in 26Mg have been observed, two below and two above the neutron threshold. Up to six additional states above the neutron threshold may have been observed compared to experimental studies of neutron reactions on 25Mg, but some or all of these states may be due to 24Mg contamination in the target. Finally, inconsistencies between measured resonance strengths and some previously accepted Jπ assignments of excited 26Mg states have been noted. Conclusion: There are still a large number of nuclear properties in 26Mg that have yet to be determined and levels that are, at present, not included in calculations of the reaction rates. In addition, some inconsistencies between existing nuclear data exist that must be resolved in order for the reaction rates to be properly calculated.

  19. Species delimitation in lemurs: multiple genetic loci reveal low levels of species diversity in the genus Cheirogaleus

    PubMed Central

    Groeneveld, Linn F; Weisrock, David W; Rasoloarison, Rodin M; Yoder, Anne D; Kappeler, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    Background Species are viewed as the fundamental unit in most subdisciplines of biology. To conservationists this unit represents the currency for global biodiversity assessments. Even though Madagascar belongs to one of the top eight biodiversity hotspots of the world, the taxonomy of its charismatic lemuriform primates is not stable. Within the last 25 years, the number of described lemur species has more than doubled, with many newly described species identified among the nocturnal and small-bodied cheirogaleids. Here, we characterize the diversity of the dwarf lemurs (genus Cheirogaleus) and assess the status of the seven described species, based on phylogenetic and population genetic analysis of mtDNA (cytb + cox2) and three nuclear markers (adora3, fiba and vWF). Results This study identified three distinct evolutionary lineages within the genus Cheirogaleus. Population genetic cluster analyses revealed a further layer of population divergence with six distinct genotypic clusters. Conclusion Based on the general metapopulation lineage concept and multiple concordant data sets, we identify three exclusive groups of dwarf lemur populations that correspond to three of the seven named species: C. major, C. medius and C. crossleyi. These three species were found to be genealogically exclusive in both mtDNA and nDNA loci and are morphologically distinguishable. The molecular and morphometric data indicate that C. adipicaudatus and C. ravus are synonymous with C. medius and C. major, respectively. Cheirogaleus sibreei falls into the C. medius mtDNA clade, but in morphological analyses the membership is not clearly resolved. We do not have sufficient data to assess the status of C. minusculus. Although additional patterns of population differentiation are evident, there are no clear subdivisions that would warrant additional specific status. We propose that ecological and more geographic data should be collected to confirm these results. PMID:19193227

  20. A comparative analysis reveals weak relationships between ecological factors and beta diversity of stream insect metacommunities at two spatial levels.

    PubMed

    Heino, Jani; Melo, Adriano S; Bini, Luis Mauricio; Altermatt, Florian; Al-Shami, Salman A; Angeler, David G; Bonada, Núria; Brand, Cecilia; Callisto, Marcos; Cottenie, Karl; Dangles, Olivier; Dudgeon, David; Encalada, Andrea; Göthe, Emma; Grönroos, Mira; Hamada, Neusa; Jacobsen, Dean; Landeiro, Victor L; Ligeiro, Raphael; Martins, Renato T; Miserendino, María Laura; Md Rawi, Che Salmah; Rodrigues, Marciel E; Roque, Fabio de Oliveira; Sandin, Leonard; Schmera, Denes; Sgarbi, Luciano F; Simaika, John P; Siqueira, Tadeu; Thompson, Ross M; Townsend, Colin R

    2015-03-01

    The hypotheses that beta diversity should increase with decreasing latitude and increase with spatial extent of a region have rarely been tested based on a comparative analysis of multiple datasets, and no such study has focused on stream insects. We first assessed how well variability in beta diversity of stream insect metacommunities is predicted by insect group, latitude, spatial extent, altitudinal range, and dataset properties across multiple drainage basins throughout the world. Second, we assessed the relative roles of environmental and spatial factors in driving variation in assemblage composition within each drainage basin. Our analyses were based on a dataset of 95 stream insect metacommunities from 31 drainage basins distributed around the world. We used dissimilarity-based indices to quantify beta diversity for each metacommunity and, subsequently, regressed beta diversity on insect group, latitude, spatial extent, altitudinal range, and dataset properties (e.g., number of sites and percentage of presences). Within each metacommunity, we used a combination of spatial eigenfunction analyses and partial redundancy analysis to partition variation in assemblage structure into environmental, shared, spatial, and unexplained fractions. We found that dataset properties were more important predictors of beta diversity than ecological and geographical factors across multiple drainage basins. In the within-basin analyses, environmental and spatial variables were generally poor predictors of variation in assemblage composition. Our results revealed deviation from general biodiversity patterns because beta diversity did not show the expected decreasing trend with latitude. Our results also call for reconsideration of just how predictable stream assemblages are along ecological gradients, with implications for environmental assessment and conservation decisions. Our findings may also be applicable to other dynamic systems where predictability is low.

  1. Macro- and micro-level predictors of age categorization: results from the European Social Survey.

    PubMed

    Ayalon, Liat; Doron, Israel; Bodner, Ehud; Inbar, Noit

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated macro- and micro-level variables associated with individuals' perception of the ending of youth, the beginning of old age, and the length of the middle age period. The European Social Survey is a biennial multi-country, cross-sectional survey. Our analysis is based on the fourth wave, which included a rotating module on ageism. The source sample consisted of 28 countries and a total of 54,988 respondents. Whereas macro-level variability accounted for 14 % of the variance associated with the perception of the ending of youth, only 5.7 % of the variance associated with the perception of the beginning of old age was accounted for by macro-level variability. Almost 10 % of the variance associated with the perception of the middle age period was associated with macro-level variability. Different patterns of macro- and micro-level correlates emerged for the ending of youth, beginning of old age, and the period of middle age. Overall, results demonstrate that individual differences in the perception of the ending of youth, the beginning of old age, and the length of the middle age period are more pronounced than contextual differences. Results also suggest that individuals' mental maps regarding the timing of these events are not necessarily concordant.

  2. A robust, sensitive assay for genomic uracil determination by LC/MS/MS reveals lower levels than previously reported.

    PubMed

    Galashevskaya, Anastasia; Sarno, Antonio; Vågbø, Cathrine B; Aas, Per A; Hagen, Lars; Slupphaug, Geir; Krokan, Hans E

    2013-09-01

    Considerable progress has been made in understanding the origins of genomic uracil and its role in genome stability and host defense; however, the main question concerning the basal level of uracil in DNA remains disputed. Results from assays designed to quantify genomic uracil vary by almost three orders of magnitude. To address the issues leading to this inconsistency, we explored possible shortcomings with existing methods and developed a sensitive LC/MS/MS-based method for the absolute quantification of genomic 2'-deoxyuridine (dUrd). To this end, DNA was enzymatically hydrolyzed to 2'-deoxyribonucleosides and dUrd was purified in a preparative HPLC step and analyzed by LC/MS/MS. The standard curve was linear over four orders of magnitude with a quantification limit of 5 fmol dUrd. Control samples demonstrated high inter-experimental accuracy (94.3%) and precision (CV 9.7%). An alternative method that employed UNG2 to excise uracil from DNA for LC/MS/MS analysis gave similar results, but the intra-assay variability was significantly greater. We quantified genomic dUrd in Ung(+/+) and Ung(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts and human lymphoblastoid cell lines carrying UNG mutations. DNA-dUrd is 5-fold higher in Ung(-/-) than in Ung(+/+) fibroblasts and 11-fold higher in UNG2 dysfunctional than in UNG2 functional lymphoblastoid cells. We report approximately 400-600 dUrd per human or murine genome in repair-proficient cells, which is lower than results using other methods and suggests that genomic uracil levels may have previously been overestimated. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Synchrotron FTIR microspectroscopy reveals early adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells at single-cell level

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhixiao; University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049; Tang, Yuzhao

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have been used as an ideal in vitro model to study human adipogenesis. However, little knowledge of the early stage differentiation greatly hinders our understanding on the mechanism of the adipogenesis processes. In this study, synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy was applied to track the global structural and compositional changes of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids inside individual hMSCs along the time course. The multivariate analysis of the SR-FTIR spectra distinguished the dynamic and significant changes of the lipids and nucleic acid at early differentiation stage. Importantly, changes of lipid structure during early daysmore » (Day 1–3) of differentiation might serve as a potential biomarker in identifying the state in early differentiation at single cell level. These results proved that SR-FTIR is a powerful tool to study the stem cell fate determination and early lipogenesis events. - Highlights: • Molecular events occur in the early adipogenic differentiation stage of hMSCs are studied by SR-FTIR. • SR-FTIR data suggest that lipids may play an important role in hMSCs determination. • As potential biomarkers, lipids peaks can identify the state of cell in early differentiation stage at single-cell level.« less

  4. The public costs of births resulting from unintended pregnancies: national and state-level estimates.

    PubMed

    Sonfield, Adam; Kost, Kathryn; Gold, Rachel Benson; Finer, Lawrence B

    2011-06-01

    Births resulting from unintended pregnancies are associated with substantial maternity and infant care costs to the federal and state governments; these costs have never been estimated at the national and state levels. The proportions of births paid for by public insurance programs in 2006 were estimated, by pregnancy intention status, using data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System and similar state surveys, or were predicted by multivariate linear regression. Public costs were calculated using state-level estimates of the number of births, by intention status, and of the cost of a publicly funded birth. In 2006, 64% of births resulting from unintended pregnancies were publicly funded, compared with 48% of all births and 35% of births resulting from intended pregnancies. The proportion of births resulting from unintended pregnancies that were publicly funded varied by state, from 42% to 81%. Of the 2.0 million publicly funded births, 51% resulted from unintended pregnancies, accounting for $11.1 billion in costs-half of the total public expenditures on births. In seven states, the costs for births from unintended pregnancies exceeded a half billion dollars. Public insurance programs are central in assisting American families in affording pregnancy and childbirth; however, they pay for a disproportionately high number of births resulting from unintended pregnancy. The resulting budgetary impact warrants increased public efforts to reduce unintended pregnancy. Copyright © 2011 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  5. Type 3 deiodinase deficiency results in functional abnormalities at multiple levels of the thyroid axis.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Arturo; Martinez, M Elena; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Van Sande, Jacqueline; Refetoff, Samuel; Galton, Valerie Anne; St Germain, Donald L

    2007-12-01

    The type 3 deiodinase (D3) is a selenoenzyme that inactivates thyroid hormones and is highly expressed during development and in the adult central nervous system. We have recently observed that mice lacking D3 activity (D3KO mice) develop perinatal thyrotoxicosis followed in adulthood by a pattern of hormonal levels that is suggestive of central hypothyroidism. In this report we describe the results of additional studies designed to investigate the regulation of the thyroid axis in this unique animal model. Our results demonstrate that the thyroid and pituitary glands of D3KO mice do not respond appropriately to TSH and TRH stimulation, respectively. Furthermore, after induction of severe hypothyroidism by antithyroid treatment, the rise in serum TSH in D3KO mice is only 15% of that observed in wild-type mice. In addition, D3KO animals rendered severely hypothyroid fail to show the expected increase in prepro-TRH mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Finally, treatment with T(3) results in a serum T(3) level in D3KO mice that is much higher than that in wild-type mice. This is accompanied by significant weight loss and lethality in mutant animals. In conclusion, the absence of D3 activity results in impaired clearance of T(3) and significant defects in the mechanisms regulating the thyroid axis at all levels: hypothalamus, pituitary, and thyroid.

  6. Salmon migration patterns revealed the temporal and spatial fluctuations of the radiocesium levels in terrestrial and ocean environments.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takaomi

    2014-01-01

    The disabling of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) resulted in the release of radionuclides, including 134Cs and 137Cs, into the air and the ocean. The unpredicted nuclear accident is of global concern for human health and the ecosystem. Although investigations of radionuclides in environments were performed shortly after the accident started, the temporal and spatial impacts and fluctuations on the releasing radionuclides to natural environment remain unclear. I focused on salmon, which migrate from inland to the open ocean globally, to reveal the three-year (May 2011 to February 2014) fluctuations and accumulations of 134Cs and 137Cs from terrestrial to open ocean environments after the F1NPP accident. The 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations in six salmonids exhibited lower temporal variations for three years after the F1NPP accident, suggesting that these radionuclides are widely distributed and these radionuclides remain in the natural environment globally with less convergence. The accumulation patterns were significantly different among the different salmon species. Fluvial (freshwater residence) type salmons exhibited significantly higher accumulation in 134Cs (25.3-40.2 Bq kg(-1) in mean) and 137Cs (41.4-51.7 Bq kg(-1) in mean) than did the anadromous (sea-run) type salmons (0.64-8.03 Bq kg(-1) in mean 134Cs and 0.42-10.2 Bq kg(-1) in mean 137Cs) suggesting widespread contamination in terrestrial environments versus the coastal and open ocean environments. Salmonids are the most highly migratory animals and are characterised by their strong tendency to return home to their natal site for reproduction. Salmonids have a potential to be a good indicator as an effective monitoring animal.

  7. Level-set-based reconstruction algorithm for EIT lung images: first clinical results.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Peyman; Soleimani, Manuchehr; Pulletz, Sven; Frerichs, Inéz; Adler, Andy

    2012-05-01

    We show the first clinical results using the level-set-based reconstruction algorithm for electrical impedance tomography (EIT) data. The level-set-based reconstruction method (LSRM) allows the reconstruction of non-smooth interfaces between image regions, which are typically smoothed by traditional voxel-based reconstruction methods (VBRMs). We develop a time difference formulation of the LSRM for 2D images. The proposed reconstruction method is applied to reconstruct clinical EIT data of a slow flow inflation pressure-volume manoeuvre in lung-healthy and adult lung-injury patients. Images from the LSRM and the VBRM are compared. The results show comparable reconstructed images, but with an improved ability to reconstruct sharp conductivity changes in the distribution of lung ventilation using the LSRM.

  8. Engine systems analysis results of the Space Shuttle Main Engine redesigned powerhead initial engine level testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, Erik J.; Gosdin, Dennis R.

    1992-01-01

    Engineers regularly analyze SSME ground test and flight data with respect to engine systems performance. Recently, a redesigned SSME powerhead was introduced to engine-level testing in part to increase engine operational margins through optimization of the engine internal environment. This paper presents an overview of the MSFC personnel engine systems analysis results and conclusions reached from initial engine level testing of the redesigned powerhead, and further redesigns incorporated to eliminate accelerated main injector baffle and main combustion chamber hot gas wall degradation. The conclusions are drawn from instrumented engine ground test data and hardware integrity analysis reports and address initial engine test results with respect to the apparent design change effects on engine system and component operation.

  9. Comparative Genetic Mapping Between Octoploid and Diploid Fragaria Species Reveals a High Level of Colinearity Between Their Genomes and the Essentially Disomic Behavior of the Cultivated Octoploid Strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Lerceteau-Köhler, Estelle; Barrot, Laure; Sargent, Daniel James; Monfort, Amparo; Simpson, David; Arús, Pere; Guérin, Guy; Denoyes-Rothan, Béatrice

    2008-01-01

    Macrosynteny and colinearity between Fragaria (strawberry) species showing extreme levels of ploidy have been studied through comparative genetic mapping between the octoploid cultivated strawberry (F. ×ananassa) and its diploid relatives. A comprehensive map of the octoploid strawberry, in which almost all linkage groups are ranged into the seven expected homoeologous groups was obtained, thus providing the first reference map for the octoploid Fragaria. High levels of conserved macrosynteny and colinearity were observed between homo(eo)logous linkage groups and between the octoploid homoeologous groups and their corresponding diploid linkage groups. These results reveal that the polyploidization events that took place along the evolution of the Fragaria genus and the more recent juxtaposition of two octoploid strawberry genomes in the cultivated strawberry did not trigger any major chromosomal rearrangements in genomes involved in F. ×ananassa. They further suggest the existence of a close relationship between the diploid Fragaria genomes. In addition, despite the possible existence of residual levels of polysomic segregation suggested by the observation of large linkage groups in coupling phase only, the prevalence of linkage groups in coupling/repulsion phase clearly demonstrates that the meiotic behavior is mainly disomic in the cultivated strawberry. PMID:18660542

  10. Move-by-Move Dynamics of the Advantage in Chess Matches Reveals Population-Level Learning of the Game

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Mendes, Renio S.; Lenzi, Ervin K.; del Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo; Amaral, Luís A. N.

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of chess matches has attracted broad interest since its invention. This complexity and the availability of large number of recorded matches make chess an ideal model systems for the study of population-level learning of a complex system. We systematically investigate the move-by-move dynamics of the white player’s advantage from over seventy thousand high level chess matches spanning over 150 years. We find that the average advantage of the white player is positive and that it has been increasing over time. Currently, the average advantage of the white player is 0.17 pawns but it is exponentially approaching a value of 0.23 pawns with a characteristic time scale of 67 years. We also study the diffusion of the move dependence of the white player’s advantage and find that it is non-Gaussian, has long-ranged anti-correlations and that after an initial period with no diffusion it becomes super-diffusive. We find that the duration of the non-diffusive period, corresponding to the opening stage of a match, is increasing in length and exponentially approaching a value of 15.6 moves with a characteristic time scale of 130 years. We interpret these two trends as a resulting from learning of the features of the game. Additionally, we find that the exponent characterizing the super-diffusive regime is increasing toward a value of 1.9, close to the ballistic regime. We suggest that this trend is due to the increased broadening of the range of abilities of chess players participating in major tournaments. PMID:23382876

  11. Move-by-move dynamics of the advantage in chess matches reveals population-level learning of the game.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Haroldo V; Mendes, Renio S; Lenzi, Ervin K; del Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo; Amaral, Luís A N

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of chess matches has attracted broad interest since its invention. This complexity and the availability of large number of recorded matches make chess an ideal model systems for the study of population-level learning of a complex system. We systematically investigate the move-by-move dynamics of the white player's advantage from over seventy thousand high level chess matches spanning over 150 years. We find that the average advantage of the white player is positive and that it has been increasing over time. Currently, the average advantage of the white player is 0.17 pawns but it is exponentially approaching a value of 0.23 pawns with a characteristic time scale of 67 years. We also study the diffusion of the move dependence of the white player's advantage and find that it is non-Gaussian, has long-ranged anti-correlations and that after an initial period with no diffusion it becomes super-diffusive. We find that the duration of the non-diffusive period, corresponding to the opening stage of a match, is increasing in length and exponentially approaching a value of 15.6 moves with a characteristic time scale of 130 years. We interpret these two trends as a resulting from learning of the features of the game. Additionally, we find that the exponent [Formula: see text] characterizing the super-diffusive regime is increasing toward a value of 1.9, close to the ballistic regime. We suggest that this trend is due to the increased broadening of the range of abilities of chess players participating in major tournaments.

  12. A common variant association study reveals novel susceptibility loci for low HDL-cholesterol levels in ethnic Arabs.

    PubMed

    Wakil, S M; Ram, R; Muiya, N P; Andres, E; Mazhar, N; Hagos, S; Alshahid, M; Meyer, B F; Morahan, G; Dzimiri, N

    2016-12-01

    The genetic susceptibility to acquiring low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LHDLC) levels is not completely elucidated yet. In this study, we performed a common variant association study for harboring this trait in ethnic Arabs. We employed the Affymetrix high-density Axiom Genome-Wide ASI Array (Asian population) providing a coverage of 598,000 single nucleotide variations (SNPs) to genotype 5495 individuals in a two-phase study involving discovery and validation sets of experiments. The rs1800775 [1.31 (1.22-1.42); p = 3.41E-12] in the CETP gene and rs359027 [1.26 (1.16-1.36); p = 2.55E-08] in the LMCD1 gene were significantly associated with LHDLC levels. Furthermore, rs3104435 [1.26 (1.15-1.38); p = 1.19E-06] at the MATN1 locus, rs9835344 [1.16 (1.08-1.26); p = 8.75E-06] in the CNTN6 gene, rs1559997 [1.3 (1.14-1.47); p = 9.48E-06] in the SDS gene and rs1670273 [1.2 (1.1-1.31); p = 4.81E-06] in the DMN/SYNM gene exhibited suggestive association with the disorder. Seven other variants including rs1147169 in the PLCL1 gene, rs10248618 in the DNAH11, rs476155 in the GLIS3, rs7024300 in the ABCA1, intergenic rs10836699, rs11603691 in P2RX3 and rs750134 in CORO1C gene exhibited borderline protective properties. Validation and joint meta-analysis resulted in rs1800775, rs3104435 and rs359027 retaining their predisposing properties, while rs10836699 and rs11603691 showed protective properties. Our data show several predisposing variants across the genome for LHDLC levels in ethnic Arabs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A comparison of two global datasets of extreme sea levels and resulting flood exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muis, Sanne; Verlaan, Martin; Nicholls, Robert J.; Brown, Sally; Hinkel, Jochen; Lincke, Daniel; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.; Scussolini, Paolo; Winsemius, Hessel C.; Ward, Philip J.

    2017-04-01

    Estimating the current risk of coastal flooding requires adequate information on extreme sea levels. For over a decade, the only global data available was the DINAS-COAST Extreme Sea Levels (DCESL) dataset, which applies a static approximation to estimate extreme sea levels. Recently, a dynamically derived dataset was developed: the Global Tide and Surge Reanalysis (GTSR) dataset. Here, we compare the two datasets. The differences between DCESL and GTSR are generally larger than the confidence intervals of GTSR. Compared to observed extremes, DCESL generally overestimates extremes with a mean bias of 0.6 m. With a mean bias of -0.2 m GTSR generally underestimates extremes, particularly in the tropics. The Dynamic Interactive Vulnerability Assessment model is applied to calculate the present-day flood exposure in terms of the land area and the population below the 1 in 100-year sea levels. Global exposed population is 28% lower when based on GTSR instead of DCESL. Considering the limited data available at the time, DCESL provides a good estimate of the spatial variation in extremes around the world. However, GTSR allows for an improved assessment of the impacts of coastal floods, including confidence bounds. We further improve the assessment of coastal impacts by correcting for the conflicting vertical datum of sea-level extremes and land elevation, which has not been accounted for in previous global assessments. Converting the extreme sea levels to the same vertical reference used for the elevation data is shown to be a critical step resulting in 39-59% higher estimate of population exposure.

  14. Systems-level analysis of age-related macular degeneration reveals global biomarkers and phenotype-specific functional networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness that affects the central region of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), choroid, and neural retina. Initially characterized by an accumulation of sub-RPE deposits, AMD leads to progressive retinal degeneration, and in advanced cases, irreversible vision loss. Although genetic analysis, animal models, and cell culture systems have yielded important insights into AMD, the molecular pathways underlying AMD's onset and progression remain poorly delineated. We sought to better understand the molecular underpinnings of this devastating disease by performing the first comparative transcriptome analysis of AMD and normal human donor eyes. Methods RPE-choroid and retina tissue samples were obtained from a common cohort of 31 normal, 26 AMD, and 11 potential pre-AMD human donor eyes. Transcriptome profiles were generated for macular and extramacular regions, and statistical and bioinformatic methods were employed to identify disease-associated gene signatures and functionally enriched protein association networks. Selected genes of high significance were validated using an independent donor cohort. Results We identified over 50 annotated genes enriched in cell-mediated immune responses that are globally over-expressed in RPE-choroid AMD phenotypes. Using a machine learning model and a second donor cohort, we show that the top 20 global genes are predictive of AMD clinical diagnosis. We also discovered functionally enriched gene sets in the RPE-choroid that delineate the advanced AMD phenotypes, neovascular AMD and geographic atrophy. Moreover, we identified a graded increase of transcript levels in the retina related to wound response, complement cascade, and neurogenesis that strongly correlates with decreased levels of phototransduction transcripts and increased AMD severity. Based on our findings, we assembled protein-protein interactomes that highlight functional networks likely to be

  15. Suzaku Observations of Luminous Quasars: Revealing the Nature of High-Energy Blazar Emission in Low-level activity States

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; ...

    2010-05-21

    We present the results from the Suzaku X-ray observations of five flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), namely PKS 0208–512, Q 0827+243, PKS 1127–145, PKS 1510–089, and 3C 454.3. Here, all these sources were additionally monitored simultaneously or quasi-simultaneously by the Fermi satellite in gamma rays and the Swift UVOT in the UV and optical bands, respectively. Here, we constructed their broadband spectra covering the frequency range from 10 14 Hz up to 10 25 Hz, and those reveal the nature of high-energy emission of luminous blazars in their low-activity states. The analyzed X-ray spectra are well fitted by a power-law modelmore » with photoelectric absorption. In the case of PKS 0208–512, PKS 1127–145, and 3C 454.3, the X-ray continuum showed indication of hardening at low energies. Moreover, when compared with the previous X-ray observations, we see a significantly increasing contribution of low-energy photons to the total X-ray fluxes when the sources are getting fainter. The same behavior can be noted in the Suzaku data alone. A likely explanation involves a variable, flat-spectrum component produced via inverse-Compton emission, plus an additional, possibly steady soft X-ray component prominent when the source gets fainter. This soft X-ray excess is represented either by a steep power-law (photon indices Γ ~ 3-5) or a blackbody-type emission with temperatures kT ~ 0.1-0.2 keV. We model the broadband spectra of the five observed FSRQs using synchrotron self-Compton and/or external-Compton radiation models. Lastly, our modeling suggests that the difference between the low- and high-activity states in luminous blazars is due to the different total kinetic power of the jet, most likely related to varying bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow within the blazar emission zone.« less

  16. Analysis of the genetic diversity and structure across a wide range of germplasm reveals prominent gene flow in apple at the European level.

    PubMed

    Urrestarazu, Jorge; Denancé, Caroline; Ravon, Elisa; Guyader, Arnaud; Guisnel, Rémi; Feugey, Laurence; Poncet, Charles; Lateur, Marc; Houben, Patrick; Ordidge, Matthew; Fernandez-Fernandez, Felicidad; Evans, Kate M; Paprstein, Frantisek; Sedlak, Jiri; Nybom, Hilde; Garkava-Gustavsson, Larisa; Miranda, Carlos; Gassmann, Jennifer; Kellerhals, Markus; Suprun, Ivan; Pikunova, Anna V; Krasova, Nina G; Torutaeva, Elnura; Dondini, Luca; Tartarini, Stefano; Laurens, François; Durel, Charles-Eric

    2016-06-08

    The amount and structure of genetic diversity in dessert apple germplasm conserved at a European level is mostly unknown, since all diversity studies conducted in Europe until now have been performed on regional or national collections. Here, we applied a common set of 16 SSR markers to genotype more than 2,400 accessions across 14 collections representing three broad European geographic regions (North + East, West and South) with the aim to analyze the extent, distribution and structure of variation in the apple genetic resources in Europe. A Bayesian model-based clustering approach showed that diversity was organized in three groups, although these were only moderately differentiated (FST = 0.031). A nested Bayesian clustering approach allowed identification of subgroups which revealed internal patterns of substructure within the groups, allowing a finer delineation of the variation into eight subgroups (FST = 0.044). The first level of stratification revealed an asymmetric division of the germplasm among the three groups, and a clear association was found with the geographical regions of origin of the cultivars. The substructure revealed clear partitioning of genetic groups among countries, but also interesting associations between subgroups and breeding purposes of recent cultivars or particular usage such as cider production. Additional parentage analyses allowed us to identify both putative parents of more than 40 old and/or local cultivars giving interesting insights in the pedigree of some emblematic cultivars. The variation found at group and subgroup levels may reflect a combination of historical processes of migration/selection and adaptive factors to diverse agricultural environments that, together with genetic drift, have resulted in extensive genetic variation but limited population structure. The European dessert apple germplasm represents an important source of genetic diversity with a strong historical and patrimonial value. The present

  17. BDNF serum levels in schizophrenic patients during treatment augmentation with sarcosine (results of the PULSAR study).

    PubMed

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Kałużyńska, Olga; Wysokiński, Adam

    2016-08-30

    Finding a relationship between schizophrenia symptoms severity and initial level of BDNF and its changes during augmentation of antipsychotic treatment with sarcosine. 57 individuals with schizophrenia with predominantly negative symptoms completed a 6-month RCT prospective study. The patients received 2g of sarcosine (n=27) or placebo (n=30) daily. At the beginning, after 6 weeks and 6 months BDNF levels were measured. Severity of symptoms was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). BDNF serum levels were stable after 6 weeks and 6 months in both groups. We noted improvement in negative symptoms, general psychopathology and total PANSS score in sarcosine group comparing to placebo, however there was no correlations between serum BDNF concentrations and PANSS scores in all assessments. Initial serum BDNF concentrations cannot be used as a predictor of the improvement resulting from adding sarcosine. Our results indicate that either BDNF is not involved in the NMDA-dependent mechanism of sarcosine action or global changes in BDNF concentrations induced by amino-acid cannot be detected in blood assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictors of malaria infection in a wild bird population: landscape-level analyses reveal climatic and anthropogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Quevedo, Catalina; Davies, Richard G; Richardson, David S

    2014-09-01

    How the environment influences the transmission and prevalence of disease in a population of hosts is a key aspect of disease ecology. The role that environmental factors play in host-pathogen systems has been well studied at large scales, that is, differences in pathogen pressures among separate populations of hosts or across land masses. However, despite considerable understanding of how environmental conditions vary at fine spatial scales, the effect of these parameters on host-pathogen dynamics at such scales has been largely overlooked. Here, we used a combination of molecular screening and GIS-based analysis to investigate how environmental factors determine the distribution of malaria across the landscape in a population of Berthelot's pipit (Anthus berthelotii, Bolle 1862) on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) using spatially explicit models that account for spatial autocorrelation. Minimum temperature of the coldest month was found to be the most important predictor of malaria infection at the landscape scale across this population. Additionally, anthropogenic factors such as distance to artificial water reservoirs and distance to poultry farms were important predictors of malaria. A model including these factors, and the interaction between distance to artificial water reservoirs and minimum temperature, best explained the distribution of malaria infection in this system. These results suggest that levels of malaria infection in this endemic species may be artificially elevated by the impact of humans. Studies such as the one described here improve our understanding of how environmental factors, and their heterogeneity, affect the distribution of pathogens within wild populations. The results demonstrate the importance of measuring fine-scale variation - and not just regional effects - to understand how environmental variation can influence wildlife diseases. Such understanding is important for predicting the future spread and impact of

  19. Comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed genes reveals the molecular response to elevated CO2 levels in two sea buckthorn cultivars.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoyun; Zhang, Tong; Liu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Jianguo; He, Caiyun

    2018-06-20

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration increases every year. It is critical to understand the elevated CO 2 response molecular mechanisms of plants using genomic techniques. Hippophae rhamnoides L. is a high stress resistance plant species widely distributed in Europe and Asia. However, the molecular mechanism of elevated CO 2 response in H. rhamnoides has been limited. In this study, transcriptomic analysis of two sea buckthorn cultivars under different CO 2 concentrations was performed, based on the next-generation illumina sequencing platform and de novo assembly. We identified 4740 differentially expressed genes in sea buckthorn response to elevated CO 2 concentrations. According to the gene ontology (GO) results, photosystem I, photosynthesis and chloroplast thylakoid membrane were the main enriched terms in 'xiangyang' sea buckthorn. In 'zhongguo' sea buckthorn, photosynthesis was also the main significantly enriched term. However, the number of photosynthesis related differentially expressed genes were different between two sea buckthorn cultivars. Our GO and pathway analyses indicated that the expression levels of the transcription factors WRKY, MYB and NAC were significantly different between the two sea buckthorn cultivars. This study provides a reliable transcriptome sequence resource and is a valuable resource for genetic and genomic researches for plants under high CO 2 concentration in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. YY1 binding association with sex-biased transcription revealed through X-linked transcript levels and allelic binding analyses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Shi, Wenqiang; Balaton, Bradley P; Matthews, Allison M; Li, Yifeng; Arenillas, David J; Mathelier, Anthony; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R R; Brown, Carolyn J; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2016-11-18

    Sex differences in susceptibility and progression have been reported in numerous diseases. Female cells have two copies of the X chromosome with X-chromosome inactivation imparting mono-allelic gene silencing for dosage compensation. However, a subset of genes, named escapees, escape silencing and are transcribed bi-allelically resulting in sexual dimorphism. Here we conducted in silico analyses of the sexes using human datasets to gain perspectives into such regulation. We identified transcription start sites of escapees (escTSSs) based on higher transcription levels in female cells using FANTOM5 CAGE data. Significant over-representations of YY1 transcription factor binding motif and ChIP-seq peaks around escTSSs highlighted its positive association with escapees. Furthermore, YY1 occupancy is significantly biased towards the inactive X (Xi) at long non-coding RNA loci that are frequent contacts of Xi-specific superloops. Our study suggests a role for YY1 in transcriptional activity on Xi in general through sequence-specific binding, and its involvement at superloop anchors.

  1. YY1 binding association with sex-biased transcription revealed through X-linked transcript levels and allelic binding analyses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-yu; Shi, Wenqiang; Balaton, Bradley P.; Matthews, Allison M.; Li, Yifeng; Arenillas, David J.; Mathelier, Anthony; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Brown, Carolyn J.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in susceptibility and progression have been reported in numerous diseases. Female cells have two copies of the X chromosome with X-chromosome inactivation imparting mono-allelic gene silencing for dosage compensation. However, a subset of genes, named escapees, escape silencing and are transcribed bi-allelically resulting in sexual dimorphism. Here we conducted in silico analyses of the sexes using human datasets to gain perspectives into such regulation. We identified transcription start sites of escapees (escTSSs) based on higher transcription levels in female cells using FANTOM5 CAGE data. Significant over-representations of YY1 transcription factor binding motif and ChIP-seq peaks around escTSSs highlighted its positive association with escapees. Furthermore, YY1 occupancy is significantly biased towards the inactive X (Xi) at long non-coding RNA loci that are frequent contacts of Xi-specific superloops. Our study suggests a role for YY1 in transcriptional activity on Xi in general through sequence-specific binding, and its involvement at superloop anchors. PMID:27857184

  2. Study Results on Knowledge Requirements for Entry-Level Airport Operations and Management Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quilty, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper identifies important topical knowledge areas required of individuals employed in airport operations and management positions. A total of 116 airport managers and airfield operations personnel responded to a survey that sought to identify the importance of various subject matter for entry level airport operations personnel. The results from this study add to the body of research on aviation management curriculum development and can be used to better develop university curriculum and supplemental training focused on airport management and operations. Recommendations are made for specialized airport courses within aviation management programs. Further, this study identifies for job seekers or individuals employed in entry level positions those knowledge requirements deemed important by airport managers and operations personnel at different sized airports.

  3. Clinically applied procedures for human ovarian tissue cryopreservation result in different levels of efficacy and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Bastings, Lobke; Westphal, Johan R; Beerendonk, Catharina C M; Bekkers, Ruud L M; Zusterzeel, Petra L M; Hendriks, Jan C M; Braat, Didi D M; Peek, Ronald

    2016-12-01

    Different protocols are being used worldwide for the cryopreservation of human ovarian tissue for fertility preservation purposes. The efficiency and efficacy of the majority of these protocols has not been extensively evaluated, possibly resulting in sub-optimally cryopreserved ovarian tissue. To address the impact of this issue, we assessed the effects of two clinically successful human ovarian tissue slow-freezing cryopreservation procedures on the quality of the cryopreserved tissue. To differentiate between cryopreservation ( C ) versus thawing ( T ) related effects, four combinations of these two (A and B) very different cryopreservation/thawing protocols (A C A T , A C B T , B C A T , B C B T ) were studied. Before and after cryopreservation and thawing, the percentage of living and morphologically normal follicles, as well as the overall tissue viability, was assessed. Our experiments revealed that the choice of the cryopreservation protocol noticeably affected the overall tissue viability and percentage of living follicles, with a higher viability after protocol B C when compared to A C . No statistically significant differences in tissue viability were observed between the two thawing protocols, but thawing protocol B T required considerably more human effort and materials than thawing protocol A T . Tissue morphology was best retained using the B C A T combination. Our results indicate that extensive and systematical evaluation of clinically used protocols is warranted.

  4. The results of STEM education methods in physics at the 11th grade level: Light and visual equipment lesson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tungsombatsanti, A.; Ponkham, K.; Somtoa, T.

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to: 1) To evaluate the efficiency of the process and the efficiency of the results (E1 / E2) of the innovative instructional lesson plan in the form of the STEM Education method in the field of physics of secondary students at the 10th grade level in physics class to determine the efficiency of the STEM based on criteria of the 70/70 standard level. 2) To study students' critical thinking skills of secondary students at the 11th grade level, and assessing skill in criteria 80 percentage 3) To compare learning achievements between students' pre-post testing after taught in STEM Education 4) To evaluate Student' Satisfaction after using STEM Education teaching by using mean compare to 5 points Likert Scale. The participant used were 40 students from grade 11 at Borabu School, Borabu District, Mahasarakham Province, semester 2, Academic year 2016. Tools used in this study consist of: 1) STEM Education plan about the force and laws of motion for grade 11 students of 1 schemes with total of 15 hours, 2) The test of critical think skills with essay type in amount of 30 items, 3) achievement test on Light and visual equipment with multiple-choice of 4 options of 30 items, 4) satisfaction learning with 5 Rating Scale of 16 items. The statistics used in data analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation, and t-test (Dependent). The results showed that 1) The results of these findings revealed that the efficiency of the STEM based on criteria indicate that are higher than the standard level of the 70/70 at 71.51/75 2) Student has critical thinking scores that are higher than criteria 80 percentage as amount is 26 people. 3) Statistically significant of students' learning achievements to their later outcomes were differentiated between pretest and posttest at the .05 level, evidently. 4) The student' level of satisfaction toward the learning by using STEM Education plan was at a good level (X ¯ = 4.33, S.D = 0.64).

  5. Computational Analysis Reveals the Association of Threonine 118 Methionine Mutation in PMP22 Resulting in CMT-1A

    PubMed Central

    Swetha, Rayapadi G.

    2014-01-01

    The T118M mutation in PMP22 gene is associated with Charcot Marie Tooth, type 1A (CMT1A). CMT1A is a form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, the most common inherited disorder of the peripheral nervous system. Mutations in CMT related disorder are seen to increase the stability of the protein resulting in the diseased state. We performed SNP analysis for all the nsSNPs of PMP22 protein and carried out molecular dynamics simulation for T118M mutation to compare the stability difference between the wild type protein structure and the mutant protein structure. The mutation T118M resulted in the overall increase in the stability of the mutant protein. The superimposed structure shows marked structural variation between the wild type and the mutant protein structures. PMID:25400662

  6. Correlates of Protective Cellular Immunity Revealed by Analysis of Population-Level Immune Escape Pathways in HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Brumme, Chanson J.; Martin, Eric; Listgarten, Jennifer; Brockman, Mark A.; Le, Anh Q.; Chui, Celia K. S.; Cotton, Laura A.; Knapp, David J. H. F.; Riddler, Sharon A.; Haubrich, Richard; Nelson, George; Pfeifer, Nico; DeZiel, Charles E.; Heckerman, David; Apps, Richard; Carrington, Mary; Mallal, Simon; Harrigan, P. Richard; John, Mina

    2012-01-01

    HLA class I-associated polymorphisms identified at the population level mark viral sites under immune pressure by individual HLA alleles. As such, analysis of their distribution, frequency, location, statistical strength, sequence conservation, and other properties offers a unique perspective from which to identify correlates of protective cellular immunity. We analyzed HLA-associated HIV-1 subtype B polymorphisms in 1,888 treatment-naïve, chronically infected individuals using phylogenetically informed methods and identified characteristics of HLA-associated immune pressures that differentiate protective and nonprotective alleles. Over 2,100 HLA-associated HIV-1 polymorphisms were identified, approximately one-third of which occurred inside or within 3 residues of an optimally defined cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitope. Differential CTL escape patterns between closely related HLA alleles were common and increased with greater evolutionary distance between allele group members. Among 9-mer epitopes, mutations at HLA-specific anchor residues represented the most frequently detected escape type: these occurred nearly 2-fold more frequently than expected by chance and were computationally predicted to reduce peptide-HLA binding nearly 10-fold on average. Characteristics associated with protective HLA alleles (defined using hazard ratios for progression to AIDS from natural history cohorts) included the potential to mount broad immune selection pressures across all HIV-1 proteins except Nef, the tendency to drive multisite and/or anchor residue escape mutations within known CTL epitopes, and the ability to strongly select mutations in conserved regions within HIV's structural and functional proteins. Thus, the factors defining protective cellular immune responses may be more complex than simply targeting conserved viral regions. The results provide new information to guide vaccine design and immunogenicity studies. PMID:23055555

  7. Improving diabetes care at primary care level with a multistrategic approach: results of the DIAPREM programme.

    PubMed

    Prestes, Mariana; Gayarre, Maria A; Elgart, Jorge F; Gonzalez, Lorena; Rucci, Enzo; Paganini, Jose M; Gagliardino, Juan J

    2017-09-01

    To present results, 1 year postimplementation at primary care level, of an integrated diabetes care programme including systemic changes, education, registry (clinical, metabolic, and therapeutic indicators), and disease management (DIAPREM). We randomly selected and trained 15 physicians and 15 nurses from primary care units of La Matanza County (intervention-IG) and another 15 physicians/nurses to participate as controls (control-CG). Each physician-nurse team controlled and followed up 10 patients with type 2 diabetes for 1 year; both groups used structured medical records. Patients in IG had quarterly clinical appointments, whereas those in CG received traditional care. Statistical data analysis included parametric/nonparametric tests according to data distribution profile and Chi-squared test for proportions. After 12 months, the dropout rate was significantly lower in IG than in CG. Whereas in IG HbA1c, blood pressure and lipid profile levels significantly decreased, no changes were recorded in CG. Drug prescriptions showed no significant changes in IG except a decrease in oral monotherapy. DIAPREM is an expedient and simple multistrategic model to implement at the primary care level in order to decrease patient dropout and improve control and treatment adherence, and quality of care of people with diabetes.

  8. 4- and 5-level anterior fusions of the cervical spine: review of literature and clinical results

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Heiko; Ferraris, Luis; Maier, Oliver; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Metz-Stavenhagen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In the future, there will be an increased number of cervical revision surgeries, including 4- and more-levels. But, there is a paucity of literature concerning the geometrical and clinical outcome in these challenging reconstructions. To contribute to current knowledge, we want to share our experience with 4- and 5-level anterior cervical fusions in 26 cases in sight of a critical review of literature. At index procedure, almost 50% of our patients had previous cervical surgeries performed. Besides failed prior surgeries, indications included degenerative multilevel instability and spondylotic myelopathy with cervical kyphosis. An average of 4.1 levels was instrumented and fused using constrained (26.9%) and non-constrained (73.1%) screw-plate systems. At all, four patients had 3-level corpectomies, and three had additional posterior stabilization and fusion. Mean age of patients at index procedure was 54 years with a mean follow-up intervall of 30.9 months. Preoperative lordosis C2-7 was 6.5° in average, which measured a mean of 15.6° at last follow-up. Postoperative lordosis at fusion block was 14.4° in average, and 13.6° at last follow-up. In 34.6% of patients some kind of postoperative change in construct geometry was observed, but without any catastrophic construct failure. There were two delayed unions, but finally union rate was 100% without any need for the Halo device. Eleven patients (42.3%) showed an excellent outcome, twelve good (46.2%), one fair (3.8%), and two poor (7.7%). The study demonstrated that anterior-only instrumentations following segmental decompressions or use of the hybrid technique with discontinuous corpectomies can avoid the need for posterior supplemental surgery in 4- and 5-level surgeries. However, also the review of literature shows that decreased construct rigidity following more than 2-level corpectomies can demand 360° instrumentation and fusion. Concerning construct rigidity and radiolographic course, constrained plates

  9. The Dutch heart health community intervention 'Hartslag Limburg': results of an effect study at organizational level.

    PubMed

    Ronda, G; Van Assema, P; Ruland, E; Steenbakkers, M; Van Ree, J; Brug, J

    2005-05-01

    'Hartslag Limburg', a cardiovascular diseases (CVD) prevention programme, integrates a community strategy and a high-risk strategy to reduce CVD risk behaviours. This article presents the results of the effect evaluation study of the community intervention at the organizational level. Organizational changes were an intermediate goal of the Hartslag Limburg community intervention, as these are assumed to be a prerequisite for changes at the individual level. A baseline-post-test control group design was used. The baseline measurement was conducted in 1998 and the post-test measurement in 2001. At baseline, 700 organizations were selected in the Maastricht region, and 577 in a control region. All organizations that were potentially significant agents in health-promoting activities were included. Data on organizational involvement in health-promoting activities were gathered by means of structured questionnaires, and sent to organization representatives by mail. The overall post-test percentage of organizations involved in at least one activity relating to physical activity was higher in the Maastricht region than in the control region. Furthermore, the number of activities per organization involved in activities relating to healthy eating, smoking behaviour or physical activity was higher in the Maastricht region than in the control region at post-test. This study provided valuable information about organizational involvement in health-promoting activities, as well as important information to consider in future research in this area. Due to the limitations of the study, the importance of measuring change at different social levels in community-based programmes, and the scarcity of effect studies of community interventions at the organizational level, further research on this subject is warranted.

  10. Prospective clinical study reveals significant reduction in triglyceride level and white blood cell count after liposuction and abdominoplasty and no change in cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Eric

    2011-09-01

    Triglyceride levels of 150 mg/dL or greater are known to be associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the effect of liposuction and abdominoplasty on lipid levels, complete blood count, and other parameters. A prospective study was undertaken among 322 consecutive patients (270 women and 52 men) who presented for liposuction (n = 229), abdominoplasty with liposuction (n = 87), and abdominoplasty without liposuction (n = 6). The mean body mass index was 26.6 kg/m2 (range, 18.6 to 44.1 kg/m2). Ultrasonic liposuction using a superwet infusion technique was used in all cases, usually treating the lower body in women (64.4 percent) and the trunk in men (86.5 percent). Mean weight loss 3 months after liposuction was 2.2 lbs for liposuction alone (p < 0.001) and 4.2 lbs for liposuction and abdominoplasty (p < 0.05). Mean fasting triglyceride level decreased 25.7 percent after liposuction (p < 0.001). The triglyceride level decreased 43.0 percent (n = 56, p < 0.001) after liposuction in patients with preoperative levels of 150 mg/dl or greater. There was a significant decrease in white cell count after both liposuction and liposuction/abdominoplasty (p < 0.001). There were no significant changes in total, low-density lipoprotein, or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Fasting glucose was unchanged. A significant (p < 0.001) reduction in triglyceride level in patients with elevated preoperative levels and a significant decrease in leukocyte count (p < 0.001) are favorable metabolic effects of liposuction and liposuction/abdominoplasty. Cholesterol levels are unaffected. Therapeutic, IV.

  11. Results of qualification tests on water-level sensing instruments, 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, Randolph R.; Rapp, Donald H.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents to users of hydrological instrumentation and U.S. Geological Survey procurement personnel a list of instruments that have met or exceeded the Survey 's minimum performance requirements for water level sensing instruments. The Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility at the National Space Technology Laboratories, Mississippi conducted qualification tests on four instrument systems. The data collected are summarized, brief system descriptions are given, qualification testing purposes and procedures are summarized, and results are given for each of the three systems that met performance requirements. The fourth system was returned to the manufacturer , because in preliminary testing the instrument system did not perform properly according to the manufacturer 's operating procedures. As a result of the qualification tests, the three systems that met performance requirements have been included on the Survey 's Qualified Products List. (USGS)

  12. Oregon Indigenous Farmworkers: Results of Promotor Intervention on Pesticide Knowledge and Organophosphate Metabolite Levels

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Linda; Runkle, Jennifer D.; Samples, Julie; Williams, Bryan; Muniz, Juan F; Semple, Marie; Shadbeh, Nargess

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Examine changes in health beliefs, pesticide safety knowledge, and biomarkers of pesticide exposure in indigenous farmworker who received enhanced pesticide safety training compared to those receiving the standard training. Methods Farmworkers in Oregon were randomly assigned to either a promotores pesticide safety training program or a standard video-based training. Spot urine samples were analyzed for dialkylphosphate (DAP) urinary metabolites. Pre/post intervention questionnaires were used to measure pesticide safety knowledge, health beliefs and work practices. Results Baseline to follow-up improvements in total pesticide knowledge scores were higher in the promotor group compared to the video. Pairwise differences in mean concentrations of DAP metabolite levels showed declines from baseline to follow-up for both intervention groups. Conclusions Results showed reductions in pesticide exposure in indigenous-language speaking farmworkers who receive enhanced pesticide safety training. PMID:24064776

  13. Changes in Breath Trihalomethane Levels Resulting from Household Water-Use Activities

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Sydney M.; Brinkman, Marielle C.; Ashley, David L.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Lyu, Christopher; Masters, John; Singer, Philip C.

    2006-01-01

    Common household water-use activities such as showering, bathing, drinking, and washing clothes or dishes are potentially important contributors to individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the major class of disinfection by-products of water treated with chlorine. Previous studies have focused on showering or bathing activities. In this study, we selected 12 common water-use activities and determined which may lead to the greatest THM exposures and result in the greatest increase in the internal dose. Seven subjects performed the various water-use activities in two residences served by water utilities with relatively high and moderate total THM levels. To maintain a consistent exposure environment, the activities, exposure times, air exchange rates, water flows, water temperatures, and extraneous THM emissions to the indoor air were carefully controlled. Water, indoor air, blood, and exhaled-breath samples were collected during each exposure session for each activity, in accordance with a strict, well-defined protocol. Although showering (for 10 min) and bathing (for 14 min), as well as machine washing of clothes and opening mechanical dishwashers at the end of the cycle, resulted in substantial increases in indoor air chloroform concentrations, only showering and bathing caused significant increases in the breath chloroform levels. In the case of bromodichloromethane (BDCM), only bathing yielded a significantly higher air level in relation to the preexposure concentration. For chloroform from showering, strong correlations were observed for indoor air and exhaled breath, blood and exhaled breath, indoor air and blood, and tap water and blood. Only water and breath, and blood and breath were significantly associated for chloroform from bathing. For BDCM, significant correlations were obtained for blood and air, and blood and water from showering. Neither dibromochloromethane nor bromoform gave measurable breath concentrations for any of the activities

  14. Modelled air pollution levels versus EC air quality legislation - results from high resolution simulation.

    PubMed

    Chervenkov, Hristo

    2013-12-01

    An appropriate method for evaluating the air quality of a certain area is to contrast the actual air pollution levels to the critical ones, prescribed in the legislative standards. The application of numerical simulation models for assessing the real air quality status is allowed by the legislation of the European Community (EC). This approach is preferable, especially when the area of interest is relatively big and/or the network of measurement stations is sparse, and the available observational data are scarce, respectively. Such method is very efficient for similar assessment studies due to continuous spatio-temporal coverage of the obtained results. In the study the values of the concentration of the harmful substances sulphur dioxide, (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter - coarse (PM10) and fine (PM2.5) fraction, ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and ammonia (NH3) in the surface layer obtained from modelling simulations with resolution 10 km on hourly bases are taken to calculate the necessary statistical quantities which are used for comparison with the corresponding critical levels, prescribed in the EC directives. For part of them (PM2.5, CO and NH3) this is done for first time with such resolution. The computational grid covers Bulgaria entirely and some surrounding territories and the calculations are made for every year in the period 1991-2000. The averaged over the whole time slice results can be treated as representative for the air quality situation of the last decade of the former century.

  15. Ocular-following responses to white noise stimuli in humans reveal a novel nonlinearity that results from temporal sampling

    PubMed Central

    Sheliga, Boris M.; Quaia, Christian; FitzGibbon, Edmond J.; Cumming, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    White noise stimuli are frequently used to study the visual processing of broadband images in the laboratory. A common goal is to describe how responses are derived from Fourier components in the image. We investigated this issue by recording the ocular-following responses (OFRs) to white noise stimuli in human subjects. For a given speed we compared OFRs to unfiltered white noise with those to noise filtered with band-pass filters and notch filters. Removing components with low spatial frequency (SF) reduced OFR magnitudes, and the SF associated with the greatest reduction matched the SF that produced the maximal response when presented alone. This reduction declined rapidly with SF, compatible with a winner-take-all operation. Removing higher SF components increased OFR magnitudes. For higher speeds this effect became larger and propagated toward lower SFs. All of these effects were quantitatively well described by a model that combined two factors: (a) an excitatory drive that reflected the OFRs to individual Fourier components and (b) a suppression by higher SF channels where the temporal sampling of the display led to flicker. This nonlinear interaction has an important practical implication: Even with high refresh rates (150 Hz), the temporal sampling introduced by visual displays has a significant impact on visual processing. For instance, we show that this distorts speed tuning curves, shifting the peak to lower speeds. Careful attention to spectral content, in the light of this nonlinearity, is necessary to minimize the resulting artifact when using white noise patterns undergoing apparent motion. PMID:26762277

  16. Atmosphere-Ionosphere Response to the M9 Tohoku Earthquake Revealed by Joined Satellite and Ground Observations. Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Romanov, Alexey; Tsybulya, Konstantin; Davidenko, Dimitri; Kafatos, Menas; Taylor, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The recent M9 Tohoku Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011 was the largest recorded earthquake ever to hit this nation. We retrospectively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters - outgoing long wave radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC, Low-Earth orbit tomography and critical frequency foF2. These changes characterize the state of the atmosphere and ionosphere several days before the onset of this earthquake. Our first results show that on March 8th a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed from the satellite data and an anomaly developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. Starting on this day in the lower ionospheric there was also confirmed an abnormal TEC variation over the epicenter. From March 3-11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground based ionosondes, which return to normal after the main earthquake. We found a positive correlation between the atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies and the Tohoku earthquake. This study may lead to a better understanding of the response of the atmosphere/ionosphere to the Great Tohoku earthquake.

  17. Quantification of shape and cell polarity reveals a novel mechanism underlying malformations resulting from related FGF mutations during facial morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Young, Nathan M.; Tropp, Stephen; Hu, Diane; Xu, Yanhua; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Marcucio, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling mutations are a frequent contributor to craniofacial malformations including midfacial anomalies and craniosynostosis. FGF signaling has been shown to control cellular mechanisms that contribute to facial morphogenesis and growth such as proliferation, survival, migration and differentiation. We hypothesized that FGF signaling not only controls the magnitude of growth during facial morphogenesis but also regulates the direction of growth via cell polarity. To test this idea, we infected migrating neural crest cells of chicken embryos with  replication-competent avian sarcoma virus expressing either FgfR2C278F, a receptor mutation found in Crouzon syndrome or the ligand Fgf8. Treated embryos exhibited craniofacial malformations resembling facial dysmorphologies in craniosynostosis syndrome. Consistent with our hypothesis, ectopic activation of FGF signaling resulted in decreased cell proliferation, increased expression of the Sprouty class of FGF signaling inhibitors, and repressed phosphorylation of ERK/MAPK. Furthermore, quantification of cell polarity in facial mesenchymal cells showed that while orientation of the Golgi body matches the direction of facial prominence outgrowth in normal cells, in FGF-treated embryos this direction is randomized, consistent with aberrant growth that we observed. Together, these data demonstrate that FGF signaling regulates cell proliferation and cell polarity and that these cell processes contribute to facial morphogenesis. PMID:23906837

  18. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptomyces Species Reveals Their Adaptation to the Marine Environment and Their Diversity at the Genomic Level

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xinpeng; Zhang, Zhewen; Yang, Tingting; Chen, Meili; Li, Jie; Chen, Fei; Yang, Jin; Li, Wenjie; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Zhang; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Changsheng; Long, Lijuan; Xiao, Jingfa

    2016-01-01

    Over 200 genomes of streptomycete strains that were isolated from various environments are available from the NCBI. However, little is known about the characteristics that are linked to marine adaptation in marine-derived streptomycetes. The particularity and complexity of the marine environment suggest that marine streptomycetes are genetically diverse. Here, we sequenced nine strains from the Streptomyces genus that were isolated from different longitudes, latitudes, and depths of the South China Sea. Then we compared these strains to 22 NCBI downloaded streptomycete strains. Thirty-one streptomycete strains are clearly grouped into a marine-derived subgroup and multiple source subgroup-based phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic analyses have revealed the dynamic process underlying streptomycete genome evolution, and lateral gene transfer is an important driving force during the process. Pan-genomics analyses have revealed that streptomycetes have an open pan-genome, which reflects the diversity of these streptomycetes and guarantees the species a quick and economical response to diverse environments. Functional and comparative genomics analyses indicate that the marine-derived streptomycetes subgroup possesses some common characteristics of marine adaptation. Our findings have expanded our knowledge of how ocean isolates of streptomycete strains adapt to marine environments. The availability of streptomycete genomes from the South China Sea will be beneficial for further analysis on marine streptomycetes and will enrich the South China Sea’s genetic data sources. PMID:27446038

  19. 'Ogura'-based 'CMS' lines with different nuclear backgrounds of cabbage revealed substantial diversity at morphological and molecular levels.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Chander; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Rajender; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Satish; Dey, Shyam Sundar; Bhatia, Reeta; Kumar, Raj

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive study on characterization and genetic diversity analysis was carried out in 16 'Ogura'-based 'CMS' lines of cabbage using 14 agro-morphological traits and 29 SSR markers. Agro-morphological characterization depicted considerable variations for different horticultural traits studied. The genotype, ZHA-2, performed better for most of the economically important quantitative traits. Further, gross head weight (0.76), head length (0.60) and head width (0.83) revealed significant positive correlation with net head weight. Dendrogram based on 10 quantitative traits exhibited considerable diversity among different CMS lines and principle component analysis (PCA) indicated that net and gross head weight, and head length and width are the main components of divergence between 16 CMS lines of cabbage. In molecular study, a total of 58 alleles were amplified by 29 SSR primers, averaging to 2.0 alleles in each locus. High mean values of Shannon's Information index (0.62), expected (0.45) and observed (0.32) heterozygosity and polymorphic information content (0.35) depicted substantial polymorphism. Dendrogram based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient constructed two major groups and eight sub-groups, which revealed substantial diversity among different CMS lines. In overall, based on agro-morphological and molecular studies genotype RRMA, ZHA-2 and RCA were found most divergent. Hence, they have immense potential in future breeding programs for the high-yielding hybrid development in cabbage.

  20. Genome-Wide Analysis of the World's Sheep Breeds Reveals High Levels of Historic Mixture and Strong Recent Selection

    PubMed Central

    Kijas, James W.; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Hayes, Ben; Boitard, Simon; Porto Neto, Laercio R.; San Cristobal, Magali; Servin, Bertrand; McCulloch, Russell; Whan, Vicki; Gietzen, Kimberly; Paiva, Samuel; Barendse, William; Ciani, Elena; Raadsma, Herman; McEwan, John; Dalrymple, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Through their domestication and subsequent selection, sheep have been adapted to thrive in a diverse range of environments. To characterise the genetic consequence of both domestication and selection, we genotyped 49,034 SNP in 2,819 animals from a diverse collection of 74 sheep breeds. We find the majority of sheep populations contain high SNP diversity and have retained an effective population size much higher than most cattle or dog breeds, suggesting domestication occurred from a broad genetic base. Extensive haplotype sharing and generally low divergence time between breeds reveal frequent genetic exchange has occurred during the development of modern breeds. A scan of the genome for selection signals revealed 31 regions containing genes for coat pigmentation, skeletal morphology, body size, growth, and reproduction. We demonstrate the strongest selection signal has occurred in response to breeding for the absence of horns. The high density map of genetic variability provides an in-depth view of the genetic history for this important livestock species. PMID:22346734

  1. Scalp stratum corneum histamine levels: novel sampling method reveals association with itch resolution in dandruff/seborrhoeic dermatitis treatment.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Kathy; Schwartz, James R; Filloon, Thomas; Fieno, Angela; Wehmeyer, Ken; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Mills, Kevin J

    2011-06-01

    Dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis are accompanied by bothersome itch. We have established a novel non-invasive methodology to sample histamine levels in the stratum corneum in order to facilitate an understanding of pruritogenesis in this condition. Histamine levels were assessed in two groups of subjects with dandruff before and after 3 weeks of treatment with a commercial potentiated zinc pyrithione shampoo. A comparative population without dandruff was also studied. Itch self-perception was quantified on a visual analogue scale. The histamine level in subjects with dandruff was more than twice that in those who did not have dandruff. Under conditions known to resolve flaking symptoms, the shampoo led to a reduction in histamine in subjects with dandruff to a level that was statistically indistinguishable from those who did not have dandruff. This reduction in histamine was accompanied by a highly significant reduction in the perception of itch intensity. These findings suggest an association between the subjective perception of itch in the scalp and the level of histamine in the skin.

  2. Basic-level categorization of intermediate complexity fragments reveals top-down effects of expertise in visual perception.

    PubMed

    Harel, Assaf; Ullman, Shimon; Harari, Danny; Bentin, Shlomo

    2011-07-28

    Visual expertise is usually defined as the superior ability to distinguish between exemplars of a homogeneous category. Here, we ask how real-world expertise manifests at basic-level categorization and assess the contribution of stimulus-driven and top-down knowledge-based factors to this manifestation. Car experts and novices categorized computer-selected image fragments of cars, airplanes, and faces. Within each category, the fragments varied in their mutual information (MI), an objective quantifiable measure of feature diagnosticity. Categorization of face and airplane fragments was similar within and between groups, showing better performance with increasing MI levels. Novices categorized car fragments more slowly than face and airplane fragments, while experts categorized car fragments as fast as face and airplane fragments. The experts' advantage with car fragments was similar across MI levels, with similar functions relating RT with MI level for both groups. Accuracy was equal between groups for cars as well as faces and airplanes, but experts' response criteria were biased toward cars. These findings suggest that expertise does not entail only specific perceptual strategies. Rather, at the basic level, expertise manifests as a general processing advantage arguably involving application of top-down mechanisms, such as knowledge and attention, which helps experts to distinguish between object categories. © ARVO

  3. A high HIV-1 strain variability in London, UK, revealed by full-genome analysis: Results from the ICONIC project

    PubMed Central

    Frampton, Dan; Gallo Cassarino, Tiziano; Raffle, Jade; Hubb, Jonathan; Ferns, R. Bridget; Waters, Laura; Tong, C. Y. William; Kozlakidis, Zisis; Hayward, Andrew; Kellam, Paul; Pillay, Deenan; Clark, Duncan; Nastouli, Eleni; Leigh Brown, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    Background & methods The ICONIC project has developed an automated high-throughput pipeline to generate HIV nearly full-length genomes (NFLG, i.e. from gag to nef) from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. The pipeline was applied to 420 HIV samples collected at University College London Hospitals NHS Trust and Barts Health NHS Trust (London) and sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (Cambridge). Consensus genomes were generated and subtyped using COMET, and unique recombinants were studied with jpHMM and SimPlot. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed using RAxML to identify transmission networks using the Cluster Picker. Results The pipeline generated sequences of at least 1Kb of length (median = 7.46Kb, IQR = 4.01Kb) for 375 out of the 420 samples (89%), with 174 (46.4%) being NFLG. A total of 365 sequences (169 of them NFLG) corresponded to unique subjects and were included in the down-stream analyses. The most frequent HIV subtypes were B (n = 149, 40.8%) and C (n = 77, 21.1%) and the circulating recombinant form CRF02_AG (n = 32, 8.8%). We found 14 different CRFs (n = 66, 18.1%) and multiple URFs (n = 32, 8.8%) that involved recombination between 12 different subtypes/CRFs. The most frequent URFs were B/CRF01_AE (4 cases) and A1/D, B/C, and B/CRF02_AG (3 cases each). Most URFs (19/26, 73%) lacked breakpoints in the PR+RT pol region, rendering them undetectable if only that was sequenced. Twelve (37.5%) of the URFs could have emerged within the UK, whereas the rest were probably imported from sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia and South America. For 2 URFs we found highly similar pol sequences circulating in the UK. We detected 31 phylogenetic clusters using the full dataset: 25 pairs (mostly subtypes B and C), 4 triplets and 2 quadruplets. Some of these were not consistent across different genes due to inter- and intra-subtype recombination. Clusters involved 70 sequences, 19.2% of the dataset. Conclusions

  4. Sea level changes in Sharm Abhur Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia, as Revealed from Seismic Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Abd, Yakout; Awad, Morad

    High resolution seismic profiling has been carried out along Sharm Abhur (a tidal creek), north of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, using a high resolution seismic refraction profiling system. A chronogram illustrating corresponding Holocene relative sea level changes was constructed. Since 16,750 yr. B.P. Sharm Abhur had been subjected to four stages of relative transgressions. The first one started at about 92.5 m below present sea level. A relative stillstand occurred between 12,500-11,000 yr. B.P. about 50 m below present sea level. An anomalous body is observed near the mouth of the Sharm which is believed to be uplifted between 13,250 and 12,500 yr. B.P.

  5. Reasons for nonadherence to the dapivirine vaginal ring: narrative explanations of objective drug-level results.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Elizabeth T; Stadler, Jonathan; Naidoo, Sarita; Katz, Ariana W K; Laborde, Nicole; Garcia, Morgan; Reddy, Krishnaveni; Mansoor, Leila E; Etima, Juliane; Zimba, Chifundo; Chitukuta, Miria; Soto-Torres, Lydia

    2018-07-17

    MTN-020/ASPIRE trial and IPM-027/Ring Study recently proved the dapivirine vaginal ring was safe and effective with consistent use. To optimize the ring's impact, the barriers and facilitators to ring adherence must be understood and addressed. Former ASPIRE participants were stratified by age group (18-21; 22-45) and randomly selected at seven sites in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe, 12-17 months after trial exit. Using in-depth interviews or focus group discussions, ring use barriers were explored using structured guides and visual tools including individual-level depictions of dapivirine levels detected in plasma and returned rings. A total of 187 were enrolled; 37% were 18-21 years when they began ASPIRE. Most (75%) had drug-level results, suggesting inconsistent ring use throughout ASPIRE. Participants viewed themselves as adherent, while simultaneously describing regular instances and reasons for ring removal (e.g. for sex or menses). Less adherent women reported fears that partners would oppose the ring or feel it during sex. High adherers expressed altruistic motivations for ring use. Women of all ages attributed young women's nonadherence to their tendency to be less 'serious' about the future, HIV prevention and the study; motivated predominantly by benefits; more fearful of fertility-related consequences; and to having less relationship control. When presented with objective adherence data, participants provided reasons for intermittent ring use, while simultaneously portraying themselves as consistent ring users. Further research is needed to understand how women could use the ring in a way that fits into the context of their relationships and their lives while still conferring adequate HIV prophylaxis.

  6. DNA barcodes reveal species-specific mercury levels in tuna sushi that pose a health risk to consumers

    PubMed Central

    Lowenstein, Jacob H.; Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian W.; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Excessive ingestion of mercury—a health hazard associated with consuming predatory fishes—damages neurological, sensory-motor and cardiovascular functioning. The mercury levels found in Bigeye Tuna (Thunnus obesus) and bluefin tuna species (Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, and Thunnus thynnus), exceed or approach levels permissible by Canada, the European Union, Japan, the US, and the World Health Organization. We used DNA barcodes to identify tuna sushi samples analysed for mercury and demonstrate that the ability to identify cryptic samples in the market place allows regulatory agencies to more accurately measure the risk faced by fish consumers and enact policies that better safeguard their health. PMID:20410032

  7. [Results of selective posterior radiculetomy at the lumbar and cervical level].

    PubMed

    Vlahovitch, B; Fuentes, J M

    1975-01-01

    At the light of authors' present experience, radicletomy appears as an excellent antalgic operative procedure in the case of roots with high functional risk (brachial plexus and lumbar plexus). In the absence of any motor deficiency or ataxia, it appears that radicletomy is of help in the cure of severe hypertonies of the extremities (sequelae of cerebral stem contusions). Conversely, in the spastic sequelae of hemi- or paraparesias, lumbar-sacral posterior selective radicotomy is a sure procedure that procures results nearly super-imposable to radicletomy with an appreciable gain in time. At last, for what concerns the motor involvements of the upper extremity ending in spasticity, selective radicletomy recovers its rights and has to be preferred to S.P.R. The indications may be summarized as follows: -- At the level of the lower extremities: in the case of paraparetic sequelae or of sequelae due to spastic paraplegia, a S.P.R. has to be performed; for what concerns antalgic surgery, in the absence of motor deficiency, the best indication is radicletomy. -- At the level of the upper extremities: in the case of dystonic sequeale of the cerebral stem, spastic pain bound with hemiplegia or with carcinoma etc. (herpes zoster..), radicletomy constitutes the ideal surgical procedure.

  8. The TETRA-II Experiment to Observe Terrestrial Gamma Flashes at Ground Level - Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, M. L.; Adams, C.; Al-Nussirat, S.; Bai, S.; Banadaki, Y.; Bitzer, P. M.; Hoffmann, J.; Khosravi, E.; Legault, M.; Orang, M.; Pleshinger, D. J.; Rodriguez, R.; Smith, D.; Trepanier, J. C.; Sunda-Meya, A.; Zimmer, N.

    2017-12-01

    An upgraded version of the TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA-II) consists of an array of BGO scintillators to detect bursts of gamma rays from thunderstorms at ground level in four separate locations: the campus of Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana; the campus of the University of Puerto Rico at Utuado, Puerto Rico; the Centro Nacional de Metrologia de Panama (CENAMEP) in Panama City, Panama; and the Severe Weather Institute and Radar & Lightning Laboratories in Huntsville, Alabama. The original TETRA-I array of NaI scintillators at Louisiana State University detected 37 millisecond-scale bursts of gamma rays at energies 50 keV-2 MeV associated with nearby (< 8 km) thunderstorms. TETRA-II began operation in May 2016 and now has approximately an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than TETRA-I. The ability to observe ground-level Terrestrial Gamma Flashes from close to the source allows a unique analysis of the storm cells producing these events. A brief description of the TETRA-I observations, a description of TETRA-II, and preliminary results of the first events observed by TETRA-II will be presented including frequency and time history of events, spectral information, and correlation with local radar and radio data.

  9. Results of qualification tests on water-level sensing instruments, 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olive, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey 's Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility at the Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, conducts qualification tests on water level sensing instruments. Instrument systems, which meet or exceed the Survey 's minimum performance requirements, are placed on the Survey 's Qualified Products List. The qualification tests conducted in 1987 added two instrument systems to the Survey 's Qualified Products List. One system met requirements for use at a daily-discharge station , and the other system met requirements for a special-case station. The report is prepared for users of hydrologic instruments. The report provides a list of instrument features, describes the instrument systems, summarizes test procedures, and presents test results for the two instrument systems that met the Survey 's minimum performance standards for the 1987 round of qualification tests. (USGS)

  10. GAGA: a new algorithm for genomic inference of geographic ancestry reveals fine level population substructure in Europeans.

    PubMed

    Lao, Oscar; Liu, Fan; Wollstein, Andreas; Kayser, Manfred

    2014-02-01

    Attempts to detect genetic population substructure in humans are troubled by the fact that the vast majority of the total amount of observed genetic variation is present within populations rather than between populations. Here we introduce a new algorithm for transforming a genetic distance matrix that reduces the within-population variation considerably. Extensive computer simulations revealed that the transformed matrix captured the genetic population differentiation better than the original one which was based on the T1 statistic. In an empirical genomic data set comprising 2,457 individuals from 23 different European subpopulations, the proportion of individuals that were determined as a genetic neighbour to another individual from the same sampling location increased from 25% with the original matrix to 52% with the transformed matrix. Similarly, the percentage of genetic variation explained between populations by means of Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) increased from 1.62% to 7.98%. Furthermore, the first two dimensions of a classical multidimensional scaling (MDS) using the transformed matrix explained 15% of the variance, compared to 0.7% obtained with the original matrix. Application of MDS with Mclust, SPA with Mclust, and GemTools algorithms to the same dataset also showed that the transformed matrix gave a better association of the genetic clusters with the sampling locations, and particularly so when it was used in the AMOVA framework with a genetic algorithm. Overall, the new matrix transformation introduced here substantially reduces the within population genetic differentiation, and can be broadly applied to methods such as AMOVA to enhance their sensitivity to reveal population substructure. We herewith provide a publically available (http://www.erasmusmc.nl/fmb/resources/GAGA) model-free method for improved genetic population substructure detection that can be applied to human as well as any other species data in future studies relevant to

  11. Learning at different satiation levels reveals parallel functions for the cAMP-protein kinase A cascade in formation of long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Anke; Thomas, Ulf; Müller, Uli

    2004-05-05

    Learning and memory formation in intact animals is generally studied under defined parameters, including the control of feeding. We used associative olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response in honeybees to address effects of feeding status on processes of learning and memory formation. Comparing groups of animals with different but defined feeding status at the time of conditioning reveals new and characteristic features in memory formation. In animals fed 18 hr earlier, three-trial conditioning induces a stable memory that consists of different phases: a mid-term memory (MTM), translation-dependent early long-term memory (eLTM; 1-2 d), and a transcription-dependent late LTM (lLTM; > or =3 d). Additional feeding of a small amount of sucrose 4 hr before conditioning leads to a loss of all of these memory phases. Interestingly, the basal activity of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), a key player in LTM formation, differs in animals with different satiation levels. Pharmacological rescue of the low basal PKA activity in animals fed 4 hr before conditioning points to a specific function of cAMP-PKA cascade in mediating satiation-dependent memory formation. An increase in PKA activity during conditioning rescues only transcription-dependent lLTM; acquisition, MTM, and eLTM are still impaired. Thus, during conditioning, the cAMP-PKA cascade mediates the induction of the transcription-dependent lLTM, depending on the satiation level. This result provides the first evidence for a central and distinct function of the cAMP-PKA cascade connecting satiation level with learning.

  12. Antioxidant profiling of native Andean potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals cultivars with high levels of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, chlorogenic acid, and petanin.

    PubMed

    Andre, Christelle M; Oufir, Mouhssin; Guignard, Cédric; Hoffmann, Lucien; Hausman, Jean-François; Evers, Danièle; Larondelle, Yvan

    2007-12-26

    The antioxidant profile of 23 native Andean potato cultivars has been investigated from a human nutrition perspective. The main carotenoid and tocopherol compounds were studied using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and a fluorescence detector, respectively, whereas polyphenols (including anthocyanins in colored tubers) were identified by means of both HPLC-mass spectrometry and HPLC-DAD. Antioxidant profiling revealed significant genotypic variations as well as cultivars of particular interest from a nutritional point of view. Concentrations of the health-promoting carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, ranged from 1.12 to 17.69 microg g(-1) of dry weight (DW) and from 0 to 17.7 microg g(-1) of DW, with cultivars 704353 and 702472 showing the highest levels in lutein and zeaxanthin, respectively. Whereas beta-carotene is rarely reported in potato tubers, remarkable levels of this dietary provitamin A carotenoid were detected in 16 native varieties, ranging from 0.42 to 2.19 microg g(-1) of DW. The amounts of alpha-tocopherol found in Andean potato tubers, extending from 2.73 to 20.80 microg g(-1) of DW, were clearly above the quantities generally reported for commercial varieties. Chlorogenic acid and its isomers dominated the polyphenolic profile of each cultivar. Dark purple-fleshed tubers from the cultivar 704429 contained exceptionally high levels of total anthocyanins (16.33 mg g(-1) of DW). The main anthocyanin was identified as petanin (petunidin-3-p-coumaroyl-rutinoside-5-glucoside). The results suggest that Andean potato cultivars should be exploited in screening and breeding programs for the development of potato varieties with enhanced health and nutritional benefits.

  13. Mössbauer Spectra of Mouse Hearts Reveal Age-dependent Changes in Mitochondrial and Ferritin Iron Levels.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Joshua D; Chakrabarti, Mrinmoy; Lindahl, Paul A

    2017-03-31

    Cardiac function requires continuous high levels of energy, and so iron, a critical player in mitochondrial respiration, is an important component of the heart. Hearts from 57 Fe-enriched mice were evaluated by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Spectra consisted of a sextet and two quadrupole doublets. One doublet was due to residual blood, whereas the other was due to [Fe 4 S 4 ] 2+ clusters and low-spin Fe II hemes, most of which were associated with mitochondrial respiration. The sextet was due to ferritin; there was no evidence of hemosiderin, a ferritin decomposition product. Iron from ferritin was nearly absent in young hearts, but increased steadily with age. EPR spectra exhibited signals similar to those of brain, liver, and human cells. No age-dependent EPR trends were apparent. Hearts from HFE -/- mice with hemochromatosis contained slightly more iron overall than controls, including more ferritin and less mitochondrial iron; these differences typify slightly older hearts, perhaps reflecting the burden due to this disease. HFE -/- livers were overloaded with ferritin but had low mitochondrial iron levels. IRP2 -/- hearts contained less ferritin than controls but normal levels of mitochondrial iron. Hearts of young mice born to an iron-deficient mother contained normal levels of mitochondrial iron and no ferritin; the heart from the mother contained low ferritin and normal levels of mitochondrial iron. High-spin Fe II ions were nearly undetectable in heart samples; these were evident in brains, livers, and human cells. Previous Mössbauer spectra of unenriched diseased human hearts lacked mitochondrial and blood doublets and included hemosiderin features. This suggests degradation of iron-containing species during sample preparation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Comprehensive analysis of gene expression patterns in Friedreich's ataxia fibroblasts by RNA sequencing reveals altered levels of protein synthesis factors and solute carriers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanjie; Lu, Yue; Lin, Kevin; Hauser, Lauren A.; Lynch, David R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease usually caused by large homozygous expansions of GAA repeat sequences in intron 1 of the frataxin (FXN) gene. FRDA patients homozygous for GAA expansions have low FXN mRNA and protein levels when compared with heterozygous carriers or healthy controls. Frataxin is a mitochondrial protein involved in iron–sulfur cluster synthesis, and many FRDA phenotypes result from deficiencies in cellular metabolism due to lowered expression of FXN. Presently, there is no effective treatment for FRDA, and biomarkers to measure therapeutic trial outcomes and/or to gauge disease progression are lacking. Peripheral tissues, including blood cells, buccal cells and skin fibroblasts, can readily be isolated from FRDA patients and used to define molecular hallmarks of disease pathogenesis. For instance, FXN mRNA and protein levels as well as FXN GAA-repeat tract lengths are routinely determined using all of these cell types. However, because these tissues are not directly involved in disease pathogenesis, their relevance as models of the molecular aspects of the disease is yet to be decided. Herein, we conducted unbiased RNA sequencing to profile the transcriptomes of fibroblast cell lines derived from 18 FRDA patients and 17 unaffected control individuals. Bioinformatic analyses revealed significantly upregulated expression of genes encoding plasma membrane solute carrier proteins in FRDA fibroblasts. Conversely, the expression of genes encoding accessory factors and enzymes involved in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial protein synthesis was consistently decreased in FRDA fibroblasts. Finally, comparison of genes differentially expressed in FRDA fibroblasts to three previously published gene expression signatures defined for FRDA blood cells showed substantial overlap between the independent datasets, including correspondingly deficient expression of antioxidant defense genes. Together, these results

  15. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis Reveals High Levels of Genetic Divergence Among the Light Organ Symbionts of Flashlight Fish.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, C J; Haygood, M G

    1991-08-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms within the lux and 16S ribosomal RNA gene regions were used to compare unculturable bacterial light organ symbionts of several anomalopid fish species. The method of Nei and Li (1979) was used to calculate phylogenetic distance from the patterns of restriction fragment lengths of the luxA and 16S rRNA regions. Phylogenetic trees constructed from each distance matrix (luxA and 16S rDNA data) have similar branching orders. The levels of divergence among the symbionts, relative to other culturable luminous bacteria, suggests that the symbionts differ at the level of species among host fish genera. Symbiont relatedness and host geographic location do not seem to be correlated, and the symbionts do not appear to be strains of common, free-living, luminous bacteria. In addition, the small number of hybridizing fragments within the 16S rRNA region of the symbionts, compared with that of the free-living species, suggests a decrease in copy number of rRNA operons relative to free-living species. At this level of investigation, the symbiont phylogeny is consistent with the proposed phylogeny of the host fish family and suggests that each symbiont strain coevolved with its host fish species.

  16. Transcriptome-Based Analysis in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 Reveals New Insights into Resveratrol Effects at System Level.

    PubMed

    Reverón, Inés; Plaza-Vinuesa, Laura; Franch, Mónica; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; López de Felipe, Félix

    2018-05-01

    This study was undertaken to expand our insights into the mechanisms involved in the tolerance to resveratrol (RSV) that operate at system-level in gut microorganisms and advance knowledge on new RSV-responsive gene circuits. Whole genome transcriptional profiling was used to characterize the molecular response of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 to RSV. DNA repair mechanisms were induced by RSV and responses were triggered to decrease the load of copper, a metal required for RSV-mediated DNA cleavage, and H 2 S, a genotoxic gas. To counter the effects of RSV, L. plantarum strongly up- or downregulated efflux systems and ABC transporters pointing to transport control of RSV across the membrane as a key mechanism for RSV tolerance. L. plantarum also downregulated tRNAs, induced chaperones, and reprogrammed its transcriptome to tightly control ammonia levels. RSV induced a probiotic effector gene and a likely deoxycholate transporter, two functions that improve the host health status. Our data identify novel protective mechanisms involved in RSV tolerance operating at system level in a gut microbe. These insights could influence the way RSV is used for a better management of gut microbial ecosystems to obtain associated health benefits. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Revealing molecular-level surface structure of amyloid fibrils in liquid by means of frequency modulation atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuma, Takeshi; Mostaert, Anika S.; Serpell, Louise C.; Jarvis, Suzanne P.

    2008-09-01

    We have investigated the surface structure of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) fibrils and α-synuclein protofibrils in liquid by means of frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM). Ångström-resolution FM-AFM imaging of isolated macromolecules in liquid is demonstrated for the first time. Individual β-strands aligned perpendicular to the fibril axis with a spacing of 0.5 nm are resolved in FM-AFM images, which confirms cross-β structure of IAPP fibrils in real space. FM-AFM images also reveal the existence of 4 nm periodic domains along the axis of IAPP fibrils. Stripe features with 0.5 nm spacing are also found in images of α-synuclein protofibrils. However, in contrast to the case for IAPP fibrils, the stripes are oriented 30° from the axis, suggesting the possibility of β-strand alignment in protofibrils different from that in mature fibrils or the regular arrangement of thioflavin T molecules present during the fibril preparation aligned at the surface of the protofibrils.

  18. Influence of the Solar Luminosity on the Glaciations, sea Level Changes and Resulting Earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shopov, Y. Y.; Stoykova, D. A.; Tsankov, L. T.; Sanabria, M. E.; Georgieva, D. I.; Ford, D. C.; Georgiev, L. N.

    2002-12-01

    Glaciations were attributed to variations of the Earth's orbit (Milankovitch cycles). But the best ever dated paleoclimatic record (from Devils Hole, Nevada) demonstrated that the end of the last glacial period (termination II) happened 10 000 years before the one suggested by the orbital variations, i.e. the result appeared before the reason. This fact suggests that there is something wrong in the theory. Calcite speleothems luminescence of organics depends exponentially upon soil temperatures that are determined primarily by the solar radiation. So the microzonality of luminescence of speleothems may be used as an indirect Solar Insolation (radiation) proxy index. We obtained luminescence solar insolation proxy records in speleothems (from Jewel Cave, South Dakota, US and Duhlata cave, Bulgaria). These records exhibit very rapid increasing of the solar insolation at 139 kyrs BP responsible for the termination II (the end of the last glaciation) and demonstrate that solar luminosity variations contribute to Earth's heating almost as much as the orbital variations of the Earth's orbit (Milankovitch cycles). The most powerful cycle of the solar luminosity (11500 yrs) is responsible for almost 1/2 of the variations in solar insolation experimental records. Changes in the speed of Earth's rotation during glacial- interglacial transitions produce fracturing of the Earth's crust and major earthquakes along the fractures. The intensity of this process is as higher as faster is the change of the sea level and as higher is its amplitude. Glaciations and deglaciations drive changes of the sea level. Much higher dimensions of this process should be caused by eruptive increasing of solar luminosity, which may be caused only by collision of large asteroids with the Sun. We demonstrate that such collision may cause "Bible Deluge" type of event.

  19. A null mutation of Hhex results in abnormal cardiac development, defective vasculogenesis and elevated Vegfa levels.

    PubMed

    Hallaq, Haifa; Pinter, Emese; Enciso, Josephine; McGrath, James; Zeiss, Caroline; Brueckner, Martina; Madri, Joseph; Jacobs, Harris C; Wilson, Christine M; Vasavada, Hemaxi; Jiang, Xiaobing; Bogue, Clifford W

    2004-10-01

    The homeobox gene Hhex has recently been shown to be essential for normal liver, thyroid and forebrain development. Hhex(-/-) mice die by mid-gestation (E14.5) and the cause of their early demise remains unclear. Because Hhex is expressed in the developing blood islands at E7.0 in the endothelium of the developing vasculature and heart at E9.0-9.5, and in the ventral foregut endoderm at E8.5-9.0, it has been postulated to play a critical role in heart and vascular development. We show here, for the first time, that a null mutation of Hhex results in striking abnormalities of cardiac and vascular development which include: (1) defective vasculogenesis, (2) hypoplasia of the right ventricle, (3) overabundant endocardial cushions accompanied by ventricular septal defects, outflow tract abnormalities and atrio-ventricular (AV) valve dysplasia and (4) aberrant development of the compact myocardium. The dramatic enlargement of the endocardial cushions in the absence of Hhex is due to decreased apoptosis and dysregulated epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT). Interestingly, vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) levels in the hearts of Hhex(-/-) mice were elevated as much as three-fold between E9.5 and E11.5, and treatment of cultured Hhex(-/-) AV explants with truncated soluble Vegfa receptor 1, sFlt-1, an inhibitor of Vegf signaling, completely abolished the excessive epithelial-mesenchymal transformation seen in the absence of Hhex. Therefore, Hhex expression in the ventral foregut endoderm and/or the endothelium is necessary for normal cardiovascular development in vivo, and one function of Hhex is to repress Vegfa levels during development.

  20. Use of oral antineoplastic in special situations in a third level hospital: real life results.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Muñoz, Carmen; Rodriguez-Quesada, Pedro Pablo; Ferrari-Piquero, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    To analyse the effectiveness and safety of oral antineoplastic drugs  (ANEOs) that are authorized in special situations in a third-level hospital and to  compare the results obtained with the clinical evidence used for this  authorization. Descriptive observational and retrospective study. We included all  adult patients who started treatment with ANEO in special situations during the  year 2016. We collected demographic, treatment-related and clinical variables  (overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS)). Adverse reactions and  detected interactions were collected. An unadjusted comparison was made  between the results of the available evidence and those of the study patients. 34 patients were treated, 50% were men, the median age was 58  years (38-80) and they presented ECOG 1 in 64.7%. Most of the treated  patients were diagnosed with advanced colorectal cancer, treated with  trifluridine-tipiracil, followed by palbociclib in breast cancer, obtaining results  similar to those of the evidence. The median PFS was 2.8 months (95% CI 0.8- 4.8) and the 8-month SG (95% CI 3.4-12.5) for all patients. 26% of patients  required dose reduction because of treatment toxicity. We found 13 interactions,  which affected 15 patients, only two of category X. The effectiveness of ANEO in special situations in our center is  similar to that of available evidence. The impact on survival is low and adverse  effects are common. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Sentinel-2 Level 2A Prototype Processor: Architecture, Algorithms And First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller-Wilm, Uwe; Louis, Jerome; Richter, Rudolf; Gascon, Ferran; Niezette, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Sen2Core is a prototype processor for Sentinel-2 Level 2A product processing and formatting. The processor is developed for and with ESA and performs the tasks of Atmospheric Correction and Scene Classification of Level 1C input data. Level 2A outputs are: Bottom-Of- Atmosphere (BOA) corrected reflectance images, Aerosol Optical Thickness-, Water Vapour-, Scene Classification maps and Quality indicators, including cloud and snow probabilities. The Level 2A Product Formatting performed by the processor follows the specification of the Level 1C User Product.

  2. Population genetic analysis reveals a low level of genetic diversity of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' causing witches' broom disease in lime.

    PubMed

    Al-Abadi, Shaikha Y; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Dickinson, Matthew; Al-Hammadi, Mohammed S; Al-Shariqi, Rashid; Al-Yahyai, Rashid A; Kazerooni, Elham A; Bertaccini, Assunta

    2016-01-01

    Witches' broom disease of lime (WBDL) is a serious phytoplasma disease of acid lime in Oman, the UAE and Iran. Despite efforts to study it, no systemic study attempted to characterize the relationship among the associated phytoplasma, ' Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia', from the three countries. This study utilized sequences of the 16S rRNA, imp and secA genes to characterize 57 strains collected from Oman (38), the UAE (9) and Iran (10). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that the 57 strains shared 98.5-100 % nucleotide similarity to each other and to strains of ' Ca . P. aurantifolia' available in GenBank. The level of genetic diversity was low based on the 16S rRNA (0-0.011), imp (0-0.002) and secA genes (0-0.015). The presence of low level of diversity among phytoplasma strains from Oman, the UAE and Iran can be explained by the movement of infected lime seedlings from one country to another through trading and exchange of infected plants. The study discusses implication of the findings on WBDL spread and management.

  3. Systems Level Analyses Reveal Multiple Regulatory Activities of CodY Controlling Metabolism, Motility and Virulence in Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Lobel, Lior; Herskovits, Anat A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria sense and respond to many environmental cues, rewiring their regulatory network to facilitate adaptation to new conditions/niches. Global transcription factors that co-regulate multiple pathways simultaneously are essential to this regulatory rewiring. CodY is one such global regulator, controlling expression of both metabolic and virulence genes in Gram-positive bacteria. Branch chained amino acids (BCAAs) serve as a ligand for CodY and modulate its activity. Classically, CodY was considered to function primarily as a repressor under rich growth conditions. However, our previous studies of the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes revealed that CodY is active also when the bacteria are starved for BCAAs. Under these conditions, CodY loses the ability to repress genes (e.g., metabolic genes) and functions as a direct activator of the master virulence regulator gene, prfA. This observation raised the possibility that CodY possesses multiple functions that allow it to coordinate gene expression across a wide spectrum of metabolic growth conditions, and thus better adapt bacteria to the mammalian niche. To gain a deeper understanding of CodY’s regulatory repertoire and identify direct target genes, we performed a genome wide analysis of the CodY regulon and DNA binding under both rich and minimal growth conditions, using RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq techniques. We demonstrate here that CodY is indeed active (i.e., binds DNA) under both conditions, serving as a repressor and activator of different genes. Further, we identified new genes and pathways that are directly regulated by CodY (e.g., sigB, arg, his, actA, glpF, gadG, gdhA, poxB, glnR and fla genes), integrating metabolism, stress responses, motility and virulence in L. monocytogenes. This study establishes CodY as a multifaceted factor regulating L. monocytogenes physiology in a highly versatile manner. PMID:26895237

  4. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  5. Tracking How Science Resources Result in Educator- and Community-Level Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.; Harold, J. B.; Fitzhugh, G.; LaConte, K.; Holland, A.

    2017-12-01

    Learners frequently need to access increasingly complex information to help them understand our changing world. More and more libraries are transforming themselves into places where learners not only access STEM information, but interact with professionals and undertake hands-on learning. Libraries are beginning to position themselves as part of learning ecosystems that contribute to a collective impact on the community. Traveling STEM exhibits are catalyzing these partnerships and engaging students, families, and adults in repeat visits through an accessible venue: their public library. This talk will explore impacts from two STAR Library Network's (STAR_Net) exhibitions (Discover Earth and Discover Tech) on partnerships, the circulation of STEM resources, and the engagement of learners. The STAR_Net project's summative evaluation utilized mixed methods to investigate project implementation and its outcomes. Methods included pre- and post-exhibit surveys administered to staff from each library that hosted the exhibits; interviews with staff from host libraries; patron surveys; exhibit-related circulation records; web metrics regarding the online STAR_Net community of practice; and site visits. The latter provides a more complete view of impacts on the community, including underserved audiences. NASA@ My Library is a new STAR_Net initiative, which provides STEM facilitation kits, training, and other resources to 75 libraries nationwide. Initial results will be presented that show high levels of engagement by librarians and strong response rate from patrons on surveys.

  6. Mining routinely collected acute data to reveal non-linear relationships between nurse staffing levels and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Leary, Alison; Cook, Rob; Jones, Sarahjane; Smith, Judith; Gough, Malcolm; Maxwell, Elaine; Punshon, Geoffrey; Radford, Mark

    2016-12-16

    Nursing is a safety critical activity but not easily quantified. This makes the building of predictive staffing models a challenge. The aim of this study was to determine if relationships between registered and non-registered nurse staffing levels and clinical outcomes could be discovered through the mining of routinely collected clinical data. The secondary aim was to examine the feasibility and develop the use of 'big data' techniques commonly used in industry for this area of healthcare and examine future uses. The data were obtained from 1 large acute National Health Service hospital trust in England. Routinely collected physiological, signs and symptom data from a clinical database were extracted, imported and mined alongside a bespoke staffing and outcomes database using Mathmatica V.10. The physiological data consisted of 120 million patient entries over 6 years, the bespoke database consisted of 9 years of daily data on staffing levels and safety factors such as falls. To discover patterns in these data or non-linear relationships that would contribute to modelling. To examine feasibility of this technique in this field. After mining, 40 correlations (p<0.00005) emerged between safety factors, physiological data (such as the presence or absence of nausea) and staffing factors. Several inter-related factors demonstrated step changes where registered nurse availability appeared to relate to physiological parameters or outcomes such as falls and the management of symptoms. Data extraction proved challenging as some commercial databases were not built for extraction of the massive data sets they contain. The relationship between staffing and outcomes appears to exist. It appears to be non-linear but calculable and a data-driven model appears possible. These findings could be used to build an initial mathematical model for acute staffing which could be further tested. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  7. Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence reveals strong representation of photosynthesis at ecosystem level in rice paddy field in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, T.; Tsujimoto, K.; Nasahara, K. N.; Akitsu, T.; Ono, K.; Miyata, A.

    2015-12-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence emission from ecosystem induced by sunlight (Sun-Induced Fluorescence: SIF) is now a key factor to accurately estimate the ecosystem-level photosynthesis activity as suggested by satellite studies, and has been recently detected by satellites [Frankenberg et al., 2011; Guanter et al., 2012; Joiner et al., 2013] and measured at field stations [Daumard et al., 2010; Porcar-Castell, 2011]. However, the few example of field-based assessment on the representation ability reduces its value for the availability to better understand the dynamics in CO2uptake by land ecosystem. To elucidate the potential of SIF to estimate ecosystem GPP in typical Asian crop type, the canopy-top SIF was calculated from the spectrum data in Japanese rice paddy field in Mase in central Japan (36°03'N, 140°01'E, 11 m a.s.l.), and compared with eddy-tower measured GPP on half-hourly and daily bases during seven years from 2006 to 2012. The rice (Oriza sativa L.; cultivar Koshihikari) was transplanted in May and harvested in September normally. The SIF was estimated from the spectrums of downward Sun irradiance and upward canopy-reflected radiance measured at the height of 3m above ground by HemiSpherical Spectro-Radiometer (HSSR), consisting of the spectroradiometer (MS-700, Eko inc., Tokyo, Japan) with the full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm and wavelength interval of 3.3 nm. The SIF around 760nm (O2-A band: Fs760) was calculated according to the Fraunhofer Line Depth principle [Maier et al., 2003] with several additional arrangements. The GPP increased almost linearly as both Fs760 and APAR (Absorbed Photosyntethically Active Radiation) increased based on monthly-averaged diurnal courses during the growing season in 2006. The slopes of their regression lines differed much among the months in APAR, but in Fs760. These nearly constant relationships among the months between GPP and Fs760 were kept for all the observation years. Daily averaged GPP and Fs760

  8. DOWNSTREAM-WATER-LEVEL CONTROL TEST RESULTS ON THE WM LATERAL CANAL

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    On steep canals, distant downstream water-level control can be challenging. SacMan (Software for Automated Canal Management) was developed, in part, to test various distant downstream water level controllers. It was implemented on the WM canal of the Maricopa Stanfield Irrigation and Drainage Distri...

  9. Effect of sea level changes on the Quaternary emergent reef limestone near Sharm Abhur as revealed from geoelectrical soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Abd, Yakout; Awad, Morad

    The present paper deals with the study of shallow geological formations existing near Sharm Abhur at the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. Fourteen vertical resistivity soundings (VES) have been conducted at different locations on both sides of the Sharm. Analysis of the data, together with the information obtained from three bore holes drilled in the area, were used to construct pseudo-, as well as true, resistivity sections. These were taken along and across the Sharm trend. The results show that the coralline limestone formation in the coastal plain near Sharm Abhur is subject to subsurface erosion and sea water invasion resulting in different layers of secondary product or diagenetically altered coralline limestone. Seepage of saline water through the Sharm basin was recognized. The basal layer feature along the sections is conformable with the general slope of the Sharm bottom.

  10. Treating metabolic syndrome's metaflammation with low level light therapy: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Tania M.; Kato, Ilka T.; Deana, Alessandro M.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2014-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome comprises a constellation of morbidities such as insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia, dysglycemia and obesity (especially abdominal). Metabolic alterations are observed in major insulin target organs, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and therefore mortality. Tissue alterations are characterized by immune cells infiltrates (especially activated macrophages). Released inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α induce chronic inflammation in subjects with metabolic syndrome, since inflammatory pathways are activated in the neighboring cells. The intra-abdominal adipose tissue appears to be of particular importance in the onset of the inflammatory state, and strategies contributing to modulate the inflammatory process within this adipose tissue can mitigate the metabolic syndrome consequences. Considering the low level light therapy (LLLT) recognized benefits in inflammatory conditions, we hypothesized this therapeutic approach could promote positive effects in modulating the inflammatory state of metabolic syndrome. That being the scope of this study, male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to a high-fat/high-fructose diet among 8 weeks to induce metabolic syndrome. Animals were then irradiated on the abdominal region during 21 days using an 850 nm LED (6 sessions, 300 seconds per session, 60 mW output power, ~6 J/cm2 fluence, ~19 mW/cm2 fluence rate). Before and during treatment, blood was sampled either from the retroorbital plexus or from tail puncture for glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides analysis. So far our results indicate no alterations on these metabolic parameters after LLLT. For further investigations, blood was collected for plasma inflammatory cytokine quantification and fresh ex vivo samples of liver and intra-abdominal adipose tissue were harvested for immunohistochemistry purposes.

  11. Effects of clinically relevant MPL mutations in the transmembrane domain revealed at the atomic level through computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tai-Sung; Kantarjian, Hagop; Ma, Wanlong; Yeh, Chen-Hsiung; Giles, Francis; Albitar, Maher

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the thrombopoietin receptor (MPL) may activate relevant pathways and lead to chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). The mechanisms of MPL activation remain elusive because of a lack of experimental structures. Modern computational biology techniques were utilized to explore the mechanisms of MPL protein activation due to various mutations. Transmembrane (TM) domain predictions, homology modeling, ab initio protein structure prediction, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to build structural dynamic models of wild-type and four clinically observed mutants of MPL. The simulation results suggest that S505 and W515 are important in keeping the TM domain in its correct position within the membrane. Mutations at either of these two positions cause movement of the TM domain, altering the conformation of the nearby intracellular domain in unexpected ways, and may cause the unwanted constitutive activation of MPL's kinase partner, JAK2. Our findings represent the first full-scale molecular dynamics simulations of the wild-type and clinically observed mutants of the MPL protein, a critical element of the MPL-JAK2-STAT signaling pathway. In contrast to usual explanations for the activation mechanism that are based on the relative translational movement between rigid domains of MPL, our results suggest that mutations within the TM region could result in conformational changes including tilt and rotation (azimuthal) angles along the membrane axis. Such changes may significantly alter the conformation of the adjacent and intrinsically flexible intracellular domain. Hence, caution should be exercised when interpreting experimental evidence based on rigid models of cytokine receptors or similar systems.

  12. Results after 20 years from a western larch levels-of-growing-stock study.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1987-01-01

    The 20-year growth response from a levels-of-growing-stock study in an even-aged western larch stand in eastern Oregon, first thinned at age 33, showed that trees growing at low stand densities grew more rapidly in diameter than trees in high-density plots. Height growth was relatively uniform among density levels. Both basal-area and total cubic-volume increment...

  13. Performance assessment methodology and preliminary results for low-level radioactive waste disposal in Taiwan.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Bill Walter; Chang, Fu-lin; Mattie, Patrick D.

    2006-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Taiwan's Institute for Nuclear Energy Research (INER) have teamed together to evaluate several candidate sites for Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Taiwan currently has three nuclear power plants, with another under construction. Taiwan also has a research reactor, as well as medical and industrial wastes to contend with. Eventually the reactors will be decomissioned. Operational and decommissioning wastes will need to be disposed in a licensed disposal facility starting in 2014. Taiwan has adopted regulations similar to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) low-level radioactive waste rules (10 CFR 61) to govern themore » disposal of LLW. Taiwan has proposed several potential sites for the final disposal of LLW that is now in temporary storage on Lanyu Island and on-site at operating nuclear power plants, and for waste generated in the future through 2045. The planned final disposal facility will have a capacity of approximately 966,000 55-gallon drums. Taiwan is in the process of evaluating the best candidate site to pursue for licensing. Among these proposed sites there are basically two disposal concepts: shallow land burial and cavern disposal. A representative potential site for shallow land burial is located on a small island in the Taiwan Strait with basalt bedrock and interbedded sedimentary rocks. An engineered cover system would be constructed to limit infiltration for shallow land burial. A representative potential site for cavern disposal is located along the southeastern coast of Taiwan in a tunnel system that would be about 500 to 800 m below the surface. Bedrock at this site consists of argillite and meta-sedimentary rocks. Performance assessment analyses will be performed to evaluate future performance of the facility and the potential dose/risk to exposed populations. Preliminary performance assessment analyses will be used in the site-selection process and to aid in design of

  14. Relationship of physical fitness test results and hockey playing potential in elite-level ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Burr, Jaime F; Jamnik, Roni K; Baker, Joseph; Macpherson, Alison; Gledhill, Norman; McGuire, E J

    2008-09-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the fitness variables with the highest capability for predicting hockey playing potential at the elite level as determined by entry draft selection order. We also examined the differences associated with the predictive abilities of the test components among playing positions. The secondary purpose of this study was to update the physiological profile of contemporary hockey players including positional differences. Fitness test results conducted by our laboratory at the National Hockey League Entry Draft combine were compared with draft selection order on a total of 853 players. Regression models revealed peak anaerobic power output to be important for higher draft round selection in all positions; however, the degree of importance of this measurement varied with playing position. The body index, which is a composite score of height, lean mass, and muscular development, was similarly important in all models, with differing influence by position. Removal of the goalies' data increased predictive capacity, suggesting that talent identification using physical fitness testing of this sort may be more appropriate for skating players. Standing long jump was identified as a significant predictor variable for forwards and defense and could be a useful surrogate for assessing overall hockey potential. Significant differences exist between the physiological profiles of current players based on playing position. There are also positional differences in the relative importance of anthropometric and fitness measures of off-ice hockey tests in relation to draft order. Physical fitness measures and anthropometric data are valuable in helping predict hockey playing potential. Emphasis on anthropometry should be used when comparing elite-level forwards, whereas peak anaerobic power and fatigue rate are more useful for differentiating between defense.

  15. Mining for Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase and Polyketide Synthase Genes Revealed a High Level of Diversity in the Sphagnum Bog Metagenome

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christina A.; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Peyman, Armin; Amos, Gregory C. A.; Wellington, Elizabeth M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Sphagnum bog ecosystems are among the oldest vegetation forms harboring a specific microbial community and are known to produce an exceptionally wide variety of bioactive substances. Although the Sphagnum metagenome shows a rich secondary metabolism, the genes have not yet been explored. To analyze nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), the diversity of NRPS and PKS genes in Sphagnum-associated metagenomes was investigated by in silico data mining and sequence-based screening (PCR amplification of 9,500 fosmid clones). The in silico Illumina-based metagenomic approach resulted in the identification of 279 NRPSs and 346 PKSs, as well as 40 PKS-NRPS hybrid gene sequences. The occurrence of NRPS sequences was strongly dominated by the members of the Protebacteria phylum, especially by species of the Burkholderia genus, while PKS sequences were mainly affiliated with Actinobacteria. Thirteen novel NRPS-related sequences were identified by PCR amplification screening, displaying amino acid identities of 48% to 91% to annotated sequences of members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Some of the identified metagenomic clones showed the closest similarity to peptide synthases from Burkholderia or Lysobacter, which are emerging bacterial sources of as-yet-undescribed bioactive metabolites. This report highlights the role of the extreme natural ecosystems as a promising source for detection of secondary compounds and enzymes, serving as a source for biotechnological applications. PMID:26002894

  16. Mining for Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase and Polyketide Synthase Genes Revealed a High Level of Diversity in the Sphagnum Bog Metagenome.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christina A; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Peyman, Armin; Amos, Gregory C A; Wellington, Elizabeth M H; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-01

    Sphagnum bog ecosystems are among the oldest vegetation forms harboring a specific microbial community and are known to produce an exceptionally wide variety of bioactive substances. Although the Sphagnum metagenome shows a rich secondary metabolism, the genes have not yet been explored. To analyze nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), the diversity of NRPS and PKS genes in Sphagnum-associated metagenomes was investigated by in silico data mining and sequence-based screening (PCR amplification of 9,500 fosmid clones). The in silico Illumina-based metagenomic approach resulted in the identification of 279 NRPSs and 346 PKSs, as well as 40 PKS-NRPS hybrid gene sequences. The occurrence of NRPS sequences was strongly dominated by the members of the Protebacteria phylum, especially by species of the Burkholderia genus, while PKS sequences were mainly affiliated with Actinobacteria. Thirteen novel NRPS-related sequences were identified by PCR amplification screening, displaying amino acid identities of 48% to 91% to annotated sequences of members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Some of the identified metagenomic clones showed the closest similarity to peptide synthases from Burkholderia or Lysobacter, which are emerging bacterial sources of as-yet-undescribed bioactive metabolites. This report highlights the role of the extreme natural ecosystems as a promising source for detection of secondary compounds and enzymes, serving as a source for biotechnological applications. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Red blood cell populations and membrane levels of peroxiredoxin 2 as candidate biomarkers to reveal blood doping

    PubMed Central

    Marrocco, Cristina; Pallotta, Valeria; D’Alessandro, Angelo; Alves, Gilda; Zolla, Lello

    2012-01-01

    Background Blood doping represents one main trend in doping strategies. Blood doping refers to the practice of boosting the number of red blood cells (RBCs) in the bloodstream in order to enhance athletic performance, by means of blood transfusions, administration of erythropoiesis-stimulating substances, blood substitutes, natural or artificial altitude facilities, and innovative gene therapies. While detection of recombinant EPO and homologous transfusion is already feasible through electrophoretic, mass spectrometry or flow cytometry-based approaches, no method is currently available to tackle doping strategies relying on autologous transfusions. Materials and methods. We exploited an in vitro model of autologous transfusion through a 1:10 dilution of concentrated RBCs after 30 days of storage upon appropriate dilution in freshly withdrawn RBCs from the same donor. Western blot towards membrane Prdx2 and Percoll density gradients were exploited to assess their suitability as biomarkers of transfusion. Results Membrane Prdx2 was visible in day 30 samples albeit not in day 0, while it was still visible in the 1:10 dilution of day 30 in day 0 RBCs. Cell gradients also highlighted changes in the profile of the RBC subpopulations upon dilution of stored RBCs in the fresh ones. Discussion. From this preliminary in vitro investigation it emerges that Prdx2 and RBC populations might be further tested as candidate biomarkers of blood doping through autologous transfusion, though it is yet to be assessed whether the kinetics in vivo of Prdx2 exposure in the membrane of transfused RBCs will endow a sufficient time-window to allow reliable anti-doping testing. PMID:22890272

  18. Level, Causes and Risk Factors of Neonatal Mortality, in Jordan: Results of a National Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Batieha, Anwar M; Khader, Yousef S; Berdzuli, Nino; Chua-Oon, Chuanpit; Badran, Eman F; Al-Sheyab, Nihaya A; Basha, Asma S; Obaidat, Ahmad; Al-Qutob, Ra'eda J

    2016-05-01

    hospital, and clinical and medical history of women, the following variables were significantly associated with neonatal mortality: male gender, congenital defects, inadequate antenatal visits, multiple pregnancy, presentation at delivery, and gestational age. The present study showed the level, causes, and risk factors of NNM in Jordan. It showed also that a large proportion of NNDs are preventable or possibly preventable. Providing optimal intrapartum, and immediate postpartum care is likely to result in avoidance of a large proportion of NNDs.

  19. Analysis of Student and School Level Variables Related to Mathematics Self-Efficacy Level Based on PISA 2012 Results for China-Shanghai, Turkey, and Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usta, H. Gonca

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the student and school level variables that affect students' self-efficacy levels in mathematics in China-Shanghai, Turkey, and Greece based on PISA 2012 results. In line with this purpose, the hierarchical linear regression model (HLM) was employed. The interschool variability is estimated at approximately 17% in…

  20. Cholecystokinin levels in prohormone convertase 2 knock-out mouse brain regions reveal a complex phenotype of region-specific alterations.

    PubMed

    Beinfeld, Margery C; Blum, Alissa; Vishnuvardhan, Daesety; Fanous, Sanya; Marchand, James E

    2005-11-18

    Prohormone convertase 2 is widely co-localized with cholecystokinin in rodent brain. To examine its role in cholecystokinin processing, cholecystokinin levels were measured in dissected brain regions from prohormone convertase 2 knock-out mice. Cholecystokinin levels were lower in hippocampus, septum, thalamus, mesencephalon, and pons in knock-out mice than wild-type mice. In cerebral cortex, cortex-related structures and olfactory bulb, cholecystokinin levels were higher than wild type. Female mice were more affected by the loss of prohormone convertase 2 than male mice. The decrease in cholecystokinin levels in these brain regions shows that prohormone convertase 2 is important for cholecystokinin processing. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction measurements were performed to examine the relationship between peptide levels and cholecystokinin and enzyme expression. They revealed that cholecystokinin and prohormone convertase 1 mRNA levels in cerebral cortex and olfactory bulb were actually lower in knock-out than wild type, whereas their expression in other brain regions of knock-out mouse brain was the same as wild type. Female mice frequently had higher expression of cholecystokinin and prohormone convertase 1, 2, and 5 mRNA than male mice. The loss of prohormone convertase 2 alters CCK processing in specific brain regions. This loss also appears to trigger compensatory mechanisms in cerebral cortex and olfactory bulb that produce elevated levels of cholecystokinin but do not involve increased expression of cholecystokinin, prohormone convertase 1 or 5 mRNA.

  1. Ground cover changes resulting from low-level camping stress on a remote site

    Treesearch

    R. E. Leonard; J. M. McBride; P. W. Conkling; J. L. McMahon

    1983-01-01

    This study reports the effects of low-level camping stress on vegetation in a remote site. South Big Garden Island in Penobscot Bay, Maine, was studied because (1) it had no prior recreational use; thus, comprehensive base line data could be obtained; and (2) the exact number of campers could be monitored throughout the study period. The continuous line-intercept...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1112-87 - Determining the compliance level and reporting of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) Nonconformance Penalties for Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy... may establish the compliance level for a pollutant for any engine or vehicle configuration by using... pollutant using the primary PCA sampling plan shall: (i) Conduct emission tests on 24 engines or vehicles in...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1112-87 - Determining the compliance level and reporting of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) Nonconformance Penalties for Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy... may establish the compliance level for a pollutant for any engine or vehicle configuration by using... pollutant using the primary PCA sampling plan shall: (i) Conduct emission tests on 24 engines or vehicles in...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1112-87 - Determining the compliance level and reporting of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) Nonconformance Penalties for Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy... may establish the compliance level for a pollutant for any engine or vehicle configuration by using... pollutant using the primary PCA sampling plan shall: (i) Conduct emission tests on 24 engines or vehicles in...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1112-87 - Determining the compliance level and reporting of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... number of additional tests conducted shall be the difference between 24 and the number of engines or... ENGINES Nonconformance Penalties for Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles... compliance level for a pollutant for any engine or vehicle configuration by using the primary PCA sampling...

  6. Low Physical Fitness Levels in Older Adults with ID: Results of the HA-ID Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is as important to aging adults with ID as in the general population, but to date, the physical fitness levels of this group are unknown. Comfortable walking speed, muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (30 s Chair stand) and cardiorespiratory endurance (10 m incremental shuttle walking test) were tested in a sample of…

  7. RESULTS OF THE FY09 ENHANCED DOE HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES AT SRNL

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-06-23

    High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit time) is a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this task is to develop data, assess property models, and refine or develop the necessary models to support increased WL of HLW at SRS. It is a continuationmore » of the studies initiated in FY07, but is under the specific guidance of a Task Change Request (TCR)/Work Authorization received from DOE headquarters (Project Number RV071301). Using the data generated in FY07, FY08 and historical data, two test matrices (60 glasses total) were developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in order to generate data in broader compositional regions. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), viscosity, liquidus temperature (TL) measurement and durability as defined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study are summarized below: (1) In general, the current durability model predicts the durabilities of higher waste loading glasses quite well. A few of the glasses exhibited poorer durability than predicted. (2) Some of the glasses exhibited anomalous behavior with respect to durability (normalized leachate for boron (NL [B])). The quenched samples of FY09EM21-02, -07 and -21 contained no nepheline or other wasteform affecting crystals, but have unacceptable NL [B] values (> 10 g/L). The ccc sample of FY09EM21-07 has a NL [B] value that is more than one half the value of the quenched sample. These glasses also have lower concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}. (3) Five of the ccc samples (EM-13, -14, -15

  8. Smoking cessation behaviors among persons with psychiatric diagnoses: results from a population-level state survey.

    PubMed

    Morris, Chad D; Burns, Emily K; Waxmonsky, Jeanette A; Levinson, Arnold H

    2014-03-01

    Persons with psychiatric illnesses are disproportionally affected by tobacco use, smoking at rates at least twice that of other adults. Intentions to quit are known to be high in this population, but population-level cessation behaviors and attitudes by mental health (MH) diagnosis are not well known. A population-level survey was conducted in 2008 to examine state-level tobacco attitudes and behaviors in Colorado. Respondents were eligible for the study if they had non-missing values for smoking status (n=14,118). Weighted descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted of smoking prevalence, cessation behaviors, and attitudes toward cessation by MH status and specific diagnosis. Among respondents with MH diagnoses, smoking was twice as prevalent as among respondents without an MH diagnosis, adjusted for demographic characteristics (adjusted odds ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval 1.6-3.1). Compared to smokers without an MH diagnosis, those with MH diagnoses were more likely to attempt quitting (58.7% vs. 44.4%, p<0.05), use nicotine replacement therapy more often, and succeed in quitting at similar rates. Smokers with anxiety/PTSD were less likely to quit successfully compared those with other MH diagnoses (0.7% vs. 11.9%, p=0.03). This population-level analysis found that smokers with mental illness are more likely than those without mental illness to attempt quitting and to use cessation treatment at similar rates, but those with anxiety are less likely to achieve short-term abstinence. Additional approaches are needed for smokers with mental illness in order to reach and sustain long-term abstinence from smoking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pesticide exposure in honey bees results in increased levels of the gut pathogen Nosema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettis, Jeffery S.; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Johnson, Josephine; Dively, Galen

    2012-02-01

    Global pollinator declines have been attributed to habitat destruction, pesticide use, and climate change or some combination of these factors, and managed honey bees, Apis mellifera, are part of worldwide pollinator declines. Here we exposed honey bee colonies during three brood generations to sub-lethal doses of a widely used pesticide, imidacloprid, and then subsequently challenged newly emerged bees with the gut parasite, Nosema spp. The pesticide dosages used were below levels demonstrated to cause effects on longevity or foraging in adult honey bees. Nosema infections increased significantly in the bees from pesticide-treated hives when compared to bees from control hives demonstrating an indirect effect of pesticides on pathogen growth in honey bees. We clearly demonstrate an increase in pathogen growth within individual bees reared in colonies exposed to one of the most widely used pesticides worldwide, imidacloprid, at below levels considered harmful to bees. The finding that individual bees with undetectable levels of the target pesticide, after being reared in a sub-lethal pesticide environment within the colony, had higher Nosema is significant. Interactions between pesticides and pathogens could be a major contributor to increased mortality of honey bee colonies, including colony collapse disorder, and other pollinator declines worldwide.

  10. Inverse association of leptin levels with renal cell carcinoma: results from a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Spyridopoulos, Themistoklis N; Petridou, Eleni Th; Dessypris, Nick; Terzidis, Agapios; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Deliveliotis, Charalambos; Chrousos, George P

    2009-01-01

    Leptin is primarily produced in adipose tissue and appears to play a modulatory role between metabolism and immunity. Given that obesity, a state of chronic inflammation, is an established risk factor for Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC), we investigated the association between plasma leptin levels and RCC risk. This case-control study included 70 patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed RCC and 280 age-, gender- and district of residence-matched controls. Anthropometric data, socio-demographic variables, medical history, lifestyle habits and dietary data were derived from a personal interview. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were determined using standard commercial kits. Adjusted odds ratios for RCC risk were derived through multiple logistic regression analyses. Leptin levels were inversely associated with RCC risk (OR: 0.53, CI: 0.28- 0.99, p = 0.05), even after controlling for potential confounding factors, such as Body Mass Index (BMI), recent weight change, history of diabetes mellitus and other obesity related hormones, notably adiponectin. The precise mechanism linking obesity with RCC remains unclear; however, the inverse association of leptin with RCC might be attributed, at least in part, to hormonal cross-talk with complex neuron-endocrine and immune circuits. These findings, if confirmed in prospective and interventional studies, might further elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  11. Predicting Middle Level State Standardized Test Results Using Family and Community Demographic Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Colella, Anthony; Angelillo, Christian; Fox, Meredith; McCahill, Kevin R.; Wolfe, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The use of standardized test results to drive school administrator evaluations pervades education policymaking in more than 40 states. However, the results of state standardized tests are strongly influenced by non-school factors. The models of best fit (n = 18) from this correlational, explanatory, longitudinal study predicted accurately the…

  12. Increasing extreme water level flood risk as a result of future sea-level rise: A case study on a coastal city in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, A.; Wu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme water levels, caused by the joint occurrence of storm surges and high tides, always lead to super floods along coastlines. In the context of climate change, this study explored the impact of future sea-level rise on the flood risk of extreme water levels. Using Rongcheng City in Shandong Province, China as a case study, flooded area, expected direct damage losses, and affected population and GDP were assessed for 2050 and 2100 under three greenhouse gas concentration Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios, 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5. Results indicate that, as a result of sea-level rise induced by climate change, the flooded areas of Rongcheng City would increase by 3.23% to 10.64% in 2050 and by as much as 4.98% to 19.87% in 2100, compared with current recurrence periods. Residential land and farmland are at greatest risk of flooding in terms of exposure and losses than other land-use types, and under a high degree RCP 8.5 scenario, expected damage losses would be between 59.84 billion and 86.45 billion in 2050. Results show that the increase in total direct damage losses would reach an average of 60% in 2100 as a result of a 0.82 m sea-level rise. Similarly, affected population and GDP would increase by between 4.95% and 13.87% and between 3.66% and 10.95% in 2050, and by as much as 7.69% to 29.01% and 5.30% to 20.50% in 2100. This study shows that sea-level rise significantly shortens recurrence periods of extreme water levels, makes extreme flood events more frequent, and exacerbates the risk of future flooding. Our results suggest that, if there is no adaptation, sea-level rise will greatly increase the risk of flooding and severely impact human habitability along coastlines.

  13. Results of instrument reliability study for high-level nuclear-waste repositories. [Geotechnical parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Rogue, F.; Binnall, E.P.

    1982-10-01

    Reliable instrumentation will be needed to monitor the performance of future high-level waste repository sites. A study has been made to assess instrument reliability at Department of Energy (DOE) waste repository related experiments. Though the study covers a wide variety of instrumentation, this paper concentrates on experiences with geotechnical instrumentation in hostile repository-type environments. Manufacturers have made some changes to improve the reliability of instruments for repositories. This paper reviews the failure modes, rates, and mechanisms, along with manufacturer modifications and recommendations for additional improvements to enhance instrument performance. 4 tables.

  14. Unconscious fearful priming followed by a psychosocial stress test results in higher cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Hänsel, Alexander; von Känel, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Human perception of stress includes an automatic pathway that processes subliminal presented stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness. Subliminal stimuli can therefore activate the physiologic stress system. Unconscious emotional signals were shown to significantly moderate reactions and responses to subsequent stimuli, an effect called 'priming'. We hypothesized that subliminal presentation of a fearful signal during the Stroop task compared with an emotionally neutral one will prime stress reactivity in a subsequently applied psychosocial stress task, thereby yielding a significant increase in salivary cortisol. Half of 36 participants were repeatedly presented either a fearful face or a neutral one. After this, all underwent a psychosocial stress task. The fearful group showed a significant increase in cortisol levels (p = 0.022). This change was not affected by sex, age and body mass index, and it also did not change when taking resting cortisol levels into account. Post-hoc analyses showed that the increase in cortisol in the fearful group started immediately after the psychosocial stress test. Hence, subliminal exposure to a fearful signal in combination with the Stroop and followed by a psychosocial stress test leads to an increase in stress reactivity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Fetal heart rate and motor activity associations with maternal organochlorine levels: Results of an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Davis, Meghan F.; Costigan, Kathleen A; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Contemporaneous associations between circulating maternal organochlorines and measures of fetal heart rate and motor activity were evaluated. A panel of 47 organochlorines (OCs), including pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was analyzed from serum of 50 pregnant women at 36 weeks gestation. Data were empirically reduced into four factors and six individual compounds. All participants had detectable concentrations of at least one-quarter of the assayed OCs and, in general, higher socioeconomic level was associated with higher OC concentrations. Fetal heart rate measures were not consistently associated with maternal OCs. In contrast, one or more indicators of greater fetal motor activity were significantly associated with higher levels of the DDT and low chlorinated OC factors and five of the six individual compounds (heptachlor epoxide, trans nonachlor, oxychlordane, and PCBs 18 and 52). This preliminary demonstration of associations between fetal motor activity and maternal concentrations of persistent and pervasive environmental contaminants suggests that fetal assessment may be useful in ascertaining the potential early effects of these compounds on development. PMID:23591698

  16. Myopia and level of education: results from the Gutenberg Health Study.

    PubMed

    Mirshahi, Alireza; Ponto, Katharina A; Hoehn, René; Zwiener, Isabella; Zeller, Tanja; Lackner, Karl; Beutel, Manfred E; Pfeiffer, Norbert

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the association between myopia and educational level in an adult European cohort. Population-based cross-sectional study. A cohort of the Gutenberg Health Study, including 4658 eligible enrollees between 35 and 74 years of age. We applied a standardized protocol entailing a comprehensive questionnaire; thorough ophthalmic, general, cardiovascular, and psychological examinations; and laboratory tests, including genetic analyses. We documented achievement levels in school education and post-school professional education. The spherical equivalent (SE) was determined by noncycloplegic autorefractometry. We fitted mixed linear models including age, gender, and 45 myopia-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) as covariates. Prevalence and magnitude of myopia in association with years spent in school and level of post-school professional education. Individuals who graduated from school after 13 years were more myopic (median, -0.5 diopters [D]; first quartile [Q1]/third quartile [Q3], -2.1/0.3 D) than those who graduated after 10 years (median, -0.2 D; Q1/Q3, -1.3/0.8 D), than those who graduated after 9 years (median, 0.3 D; Q1/Q3, -0.6/1.4 D), and than those who never finished secondary school (median, 0.2 D; Q1/Q3, -0.5/1.8 D; P<0.001, respectively). The same holds true for persons with a university degree (median, -0.6 D; Q1/Q3, -2.3/0.3 D) versus those who finished secondary vocational school (median, 0 D; Q1/Q3, -1.1/0.8 D) or primary vocational school (median, 0 D; Q1/Q3, -0.9/1.1 D) versus persons without any post-school professional qualification (median, 0.6 D; Q1/Q3, -0.4/1.7 D; P<0.001, respectively). Of persons who graduated from school after 13 years, 50.9% were myopic (SE, ≤-0.5 D) versus 41.6%, 27.1%, and 26.9% after 10 years, in those who graduated after 9 years, and in those who never graduated from secondary school, respectively (P<0.001). In university graduates, the proportion of myopic persons was higher (53%) than

  17. Codon-Resolution Analysis Reveals a Direct and Context-Dependent Impact of Individual Synonymous Mutations on mRNA Level

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Siyu; Li, Ke; Cao, Wenqing; Wang, Jia; Zhao, Tong; Huan, Qing; Yang, Yu-Fei; Wu, Shaohuan; Qian, Wenfeng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Codon usage bias (CUB) refers to the observation that synonymous codons are not used equally frequently in a genome. CUB is stronger in more highly expressed genes, a phenomenon commonly explained by stronger natural selection on translational accuracy and/or efficiency among these genes. Nevertheless, this phenomenon could also occur if CUB regulates gene expression at the mRNA level, a hypothesis that has not been tested until recently. Here, we attempt to quantify the impact of synonymous mutations on mRNA level in yeast using 3,556 synonymous variants of a heterologous gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and 523 synonymous variants of an endogenous gene TDH3. We found that mRNA level was positively correlated with CUB among these synonymous variants, demonstrating a direct role of CUB in regulating transcript concentration, likely via regulating mRNA degradation rate, as our additional experiments suggested. More importantly, we quantified the effects of individual synonymous mutations on mRNA level and found them dependent on 1) CUB and 2) mRNA secondary structure, both in proximal sequence contexts. Our study reveals the pleiotropic effects of synonymous codon usage and provides an additional explanation for the well-known correlation between CUB and gene expression level. PMID:28961875

  18. Clinical results from low-level laser therapy in patients with autosomal dominant cone-rod dystrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koev, K.; Avramov, L.; Borissova, E.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to examine long-term effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in patients with autosomal dominant cone-rod dystrophy (CRDs). A He-Ne Laser with continuous emission at 633 nm (01 mW/cm2) was used on five patients with autosomal dominant pedigree of Romani origin with non-syndromic CRDs. The laser radiation was applied transpupillary to the macula six times for three minutes every other day. The experiment was conducted for a period of three years. The clinical evaluation included best corrected visual acuity determination, funduscopy, Humphrey perimetry, Farnsworth Hue-28 color testing, fluorescein angiography, and full-field electroretinogram (ERG). All affected individuals presented reduced visual acuity (0.01 – 0.4) and photophobia. The funduscopic examination and fluorescein angiography revealed advanced changes including bone spicule-like pigment deposits in the midperiphery and the macular area, along with retinal atrophy, narrowing of the vessels, and waxy optic discs. The visual fields demonstrated central scotoma. The electrophysiologic examination of the patients detected an abnormal cone-rod ERG (20 – 30 μV) with photopic amplitudes more markedly reduced than the scotopic. Flicker responses were missing and Farnsworth Hue-28 test found protanopia. There was a statistically significant increase in the visual acuity (p<0.001, end of study versus baseline) for CRDs patients for the period of three years after the treatment with LLLT. Following the LLLT, the central absolute scotoma in CRDs was reduced, as was the prevalence of metamorphopsia in CRDs. This study shows that LLLT may prove be a novel long-lasting therapeutic option for both forms of CRDs. It is a highly effective treatment resulting in a long-term improvement of the visual acuity.

  19. Optimizing healthcare at the population level: results of the improving cardiovascular outcomes in Nova Scotia partnership.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jafna; Johnstone, David; Nemis-White, Joanna; Montague, Terrence

    2008-01-01

    Disease management is increasingly considered a valid strategy in the chronic care of our aging patient populations with multiple diseases. The Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes in Nova Scotia (ICONS) project examined whether a community-oriented health management partnership would lead to enhanced care and improved outcomes across an entire healthcare system. ICONS was a prospective cohort study, with baseline and repeated measurements of care and outcomes fed back to all project partners, along with other interventions aimed at optimizing care; preceding interval cohorts served as controls to post-intervention cohorts. The setting was the province of Nova Scotia, whose population is approximately 950,000. All 34,060 consecutive adult patients hospitalized in Nova Scotia with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), unstable angina (UA) or congestive heart failure (CHF) October 1997-March 2002 were included. Interventions were a combination of serial audits and feedbacks of practices and outcomes, web-based publication of findings, newsletter-based education and reminders, physician small-group workshops, pharmacy monitoring and compliance programs, care maps, algorithms, discharge forms and patient information cards. Rates of use of evidence-based marker therapies were the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures included one-year, all-cause mortality and re-hospitalization. Evidence-based prescription practices, for all target diseases, continuously and markedly improved over time. At the population level, there were no changes in one-year mortality for any disease state, although use of proven therapies predicted survival at the individual level throughout the five-year period for all disease states. Rates of re-hospitalization decreased significantly for all disease states over the course of ICONS; but most traditional positive and negative predictors of this outcome, like advanced age and use of proven therapies, respectively, were not predictive. ICONS

  20. Reducing the cost of using collocation to compute vibrational energy levels: Results for CH2NH.

    PubMed

    Avila, Gustavo; Carrington, Tucker

    2017-08-14

    In this paper, we improve the collocation method for computing vibrational spectra that was presented in the work of Avila and Carrington, Jr. [J. Chem. Phys. 143, 214108 (2015)]. Known quadrature and collocation methods using a Smolyak grid require storing intermediate vectors with more elements than points on the Smolyak grid. This is due to the fact that grid labels are constrained among themselves and basis labels are constrained among themselves. We show that by using the so-called hierarchical basis functions, one can significantly reduce the memory required. In this paper, the intermediate vectors have only as many elements as the Smolyak grid. The ideas are tested by computing energy levels of CH 2 NH.

  1. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrwas, R. B.

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval ofmore » actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.« less

  2. Revisiting global mean sea level budget closure : Preliminary results from an integrative study within ESA's Climate Change Initiative -Sea level Budget Closure-Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanisamy, H.; Cazenave, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The global mean sea level budget is revisited over two time periods: the entire altimetry era, 1993-2015 and the Argo/GRACE era, 2003-2015 using the version '0' of sea level components estimated by the SLBC-CCI teams. The SLBC-CCI is an European Space Agency's project on sea level budget closure using CCI products. Over the entire altimetry era, the sea level budget was performed as the sum of steric and mass components that include contributions from total land water storage, glaciers, ice sheets (Greenland and Antarctica) and total water vapor content. Over the Argo/GRACE era, it was performed as the sum of steric and GRACE based ocean mass. Preliminary budget analysis performed over the altimetry era (1993-2015) results in a trend value of 2.83 mm/yr. On comparison with the observed altimetry-based global mean sea level trend over the same period (3.03 ± 0.5 mm/yr), we obtain a residual of 0.2 mm/yr. In spite of a residual of 0.2 mm/yr, the sea level budget result obtained over the altimetry era is very promising as this has been performed using the version '0' of the sea level components. Furthermore, uncertainties are not yet included in this study as uncertainty estimation for each sea level component is currently underway. Over the Argo/GRACE era (2003-2015), the trend estimated from the sum of steric and GRACE ocean mass amounts to 2.63 mm/yr while that observed by satellite altimetry is 3.37 mm/yr, thereby leaving a residual of 0.7 mm/yr. Here an ensemble GRACE ocean mass data (mean of various available GRACE ocean mass data) was used for the estimation. Using individual GRACE data results in a residual range of 0.5 mm/yr -1.1 mm/yr. Investigations are under way to determine the cause of the vast difference between the observed sea level and the sea level obtained from steric and GRACE ocean mass. One main suspect is the impact of GRACE data gaps on sea level budget analysis due to lack of GRACE data over several months since 2011. The current action plan

  3. Educational level of childhood brain tumor survivors: results from a German survey.

    PubMed

    Pfitzer, C; Zynda, A; Hohmann, C; Keil, T; Borgmann-Staudt, A

    2013-05-01

    Among adult survivors of childhood brain tumors in Germany, we assessed their educational level and examined potentially influencing factors. A questionnaire was sent to 505 childhood brain tumor survivors listed in the German Childhood Cancer Registry. 203/505 (40.2%) patients with treatment and educational data were included in the analysis.Of the included brain tumor survivors 54.7% (111/203) were male, the median age was 11.0 (1-15) years at diagnosis and 22.0 (19-37) years at the time of the survey. 34.8% (95%-CI 25.1-44.5) of female and 34.9% (26.0-43.8) of male survivors achieved a high school diploma. Survivors who had received irradiation had less likely obtained a high school diploma compared to those without irradiation. However, this association was statistically not significant: for either craniospinal or tumor irradiation adjusted odds ratio was 0.54 (0.08-3.76); for those with a combination of craniospinal and tumor irradiation 0.51 (0.07-3.59). Participants aged 6-10 years at diagnosis achieved a higher educational level 2.24 (0.45-11.25) compared to younger patients. A third of the childhood brain tumor survivors who participated in our survey obtained the highest school leaving certificate. This may be biased by an overrepresentation of well-educated survivors without major cancer-related late effects. The influence of the patients' strong motivation following a severe illness combined with the intensive psychosocial and/or pedagogical support on education needs to be examined in future studies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. DNA barcoding reveals species level divergence between populations of the microhylid frog genus Arcovomer (Anura: Microhylidae) in the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jennings, W Bryan; Wogel, Henrique; Bilate, Marcos; Salles, Rodrigo de O L; Buckup, Paulo A

    2016-09-01

    The microhylid frogs belonging to the genus Arcovomer have been reported from lowland Atlantic Rainforest in the Brazilian states of Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. Here, we use DNA barcoding to assess levels of genetic divergence between apparently isolated populations in Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. Our mtDNA data consisting of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) nucleotide sequences reveals 13.2% uncorrected and 30.4% TIM2 + I + Γ corrected genetic divergences between these two populations. This level of divergence exceeds the suggested 10% uncorrected divergence threshold for elevating amphibian populations to candidate species using this marker, which implies that the Espírito Santo population is a species distinct from Arcovomer passarellii. Calibration of our model-corrected sequence divergence estimates suggests that the time of population divergence falls between 12 and 29 million years ago.

  5. Evaluation of English Results Course Books at Upper-Intermediate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haghi, Eshrat Bazarmaj

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the course books in language teaching leads the way to the evaluation of them. Evaluating the teaching materials specially course books can help teachers to understand more about language learning. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate English Results course books which are widely used at Iranian institutes. The focus…

  6. 40 CFR 86.1112-87 - Determining the compliance level and reporting of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) Nonconformance Penalties for Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy...) The final deteriorated test results for each heavy-duty engine or light-duty truck tested according to... information the Administrator may request relevant to the determination as to whether the new heavy-duty...

  7. Results of the Level-1 Water-Quality Inventory at the Pinnacles National Monument, June 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borchers, James W.; Lyttge, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    To help define baseline water quality of key water resources at Pinnacles National Monument, California, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed ground water from seven springs sampled during June 2006. During the dry season, seeps and springs are the primary source of water for wildlife in the monument and provide habitat for plants, amphibians, and aquatic life. Water samples were analyzed for dissolved concentrations of major ions, trace elements, nutrients, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, and tritium. In most cases, the concentrations of measured water-quality constituents in spring samples were lower than California threshold standards for drinking water and Federal threshold standards for drinking water and aquatic life. The concentrations of dissolved arsenic in three springs were above the Federal Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water (10 g/L). Water-quality information for samples collected from the springs will provide a reference point for comparison of samples collected from future monitoring networks and hydrologic studies in the Pinnacles National Monument, and will help National Park Service managers assess relations between water chemistry, geology, and land use.

  8. Single-Level Degenerative Cervical Disc Disease and Driving Disability: Results from a Prospective, Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Michael P.; Mitchell, M. David; Hacker, Robert J.; Riew, K. Daniel; Sasso, Rick C.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Post hoc analysis of prospective, randomized trial. Objective To investigate the disability associated with driving and single-level degenerative, cervical disc disease and to investigate the effect of surgery on driving disability. Methods Post hoc analysis of data obtained from three sites participating in a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial comparing cervical disc arthroplasty (TDA) with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The driving subscale of the Neck Disability Index (NDI) was analyzed for all patients. A dichotomous severity score was created from the NDI. Statistical comparisons were made within and between groups. Results Two-year follow-up was available for 118/135 (87%) patients. One half of the study population (49.6%) reported moderate or severe preoperative driving difficulty. This disability associated with driving was similar among the two groups (ACDF: 2.5 ± 1.1, TDA: 2.6 ± 1.0, p = 0.646). The majority of patients showed improvement, with no or little driving disability, at the sixth postoperative week (ACDF: 75%, TDA: 90%, p = 0.073). At no follow-up point did a difference exist between groups according to the severity index. Conclusions Many patients suffering from radiculopathy or myelopathy from cervical disc disease are limited in their ability to operate an automobile. Following anterior cervical spine surgery, most patients are able to return to comfortable driving at 6 weeks. PMID:24436875

  9. In-office insertion of a miniaturized insertable cardiac monitor: Results from the Reveal LINQ In-Office 2 randomized study.

    PubMed

    Rogers, John D; Sanders, Prashanthan; Piorkowski, Christopher; Sohail, M Rizwan; Anand, Rishi; Crossen, Karl; Khairallah, Farhat S; Kaplon, Rachelle E; Stromberg, Kurt; Kowal, Robert C

    2017-02-01

    Recent miniaturization of an insertable cardiac monitor (ICM) may make it possible to move device insertion from a hospital to office setting. However, the safety of this strategy is unknown. The primary objective was to compare the safety of inserting the Reveal LINQ ICM in an office vs a hospital environment. Ancillary objectives included summarizing device- and procedure-related adverse events and responses to a physician questionnaire. Five hundred twenty-one patients indicated for an ICM were randomized (1:1 ratio) to undergo ICM insertion in a hospital or office environment at 26 centers in the United States in the Reveal LINQ In-Office 2 study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02395536). Patients were followed for 90 days. ICM insertion was successful in all 482 attempted patients (office: 251; hospital: 231). The untoward event rate (composite of unsuccessful insertion and ICM- or insertion-related complications) was 0.8% (2 of 244) in the office and 0.9% (2 of 227) in the hospital (95% confidence interval, -3.0% to 2.9%; 5% noninferiority: P < .001). In addition, adverse events occurred during 2.5% (6 of 244) of office and 4.4% (10 of 227) of hospital insertions (95% confidence interval [office minus inhospital rates], -5.8% to 1.9%; 5% noninferiority: P < .001). Physicians indicated that for procedures performed in an office vs a hospital, there were fewer delays >15 minutes (16% vs 35%; P < .001) and patient response was more often "very positive." Physicians considered the office location "very convenient" more frequently than the hospital location (85% vs 27%; P < .001). The safety profile for the insertion of the Reveal LINQ ICM is excellent irrespective of insertion environment. These results may expand site of service options for LINQ insertion. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1966-01-01

    Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.

  11. Prevalence of Trachoma in Kano State, Nigeria: Results of 44 Local Government Area-Level Surveys.

    PubMed

    Mpyet, Caleb; Muhammad, Nasiru; Adamu, Mohammed Dantani; Muazu, Habila; Umar, Murtala Muhammad; Goyol, Musa; Yahaya, Hadi Bala; Onyebuchi, Uwazoeke; Ogoshi, Chris; Hussaini, Tijjani; Isiyaku, Sunday; William, Adamani; Flueckiger, Rebecca M; Chu, Brian K; Willis, Rebecca; Pavluck, Alexandre L; Olobio, Nicholas; Phelan, Sophie; Macleod, Colin; Solomon, Anthony W

    2017-06-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of trachoma in 44 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Kano State, Nigeria. A population-based prevalence survey was conducted in each Kano LGA. We used a two-stage systematic and quasi-random sampling strategy to select 25 households from each of 25 clusters in each LGA. All consenting household residents aged 1 year and above were examined for trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) and trichiasis. State-wide crude prevalence of TF in persons aged 1-9 years was 3.4% (95% CI 3.3-3.5%), and of trichiasis in those aged ≥15 years was 2.3% (95% CI 2.1-2.4%). LGA-level age- and sex-adjusted trichiasis prevalence in those aged ≥15 years ranged from 0.1% to 2.9%. All but 4 (9%) of 44 LGAs had trichiasis prevalences in adults above the elimination threshold of 0.2%. State-wide prevalence of trichiasis in adult women was significantly higher than in adult men (2.6% vs 1.8%; OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.7; p = 0.001). Four of 44 LGAs had TF prevalences in 1-9-year-olds between 10 and 15%, while another six LGAs had TF prevalences between 5 and 9.9%. In 37 LGAs, >80% of households had access to water within 30 minutes round-trip, but household latrine access was >80% in only 19 LGAs. Trichiasis is a public health problem in most LGAs in Kano. Surgeons need to be trained and deployed to provide community-based trichiasis surgery, with emphasis on delivery of such services to women. Antibiotics, facial cleanliness and environmental improvement are needed in 10 LGAs.

  12. Major genitourinary-related bicycle trauma: Results from 20 years at a level-1 trauma center.

    PubMed

    Osterberg, E Charles; Awad, Mohannad A; Gaither, Thomas W; Sanford, Thomas; Alwaal, Amjad; Hampson, Lindsay A; Yoo, Jennie; McAninch, Jack W; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that bicycle trauma is associated with genitourinary (GU) injuries. Our objective is to characterize GU-related bicycle trauma admitted to a level I trauma center. We queried a prospective trauma registry for bicycle injuries over a 20-year period. Patient demographics, triage data, operative interventions and hospital details were collected. In total, 1659 patients were admitted with major bicycle trauma. Of these, 48 cases involved a GU organ, specifically the bladder (n=7), testis (n=6), urethra (n=3), adrenal (n=4) and/or kidneys (n=36). The median age of cyclists with GU injuries was 29 (range 5-70). More men were injured versus women (35 versus 13). GU-related bicycle trauma involved a motor vehicle in 52% (25/48) of injuries. The median injury severity score for GU-related bicycle trauma was 17 (range 1-50). The median number of concomitant organ injuries was 2 (range 0-6), the most common of which was the lungs (13/48, 27%) and ribs (13/48, 27%). The majority of GU injured cyclists were admitted to an ICU (15/48, 31%) or hospital floor (12/48, 25%). Operative intervention for a GU-related trauma was low (12/48, 25%). The most common GU organ injured was the kidney (36/48, 75%) however most were managed nonoperatively (33/36, 92%). Bladder injuries most often required operative intervention (6/7, 86%). Mortality following GU-related bicycle trauma was low (2/48, 4%). In a large series of bicycle trauma, GU organs were injured in 3% of cases. The majority of cases were managed non-operatively and mortality was low. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Associations of blood lead levels with reproductive hormone levels in men and postmenopausal women: Results from the SPECT-China Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chi; Wang, Ningjian; Zhai, Hualing; Nie, Xiaomin; Sun, Honglin; Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Cheng, Jing; Xia, Fangzhen; Zhao, Li; Zheng, Yanjun; Shen, Zhoujun; Lu, Yingli

    2016-11-01

    We examined whether blood lead levels (BLLs) were associated with reproductive hormone levels in a cross-sectional study using data from the SPECT-China study. We selected 2286 men and 1571 postmenopausal women without hormone replacement therapy. BLLs, blood cadmium, total testosterone (TT), oestradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex hormone binding globulin(SHBG) levels were measured. The results showed that median values (interquartile range) of BLLs were 44.00 μg/L (29.00-62.30) for men and 41.00 μg/L (27.00-59.81) for postmenopausal women. In linear regression, after adjusting for age, current smoking status, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diabetes and blood cadmium level, TT (P for trend = 0.001) and SHBG (P for trend < 0.001) levels were still positively associated with BLLs in men. Meanwhile, significant positive associations were found for BLLs with SHBG (P for trend = 0.002), FSH (P for trend = 0.001) and LH (P for trend = 0.026) levels in postmenopausal women. Additionally, the association between BLL and SHBG was modified by dysglycaemia (P for interaction = 0.03) in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, BLLs were associated with reproductive hormone levels in the general population of Chinese men and postmenopausal women, which may have important implications for human health. Concerted efforts to reduce adult lead exposure are warranted.

  14. Inhibition of muscle fibrosis results in increases in both utrophin levels and the number of revertant myofibers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Levi, Oshrat; Genin, Olga; Angelini, Corrado; Halevy, Orna; Pines, Mark

    2015-09-15

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is characterized by: near absence of dystrophin in skeletal muscles; low percentage of revertant myofibers; up-regulation of utrophin synthesis; and a high degree of muscle fibrosis. In patient quadriceps femoris biopsies (n = 6, ages between 3-9 years) an inverse correlation was observed between the levels of collagen type I - representing fibrosis - and the levels of utrophin. This correlation was independent of the patient's age and was observed in the entire muscle biopsy sections. In the mdx mice diaphragm (n = 6/group), inhibition of fibrosis by halofuginone resulted in increases in the levels of utrophin. The utrophin/fibrosis relationships were not limited to collagen type I, but also applied to other constituents of the fibrosis machinery. The inverse correlation was found also in old mdx mice with established fibrosis. In addition, inhibition of collagen type I levels was associated with increases in the numbers of revertant myofibers, both as single myofibers and in clusters in the diaphragm and the gastrocnemius. In summary, our results demonstrate an inverse correlation between the level of muscle fibrosis and the level of utrophin and that of the number of revertant myofibers. These findings may reveal common links between the fibrotic and utrophin-synthesis pathways and offer new insights into the regulation of utrophin synthesis.

  15. Preliminary results of mercury levels in raw and cooked seafood and their public health impact.

    PubMed

    Costa, Fernanda do N; Korn, Maria Graças A; Brito, Geysa B; Ferlin, Stacy; Fostier, Anne H

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is toxic for human health and one of the main routes of exposure is through consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish. The objective of this work was to assess the possible mercury contamination of bivalves (Anomalocardia brasiliana, Lucina pectinata, Callinectes sapidus), crustacean (C. sapidus) and fish (Bagre marinus and Diapterus rhombeus) collected on Salinas da Margarida, BA (Brazil), a region which carciniculture, fishing and shellfish extraction are the most important economic activities. The effect of cooking on Hg concentration in the samples was also studied. The results showed that Hg concentration was generally higher in the cooked samples than in raw samples. This increase can be related to the effect of Hg pre-concentration, formation of complexes involving mercury species and sulfhydryl groups present in tissues and/or loss of water and fat. The highest concentrations were found in B. marinus samples ranging 837.0-1585.3 μg kg(-1), which exceeded those recommended by Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). In addition, Hg values found in the other samples also suggest the monitoring of the Hg concentrations in seafood consumed from the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Epidemiological Characteristics and Clinical Treatment Outcome of Typhoid Fever in Ningbo, China, 2005-2014: Pulsed-Field Gel Electorophoresis Results Revealing Great Proportion of Common Transmission Sources.

    PubMed

    Song, Qifa; Yang, Yuanbin; Lin, Wenping; Yi, Bo; Xu, Guozhang

    2017-09-25

    We aimed to describe the molecular epidemiological characteristics and clinical treatment outcome of typhoid fever in Ningbo, China during 2005-2014. Eighty-eight Salmonella Typhi isolates were obtained from 307 hospitalized patients. Three prevalent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of 54 isolates from 3 outbreaks were identified. Overall, there were 64 (72.7%) isolates from clustered cases and 24 (27.3%) isolates from sporadic cases. Resistance to nalidixic acid (NAL) (n = 47; 53.4%) and ampicillin (AMP) (n = 40; 45.4%) and rare resistance to tetracycline (TET) (n = 2; 2.3%) and gentamicin (GEN) (n = 2; 2.3%) were observed. No isolates resistant to cefotaxime (CTX), chloramphenicol (CL), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) were found. The occurrence of reduced sensitivity to CIP was 52.3% (n = 46). The medians of fever clearance time in cases with and without complications were 7 (interquartile range (IQR): 4-10) and 5 (IQR: 3-7) days (P = 0.001), respectively, when patients were treated with CIP or levofloxacin (LEV) and/or third-generation cephalosporins (CEP). Rates of serious complications were at low levels: peritonitis (2.3%), intestinal hemorrhage (6.8%), and intestinal perforation (1.1%). The present study revealed a long-term clustering trend with respect to PFGE patterns, occasional outbreaks, and the rapid spread of AMP resistance and decreased CIP susceptibility among S. Typhi isolates in recent years.

  17. Studying the MicroRNA role as a survival predictor and revealing its part in malignancy level determination in patients with supratentorial gliomas of brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupak, E. V.; Veryaskina, Yu. A.; Titov, S. E.; Achmerova, L. G.; Stupak, V. V.; Dolzhenko, D. A.; Rabinovich, S. S.; Narodov, A. A.; Ivanov, M. K.; Zhimulev, I. F.; Kolesnikov, N. N.

    2017-09-01

    The numerous data show, that microRNA (miRNA) are direct participants of carcinogenesis. Also miRNA plays the role of a diagnostic and prognostic marker for different types of cancer, including gliomas. The aim of this research is to make the comparative analysis of 10 micro RNA (miR-124, -125b, -16, -181b, -191, -21, -221, -223, -31 and -451) expression profiles. The analysis was made for gliomas with different malignancy degree, then compared with the samples of the adjacent not changed tissues (n = 90). During the study the specific profiles of miRNA expression for various histotypes of tumors were revealed. It was determined, that miRNA acts as a predictor of patient survival in the cases with malignant supratentorial brain tumors. The diagnostic approaches based on miRNA expression profile were designed. It will help to determine the malignancy level and to predict the course of the disease.

  18. Levels and predictors of airborne and internal exposure to chromium and nickel among welders--results of the WELDOX study.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Tobias; Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Gutwinski, Eleonore; Van Gelder, Rainer; Punkenburg, Ewald; Kendzia, Benjamin; Gawrych, Katarzyna; Lehnert, Martin; Heinze, Evelyn; Hartwig, Andrea; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Brüning, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this analysis was to investigate levels and determinants of exposure to airborne and urinary chromium (Cr, CrU) and nickel (Ni, NiU) among 241 welders. Respirable and inhalable welding fume was collected during a shift, and the metal content was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In post-shift urine, CrU and NiU were measured by means of graphite furnace atom absorption spectrometry, with resulting concentrations varying across a wide range. Due to a large fraction below the limits of quantitation we applied multiple imputations to the log-transformed exposure variables for the analysis of the data. Respirable Cr and Ni were about half of the concentrations of inhalable Cr and Ni, respectively. CrU and NiU were determined with medians of 1.2 μg/L (interquartile range <1.00; 3.61) and 2.9 μg/L (interquartile range <1.50; 5.97). Furthermore, Cr and Ni correlated in respirable welding fume (r=0.79, 95% CI 0.74-0.85) and urine (r=0.55, 95% CI 0.44-0.65). Regression models identified exposure-modulating variables in form of multiplicative factors and revealed slightly better model fits for Cr (R(2) respirable Cr 48%, CrU 55%) than for Ni (R(2) respirable Ni 42%, NiU 38%). The air concentrations were mainly predicted by the metal content in electrodes or base material in addition to the welding technique. Respirable Cr and Ni were good predictors for CrU and NiU, respectively. Exposure was higher when welding was performed in confined spaces or with inefficient ventilation, and lower in urine when respirators were used. In conclusion, statistical modelling allowed the evaluation of determinants of internal and external exposure to Cr and Ni in welders. Welding parameters were stronger predictors than workplace conditions. Airborne exposure was lowest inside respirators with supply of purified air. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Pisces did not have increased heart failure: data-driven comparisons of binary proportions between levels of a categorical variable can result in incorrect statistical significance levels.

    PubMed

    Austin, Peter C; Goldwasser, Meredith A

    2008-03-01

    We examined the impact on statistical inference when a chi(2) test is used to compare the proportion of successes in the level of a categorical variable that has the highest observed proportion of successes with the proportion of successes in all other levels of the categorical variable combined. Monte Carlo simulations and a case study examining the association between astrological sign and hospitalization for heart failure. A standard chi(2) test results in an inflation of the type I error rate, with the type I error rate increasing as the number of levels of the categorical variable increases. Using a standard chi(2) test, the hospitalization rate for Pisces was statistically significantly different from that of the other 11 astrological signs combined (P=0.026). After accounting for the fact that the selection of Pisces was based on it having the highest observed proportion of heart failure hospitalizations, subjects born under the sign of Pisces no longer had a significantly higher rate of heart failure hospitalization compared to the other residents of Ontario (P=0.152). Post hoc comparisons of the proportions of successes across different levels of a categorical variable can result in incorrect inferences.

  20. High-resolution, terrestrial radar velocity observations and model results reveal a strong bed at stable, tidewater Rink Isbræ, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomaus, T. C.; Walker, R. T.; Stearns, L. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Cassotto, R.; Catania, G. A.; Felikson, D.; Fried, M.; Sutherland, D.; Nash, J. D.; Shroyer, E.

    2015-12-01

    At tidewater Rink Isbræ, on the central west coast of Greenland, satellite observations reveal that glacier velocities and terminus positions have remained stable, while the lowest 25 km have thinned 30 m since 1985. Over this same time period, other tidewater glaciers in central west Greenland have retreated, thinned and accelerated. Here we present field observations and model results to show that the flow of Rink Isbræ is resisted by unusually high basal shear stresses. Terrestrial radar interferometry (TRI) observations over 9 days in summer 2014 demonstrate weak velocity response to 4 km wide, full thickness calving events. Velocities at the terminus change by +/- 10% in response to rising and falling tides within a partial-width, 2.5-km-long floating ice tongue; however these tidal perturbations damp out within 2 km of the grounding line. Inversions for basal shear stress and force balance analyses together show that basal shear stresses in excess of 300 kPa support the majority of the driving stress at thick, steep Rink Isbræ. These observational and modeling results tell a consistent story in which a strong bed may limit the unstable tidewater glacier retreats observed elsewhere. Rink Isbræ has an erosion resistant quartzite bed with low fracture density. We hypothesize that this geology may play a major role in the bed strength.

  1. Origins of cell-to-cell bioprocessing diversity and implications of the extracellular environment revealed at the single-cell level

    DOE PAGES

    Vasdekis, A. E.; Silverman, A. M.; Stephanopoulos, G.

    2015-12-14

    We probed the lipid expression dynamics of the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia Lipolytica. We observed that neutral lipid expression is sporadic. By performing single-cell analysis, we found that such noise emanates from the metabolic reaction level. Our results provide an alternative insight into the regulation and phenotypic variability of lipogenesis.

  2. Results of the first order leveling surveys in the Mexicali Valley and at the Cerro Prieto field

    SciTech Connect

    de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    The results obtained from the third leveling survey carried out by the Direccion General de Geografia del Territorio Nacional (previously DETENAL) during November and December 1979 are presented. Calculations of the changes in field elevation and plots showing comparisons of the 1977, 1978, and 1979 surveys are also presented. Results from a second order leveling survey performed to ascertain the extent of ground motion resulting from the 8 June 1980 earthquake are presented. This magnitude ML = 6.7 earthquake with epicenter located 15 km southeast of the Guadalupe Victoria village, caused fissures on the surface, the formation of small sandmore » volcanos, and the ejection of ground water in the vicinity of the Cerro Prieto field. This leveling survey was carried out between benchmark BN-10067 at the intersection of the Solfatara canal and the Sonora-Baja California railroad, and benchmark BN-10055 located at the Delta station.« less

  3. Atmosphere-Ionosphere Response to the M9 Tohoku Earthquake Revealed by Multi-Instrument Space-Borne and Ground Observations. Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Romanov, Alexey; Romanov, Alexander; Tsbulya, Konstantin; Davidenko, Dmitri; Kafatos, Menas; Taylor, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters characterizing the state of the atmosphere and ionosphere several days before the M9 Tohoku Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011. Data include outgoing long wave radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC, Low-Earth orbit ionospheric tomography and critical frequency foF2. Our first results show that on March 8th a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed from the satellite data and an anomaly developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. Starting on this day in the lower ionospheric there was also confirmed an abnormal TEC variation over the epicenter. From March 3-11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground based ionosondes, which returned to normal after the main earthquake The joined preliminary analysis of atmospheric and ionospheric parameters during the M9 Tohoku Japan earthquake has revealed the presence of related variations of these parameters implying their connection with the earthquake process. This study may lead to a better understanding of the response of the atmosphere/ionosphere to the Great Tohoku earthquake.

  4. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy reveals polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination despite relatively pristine site characteristics: Results of a field study in the Niger Delta.

    PubMed

    Obinaju, Blessing E; Martin, Francis L

    2016-01-01

    Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is an emerging technique to detect biochemical alterations in biological tissues, particularly changes due to sub-lethal exposures to environmental contaminants. We have previously shown the potential of attenuated total reflection FTIR (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to detect real-time exposure to contaminants in sentinel organisms as well as the potential to relate spectral alterations to the presence of specific environmental agents. In this study based in the Niger Delta (Nigeria), changes occurring in fish tissues as a result of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure at contaminated sites are compared to the infrared (IR) spectra of the tissues obtained from a relatively pristine site. Multivariate analysis revealed that PAH contamination could be occurring at the pristine site, based on the IR spectra and significant (P<0.0001) differences between sites. The study provides evidence of the IR spectroscopy techniques' sensitivity and supports their potential application in environmental biomonitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of biocontaminant levels associated with hard vs. carpet floors in nonproblem schools: results of a year long study.

    PubMed

    Foarde, Karin; Berry, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Choosing the appropriate floor surface for a school environment is a complex issue. To assist school personnel in determining which flooring is best for their school, we studied the biocontaminant levels associated with carpeted and hard surface flooring. Two schools were selected, one predominantly tiled and one predominantly carpeted, as similar as possible with the exception of their floor coverings. Neither school was a "problem" building. Multiple biocontaminants were measured. For flooring, there were statistically significant differences for all the tested biocontaminants except fungi. The carpeted surfaces, being strong sinks, generally had higher surface loadings of the biocontaminants, while the airborne levels were significantly higher over tiled floors. Significant differences in airborne levels were found for dust mass, spores, fungi, beta-1,3 glucans, and endotoxins. The results suggest that carpet flooring was not the major contributor to airborne levels of biocontaminants in these two nonproblem schools.

  6. An Analysis of Turkey's PISA 2015 Results Using Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atas, Dogu; Karadag, Özge

    2017-01-01

    In the field of education, most of the data collected are multi-level structured. Cities, city based schools, school based classes and finally students in the classrooms constitute a hierarchical structure. Hierarchical linear models give more accurate results compared to standard models when the data set has a structure going far as individuals,…

  7. Meta-analysis of 49 549 individuals imputed with the 1000 Genomes Project reveals an exonic damaging variant in ANGPTL4 determining fasting TG levels

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Sabo, Aniko; Bis, Joshua C; Huffman, Jennifer E; Manichaikul, Ani; Smith, Albert V; Feitosa, Mary F; Demissie, Serkalem; Joshi, Peter K; Duan, Qing; Marten, Jonathan; van Klinken, Jan B; Surakka, Ida; Nolte, Ilja M; Zhang, Weihua; Mbarek, Hamdi; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Trompet, Stella; Verweij, Niek; Evangelou, Evangelos; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Tayo, Bamidele O; Deelen, Joris; van der Most, Peter J; van der Laan, Sander W; Arking, Dan E; Morrison, Alanna; Dehghan, Abbas; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sijbrands, Eric J; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Campbell, Archie; Hocking, Lynne J; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Brody, Jennifer A; Rice, Kenneth M; White, Charles C; Harris, Tamara; Isaacs, Aaron; Campbell, Harry; Lange, Leslie A; Rudan, Igor; Kolcic, Ivana; Navarro, Pau; Zemunik, Tatijana; Salomaa, Veikko; Kooner, Angad S; Kooner, Jaspal S; Lehne, Benjamin; Scott, William R; Tan, Sian-Tsung; de Geus, Eco J; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Mutsert, Renée; Ford, Ian; Gansevoort, Ron T; Segura-Lepe, Marcelo P; Raitakari, Olli T; Viikari, Jorma S; Nikus, Kjell; Forrester, Terrence; McKenzie, Colin A; de Craen, Anton J M; de Ruijter, Hester M; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Snieder, Harold; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Slagboom, P Eline; Cooper, Richard S; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Elliott, Paul; van der Harst, Pim; Jukema, J Wouter; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Chambers, John C; Swertz, Morris; Ripatti, Samuli; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Vitart, Veronique; Polasek, Ozren; Hayward, Caroline; Wilson, James G; Wilson, James F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rich, Stephen S; Psaty, Bruce M; Borecki, Ingrid B; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rotter, Jerome I; Cupples, L Adrienne; van Duijn, Cornelia M

    2016-01-01

    Background So far, more than 170 loci have been associated with circulating lipid levels through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). These associations are largely driven by common variants, their function is often not known, and many are likely to be markers for the causal variants. In this study we aimed to identify more new rare and low-frequency functional variants associated with circulating lipid levels. Methods We used the 1000 Genomes Project as a reference panel for the imputations of GWAS data from ∼60 000 individuals in the discovery stage and ∼90 000 samples in the replication stage. Results Our study resulted in the identification of five new associations with circulating lipid levels at four loci. All four loci are within genes that can be linked biologically to lipid metabolism. One of the variants, rs116843064, is a damaging missense variant within the ANGPTL4 gene. Conclusions This study illustrates that GWAS with high-scale imputation may still help us unravel the biological mechanism behind circulating lipid levels. PMID:27036123

  8. The level of knowledge about parasitic diseases and the threats resulting from their presence in the environment evaluated in a group of parents of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Gniadek, Agnieszka; Cepuch, Grażyna; Ochender, Katarzyna; Salamon, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    Despite a significant civilization advancement, parasitic diseases still pose a serious diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Children's susceptibility to these infections stems from their immature immune system and lack of basic hygiene routines. The objective of the study was to evaluate the level of knowledge which parents of preschool children's possess about parasitic diseases in their children's environment. The study was carried out in the group of 151 parents of preschool children living both in the city and in the country. The survey was carried out by means of a diagnostic poll with the application of a self-designed research questionnaire. To make the evaluation even more objective, a special scale was created in which parents could score points for their answers (0 - wrong answer, 1 - correct answer). The total number of points ranging from 0 to 9 indicated an unsatisfactory level of knowledge, from 10 to 13 - satisfactory level, from 14 to 16 - good level and from 17 to 20 - very good level of parents' awareness. The results of the study reveal that the level of parents' knowledge about parasitic diseases is only satisfactory. A statistically significant relationship was observed between the variables such as education and sex. The higher education, the higher level of knowledge. Moreover, women were more knowledgeable in the field of parasitic diseases than men were. Financial status of the family did not influence the level of parents' awareness. Well-planned educational programmes might have a positive influence on developing proper hygiene routines in families, which, in turn, will limit the risk of spreading parasitoses in the population of children.

  9. Comparison of TOPEX/Poseidon Sea Level and Linear Model Results forced by Various Wind Products for the Tropical Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackert, Eric C.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to compare TOPEX/Posaidon (T/P) sea level with sea level results from linear ocean model experiments forced by several different wind products for the tropical Pacific. During the period of this study (October 1992 - October 1995), available wind products include satellite winds from the ERS-1 scatterometer product of [HALP 97] and the passive microwave analysis of SSMI winds produced using the variational analysis method (VAM) of [ATLA 91]. In addition, atmospheric GCM winds from the NCEP reanalysis [KALN 96], ECMWF analysis [ECMW94], and the Goddard EOS-1 (GEOS-1) reanalysis experiment [SCHU 93] are available for comparison. The observed ship wind analysis of FSU [STRI 92] is also included in this study. The linear model of [CANE 84] is used as a transfer function to test the quality of each of these wind products for the tropical Pacific. The various wind products are judged by comparing the wind-forced model sea level results against the T/P sea level anomalies. Correlation and RMS difference maps show how well each wind product does in reproducing the T/P sea level signal. These results are summarized in a table showing area average correlations and RMS differences. The large-scale low-frequency temporal signal is reproduced by all of the wind products, However, significant differences exist in both amplitude and phase on regional scales. In general, the model results forced by satellite winds do a better job reproducing the T/P signal (i.e. have a higher average correlation and lower RMS difference) than the results forced by atmospheric model winds.

  10. Investigation of geological structures with a view to HLRW disposal, as revealed through 3D inversion of aeromagnetic and gravity data and the results of CSAMT exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Zhiguo; Di, Qingyun

    2016-12-01

    The Alxa area in Inner Mongolia has been selected as a possible site for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW). Based on results of a previous study on crustal stability, the Tamusu rock mass has been chosen as the target. To determine the geological structure of this rock mass, aeromagnetic and gravity data are collected and inverted. Three-dimensional (3D) inversion horizontal slices show that the internal density of the rock mass and the distribution of magnetic properties are not uniform, with fractures and fragmentation being present. To confirm this result, the controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric method (CSAMT) was applied to explore the geological structures, the typical CSAMT sounding curve was analyzed, and the response characteristics of the geological structure and surrounding rock are distinguished. The original data were processed and interpreted in combination with data from surface geology and drilling and logging data. It is found that the CSAMT results were consistent with those from 3D inversion of the gravity and magnetic data, confirming the existence of fractures and fragmentation in the exploration area.

  11. [Evaluation of radon levels in bank buildings: results of a survey on a major Italian banking group].

    PubMed

    Urso, Patrizia; Ronchin, M; Lietti, Barbara; Izzo, A; Colloca, G; Russignaga, D; Carrer, P

    2008-01-01

    Radon, the second cause of lung cancer after smoking, is a natural, radioactive gas, which originates from the soil and pollutes indoor air, especially in closed or underground spaces. Italian legislation recommends an action level of 500 Bq/m3 per year for occupational exposure in underground premises. Since banks usually use various underground premises (archives, safe-deposit room), a study was made of the radon levels on such premises with the aim of identifying useful monitoring strategies. 134 branches of a major Italian banking group were examined using 1817 nuclear track dosimeters at ground level and underground level premises. The branches were located in 7 Italian regions in the north (Piedmont, Lombardy, Veneto), centre (Lazio) and south (Campania, Apulia, Sicily). Information on measurement points was recorded in a technical sheet and statistical analysis was carried out. Annual underground measurements gave an average concentration of 157 Bq/m3, with 5.1% for 400 < C < 500 Bq/m3 and 2.9%for C > 500 Bq/m3. Seasonal variability was reflected in a significant decrease in concentrations between winter and spring (delta(mean)% = -47.3%) and good stability between autumn and winter (delta(mean)% = 3%); moreover quarterly concentrations account for 85% of the variability of the corresponding annual level. A multiple linear regression model (R2 = 0.33) indicated geographic location as the principal factor in radon accumulation, followed by underground level, humidity, use, lack of windows, heating and natural ventilation, and direct contact of at least one wall with ground rock; whereas the safe-deposit room structure seems to protect from radon accumulation. Moreover, the ground level measurement results were significantly associated with the corresponding underground average concentrations (p < 0.001). The results could be a useful tool in planning a monitoring strategy for assessment of bank worker exposure, especially for banking groups with a large

  12. A Systems Level Analysis Reveals Transcriptomic and Proteomic Complexity in Ixodes Ricinus Midgut and Salivary Glands During Early Attachment and Feeding*

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Tenzer, Stefan; Hackenberg, Michael; Erhart, Jan; Gerhold-Ay, Aslihan; Mazur, Johanna; Kuharev, Jörg; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Kotsyfakis, Michail

    2014-01-01

    Although pathogens are usually transmitted within the first 24–48 h of attachment of the castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus, little is known about the tick's biological responses at these earliest phases of attachment. Tick midgut and salivary glands are the main tissues involved in tick blood feeding and pathogen transmission but the limited genomic information for I. ricinus delays the application of high-throughput methods to study their physiology. We took advantage of the latest advances in the fields of Next Generation RNA-Sequencing and Label-free Quantitative Proteomics to deliver an unprecedented, quantitative description of the gene expression dynamics in the midgut and salivary glands of this disease vector upon attachment to the vertebrate host. A total of 373 of 1510 identified proteins had higher expression in the salivary glands, but only 110 had correspondingly high transcript levels in the same tissue. Furthermore, there was midgut-specific expression of 217 genes at both the transcriptome and proteome level. Tissue-dependent transcript, but not protein, accumulation was revealed for 552 of 885 genes. Moreover, we discovered the enrichment of tick salivary glands in proteins involved in gene transcription and translation, which agrees with the secretory role of this tissue; this finding also agrees with our finding of lower tick t-RNA representation in the salivary glands when compared with the midgut. The midgut, in turn, is enriched in metabolic components and proteins that support its mechanical integrity in order to accommodate and metabolize the ingested blood. Beyond understanding the physiological events that support hematophagy by arthropod ectoparasites, we discovered more than 1500 proteins located at the interface between ticks, the vertebrate host, and the tick-borne pathogens. Thus, our work significantly improves the knowledge of the genetics underlying the transmission lifecycle of this tick species, which is an essential step for

  13. Oligotyping reveals differences between gut microbiomes of free-ranging sympatric Namibian carnivores (Acinonyx jubatus, Canis mesomelas) on a bacterial species-like level

    PubMed Central

    Menke, Sebastian; Wasimuddin; Meier, Matthias; Melzheimer, Jörg; Mfune, John K. E.; Heinrich, Sonja; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Wachter, Bettina; Sommer, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Recent gut microbiome studies in model organisms emphasize the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the variation of the bacterial composition and its impact on the overall health status of the host. Species occurring in the same habitat might share a similar microbiome, especially if they overlap in ecological and behavioral traits. So far, the natural variation in microbiomes of free-ranging wildlife species has not been thoroughly investigated. The few existing studies exploring microbiomes through 16S rRNA gene reads clustered sequencing reads into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on a similarity threshold (e.g., 97%). This approach, in combination with the low resolution of target databases, generally limits the level of taxonomic assignments to the genus level. However, distinguishing natural variation of microbiomes in healthy individuals from “abnormal” microbial compositions that affect host health requires knowledge of the “normal” microbial flora at a high taxonomic resolution. This gap can now be addressed using the recently published oligotyping approach, which can resolve closely related organisms into distinct oligotypes by utilizing subtle nucleotide variation. Here, we used Illumina MiSeq to sequence amplicons generated from the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate the gut microbiome of two free-ranging sympatric Namibian carnivore species, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas). Bacterial phyla with proportions >0.2% were identical for both species and included Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. At a finer taxonomic resolution, black-backed jackals exhibited 69 bacterial taxa with proportions ≥0.1%, whereas cheetahs had only 42. Finally, oligotyping revealed that shared bacterial taxa consisted of distinct oligotype profiles. Thus, in contrast to 3% OTUs, oligotyping can detect fine-scale taxonomic differences between microbiomes

  14. Downregulation of Cinnamoyl-Coenzyme A Reductase in Poplar: Multiple-Level Phenotyping Reveals Effects on Cell Wall Polymer Metabolism and Structure[W

    PubMed Central

    Leplé, Jean-Charles; Dauwe, Rebecca; Morreel, Kris; Storme, Véronique; Lapierre, Catherine; Pollet, Brigitte; Naumann, Annette; Kang, Kyu-Young; Kim, Hoon; Ruel, Katia; Lefèbvre, Andrée; Joseleau, Jean-Paul; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; De Rycke, Riet; Andersson-Gunnerås, Sara; Erban, Alexander; Fehrle, Ines; Petit-Conil, Michel; Kopka, Joachim; Polle, Andrea; Messens, Eric; Sundberg, Björn; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Ralph, John; Pilate, Gilles; Boerjan, Wout

    2007-01-01

    Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) catalyzes the penultimate step in monolignol biosynthesis. We show that downregulation of CCR in transgenic poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba) was associated with up to 50% reduced lignin content and an orange-brown, often patchy, coloration of the outer xylem. Thioacidolysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), immunocytochemistry of lignin epitopes, and oligolignol profiling indicated that lignin was relatively more reduced in syringyl than in guaiacyl units. The cohesion of the walls was affected, particularly at sites that are generally richer in syringyl units in wild-type poplar. Ferulic acid was incorporated into the lignin via ether bonds, as evidenced independently by thioacidolysis and by NMR. A synthetic lignin incorporating ferulic acid had a red-brown coloration, suggesting that the xylem coloration was due to the presence of ferulic acid during lignification. Elevated ferulic acid levels were also observed in the form of esters. Transcript and metabolite profiling were used as comprehensive phenotyping tools to investigate how CCR downregulation impacted metabolism and the biosynthesis of other cell wall polymers. Both methods suggested reduced biosynthesis and increased breakdown or remodeling of noncellulosic cell wall polymers, which was further supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and wet chemistry analysis. The reduced levels of lignin and hemicellulose were associated with an increased proportion of cellulose. Furthermore, the transcript and metabolite profiling data pointed toward a stress response induced by the altered cell wall structure. Finally, chemical pulping of wood derived from 5-year-old, field-grown transgenic lines revealed improved pulping characteristics, but growth was affected in all transgenic lines tested. PMID:18024569

  15. KMOS3D Reveals Low-level Star Formation Activity in Massive Quiescent Galaxies at 0.7 < z < 2.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belli, Sirio; Genzel, Reinhard; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Wisnioski, Emily; Wilman, David J.; Wuyts, Stijn; Mendel, J. Trevor; Beifiori, Alessandra; Bender, Ralf; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Burkert, Andreas; Chan, Jeffrey; Davies, Rebecca L.; Davies, Ric; Fabricius, Maximilian; Fossati, Matteo; Galametz, Audrey; Lang, Philipp; Lutz, Dieter; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Nelson, Erica J.; Saglia, Roberto P.; Tacconi, Linda J.; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Übler, Hannah; van Dokkum, Pieter

    2017-05-01

    We explore the Hα emission in the massive quiescent galaxies observed by the KMOS3D survey at 0.7 < z < 2.7. The Hα line is robustly detected in 20 out of 120 UVJ-selected quiescent galaxies, and we classify the emission mechanism using the Hα line width and the [N II]/Hα line ratio. We find that AGNs are likely to be responsible for the line emission in more than half of the cases. We also find robust evidence for star formation activity in nine quiescent galaxies, which we explore in detail. The Hα kinematics reveal rotating disks in five of the nine galaxies. The dust-corrected Hα star formation rates are low (0.2-7 M ⊙ yr-1), and place these systems significantly below the main sequence. The 24 μm-based, infrared luminosities, instead, overestimate the star formation rates. These galaxies present a lower gas-phase metallicity compared to star-forming objects with similar stellar mass, and many of them have close companions. We therefore conclude that the low-level star formation activity in these nine quiescent galaxies is likely to be fueled by inflowing gas or minor mergers, and could be a sign of rejuvenation events. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under programs 092.A-0091, 093.A-0079, 094.A-0217, 095.A-0047, 096.A-0025, and 097.A-0028.

  16. KMOS{sup 3D} Reveals Low-level Star Formation Activity in Massive Quiescent Galaxies at 0.7 < z < 2.7

    SciTech Connect

    Belli, Sirio; Genzel, Reinhard; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.

    2017-05-20

    We explore the H α emission in the massive quiescent galaxies observed by the KMOS{sup 3D} survey at 0.7 < z < 2.7. The H α line is robustly detected in 20 out of 120 UVJ -selected quiescent galaxies, and we classify the emission mechanism using the H α line width and the [N ii]/H α line ratio. We find that AGNs are likely to be responsible for the line emission in more than half of the cases. We also find robust evidence for star formation activity in nine quiescent galaxies, which we explore in detail. The H α kinematicsmore » reveal rotating disks in five of the nine galaxies. The dust-corrected H α star formation rates are low (0.2–7 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}), and place these systems significantly below the main sequence. The 24 μ m-based, infrared luminosities, instead, overestimate the star formation rates. These galaxies present a lower gas-phase metallicity compared to star-forming objects with similar stellar mass, and many of them have close companions. We therefore conclude that the low-level star formation activity in these nine quiescent galaxies is likely to be fueled by inflowing gas or minor mergers, and could be a sign of rejuvenation events.« less

  17. Routine Vaccination Coverage in Northern Nigeria: Results from 40 District-Level Cluster Surveys, 2014-2015

    PubMed Central

    Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu U.; Adegoke, Oluwasegun J.; Scobie, Heather M.; Uba, Belinda V.; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A.; Ruiz, Alicia; Elmousaad, Hashim; Ohuabunwo, Chima J.; Mustafa, Mahmud; Nguku, Patrick; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Vertefeuille, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite recent success towards controlling poliovirus transmission, Nigeria has struggled to achieve uniformly high routine vaccination coverage. A lack of reliable vaccination coverage data at the operational level makes it challenging to target program improvement. To reliably estimate vaccination coverage, we conducted district-level vaccine coverage surveys using a pre-existing infrastructure of polio technical staff in northern Nigeria. Methods Household-level cluster surveys were conducted in 40 polio high risk districts of Nigeria during 2014–2015. Global positioning system technology and intensive supervision by a pool of qualified technical staff were used to ensure high survey quality. Vaccination status of children aged 12–23 months was documented based on vaccination card or caretaker’s recall. District-level coverage estimates were calculated using survey methods. Results Data from 7,815 children across 40 districts were analyzed. District-level coverage with the third dose of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine (DPT3) ranged widely from 1–63%, with all districts having DPT3 coverage below the target of 80%. Median coverage across all districts for each of eight vaccine doses (1 Bacille Calmette-Guérin dose, 3 DPT doses, 3 oral poliovirus vaccine doses, and 1 measles vaccine dose) was <50%. DPT3 coverage by survey was substantially lower (range: 28%–139%) than the 2013 administrative coverage reported among children aged <12 months. Common reported reasons for non-vaccination included lack of knowledge about vaccines and vaccination services (50%) and factors related to access to routine immunization services (15%). Conclusions Survey results highlighted vaccine coverage gaps that were systematically underestimated by administrative reporting across 40 polio high risk districts in northern Nigeria. Given the limitations of administrative coverage data, our approach to conducting quality district-level coverage surveys and

  18. Laboratory evaluation of the Level TROLL 100 manufactured by In-Situ Inc.: results of pressure and temperature tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carnley, Mark V.; Fulford, Janice M.; Brooks, Myron H.

    2013-01-01

    The Level TROLL 100 manufactured by In-Situ Inc. was evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) for conformance to the manufacturer’s accuracy specifications for measuring pressure throughout the device’s operating temperature range. The Level TROLL 100 is a submersible, sealed, water-level sensing device with an operating pressure range equivalent to 0 to 30 feet of water over a temperature range of −20 to 50 degrees Celsius (°C). The device met the manufacturer’s stated accuracy specifications for pressure within its temperature-compensated operating range of 0 to 50 °C. The device’s accuracy specifications did not meet established USGS requirements for primary water-stage sensors used in the operation of streamgages, but the Level TROLL 100 may be suitable for other hydrologic data-collection applications. As a note, the Level TROLL 100 is not designed to meet USGS accuracy requirements. Manufacturer accuracy specifications were evaluated, and the procedures followed and the results obtained are described in this report. USGS accuracy requirements are routinely examined and reported when instruments are evaluated at the HIF.

  19. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Cloud Properties Observed by MODIS: Preliminary Level-3 Results from the Collection 5 Reprocessing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Hubanks, Paul; Pincus, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. It achieved its final orbit and began Earth observations on February 24, 2000 for Terra and June 24, 2002 for Aqua. A comprehensive set of operational algorithms for the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path, thermodynamic phase) have recently been updated and are being used in the new "Collection 5" processing stream being produced by the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) at NASA GSFC. All Terra and Aqua data are undergoing Collection 5 reprocessing with an expected completion date by the end of 2006. The archived products from these algorithms include 1 km pixel-level (Level-2) and global gridded Level-3 products. The cloud products have applications in climate change studies, climate modeling, numerical weather prediction, as well as fundamental atmospheric research. In this talk, we will summarize the available Level-3 cloud properties and their associated statistical data sets, and show preliminary Terra and Aqua results from the available Collection 5 reprocessing effort. Anticipated results include the latitudinal distribution of cloud optical and radiative properties for both liquid water and ice clouds, as well as joint histograms of cloud optical thickness and effective radius for selected geographical locations around the world.

  20. Researchers' choice of the number and range of levels in experiments affects the resultant variance-accounted-for effect size.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kensuke; Hoshino, Takahiro

    2017-04-01

    In psychology, the reporting of variance-accounted-for effect size indices has been recommended and widely accepted through the movement away from null hypothesis significance testing. However, most researchers have paid insufficient attention to the fact that effect sizes depend on the choice of the number of levels and their ranges in experiments. Moreover, the functional form of how and how much this choice affects the resultant effect size has not thus far been studied. We show that the relationship between the population effect size and number and range of levels is given as an explicit function under reasonable assumptions. Counterintuitively, it is found that researchers may affect the resultant effect size to be either double or half simply by suitably choosing the number of levels and their ranges. Through a simulation study, we confirm that this relation also applies to sample effect size indices in much the same way. Therefore, the variance-accounted-for effect size would be substantially affected by the basic research design such as the number of levels. Simple cross-study comparisons and a meta-analysis of variance-accounted-for effect sizes would generally be irrational unless differences in research designs are explicitly considered.

  1. Relationship between Serum Levels of Metalloproteinase-8 and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 and Exercise Test Results in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Mieczkowska, J; Rutkowska, E; Mosiewicz, J; Mosiewicz, B

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity as a part of the lifestyle is a significant factor influencing health condition. Exercises that require stamina are of particular importance. Oxygen metabolism, which is a significant part of all longer training processes, has an influence on cardiovascular and respiratory system functioning as well as all the processes taking part in maintenance of efficient homeostasis. Presentation of the correlation between exercise test results and MMP-8 (metalloproteinase-8) and TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1) levels was attempted in this work. MMP-8 is a proteolytic enzyme taking part in progression of diseases related to process of ageing. 62 healthy women in postmenopausal period were qualified for the study (mean age: 54 ± 3.6). There was exercise test on the treadmill according to Bruce's protocol performed. MMP-8 and TIMP-1 serum levels were measured. There was statistically important correlation between increased level of MMP-8 and increased level of TIMP-1 with lower results of exercise test observed. The conducted study provides further biochemical arguments for prophylactic role of physical activity, which lowers the risk of noninfectious diseases, typical for middle adulthood, by influencing physical capacity.

  2. Melanogenesis stimulation in B16-F10 melanoma cells induces cell cycle alterations, increased ROS levels and a differential expression of proteins as revealed by proteomic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cunha, Elizabeth S.; Kawahara, Rebeca; Kadowaki, Marina K.

    Considering that stimulation of melanogenesis may lead to alterations of cellular responses, besides melanin production, our main goal was to study the cellular effects of melanogenesis stimulation of B16-F10 melanoma cells. Our results show increased levels of the reactive oxygen species after 15 h of melanogenesis stimulation. Following 48 h of melanogenesis stimulation, proliferation was inhibited (by induction of cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase) and the expression levels of p21 mRNA were increased. In addition, melanogenesis stimulation did not induce cellular senescence. Proteomic analysis demonstrated the involvement of proteins from other pathways besides those related to the cellmore » cycle, including protein disulfide isomerase A3, heat-shock protein 70, and fructose biphosphate aldolase A (all up-regulated), and lactate dehydrogenase (down-regulated). In RT-qPCR experiments, the levels of pyruvate kinase M2 mRNA dropped, whereas the levels of ATP synthase (beta-F1) mRNA increased. These data indicate that melanogenesis stimulation of B16-F10 cells leads to alterations in metabolism and cell cycle progression that may contribute to an induction of cell quiescence, which may provide a mechanism of resistance against cellular injury promoted by melanin synthesis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melanogenesis stimulation by L-tyrosine+NH{sub 4}Cl in B16-F10 melanoma cells increases ROS levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melanogenesis inhibits cell proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteomic analysis showed alterations in proteins of the cell cycle and glucose metabolism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RT-qPCR analysis confirmed alterations of metabolic targets after melanogenesis stimulation.« less

  3. Levels of select PCB and PBDE congeners in human post-mortem brain reveal possible environmental involvement in 15q11-q13 duplication autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Michelle M.; Woods, Rima; Chi, Lai-Har; Schmidt, Rebecca J.; Pessah, Isaac N.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; LaSalle, Janine M.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) that bioaccumulate in lipid-rich tissues are of concern as developmental neurotoxicants. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation act at the interface of genetic and environmental factors implicated in autism-spectrum disorders. The relationship between POP levels and DNA methylation patterns in individuals with and without neurodevelopmental disorders has not been previously investigated. In this study, a total of 107 human frozen post-mortem brain samples were analyzed for 8 PCBs and 7 PBDEs by GC-micro electron capture detector and GC/MS using negative chemical ionization. Human brain samples were grouped as neurotypical controls (n=43), neurodevelopmental disorders with known genetic basis (n=32, including Down, Rett, Prader-Willi, Angelman, and 15q11-q13 duplication syndromes), and autism of unknown etiology (n=32). Unexpectedly, PCB 95 was significantly higher in the genetic neurodevelopmental group, but not idiopathic autism, as compared to neurotypical controls. Interestingly, samples with detectable PCB 95 levels were almost exclusively those with maternal 15q11-q13 duplication (Dup15q) or deletion in Prader-Willi syndrome. When sorted by birth year, Dup15q samples represented five out of six of genetic neurodevelopmental samples born after the 1976 PCB ban exhibiting detectable PCB 95 levels. Dup15q was the strongest predictor of PCB 95 exposure over age, gender, or year of birth. Dup15q brain showed lower levels of repetitive DNA methylation measured by LINE-1 pyrosequencing, but methylation levels were confounded by year of birth. These results demonstrate a novel paradigm by which specific POPs may predispose to genetic copy number variation of 15q11-q13. PMID:22930557

  4. Fourier transform infrared imaging microspectroscopy and tissue-level mechanical testing reveal intraspecies variation in mouse bone mineral and matrix composition.

    PubMed

    Courtland, Hayden-William; Nasser, Philip; Goldstone, Andrew B; Spevak, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Jepsen, Karl J

    2008-11-01

    Fracture susceptibility is heritable and dependent upon bone morphology and quality. However, studies of bone quality are typically overshadowed by emphasis on bone geometry and bone mineral density. Given that differences in mineral and matrix composition exist in a variety of species, we hypothesized that genetic variation in bone quality and tissue-level mechanical properties would also exist within species. Sixteen-week-old female A/J, C57BL/6J (B6), and C3H/HeJ (C3H) inbred mouse femora were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared imaging and tissue-level mechanical testing for variation in mineral composition, mineral maturity, collagen cross-link ratio, and tissue-level mechanical properties. A/J femora had an increased mineral-to-matrix ratio compared to B6. The C3H mineral-to-matrix ratio was intermediate of A/J and B6. C3H femora had reduced acid phosphate and carbonate levels and an increased collagen cross-link ratio compared to A/J and B6. Modulus values paralleled mineral-to-matrix values, with A/J femora being the most stiff, B6 being the least stiff, and C3H having intermediate stiffness. In addition, work-to-failure varied among the strains, with the highly mineralized and brittle A/J femora performing the least amount of work-to-failure. Inbred mice are therefore able to differentially modulate the composition of their bone mineral and the maturity of their bone matrix in conjunction with tissue-level mechanical properties. These results suggest that specific combinations of bone quality and morphological traits are genetically regulated such that mechanically functional bones can be constructed in different ways.

  5. The Influence of Geography and Geology on Seismic Background Noise Levels Across the United States as Revealed by the Transportable Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, R. E.; Ringler, A. T.; Holland, A. A.; Wilson, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    The EarthScope USArray Transportable Array (TA) has now covered the US with 3-component broadband seismometers at approximately 70 km station spacing and deployment durations of approximately 2 years. This unprecedented coverage, combined with high-quality and near homogenous installation techniques, offers a novel dataset in which to characterize spatially varying levels of background seismic noise across the United States. We present background noise maps in period bands of interest to earthquake and imaging seismology across the US (lower 48 states and Alaska). Early results from the contiguous 48 states demonstrate that ambient noise levels within the body wave period band (1-5 s) vary by > 20 dB (rel. 1 (m/s2)2/Hz) with the highest noise levels occurring at stations located within sedimentary basins and lowest within the mountain ranges of the Western US. Additionally, stations around the Great Lakes observe heightened noise levels in this band beyond the aforementioned basin amplification. We attribute this observation to local swell activity in the Great Lakes generating short-period microseism signals. This suggests that lake-generated microseisms may be a significant source of noise for Alaskan deployments situated in close proximity to lakes to facilitate float plane access. We further investigate how basin amplification and short-period lake microseism signals may noticeably impact detection and signal-to-noise of teleseismic body wave signals during certain time periods. At longer-periods (> 20 s), we generally observe larger noise levels on the horizontal components of stations situated in basins or on soft sediment, likely caused by locally induced tilt of the sensor. We will present similar analysis from the initial Alaska TA dataset to quantitatively assess how utilization of posthole sensors affects signal-to-noise for the long-period horizontal wavefield.

  6. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging Microspectroscopy and Tissue-Level Mechanical Testing Reveal Intraspecies Variation in Mouse Bone Mineral and Matrix Composition

    PubMed Central

    Courtland, Hayden-William; Nasser, Philip; Goldstone, Andrew B.; Spevak, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L.; Jepsen, Karl J.

    2009-01-01

    Fracture susceptibility is heritable and dependent upon bone morphology and quality. However, studies of bone quality are typically overshadowed by emphasis on bone geometry and bone mineral density. Given that differences in mineral and matrix composition exist in a variety of species, we hypothesized that genetic variation in bone quality and tissue-level mechanical properties would also exist within species. Sixteen-week-old female A/J, C57BL/6J (B6), and C3H/HeJ (C3H) inbred mouse femora were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared imaging and tissue-level mechanical testing for variation in mineral composition, mineral maturity, collagen cross-link ratio, and tissue-level mechanical properties. A/J femora had an increased mineral-to-matrix ratio compared to B6. The C3H mineral-to-matrix ratio was intermediate of A/J and B6. C3H femora had reduced acid phosphate and carbonate levels and an increased collagen cross-link ratio compared to A/J and B6. Modulus values paralleled mineral-to-matrix values, with A/J femora being the most stiff, B6 being the least stiff, and C3H having intermediate stiffness. In addition, work-to-failure varied among the strains, with the highly mineralized and brittle A/J femora performing the least amount of work-to-failure. Inbred mice are therefore able to differentially modulate the composition of their bone mineral and the maturity of their bone matrix in conjunction with tissue-level mechanical properties. These results suggest that specific combinations of bone quality and morphological traits are genetically regulated such that mechanically functional bones can be constructed in different ways. PMID:18855037

  7. Anthropometric and Athletic Performance Combine Test Results Among Positions Within Grade Levels of High School-Aged American Football Players.

    PubMed

    Leutzinger, Todd J; Gillen, Zachary M; Miramonti, Amelia M; McKay, Brianna D; Mendez, Alegra I; Cramer, Joel T

    2018-05-01

    Leutzinger, TJ, Gillen, ZM, Miramonti, AM, McKay, BD, Mendez, AI, and Cramer, JT. Anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results among positions within grade levels of high school-aged American football players. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1288-1296, 2018-The purpose of this study was to investigate differences among player positions at 3 grade levels in elite, collegiate-prospective American football players. Participants' data (n = 7,160) were analyzed for this study (mean height [Ht] ± SD = 178 ± 7 cm, mass [Bm] = 86 ± 19 kg). Data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines hosted by Zybek Sports (Boulder, Colorado). Eight 2-way (9 × 3) mixed factorial analysis of variances {position (defensive back [DB], defensive end, defensive lineman, linebacker, offensive lineman [OL], quarterback, running back, tight end, and wide receiver [WR]) × grade (freshmen, sophomores, and juniors)} were used to test for differences among the mean test scores for each combine measure (Ht, Bm, 40-yard [40 yd] dash, proagility [PA] drill, L-cone [LC] drill, vertical jump [VJ], and broad jump [BJ]). There were position-related differences (p ≤ 0.05) for Ht, 40 yd dash, and BJ, within each grade level and for Bm, PA, LC, and VJ independent of grade level. Generally, the results showed that OL were the tallest, weighed the most, and exhibited the lowest performance scores among positions. Running backs were the shortest, whereas DBs and WRs weighed the least and exhibited the highest performance scores among positions. These results demonstrate the value of classifying high school-aged American football players according to their specific position rather than categorical groupings such as "line" vs. "skill" vs. "big skill" when evaluating anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results.

  8. Kiel Canal: Past and future threats for shipping resulting from precipitation, wind surge and sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganske, Anette; Hüttl-Kabus, Sabine; Möller, Jens; Schade, Nils; Heinrich, Hartmut; Tinz, Birger

    2017-04-01

    The Kiel Canal is the most frequented artificial waterway in the world. It connects the North Sea and the Hamburg Harbor with the Baltic Sea and has a length of about 100 km. The Canal receives its water from the upper catchment of the river Eider. Discharge from the Canal towards the North Sea is via the sluices at Brunsbüttel (90%) into river Elbe and into the Baltic Sea via the sluices at Kiel-Holtenau. A risk of closure of the Canal occurs when high precipitation in the catchment meets high water levels in the river Elbe and/or the Baltic preventing the discharge of excess Canal water. Future sea level rise jointly with other effects such as possibly increasing wind surge and precipitation will close the gap between the inner and outer water levels, so that someday the outside levels will surmount the inner one. The German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI) tasked its internal Network of Experts to run a case study on the evolution of critical water levels in order to estimate risks and vulnerabilities for adaptation measures. First step of the investigation is a search for factors or combination of factors responsible for closures in the past. Candidates are factors such as higher water levels at low tides, high precipitation events on land, soil moisture and human factors like preventive water management measures. Second step will be the search for the natural criteria in climate projections. Here we report on the results of the first step of the case study with a focus on the exit towards the North Sea. There, discharge is possible only during low tide. Presently still sufficient difference in height exists between the levels in the Canal and the river Elbe allowing for a free flow of excess Canal water. Shipping is ceased when levels in the Canal surpass safety limits due to high precipitation events in the catchment jointly with high outer water levels. We used atmospheric data from ERA-Interim reanalysis instead of gauge data

  9. Routine Vaccination Coverage in Northern Nigeria: Results from 40 District-Level Cluster Surveys, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Gunnala, Rajni; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu U; Adegoke, Oluwasegun J; Scobie, Heather M; Uba, Belinda V; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Ruiz, Alicia; Elmousaad, Hashim; Ohuabunwo, Chima J; Mustafa, Mahmud; Nguku, Patrick; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Vertefeuille, John F

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent success towards controlling poliovirus transmission, Nigeria has struggled to achieve uniformly high routine vaccination coverage. A lack of reliable vaccination coverage data at the operational level makes it challenging to target program improvement. To reliably estimate vaccination coverage, we conducted district-level vaccine coverage surveys using a pre-existing infrastructure of polio technical staff in northern Nigeria. Household-level cluster surveys were conducted in 40 polio high risk districts of Nigeria during 2014-2015. Global positioning system technology and intensive supervision by a pool of qualified technical staff were used to ensure high survey quality. Vaccination status of children aged 12-23 months was documented based on vaccination card or caretaker's recall. District-level coverage estimates were calculated using survey methods. Data from 7,815 children across 40 districts were analyzed. District-level coverage with the third dose of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine (DPT3) ranged widely from 1-63%, with all districts having DPT3 coverage below the target of 80%. Median coverage across all districts for each of eight vaccine doses (1 Bacille Calmette-Guérin dose, 3 DPT doses, 3 oral poliovirus vaccine doses, and 1 measles vaccine dose) was <50%. DPT3 coverage by survey was substantially lower (range: 28%-139%) than the 2013 administrative coverage reported among children aged <12 months. Common reported reasons for non-vaccination included lack of knowledge about vaccines and vaccination services (50%) and factors related to access to routine immunization services (15%). Survey results highlighted vaccine coverage gaps that were systematically underestimated by administrative reporting across 40 polio high risk districts in northern Nigeria. Given the limitations of administrative coverage data, our approach to conducting quality district-level coverage surveys and providing data to assess and remediate issues

  10. Early Triassic change in the erosional level in the eastern part of the Bohemian Massif revealed by detrital garnet assemblages from the Buntsandstein siliciclastics of southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowal-Linka, Monika; Walczak, Klaudia

    2017-04-01

    Garnets, as constituents of various magmatic and metamorphic rocks, show different chemical compositions depending on the type of magma or primary rock, the temperature, and the pressure. This diversity of chemical compositions makes detrital garnets a very useful tool for provenance analysis and deciphering changes in erosional levels of source areas. Preliminary works reveal that the Lower and Middle Buntsandstein terrigenous and marine sandstones cropping out in southern Poland (50˚ 28'20"N, 18˚ 04'33"E and 50˚ 27'35"N, 18˚ 07'23"E) are characterized by very different heavy mineral assemblages (HMA) and types of detrital garnets. The aim of the research is to recognize the source areas and causes of these distinct variations using petrographic analysis, heavy mineral analysis, and electron probe microanalysis. During the Early Triassic, the area under study was located between two landmasses: the eastern margin of the Bohemian Massif (BM) to the west and Pre-Carpathian Land (PCL) to the east. Presently, the sampled area is situated ˜50 km from the NE margin of the BM, which consists of many garnet-bearing rocks and is a presumable source area for the examined grains. The PCL was hidden under the Carpathians during the Alpine orogeny and knowledge of its composition is very limited. Petrographic analysis shows that the older sandstones are red to rusty quartz arenites with a hematite-rich matrix and well-rounded grains (aeolian deposits). The younger sandstones are bicolored quartz wackes (dirty pink with grey patches) with a calcite matrix and angular to rounded grains (shallow marine deposits). The arenites contain zircon, tourmaline, and rutile grains accompanied by garnet, staurolite, apatite, and topaz. The opaque heavy minerals include ilmenite, ilmenite-rutile aggregates, magnetite and rarely chromian spinel. In contrast, the HMA from the wackes consist mostly of garnets, while the minerals listed above occur in subordinate amounts. The garnets from

  11. System level analysis of cacao seed ripening reveals a sequential interplay of primary and secondary metabolism leading to polyphenol accumulation and preparation of stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Nägele, Thomas; Doerfler, Hannes; Fragner, Lena; Chaturvedi, Palak; Nukarinen, Ella; Bellaire, Anke; Huber, Werner; Weiszmann, Jakob; Engelmeier, Doris; Ramsak, Ziva; Gruden, Kristina; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2016-08-01

    Theobroma cacao and its popular product, chocolate, are attracting attention due to potential health benefits including antioxidative effects by polyphenols, anti-depressant effects by high serotonin levels, inhibition of platelet aggregation and prevention of obesity-dependent insulin resistance. The development of cacao seeds during fruit ripening is the most crucial process for the accumulation of these compounds. In this study, we analyzed the primary and the secondary metabolome as well as the proteome during Theobroma cacao cv. Forastero seed development by applying an integrative extraction protocol. The combination of multivariate statistics and mathematical modelling revealed a complex consecutive coordination of primary and secondary metabolism and corresponding pathways. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid metabolism dominated during the early developmental stages (stages 1 and 2; cell division and expansion phase). This was accompanied with a significant shift of proteins from phenylpropanoid metabolism to flavonoid biosynthesis. At stage 3 (reserve accumulation phase), metabolism of sucrose switched from hydrolysis into raffinose synthesis. Lipids as well as proteins involved in lipid metabolism increased whereas amino acids and N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids decreased. Purine alkaloids, polyphenols, and raffinose as well as proteins involved in abiotic and biotic stress accumulated at stage 4 (maturation phase) endowing cacao seeds the characteristic astringent taste and resistance to stress. In summary, metabolic key points of cacao seed development comprise the sequential coordination of primary metabolites, phenylpropanoid, N-phenylpropenoyl amino acid, serotonin, lipid and polyphenol metabolism thereby covering the major compound classes involved in cacao aroma and health benefits. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Metabolite profiling of sex developmental steroid conjugates reveals an association between decreased levels of steroid sulfates and adiposity in obese girls.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Hyeon; Kim, Shin Hye; Lee, Won-Yong; Chung, Bong Chul; Park, Mi Jung; Choi, Man Ho

    2016-09-01

    Free and conjugated steroids coexist in a dynamic equilibrium due to complex biosynthetic and metabolic processes. This may have clinical significance related to various physiological conditions, including sex development involving the reproductive system. Therefore, we performed quantitative profiling of 16 serum steroids conjugated with glucuronic and sulfuric acids using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). All steroid conjugates were purified by solid-phase extraction and then separated through a 3-μm particle size C18 column (150mm×2.1mm) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min in the negative ionization mode. The LC-MS-based analysis was found to be linear (r(2)>0.99), and all steroid conjugates had a limit-of-quantification (LOQ) of 10ng/mL, except for cholesterol sulfate and 17β-estradiol-3,17-disulfate (20ng/mL). The extraction recoveries of all steroid conjugates ranged from 97.9% to 110.7%, while the overall precision (% CV) and accuracy (% bias) ranged from 4.8% to 10.9% and from 94.4% to 112.9% at four different concentrations, respectively. Profiling of steroid conjugates corrected by adiposity revealed decreased levels of steroid sulfates (P<0.01) in overweight and obese girls compared to normal girls. The suggested technique can be used for evaluating metabolic changes in steroid conjugates and for understanding the pathophysiology and relative contributions of adiposity in childhood obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. m6A level and isoform characterization sequencing (m6A-LAIC-seq) reveals the census and complexity of the m6A epitranscriptome

    PubMed Central

    Molinie, Benoit; Wang, Jinkai; Lim, Kok-Seong; Hillebrand, Roman; Lu, Zhi-xiang; Van Wittenberghe, Nicholas; Howard, Benjamin D.; Daneshvar, Kaveh; Mullen, Alan C.; Dedon, Peter

    2017-01-01

    N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) is a widespread, reversible chemical modification of RNA molecules, implicated in many aspects of RNA metabolism. Little quantitative information exists as to either how many transcript copies of particular genes are m6A modified (‘m6A levels’) or the relationship of m6A modification(s) to alternative RNA isoforms. To deconvolute the m6A epitranscriptome, we developed m6A-level and isoform-characterization sequencing (m6A-LAIC-seq). We found that cells exhibit a broad range of nonstoichiometric m6A levels with cell-type specificity. At the level of isoform characterization, we discovered widespread differences in the use of tandem alternative polyadenylation (APA) sites by methylated and nonmethylated transcript isoforms of individual genes. Strikingly, there is a strong bias for methylated transcripts to be coupled with proximal APA sites, resulting in shortened 3′ untranslated regions, while nonmethylated transcript isoforms tend to use distal APA sites. m6A-LAIC-seq yields a new perspective on transcriptome complexity and links APA usage to m6A modifications. PMID:27376769

  14. Higher uric acid serum levels are associated with better muscle function in the oldest old: Results from the Mugello Study.

    PubMed

    Molino-Lova, R; Sofi, F; Pasquini, G; Vannetti, F; Del Ry, S; Vassalle, C; Clerici, M; Sorbi, S; Macchi, C

    2017-06-01

    Sarcopenia is the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength that occurs with advancing age and plays a pivotal role in the causal pathway leading to frailty, disability and, eventually, to death among older persons. As oxidative damage of muscle proteins has been shown to be a relevant contributory factor, in this study we hypothesized that uric acid (UA), a powerful endogenous antioxidant, might exert a protective effect on muscle function in the oldest old and we tested our hypothesis in a group of nonagenarians who participated in the Mugello Study. 239 subjects, 73 men and 166 women, mean age 92.8years±SD 3.1, underwent the assessment of UA serum level and isometric handgrip strength, a widely used clinical measure of sarcopenia. Mean UA serum level was 5.69mg/dL±SD 1.70 and mean handgrip strength was 15.0kg±SD 6.9. After adjusting for relevant confounders, higher UA serum levels remained independent positive predictors of isometric handgrip strength (β 1.24±SE(β) 0.43, p=0.005). Our results show that higher UA serum levels are associated with better muscle function in the oldest old and, accordingly, might slow down the progression of sarcopenia. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Serum levels of interleukin 6 in schizophrenic patients during treatment augmentation with sarcosine (results of the PULSAR study).

    PubMed

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Urban-Kowalczyk, Małgorzata; Wysokiński, Adam

    2018-03-01

    Augmentation of sarcosine, a natural inhibitor of the glycine transporter type I, normalizes glutamatergic neurotransmission, having beneficial impact on primary negative symptoms in schizophrenia and may also influence immune system and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels. Finding a relationship between initial IL-6 serum concentrations or its changes and severity of symptoms as a result of sarcosine addition to stable antipsychotic treatment. Fifity-eight individuals with schizophrenia with predominantly negative symptoms completed a 6-month randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled prospective study. Patients received 2 g of sarcosine (n = 29) or placebo (n = 30) daily per os. We measured IL-6 levels and severity of symptoms at the beginning, after 6 weeks and 6 months. As main clinical tools, we used Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary depression scale for schizophrenia (CDSS). Augmentation with sarcosine had no effect on IL-6 serum levels in all time points. We noted significant improvements in negative symptoms, general psychopathology, and total PANSS score in the sarcosine group. We found correlation of initial serum IL-6 with severity of positive symptoms and negative association between IL-6 levels reduction and positive symptoms reduction. Sarcosine does not significantly affect IL-6 concentrations but IL-6 may be involved in mechanisms related to the presence of positive symptoms. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. MMP-9 Serum Levels in Schizophrenic Patients during Treatment Augmentation with Sarcosine (Results of the PULSAR Study).

    PubMed

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Kałużyńska, Olga; Szyburska, Justyna; Wysokiński, Adam

    2016-07-09

    Find changes in matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) levels during augmentation of antipsychotic treatment with sarcosine and a relationship between schizophrenia symptoms severity and initial level of MMP-9. Fifty-eight patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms participated in a six-month prospective RCT (randomized controlled trial). The patients received two grams of sarcosine (n = 28) or placebo (n = 30) daily. At the beginning, after six weeks and after six months MMP-9 levels were measured. Severity of symptomatology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). MMP-9 serum levels were stable after six weeks and six months in both groups. We noted improvement in negative symptoms, general psychopathology and total PANSS score in sarcosine group compared to placebo; however, there was no correlations between serum MMP-9 concentrations and PANSS scores in all assessments. Initial serum MMP-9 concentrations cannot be used as an improvement predictor acquired during sarcosine augmentation. Our results indicate that either MMP-9 is not involved in the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent mechanism of sarcosine action in terms of clinical parameters or sarcosine induced changes in peripheral MMP-9 concentrations cannot be detected in blood assessments.

  17. Blood Levels of Trace Elements in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongwang; Zhang, Yanyi; Gao, Weijia; Lin, Nannan; Li, Rong; Zhao, Zhengyan

    2018-06-16

    Some trace elements may participate in the pathogenesis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to investigate the trace element status of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and lead (Pb) in children with ADHD, and to compare them with normal controls. Associations between examined elements and SNAP-IV rating scores of ADHD symptoms were also assessed. Four hundred nineteen children with ADHD (8.8 ± 2.1 years) and 395 matched normal controls (8.9 ± 1.7 years) were recruited in the study. The concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mg, and Pb in the whole blood were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Lower zinc levels (P < 0.001) and the number out of normal ranges (P = 0.015) were found in children with ADHD when compared with the normal control group. The difference remained when adjusting the factor of BMI z-score. No significant between-group differences were found in levels of other elements. Zinc levels were negatively correlated with parent-rated scores of inattentive subscale of SNAP-IV (r = - 0.40) as well as with total score of SNAP-IV (r = - 0.24). Other significant associations were not observed. The present results indicated that there were alterations in blood levels of zinc, which was associated with the symptom scores of ADHD.

  18. Weight gain prevention in the school worksite setting: Results of a multi-level cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Stephenie C.; Wang, Monica L.; Wedick, Nicole M.; Estabrook, Barbara; Druker, Susan; Schneider, Kristin L.; Li, Wenjun; Pbert, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the effectiveness, reach and implementation of a weight gain prevention intervention among public school employees. Method A multi-level intervention was tested in a cluster randomized trial among 782 employees in 12 central Massachusetts public high schools from 2009 to 2012. The intervention targeted the nutrition and physical activity environment and policies, the social environment and individual knowledge, attitudes and skills. The intervention was compared to a materials only condition. The primary outcome measures were change in weight and body mass index (BMI) at 24-month follow-up. Implementation of physical environment, policy and social environment strategies at the school and interpersonal levels, and intervention participation at the individual level were assessed. Results At 24-month follow-up, there was a net change (difference of the difference) of −3.03 pounds (p=.04) and of −.48 BMI units (p=.05) between intervention and comparison conditions. The majority of intervention strategies were successfully implemented by all intervention schools, although establishing formal policies was challenging. Employee participation in programs targeting the physical and social environment was maintained over time. Conclusion This study supports that a multi-level intervention integrated within the organizational culture can be successfully implemented and prevent weight gain in public high school employees. PMID:24345602

  19. The Temporal Pattern of Changes in Serum Biomarker Levels Reveals Complex and Dynamically Changing Pathologies after Exposure to a Single Low-Intensity Blast in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Farid; Plantman, Stefan; Cernak, Ibolja; Agoston, Denes V.

    2015-01-01

    Time-dependent changes in blood-based protein biomarkers can help identify the ­pathological processes in blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), assess injury severity, and monitor disease progression. We obtained blood from control and injured mice (exposed to a single, low-intensity blast) at 2-h, 1-day, 1–week, and 1-month post-injury. We then determined the serum levels of biomarkers related to metabolism (4-HNE, HIF-1α, ceruloplasmin), vascular function (AQP1, AQP4, VEGF, vWF, Flk-1), inflammation (OPN, CINC1, fibrinogen, MIP-1a, OX-44, p38, MMP-8, MCP-1 CCR5, CRP, galectin-1), cell adhesion and the extracellular matrix (integrin α6, TIMP1, TIMP4, Ncad, connexin-43), and axonal (NF-H, Tau), neuronal (NSE, CK-BB) and glial damage (GFAP, S100β, MBP) at various post-injury time points. Our findings indicate that the exposure to a single, low-intensity blast results in metabolic and vascular changes, altered cell adhesion, and axonal and neuronal injury in the mouse model of bTBI. Interestingly, serum levels of several inflammatory and astroglial markers were either unchanged or elevated only during the acute and subacute phases of injury. Conversely, serum levels of the majority of biomarkers related to metabolic and vascular functions, cell adhesion, as well as neuronal and axonal damage remained elevated at the termination of the experiment (1 month), indicating long-term systemic and cerebral alterations due to blast. Our findings show that the exposure to a single, low-intensity blast induces complex pathological processes with distinct temporal profiles. Hence, monitoring serum biomarker levels at various post-injury time points may provide enhanced diagnostics in blast-related neurological and multi-system deficits. PMID:26124743

  20. Reduced levels of folate transporters (PCFT and RFC) in membrane lipid rafts result in colonic folate malabsorption in chronic alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Wani, Nissar Ahmad; Kaur, Jyotdeep

    2011-03-01

    We studied the effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on folate transport across the colonic apical membranes (CAM) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed 1 g/kg body weight/day ethanol (20%) solution orally for 3 months and folate transport was studied in the isolated colon apical membrane vesicles. The folate transport was found to be carrier mediated, saturable, with pH optima at 5.0. Chronic ethanol ingestion reduced the folate transport across the CAM by decreasing the affinity of transporters (high Km) for the substrate and by decreasing the number of transporter molecules (low Vmax) on the colon luminal surface. The decreased transport activity at the CAM was associated with down-regulation of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) and the reduced folate carrier (RFC) which resulted in decreased PCFT and RFC protein levels in the colon of rats fed alcohol chronically. Moreover, the PCFT and the RFC were found to be distributed in detergent insoluble fraction of the CAM in rats. Floatation experiments on Optiprep density gradients demonstrated the association of the PCFT and the RFC protein with lipid rafts (LR). Chronic alcoholism decreased the PCFT and the RFC protein levels in the CAM LR in accordance with the decreased synthesis. Hence, we propose that downregulation in the expression of the PCFT and the RFC in colon results in reduced levels of these transporters in colon apical membrane LR as a mechanism of folate malabsorption during chronic alcoholism. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Dependence of the atomic level Green-Kubo stress correlation function on wavevector and frequency: molecular dynamics results from a model liquid.

    PubMed

    Levashov, V A

    2014-09-28

    We report on a further investigation of a new method that can be used to address vibrational dynamics and propagation of stress waves in liquids. The method is based on the decomposition of the macroscopic Green-Kubo stress correlation function into the atomic level stress correlation functions. This decomposition, as was demonstrated previously for a model liquid studied in molecular dynamics simulations, reveals the presence of stress waves propagating over large distances and a structure that resembles the pair density function. In this paper, by performing the Fourier transforms of the atomic level stress correlation functions, we elucidate how the lifetimes of the stress waves and the ranges of their propagation depend on their frequency, wavevector, and temperature. These results relate frequency and wavevector dependence of the generalized viscosity to the character of propagation of the shear stress waves. In particular, the results suggest that an increase in the value of the frequency dependent viscosity at low frequencies with decrease of temperature is related to the increase in the ranges of propagation of the stress waves of the corresponding low frequencies. We found that the ranges of propagation of the shear stress waves of frequencies less than half of the Einstein frequency extend well beyond the nearest neighbor shell even above the melting temperature. The results also show that the crossover from quasilocalized to propagating behavior occurs at frequencies usually associated with the Boson peak.

  2. Interactive web visualization tools to the results interpretation of a seismic risk study aimed at the emergency levels definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas-Medina, A.; Gutierrez, V.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Benito, B.

    2009-04-01

    municipalities according to the expected actuation level and eventually, to alert levels. In this regard, the visualization tool constitutes an intuitive and useful tool that the end-user of the risk study may use to optimize and guide its application on emergency planning. The use of this type of tools can be adapted to other scenarios with different boundary conditions (seismicity level, vulnerability distribution) and user profiles (policy makers, stakeholders, students, general public) maintaining the same final goal: to improve the adaptation of the results of a scientific-technical work to the needs of other users with different backgrounds.

  3. Nanosecond to submillisecond dynamics in dye-labeled single-stranded DNA, as revealed by ensemble measurements and photon statistics at single-molecule level.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Takahiro; Ito, Syoji; Iwai, Shigenori; Miyasaka, Hiroshi

    2009-10-22

    Single-molecule and ensemble time-resolved fluorescence measurements were applied for the investigation of the conformational dynamics of single-stranded DNA, ssDNA, connected with a fluorescein dye by a C6 linker, where the motions both of DNA and the C6 linker affect the geometry of the system. From the ensemble measurement of the fluorescence quenching via photoinduced electron transfer with a guanine base in the DNA sequence, three main conformations were found in aqueous solution: a conformation unaffected by the guanine base in the excited state lifetime of fluorescein, a conformation in which the fluorescence is dynamically quenched in the excited-state lifetime, and a conformation leading to rapid quenching via nonfluorescent complex. The analysis by using the parameters acquired from the ensemble measurements for interphoton time distribution histograms and FCS autocorrelations by the single-molecule measurement revealed that interconversion in these three conformations took place with two characteristic time constants of several hundreds of nanoseconds and tens of microseconds. The advantage of the combination use of the ensemble measurements with the single-molecule detections for rather complex dynamic motions is discussed by integrating the experimental results with those obtained by molecular dynamics simulation.

  4. Significance of pregnancy test false negative results due to elevated levels of β-core fragment hCG.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah; Eapen, Saji; Smith, Peter; Warren, Graham; Zinaman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Very high levels of β-core fragment human chorionic gonadotrophin (βcf-hCG) are reported to potentially cause false negative results in point-of-care (POC)/over-the-counter (OTC) pregnancy tests. To investigate this further, women's daily early morning urine samples, collected prior to conception and during pregnancy, were analysed for intact, free β-, and βcf-hCG. The proportion of βcf-hCG was found to be related to that of hCG produced and in circulation. Therefore, best practice for accuracy testing of POC/OTC pregnancy tests would be to test devices against clinical samples containing high levels of βcf-hCG as well as standards spiked with biologically relevant ratios.

  5. ENSURF: multi-model sea level forecast - implementation and validation results for the IBIROOS and Western Mediterranean regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, B.; Brower, R.; Beckers, J.; Paradis, D.; Balseiro, C.; Lyons, K.; Cure, M.; Sotillo, M. G.; Hacket, B.; Verlaan, M.; Alvarez Fanjul, E.

    2011-04-01

    ENSURF (Ensemble SURge Forecast) is a multi-model application for sea level forecast that makes use of existing storm surge or circulation models today operational in Europe, as well as near-real time tide gauge data in the region, with the following main goals: - providing an easy access to existing forecasts, as well as to its performance and model validation, by means of an adequate visualization tool - generation of better forecasts of sea level, including confidence intervals, by means of the Bayesian Model Average Technique (BMA) The system was developed and implemented within ECOOP (C.No. 036355) European Project for the NOOS and the IBIROOS regions, based on MATROOS visualization tool developed by Deltares. Both systems are today operational at Deltares and Puertos del Estado respectively. The Bayesian Modelling Average technique generates an overall forecast probability density function (PDF) by making a weighted average of the individual forecasts PDF's; the weights represent the probability that a model will give the correct forecast PDF and are determined and updated operationally based on the performance of the models during a recent training period. This implies the technique needs the availability of sea level data from tide gauges in near-real time. Results of validation of the different models and BMA implementation for the main harbours will be presented for the IBIROOS and Western Mediterranean regions, where this kind of activity is performed for the first time. The work has proved to be useful to detect problems in some of the circulation models not previously well calibrated with sea level data, to identify the differences on baroclinic and barotropic models for sea level applications and to confirm the general improvement of the BMA forecasts.

  6. Disruption of Hox9,10,11 function results in cellular level lineage infidelity in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Drake, Keri A; Adam, Mike; Mahoney, Robert; Potter, S Steven

    2018-04-20

    Hox genes are important regulators of development. The 39 mammalian Hox genes have considerable functional overlap, greatly confounding their study. In this report, we generated mice with multiple combinations of paralogous and flanking Abd-B Hox gene mutations to investigate functional redundancies in kidney development. The resulting mice developed a number of kidney abnormalities, including hypoplasia, agenesis, and severe cysts, with distinct Hox functions observed in early metanephric kidney formation and nephron progenitor maintenance. Most surprising, however, was that extensive removal of Hox shared function in these kidneys resulted in cellular level lineage infidelity. Strikingly, mutant nephron tubules consisted of intermixed cells with proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and collecting duct identities, with some single cells expressing markers associated with more than one nephron segment. These results indicate that Hox genes are required for proper lineage selection/maintenance and full repression of genes involved in cell fate restriction in the developing kidney.

  7. Laboratory evaluation of the pressure water level data logger manufactured by Infinities USA, Inc.: results of pressure and temperature tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carnley, Mark V.

    2015-01-01

    The Pressure Water Level Data Logger manufactured by Infinities USA, Inc., was evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility for conformance with the manufacturer’s stated accuracy specifications for measuring pressure throughout the device’s operating temperature range and with the USGS accuracy requirements for water-level measurements. The Pressure Water Level Data Logger (Infinities Logger) is a submersible, sealed, water-level sensing device with an operating pressure range of 0 to 11.5 feet of water over a temperature range of −18 to 49 degrees Celsius. For the pressure range tested, the manufacturer’s accuracy specification of 0.1 percent of full scale pressure equals an accuracy of ±0.138 inch of water. Three Infinities Loggers were evaluated, and the testing procedures followed and results obtained are described in this report. On the basis of the test results, the device is poorly compensated for temperature. For the three Infinities Loggers, the mean pressure differences varied from –4.04 to 5.32 inches of water and were not within the manufacturer’s accuracy specification for pressure measurements made within the temperature-compensated range. The device did not meet the manufacturer’s stated accuracy specifications for pressure within its temperature-compensated operating range of –18 to 49 degrees Celsius or the USGS accuracy requirements of no more than 0.12 inch of water (0.01 foot of water) or 0.10 percent of reading, whichever is larger. The USGS accuracy requirements are routinely examined and reported when instruments are evaluated at the Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility. The estimated combined measurement uncertainty for the pressure cycling test was ±0.139 inch of water, and for temperature, the cycling test was ±0.127 inch of water for the three Infinities Loggers.

  8. High levels of opioid analgesic co-prescription among methadone maintenance treatment clients in British Columbia, Canada: Results from a population-level retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nosyk, Bohdan; Fischer, Benedikt; Sun, Huiying; Marsh, David C.; Kerr, Thomas; Rehm, Juergen T.; Anis, Aslam H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The nonmedical use of prescription opioids (PO) has increased dramatically in North America. Special consideration for PO prescription is required for individuals in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Our objective is to describe the prevalence and correlates of PO use among British Columbia (BC) MMT clients from 1996-2007. Methods This study was based on a linked, population-level medication dispensation database. All individuals receiving 30 days of continuous MMT for opioid dependence were included in the study. Key measurements included the proportion of clients receiving >7 days of a PO other than methadone during MMT from 1996 to 2007. Factors independently associated with PO co-prescription during MMT were assessed using generalized linear mixed effects regression. Results 16,248 individuals with 27,919 MMT episodes at least 30 days in duration were identified for the study period. Among them, 5,552 individuals (34.2%) received a total of 290,543 PO co-prescriptions during MMT. The majority (74.3%) of all PO dispensations >7 days originated from non-MMT physicians. The number of PO prescriptions per person-year nearly doubled between 1996 and 2006, driven by increases in morphine, hydromorphone and oxycodone dispensations. PO co-prescription was positively associated with female gender, older age, higher levels of medical co-morbidity as well as higher MMT dosage, adherence, and retention. Conclusion and Scientific Significance A large proportion of MMT clients in BC received co-occurring PO prescriptions, often from physicians and pharmacies not delivering MMT. Experimental evidence for the treatment of pain in MMT clients is required to guide clinical practice. PMID:24724883

  9. Effect of decreasing ideal protein levels on performance results and nitrogen efficiency of growing-finishing gilts.

    PubMed

    Millet, Sam; Aluwé, Marijke; De Paepe, Marc; De Brabander, Daniël L; Van Oeckel, Monique J

    2010-02-01

    This study examined the effect of decreasing ideal protein concentrations on performance and nutrient efficiency. The experimental diets contained 100%, 90%, 80% or 70% of the ideal dietary protein level (Diet 100%, 90%, 80% and 70%, respectively) estimated in previous experiments with pigs of the same genetic background. The four different treatments were divided among 16 pens of six pigs each. The average initial and final body weight were 20.8 +/- 1.1 and 107 +/- 3 kg, respectively. Three-phase feeding was applied (BW 20-40 kg, 40-70 kg and 70-110 kg). The dietary ileal digestible (ID) methionine + cystine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, valine, and leucine contents expressed as percent of ID lysine were 63, 72, 22, 60, 68, and > 100%, respectively. The lysine to protein ratio was kept constant at 6.8%. Between 21 and 106 kg BW the best performance was achieved on Diet 90%. Diet 70% led to significantly worse results. Although lean meat percentage did not differ, protein content of the carcass was lower on Diet 70% than on Diets 90% and 100%. Decreased protein concentrations increased crude protein efficiency and consequently decreased nitrogen excretion most at the 80% level. If protein varies together with digestible amino acid content, it can be concluded that Diet 80% may be the best choice for the environment and for profitability. If protein content stays at a fixed level, Diet 90% may be the safest choice.

  10. Common and Specific Protein Accumulation Patterns in Different Albino/Pale-Green Mutants Reveals Regulon Organization at the Proteome Level1[W

    PubMed Central

    Motohashi, Reiko; Rödiger, Anja; Agne, Birgit; Baerenfaller, Katja; Baginsky, Sacha

    2012-01-01

    Research interest in proteomics is increasingly shifting toward the reverse genetic characterization of gene function at the proteome level. In plants, several distinct gene defects perturb photosynthetic capacity, resulting in the loss of chlorophyll and an albino or pale-green phenotype. Because photosynthesis is interconnected with the entire plant metabolism and its regulation, all albino plants share common characteristics that are determined by the switch from autotrophic to heterotrophic growth. Reverse genetic characterizations of such plants often cannot distinguish between specific consequences of a gene defect from generic effects in response to perturbations in photosynthetic capacity. Here, we set out to define common and specific features of protein accumulation in three different albino/pale-green plant lines. Using quantitative proteomics, we report a common molecular phenotype that connects the loss of photosynthetic capacity with other chloroplast and cellular functions, such as protein folding and stability, plastid protein import, and the expression of stress-related genes. Surprisingly, we do not find significant differences in the expression of key transcriptional regulators, suggesting that substantial regulation occurs at the posttranscriptional level. We examine the influence of different normalization schemes on the quantitative proteomics data and report all identified proteins along with their fold changes and P values in albino plants in comparison with the wild type. Our analysis provides initial guidance for the distinction between general and specific adaptations of the proteome in photosynthesis-impaired plants. PMID:23027667

  11. High-resolution monitoring across the soil-groundwater interface - Revealing small-scale hydrochemical patterns with a novel multi-level well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassen, Niklas; Griebler, Christian; Stumpp, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Biogeochemical turnover processes in the subsurface are highly variable both in time and space. In order to capture this variability, high resolution monitoring systems are required. Particular in riparian zones the understanding of small-scale biogeochemical processes is of interest, as they are regarded as important buffer zones for nutrients and contaminants with high turnover rates. To date, riparian research has focused on influences of groundwater-surface water interactions on element cycling, but little is known about processes occurring at the interface between the saturated and the unsaturated zone during dynamic flow conditions. Therefore, we developed a new type of high resolution multi-level well (HR-MLW) that has been installed in the riparian zone of the Selke river. This HR-MLW for the first time enables to derive water samples both from the unsaturated and the saturated zone across one vertical profile with a spatial vertical resolution of 0.05 to 0.5 m to a depth of 4 m b.l.s. Water samples from the unsaturated zone are extracted via suction cup sampling. Samples from the saturated zone are withdrawn through glass filters and steel capillaries. Both, ceramic cups and glass filters, are installed along a 1" HDPE piezometer tube. First high resolution hydrochemical profiles revealed a distinct depth-zonation in the riparian alluvial aquifer. A shallow zone beneath the water table carried a signature isotopically and hydrochemically similar to the nearby river, while layers below 1.5 m were influenced by regional groundwater. This zonation showed temporal dynamics related to groundwater table fluctuations and microbial turnover processes. The HR-MLW delivered new insight into mixing and turnover processes between riverwater and groundwater in riparian zones, both in a temporal and spatial dimension. With these new insights, we are able to improve our understanding of dynamic turnover processes at the soil - groundwater interface and of surface

  12. Transcriptional Activities of the Microbial Consortium Living with the Marine Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium Reveal Potential Roles in Community-Level Nitrogen Cycling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael D; Webb, Eric A; Walworth, Nathan G; Fu, Fei-Xue; Held, Noelle A; Saito, Mak A; Hutchins, David A

    2018-01-01

    Trichodesmium is a globally distributed cyanobacterium whose nitrogen-fixing capability fuels primary production in warm oligotrophic oceans. Like many photoautotrophs, Trichodesmium serves as a host to various other microorganisms, yet little is known about how this associated community modulates fluxes of environmentally relevant chemical species into and out of the supraorganismal structure. Here, we utilized metatranscriptomics to examine gene expression activities of microbial communities associated with Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) using laboratory-maintained enrichment cultures that have previously been shown to harbor microbial communities similar to those of natural populations. In enrichments maintained under two distinct CO 2 concentrations for ∼8 years, the community transcriptional profiles were found to be specific to the treatment, demonstrating a restructuring of overall gene expression had occurred. Some of this restructuring involved significant increases in community respiration-related transcripts under elevated CO 2 , potentially facilitating the corresponding measured increases in host nitrogen fixation rates. Particularly of note, in both treatments, community transcripts involved in the reduction of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide were detected, suggesting the associated organisms may play a role in colony-level nitrogen cycling. Lastly, a taxon-specific analysis revealed distinct ecological niches of consistently cooccurring major taxa that may enable, or even encourage, the stable cohabitation of a diverse community within Trichodesmium consortia. IMPORTANCE Trichodesmium is a genus of globally distributed, nitrogen-fixing marine cyanobacteria. As a source of new nitrogen in otherwise nitrogen-deficient systems, these organisms help fuel carbon fixation carried out by other more abundant photoautotrophs and thereby have significant roles in global nitrogen and carbon cycling. Members of the Trichodesmium genus tend to

  13. ENSURF: multi-model sea level forecast - implementation and validation results for the IBIROOS and Western Mediterranean regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, B.; Brouwer, R.; Beckers, J.; Paradis, D.; Balseiro, C.; Lyons, K.; Cure, M.; Sotillo, M. G.; Hackett, B.; Verlaan, M.; Fanjul, E. A.

    2012-03-01

    ENSURF (Ensemble SURge Forecast) is a multi-model application for sea level forecast that makes use of several storm surge or circulation models and near-real time tide gauge data in the region, with the following main goals: 1. providing easy access to existing forecasts, as well as to its performance and model validation, by means of an adequate visualization tool; 2. generation of better forecasts of sea level, including confidence intervals, by means of the Bayesian Model Average technique (BMA). The Bayesian Model Average technique generates an overall forecast probability density function (PDF) by making a weighted average of the individual forecasts PDF's; the weights represent the Bayesian likelihood that a model will give the correct forecast and are continuously updated based on the performance of the models during a recent training period. This implies the technique needs the availability of sea level data from tide gauges in near-real time. The system was implemented for the European Atlantic facade (IBIROOS region) and Western Mediterranean coast based on the MATROOS visualization tool developed by Deltares. Results of validation of the different models and BMA implementation for the main harbours are presented for these regions where this kind of activity is performed for the first time. The system is currently operational at Puertos del Estado and has proved to be useful in the detection of calibration problems in some of the circulation models, in the identification of the systematic differences between baroclinic and barotropic models for sea level forecasts and to demonstrate the feasibility of providing an overall probabilistic forecast, based on the BMA method.

  14. Long Term Water Level and Chemistry Evolution in Groundwater of the Mississippi Embayment, Arkansas, USA: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, K.; Dowling, C. B.; Moraru, C.; Hannigan, R. E.

    2008-12-01

    The Mississippi Embayment, located in the southeastern U.S., is a syncline formed by the northward excursion of the Gulf of Coastal Plain. Structurally, the Mississippi Embayment is a hydrogeological basin consisting of six regional aquifers. These productive aquifers yield good-quality waters. The Mississippi Embayment Regional Ground Water Study group located at Arkansas State University compiled and organized the available water chemistry and groundwater level data from the USGS groundwater monitoring database. The uppermost unconfined horizon forms the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer (ALVM), one of the largest unconfined aquifers in the world. The Holocene and Pleistocene ALVM is formed from sand, gravel, and loess. The majority of the groundwater wells (approximately 80%) are drilled in the ALVM. As the groundwater levels have fallen in the unconfined ALVM, more groundwater wells are drilled in the deeper aquifers-the Upper, Middle, and Lower Claiborne Aquifers. The Ecocene Upper Claiborne Aquifer protolith is sand, silt, and clay while the Eocene Middle Claiborne and Lower Claiborne aquifers are sand and minor clay. We focused our investigation of the spatial and temporal evolution of groundwater in the Arkansas section of the Mississippi Embayment by using wells with long term monitoring records (1928 - 2005). Overall, the groundwater levels of the unconfined aquifer (ALVM) have decreased; we have not yet evaluated the lower aquifer water level changes. Attention was paid to rock-water interactions along flowpaths in the ALVM and Upper Claiborne aquifers, and to temporal changes at specific sampling sites. The study is utilizing groundwater pH, cation, anion, and nutrient data in the programs AquaChem and PHREEQE to describe mineral and CO2 saturations in groundwater. First results indicate that the modeling allows the identification of different processes (CO2 pressure, calcite saturation) that control distinct geochemical provinces, e.g. urban

  15. Decision-making Processes among Prostate Cancer Survivors with Rising PSA Levels: Results from a Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Megan Johnson; Nelson, Christian J; Peters, Ellen; Slovin, Susan F; Hall, Simon J; Hall, Matt; Herrera, Phapichaya Chaoprang; Leventhal, Elaine A; Leventhal, Howard; Diefenbach, Michael A

    2015-05-01

    Prostate cancer survivors with a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level have few treatment options, experience a heightened state of uncertainty about their disease trajectory that might include the possibility of cancer metastasis and death, and often experience elevated levels of distress as they have to deal with a disease they thought they had conquered. Guided by self-regulation theory, the present study examined the cognitive and affective processes involved in shared decision making between physicians and patients who experience a rising PSA after definitive treatment for prostate cancer. In-depth interviews were conducted with 34 prostate cancer survivors who had been diagnosed with a rising PSA (i.e., biochemical failure) within the past 12 months. Survivors were asked about their experiences and affective responses after being diagnosed with a rising PSA and while weighing potential treatment options. In addition, patients were asked about their decision-making process for the initial prostate cancer treatment. Compared with the initial diagnosis, survivors with a rising PSA reported increased negative affect following their diagnosis, concern about the treatability of their disease, increased planning and health behavior change, heightened levels of worry preceding doctor appointments (especially prior to the discussion of PSA testing results), and a strong reliance on physicians' treatment recommendations. Prostate cancer survivors' decision-making processes for the treatment of a rising PSA are markedly different from those of the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer. Because patients experience heightened distress and rely more heavily on their physicians' recommendations with a rising PSA, interactions with the health care provider provide an excellent opportunity to address and assist patients with managing the uncertainty and distress inherent with rising PSA levels. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Autogenic incision and terrace formation resulting from abrupt late-glacial base-level fall, lower Chippewa River, Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Douglas J.; Larson, Phillip H.; Jol, Harry M.; Running, Garry L.; Loope, Henry M.; Goble, Ronald J.

    2016-08-01

    A paucity of research exists regarding the millennial-scale response of inland alluvial streams to abrupt base-level fall. Studies of modern systems indicate that, over short time scales, the response is a diffusion-like process of upstream-propagating incision. In contrast, evidence from the lower Chippewa River (LCR), located in the upper Midwest of the USA, suggests that autogenic controls operating over time scales of several millennia can overwhelm diffusion, resulting in incision that is prolonged and episodic. During the Last Glacial Maximum, the LCR drained the Chippewa Lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet to the glacial upper Mississippi River (UMR). As a meltwater stream, it aggraded and filled its valley with glacial outwash, as did its largest tributaries, which were also meltwater streams. Its nonglacial tributaries aggraded, too, filling their valleys with locally derived sediment. During deglaciation, the UMR incised at least twice, abruptly lowering the LCR's base level - 15 m at 16 ka or earlier and an additional 40 m at ca. 13.4 ka. Each of these base-level falls initiated incision of the LCR, led by upstream migrating knickpoints. The propagation of incision has, however, been a lengthy process. The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of terrace alluvium indicate that, by 13.5 ka, incision had advanced up the LCR only 15 km, and by 9 ka, only 55 km. The process has also been episodic, resulting in the formation of fill-cut terraces (inferred from GPR surveys and exposures of terrace alluvium) that are younger and more numerous in the upstream direction. Autogenic increases in sediment load and autogenic bed armoring, the result of periodic tributary-stream rejuvenation and preferential winnowing of fines by the incising river, may have periodically caused knickpoint migration and incision to slow and possibly stop, allowing lateral erosion and floodplain formation to dominate. A decline in sediment flux from stabilizing incised tributary

  17. Testing the efficiency of plant artificial microRNAs by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana reveals additional action at the translational level

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shi; Pilot, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) have become an important tool to assess gene functions due to their high efficiency and specificity to decrease target gene expression. Based on the observed degree of complementarity between microRNAs (miRNAs) and their targets, it was widely accepted that plant miRNAs act at the mRNA stability level, while the animal miRNAs act at the translational level. Contrary to these canonical dogmas, recent evidence suggests that both plant and animal miRNAs act at both levels. Nevertheless, it is still impossible to predict the effect of an artificial miRNA on the stability or translation of the target mRNA in plants. Consequently, identifying and discarding inefficient amiRNAs prior to stable plant transformation would help getting suppressed mutants faster and at reduced cost. We designed and tested a method using transient expression of amiRNAs and the corresponding target genes in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves to test the efficacy of amiRNAs for suppression of the target protein accumulation. The ability of the amiRNAs to suppress the target gene expression in N. benthamiana was then compared to that in stably transformed Arabidopsis. It was found that the efficacy of 16 amiRNAs, targeting a total of four genes, varied greatly. The effects of amiRNAs on target mRNA accumulation did not always correlate with target protein accumulation or the corresponding phenotypes, while a similar trend of the silencing efficacy of amiRNAs could be observed between N. benthamiana and stably transformed Arabidopsis. Our results showed that, similar to endogenous plant miRNAs, plant amiRNAs could act at the translational level, a property needed to be taken into account when testing the efficacy of individual amiRNAs. Preliminary tests in N. benthamiana can help determine which amiRNA would be the most likely to suppress target gene expression in stably transformed plants. PMID:25477887

  18. Measuring Outcomes in a Community Resilience Program: A New Metric for Evaluating Results at the Household Level

    PubMed Central

    Eisenman, David P.; Adams, Rachel M.; Rivard, Helene

    2016-01-01

    Community resilience programs require metrics for evaluation but none exist for measuring outcomes at the household and neighborhood level. Objectives: We develop and describe a new index, the LACCDR index of community resilience, to examine how resilience varied across communities at baseline, prior to implementation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR). Methods: We surveyed 4700 adult residents in the sixteen LACCDR communities in English, Spanish and Korean. Each of the survey domains were selected a priori as outcome indicators aligned to the theoretical levers of community resilience. Survey questions were drawn and adapted from published studies and national surveys. Results: Factor analysis demonstrated five separate factors composed from 18 items and explaining 46.7% of the variance. The factors were characterized as community engagement, emergency supplies, communication with neighbors, civic engagement, and collective efficacy. Baseline results for the 16 communities are provided. Conclusions: We conclude that the LACCDR community resilience index can be used to measure resilience program outcomes at the neighborhood and household levels. PMID:27807510

  19. SNP Design from 454 Sequencing of Podosphaera plantaginis Transcriptome Reveals a Genetically Diverse Pathogen Metapopulation with High Levels of Mixed-Genotype Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tollenaere, Charlotte; Susi, Hanna; Nokso-Koivisto, Jussi; Koskinen, Patrik; Tack, Ayco; Auvinen, Petri; Paulin, Lars; Frilander, Mikko J.; Lehtonen, Rainer; Laine, Anna-Liisa

    2012-01-01

    Background Molecular tools may greatly improve our understanding of pathogen evolution and epidemiology but technical constraints have hindered the development of genetic resources for parasites compared to free-living organisms. This study aims at developing molecular tools for Podosphaera plantaginis, an obligate fungal pathogen of Plantago lanceolata. This interaction has been intensively studied in the Åland archipelago of Finland with epidemiological data collected from over 4,000 host populations annually since year 2001. Principal Findings A cDNA library of a pooled sample of fungal conidia was sequenced on the 454 GS-FLX platform. Over 549,411 reads were obtained and annotated into 45,245 contigs. Annotation data was acquired for 65.2% of the assembled sequences. The transcriptome assembly was screened for SNP loci, as well as for functionally important genes (mating-type genes and potential effector proteins). A genotyping assay of 27 SNP loci was designed and tested on 380 infected leaf samples from 80 populations within the Åland archipelago. With this panel we identified 85 multilocus genotypes (MLG) with uneven frequencies across the pathogen metapopulation. Approximately half of the sampled populations contain polymorphism. Our genotyping protocol revealed mixed-genotype infection within a single host leaf to be common. Mixed infection has been proposed as one of the main drivers of pathogen evolution, and hence may be an important process in this pathosystem. Significance The developed SNP panel offers exciting research perspectives for future studies in this well-characterized pathosystem. Also, the transcriptome provides an invaluable novel genomic resource for powdery mildews, which cause significant yield losses on commercially important crops annually. Furthermore, the features that render genetic studies in this system a challenge are shared with the majority of obligate parasitic species, and hence our results provide methodological insights

  20. Characterization of the Vaginal Microbiota of Ewes and Cows Reveals a Unique Microbiota with Low Levels of Lactobacilli and Near-Neutral pH

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Jeffrey D.; Lachman, Medora; Westveer, Kelsey; O’Neill, Thomas; Geary, Thomas; Kott, Rodney W.; Berardinelli, James G.; Hatfield, Patrick G.; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Roberts, Andy; Yeoman, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of common reproductive disorders in livestock involve bacterial infection, very little is known about their normal vaginal microbiota. Therefore, we sought to determine the species composition of sheep and cattle vaginal microbiota. Twenty Rambouillet ewes and twenty crossbred cows varying in age and reproductive status were sampled by ectocervicovaginal lavage. We amplified and sequenced the V3–V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) contents yielding a total of 907,667 high-quality reads. Good’s Coverage estimates indicated that we obtained data on 98 ± 0.01% of the total microbial genera present in each sample. Cow and ewe vaginal microbiota displayed few differences. Cow microbiota exhibited greater (P ≤ 0.05) α-diversity compared to the ewe microbiota. Both livestock species differed (P ≤ 0.05) from all previously reported vaginal communities. While bacteria were numerically dominant, Archaea were detected in 95% of cow and ewe samples, mainly of the order Desulfurococcales. Both ewes and cows were predominately colonized by the bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Proteobacteria. The most abundant genera were Aggregatibacter spp., and Streptobacillus spp. Lactobacillus spp. were detected in 80% of ewe and 90% of cow samples, but only at very low abundances. Bacteria previously described from culture-based studies as common to the cow and ewe vaginal tract, except for Escherichia, were variably present, and only in low abundance. Ewe and cow pH differed (P ≤ 0.05), with means (±SD) of 6.7 ± 0.38 and 7.3 ± 0.63, respectively. In conclusion, 16S rRNA sequencing of cow and ewe vaginal ectocervicovaginal lavages showed that cow and ewe vaginal microbiota differ from culture-led results, revealing a microbiota distinct from previously described vaginal ecosystems. PMID:26664918

  1. Advanced Running Performance by Genetic Predisposition in Male Dummerstorf Marathon Mice (DUhTP) Reveals Higher Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein (SREBP) Related mRNA Expression in the Liver and Higher Serum Levels of Progesterone

    PubMed Central

    Brenmoehl, Julia; Walz, Christina; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Schwerin, Manfred; Fuellen, Georg; Hoeflich, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Long-term-selected DUhTP mice represent a non-inbred model for inborn physical high-performance without previous training. Abundance of hepatic mRNA in 70-day male DUhTP and control mice was analyzed using the Affymetrix mouse array 430A 2.0. Differential expression analysis with PLIER corrected data was performed using AltAnalyze. Searching for over-representation in biochemical pathways revealed cholesterol metabolism being most prominently affected in DUhTP compared to unselected control mice. Furthermore, pathway analysis by AltAnalyze plus PathVisio indicated significant induction of glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis and cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver of DUhTP mice versus unselected control mice. In contrast, gluconeogenesis was partially inactivated as judged from the analysis of hepatic mRNA transcript abundance in DUhTP mice. Analysis of mRNA transcripts related to steroid hormone metabolism inferred elevated synthesis of progesterone and reduced levels of sex steroids. Abundance of steroid delta isomerase-5 mRNA (Hsd3b5, FC 4.97) was increased and steroid 17-alpha-monooxygenase mRNA (Cyp17a1, FC -11.6) was massively diminished in the liver of DUhTP mice. Assessment of steroid profiles by LC-MS revealed increased levels of progesterone and decreased levels of sex steroids in serum from DUhTP mice versus controls. Analysis of hepatic mRNA transcript abundance indicates that sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) may play a major role in metabolic pathway activation in the marathon mouse model DUhTP. Thus, results from bioinformatics modeling of hepatic mRNA transcript abundance correlated with direct steroid analysis by mass spectrometry and further indicated functions of SREBP-1 and steroid hormones for endurance performance in DUhTP mice. PMID:26799318

  2. Investigation into Low-Level Anti-Rubella Virus IgG Results Reported by Commercial Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Arachchi, Nilukshi; Cai, Jingjing; Sahin, Terri; Wilson, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, commercial anti-rubella virus IgG assays have been calibrated against a WHO International Standard and results have been reported in international units per milliliter (IU/ml). Laboratories testing routine patients' samples collected 100 samples that gave anti-rubella virus IgG results of 40 IU/ml or less from each of five different commercial immunoassays (CIA). The total of 500 quantitative results obtained from 100 samples from each CIA were compared with results obtained from an in-house enzyme immunoassay (IH-EIA) calibrated using the WHO standard. All 500 samples were screened using a hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI). Any sample having an HAI titer of 1:8 or less was assigned a negative anti-rubella virus antibody status. If the HAI titer was greater than 1:8, the sample was tested in an immunoblot (IB) assay. If the IB result was negative, the sample was assigned a negative anti-rubella virus IgG status; otherwise, the sample was assigned a positive status. Concordance between the CIA qualitative results and the assigned negative status ranged from 50.0 to 93.8% and 74.5 to 97.8% for the assigned positive status. Using a receiver operating characteristic analysis with the cutoff set at 10 IU/ml, the estimated sensitivity and specificity ranged from 70.2 to 91.2% and 65.9 to 100%, respectively. There was poor correlation between the quantitative CIA results and those obtained by the IH-EIA, with the coefficient of determination (R2) ranging from 0.002 to 0.413. Although CIAs have been calibrated with the same international standard for more than 2 decades, the level of standardization continues to be poor. It may be time for the scientific community to reevaluate the relevance of quantification of anti-rubella virus IgG. PMID:23254301

  3. Investigation into low-level anti-rubella virus IgG results reported by commercial immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Dimech, Wayne; Arachchi, Nilukshi; Cai, Jingjing; Sahin, Terri; Wilson, Kim

    2013-02-01

    Since the 1980s, commercial anti-rubella virus IgG assays have been calibrated against a WHO International Standard and results have been reported in international units per milliliter (IU/ml). Laboratories testing routine patients' samples collected 100 samples that gave anti-rubella virus IgG results of 40 IU/ml or less from each of five different commercial immunoassays (CIA). The total of 500 quantitative results obtained from 100 samples from each CIA were compared with results obtained from an in-house enzyme immunoassay (IH-EIA) calibrated using the WHO standard. All 500 samples were screened using a hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI). Any sample having an HAI titer of 1:8 or less was assigned a negative anti-rubella virus antibody status. If the HAI titer was greater than 1:8, the sample was tested in an immunoblot (IB) assay. If the IB result was negative, the sample was assigned a negative anti-rubella virus IgG status; otherwise, the sample was assigned a positive status. Concordance between the CIA qualitative results and the assigned negative status ranged from 50.0 to 93.8% and 74.5 to 97.8% for the assigned positive status. Using a receiver operating characteristic analysis with the cutoff set at 10 IU/ml, the estimated sensitivity and specificity ranged from 70.2 to 91.2% and 65.9 to 100%, respectively. There was poor correlation between the quantitative CIA results and those obtained by the IH-EIA, with the coefficient of determination (R(2)) ranging from 0.002 to 0.413. Although CIAs have been calibrated with the same international standard for more than 2 decades, the level of standardization continues to be poor. It may be time for the scientific community to reevaluate the relevance of quantification of anti-rubella virus IgG.

  4. Revealing Rembrandt

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our results emphasized the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt's portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings. PMID:24795552

  5. Evaluating the effectiveness of aromatherapy in reducing levels of anxiety in palliative care patients: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Gaye

    2006-05-01

    Results of the pilot study of the four counties randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage with 1% Santalum album (Sandalwood) (group A) when compared with massage with Sweet Almond Carrier oil, (group B) or Sandalwood oil via an aromastone (group C), in reducing levels of anxiety in palliative care. The aims of the pilot study were to evaluate the effectiveness of aromatherapy in reducing anxiety in patients receiving palliative care in four counties. The primary end points of the research were to report a statistically significant difference in anxiety scores between experimental group (B) and comparison groups (A and C) and to influence the integration of aromatherapy into all aspects of palliative care. The limited data of the pilot study (N=34) tested the logistics of the research, particularly the 25% attrition rate and the robustness of the data collection tools. The results were not substantial enough to generate coherent statistics. Therefore no assumptions could be drawn from these results due to the inconsistencies that were bound to occur in such a small sample. However, the results do seem to support the notion that Sandalwood oil is effective in reducing anxiety.

  6. Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthase inhibition results in unique perturbation-specific effects observed on transcript, protein and metabolite levels

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of severe human malaria, has evolved to become resistant to previously successful antimalarial chemotherapies, most notably chloroquine and the antifolates. The prevalence of resistant strains has necessitated the discovery and development of new chemical entities with novel modes-of-action. Although much effort has been invested in the creation of analogues based on existing drugs and the screening of chemical and natural compound libraries, a crucial shortcoming in current Plasmodial drug discovery efforts remains the lack of an extensive set of novel, validated drug targets. A requirement of these targets (or the pathways in which they function) is that they prove essential for parasite survival. The polyamine biosynthetic pathway, responsible for the metabolism of highly abundant amines crucial for parasite growth, proliferation and differentiation, is currently under investigation as an antimalarial target. Chemotherapeutic strategies targeting this pathway have been successfully utilized for the treatment of Trypanosomes causing West African sleeping sickness. In order to further evaluate polyamine depletion as possible antimalarial intervention, the consequences of inhibiting P. falciparum spermidine synthase (PfSpdSyn) were examined on a morphological, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic level. Results Morphological analysis of P. falciparum 3D7 following application of the PfSpdSyn inhibitor cyclohexylamine confirmed that parasite development was completely arrested at the early trophozoite stage. This is in contrast to untreated parasites which progressed to late trophozoites at comparable time points. Global gene expression analyses confirmed a transcriptional arrest in the parasite. Several of the differentially expressed genes mapped to the polyamine biosynthetic and associated metabolic pathways. Differential expression of corresponding parasite proteins involved in polyamine biosynthesis was

  7. What spectroscopy reveals concerning the Mn oxidation levels in the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II: X-ray to near infra-red.

    PubMed

    Pace, Ron J; Jin, Lu; Stranger, Rob

    2012-08-28

    Photosystem II (PS II), found in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, catalyses the most energetically demanding reaction in nature, the oxidation of water to molecular oxygen and protons. The water oxidase in PS II contains a Mn(4)Ca cluster (oxygen evolving complex, OEC), whose catalytic mechanism has been extensively investigated but is still unresolved. In particular the precise Mn oxidation levels through which the cluster cycles during functional turnover are still contentious. In this, the first of several planned parts, we examine a broad range of published data relating to this question, while considering the recent atomic resolution PS II crystal structure of Umena et al. (Nature, 2011, 473, 55). Results from X-ray, UV-Vis and NIR spectroscopies are considered, using an approach that is mainly empirical, by comparison with published data from known model systems, but with some reliance on computational or other theoretical considerations. The intention is to survey the extent to which these data yield a consistent picture of the Mn oxidation states in functional PS II - in particular, to test their consistency with two current proposals for the mean redox levels of the OEC during turnover; the so called 'high' and 'low' oxidation state paradigms. These systematically differ by two oxidation equivalents throughout the redox accumulating catalytic S state cycle (states S(0)···S(3)). In summary, we find that the data, in total, substantially favor the low oxidation proposal, particularly as a result of the new analyses we present. The low oxidation state scheme is able to resolve a number of previously 'anomalous' results in the observed UV-Visible S state turnover spectral differences and in the resonant inelastic X-ray spectroscopy (RIXS) of the Mn pre-edge region of the S(1) and S(2) states. Further, the low oxidation paradigm is able to provide a 'natural' explanation for the known sensitivity of the OEC Mn cluster to cryogenic near infra-red (NIR

  8. Microcystin-leucine arginine mediates apoptosis and engulfment of Leydig cell by testicular macrophages resulting in reduced serum testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yabing; Wang, Jing; Chen, Xiang; Li, Dongmei; Han, Xiaodong

    2018-06-01

    Microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) causes decline of serum testosterone levels resulting in impaired spermatogenesis; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of MC-LR exposure on the number of Leydig cells (LCs) in testis. Following chronic low dose exposure to MC-LR, the number of LCs was markedly decreased while macrophages were significantly increased. Then, we established a co-culture system to study the interaction between macrophages and LCs in the presence of MC-LR. No significant apoptosis of LCs cultured alone was observed after MC-LR (< 5 000 nM) treatment; however, apoptosis was robustly increased when LCs were co-cultured with macrophages in the presence of MC-LR. Further studies identified that MC-LR could stimulate macrophage to produce TNF-α, and secreted TNF-α induced LC apoptosis by binding to the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) on the LCs and thus activating reactive oxygen species (ROS)-p38MAPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, we also examined increased expression of Axl receptor and growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6) in macrophages after MC-LR treatment. GAS6 mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic LCs by binding to the Axl receptor on macrophages and phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) on apoptotic LCs. Together, these results suggested that reduced serum testosterone levels may be associated with decrease of LCs as a result of LC apoptosis and phagocytosis by immune cells in MC-LR-treated mice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Larval development assays reveal the presence of sub-populations showing high- and low-level resistance in a monepantel (Zolvix®)-resistant isolate of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Raza, Ali; Lamb, Jane; Chambers, Michael; Hunt, Peter W; Kotze, Andrew C

    2016-04-15

    Resistance to the amino-acetonitrile derivative monepantel has been reported in several species of gastrointestinal nematodes over recent years. We were interested in the use of in vitro assays with free-living worm life-stages to detect resistance to this drug. We therefore used larval development and larval migration assays to examine dose response relationships for the drug against two susceptible and one resistant isolate of Haemonchus contortus. The resistant isolate was established by laboratory propagation of the survivors of a field treatment with Zolvix(®) that had originally resulted in a drug efficacy of over 99%. Drug efficacy against this field-derived laboratory-propagated resistant isolate in vivo was approximately 15%. The larval development assay proved able to discriminate between the susceptible and resistant isolates, with larvae of the resistant isolate showing an ability to develop at higher drug concentrations than the two susceptible isolates. The resistant isolate showed the presence of two distinct subpopulations, separated by a plateau in the dose-response curve. Sub-population 1 (approximately 40% of the total population) showed a low level of resistance with an IC50 increased approximately 7-fold compared to the baseline susceptible isolate, while sub-population 2 (the remaining 60% of the total population) showed an IC50 increased over 1000-fold compared to the baseline susceptible isolate. This level of resistance is unusually high for any gastrointestinal nematode species in drug dose-response in vitro assays. In contrast, the migration assay could not discriminate between the three isolates, with migration not reduced to zero at any of the drug concentrations tested. This study demonstrates that a larval development assay is able to detect resistance to monepantel in H. contortus, and that resistance can exist in two distinct forms. This suggests that at least two separate monepantel resistance mechanisms are acting within the worm

  10. Preliminary results of fluid dynamic model calculation of convective motion induced by solar heating at the Venus cloud top level.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yeon Joo; Imamura, Takeshi; Maejima, Yasumitsu; Sugiyama, Ko-ichiro

    The thick cloud layer of Venus reflects solar radiation effectively, resulting in a Bond albedo of 76% (Moroz et al., 1985). Most of the incoming solar flux is absorbed in the upper cloud layer at 60-70 km altitude. An unknown UV absorber is a major sink of the solar energy at the cloud top level. It produces about 40-60% of the total solar heating near the cloud tops, depending on its vertical structure (Crisp et al., 1986; Lee et al., in preparation). UV images of Venus show a clear difference in morphology between laminar flow shaped clouds on the morning side and convective-like cells on the afternoon side of the planet in the equatorial region (Titov et al., 2012). This difference is probably related to strong solar heating at the cloud tops at the sub-solar point, rather than the influence from deeper level convection in the low and middle cloud layers (Imamura et al., 2014). Also, small difference in cloud top structures may trigger horizontal convection at this altitude, because various cloud top structures can significantly alter the solar heating and thermal cooling rates at the cloud tops (Lee et al., in preparation). Performing radiative forcing calculations for various cloud top structures using a radiative transfer model (SHDOM), we investigate the effect of solar heating at the cloud tops on atmospheric dynamics. We use CReSS (Cloud Resolving Storm Simulator), and consider the altitude range from 35 km to 90 km, covering a full cloud deck.

  11. Ambient Vibration Tests of an Arch Dam with Different Reservoir Water Levels: Experimental Results and Comparison with Finite Element Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Ranieri, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the ambient vibration tests performed in an arch dam in two different working conditions in order to assess the effect produced by two different reservoir water levels on the structural vibration properties. The study consists of an experimental part and a numerical part. The experimental tests were carried out in two different periods of the year, at the beginning of autumn (October 2012) and at the end of winter (March 2013), respectively. The measurements were performed using a fast technique based on asynchronous records of microtremor time-series. In-contact single-station measurements were done by means of one single high resolution triaxial tromometer and two low-frequency seismometers, placed in different points of the structure. The Standard Spectral Ratio method has been used to evaluate the natural frequencies of vibration of the structure. A 3D finite element model of the arch dam-reservoir-foundation system has been developed to verify analytically determined vibration properties, such as natural frequencies and mode shapes, and their changes linked to water level with the experimental results. PMID:25003146

  12. The risk of cancer as a result of elevated levels of nitrate in drinking water and vegetables in Central India.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Pinky; Labhasetwar, Pawan; Nagarnaik, Pranav; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of nitrates on the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer development. Nitrate converted to nitrite under reducing conditions of gut results in the formation of N-nitrosamines which are linked to an increased gastric cancer risk. A population of 234 individuals with 78 cases of GI cancer and 156 controls residing at urban and rural settings in Nagpur and Bhandara districts of India were studied for 2 years using a case-control study. A detailed survey of 16 predictor variables using Formhub software was carried out. Nitrate concentrations in vegetables and primary drinking water supplies were measured. The logistic regression model showed that nitrate was statistically significant in predicting increasing risk of cancer when potential confounders were kept at base level (P value of 0.001 nitrate in drinking water; 0.003 for nitrate in vegetable) at P < 0.01. Exposure to nitrate in drinking water at >45 mg/L level of nitrate was associated with a higher risk of GI cancers. Analysis suggests that nitrate concentration in drinking water was found statistically significant in predicting cancer risk with an odds ratio of 1.20.

  13. Measuring Outcomes in a Community Resilience Program: A New Metric for Evaluating Results at the Household Level.

    PubMed

    Eisenman, David P; Adams, Rachel M; Rivard, Helene

    2016-09-28

    Community resilience programs require metrics for evaluation but none exist for measuring outcomes at the household and neighborhood level. We develop and describe a new index, the LACCDR index of community resilience, to examine how resilience varied across communities at baseline, prior to implementation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR). We surveyed 4700 adult residents in the sixteen LACCDR communities in English, Spanish and Korean. Each of the survey domains were selected a priori as outcome indicators aligned to the theoretical levers of community resilience. Survey questions were drawn and adapted from published studies and national surveys. Factor analysis demonstrated five separate factors composed from 18 items and explaining 46.7% of the variance. The factors were characterized as community engagement, emergency supplies, communication with neighbors, civic engagement, and collective efficacy. Baseline results for the 16 communities are provided. We conclude that the LACCDR community resilience index can be used to measure resilience program outcomes at the neighborhood and household levels.

  14. Protein-Level Integration Strategy of Multiengine MS Spectra Search Results for Higher Confidence and Sequence Coverage.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Panpan; Zhong, Jiayong; Liu, Wanting; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Gong

    2017-12-01

    Multiple search engines based on various models have been developed to search MS/MS spectra against a reference database, providing different results for the same data set. How to integrate these results efficiently with minimal compromise on false discoveries is an open question due to the lack of an independent, reliable, and highly sensitive standard. We took the advantage of the translating mRNA sequencing (RNC-seq) result as a standard to evaluate the integration strategies of the protein identifications from various search engines. We used seven mainstream search engines (Andromeda, Mascot, OMSSA, X!Tandem, pFind, InsPecT, and ProVerB) to search the same label-free MS data sets of human cell lines Hep3B, MHCCLM3, and MHCC97H from the Chinese C-HPP Consortium for Chromosomes 1, 8, and 20. As expected, the union of seven engines resulted in a boosted false identification, whereas the intersection of seven engines remarkably decreased the identification power. We found that identifications of at least two out of seven engines resulted in maximizing the protein identification power while minimizing the ratio of suspicious/translation-supported identifications (STR), as monitored by our STR index, based on RNC-Seq. Furthermore, this strategy also significantly improves the peptides coverage of the protein amino acid sequence. In summary, we demonstrated a simple strategy to significantly improve the performance for shotgun mass spectrometry by protein-level integrating multiple search engines, maximizing the utilization of the current MS spectra without additional experimental work.

  15. Group-Level Progressive Alterations in Brain Connectivity Patterns Revealed by Diffusion-Tensor Brain Networks across Severity Stages in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rasero, Javier; Alonso-Montes, Carmen; Diez, Ibai; Olabarrieta-Landa, Laiene; Remaki, Lakhdar; Escudero, Iñaki; Mateos, Beatriz; Bonifazi, Paolo; Fernandez, Manuel; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Cortes, Jesus M.

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronically progressive neurodegenerative disease highly correlated to aging. Whether AD originates by targeting a localized brain area and propagates to the rest of the brain across disease-severity progression is a question with an unknown answer. Here, we aim to provide an answer to this question at the group-level by looking at differences in diffusion-tensor brain networks. In particular, making use of data from Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), four different groups were defined (all of them matched by age, sex and education level): G1 (N1 = 36, healthy control subjects, Control), G2 (N2 = 36, early mild cognitive impairment, EMCI), G3 (N3 = 36, late mild cognitive impairment, LMCI) and G4 (N4 = 36, AD). Diffusion-tensor brain networks were compared across three disease stages: stage I (Control vs. EMCI), stage II (Control vs. LMCI) and stage III (Control vs. AD). The group comparison was performed using the multivariate distance matrix regression analysis, a technique that was born in genomics and was recently proposed to handle brain functional networks, but here applied to diffusion-tensor data. The results were threefold: First, no significant differences were found in stage I. Second, significant differences were found in stage II in the connectivity pattern of a subnetwork strongly associated to memory function (including part of the hippocampus, amygdala, entorhinal cortex, fusiform gyrus, inferior and middle temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and temporal pole). Third, a widespread disconnection across the entire AD brain was found in stage III, affecting more strongly the same memory subnetwork appearing in stage II, plus the other new subnetworks, including the default mode network, medial visual network, frontoparietal regions and striatum. Our results are consistent with a scenario where progressive alterations of connectivity arise as the disease severity increases and provide the brain areas

  16. Design and initial results from a kilojoule level Dense Plasma Focus with hollow anode and cylindrically symmetric gas puff.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, J L; Falabella, S; Tang, V; Schmidt, A; Guethlein, G; Hawkins, S; Rusnak, B

    2014-01-01

    We have designed and built a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Z-pinch device using a kJ-level capacitor bank and a hollow anode, and fueled by a cylindrically symmetric gas puff. Using this device, we have measured peak deuteron beam energies of up to 400 keV at 0.8 kJ capacitor bank energy and pinch lengths of ∼6 mm, indicating accelerating fields greater than 50 MV/m. Neutron yields of on the order of 10(7) per shot were measured during deuterium operation. The cylindrical gas puff system permitted simultaneous operation of DPF with a radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator for beam-into-plasma experiments. This paper describes the machine design, the diagnostic systems, and our first results.

  17. Targeted metabolomics reveals reduced levels of polyunsaturated choline plasmalogens and a smaller dimethylarginine/arginine ratio in the follicular fluid of patients with a diminished ovarian reserve.

    PubMed

    de la Barca, J M Chao; Boueilh, T; Simard, G; Boucret, L; Ferré-L'Hotellier, V; Tessier, L; Gadras, C; Bouet, P E; Descamps, P; Procaccio, V; Reynier, P; May-Panloup, P

    2017-11-01

    Does the metabolomic profile of the follicular fluid (FF) of patients with a diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) differ from that of patients with a normal ovarian reserve (NOR)? The metabolomic signature of the FF reveals a significant decrease in polyunsaturated choline plasmalogens and methyl arginine transferase activity in DOR patients compared to NOR patients. The composition of the FF reflects the exchanges between the oocyte and its microenvironment during its acquisition of gametic competence. Studies of the FF have allowed identification of biomarkers and metabolic pathways involved in various pathologies affecting oocyte quality, but no large metabolomic analysis in the context of ovarian ageing and DOR has been undertaken so far. This was an observational study of the FF retrieved from 57 women undergoing in vitro fertilization at the University Hospital of Angers, France, from November 2015 to September 2016. The women were classified in two groups: one including 28 DOR patients, and the other including 29 NOR patients, serving as controls. Patients were enrolled in the morning of oocyte retrieval after ovarian stimulation. Once the oocytes were isolated for fertilization and culture, the FF was pooled and centrifuged for analysis. A targeted quantitative metabolomic analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, and the Biocrates Absolute IDQ p180 kit. The FF levels of 188 metabolites and several sums and ratios of metabolic significance were assessed by multivariate and univariate analyses. A total of 136 metabolites were accurately quantified and used for calculating 23 sums and ratios. Samples were randomly divided into training and validation sets. The training set, allowed the construction of multivariate statistical models with a projection-supervised method, i.e. orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), applied to the full set of metabolites, or the penalized

  18. Revealing Interactions between Human Resources, Quality of Life and Environmental Changes within Socially-oriented Observations : Results from the IPY PPS Arctic Project in the Russian North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    Socially-oriented Observations (SOO) in the Russian North have been carried out within multidisciplinary IPY PPS Arctic project under the leadership of Norway and supported by the Research Council of Norway as well as Russian Academy of Sciences. The main objective of SOO is to increase knowledge and observation of changes in quality of life conditions (state of natural environment including climate and biota, safe drinking water and foods, well-being, employment, social relations, access to health care and high quality education, etc.) and - to reveal trends in human capital and capacities (health, demography, education, creativity, spiritual-cultural characteristics and diversity, participation in decision making, etc.). SOO have been carried out in industrial cities as well as sparsely populated rural and nature protection areas in observation sites situated in different bioms (from coastal tundra to southern taiga zone) of Murmansk, Arkhangelsk Oblast and Republic of Komi. SOO were conducted according to the international protocol included in PPS Arctic Manual. SOO approaches based both on local people's perceptions and statistics help to identify main issues and targets for life quality, human capital and environment improvement and thus to distinguish leading SOO indicators for further monitoring. SOO have revealed close interaction between human resources, quality of life and environmental changes. Negative changes in human capital (depopulation, increasing unemployment, aging, declining physical and mental health, quality of education, loss of traditional knowledge, marginalization etc.), despite peoples' high creativity and optimism are becoming the major driving force effecting both the quality of life and the state of environment and overall sustainability. Human induced disturbances such as uncontrolled forests cuttings and poaching are increasing. Observed rapid changes in climate and biota (ice and permafrost melting, tundra shrubs getting taller and

  19. Trends in Surface Level Ozone Observations from Human-health Relevant Metrics: Results from the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Z. L.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Doherty, R. M.; Malley, C.; Cooper, O. R.; Pinto, J. P.; Colette, A.; Xu, X.; Simpson, D.; Schultz, M.; Hamad, S.; Moola, R.; Solberg, S.; Feng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant formed in the atmosphere from precursor species (NOx, VOCs, CH4, CO) that is detrimental to human health and ecosystems. The global Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) initiative has assembled a global database of surface ozone observations and generated ozone exposure metrics at thousands of measurement sites around the world. This talk will present results from the assessment focused on those indicators most relevant to human health. Specifically, the trends in ozone, comparing different time periods and patterns across regions and among metrics will be addressed. In addition, the fraction of population exposed to high ozone levels and how this has changed between 2000 and 2014 will also be discussed. The core time period analyzed for trends was 2000-2014, selected to include a greater number of sites in East Asia. Negative trends were most commonly observed at many US and some European sites, whereas many sites in East Asia showed positive trends, while sites in Japan showed more of a mix of positive and negative trends. More than half of the sites showed a common direction and significance in the trends for all five human-health relevant metrics. The peak ozone metrics indicate a reduction in exposure to peak levels of ozone related to photochemical episodes in Europe and the US. A considerable number of European countries and states within the US have shown a decrease in population-weighted ozone over time. The 2000-2014 results will be augmented and compared to the trend analysis for additional time periods that cover a greater number of years, but by necessity are based on fewer sites. Trends are found to be statistically significant at a larger fraction of sites with longer time series, compared to the shorter (2000-2014) time series.

  20. Thinning and burning result in low-level invasion by nonnative plants but neutral effects on natives.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Cara R; Halpern, Charles B; Agee, James K

    2008-04-01

    Many historically fire-adapted forests are now highly susceptible to damage from insects, pathogens, and stand-replacing fires. As a result, managers are employing treatments to reduce fuel loadings and to restore the structure, species, and processes that characterized these forests prior to widespread fire suppression, logging, and grazing. However, the consequences of these activities for understory plant communities are not well understood. We examined the effects of thinning and prescribed fire on plant composition and diversity in Pinus ponderosa forests of eastern Washington (USA). Data on abundance and richness of native and nonnative plants were collected in 70 stands in the Colville, Okanogan, and Wenatchee National Forests. Stands represented one of four treatments: thinning, burning, thinning followed by burning, or control; treatments had been conducted 3-19 years before sampling. Multi-response permutation procedures revealed no significant effect of thinning or burning on understory plant composition. Similarly, there were no significant differences among treatments in cover or richness of native plants. In contrast, nonnative plants showed small, but highly significant, increases in cover and richness in response to both thinning and burning. In the combined treatment, cover of nonnative plants averaged 2% (5% of total plant cover) but did not exceed 7% (16% of total cover) at any site. Cover and richness of nonnative herbs showed small increases with intensity of disturbance and time since treatment. Nonnative plants were significantly less abundant in treated stands than on adjacent roadsides or skid trails, and cover within these potential source areas explained little of the variation in abundance within treated stands. Although thinning and burning may promote invasion of nonnative plants in these forests, our data suggest that their abundance is limited and relatively stable on most sites.

  1. Reconstruction of the astaxanthin biosynthesis pathway in rice endosperm reveals a metabolic bottleneck at the level of endogenous β-carotene hydroxylase activity.

    PubMed

    Bai, Chao; Berman, Judit; Farre, Gemma; Capell, Teresa; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu

    2017-02-01

    Astaxanthin is a high-value ketocarotenoid rarely found in plants. It is derived from β-carotene by the 3-hydroxylation and 4-ketolation of both ionone end groups, in reactions catalyzed by β-carotene hydroxylase and β-carotene ketolase, respectively. We investigated the feasibility of introducing an extended carotenoid biosynthesis pathway into rice endosperm to achieve the production of astaxanthin. This allowed us to identify potential metabolic bottlenecks that have thus far prevented the accumulation of this valuable compound in storage tissues such as cereal grains. Rice endosperm does not usually accumulate carotenoids because phytoene synthase, the enzyme responsible for the first committed step in the pathway, is not present in this tissue. We therefore expressed maize phytoene synthase 1 (ZmPSY1), Pantoea ananatis phytoene desaturase (PaCRTI) and a synthetic Chlamydomonas reinhardtii β-carotene ketolase (sCrBKT) in transgenic rice plants under the control of endosperm-specific promoters. The resulting grains predominantly accumulated the diketocarotenoids canthaxanthin, adonirubin and astaxanthin as well as low levels of monoketocarotenoids. The predominance of canthaxanthin and adonirubin indicated the presence of a hydroxylation bottleneck in the ketocarotenoid pathway. This final rate-limiting step must therefore be overcome to maximize the accumulation of astaxanthin, the end product of the pathway.

  2. DNA barcoding reveals high levels of genetic diversity in the fishes of the Itapecuru Basin in Maranhão, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, M H S; Almeida, M S; Veira, M N S; Limeira Filho, D; Lima, R C; Barros, M C; Fraga, E C

    2016-08-29

    DNA barcoding is a useful complementary tool for use in traditional taxonomic studies due to its ability to detect cryptic species, and may be particularly efficient in the identification of fish species. The fish fauna of the Itapecuru River represents an important fishery resource in the Brazilian State of Maranhão, although it is currently suffering increasing degradation as a result of anthropogenic impacts. Therefore, DNA barcoding was used in the present study to identify fish species and establish a database of the rich freshwater fish fauna of Maranhão. A total of 440 specimens were analyzed, corresponding to 64 species belonging to 59 genera, 31 families, and 10 orders. Overall, 92.19% of these species could be identified by DNA barcoding, and were characterized by low levels (average 0.80%) of intra-specific divergence. However, five species (Anableps anableps, Gymnotus carapo, Sciades couma, Pseudauchenipterus nodosus, and Leporinus piau) presented values of mean genetic divergence above 3%, indicating the existence of cryptic diversity in these fishes. The DNA barcoding approach permitted the analysis of a large number of specimens and facilitated the discrimination and identification of closely related fish species in the Itapecuru Basin.

  3. Cenozoic global sea level, sequences, and the New Jersey transect: Results from coastal plain and continental slope drilling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, K.G.; Mountain, Gregory S.; Browning, J.V.; Kominz, M.; Sugarman, P.J.; Christie-Blick, N.; Katz, M.E.; Wright, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The New Jersey Sea Level Transect was designed to evaluate the relationships among global sea level (eustatic) change, unconformity-bounded sequences, and variations in subsidence, sediment supply, and climate on a passive continental margin. By sampling and dating Cenozoic strata from coastal plain and continental slope locations, we show that sequence boundaries correlate (within ??0.5 myr) regionally (onshore-offshore) and interregionally (New Jersey-Alabama-Bahamas), implicating a global cause. Sequence boundaries correlate with ??18O increases for at least the past 42 myr, consistent with an ice volume (glacioeustatic) control, although a causal relationship is not required because of uncertainties in ages and correlations. Evidence for a causal connection is provided by preliminary Miocene data from slope Site 904 that directly link ??18O increases with sequence boundaries. We conclude that variation in the size of ice sheets has been a primary control on the formation of sequence boundaries since ~42 Ma. We speculate that prior to this, the growth and decay of small ice sheets caused small-amplitude sea level changes (<20 m) in this supposedly ice-free world because Eocene sequence boundaries also appear to correlate with minor ??18O increases. Subsidence estimates (backstripping) indicate amplitudes of short-term (million-year scale) lowerings that are consistent with estimates derived from ??18O studies (25-50 m in the Oligocene-middle Miocene and 10-20 m in the Eocene) and a long-term lowering of 150-200 m over the past 65 myr, consistent with estimates derived from volume changes on mid-ocean ridges. Although our results are consistent with the general number and timing of Paleocene to middle Miocene sequences published by workers at Exxon Production Research Company, our estimates of sea level amplitudes are substantially lower than theirs. Lithofacies patterns within sequences follow repetitive, predictable patterns: (1) coastal plain sequences consist

  4. Drought limitations to leaf-level gas exchange: results from a model linking stomatal optimization and cohesion-tension theory.

    PubMed

    Novick, Kimberly A; Miniat, Chelcy F; Vose, James M

    2016-03-01

    We merge concepts from stomatal optimization theory and cohesion-tension theory to examine the dynamics of three mechanisms that are potentially limiting to leaf-level gas exchange in trees during drought: (1) a 'demand limitation' driven by an assumption of optimal stomatal functioning; (2) 'hydraulic limitation' of water movement from the roots to the leaves; and (3) 'non-stomatal' limitations imposed by declining leaf water status within the leaf. Model results suggest that species-specific 'economics' of stomatal behaviour may play an important role in differentiating species along the continuum of isohydric to anisohydric behaviour; specifically, we show that non-stomatal and demand limitations may reduce stomatal conductance and increase leaf water potential, promoting wide safety margins characteristic of isohydric species. We used model results to develop a diagnostic framework to identify the most likely limiting mechanism to stomatal functioning during drought and showed that many of those features were commonly observed in field observations of tree water use dynamics. Direct comparisons of modelled and measured stomatal conductance further indicated that non-stomatal and demand limitations reproduced observed patterns of tree water use well for an isohydric species but that a hydraulic limitation likely applies in the case of an anisohydric species. Published 2015. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Electronic nicotine delivery system landscape in licensed tobacco retailers: results of a county-level survey in Oklahoma

    PubMed Central

    Brame, L S; Mowls, D S; Damphousse, K E; Beebe, L A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have recently emerged as a component of the tobacco retail environment. The aims of this study were to describe the availability, types of ENDS and placement of ENDS relative to traditional tobacco products at franchised licensed tobacco retailers and non-franchised licensed tobacco retailers. Design Observational study. Setting Franchised and non-franchised tobacco retailers in Cleveland County, Oklahoma, USA. Primary and secondary outcome measures The number of stores selling ENDS, the variability in brands of ENDS sold, the location of the ENDS within the retailers, the quantity of ENDS sold compared with traditional tobacco products, and the presence of outdoor signage. Results Data from 57 randomly sampled tobacco retailers were used to describe the presence of ENDS at independent non-franchised and franchised tobacco retailers. The overwhelming majority (90%) of licensed tobacco retailers sold ENDS, and differences were observed between franchised and non-franchised stores. 45 of the 51 retailers (88%) selling ENDS had them placed at the point of sale. 2 of the 21 franchised retailers (9.5%) had ENDS placed at ≤3½ feet above floor level compared to none of the 30 non-franchised retailers (0%). Conclusions This small study is the first to characterise ENDS within the tobacco retail environment in a county in Oklahoma, USA. The results from this study demonstrate the complexity of the tobacco retail landscape and generate questions for future studies regarding the incorporation and placement of ENDS in tobacco retail environments. PMID:27266774

  6. HIV-1 adaptation to antigen processing results in population-level immune evasion and affects subtype diversification.

    PubMed

    Tenzer, Stefan; Crawford, Hayley; Pymm, Phillip; Gifford, Robert; Sreenu, Vattipally B; Weimershaus, Mirjana; de Oliveira, Tulio; Burgevin, Anne; Gerstoft, Jan; Akkad, Nadja; Lunn, Daniel; Fugger, Lars; Bell, John; Schild, Hansjörg; van Endert, Peter; Iversen, Astrid K N

    2014-04-24

    The recent HIV-1 vaccine failures highlight the need to better understand virus-host interactions. One key question is why CD8(+) T cell responses to two HIV-Gag regions are uniquely associated with delayed disease progression only in patients expressing a few rare HLA class I variants when these regions encode epitopes presented by ~30 more common HLA variants. By combining epitope processing and computational analyses of the two HIV subtypes responsible for ~60% of worldwide infections, we identified a hitherto unrecognized adaptation to the antigen-processing machinery through substitutions at subtype-specific motifs. Multiple HLA variants presenting epitopes situated next to a given subtype-specific motif drive selection at this subtype-specific position, and epitope abundances correlate inversely with the HLA frequency distribution in affected populations. This adaptation reflects the sum of intrapatient adaptations, is predictable, facilitates viral subtype diversification, and increases global HIV diversity. Because low epitope abundance is associated with infrequent and weak T cell responses, this most likely results in both population-level immune evasion and inadequate responses in most people vaccinated with natural HIV-1 sequence constructs. Our results suggest that artificial sequence modifications at subtype-specific positions in vitro could refocus and reverse the poor immunogenicity of HIV proteins. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-level laser therapy of acute and chronic pain: results of the trials and light delivery optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoykova, Elena V.; Roeva, Tatiana

    2003-09-01

    The work presents the results of the low-level laser therapy (LLLT) of two groups of volunteers with a variety of conditions performed with a GaAs-system. The volunteers were randomly selected among the patients who were usually treated by conventional therapy that included massage and acupuncture needles. The LLLT was proposed to the first group as extension of conventional treatment. The second group underwent only the LLLT. The effectiveness of the therapy was graded under four categories. Short-term and long-term side effects as well as conditions responding only to LLLT were recorded. The successful treatments were up to 70% for both groups, which coincided with the result of the control group treated by the conventional therapy. For optimization of the light delivery, the spatial maps of the absorbed dose in a homogeneous medium, both in the proximity of the light source and at a distance from it, were compared for collimated and divergent light beams using a reduced variance Monte-Carlo code.

  8. Results of the trials and light-delivery evaluation at low-level laser therapy of acute and chronic pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeva, Tatiana; Petrov, Todor S.; Minkovski, Nikolai I.

    2004-06-01

    Although the low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is accepted in the clinical practice, its efficiency is still questionable because of the unclear mechanisms of LLLT action. This work presents the results of LLLT applied to volunteers who need recovery from trauma or suffer from rheumatic diseases, inflammatory disorders, etc. The control group we used for comparison consisted of patients being treated by conventional therapy that included massage and acupuncture needles. The effectiveness of the LLLT was graded under four categories. Short-term and long-term side effects as well as conditions responding only to LLLT were recorded. The successful treatments were up to 70%, which coincided with the result of the control group. The LLLT was performed with a GaAs laser system SIX LASER IR - Bulgaria provided with additional set of six light CW emitting diodes to scan a larger area of a tissue surface. To evaluate the light delivery inside the tissue, the spatial maps of the light spot at the laser output in different operating regimes were measured. On their basis, the absorbed dose was calculated both in the boundary layer under the tissue surface and in depth using a reduced variance Monte-Carlo code.

  9. Results of the trials and light delivery evaluation on low-level laser therapy of acute and chronic pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoykova, Elena V.; Roeva, Tatiana; Petrova, Kremena S.; Petrov, Todor S.; Minkovski, Nikolai

    2003-11-01

    Although the low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been accepted in the clinical practice, its efficiency is still questionable because of the unclear mechanisms of LLLT action. This work presents the results of LLLT applied to volunteers who need recovery from trauma or suffer from rheumatic diseases, inflammatory disorders, etc. The control group we used for comparison consisted of patients being treated by conventional therapy that included massage and acupuncture needles. The effectiveness of the LLLT was graded under four categories. Short-term and long-term side effects as well as conditions responding only to LLLT were recorded. The successful treatments were up to 70%, which coincided with the result of the control group. The LLLT was performed with a GaAs laser system provided with additional set of six light CW emitting diodes to scan a larger area of a tissue surface. To evaluate the light delivery inside the tissue, the spatial energy distribution within the laser beam was measured with a CCD camera. On its basis, the light dose absorbed in the tissue was calculated both in the boundary layer under the surface and in depth using a reduced variance Monte-Carlo code.

  10. Successful pod infections by Moniliophthora roreri result in differential Theobroma cacao gene expression depending on the clone's level of tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shahin S; Melnick, Rachel L; Crozier, Jayne; Phillips-Mora, Wilberth; Strem, Mary D; Shao, Jonathan; Zhang, Dapeng; Sicher, Richard; Meinhardt, Lyndel; Bailey, Bryan A

    2014-09-01

    An understanding of the tolerance mechanisms of Theobroma cacao used against Moniliophthora roreri, the causal agent of frosty pod rot, is important for the generation of stable disease-tolerant clones. A comparative view was obtained of transcript populations of infected pods from two susceptible and two tolerant clones using RNA sequence (RNA-Seq) analysis. A total of 3009 transcripts showed differential expression among clones. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated shifts in 152 different metabolic pathways between the tolerant and susceptible clones. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) analyses of 36 genes verified the differential expression. Regression analysis validated a uniform progression in gene expression in association with infection levels and fungal loads in the susceptible clones. Expression patterns observed in the susceptible clones diverged in tolerant clones, with many genes showing higher expression at a low level of infection and fungal load. Principal coordinate analyses of real-time qRT-PCR data separated the gene expression patterns between susceptible and tolerant clones for pods showing malformation. Although some genes were constitutively differentially expressed between clones, most results suggested that defence responses were induced at low fungal load in the tolerant clones. Several elicitor-responsive genes were highly expressed in tolerant clones, suggesting rapid recognition of the pathogen and induction of defence genes. Expression patterns suggested that the jasmonic acid-ethylene- and/or salicylic acid-mediated defence pathways were activated in the tolerant clones, being enhanced by reduced brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis and catabolic inactivation of both BR and abscisic acids. Finally, several genes associated with hypersensitive response-like cell death were also induced in tolerant clones. © 2014

  11. A blinded international study on the reliability of genetic testing for GGGGCC-repeat expansions in C9orf72 reveals marked differences in results among 14 laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Akimoto, Chizuru; Volk, Alexander E; van Blitterswijk, Marka; Van den Broeck, Marleen; Leblond, Claire S; Lumbroso, Serge; Camu, William; Neitzel, Birgit; Onodera, Osamu; van Rheenen, Wouter; Pinto, Susana; Weber, Markus; Smith, Bradley; Proven, Melanie; Talbot, Kevin; Keagle, Pamela; Chesi, Alessandra; Ratti, Antonia; van der Zee, Julie; Alstermark, Helena; Birve, Anna; Calini, Daniela; Nordin, Angelica; Tradowsky, Daniela C; Just, Walter; Daoud, Hussein; Angerbauer, Sabrina; DeJesus-Hernandez, Mariely; Konno, Takuya; Lloyd-Jani, Anjali; de Carvalho, Mamede; Mouzat, Kevin; Landers, John E; Veldink, Jan H; Silani, Vincenzo; Gitler, Aaron D; Shaw, Christopher E; Rouleau, Guy A; van den Berg, Leonard H; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Rademakers, Rosa; Andersen, Peter M; Kubisch, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background The GGGGCC-repeat expansion in C9orf72 is the most frequent mutation found in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Most of the studies on C9orf72 have relied on repeat-primed PCR (RP-PCR) methods for detection of the expansions. To investigate the inherent limitations of this technique, we compared methods and results of 14 laboratories. Methods The 14 laboratories genotyped DNA from 78 individuals (diagnosed with ALS or FTD) in a blinded fashion. Eleven laboratories used a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR, whereas three laboratories used RP-PCR alone; Southern blotting techniques were used as a reference. Results Using PCR-based techniques, 5 of the 14 laboratories got results in full accordance with the Southern blotting results. Only 50 of the 78 DNA samples got the same genotype result in all 14 laboratories. There was a high degree of false positive and false negative results, and at least one sample could not be genotyped at all in 9 of the 14 laboratories. The mean sensitivity of a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR was 95.0% (73.9–100%), and the mean specificity was 98.0% (87.5–100%). Overall, a sensitivity and specificity of more than 95% was observed in only seven laboratories. Conclusions Because of the wide range seen in genotyping results, we recommend using a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR as a minimum in a research setting. We propose that Southern blotting techniques should be the gold standard, and be made obligatory in a clinical diagnostic setting. PMID:24706941

  12. In silico peptide-binding predictions of passerine MHC class I reveal similarities across distantly related species, suggesting convergence on the level of protein function.

    PubMed

    Follin, Elna; Karlsson, Maria; Lundegaard, Claus; Nielsen, Morten; Wallin, Stefan; Paulsson, Kajsa; Westerdahl, Helena

    2013-04-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are the most polymorphic genes found in the vertebrate genome, and they encode proteins that play an essential role in the adaptive immune response. Many songbirds (passerines) have been shown to have a large number of transcribed MHC class I genes compared to most mammals. To elucidate the reason for this large number of genes, we compared 14 MHC class I alleles (α1-α3 domains), from great reed warbler, house sparrow and tree sparrow, via phylogenetic analysis, homology modelling and in silico peptide-binding predictions to investigate their functional and genetic relationships. We found more pronounced clustering of the MHC class I allomorphs (allele specific proteins) in regards to their function (peptide-binding specificities) compared to their genetic relationships (amino acid sequences), indicating that the high number of alleles is of functional significance. The MHC class I allomorphs from house sparrow and tree sparrow, species that diverged 10 million years ago (MYA), had overlapping peptide-binding specificities, and these similarities across species were also confirmed in phylogenetic analyses based on amino acid sequences. Notably, there were also overlapping peptide-binding specificities in the allomorphs from house sparrow and great reed warbler, although these species diverged 30 MYA. This overlap was not found in a tree based on amino acid sequences. Our interpretation is that convergent evolution on the level of the protein function, possibly driven by selection from shared pathogens, has resulted in allomorphs with similar peptide-binding repertoires, although trans-species evolution in combination with gene conversion cannot be ruled out.

  13. Integrated analysis, transcriptome-lipidome, reveals the effects of INO-level (INO2 and INO4) on lipid metabolism in yeast.

    PubMed

    Chumnanpuen, Pramote; Nookaew, Intawat; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-10-16

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genes containing UASINO sequences are regulated by the Ino2/Ino4 and Opi1 transcription factors, and this regulation controls lipid biosynthesis. The expression level of INO2 and INO4 genes (INO-level) at different nutrient limited conditions might lead to various responses in yeast lipid metabolism. In this study, we undertook a global study on how INO-levels (transcription level of INO2 and INO4) affect lipid metabolism in yeast and we also studied the effects of single and double deletions of the two INO-genes (deficient effect). Using 2 types of nutrient limitations (carbon and nitrogen) in chemostat cultures operated at a fixed specific growth rate of 0.1 h-1 and strains having different INO-level, we were able to see the effect on expression level of the genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and the fluxes towards the different lipid components. Through combined measurements of the transcriptome, metabolome, and lipidome it was possible to obtain a large dataset that could be used to identify how the INO-level controls lipid metabolism and also establish correlations between the different components. In this study, we undertook a global study on how INO-levels (transcription level of INO2 and INO4) affect lipid metabolism in yeast and we also studied the effects of single and double deletions of the two INO-genes (deficient effect). Using 2 types of nutrient limitations (carbon and nitrogen) in chemostat cultures operated at a fixed specific growth rate of 0.1 h-1 and strains having different INO-level, we were able to see the effect on expression level of the genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and the fluxes towards the different lipid components. Through combined measurements of the transcriptome, metabolome, and lipidome it was possible to obtain a large dataset that could be used to identify how the INO-level controls lipid metabolism and also establish correlations between the different components. Our analysis

  14. Results of level-II oncoplasty in breast cancer patients: an early experience from a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Sajida; Ghazanfar, Shahriyar; Iqbal, Sumera; Bhatti, Abu Bakar Hafeez; Quraishy, Mohammad Saeed

    2014-03-01

    To assess the oncologic and cosmetic outcomes for breast cancer patients who underwent breast conservation therapy using Level II oncoplasty techniques. The prospective, non-randomised and descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Surgery, Unit IV of Civil Hospital, Karachi, from December 2009 to November 2011 in which 21 consecutive women with breast carcinoma who underwent wide local excision with remodeling mammoplasty were enrolled. All patients were reviewed by the surgeon and medical oncologist every 3 months for the first year. A grading system of 5-1 (excellent to poor) was employed and those with 3 or more were considered to have acceptable results. The mean patient age was 45.38 +/- 10.09 years (range: 26-70); 11 (52.3%) were premenopausal and 10 (47.7%) were postmenopausal; and 5 (27.8%) had family history of breast cancer. The mean size of the tumour determined by histology was 59.9 +/- 3.18 mm (range: 25-150). Eight (30%) patients received preoperative chemotherapy to downsize the tumour. Three (14.2%) patients received preoperative radiotherapy. Mean operative time was 1.59 +/- 0.52 hours (range: 1-2.5 hours). Mean volume of breast tissue excised from the breast containing the tumour was 545.27 +/- 412.06 cm3 (range: 43.70-1456). Assessment of excision margins showed no tumour at the margins of 19 (90.4%) patients. Two (9.5%) patients had close but negative margins. The mean hospital stay was 7.10 +/- 3.30 days (range: 4-15). There were early complications in 4 (19%) patients. One (4.76%) patient had late complications. Two (9.5%) patients developed tumour recurrence; both had an ipsilateral tumour recurrence. None of the patients developed metastases and one died of cardiac problem. Twenty (95.2%) patients had an acceptable post-surgical cosmetic result. Level II oncoplasty was a safe option in breast conservation allowing large-sized and difficult-location tumour excision with good cosmetic outcome in the study group. There is a need to

  15. Association analyses of East Asian individuals and trans-ancestry analyses with European individuals reveal new loci associated with cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Spracklen, Cassandra N; Chen, Peng; Kim, Young Jin; Wang, Xu; Cai, Hui; Li, Shengxu; Long, Jirong; Wu, Ying; Wang, Ya Xing; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Jung, Keum-Ji; Hu, Cheng; Akiyama, Koichi; Zhang, Yonghong; Moon, Sanghoon; Johnson, Todd A; Li, Huaixing; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; He, Meian; Cannon, Maren E; Roman, Tamara S; Salfati, Elias; Lin, Keng-Hung; Guo, Xiuqing; Sheu, Wayne H H; Absher, Devin; Adair, Linda S; Assimes, Themistocles L; Aung, Tin; Cai, Qiuyin; Chang, Li-Ching; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Chien, Li-Hsin; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Du, Shufa; Fan, Qiao; Fann, Cathy S J; Feranil, Alan B; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Gu, Dongfeng; Gui, Lixuan; Guo, Zhirong; Heng, Chew-Kiat; Hixson, James; Hou, Xuhong; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Hu, Yao; Hwang, Mi Yeong; Hwu, Chii-Min; Isono, Masato; Juang, Jyh-Ming Jimmy; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Kim, Yun Kyoung; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, I-Te; Lee, Sun-Ju; Lee, Wen-Jane; Liang, Kae-Woei; Lim, Blanche; Lim, Sing-Hui; Liu, Jianjun; Nabika, Toru; Pan, Wen-Harn; Peng, Hao; Quertermous, Thomas; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Sandow, Kevin; Shi, Jinxiu; Sun, Liang; Tan, Pok Chien; Tan, Shu-Pei; Taylor, Kent D; Teo, Yik-Ying; Toh, Sue-Anne; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; van Dam, Rob M; Wang, Aili; Wang, Feijie; Wang, Jie; Wei, Wen Bin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yao, Jie; Yuan, Jian-Min; Zhang, Rong; Zhao, Wanting; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Wu, Tangchun; Lin, Xu; Han, Bok-Ghee; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Cho, Yoon Shin; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Jia, Weiping; Jee, Sun-Ha; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Kato, Norihiro; Jonas, Jost B; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shu, Xiao-Ou; He, Jiang; Zheng, Wei; Wong, Tien-Yin; Huang, Wei; Kim, Bong-Jo; Tai, E-Shyong; Mohlke, Karen L; Sim, Xueling

    2017-05-01

    Large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >175 loci associated with fasting cholesterol levels, including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG). With differences in linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure and allele frequencies between ancestry groups, studies in additional large samples may detect new associations. We conducted staged GWAS meta-analyses in up to 69,414 East Asian individuals from 24 studies with participants from Japan, the Philippines, Korea, China, Singapore, and Taiwan. These meta-analyses identified (P < 5 × 10-8) three novel loci associated with HDL-C near CD163-APOBEC1 (P = 7.4 × 10-9), NCOA2 (P = 1.6 × 10-8), and NID2-PTGDR (P = 4.2 × 10-8), and one novel locus associated with TG near WDR11-FGFR2 (P = 2.7 × 10-10). Conditional analyses identified a second signal near CD163-APOBEC1. We then combined results from the East Asian meta-analysis with association results from up to 187,365 European individuals from the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium in a trans-ancestry meta-analysis. This analysis identified (log10Bayes Factor ≥6.1) eight additional novel lipid loci. Among the twelve total loci identified, the index variants at eight loci have demonstrated at least nominal significance with other metabolic traits in prior studies, and two loci exhibited coincident eQTLs (P < 1 × 10-5) in subcutaneous adipose tissue for BPTF and PDGFC. Taken together, these analyses identified multiple novel lipid loci, providing new potential therapeutic targets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The ATLAS3D project - IX. The merger origin of a fast- and a slow-rotating early-type galaxy revealed with deep optical imaging: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Pierre-Alain; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Serra, Paolo; Michel-Dansac, Leo; Ferriere, Etienne; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2011-10-01

    The mass assembly of galaxies leaves imprints in their outskirts, such as shells and tidal tails. The frequency and properties of such fine structures depend on the main acting mechanisms - secular evolution, minor or major mergers - and on the age of the last substantial accretion event. We use this to constrain the mass assembly history of two apparently relaxed nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) selected from the ATLAS3D sample, NGC 680 and 5557. Our ultra-deep optical images obtained with MegaCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope reach 29 mag arcsec-2 in the g band. They reveal very low surface brightness (LSB) filamentary structures around these ellipticals. Among them, a gigantic 160 kpc long, narrow, tail east of NGC 5557 hosts three gas-rich star-forming objects, previously detected in H I with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and in UV with GALEX. NGC 680 exhibits two major diffuse plumes apparently connected to extended H I tails, as well as a series of arcs and shells. Comparing the outer stellar and gaseous morphology of the two ellipticals with that predicted from models of colliding galaxies, we argue that the LSB features are tidal debris and that each of these two ETGs was assembled during a relatively recent, major wet merger, which most likely occurred after the redshift z ≃ 0.5 epoch. Had these mergers been older, the tidal features should have already fallen back or be destroyed by more recent accretion events. However, the absence of molecular gas and of a prominent young stellar population in the core region of the galaxies indicates that the merger is at least 1-2 Gyr old: the memory of any merger-triggered nuclear starburst has indeed been lost. The star-forming objects found towards the collisional debris of NGC 5557 are then likely tidal dwarf galaxies. Such recycled galaxies here appear to be long-lived and continue to form stars while any star formation activity has stopped in their parent galaxy. The inner kinematics of NGC

  17. Two-level cervical corpectomy-long-term follow-up reveals the high rate of material failure in patients, who received an anterior approach only.

    PubMed

    Bayerl, Simon Heinrich; Pöhlmann, Florian; Finger, Tobias; Prinz, Vincent; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2018-06-18

    In contrast to a one-level cervical corpectomy, a multilevel corpectomy without posterior fusion is accompanied by a high material failure rate. So far, the adequate surgical technique for patients, who receive a two-level corpectomy, remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term clinical outcome of patients with cervical myelopathy, who underwent a two-level corpectomy. Outcome parameters of 21 patients, who received a two-level cervical corpectomy, were retrospectively analyzed concerning reoperations and outcome scores (VAS, Neck Disability Index (NDI), Nurick scale, modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (mJOAS), Short Form 36-item Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36)). The failure rate was determined using postoperative radiographs. The choice over the surgical procedures was exercised by every surgeon individually. Therefore, a distinction between two groups was possible: (1) anterior group (ANT group) with a two-level corpectomy and a cervical plate, (2) anterior/posterior group (A/P group) with two-level corpectomy, cervical plate, and additional posterior fusion. Both groups benefitted from surgery concerning pain, disability, and myelopathy. While all patients of the A/P group showed no postoperative instability, one third of the patients of the ANT group exhibited instability and clinical deterioration. Thus, a revision surgery with secondary posterior fusion was needed. Furthermore, the ANT group had worse myelopathy scores (mJOAS ANT group  = 13.5 ± 2.5, mJOAS A/P group  = 15.7 ± 2.2). Patients with myelopathy, who receive a two-level cervical corpectomy, benefitted from surgical decompression. However, patients with a sole anterior approach demonstrated a very high rate of instability (33%) and clinical deterioration in a long-term follow-up. Therefore, we recommend to routinely perform an additional posterior fusion after two-level cervical corpectomy.

  18. The effects of changing dairy intake on trans and saturated fatty acid levels- results from a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Benatar, Jocelyne R; Stewart, Ralph A H

    2014-04-03

    Dairy food is an important natural source of saturated and trans fatty acids in the human diet. This study evaluates the effect of dietary advice to change dairy food intake on plasma fatty acid levels known to be present in milk in healthy volunteers. Twenty one samples of whole fat dairy milk were analyzed for fatty acids levels. Changes in levels of plasma phospholipid levels were evaluated in 180 healthy volunteers randomized to increase, not change or reduce dairy intake for one month. Fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and levels are normalized to d-4 alanine. The long chain fatty acids palmitic (13.4%), stearic (16.7%) and myristic (18.9%) acid were most common saturated fats in milk. Four trans fatty acids constituted 3.7% of the total milk fat content. Increased dairy food intake by 3.0 (± 1.2) serves/ day for 1 month was associated with small increases in plasma levels of myristic (+0.05, 95% confidence level-0.08 to 0.13, p = 0.07), pentadecanoic (+0.014, 95% confidence level -0.016 to 0.048, p = 0.02) and margaric acid (+0.02, -0.03 to 0.05, p = 0.03). There was no significant change in plasma levels of 4 saturated, 4 trans and 10 unsaturated fatty acids. Decreasing dairy food intake by 2.5 (± 1.2) serves per day was not associated with change in levels of any plasma fatty acid levels. Dietary advice to change dairy food has a minor effect on plasma fatty acid levels. ACTRN12612000574842.

  19. Reexamination of the Physiological Role of PykA in Escherichia coli Revealed that It Negatively Regulates the Intracellular ATP Levels under Anaerobic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunhua; Lin, Zhao; Dong, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2017-06-01

    Pyruvate kinase is one of the three rate-limiting glycolytic enzymes that catalyze the last step of glycolysis, conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) into pyruvate, which is associated with ATP generation. Two isozymes of pyruvate kinase, PykF and PykA, are identified in Escherichia coli PykF is considered important, whereas PykA has a less-defined role. Prior studies inactivated the pykA gene to increase the level of its substrate, PEP, and thereby increased the yield of end products derived from PEP. We were surprised when we found a pykA ::Tn 5 mutant in a screen for increased yield of an end product derived from pyruvate ( n -butanol), suggesting that the role of PykA needs to be reexamined. We show that the pykA mutant exhibited elevated intracellular ATP levels, biomass concentrations, glucose consumption, and n -butanol production. We also discovered that the pykA mutant expresses higher levels of a presumed pyruvate transporter, YhjX, permitting the mutant to recapture and metabolize excreted pyruvate. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the nucleotide diphosphate kinase activity of PykA leads to negative regulation of the intracellular ATP levels. Taking the data together, we propose that inactivation of pykA can be considered a general strategy to enhance the production of pyruvate-derived metabolites under anaerobic conditions. IMPORTANCE This study showed that knocking out pykA significantly increased the intracellular ATP level and thus significantly increased the levels of glucose consumption, biomass formation, and pyruvate-derived product formation under anaerobic conditions. pykA was considered to be encoding a dispensable pyruvate kinase; here we show that pykA negatively regulates the anaerobic glycolysis rate through regulating the energy distribution. Thus, knocking out pykA can be used as a general strategy to increase the level of pyruvate-derived fermentative products. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Characterization of Bacterial, Archaeal and Eukaryote Symbionts from Antarctic Sponges Reveals a High Diversity at a Three-Domain Level and a Particular Signature for This Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Marconi, Susana; De la Iglesia, Rodrigo; Díez, Beatriz; Fonseca, Cássio A; Hajdu, Eduardo; Trefault, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Sponge-associated microbial communities include members from the three domains of life. In the case of bacteria, they are diverse, host specific and different from the surrounding seawater. However, little is known about the diversity and specificity of Eukarya and Archaea living in association with marine sponges. This knowledge gap is even greater regarding sponges from regions other than temperate and tropical environments. In Antarctica, marine sponges are abundant and important members of the benthos, structuring the Antarctic marine ecosystem. In this study, we used high throughput ribosomal gene sequencing to investigate the three-domain diversity and community composition from eight different Antarctic sponges. Taxonomic identification reveals that they belong to families Acarnidae, Chalinidae, Hymedesmiidae, Hymeniacidonidae, Leucettidae, Microcionidae, and Myxillidae. Our study indicates that there are different diversity and similarity patterns between bacterial/archaeal and eukaryote microbial symbionts from these Antarctic marine sponges, indicating inherent differences in how organisms from different domains establish symbiotic relationships. In general, when considering diversity indices and number of phyla detected, sponge-associated communities are more diverse than the planktonic communities. We conclude that three-domain microbial communities from Antarctic sponges are different from surrounding planktonic communities, expanding previous observations for Bacteria and including the Antarctic environment. Furthermore, we reveal differences in the composition of the sponge associated bacterial assemblages between Antarctic and tropical-temperate environments and the presence of a highly complex microbial eukaryote community, suggesting a particular signature for Antarctic sponges, different to that reported from other ecosystems.

  1. Toward Guidelines for Population-level Ecological Risk Assessment: Results of a U.S. EPA Risk Assessment Forum Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    The choice of levels of biological organization reflected in ecological risk assessment (ERA) is receiving increasing attention. Most ERAs conducted for chemicals by the U.S. EPA, and indeed by most organizations worldwide, focus on organism-level attributes (e.g., survival, gro...

  2. Results of a Program Effectiveness Survey Used to Guide Curriculum Revision in a Middle Level Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knorr, Ron; Medord, Lienne

    2013-01-01

    Teacher education programs are under extreme scrutiny as the demands for effectiveness and efficiency increase in the current political and operational environment. Within the framework established by This We Believe (AMLE, 2010) and the Position Statement on the Professional Preparation of Middle Level Teachers (AMLE, 2011), middle level teacher…

  3. Recurrent selection for transgene expression levels in maize results in proxy selection for a native gene with the same promoter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High expression levels of a transgene can be very useful, making a transgene easier to evaluate for safety and efficacy. High expression levels can also increase the economic benefit of the production of high value proteins in transgenic plants. The goal of this research is to determine if recurre...

  4. Deep Ore-controlling Role Beneath the Collision-related Deposit Zone in South Tibetan Plateau, Preliminary Results Revealed by Magnetotelluric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, C.; Jin, S.; Wei, W.; Ye, G.; Fang, Y.; Zhang, L.; Dong, H.; Yin, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Tibetan plateau is the largest and most recent plateau orogenic belt in the world, and the south part is expected as the ongoing India-Eurasia continental collision zone. The collision-related deposit zones which are distributed in south plateau could be roughly divided into three parts: the porphyry deposit in the Gangdese magmatic belt, the chromite deposit along the Yarlung-Zangbo suture (YZS) and the prospective deposit along the gneiss domes in the Tethys Himalayan. The deep ore-controlling role of those deposit zones is still remain controversial. Previous magnetotelluric (MT) data deployed from Himalayan to Gangdese terrane were inverted using a three dimensional (3D) MT inversion algorithm ModEM. The results show that the resistivity cover layers above -10 km are distributed along the whole profiles, whereas small and sporadic conductors could be also imaged. The middle to lower crust beneath -25 km is imaged as large scale but discontinuous conductive zones which have a central resistivity less than 10 ohm·m. We suggest the middle to lower crustal conductors could be interpreted as partial melting. This hypothesis is supported by some previous geological and geochemical studies. The Metallogenesis and partial melting play an important role in promoting each other. For the metallogenesis, the high water content is one of the prominent factors, and could be released on breakdown of amphibole in eclogite and garnet amphibolite during melting. On the other hand, the increasing of the water content would probably advance partial melting. The results indicate that the deep process and magmatism beneath different deposit zones are probably varying. We studied the rheological characteristics from the perspective of subsurface electrical structures. We hope by comparative analysis, the process of `origins - migration -formation' for the system of deep `magma - rheology - deposition' would be better understood.

  5. A retrospective observational study of people with Type 1 diabetes with self-reported severe hypoglycaemia reveals high level of ambulance attendance but low levels of therapy change and specialist intervention.

    PubMed

    Field, B C T; Nayar, R; Kilvert, A; Baxter, M; Hickey, J; Cummings, M; Bain, S C

    2018-05-15

    To evaluate the impact of severe hypoglycaemia on NHS resources and overall glycaemic control in adults with Type 1 diabetes. An observational, retrospective study of adults (aged ≥ 18 years) with Type 1 diabetes reporting one or more episodes of severe hypoglycaemia during the preceding 24 months in 10 NHS hospital diabetes centres in England and Wales. The primary outcome was healthcare resource utilization associated with severe hypoglycaemia. Secondary outcomes included demographic and clinical characteristics, diabetes control and pathway of care. Some 140 episodes of severe hypoglycaemia were reported by 85 people during the 2-year observation period. Ambulances were called in 99 of 140 (71%) episodes and Accident and Emergency attendance occurred in 26 of 140 (19%) episodes, whereas 29 of 140 (21%) episode required no immediate help from healthcare providers. Participants attended a median of 5 (range 0-58) diabetes clinic consultations during the observation period; 13% (70 of 552) of all consultations were severe hypoglycaemia-related. Of the HbA 1c measurements recorded closest prior to severe hypoglycaemia (n = 119), only 7 of 119 measurements were < 48 mmol/mol (< 6.5%) and mean HbA 1c was 70 (sd 19) mmol/mol (8.5%, sd 1.7%). Some 119 changes to diabetes treatment were recorded during the observation period (median/person 0;, range 0-11), of which 52 of 119 changes (44%) followed severe hypoglycaemic events. We observed a high level of ambulance service intervention but surprisingly low levels of hypoglycaemia follow-up, therapy change and specialist intervention in people self-reporting severe hypoglycaemia. These results suggest there may be important gaps in care pathways for people with Type 1 diabetes self-reporting severe hypoglycaemia. © 2018 Diabetes UK.

  6. Nebivolol withdrawal results in blood pressure returning toward pretreatment levels, but without rebound symptoms: phase IV randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Andrew; Lasseter, Kenneth C; Dong, Fang; Whalen, John C

    2012-01-01

    Rapid withdrawal of antihypertensive drugs may lead to blood pressure (BP) increase above pretreatment values or symptoms such as palpitations, chest pain, and tremor. This phase IV trial assessed the consequences of abrupt and stepwise withdrawal of nebivolol, a β(1)-selective blocker, in individuals with stage I-II hypertension. After a 4- to 5-week placebo washout phase and 12-week single-blind nebivolol treatment (10-40 mg/day, titrated based on BP response), participants achieving BP control (systolic BP [SBP]/diastolic BP [DBP] <140/90 mm Hg) or response (SBP decrease ≥10 mm Hg or DBP decrease ≥5 mm Hg) entered a 4-week, randomized, double-blind phase of continued nebivolol treatment (n = 102) or withdrawal to placebo (n = 105). Primary and secondary efficacy measures were changes in mean sitting DBP and SBP, respectively, analyzed using an analysis of covariance model. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. In the withdrawal phase, nebivolol and placebo groups demonstrated mean DBP increases of 1.8 and 7.7 mm Hg, respectively (P < .001), and SBP increases of 3.5 and 7.6 mm Hg (P = .011). Twenty-three (22.5%) nebivolol-treated and 18 (17.1%) placebo-treated participants experienced a treatment-emergent adverse event. No adverse events associated with β-blocker withdrawal and considered causally related to nebivolol were reported. Nebivolol withdrawal resulted in a mean BP increase near pretreatment levels and was not associated with rebound hypertension. Copyright © 2012 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Levels and determinants of pesticide exposure in re-entry workers in vineyards: results of the PESTEXPO study.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Isabelle; Lebailly, P; Bouvier, G; Rondeau, V; Kientz-Bouchart, V; Canal-Raffin, M; Garrigou, A

    2014-07-01

    Physical contact with branches, leaves, fruit or vegetables in previously treated crops is responsible for the transfer of pesticides to the worker's skin in agricultural tasks such as harvesting, pruning, thinning, cutting or sorting. Few studies have documented workers' exposure during re-entry in vineyards. In the PESTEXPO study, we described levels of exposure and analyzed their determinants during re-entry and harvesting in vineyards in the Bordeaux area, France. Between 2002 and 2007, volunteers performing re-entry tasks (N=46 days) or harvesting (N=48 days) after dithiocarbamate or folpet treatment were observed. Detailed information on the tasks was collected and dermal contamination was assessed using patches placed on the skin and hand-washing at the end of each working phase. Daily median contamination was 1 967.7 μl of mixture during re-entry (90(e) percentile: 5 045.3 μl) and 18.7 μl during harvesting (90(e) percentile: 911.4 μl). The type of task was the parameter found to be the most strongly associated with contamination. For re-entry, the highest contaminations were observed during raising of wires and cutting of branches. During the harvest, the contamination was maximal for grape-picking. The delay since the last treatment and the rate of active ingredient per hectare played a role, together with other factors such as meteorological factors, crop and farm characteristics, gloves and clothes. Our results underline the necessity to take into account exposures during re-entry and harvest when considering pesticide exposure, both for epidemiological research and preventive action. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Electronic nicotine delivery system landscape in licensed tobacco retailers: results of a county-level survey in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Brame, L S; Mowls, D S; Damphousse, K E; Beebe, L A

    2016-06-06

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have recently emerged as a component of the tobacco retail environment. The aims of this study were to describe the availability, types of ENDS and placement of ENDS relative to traditional tobacco products at franchised licensed tobacco retailers and non-franchised licensed tobacco retailers. Observational study. Franchised and non-franchised tobacco retailers in Cleveland County, Oklahoma, USA. The number of stores selling ENDS, the variability in brands of ENDS sold, the location of the ENDS within the retailers, the quantity of ENDS sold compared with traditional tobacco products, and the presence of outdoor signage. Data from 57 randomly sampled tobacco retailers were used to describe the presence of ENDS at independent non-franchised and franchised tobacco retailers. The overwhelming majority (90%) of licensed tobacco retailers sold ENDS, and differences were observed between franchised and non-franchised stores. 45 of the 51 retailers (88%) selling ENDS had them placed at the point of sale. 2 of the 21 franchised retailers (9.5%) had ENDS placed at ≤3½ feet above floor level compared to none of the 30 non-franchised retailers (0%). This small study is the first to characterise ENDS within the tobacco retail environment in a county in Oklahoma, USA. The results from this study demonstrate the complexity of the tobacco retail landscape and generate questions for future studies regarding the incorporation and placement of ENDS in tobacco retail environments. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Association between Lung Function in Adults and Plasma DDT and DDE Levels: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane] has been banned in many countries since the 1970s, it may still pose a risk to human respiratory health. In agriculture, DDT exposures have been associated with asthma and chronic bronchitis. However, little is known about the effect of DDT on lung function. Methods We used data on 1,696 participants 20–79 years of age from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) and conducted multiple regression analysis to estimate associations between plasma p,p´-DDT/DDE and lung function. Results Almost all participants (> 99.0%) had detectable concentrations of plasma p,p´-DDE, but only 10.0% had detectable p,p´-DDT. Participants with detectable p,p´-DDT had significantly lower mean FVC (difference = 311 mL; 95% CI: –492, –130; p = 0.003) and FEV1 (difference = 232 mL; 95% CI: –408, –55; p = 0.015) than those without. A 100-ng/g lipid increase in plasma p,p´-DDE was associated with an 18.8-mL decrease in mean FVC (95% CI: –29, –9) and an 11.8-mL decrease in mean FEV1 (95% CI: –21, –3). Neither exposure was associated with FEV1/FVC ratio or FEF25%–75%. Conclusions DDT exposures, which may have occurred decades ago, were still detectable among Canadians. Plasma DDT and DDE were negatively associated with lung function parameters. Additional research on the potential effects of DDT use on lung function is warranted. Citation Ye M, Beach J, Martin JW, Senthilselvan A. 2015. Association between lung function in adults and plasma DDT and DDE levels: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Environ Health Perspect 123:422–427; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408217 PMID:25536373

  10. Lead toxicity: does the critical level of lead resulting in adverse effects differ between adults and children?

    PubMed

    Murata, Katsuyuki; Iwata, Toyoto; Dakeishi, Miwako; Karita, Kanae

    2009-01-01

    The Scientific Committee on Neurotoxicology and Psychophysiology and the Scientific Committee on the Toxicology of Metals of the International Commission on Occupational Health in 2006 recommended that the standard for blood lead (BPb) levels be reduced to 30 microg/dl for industrial workers and 5 microg/dl for children. To examine whether the critical level of lead producing adverse effects truly differs between workers and children, we provided an overview of studies addressing the critical level of lead in workers, together with a perspective on lead toxicity in children. In 25 reports published in English with keywords of "benchmark dose (BMD)," "lead" and "humans," only five studies proved to be relevant to lead toxicity. Four more studies with figures illustrating significant relationships between lead and neurotoxic outcomes were selected. Based on data from previous reports using a BMD approach, the critical organ of lead in workers was thought to be the nervous system and the critical BPb level (number-weighted mean) was between 10.7 and 17.5 microg/dl. The neurotoxic effects of lead exposure at such levels seemed reversible. The BPb level at which lead-associated intellectual deficits occurred in children was as low as the critical level of BPb (below 5 microg/dl) for inhibited heme synthesis in workers. The neurotoxic effects of lead in workers appear to be initiated at BPb levels below 18 microg/dl, which are somewhat higher than the critical level of lead neurotoxicity in children. Each national institute for risk management should take evidence-based preventive action against subclinical lead poisoning in workers, as well as in children.

  11. Pilot Study on Folate Bioavailability from a Camembert Cheese Reveals Contradictory Findings to Recent Results from a Human Short-term Study.

    PubMed

    Mönch, Sabine; Netzel, Michael; Netzel, Gabriele; Ott, Undine; Frank, Thomas; Rychlik, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Different dietary sources of folate have differing bioavailabilities, which may affect their nutritional "value." In order to examine if these differences also occur within the same food products, a short-term human pilot study was undertaken as a follow-up study to a previously published human trial to evaluate the relative native folate bioavailabilities from low-fat Camembert cheese compared to pteroylmonoglutamic acid as the reference dose. Two healthy human subjects received the test foods in a randomized cross-over design separated by a 14-day equilibrium phase. Folate body pools were saturated with a pteroylmonoglutamic acid supplement before the first testing and between the testings. Folates in test foods and blood plasma were analyzed by stable isotope dilution assays. The biokinetic parameters C max, t max, and area under the curve (AUC) were determined in plasma within the interval of 0-12 h. When comparing the ratio estimates of AUC and C max for the different Camembert cheeses, a higher bioavailability was found for the low-fat Camembert assessed in the present study (≥64%) compared to a different brand in our previous investigation (8.8%). It is suggested that these differences may arise from the different folate distribution in the soft dough and firm rind as well as differing individual folate vitamer proportions. The results clearly underline the importance of the food matrix, even within the same type of food product, in terms of folate bioavailability. Moreover, our findings add to the increasing number of studies questioning the general assumption of 50% bioavailability as the rationale behind the definition of folate equivalents. However, more research is needed to better understand the interactions between individual folate vitamers and other food components and the potential impact on folate bioavailability and metabolism.

  12. Pilot Study on Folate Bioavailability from a Camembert Cheese Reveals Contradictory Findings to Recent Results from a Human Short-term Study

    PubMed Central

    Mönch, Sabine; Netzel, Michael; Netzel, Gabriele; Ott, Undine; Frank, Thomas; Rychlik, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Different dietary sources of folate have differing bioavailabilities, which may affect their nutritional “value.” In order to examine if these differences also occur within the same food products, a short-term human pilot study was undertaken as a follow-up study to a previously published human trial to evaluate the relative native folate bioavailabilities from low-fat Camembert cheese compared to pteroylmonoglutamic acid as the reference dose. Two healthy human subjects received the test foods in a randomized cross-over design separated by a 14-day equilibrium phase. Folate body pools were saturated with a pteroylmonoglutamic acid supplement before the first testing and between the testings. Folates in test foods and blood plasma were analyzed by stable isotope dilution assays. The biokinetic parameters Cmax, tmax, and area under the curve (AUC) were determined in plasma within the interval of 0–12 h. When comparing the ratio estimates of AUC and Cmax for the different Camembert cheeses, a higher bioavailability was found for the low-fat Camembert assessed in the present study (≥64%) compared to a different brand in our previous investigation (8.8%). It is suggested that these differences may arise from the different folate distribution in the soft dough and firm rind as well as differing individual folate vitamer proportions. The results clearly underline the importance of the food matrix, even within the same type of food product, in terms of folate bioavailability. Moreover, our findings add to the increasing number of studies questioning the general assumption of 50% bioavailability as the rationale behind the definition of folate equivalents. However, more research is needed to better understand the interactions between individual folate vitamers and other food components and the potential impact on folate bioavailability and metabolism. PMID:27092303

  13. Remeasured FIA plots reveal tree-level diameter growth and tree mortality impacts of nitrogen deposition on California’s forests

    Treesearch

    Mark E. Fenn; Jeremy S. Fried; Haiganoush K. Preisler; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Susan Schilling; Sarah Jovan; Olaf Kuegler

    2015-01-01

    The air in California’s forests spans a broad range of purity, from virtually no locally generated pollutants to highly elevated levels of pollutants in forests downwind of urban and agricultural source areas. Ten-year remeasurement data from Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots in California were used in combination with modelled atmospheric nitrogen (N)...

  14. Genome-wide association reveals that common genetic variation in the kallikrein-kinin system is associated with serum L-arginine levels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Jernerén, Fredrik; Lehne, Benjamin C; Chen, Ming-Huei; Luben, Robert N; Johnston, Carole; Elshorbagy, Amany; Eppinga, Ruben N; Scott, William R; Adeyeye, Elizabeth; Scott, James; Böger, Rainer H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; van der Harst, Pim; Wareham, Nicholas J; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Chambers, John C; Refsum, Helga; Kooner, Jaspal S

    2016-11-30

    L-arginine is the essential precursor of nitric oxide, and is involved in multiple key physiological processes, including vascular and immune function. The genetic regulation of blood L-arginine levels is largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic factors determining serum L-arginine levels, amongst 901 Europeans and 1,394 Indian Asians. We show that common genetic variations at the KLKB1 and F12 loci are strongly associated with serum L-arginine levels. The G allele of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs71640036 (T/G) in KLKB1 is associated with lower serum L-arginine concentrations (10 µmol/l per allele copy, p=1×10 -24 ), while allele T of rs2545801 (T/C) near the F12 gene is associated with lower serum L-arginine levels (7 µmol/l per allele copy, p=7×10 -12 ). Together these two loci explain 7 % of the total variance in serum L-arginine concentrations. The associations at both loci were replicated in independent cohorts with plasma L-arginine measurements (p<0.004). The two sentinel SNPs are in nearly complete LD with the nonsynonymous SNP rs3733402 at KLKB1 and the 5'-UTR SNP rs1801020 at F12, respectively. SNPs at both loci are associated with blood pressure. Our findings provide new insight into the genetic regulation of L-arginine and its potential relationship with cardiovascular risk.

  15. Ultrastructural and Single-Cell-Level Characterization Reveals Metabolic Versatility in a Microbial Eukaryote Community from an Ice-Covered Antarctic Lake

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Podar, Mircea

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The McMurdo Dry Valleys (MCM) of southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, harbor numerous ice-covered bodies of water that provide year-round liquid water oases for isolated food webs dominated by the microbial loop. Single-cell microbial eukaryotes (protists) occupy major trophic positions within this truncated food web, ranging from primary producers (e.g., chlorophytes, haptophytes, and cryptophytes) to tertiary predators (e.g., ciliates, dinoflagellates, and choanoflagellates). To advance the understanding of MCM protist ecology and the roles of MCM protists in nutrient and energy cycling, we investigated potential metabolic strategies and microbial interactions of key MCM protists isolated from a well-described lake (Lake Bonney). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of enrichment cultures, combined with single amplified genome/amplicon sequencing and fluorescence microscopy, revealed that MCM protists possess diverse potential metabolic capabilities and interactions. Two metabolically distinct bacterial clades (Flavobacteria and Methylobacteriaceae) were independently associated with two key MCM lake microalgae (Isochrysis and Chlamydomonas, respectively). We also report on the discovery of two heterotrophic nanoflagellates belonging to the Stramenopila supergroup, one of which lives as a parasite of Chlamydomonas, a dominate primary producer in the shallow, nutrient-poor layers of the lake. IMPORTANCE Single-cell eukaryotes called protists play critical roles in the cycling of organic matter in aquatic environments. In the ice-covered lakes of Antarctica, protists play key roles in the aquatic food web, providing the majority of organic carbon to the rest of the food web (photosynthetic protists) and acting as the major consumers at the top of the food web (predatory protists). In this study, we utilized a combination of techniques (microscopy, cell sorting, and genomic analysis) to describe the trophic abilities of Antarctic lake protists and

  16. Ultrastructural and Single-Cell-Level Characterization Reveals Metabolic Versatility in a Microbial Eukaryote Community from an Ice-Covered Antarctic Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei; Podar, Mircea; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M.

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys (MCM) of southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, harbor numerous ice-covered bodies of water that provide year-round liquid water oases for isolated food webs dominated by the microbial loop. Single-cell microbial eukaryotes (protists) occupy major trophic positions within this truncated food web, ranging from primary producers (e.g., chlorophytes, haptophytes, and cryptophytes) to tertiary predators (e.g., ciliates, dinoflagellates, and choanoflagellates). To advance the understanding of MCM protist ecology and the roles of MCM protists in nutrient and energy cycling, we investigated potential metabolic strategies and microbial interactions of key MCM protists isolated from a well-described lake (Lake Bonney). Fluorescence-activatedmore » cell sorting (FACS) of enrichment cultures, combined with single amplified genome/amplicon sequencing and fluorescence microscopy, revealed that MCM protists possess diverse potential metabolic capabilities and interactions. Two metabolically distinct bacterial clades (FlavobacteriaandMethylobacteriaceae) were independently associated with two key MCM lake microalgae (IsochrysisandChlamydomonas, respectively). We also report on the discovery of two heterotrophic nanoflagellates belonging to the Stramenopila supergroup, one of which lives as a parasite ofChlamydomonas, a dominate primary producer in the shallow, nutrient-poor layers of the lake. Single-cell eukaryotes called protists play critical roles in the cycling of organic matter in aquatic environments. In the ice-covered lakes of Antarctica, protists play key roles in the aquatic food web, providing the majority of organic carbon to the rest of the food web (photosynthetic protists) and acting as the major consumers at the top of the food web (predatory protists). In this study, we utilized a combination of techniques (microscopy, cell sorting, and genomic analysis) to describe the trophic abilities of Antarctic lake protists and their potential

  17. Ultrastructural and Single-Cell-Level Characterization Reveals Metabolic Versatility in a Microbial Eukaryote Community from an Ice-Covered Antarctic Lake.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Podar, Mircea; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M

    2016-06-15

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys (MCM) of southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, harbor numerous ice-covered bodies of water that provide year-round liquid water oases for isolated food webs dominated by the microbial loop. Single-cell microbial eukaryotes (protists) occupy major trophic positions within this truncated food web, ranging from primary producers (e.g., chlorophytes, haptophytes, and cryptophytes) to tertiary predators (e.g., ciliates, dinoflagellates, and choanoflagellates). To advance the understanding of MCM protist ecology and the roles of MCM protists in nutrient and energy cycling, we investigated potential metabolic strategies and microbial interactions of key MCM protists isolated from a well-described lake (Lake Bonney). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of enrichment cultures, combined with single amplified genome/amplicon sequencing and fluorescence microscopy, revealed that MCM protists possess diverse potential metabolic capabilities and interactions. Two metabolically distinct bacterial clades (Flavobacteria and Methylobacteriaceae) were independently associated with two key MCM lake microalgae (Isochrysis and Chlamydomonas, respectively). We also report on the discovery of two heterotrophic nanoflagellates belonging to the Stramenopila supergroup, one of which lives as a parasite of Chlamydomonas, a dominate primary producer in the shallow, nutrient-poor layers of the lake. Single-cell eukaryotes called protists play critical roles in the cycling of organic matter in aquatic environments. In the ice-covered lakes of Antarctica, protists play key roles in the aquatic food web, providing the majority of organic carbon to the rest of the food web (photosynthetic protists) and acting as the major consumers at the top of the food web (predatory protists). In this study, we utilized a combination of techniques (microscopy, cell sorting, and genomic analysis) to describe the trophic abilities of Antarctic lake protists and their potential

  18. Ultrastructural and Single-Cell-Level Characterization Reveals Metabolic Versatility in a Microbial Eukaryote Community from an Ice-Covered Antarctic Lake

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Wei; Podar, Mircea; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M.

    2016-04-15

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys (MCM) of southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, harbor numerous ice-covered bodies of water that provide year-round liquid water oases for isolated food webs dominated by the microbial loop. Single-cell microbial eukaryotes (protists) occupy major trophic positions within this truncated food web, ranging from primary producers (e.g., chlorophytes, haptophytes, and cryptophytes) to tertiary predators (e.g., ciliates, dinoflagellates, and choanoflagellates). To advance the understanding of MCM protist ecology and the roles of MCM protists in nutrient and energy cycling, we investigated potential metabolic strategies and microbial interactions of key MCM protists isolated from a well-described lake (Lake Bonney). Fluorescence-activatedmore » cell sorting (FACS) of enrichment cultures, combined with single amplified genome/amplicon sequencing and fluorescence microscopy, revealed that MCM protists possess diverse potential metabolic capabilities and interactions. Two metabolically distinct bacterial clades (FlavobacteriaandMethylobacteriaceae) were independently associated with two key MCM lake microalgae (IsochrysisandChlamydomonas, respectively). We also report on the discovery of two heterotrophic nanoflagellates belonging to the Stramenopila supergroup, one of which lives as a parasite ofChlamydomonas, a dominate primary producer in the shallow, nutrient-poor layers of the lake. Single-cell eukaryotes called protists play critical roles in the cycling of organic matter in aquatic environments. In the ice-covered lakes of Antarctica, protists play key roles in the aquatic food web, providing the majority of organic carbon to the rest of the food web (photosynthetic protists) and acting as the major consumers at the top of the food web (predatory protists). In this study, we utilized a combination of techniques (microscopy, cell sorting, and genomic analysis) to describe the trophic abilities of Antarctic lake protists and their potential

  19. A survey of the interactome of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF45 revealed its binding to viral ORF33 and cellular USP7, resulting in stabilization of ORF33 that is required for production of progeny viruses.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Joseph; Li, Wenwei; Liang, Qiming; Avey, Denis; Wu, Jianjun; Wu, Fayi; Myoung, JinJong; Zhu, Fanxiu

    2015-05-01

    The ORF45 protein of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a gammaherpesvirus-specific immediate-early tegument protein. Our previous studies have revealed its crucial roles in both early and late stages of KSHV infection. In this study, we surveyed the interactome of ORF45 using a panel of monoclonal antibodies. In addition to the previously identified extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) proteins, we found several other copurified proteins, including prominent ones of ∼38 kDa and ∼130 kDa. Mass spectrometry revealed that the 38-kDa protein is viral ORF33 and the 130-kDa protein is cellular USP7 (ubiquitin-specific protease 7). We mapped the ORF33-binding domain to the highly conserved carboxyl-terminal 19 amino acids (aa) of ORF45 and the USP7-binding domain to the reported consensus motif in the central region of ORF45. Using immunofluorescence staining, we observed colocalization of ORF45 with ORF33 or USP7 both under transfected conditions and in KSHV-infected cells. Moreover, we noticed ORF45-dependent relocalization of a portion of ORF33/USP7 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. We found that ORF45 caused an increase in ORF33 protein accumulation that was abolished if either the ORF33- or USP7-binding domain in ORF45 was deleted. Furthermore, deletion of the conserved carboxyl terminus of ORF45 in the KSHV genome drastically reduced the level of ORF33 protein in KSHV-infected cells and abolished production of progeny virions. Collectively, our results not only reveal new components of the ORF45 interactome, but also demonstrate that the interactions among these proteins are crucial for KSHV lytic replication. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of several human cancers. KSHV ORF45 is a multifunctional protein that is required for KSHV lytic replication, but the exact mechanisms by which ORF45 performs its critical functions are unclear. Our previous studies revealed that all

  20. Drying of Floodplain Forests Associated with Water-Level Decline in the Apalachicola River, Florida - Interim Results, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darst, Melanie R.; Light, Helen M.

    2007-01-01

    Floodplain forests of the Apalachicola River, Florida, are drier in composition today (2006) than they were before 1954, and drying is expected to continue for at least the next 50 years. Drier forest composition is probably caused by water-level declines that occurred as a result of physical changes in the main channel after 1954 and decreased flows in spring and summer months since the 1970s. Forest plots sampled from 2004 to 2006 were compared to forests sampled in the late 1970s (1976-79) using a Floodplain Index (FI) based on species dominance weighted by the Floodplain Species Category, a value that represents the tolerance of tree species to inundation and saturation in the floodplain and consequently, the typical historic floodplain habitat for that species. Two types of analyses were used to determine forest changes over time: replicate plot analysis comparing present (2004-06) canopy composition to late 1970s canopy composition at the same locations, and analyses comparing the composition of size classes of trees on plots in late 1970s and in present forests. An example of a size class analysis would be a comparison of the composition of the entire canopy (all trees greater than 7.5 cm (centimeter) diameter at breast height (dbh)) to the composition of the large canopy tree size class (greater than or equal to 25 cm dbh) at one location. The entire canopy, which has a mixture of both young and old trees, is probably indicative of more recent hydrologic conditions than the large canopy, which is assumed to have fewer young trees. Change in forest composition from the pre-1954 period to approximately 2050 was estimated by combining results from three analyses. The composition of pre-1954 forests was represented by the large canopy size class sampled in the late 1970s. The average FI for canopy trees was 3.0 percent drier than the average FI for the large canopy tree size class, indicating that the late 1970s forests were 3.0 percent drier than pre-1954

  1. Results of hydrologic research at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, Barbara J.

    1989-01-01

    Ten years of hydrologic research have been conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at a commercial low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois. Research included studies of microclimate, evapotranspiration, and tritium release by plants; runoff and land modification; water movement through a trench cover; water and tritium movement in the unsaturated zone; gases in the unsaturated zone; water and tritium movement in the saturated zone; and water chemistry. Implications specific to each research topic and those based on overlapping research topics are summarized as to their potential effect on the selection, characterization, design, operation, and decommissioning processes of future low-level radioactive-waste disposal sites. Unconsolidated deposits at the site are diverse in lithologic character and are spatially and stratigraphically complex. Thickness of these Quaternary deposits ranges from 3 to 27 meters and averages 17 meters. The unconsolidated deposits overlay 140 meters of Pennsylvanian shale, mudstone, siltstone, and coal. Approximately 90,500 cubic meters of waste were buried from August 1967 through August 1978, in 21 trenches that were constructed in glacial materials by using a cut-and-fill process. Trenches generally were constructed below grade and ranged from 11 to 180 meters long, 2.4 to 21 meters wide, and 2.4 to about 7.9 meters deep. Research on microclimate and evapotranspiration at the site was conducted from July 1982 through June 1984. Continuous measurements were made of precipitation, incoming and reflected solar (shortwave) radiation, incoming and emitted terrestrial (longwave) radiation, horizontal windspeed and direction, wet- and dry-bulb air temperature, barometric pressure, soil-heat fluxes, and soil temperature. Soil-moisture content, for this research phase, was measured approximately biweekly. Evapotranspiration rates were estimated by using three techniques--energy budget, aerodynamic profile, and water

  2. Genetic analysis of two OsLpa1-like genes in Arabidopsis reveals that only one is required for wild-type seed phytic acid levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytic acid (inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate or InsP6) is the primary storage form of phosphorus in plant seeds. The rice OsLpa1 encodes a novel protein required for wild-type levels of seed InsP6 and was identified from a low phytic acid (lpa) mutant exhibiting a 45-50% reduction in seed InsP...

  3. Low reproductive isolation and highly variable levels of gene flow reveal limited progress towards speciation between European river and brook lampreys.

    PubMed

    Rougemont, Q; Gaigher, A; Lasne, E; Côte, J; Coke, M; Besnard, A-L; Launey, S; Evanno, G

    2015-12-01

    Ecologically based divergent selection is a factor that could drive reproductive isolation even in the presence of gene flow. Population pairs arrayed along a continuum of divergence provide a good opportunity to address this issue. Here, we used a combination of mating trials, experimental crosses and population genetic analyses to investigate the evolution of reproductive isolation between two closely related species of lampreys with distinct life histories. We used microsatellite markers to genotype over 1000 individuals of the migratory parasitic river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) and freshwater-resident nonparasitic brook lamprey (Lampetra planeri) distributed in 10 sympatric and parapatric population pairs in France. Mating trials, parentage analyses and artificial fertilizations demonstrated a low level of reproductive isolation between species even though size-assortative mating may contribute to isolation. Most parapatric population pairs were strongly differentiated due to the joint effects of geographic distance and barriers to migration. In contrast, we found variable levels of gene flow between sympatric populations ranging from panmixia to moderate differentiation, which indicates a gradient of divergence with some population pairs that may correspond to alternative morphs or ecotypes of a single species and others that remain partially isolated. Ecologically based divergent selection may explain these variable levels of divergence among sympatric population pairs, but incomplete genome swamping following secondary contact could have also played a role. Overall, this study illustrates how highly differentiated phenotypes can be maintained despite high levels of gene flow that limit the progress towards speciation. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Topical Mannitol Reduces Capsaicin-Induced Pain: Results of a Pilot-Level, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Helene; Kyriazis, Marylene; Reeves, K Dean; Lyftogt, John; Rabago, David

    2015-11-01

    Capsaicin specifically activates, and then gradually exhausts, the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor, a key receptor in neuropathic pain. Activation of the TRPV-1 receptor is accompanied by burning pain. A natural substance or medication that can reduce the burning pain resulting from capsaicin application may have therapeutic potential in neuropathic pain. To assess the pain-relieving effects of a mannitol-containing cream in a capsaicin-based pain model. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Outpatient pain clinic. Twenty-five adults with pain-free lips. Capsaicin .075% cream was applied to both halves of each participant's upper lip, inducing pain via stimulation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1, capsaicin) receptor, then removed after 5 minutes or when participants reported a burning pain of 8/10, whichever came first. A cream containing mannitol and the same cream without mannitol (control) were then immediately applied, 1 on each side of the lip, in an allocation-masked manner. Participants self-recorded a numeric rating scale (NRS, 0-10) pain score for each side of the lip per minute for 10 minutes. A t-test was performed to evaluate the pain score change from baseline between each side of the lip at each recording. Area under the curve (AUC) analysis was used to determine the overall difference between groups. Participants reached a capsaicin-induced pain level of 7.8 ± 1.0 points in 3.3 ± 1.6 minutes that was equal on both sides of the lip. Both groups reported progressive diminution of pain over the 10-minute study period. However, participants reported significantly reduced pain scores on the mannitol cream half-lip compared to control at 3 through 10 minutes (P < .05) and in AUC analysis (P < .001). Mannitol cream reduced self-reported pain scores in a capsaicin pain model more rapidly than a control cream, potentially via a TRPV1 receptor effect. Copyright © 2015 American

  5. Results from levels 2/3 fusion implementations: issues, challenges, retrospectives, and perspectives for the future an annotated perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadar, Ivan; Bosse, Eloi; Salerno, John; Lambert, Dale A.; Das, Subrata; Ruspini, Enrique H.; Rhodes, Bradley J.; Biermann, Joachim

    2008-04-01

    Even though the definition of the Joint Director of Laboratories (JDL) "fusion levels" were established in 1987, published 1991, revised in 1999 and 2004, the meaning, effects, control and optimization of interactions among the fusion levels have not as yet been fully explored and understood. Specifically, this is apparent from the abstract JDL definitions of "Levels 2/3 Fusion" - situation and threat assessment (SA/TA), which involve deriving relations among entities, e.g., the aggregation of object states (i.e., classification and location) in SA, while TA uses SA products to estimate/predict the impact of actions/interactions effects on situations taken by the participant entities involved. Given all the existing knowledge in the information fusion and human factors literature, (both prior to and after the introduction of "fusion levels" in 1987) there are still open questions remaining in regard to implementation of knowledge representation and reasoning methods under uncertainty to afford SA/TA. Therefore, to promote exchange of ideas and to illuminate the historical, current and future issues associated with Levels 2/3 implementations, leading experts were invited to present their respective views on various facets of this complex problem. This paper is a retrospective annotated view of the invited panel discussion organized by Ivan Kadar (first author), supported by John Salerno, in order to provide both a historical perspective of the evolution of the state-of-the-art (SOA) in higher-level "Levels 2/3" information fusion implementations by looking back over the past ten or more years (before JDL), and based upon the lessons learned to forecast where focus should be placed to further enhance and advance the SOA by addressing key issues and challenges. In order to convey the panel discussion to audiences not present at the panel, annotated position papers summarizing the panel presentation are included.

  6. Hydroxycholesterol Levels in the Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Neuromyelitis Optica Revealed by LC-Ag+CIS/MS/MS and LC-ESI/MS/MS with Picolinic Derivatization: Increased Levels and Association with Disability during Acute Attack

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Duk; Park, Kyung Seok; Lee, Kwang-Woo; Kim, Sung-Min; Lee, Jaeick

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Hydroxycholesterols (OHCs), metabolites of CNS cholesterol, are involved in diverse cellular responses to inflammation and demyelination, and may also be involved in the pathogenesis of NMO. We aimed to develop a sensitive and reliable method for the quantitative analysis of three major OHCs (24S-, 25-, and 27-OHCs), and to evaluate their concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of patients with NMO. The levels of the three OHCs in the serum and CSF were measured using liquid chromatography-silver ion coordination ionspray tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with picolinyl ester derivatization, respectively. The linear range was 5–250 ng/mL for 24S- and 27-OHC, and 0.5–25 ng/mL for 25-OHC in serum, and was 0.1–5 ng/mL for 24S- and 27-OHC, and 0.03–1 ng/mL for 25-OHC in CSF. Precision and accuracy were 0.5%–14.7% and 92.5%–109.7%, respectively, in serum, and were 0.8%–7.7% and 94.5%–119.2%, respectively, in CSF. Extraction recovery was 82.7%–90.7% in serum and 68.4%–105.0% in CSF. When analyzed in 26 NMO patients and 23 control patients, the 25-OHC (0.54 ± 0.96 ng/mL vs. 0.09 ± 0.04 ng/mL, p = 0.032) and 27-OHC (2.68 ± 3.18 ng/mL vs. 0.68 ± 0.25 ng/mL, p = 0.005) were increased in the CSF from NMO patients. When we measured the OHCCSF index that controls the effects of blood–brain barrier disruption on the level of OHC in the CSF, the 27-OHCCSF index was associated with disability (0.723; 95% confidence interval (CI)– 0.181, 0.620; p = 0.002), while the 24-OHCCSF index (0.518; 95% CI– 1.070, 38.121; p = 0.040) and 25-OHCCSF index (0.677; 95% CI– 4.313, 18.532; p = 0.004) were associated with the number of white blood cells in the CSF of NMO patients. Our results imply that OHCs in the CNS could play a role in the pathogenesis of NMO. PMID:27942009

  7. [The effect of a single moderate physical exertion on serum leptin levels in patients with essential hypertension (preliminary results)].

    PubMed

    Zyśko, D; Gajek, J; Jołda-Mydłowska, B

    2000-08-01

    Leptin is a product of the ob gene and is secreted by the adipose tissue. It takes part in regulation of nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine system and renal functions. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of short term moderate exercise on serum leptin levels in patients with arterial hypertension. The study group consisted of 34 patients with essential hypertension: 15 women (48.9 +/- 12.1 years old) and 19 men (43.5 +/- 14.6 years old). There were 7 patients with stage I of hypertension, 17 patients with stage II of hypertension and 10 patients with stage III of hypertension. The blood samples were taken before and after the exercise test. Serum leptin levels were assessed by radioimmunoassay. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in women then in men. The logarithm of serum leptin levels after the exercise was significantly lower than before (0.8 +/- 0.4 and 0.9 +/- 0.5 respectively). The moderate, short term exercise decreases serum leptin levels in the hypertensive patients.

  8. Alcohol consumption and social inequality at the individual and country levels--results from an international study.

    PubMed

    Grittner, Ulrike; Kuntsche, Sandra; Gmel, Gerhard; Bloomfield, Kim

    2013-04-01

    International comparisons of social inequalities in alcohol use have not been extensively investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol consumption in 33 countries. Data on 101,525 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 33 countries of the GENACIS study were used. Individual SES was measured by highest attained educational level. Alcohol use measures included drinking status and monthly risky single occasion drinking (RSOD). The relationship between individuals' education and drinking indicators was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step the individual level data and country data were combined and tested in multilevel models. As country level indicators we used the Purchasing Power Parity of the gross national income, the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. For both genders and all countries higher individual SES was positively associated with drinking status. Also higher country level SES was associated with higher proportions of drinkers. Lower SES was associated with RSOD among men. Women of higher SES in low income countries were more often RSO drinkers than women of lower SES. The opposite was true in higher income countries. For the most part, findings regarding SES and drinking in higher income countries were as expected. However, women of higher SES in low and middle income countries appear at higher risk of engaging in RSOD. This finding should be kept in mind when developing new policy and prevention initiatives.

  9. Probe-level linear model fitting and mixture modeling results in high accuracy detection of differential gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Sébastien

    2006-08-25

    The identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from Affymetrix GeneChips arrays is currently done by first computing expression levels from the low-level probe intensities, then deriving significance by comparing these expression levels between conditions. The proposed PL-LM (Probe-Level Linear Model) method implements a linear model applied on the probe-level data to directly estimate the treatment effect. A finite mixture of Gaussian components is then used to identify DEGs using the coefficients estimated by the linear model. This approach can readily be applied to experimental design with or without replication. On a wholly defined dataset, the PL-LM method was able to identify 75% of the differentially expressed genes within 10% of false positives. This accuracy was achieved both using the three replicates per conditions available in the dataset and using only one replicate per condition. The method achieves, on this dataset, a higher accuracy than the best set of tools identified by the authors of the dataset, and does so using only one replicate per condition.

  10. Cryptosporidiosis in Haiti: surprisingly low level of species diversity revealed by molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium oocysts from surface water and groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Damiani, Céline; Balthazard-Accou, Ketty; Clervil, Elmyre; Diallo, Aïssata; Da Costa, Cécilia; Emmanuel, Evens; Totet, Anne; Agnamey, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium sp. has emerged as one of the most important water contaminants, causing waterborne outbreaks of diarrhoeal diseases worldwide. In Haiti, cryptosporidiosis is a frequent cause of diarrhoea in children under the age of five years, HIV-infected individuals, and people living in low socioeconomic conditions, mainly due to the consumption of water or food polluted by Cryptosporidium oocysts. The aim of this study was to detect and identify Cryptosporidium oocysts present in 12 water samples collected in Port-au-Prince and 4 water samples collected in Cap Haïtien. Initial detection consisted of immunomagnetic separation – immunofluorescence assay (IMS-IFA), which was confirmed by nested PCR, targeting the most polymorphic region of the 18S rRNA gene in 15/16 samples. Genotyping was performed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and DNA sequencing. Under our working conditions, neither nested PCR-RFLP nor direct DNA sequencing revealed the expected species diversity, as only Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in the water samples studied. This study highlights the difficulty of detecting mixed populations of Cryptosporidium species in environmental samples. PMID:24252814

  11. Dose-Response Relationship between Serum Retinol Levels and Survival in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: Results from the DACHS Study.

    PubMed

    Maalmi, Haifa; Walter, Viola; Jansen, Lina; Owen, Robert W; Ulrich, Alexis; Schöttker, Ben; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann

    2018-04-19

    Current knowledge on the role of retinol in the prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is very limited. We investigated the association of serum retinol levels with survival outcomes in a large cohort of 2908 CRC patients from Germany. Retinol concentrations were determined in serum collected shortly after diagnosis by mass spectrometry. Associations between serum retinol levels and survival outcomes were assessed using multivariable Cox regression and dose-response analyses. The joint association of serum retinol and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ (25(OH)D₃) with survival outcomes was also examined. During a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 787 deaths occurred, 573 of which were due to CRC. Dose-response curves showed an inverse relationship between serum retinol levels and survival endpoints in the range of <2.4 µmol/L, but no associations at higher levels. Low (<1.2 µmol/L) versus high (≥2.4 µmol/L) serum retinol levels were associated with poorer overall survival (Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19⁻1.78, P-trend = 0.0003) and CRC-specific survival (HR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.33⁻2.15, P-trend < 0.0001). Joint presence of low serum retinol (<1.2 µmol/L) and low 25(OH)D₃ (<30 nmol/L) was associated with a particularly strong decrease in overall and CRC-specific survival. Low serum retinol levels were identified as a predictor of poor survival in CRC patients, in particular when co-occurring with low serum concentrations of 25(OH)D₃. The clinical implications of these findings require further investigation.

  12. Transient dwarfism and hypogonadism in mice lacking Otx1 reveal prepubescent stage-specific control of pituitary levels of GH, FSH and LH.

    PubMed

    Acampora, D; Mazan, S; Tuorto, F; Avantaggiato, V; Tremblay, J J; Lazzaro, D; di Carlo, A; Mariano, A; Macchia, P E; Corte, G; Macchia, V; Drouin, J; Brûlet, P; Simeone, A

    1998-04-01

    Genetic and molecular approaches have enabled the identification of regulatory genes critically involved in determining cell types in the pituitary gland and/or in the hypothalamus. Here we report that Otx1, a homeobox-containing gene of the Otx gene family, is postnatally transcribed and translated in the pituitary gland. Cell culture experiments indicate that Otx1 may activate transcription of the growth hormone (GH), follicle-stimulating hormone (betaFSH), luteinizing hormone (betaLH) and alpha-glycoprotein subunit (alphaGSU) genes. Analysis of Otx1 null mice indicates that, at the prepubescent stage, they exhibit transient dwarfism and hypogonadism due to low levels of pituitary GH, FSH and LH hormones which, in turn, dramatically affect downstream molecular and organ targets. Nevertheless, Otx1-/- mice gradually recover from most of these abnormalities, showing normal levels of pituitary hormones with restored growth and gonadal function at 4 months of age. Expression patterns of related hypothalamic and pituitary cell type restricted genes, growth hormone releasing hormone (GRH), gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and their pituitary receptors (GRHR and GnRHR) suggest that, in Otx1-/- mice, hypothalamic and pituitary cells of the somatotropic and gonadotropic lineages appear unaltered and that the ability to synthesize GH, FSH and LH, rather than the number of cells producing these hormones, is affected. Our data indicate that Otx1 is a new pituitary transcription factor involved at the prepubescent stage in the control of GH, FSH and LH hormone levels and suggest that a complex regulatory mechanism might exist to control the physiological need for pituitary hormones at specific postnatal stages.

  13. Metabolomics analysis of rice responses to salinity stress revealed elevation of serotonin, and gentisic acid levels in leaves of tolerant varieties.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Poulami; De, Bratati

    2017-07-03

    A GC-MS based analytical approach was undertaken to understand the metabolomic responses of seedlings of 2 salt sensitive (Sujala and MTU 7029) and 2 tolerant varieties (Bhutnath, and Nonabokra) of indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) to NaCl induced stress. The 4 varieties responded differently to NaCl treatment with respect to the conserved primary metabolites (sugars, polyols, amino acids, organic acids and certain purine derivatives) of the leaf of rice seedlings. However, there were significant differences in salt induced production of chorismic acid derivatives. Serotonin level was increased in both the salt tolerant varieties in response to NaCl induced stress. In both the salt tolerant varieties, increased production of the signaling molecule gentisic acid in response to NaCl treatment was noticed. Salt tolerant varieties also produced increased level of ferulic acid and vanillic acid. In the salt sensitive varieties, cinnamic acid derivatives, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid (in Sujala) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (in MTU 7029), were elevated in the leaves. So increased production of the 2 signaling molecules serotonin and gentisic acid may be considered as 2 important biomarker compounds produced in tolerant varieties contributing toward NaCl tolerance.

  14. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry imaging reveals molecular level changes in ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene joint implants in correlation with lipid adsorption.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Sophie M; Archodoulaki, Vasiliki-Maria; Allmaier, Günter; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina

    2014-10-07

    Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (PE-UHMW), a material with high biocompatibility and excellent mechanical properties, is among the most commonly used materials for acetabular cup replacement in artificial joint systems. It is assumed that the interaction with synovial fluid in the biocompartment leads to significant changes relevant to material failure. In addition to hyaluronic acid, lipids are particularly relevant for lubrication in an articulating process. This study investigates synovial lipid adsorption on two different PE-UHMW materials (GUR-1050 and vitamin E-doped) in an in vitro model system by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Lipids were identified by high performance thin layer chromatography (HP-TLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis, with an analytical focus on phospholipids and cholesterol, both being species of high importance for lubrication. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was applied in the study to correlate molecular information with PE-UHMW material qualities. It is demonstrated that lipid adsorption preferentially occurs in rough or oxidized polymer regions. Polymer modifications were colocalized with adsorbed lipids and found with high density in regions identified by SEM. Explanted, the in vivo polymer material showed comparable and even more obvious polymer damage and lipid adsorption when compared with the static in vitro model. A three-dimensional reconstruction of MSI data from consecutive PE-UHMW slices reveals detailed information about the diffusion process of lipids in the acetabular cup and provides, for the first time, a promising starting point for future studies correlating molecular information with commonly used techniques for material analysis (e.g., Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoindentation).

  15. Relationships Between Herpetofaunal Community Structure and Varying Levels of Overstory Tree Retention in Northern Alabama: First-year Results

    Treesearch

    Zachary I. Felix; Yong Wang; Callie Jo Schweitzer

    2004-01-01

    Forest managers are increasingly considering the effects their decisions have on the biodiversity of an area. However, there is often a lack of data upon which to evaluate these decisions. We conducted research to examine the relationship between silvicultural techniques, particularly shelterwood cuts with varying levels of basal area retention, and the community...

  16. Improving Prevention Programs: First Results on the Relation between Subjectively Perceived Levels of Usefulness and Social Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    School-based aggression prevention programs have been implemented in many educational institutions, and fostering the development of social competencies is one of the central aspects of many approaches. The aim of the present study was to assess the level of subjectively perceived usefulness of the prevention program "Faustlos" in…

  17. Growth and yield of western larch: 15-year results of a levels-of-growing-stock study.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1982-01-01

    The 15-year growth response from a levels-of-growing-stock study in an even-aged western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) stand in northeastern Oregon, first thinned at age 33, showed that trees growing at lower stand densities grew more rapidly in diameter but did not grow faster in height than trees in high density plots. Both basal area and...

  18. Growth of western larch after thinning from above and below to several density levels: 10-year results.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1980-01-01

    The 10-year growth of a 55-year-old, even-aged western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) stand after it was thinned from above and below to a wide range of stocking levels was measured in eastern Oregon. Basal area and volume growth increased as stand density increased for both thinning methods. Despite heavy infestations of the larch casebearer...

  19. Associations of Social-Environmental and Individual-Level Factors with Adolescent Soft Drink Consumption: Results from the SMILE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Kremers, Stef P. J.; de Vries, Hein; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is positively associated with soft drink consumption. We investigated the association of social-environmental and individual-level factors with soft drink consumption in a Dutch adolescent sample. Data were gathered in a longitudinal Dutch adolescent sample (n = 208, 62% girls). Soft drink consumption, social cognitions from the…

  20. Overview of the 2006 NCHEC Advanced-Level Certification Feasibility Study Results: The Impetus of a Positive Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Dixie L.; Alley, Kelly Bishop; Aduroja, Amos

    2008-01-01

    Through the 6-year National Health Educator Competencies Update Project (CUP), in 2004, the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing, Inc. (NCHEC), American Association for Health Education (AAHE), and Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) completed verification of advanced-level competencies and subcompetencies for health…

  1. Measuring Educational Efficiency at Student Level with Parametric Stochastic Distance Functions: An Application to Spanish PISA Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perelman, Sergio; Santin, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to examine the observed differences in Students' test performance across public and private-voucher schools in Spain. For this purpose, we explicitly consider that education is a multi-input multi-output production process subject to inefficient behaviors, which can be identified at student level using a parametric…

  2. Growth and yield of western larch in response to several density levels and two thinning methods: 15-year results.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1986-01-01

    The 15-year growth response from a levels-of-growing-stock study in an even-aged western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) stand, first thinned from above and below at age 55, was measured in northeastern Oregon. Basal area and volume growth increased with stand density for both thinning methods, whereas diameter growth decreased. Attacks of the...

  3. Results and Recommendations from the 2009 National Surveys of Randomly Selected and Highly Successful Middle Level Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwin, C. Kenneth; Greene, Melanie W.

    2010-01-01

    While a number of studies have yielded useful information regarding the status of middle level schools in the United States, four linked national surveys provide a longitudinal perspective on the degree of implementation of key middle grades programs and practices. These studies were conducted in 1968 (Alexander, 1968), 1988 (Alexander &…

  4. Getting to the Bottom Line: How Using Evaluation Results to Enhance Extension Programs Can Lead to Greater Levels of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Alexa J.; Israel, Glenn D.; Harder, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Extension has enhanced the lives of U.S. citizens through adult education in a myriad of ways. However, as budgets get tighter, accountability becomes increasingly more important. Over the years, Extension has reported low level impacts rather than the long-term successes that those working within the system know are occurring. Without enhanced…

  5. Low Background Levels of Mars Methane at Gale Crater Indicate Seasonal Cycle: Updated Results from TLS-SAM on Curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, C. R.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Atreya, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    In situ measurements of atmospheric methane have been made over a 3-year period at Gale Crater on Mars using the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) instrument in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite on the Curiosity rover. We have reported two important observations: (i) a background level of 0.5 ppbv that is about five times lower than some model predictions based on generation from UV degradation of micro-meteorites or interplanetary dust delivered to the martian surface; (ii) a "spike" of elevated levels of 7 ppbv that were seen1 on four sequential observations over a 2-month period before dropping to background levels. This spike was attributed to an episodic release from a small local source, probably to the north of Gale crater. While the elevated levels of the spike did not return (repeat) one Mars year later, we have seen what appears to be a seasonal variation to the background levels that are all < 1ppbv. The variation ranges from a low of 0.2 ppbv in the northern hemisphere spring to 0.9 ppbv in the northern hemisphere late summer, a change in mixing ratio over a range larger than expected from our current understanding of methane sources and sinks. We will present recent atmospheric methane measurements, and their correlations with a variety of environmental conditions at the location of Curiosity, and discuss the mechanisms that are believed to be contributing to the low background methane signals and their variation. 1 "Mars Methane Detection and Variability at Gale Crater", C. R. Webster et al., Science, 347, 415-417 (2015) and references therein. The research described here was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  6. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Higher-Level Functional Limitations Among Older Japanese People: Results From the JAGES Study.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Airi; Fujiwara, Takeo; Murayama, Hiroshi; Tani, Yukako; Kondo, Katsunori

    2018-01-16

    A life-course perspective is essential in understanding the determinants of higher-level functional limitations. We examine the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on higher-level functional limitations in older people. Data were from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study 2013, a population-based cohort of independent people aged 65 years or older across Japan (n = 19,220). ACEs before the age of 18 were assessed in terms of seven adversities: parental death, parental divorce, parental mental illness, family violence, physical abuse, psychological neglect, and psychological abuse. Associations between the cumulative number of ACEs and higher-level functional limitations were investigated by multivariate Poisson regression with robust error variances, adjusted for age, gender, childhood disadvantage, adult sociodemographics, adult health behaviors, and health status. Of the older people, 36.3% reported at least one ACE. Older people who had experienced two or more ACEs showed significantly greater higher-level functional limitations than those with no ACE in a crude model (prevalence ratio, PR = 1.61, 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.51-1.71). After adjusting the covariates, this association remained (PR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.12-1.27). ACEs showed robust independent effects on higher-level functional limitations among older Japanese without disabilities, even after adjusting for potential covariates in childhood and adulthood. The current findings may help in understanding the impact of the latent effects of ACEs on functional limitations in older people. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Optogenetic Manipulation of Cyclic Di-GMP (c-di-GMP) Levels Reveals the Role of c-di-GMP in Regulating Aerotaxis Receptor Activity in Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Lindsey; Ryu, Min-Hyung; Gomelsky, Mark; Alexandre, Gladys

    2017-09-15

    Bacterial chemotaxis receptors provide the sensory inputs that inform the direction of navigation in changing environments. Recently, we described the bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) as a novel regulator of a subclass of chemotaxis receptors. In Azospirillum brasilense , c-di-GMP binds to a chemotaxis receptor, Tlp1, and modulates its signaling function during aerotaxis. Here, we further characterize the role of c-di-GMP in aerotaxis using a novel dichromatic optogenetic system engineered for manipulating intracellular c-di-GMP levels in real time. This system comprises a red/near-infrared-light-regulated diguanylate cyclase and a blue-light-regulated c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase. It allows the generation of transient changes in intracellular c-di-GMP concentrations within seconds of irradiation with appropriate light, which is compatible with the time scale of chemotaxis signaling. We provide experimental evidence that binding of c-di-GMP to the Tlp1 receptor activates its signaling function during aerotaxis, which supports the role of transient changes in c-di-GMP levels as a means of adjusting the response of A. brasilense to oxygen gradients. We also show that intracellular c-di-GMP levels in A. brasilense change with carbon metabolism. Our data support a model whereby c-di-GMP functions to imprint chemotaxis receptors with a record of recent metabolic experience, to adjust their contribution to the signaling output, thus allowing the cells to continually fine-tune chemotaxis sensory perception to their metabolic state. IMPORTANCE Motile bacteria use chemotaxis to change swimming direction in response to changes in environmental conditions. Chemotaxis receptors sense environmental signals and relay sensory information to the chemotaxis machinery, which ultimately controls the swimming pattern of cells. In bacteria studied to date, differential methylation has been known as a mechanism to control the activity of chemotaxis receptors and

  8. Optogenetic Manipulation of Cyclic Di-GMP (c-di-GMP) Levels Reveals the Role of c-di-GMP in Regulating Aerotaxis Receptor Activity in Azospirillum brasilense

    PubMed Central

    O'Neal, Lindsey; Ryu, Min-Hyung; Gomelsky, Mark

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial chemotaxis receptors provide the sensory inputs that inform the direction of navigation in changing environments. Recently, we described the bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) as a novel regulator of a subclass of chemotaxis receptors. In Azospirillum brasilense, c-di-GMP binds to a chemotaxis receptor, Tlp1, and modulates its signaling function during aerotaxis. Here, we further characterize the role of c-di-GMP in aerotaxis using a novel dichromatic optogenetic system engineered for manipulating intracellular c-di-GMP levels in real time. This system comprises a red/near-infrared-light-regulated diguanylate cyclase and a blue-light-regulated c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase. It allows the generation of transient changes in intracellular c-di-GMP concentrations within seconds of irradiation with appropriate light, which is compatible with the time scale of chemotaxis signaling. We provide experimental evidence that binding of c-di-GMP to the Tlp1 receptor activates its signaling function during aerotaxis, which supports the role of transient changes in c-di-GMP levels as a means of adjusting the response of A. brasilense to oxygen gradients. We also show that intracellular c-di-GMP levels in A. brasilense change with carbon metabolism. Our data support a model whereby c-di-GMP functions to imprint chemotaxis receptors with a record of recent metabolic experience, to adjust their contribution to the signaling output, thus allowing the cells to continually fine-tune chemotaxis sensory perception to their metabolic state. IMPORTANCE Motile bacteria use chemotaxis to change swimming direction in response to changes in environmental conditions. Chemotaxis receptors sense environmental signals and relay sensory information to the chemotaxis machinery, which ultimately controls the swimming pattern of cells. In bacteria studied to date, differential methylation has been known as a mechanism to control the activity of chemotaxis receptors and

  9. Adult vaccination coverage levels among users of complementary/alternative medicine - results from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

    PubMed

    Stokley, Shannon; Cullen, Karen A; Kennedy, Allison; Bardenheier, Barbara H

    2008-02-22

    While many Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) practitioners do not object to immunization, some discourage or even actively oppose vaccination among their patients. However, previous studies in this area have focused on childhood immunizations, and it is unknown whether and to what extent CAM practitioners may influence the vaccination behavior of their adult patients. The purpose of this study was to describe vaccination coverage levels of adults aged > or = 18 years according to their CAM use status and determine if there is an association between CAM use and adult vaccination coverage. Data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey, limited to 30,617 adults that provided at least one valid answer to the CAM supplement, were analyzed. Receipt of influenza vaccine during the past 12 months, pneumococcal vaccine (ever), and > or = 1 dose of hepatitis B vaccine was self-reported. Coverage levels for each vaccine by CAM use status were determined for adults who were considered high priority for vaccination because of the presence of a high risk condition and for non-priority adults. Multivariable analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between CAM users and vaccination status, adjusting for demographic and healthcare utilization characteristics. Overall, 36% were recent CAM users. Among priority adults, adjusted vaccination coverage levels were significantly different between recent and non-CAM users for influenza (44% vs 38%; p-value < 0.001) and pneumococcal (40% vs 33%; p-value < 0.001) vaccines but were not significantly different for hepatitis B (60% vs 56%; p-value = 0.36). Among non-priority adults, recent CAM users had significantly higher unadjusted and adjusted vaccination coverage levels compared to non-CAM users for all three vaccines (p-values < 0.001). Vaccination coverage levels among recent CAM users were found to be higher than non-CAM users. Because CAM use has been increasing over time in the U.S., it is important to continue

  10. Mass spectrometry profiling reveals altered plasma levels of monohydroxy fatty acids and related lipids in healthy humans after controlled exposure to biodiesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Karimpour, Masoumeh; Bosson, Jenny A; Blomberg, Anders; Unosson, Jon; Sehlstedt, Maria; Pourazar, Jamshid; Sandström, Thomas; Behndig, Annelie F; Nording, Malin L

    2018-08-14

    Experimental human exposure studies are an effective tool to study adverse health effects from acute inhalation of particulate matter and other constituents of air pollution. In this randomized and double-blinded crossover study, we investigated the systemic effect on bioactive lipid metabolite levels after controlled biodiesel exhaust exposure of healthy humans and compared it to filtered air at a separate exposure occasion. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins, as well as endocannabinoids and related lipids, were quantified in plasma from 14 healthy volunteers at baseline and at three subsequent time points (2, 6, and 24 h) after 1 h exposure sessions. Protocols based on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods were developed to detect temporal changes in circulating levels after biodiesel exhaust exposure. The exhaust was generated by a diesel engine fed with an undiluted rapeseed methyl ester fuel. Among the 51 analyzed lipid metabolites, PGF 2α , 9,10-DiHOME, 9-HODE, 5-HETE, 11-HETE, 12-HETE, and DEA displayed significant responsiveness to the biodiesel exhaust exposure as opposed to filtered air. Of these, 9-HODE and 5-HETE at 24 h survived the 10% false discovery rate cutoff (p < 0.003). Hence, the majority of the responsive lipid metabolites were monohydroxy fatty acids. We conclude that it is possible to detect alterations in circulating bioactive lipid metabolites in response to biodiesel exhaust exposure using LC-MS/MS, with emphasis on metabolites with inflammation related properties and implications on cardiovascular health and disease. These observations aid future investigations on air pollution effects, especially with regard to cardiovascular outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A simple hypothesis of how leaf and canopy-level transpiration and assimilation respond to elevated CO2 reveals distinct response patterns between disturbed and undisturbed vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, Randall J.; Roderick, Michael L.; McVicar, Tim R.; Yang, Yuting

    2017-01-01

    Elevated CO2 increases leaf-level water-use efficiency (ω) almost universally. How canopy-level transpiration and assimilation fluxes respond to increased ω is currently unclear. We present a simple, resource-availability-based hypothesis of how equilibrium (or mature) leaf and canopy transpiration and assimilation rates, along with leaf area index (L), respond to elevated CO2. We quantify this hypothesis in the form of a model and test it against observations from eight Free Air CO2 Enrichment sites that span a wide range of resource availabilities. Sites were grouped according to vegetation disturbance status. We find the model adequately accounts for the responses of undisturbed vegetation (R2 = 0.73, 11% error) but cannot account for the responses of disturbed vegetation (R2 = 0.47, 17% error). At undisturbed sites, the responses of L and of leaf and canopy transpiration vary predictably (7% error) with resource availability, whereas the leaf assimilation response is less predictable. In contrast, the L and transpiration flux responses at the disturbed (mostly forested) sites are highly variable and are not strongly related to resource availability. Initial analyses suggest that they are more strongly related to regrowth age than to resource availability. We conclude that (i) our CO2 response hypothesis is valid for capturing the responses of undisturbed vegetation only, (ii) that the responses of disturbed vegetation are distinctly different from undisturbed vegetation, and (iii) that these differences need to be accounted for when predicting the effects of elevated CO2 on land surface processes generally, and on leaf area and water fluxes in particular.

  12. Low cholesterol level associated with severity and outcome of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: Results from Taiwan Stroke Registry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Li, Chen-Hua; Yang, Chih-Dong; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Chen, Chih-Hung; Sheu, Jau-Jiuan; Lin, Shinn-Kuang; Chen, An-Chih; Chen, Ping-Kun; Chen, Po-Lin; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Chen, Jiunn-Rong; Hsiao, Yu-Jen; Lin, Ching-Huang; Hsu, Shih-Pin; Chen, Tsang-Shan; Sung, Sheng-Feng; Yu, Shih-Chieh; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Wen, Chi Pang; Sung, Fung-Chang; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Hsu, Chung Y.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between cholesterol level and hemorrhagic stroke is inconclusive. We hypothesized that low cholesterol levels may have association with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) severity at admission and 3-month outcomes. This study used data obtained from a multi-center stroke registry program in Taiwan. We categorized acute spontaneous ICH patients, based on their baseline levels of total cholesterol (TC) measured at admission, into 3 groups with <160, 160–200 and >200 mg/dL of TC. We evaluated risk of having initial stroke severity, with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) >15 and unfavorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score >2, 3-month mortality) after ICH by the TC group. A total of 2444 ICH patients (mean age 62.5±14.2 years; 64.2% men) were included in this study and 854 (34.9%) of them had baseline TC <160 mg/dL. Patients with TC <160 mg/dL presented more often severe neurological deficit (NIHSS >15), with an adjusted odds ratio [aOR] of 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41–2.30), and 3-month mRS >2 (aOR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.11–1.78) using patients with TC >200 mg/dL as reference. Those with TC >160 mg/dL and body mass index (BMI) <22 kg/m2 had higher risk of 3-month mortality (aOR 3.94, 95% CI 1.76–8.80). Prior use of lipid-lowering drugs (2.8% of the ICH population) was not associated with initial severity and 3-month outcomes. A total cholesterol level lower than 160 mg/dL was common in patients with acute ICH and was associated with greater neurological severity on presentation and poor 3-month outcomes, especially with lower BMI. PMID:28422955

  13. Drought limitations to leaf-level gas exchange: results from a model linking stomatal optimization and cohesion-tension theory

    Treesearch

    Kimberly A. Novick; Chelcy F. Miniat; James M. Vose

    2016-01-01

    We merge concepts from stomatal optimization theory and cohesion–tension theory to examine the dynamics of three mechanisms that are potentially limiting to leaf-level gas exchange in trees during drought: (1) a ‘demand limitation’ driven by an assumption of optimal stomatal functioning; (2) ‘hydraulic limitation’ of water movement from the roots to the leaves...

  14. Multi-scale levels of Cs-137 contamination of landscapes of the Bryansk Region (with reference to results of air gamma survey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Sokolov, Alexander; Sokolov, Peter

    2017-04-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl accident on April 26, 1986, large amounts of radionuclides were released into the atmosphere, resulting in high contamination in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. High variability of environmental parameters and multi-scale nature of initial fallout significantly contributed to very complicated Cs-137 patterns. The first maps of radioactive contamination due to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, built in May 1986, already identified a heterogeneous nature of the contamination zones [1]. A complex combination of factors, such as the nature of the deposition (dry, wet), various volumetric activity of radionuclides in the atmosphere during the deposition of aerosols on the earth's surface, led to the formation of multiscale fields of radionuclide contamination, where each scale correlates with "pollution spots" having their own specific nature]. Air gamma survey was conducted with a grid 100x100 m and it allowed to reveal different levels of scale "spots" of Cs-137 contamination associated with the movement of polluted air and the influence of the underlying surface - forests, river valleys. Cs-137 contamination field has an extraordinary feature - uniqueness of its spatial structure in different districts of the Bryansk region. A maximal area of "cesium" spots up to 30-50 km in size and with a contamination density of more than 1000 kBq/m2 is observed in the western part of the Bryansk Region. Their spatial structure is extremely heterogeneous, the differences in the local density of Cs-137 contamination being due to those in intensity of precipitation (wet deposition). The central part of the Bryansk Region with the density of contamination below 37 kBq/m2 (up to 3-5 kBq/m2 ) is an example of a condensing zone of "dry" deposition. With a larger scale, allowing individual elements of Cs-137 contamination to be shown in a more distinct way, it is possible to observe the relationship of contamination with a number of landscape

  15. Less is more: Patient-level meta-analysis reveals paradoxical dose-response effects of a computer-based social anxiety intervention targeting attentional bias.

    PubMed

    Price, Rebecca B; Kuckertz, Jennie M; Amir, Nader; Bar-Haim, Yair; Carlbring, Per; Wallace, Meredith L

    2017-12-01

    The past decade of research has seen considerable interest in computer-based approaches designed to directly target cognitive mechanisms of anxiety, such as attention bias modification (ABM). By pooling patient-level datasets from randomized controlled trials of ABM that utilized a dot-probe training procedure, we assessed the impact of training "dose" on relevant outcomes among a pooled sample of 693 socially anxious adults. A paradoxical effect of the number of training trials administered was observed for both posttraining social anxiety symptoms and behavioral attentional bias (AB) toward threat (the target mechanism of ABM). Studies administering a large (>1,280) number of training trials showed no benefit of ABM over control conditions, while those administering fewer training trials showed significant benefit for ABM in reducing social anxiety (P = .02). These moderating effects of dose were not better explained by other examined variables and previously identified moderators, including patient age, training setting (laboratory vs. home), or type of anxiety assessment (clinician vs. self-report). Findings inform the optimal dosing for future dot-probe style ABM applications in both research and clinical settings, and suggest several novel avenues for further research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Whole Genome Comparison Reveals High Levels of Inbreeding and Strain Redundancy Across the Spectrum of Commercial Wine Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Borneman, Anthony R.; Forgan, Angus H.; Kolouchova, Radka; Fraser, James A.; Schmidt, Simon A.

    2016-01-01

    Humans have been consuming wines for more than 7000 yr . For most of this time, fermentations were presumably performed by strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that naturally found their way into the fermenting must . In contrast, most commercial wines are now produced by inoculation with pure yeast monocultures, ensuring consistent, reliable and reproducible fermentations, and there are now hundreds of these yeast starter cultures commercially available. In order to thoroughly investigate the genetic diversity that has been captured by over 50 yr of commercial wine yeast development and domestication, whole genome sequencing has been performed on 212 strains of S. cerevisiae, including 119 commercial wine and brewing starter strains, and wine isolates from across seven decades. Comparative genomic analysis indicates that, despite their large numbers, commercial strains, and wine strains in general, are extremely similar genetically, possessing all of the hallmarks of a population bottle-neck, and high levels of inbreeding. In addition, many commercial strains from multiple suppliers are nearly genetically identical, suggesting that the limits of effective genetic variation within this genetically narrow group may be approaching saturation. PMID:26869621

  17. In-Culture Cross-Linking of Bacterial Cells Reveals Large-Scale Dynamic Protein-Protein Interactions at the Peptide Level.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Luitzen; de Koning, Edward A; Roseboom, Winfried; Buncherd, Hansuk; Wanner, Martin J; Dapic, Irena; Jansen, Petra J; van Maarseveen, Jan H; Corthals, Garry L; Lewis, Peter J; Hamoen, Leendert W; de Koster, Chris G

    2017-07-07

    Identification of dynamic protein-protein interactions at the peptide level on a proteomic scale is a challenging approach that is still in its infancy. We have developed a system to cross-link cells directly in culture with the special lysine cross-linker bis(succinimidyl)-3-azidomethyl-glutarate (BAMG). We used the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis as an exemplar system. Within 5 min extensive intracellular cross-linking was detected, while intracellular cross-linking in a Gram-negative species, Escherichia coli, was still undetectable after 30 min, in agreement with the low permeability in this organism for lipophilic compounds like BAMG. We were able to identify 82 unique interprotein cross-linked peptides with <1% false discovery rate by mass spectrometry and genome-wide database searching. Nearly 60% of the interprotein cross-links occur in assemblies involved in transcription and translation. Several of these interactions are new, and we identified a binding site between the δ and β' subunit of RNA polymerase close to the downstream DNA channel, providing a clue into how δ might regulate promoter selectivity and promote RNA polymerase recycling. Our methodology opens new avenues to investigate the functional dynamic organization of complex protein assemblies involved in bacterial growth. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006287.

  18. Lidar observations revealing transport of O3 in the presence of a nocturnal low-level jet: Regional implications for ;next-day; pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, John T.; Rabenhorst, Scott D.; Dreessen, Joel; McGee, Thomas J.; Delgado, Ruben; Twigg, Laurence; Sumnicht, Grant

    2017-06-01

    Remotely sensed profiles of ozone (O3) and wind are presented continuously for the first time during a nocturnal low-level jet (NLLJ) event occurring after a severe O3 episode in the Baltimore-Washington D.C. (BW) urban corridor throughout 11-12 June 2015. High-resolution O3 lidar observations indicate a well-mixed and polluted daytime O3 reservoir, which decayed into a contaminated nocturnal residual layer (RL) with concentrations between 70 and 100 ppbv near 1 km above the surface. Observations indicate the onset of the NLLJ was responsible for transporting polluted O3 away from the region, while simultaneously affecting the height and location of the nocturnal residual layer. High-resolution modeling analyses and next-day (12 June) lidar, surface, and balloon-borne observations indicate the trajectory of the NLLJ and polluted residual layer corresponds with "next-day" high O3 at sites throughout the southern New England region (New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts). The novel O3 lidar observations are evidence of both nocturnal advection (via high NLLJ wind fields) and entrainment of the polluted residual layer in the presence of the "next-day" convectively growing boundary layer. In the greater context, the novel observational suite described in this work has shown that the chemical budget in areas downwind of major urban centers can be altered significantly overnight during transport events such as the NLLJ.

  19. Fine-scale analysis of 16S rRNA sequences reveals a high level of taxonomic diversity among vaginal Atopobium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Mendes-Soares, Helena; Krishnan, Vandhana; Settles, Matthew L.; Ravel, Jacques; Brown, Celeste J.; Forney, Larry J.

    2015-01-01

    Although vaginal microbial communities of some healthy women have high proportions of Atopobium vaginae, the genus Atopobium is more commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis, a syndrome associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. Genetic differences within Atopobium species may explain why single species can be associated with both health and disease. We used 16S rRNA gene sequences from previously published studies to explore the taxonomic diversity of the genus Atopobium in vaginal microbial communities of healthy women. Although A. vaginae was the species most commonly found, we also observed three other Atopobium species in the vaginal microbiota, one of which, A. parvulum, was not previously known to reside in the human vagina. Furthermore, we found several potential novel species of the genus Atopobium and multiple phylogenetic clades of A. vaginae. The diversity of Atopobium found in our study, which focused only on samples from healthy women, is greater than previously recognized, suggesting that analysis of samples from women with BV would yield even more diversity. Classification of microbes only to the genus level may thus obfuscate differences that might be important to better understand health or disease. PMID:25778779

  20. A sensitive gel-based global O-glycomics approach reveals high levels of mannosyl glycans in the high mass region of the mouse brain proteome.

    PubMed

    Breloy, Isabelle; Pacharra, Sandra; Aust, Christina; Hanisch, Franz-Georg

    2012-08-01

    We developed a gel-based global O-glycomics method applicable for highly complex protein mixtures entrapped in discontinuous gradient gel layers. The protocol is based on in-gel proteolysis with pronase followed by (glyco)peptide elution and off-gel reductive β-elimination. The protocol offers robust performance with sensitivity in the low picomolar range, is compatible with gel-based proteomics, and shows superior performance in global applications in comparison with workflows eliminating glycans in-gel or from electroblotted glycoproteins. By applying this method, we analyzed the O-glycome of human myoblasts and of the mouse brain O-glycoproteome. After semipreparative separation of mouse brain proteins by one-dimensional SDS gel electrophoresis, the O-glycans from proteins in different mass ranges were characterized with a focus on O-mannose-based glycans. The relative proportion of the latter, which generally represent a rare modification, increases to comparatively high levels in the mouse brain proteome in dependence of increasing protein masses.

  1. Bisphenol A Exposure, Ovarian Follicle Numbers, and Female Sex Steroid Hormone Levels: Results From a CLARITY-BPA Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shreya; Brehm, Emily; Gao, Liying; Rattan, Saniya; Ziv-Gal, Ayelet

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical found in thermal receipts and food and beverage containers. Previous studies have shown that BPA can affect the numbers and health of ovarian follicles and the production of sex steroid hormones, but they often did not include a wide range of doses of BPA, used a small sample size, focused on relatively short-term exposures to BPA, and/or did not examine the consequences of chronic BPA exposure on the ovaries or steroid levels. Thus, this study was designed to examine the effects of a wide range of doses of BPA on ovarian morphology and sex steroid hormone production. Specifically, this study tested the hypothesis that prenatal and continuous BPA exposure reduces ovarian follicle numbers and sex steroid hormone levels. To test this hypothesis, rats were dosed with vehicle, ethinyl estradiol (0.05 and 0.5 μg/kg body weight/d), or BPA (2.5, 25, 250, 2500, and 25,000 μg/kg body weight/d) from gestation day 6 until 1 year as part of the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA). Ovaries and sera were collected on postnatal days 1, 21, and 90, and at 6 months and 1 year. The ovaries were subjected to histological evaluation of follicle numbers and the sera were subjected to measurements of estradiol and progesterone. Collectively, these data indicate that BPA exposure at some doses and time points affects ovarian follicle numbers and sex steroid levels, but these effects are different than those observed with ethinyl estradiol exposure and some previous studies on BPA. PMID:28324068

  2. Bisphenol A Exposure, Ovarian Follicle Numbers, and Female Sex Steroid Hormone Levels: Results From a CLARITY-BPA Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shreya; Brehm, Emily; Gao, Liying; Rattan, Saniya; Ziv-Gal, Ayelet; Flaws, Jodi A

    2017-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical found in thermal receipts and food and beverage containers. Previous studies have shown that BPA can affect the numbers and health of ovarian follicles and the production of sex steroid hormones, but they often did not include a wide range of doses of BPA, used a small sample size, focused on relatively short-term exposures to BPA, and/or did not examine the consequences of chronic BPA exposure on the ovaries or steroid levels. Thus, this study was designed to examine the effects of a wide range of doses of BPA on ovarian morphology and sex steroid hormone production. Specifically, this study tested the hypothesis that prenatal and continuous BPA exposure reduces ovarian follicle numbers and sex steroid hormone levels. To test this hypothesis, rats were dosed with vehicle, ethinyl estradiol (0.05 and 0.5 μg/kg body weight/d), or BPA (2.5, 25, 250, 2500, and 25,000 μg/kg body weight/d) from gestation day 6 until 1 year as part of the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA). Ovaries and sera were collected on postnatal days 1, 21, and 90, and at 6 months and 1 year. The ovaries were subjected to histological evaluation of follicle numbers and the sera were subjected to measurements of estradiol and progesterone. Collectively, these data indicate that BPA exposure at some doses and time points affects ovarian follicle numbers and sex steroid levels, but these effects are different than those observed with ethinyl estradiol exposure and some previous studies on BPA. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  3. Blood Pressure Levels and Mortality Risk among Hemodialysis Patients: Results from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Bruce M.; Tong, Lin; Zhang, Jinyao; Wolfe, Robert A.; Goodkin, David A.; Greenwood, Roger N.; Kerr, Peter G.; Morgenstern, Hal; Li, Yun; Pisoni, Ronald L.; Saran, Rajiv; Tentori, Francesca; Akizawa, Tadao; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Port, Friedrich K.

    2014-01-01

    KDOQI practice guidelines recommend pre-dialysis blood pressure (BP) <140/90 mm Hg. However, most prior hemodialysis studies found elevated mortality with low, not high, systolic blood pressure (SBP), possibly due to unmeasured confounders affecting BP and mortality such as severity of comorbidities. To lessen this bias, we analyzed facility-level BP practices, relating patient-level survival to the fraction of patients in BP categories at each dialysis facility in Cox regression models adjusted for patient and facility characteristics. Analyses included 24,525 patients in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study. Compared with pre-dialysis SBP 130–159 mm Hg, mortality was 13% higher in facilities with 20% more patients at SBP 110–129 mm Hg and 16% higher in facilities with 20% more patients at SBP ≥160 mm Hg. For patient-level SBP, mortality was elevated at low (<130 mm Hg), not high (up to ≥180 mm Hg) SBP. For pre-dialysis diastolic BP, mortality was lowest at 60–99 mm Hg, a wide range suggesting less chance to improve outcomes. Higher mortality at SBP <130 mm Hg is consistent with prior studies and may be due to excessive BP-lowering during dialysis. The lowest risk facility SBP range of 130–159 mm Hg indicates this range may be optimal, but may have been influenced by unmeasured facility practices. While additional study is needed, the findings contrast with KDOQI BP targets, and provide guidance on optimal BP range in absence of definitive clinical trial data. PMID:22718187

  4. The TSH levels and risk of hypothyroidism: Results from a population based prospective cohort study in an Iranian adult's population.

    PubMed

    Aminorroaya, Ashraf; Meamar, Rokhsareh; Amini, Massoud; Feizi, Awat; Nasri, Maryam; Tabatabaei, Azamosadat; Faghihimani, Elham

    2017-06-01

    The aim of current study was to assess the relationship between serum TSH levels and hypothyroidism risk in the euthyroid population. In a population-based cohort study, a total of 615 individuals with a normal baseline TSH, from of total population (n=2254) in 2006, were followed up for 6years. TSH, total T4, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) were measured. The relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated based on logistic regression. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis along with area under the curve (AUC) was used to prediction of future hypothyroidism. TSH level in 2006 was a significant predictor for overt hypothyroidism, in the total population (RR=3.5) and female (RR=1.37) (all, P value<0.05). A cutoff value of TSH at 2.05mIU/L [AUC: (CI95 %), 0.68 (0.44-0.92; P=0.05)] was obtained for differentiating the patients with overt hypothyroidism from euthyroid. However, this cut off was not observed when we included only negative TPO and TgAbs people in 2006. The RR of hypothyroidism increased gradually when TSH level increased from 2.06-3.6mIU/L to >3.6mIU/L in the total population and both sexes. In women, the risk of overt hypothyroidism was significantly higher in subjects with TSH above 3.6 than those subject with THS levels≤2.05 [RR: (CI95 %), 20.57(2.-207.04), P value<0.05]. A cutoff value of TSH at 2.05mIU/L could predict the development of overt hypothyroidism in future. However, it was not applicable for people with negative TPOAb and negative TgAb. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High-Level Genetic Diversity and Complex Population Structure of Siberian Apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) in China as Revealed by Nuclear SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe; Kang, Ming; Liu, Huabo; Gao, Jiao; Zhang, Zhengdong; Li, Yingyue; Wu, Rongling; Pang, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.), an ecologically and economically important tree species with a high degree of tolerance to a variety of extreme environmental conditions, is widely distributed across the mountains of northeastern and northern China, eastern and southeastern regions of Mongolia, Eastern Siberia, and the Maritime Territory of Russia. However, few studies have examined the genetic diversity and population structure of this species. Using 31 nuclear microsatellites, we investigated the level of genetic diversity and population structure of Siberian apricot sampled from 22 populations across China. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 33, with an average of 19.323 alleles. The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.037 to 0.874 and 0.040 to 0.924 with average values of 0.639 and 0.774, respectively. A STRUCTURE-based analysis clustered all of the populations into four genetic clusters. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between all population pairs. A hierarchical analysis of molecular variance attributed about 94% of the variation to within populations. No significant difference was detected between the wild and semi-wild groups, indicating that recent cultivation practices have had little impact on the genetic diversity of Siberian apricot. The Mantel test showed that the genetic distance among the populations was not significantly correlated with geographic distance (r = 0.4651, p = 0.9940). Our study represents the most comprehensive investigation of the genetic diversity and population structure of Siberian apricot in China to date, and it provides valuable information for the collection of genetic resources for the breeding of Siberian apricot and related species. PMID:24516551

  6. Comparison of mHTT Antibodies in Huntington’s Disease Mouse Models Reveal Specific Binding Profiles and Steady-State Ubiquitin Levels with Disease Development

    PubMed Central

    Bayram-Weston, Zubeyde; Jones, Lesley; Dunnett, Stephen B.; Brooks, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) cellular pathology is characterised by the aggregation of mutant huntingtin (mHTT) protein into inclusion bodies. The present paper compared the sensitivity of five widely used mHTT antibodies (S830; MW8; EM48; 1C2; ubiquitin) against mice from five commonly used HD mouse models (R6/1; YAC128; HdhQ92; B6 HdhQ150; B6 x129/Ola HdhQ150) at two ages to determine: the most sensitive antibodies for each model; whether mHTT antibody binding differed depending on aggregation stage (diffuse versus frank inclusion); the role of ubiquitin during aggregation as the ubiquitin proteosome system has been implicated in disease development. The models demonstrated unique profiles of antibody binding even when the models varied only by background strain (HdhQ150). MW8 was highly sensitive for detecting frank inclusions in all lines whereas EM48, ubiquitin and 1C2 demonstrated consistent staining in all models irrespective of age or form of mHTT. MW8 and S830 were the most sensitive antibodies with 1C2 the least. Ubiquitin levels were stable for each model regardless of age. Ubiquitin was particularly sensitive in young YAC128 mice that demonstrate an absence of inclusions until ~12 months of age suggesting high affinity to mHTT in its diffuse form. The data indicate that generalisations across models regarding the quantification of aggregations may not be valid and that mHTT antibody binding is unique to the mouse model and sensitive to changes in inclusion development. PMID:27196694

  7. Quantitative Proteome Analysis Reveals Increased Content of Basement Membrane Proteins in Arteries From Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Lower Levels Among Metformin Users.

    PubMed

    Preil, Simone A R; Kristensen, Lars P; Beck, Hans C; Jensen, Pia S; Nielsen, Patricia S; Steiniche, Torben; Bjørling-Poulsen, Marina; Larsen, Martin R; Hansen, Maria L; Rasmussen, Lars M

    2015-10-01

    The increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus has been extensively documented, but the origins of the association remain largely unknown. We sought to determine changes in protein expressions in arterial tissue from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and moreover hypothesized that metformin intake influences the protein composition. We analyzed nonatherosclerotic repair arteries gathered at coronary bypass operations from 30 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and from 30 age- and sex-matched nondiabetic individuals. Quantitative proteome analysis was performed by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation-labeling and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry analysis on individual arterial samples. The amounts of the basement membrane components, α1-type IV collagen and α2-type IV collagen, γ1-laminin and β2-laminin, were significantly increased in patients with diabetes mellitus. Moreover, the expressions of basement membrane components and other vascular proteins were significantly lower among metformin users when compared with nonusers. Patients treated with or without metformin had similar levels of hemoglobin A1c, cholesterol, and blood pressure. In addition, quantitative histomorphometry showed increased area fractions of collagen-stainable material in tunica intima and media among patients with diabetes mellitus. The distinct accumulation of arterial basement membrane proteins in type 2 diabetes mellitus discloses a similarity between the diabetic macroangiopathy and microangiopathy and suggests a molecular explanation behind the alterations in vascular remodeling, biomechanical properties, and aneurysm formation described in diabetes mellitus. The lower amounts of basement membrane components in metformin-treated individuals are compatible with the hypothesis of direct beneficial drug effects on the matrix composition in the vasculature. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Hidden dangers revealed by misdiagnosed diabetic neuropathy: A comparison of simple clinical tests for the screening of vibration perception threshold at primary care level.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi, Kurt; Gatt, Alfred; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Formosa, Cynthia

    2018-04-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is an important complication and contributes to the morbidity of diabetes mellitus. Evidence indicates early detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy results in fewer foot ulcers and amputations. The aim of this study was to compare different screening modalities in the detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in a primary care setting. A prospective non-experimental comparative multi-centre cross sectional study was conducted in various Primary Health Centres. One hundred participants living with Type 2 diabetes for at least 10 years were recruited using a convenience sampling method. The Vibratip, 128Hz tuning fork and neurothesiometer were compared in the detection of vibration perception. This study showed different results of diabetic peripheral neuropathy screening tests, even in the same group of participants. This study has shown that the percentage of participants who did not perceive vibrations was highest when using the VibraTip (28.5%). This was followed by the neurothesiometer (21%) and the 128Hz tuning fork (12%) (p<0.001). Correct diagnosis and treatment of neuropathy in patients with diabetes is crucial. This study demonstrates that some instruments are more sensitive to vibration perception than others. We recommend that different modalities should be used in patients with diabetes and when results do not concur, further neurological evaluation should be performed. This would significantly reduce the proportion of patients with diabetes who would be falsely identified as having no peripheral neuropathy and subsequently denied the benefit of beneficial and effective secondary risk factor control. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Occupancy modeling reveals territory-level effects of nest boxes on the presence, colonization, and persistence of a declining raptor in a fruit-growing region.

    PubMed

    Shave, Megan E; Lindell, Catherine A

    2017-01-01

    Nest boxes for predators in agricultural regions are an easily implemented tool to improve local habitat quality with potential benefits for both conservation and agriculture. The potential for nest boxes to increase raptor populations in agricultural regions is of particular interest given their positions as top predators. This study examined the effects of cherry orchard nest boxes on the local breeding population of a declining species, the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), in a fruit-growing region of Michigan. During the 2013-2016 study, we added a total of 23 new nest boxes in addition to 24 intact boxes installed previously; kestrels used up to 100% of our new boxes each season. We conducted temporally-replicated surveys along four roadside transects divided into 1.6 km × 500 m sites. We developed a multi-season occupancy model under a Bayesian framework and found that nest boxes had strong positive effects on first-year site occupancy, site colonization, and site persistence probabilities. The estimated number of occupied sites increased between 2013 and 2016, which correlated with the increase in number of sites with boxes. Kestrel detections decreased with survey date but were not affected by time of day or activity at the boxes themselves. These results indicate that nest boxes determined the presence of kestrels at our study sites and support the conclusion that the local kestrel population is likely limited by nest site availability. Furthermore, our results are highly relevant to the farmers on whose properties the boxes were installed, for we can conclude that installing a nest box in an orchard resulted in a high probability of kestrels occupying that orchard or the areas adjacent to it.

  10. China's air pollution reduction efforts may result in an increase in surface ozone levels in highly polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Anger, Annela; Dessens, Olivier; Xi, Fengming; Barker, Terry; Wu, Rui

    2016-03-01

    China, as a fast growing fossil-fuel-based economy, experiences increasing levels of air pollution. To tackle air pollution, China has taken the first steps by setting emission-reduction targets for nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans. This paper uses two models-the Energy-Environment-Economy Model at the Global level (E3MG) and the global Chemistry Transport Model pTOMCAT-to test the effects of these policies. If the policy targets are met, then the maximum values of 32 % and 45 % reductions below 'business as usual' in the monthly mean NO x and SO2 concentrations, respectively, will be achieved in 2015. However, a decrease in NO x concentrations in some highly polluted areas of East, North-East and South-East China can lead to up to a 10% increase in the monthly mean concentrations in surface ozone in 2015. Our study demonstrates an urgent need for the more detailed analysis of the impacts and designs of air pollution reduction guidelines for China.

  11. The Impact of Serum Progesterone Levels on the Results of In Vitro Fertilization Treatments: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jaime Larach Del; Bousamra, Maroun; Fuente, Laura De La; Ruiz-Balda, Jose A; Palomo, Marissa

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this review is to analyze the relationship between preovulatory progesterone (P) rise and in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy outcomes. It also investigates the sources and effects of rises in progesterone levels, including the underlying mechanisms and potential strategies in preventing its elevation during ovarian stimulation. Progesterone is produced in the early follicular phase in the adrenal gland, which shifts toward the ovaries prior to ovulation. Several factors contribute to the etiology of P level increase including the number of multiple follicles, the overdose of gonadotropins and poor ovarian response. Nowadays, the influence of the preovulatory P rise on IVF outcome remains controversial. Several authors have failed to demonstrate any negative impact, while others reported a detrimental effect associated with the rise of P. It seems that P rise (1.5 ng/ml or 4.77 nmol/l) may have deleterious effects on endometrial receptivity, namely, accelerating the endometrial maturation process that subsequently narrows the period for implantation and thus decreases pregnancy rates. Recent studies have proposed different cutoffs according to the ovarian response, which may be a little high in patients with high response in relation to those of normal response or low response. To prevent a P rise, it might be preferable to use milder stimulation protocols, earlier trigger of ovulation, cryopreservation of all embryos and transfer in the natural cycle.

  12. Bench press and push-up at comparable levels of muscle activity results in similar strength gains.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan C; Martin, Fernando; Tella, Victor; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) exercise evaluation is commonly used to measure the intensity of muscle contraction. Although researchers assume that biomechanically comparable resistance exercises with similar high EMG levels will produce similar strength gains over the long term, no studies have actually corroborated this hypothesis. This study evaluated EMG levels during 6 repetition maximum (6RM) bench press and push-up, and subsequently performed a 5-week training period where subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups (i.e., 6RM bench press group, 6RM elastic band push-up group, or control group) to evaluate muscle strength gains. Thirty university students with advanced resistance training experience participated in the 2-part study. During the training period, exercises were performed using the same loads and variables that were used during the EMG data collection. At baseline, EMG amplitude showed no significant difference between 6RM bench press and band push-up. Significant differences among the groups were found for percent change (Δ) between pretest and posttest for 6RM (p = 0.017) and for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) (p < 0.001). Six repetition maximum bench press group and 6RM elastic band push-up group improved their 1RM and 6RM (Δ ranging from 13.65 to 22.21) tests significantly with similar gains, whereas control group remains unchanged. Thus, when the EMG values are comparable and the same conditions are reproduced, the aforementioned exercises can provide similar muscle strength gains.

  13. [Importance of accurate assessment of capillary blood glucose level in diagnosis: misleading results in handlers of prickly pears (Opuntia ficus-indica)].

    PubMed

    García Pantoja, José; Landróguez Salinas, Sergio; Barrero Luque, Susana; Pérez Pérez, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Hypoglycemia can cause symptoms of neuroglycopenia that can be easily confused with symptoms of greater clinical importance such as stroke. Appropriate differential diagnosis between these 2 processes will be essential for guiding the treatment approach. We report a case in which stroke was initially suspected because hypoglycemia was masked by the incorrect capillary blood glucose (CBG) measurement technique used in treating an itinerant vendor of prickly pears (Opuntia ficus-indica). We studied the effects of prickly pear handling on the CBG levels in 11 vendors before and after they handled the fruit. CBG levels were noticeably higher after the fruit was handled in all cases. Our observations reveal the need to measure both capillary and venous blood glucose levels to rule out hypoglycemia in patients with acute neurological symptoms.

  14. Integration of Population-Level Genotype Data with Functional Annotation Reveals Over-Representation of Long Noncoding RNAs at Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Loci.

    PubMed

    Reid, Brett M; Permuth, Jennifer B; Chen, Y Ann; Teer, Jamie K; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Chen, Zhihua; Tyrer, Jonathan; Berchuck, Andrew; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Doherty, Jennifer A; Goode, Ellen L; Iverson, Edwin S; Lawrenson, Kate; Pearce, Celeste L; Pharoah, Paul D; Phelan, Catherine M; Ramus, Susan J; Rossing, Mary Anne; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Cheng, Jin Q; Gayther, Simon A; Sellers, Thomas A

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple loci associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility, but further progress requires integration of epidemiology and biology to illuminate true risk loci below genome-wide significance levels (P < 5 × 10 -8 ). Most risk SNPs lie within non-protein-encoding regions, and we hypothesize that long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) genes are enriched at EOC risk regions and represent biologically relevant functional targets. Using imputed GWAS data from about 18,000 invasive EOC cases and 34,000 controls of European ancestry, the GENCODE (v19) lncRNA database was used to annotate SNPs from 13,442 lncRNAs for permutation-based enrichment analysis. Tumor expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis was performed for sub-genome-wide regions (1 × 10 -5 > P > 5 × 10 -8 ) overlapping lncRNAs. Of 5,294 EOC-associated SNPs (P < 1.0 × 10 -5 ), 1,464 (28%) mapped within 53 unique lncRNAs and an additional 3,484 (66%) SNPs were correlated (r 2 > 0.2) with SNPs within 115 lncRNAs. EOC-associated SNPs comprised 130 independent regions, of which 72 (55%) overlapped with lncRNAs, representing a significant enrichment (P = 5.0 × 10 -4 ) that was more pronounced among a subset of 5,401 lncRNAs with active epigenetic regulation in normal ovarian tissue. EOC-associated lncRNAs and their putative promoters and transcription factors were enriched for biologically relevant pathways and eQTL analysis identified five novel putative risk regions with allele-specific effects on lncRNA gene expression. lncRNAs are significantly enriched at EOC risk regions, suggesting a mechanistic role for lncRNAs in driving predisposition to EOC. lncRNAs represent key candidates for integrative epidemiologic and functional studies. Further research on their biologic role in ovarian cancer is indicated. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(1); 116-25. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Quantitative analysis reveals crosstalk mechanisms of heat shock-induced attenuation of NF-κB signaling at the single cell level.

    PubMed

    Kardyńska, Małgorzata; Paszek, Anna; Śmieja, Jarosław; Spiller, David; Widłak, Wiesława; White, Michael R H; Paszek, Pawel; Kimmel, Marek

    2018-04-01

    Elevated temperature induces the heat shock (HS) response, which modulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, the immune and inflammatory responses. However, specific mechanisms linking the HS response pathways to major cellular signaling systems are not fully understood. Here we used integrated computational and experimental approaches to quantitatively analyze the crosstalk mechanisms between the HS-response and a master regulator of inflammation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) system. We found that populations of human osteosarcoma cells, exposed to a clinically relevant 43°C HS had an attenuated NF-κB p65 response to Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) treatment. The degree of inhibition of the NF-κB response depended on the HS exposure time. Mathematical modeling of single cells indicated that individual crosstalk mechanisms differentially encode HS-mediated NF-κB responses while being consistent with the observed population-level responses. In particular "all-or-nothing" encoding mechanisms were involved in the HS-dependent regulation of the IKK activity and IκBα phosphorylation, while others involving transport were "analogue". In order to discriminate between these mechanisms, we used live-cell imaging of nuclear translocations of the NF-κB p65 subunit. The single cell responses exhibited "all-or-nothing" encoding. While most cells did not respond to TNFα stimulation after a 60 min HS, 27% showed responses similar to those not receiving HS. We further demonstrated experimentally and theoretically that the predicted inhibition of IKK activity was consistent with the observed HS-dependent depletion of the IKKα and IKKβ subunits in whole cell lysates. However, a combination of "all-or-nothing" crosstalk mechanisms was required to completely recapitulate the single cell data. We postulate therefore that the heterogeneity of the single cell responses might be explained by the cell-intrinsic variability of HS-modulated IKK

  16. 16S Based Microbiome Analysis from Healthy Subjects’ Skin Swabs Stored for Different Storage Periods Reveal Phylum to Genus Level Changes

    PubMed Central

    Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Bambach, Isabella; Patra, Vijaykumar; Trajanoski, Slave; Wolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Microbiome research and improvements in high throughput sequencing technologies revolutionize our current scientific viewpoint. The human associated microbiome is a prominent focus of clinical research. Large cohort studies are often required to investigate the human microbiome composition and its changes in a multitude of human diseases. Reproducible analyses of large cohort samples require standardized protocols in study design, sampling, storage, processing, and data analysis. In particular, the effect of sample storage on actual results is critical for reproducibility. So far, the effect of storage conditions on the results of microbial analysis has been examined for only a few human biological materials (e.g., stool samples). There is a lack of data and information on appropriate storage conditions on other human derived samples, such as skin. Here, we analyzed skin swab samples collected from three different body locations (forearm, V of the chest and back) of eight healthy volunteers. The skin swabs were soaked in sterile buffer and total DNA was isolated after freezing at -80°C for 24 h, 90 or 365 days. Hypervariable regions V1-2 were amplified from total DNA and libraries were sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq desktop sequencer in paired end mode. Data were analyzed using Qiime 1.9.1. Summarizing all body locations per time point, we found no significant differences in alpha diversity and multivariate community analysis among the three time points. Considering body locations separately significant differences in the richness of forearm samples were found between d0 vs. d90 and d90 vs. d365. Significant differences in the relative abundance of major skin genera (Propionibacterium, Streptococcus, Bacteroides, Corynebacterium, and Staphylococcus) were detected in our samples in Bacteroides only among all time points in forearm samples and between d0 vs. d90 and d90 vs. d365 in V of the chest and back samples. Accordingly, significant differences were detected

  17. Association between very low PTH levels and poor survival rates in haemodialysis patients: results from the French ARNOS cohort.

    PubMed

    Jean, G; Lataillade, D; Genet, L; Legrand, E; Kuentz, F; Moreau-Gaudry, X; Fouque, D

    2011-01-01

    A very low parathyroid hormone (PTH) level (VLPL) is associated with an increased risk of adynamic bone disease, vascular calcification, and mortality in haemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency, the associated factors, and the prognosis of non-surgical VLPL in a cohort of prevalent HD patients. In July 2005, a cross-sectional study was performed on the French ARNOS cohort in 1,348 prevalent HD patients from 24 dialysis centres in the Rhône-Alpes area. Patients with a baseline intact PTH level <50 pg/ml (VLPL, Group 1) and ≥ 50 pg/ml (Group 2) were compared and a 42-month survival analysis was performed. Patients with prevalent or incident parathyroidectomy were excluded. We studied 1,138 prevalent HD patients. As compared to patients of Group 2 (n = 1,019), patients with VLPL (Group 1, n = 119) had lower serum albumin levels (34.5 ± 5 vs. 36.4 ± 5 g/l, p < 0.0001), less protein intake (nPCR 0.99 ± 0.28 vs. 1.1 ± 0.28 g/kg/day, p = 0.01), higher calcaemia (2.30 ± 0.2 vs. 2.26 ± 0.2 mmol/l, p = 0.01) and were more frequently treated with calcium carbonate (67 vs. 54%, p < 0.001). Patients with VLPL had a higher mortality rate (HR: 1.4 (1.07-1.8), p = 0.006) after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes, and dialysis vintage. The odds ratios of mortality for patients with VLPL remained higher in all calcaemia and serum albumin quartiles. Only 3/119 patients in Group 1 did not receive any PTH-lowering therapies (i.e. calcium carbonate (67%), alfacalcidol (38%), cinacalcet (10.1%), and dialysate calcium ≥ 1.5 mmol/l (94%)). In this observational French cohort, VLPL was observed in 10% of prevalent HD patients and was associated with poor survival rates. An inadequate therapeutic strategy could be responsible for this observation. The real consequences of this iatrogenic adynamic bone disease remain hypothetical, but it may be related to the risk of developing vascular calcification. It is hypothesized that a more adequate

  18. Night work is associated with glycemic levels and anthropometric alterations preceding diabetes: Baseline results from ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Rotenberg, Lucia; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-01-01

    Night work has been suggested as a risk factor for diabetes. Individuals with high triglyceride levels, high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol and obesity, especially abdominal obesity, have a greater chance of developing diabetes. The aim of this study was to analyze glycemic levels, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and the anthropometric alterations that precede diabetes, considering their possible association with nigh work among a non-diabetic population. Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) comprises of 15,105 civil servants (35-74 years old) at baseline (2008-2010). The following parameters were analyzed: serum cholesterol (total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C), triglycerides and glucose drawn from 12-hour fasting blood sample, glycated hemoglobin and 2-hour plasma glucose obtained after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, BMI, hip and waist measurements using standard equipment and techniques. Participants with diabetes, retired workers and day workers with previous experience of night work were excluded. Generalized linear models, a gamma regression model with an identity link function, were performed to test the association of night work with metabolic and anthropometric variables. The study sample consisted of 3918 men and 4935 women; 305 (7.8%) and 379 (7.7%) of the participants were men and women who worked at night, respectively. Among the men, the exposure to night work was associated with an increase in BMI (b-value = 0.542; p = 0.032) and waist circumference (b-value = 1.66; p = 0.014). For women, increased fasting plasma glucose (b-value = 2.278; p < 0.001), glycated hemoglobin (b-value = 0.099, p < 0.001) and 2 hour plasma glucose (b-value = 5.479, p = 0.001) were associated with night work after adjustments. No significant associations between night work and triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol levels or waist-hip ratio were found. The influences of night work on metabolic and anthropometric factors

  19. Characterizing Human Stem Cell–derived Sensory Neurons at the Single-cell Level Reveals Their Ion Channel Expression and Utility in Pain Research

    PubMed Central

    Young, Gareth T; Gutteridge, Alex; Fox, Heather DE; Wilbrey, Anna L; Cao, Lishuang; Cho, Lily T; Brown, Adam R; Benn, Caroline L; Kammonen, Laura R; Friedman, Julia H; Bictash, Magda; Whiting, Paul; Bilsland, James G; Stevens, Edward B

    2014-01-01

    The generation of human sensory neurons by directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells opens new opportunities for investigating the biology of pain. The inability to generate this cell type has meant that up until now their study has been reliant on the use of rodent models. Here, we use a combination of population and single-cell techniques to perform a detailed molecular, electrophysiological, and pharmacological phenotyping of sensory neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells. We describe the evolution of cell populations over 6 weeks of directed differentiation; a process that results in the generation of a largely homogeneous population of neurons that are both molecularly and functionally comparable to human sensory neurons derived from mature dorsal root ganglia. This work opens the prospect of using pluripotent stem-cell–derived sensory neurons to study human neuronal physiology and as in vitro models for drug discovery in pain and sensory disorders. PMID:24832007

  20. Characterizing human stem cell-derived sensory neurons at the single-cell level reveals their ion channel expression and utility in pain research.

    PubMed

    Young, Gareth T; Gutteridge, Alex; Fox, Heather DE; Wilbrey, Anna L; Cao, Lishuang; Cho, Lily T; Brown, Adam R; Benn, Caroline L; Kammonen, Laura R; Friedman, Julia H; Bictash, Magda; Whiting, Paul; Bilsland, James G; Stevens, Edward B

    2014-08-01

    The generation of human sensory neurons by directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells opens new opportunities for investigating the biology of pain. The inability to generate this cell type has meant that up until now their study has been reliant on the use of rodent models. Here, we use a combination of population and single-cell techniques to perform a detailed molecular, electrophysiological, and pharmacological phenotyping of sensory neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells. We describe the evolution of cell populations over 6 weeks of directed differentiation; a process that results in the generation of a largely homogeneous population of neurons that are both molecularly and functionally comparable to human sensory neurons derived from mature dorsal root ganglia. This work opens the prospect of using pluripotent stem-cell-derived sensory neurons to study human neuronal physiology and as in vitro models for drug discovery in pain and sensory disorders.

  1. Mechanisms on boron-induced alleviation of aluminum-toxicity in Citrus grandis seedlings at a transcriptional level revealed by cDNA-AFLP analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin-Xing; Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Guo, Peng; Chen, Li-Song

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical mechanisms on boron (B)-induced alleviation of aluminum (B)-toxicity in plants have been examined in some details, but our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes is very limited. In this study, we first used the cDNA-AFLP to investigate the gene expression patterns in Citrus grandis roots responsive to B and Al interactions, and isolated 100 differentially expressed genes. Results showed that genes related to detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and aldehydes (i.e., glutathione S-transferase zeta class-like isoform X1, thioredoxin M-type 4, and 2-alkenal reductase (NADP+-dependent)-like), metabolism (i.e., carboxylesterases and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase-like 4-like, nicotianamine aminotransferase A-like isoform X3, thiosulfate sulfurtransferase 18-like isoform X1, and FNR, root isozyme 2), cell transport (i.e., non-specific lipid-transfer protein-like protein At2g13820-like and major facilitator superfamily protein), Ca signal and hormone (i.e., calcium-binding protein CML19-like and IAA-amino acid hydrolase ILR1-like 4-like), gene regulation (i.e., Gag-pol polyprotein) and cell wall modification (i.e., glycosyl hydrolase family 10 protein) might play a role in B-induced alleviation of Al-toxicity. Our results are useful not only for our understanding of molecular processes associated with B-induced alleviation of Al-toxicity, but also for obtaining key molecular genes to enhance Al-tolerance of plants in the future.

  2. Mechanisms on Boron-Induced Alleviation of Aluminum-Toxicity in Citrus grandis Seedlings at a Transcriptional Level Revealed by cDNA-AFLP Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin-Xing; Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Guo, Peng; Chen, Li-Song

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical mechanisms on boron (B)-induced alleviation of aluminum (B)-toxicity in plants have been examined in some details, but our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes is very limited. In this study, we first used the cDNA-AFLP to investigate the gene expression patterns in Citrus grandis roots responsive to B and Al interactions, and isolated 100 differentially expressed genes. Results showed that genes related to detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and aldehydes (i.e., glutathione S-transferase zeta class-like isoform X1, thioredoxin M-type 4, and 2-alkenal reductase (NADP+-dependent)-like), metabolism (i.e., carboxylesterases and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase-like 4-like, nicotianamine aminotransferase A-like isoform X3, thiosulfate sulfurtransferase 18-like isoform X1, and FNR, root isozyme 2), cell transport (i.e., non-specific lipid-transfer protein-like protein At2g13820-like and major facilitator superfamily protein), Ca signal and hormone (i.e., calcium-binding protein CML19-like and IAA-amino acid hydrolase ILR1-like 4-like), gene regulation (i.e., Gag-pol polyprotein) and cell wall modification (i.e., glycosyl hydrolase family 10 protein) might play a role in B-induced alleviation of Al-toxicity. Our results are useful not only for our understanding of molecular processes associated with B-induced alleviation of Al-toxicity, but also for obtaining key molecular genes to enhance Al-tolerance of plants in the future. PMID:25747450

  3. Large-Scale Comparative Phenotypic and Genomic Analyses Reveal Ecological Preferences of Shewanella Species and Identify Metabolic Pathways Conserved at the Genus Level ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Jorge L. M.; Serres, Margrethe H.; Tiedje, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of comparative genomics for the study of different microbiological species has increased substantially as sequence technologies become more affordable. However, efforts to fully link a genotype to its phenotype remain limited to the development of one mutant at a time. In this study, we provided a high-throughput alternative to this limiting step by coupling comparative genomics to the use of phenotype arrays for five sequenced Shewanella strains. Positive phenotypes were obtained for 441 nutrients (C, N, P, and S sources), with N-based compounds being the most utilized for all strains. Many genes and pathways predicted by genome analyses were confirmed with the comparative phenotype assay, and three degradation pathways believed to be missing in Shewanella were confirmed as missing. A number of previously unknown gene products were predicted to be parts of pathways or to have a function, expanding the number of gene targets for future genetic analyses. Ecologically, the comparative high-throughput phenotype analysis provided insights into niche specialization among the five different strains. For example, Shewanella amazonensis strain SB2B, isolated from the Amazon River delta, was capable of utilizing 60 C compounds, whereas Shewanella sp. strain W3-18-1, isolated from deep marine sediment, utilized only 25 of them. In spite of the large number of nutrient sources yielding positive results, our study indicated that except for the N sources, they were not sufficiently informative to predict growth phenotypes from increasing evolutionary distances. Our results indicate the importance of phenotypic evaluation for confirming genome predictions. This strategy will accelerate the functional discovery of genes and provide an ecological framework for microbial genome sequencing projects. PMID:21642407

  4. Level of agreement among Latin American glaucoma subspecialists on the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma: results of an online survey.

    PubMed

    Grigera, Daniel E; Mello, Paulo Augusto Arruda; Barbosa, Wilma Lelis; Casiraghi, Javier Fernando; Grossmann, Rodolfo Perez; Peyret, Alejo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the level of agreement among glaucoma experts in Latin America on key practices related to treatment and diagnosis of glaucoma. An online questionnaire was sent to a multinational panel of glaucoma experts. The questionnaire contained 107 statements on the medical treatment (Part 1) and diagnosis (Part 2) of glaucoma, and was developed in Spanish and translated into English. Agreement was defined as >70% of respondents. Fifty participants from 14 countries completed the questionnaire. For the medical treatment of glaucoma, nearly all respondents (98% or greater) confirmed that medical treatment as first-line therapy is preferred to surgery, prostaglandin analogs are the medication of first choice for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), longitudinal monitoring of efficacy should include intraocular pressure, structural and functional status, as well as if patients' quality of life is impaired by the high cost of medication. For the diagnosis of glaucoma section, all respondents confirmed that, after initial examination, gonioscopy should be repeated over time, standard automated perimetry is the most important functional examination for diagnosis and monitoring of primary open-angle glaucoma, central corneal thickness is important in assessment of glaucoma, and computerized imaging tests help in clinical evaluation of optic disc. This survey shows a high level of agreement on most aspects of glaucoma diagnosis and treatment among Latin American glaucoma experts. Areas of disagreement highlight the need for further evidence or education. These findings will be useful for guiding future efforts to optimize glaucoma practice by clinicians in Latin America.

  5. Endogenous levels of nitrites and nitrates in wide consumption foodstuffs: Results of five years of official controls and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Iammarino, Marco; Di Taranto, Aurelia; Cristino, Marianna

    2013-10-15

    The massive introduction of nitrogen fertilisers, necessary to maximise the global food production, has brought about an increase of the residual amounts of nitrites and nitrates in the products. Notoriously, these compounds may exercise toxic effects. In this work the results obtained from 5years of official controls and monitoring focused on tracing quantifiable amounts of nitrites and nitrates in 1785 samples of meat, dairy, fish products and leafy vegetables are reported. A widespread presence of nitrates at low concentrations in foodstuffs was verified. High concentrations of nitrates were registered in some leafy vegetables and mussels samples, while high nitrites concentrations were registered in some spinach samples. The results confirmed the necessity to develop most controls and suggest the introduction of new legal limits related to some combinations contaminant/matrix. Such new limits may fill legislative gaps that may cause wrong interpretations of the results obtained during official controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The gene MACCHI-BOU 4/ENHANCER OF PINOID encodes a NPH3-like protein and reveals similarities between organogenesis and phototropism at the molecular level.

    PubMed

    Furutani, Masahiko; Kajiwara, Takahito; Kato, Takehide; Treml, Birgit S; Stockum, Christine; Torres-Ruiz, Ramón A; Tasaka, Masao

    2007-11-01

    Intercellular transport of the phytohormone auxin is a significant factor for plant organogenesis. To investigate molecular mechanisms by which auxin controls organogenesis, we analyzed the macchi-bou 4 (mab4) mutant identified as an enhancer of pinoid (pid). Although mab4 and pid single mutants displayed relatively mild cotyledon phenotypes, pid mab4 double mutants completely lacked cotyledons. We found that MAB4 was identical to ENHANCER OF PINOID (ENP), which has been suggested to control PIN1 polarity in cotyledon primordia. MAB4/ENP encodes a novel protein, which belongs to the NON-PHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL 3 (NPH3) family thought to function as a signal transducer in phototropism and control lateral translocation of auxin. MAB4/ENP mRNA was detected in the protodermal cell layer of the embryo and the meristem L1 layer at the site of organ initiation. In the mab4 embryo, the abundance of PIN1:GFP was severely decreased at the plasma membrane in the protodermal cell layer. In addition, subcellular localization analyses indicated that MAB4/ENP resides on a subpopulation of endosomes as well as on unidentified intracellular compartments. These results indicate that MAB4/ENP is involved in polar auxin transport in organogenesis.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of apicomplexan parasites infecting commercially valuable species from the North-East Atlantic reveals high levels of diversity and insights into the evolution of the group.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Raquel; Severino, Ricardo; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Gestal, Camino; Freitas, Rita; Harris, D James; Veríssimo, Ana; Rosado, Daniela; Cable, Joanne

    2018-01-25

    The Apicomplexa from aquatic environments are understudied relative to their terrestrial counterparts, and the seminal work assessing the phylogenetic relations of fish-infecting lineages is mostly based on freshwater hosts. The taxonomic uncertainty of some apicomplexan groups, such as the coccidia, is high and many genera were recently shown to be paraphyletic, questioning the value of strict morphological and ecological traits for parasite classification. Here, we surveyed the genetic diversity of the Apicomplexa in several commercially valuable vertebrates from the North-East Atlantic, including farmed fish. Most of the sequences retrieved were closely related to common fish coccidia of Eimeria, Goussia and Calyptospora. However, some lineages from the shark Scyliorhinus canicula were placed as sister taxa to the Isospora, Caryospora and Schellakia group. Additionally, others from Pagrus caeruleostictus and Solea senegalensis belonged to an unknown apicomplexan group previously found in the Caribbean Sea, where it was sequenced from the water column, corals, and fish. Four distinct parasite lineages were found infecting farmed Dicentrarchus labrax or Sparus aurata. One of the lineages from farmed D. labrax was also found infecting wild counterparts, and another was also recovered from farmed S. aurata and farm-associated Diplodus sargus. Our results show that marine fish apicomplexans are diverse, and we highlight the need for a more extensive assessment of parasite diversity in this phylum. Additionally, parasites recovered from S. canicula were recovered as basal to their piscine counterparts reflecting hosts phylogeny.

  8. Coarse-Grained Models Reveal Functional Dynamics – II. Molecular Dynamics Simulation at the Coarse-Grained Level – Theories and Biological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chng, Choon-Peng; Yang, Lee-Wei

    2008-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has remained the most indispensable tool in studying equilibrium/non-equilibrium conformational dynamics since its advent 30 years ago. With advances in spectroscopy accompanying solved biocomplexes in growing sizes, sampling their dynamics that occur at biologically interesting spatial/temporal scales becomes computationally intractable; this motivated the use of coarse-grained (CG) approaches. CG-MD models are used to study folding and conformational transitions in reduced resolution and can employ enlarged time steps due to the absence of some of the fastest motions in the system. The Boltzmann-Inversion technique, heavily used in parameterizing these models, provides a smoothed-out effective potential on which molecular conformation evolves at a faster pace thus stretching simulations into tens of microseconds. As a result, a complete catalytic cycle of HIV-1 protease or the assembly of lipid-protein mixtures could be investigated by CG-MD to gain biological insights. In this review, we survey the theories developed in recent years, which are categorized into Folding-based and Molecular-Mechanics-based. In addition, physical bases in the selection of CG beads/time-step, the choice of effective potentials, representation of solvent, and restoration of molecular representations back to their atomic details are systematically discussed. PMID:19812774

  9. Quantification of silkworm coactivator of MBF1 mRNA by SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR reveals tissue- and stage-specific transcription levels.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang-li; Roy, Bhaskar; Li, Xing-hua; Yue, Wan-fu; Wu, Xiao-feng; Liu, Jian-mei; Zhang, Chuan-xi; Miao, Yun-gen

    2009-05-01

    Transcriptional coactivators play a crucial role in gene transcription and expression. Multiprotein bridging factor 1 (MBF1) is a transcriptional coactivator necessary for transcriptional activation caused by DNA-binding activators, such as FTZ-F1 and GCN4. Until now, very few studies have been reported in the silkworm. We selected the Bombyx mori because it is a model insect and acts as an economic animal for silk industry. In this study, we conducted the quantitative analysis of MBF1 mRNA in silkworm B. mori L. with actin (A3) as internal standard by means of SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR method. The total RNA was extracted from the silk gland, epidermis, fat body, and midguts of the fifth instar B. mori larvae. The mRNA was reverse transcripted, and the cDNA fragments of MBF1 mRNA and actin gene were amplified by RT-PCR using specific primers. MBF1 mRNA expression in different tissues of silkworm B. mori L. was quantified using standardized SYBR Green I RT-PCR. The results suggested MBF1 gene was expressed in all investigated organs but highly expressed in the silk gland, showing its relation to biosynthesis of silk proteins.

  10. Assessment of 21st Century ICT Skills in Chile: Test Design and Results from High School Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claro, Magdalena; Preiss, David D.; San Martin, Ernesto; Jara, Ignacio; Hinostroza, J. Enrique; Valenzuela, Susana; Cortes, Flavio; Nussbaum, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a study that evaluates fifteen-year-old Chilean students Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills. The paper presents an operational definition of ICT skills, an instrument measuring these skills as well as the students' results in the test. The definition of ICT skills used considers Chile's curricular framework,…

  11. Plasma Metabolomics Reveal Alterations of Sphingo- and Glycerophospholipid Levels in Non-Diabetic Carriers of the Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Polymorphism rs7903146

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhofer, Anna; Grallert, Harald; Krug, Susanne; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Claussnitzer, Melina; Illig, Thomas; Heier, Margit; Meisinger, Christa; Adamski, Jerzy; Thorand, Barbara; Huth, Cornelia; Peters, Annette; Prehn, Cornelia; Heukamp, Ina; Laumen, Helmut; Lechner, Andreas; Hauner, Hans; Seissler, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Polymorphisms in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene have been shown to display a powerful association with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate metabolic alterations in carriers of a common TCF7L2 risk variant. Methods Seventeen non-diabetic subjects carrying the T risk allele at the rs7903146 TCF7L2 locus and 24 subjects carrying no risk allele were submitted to intravenous glucose tolerance test and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Plasma samples were analysed for concentrations of 163 metabolites through targeted mass spectrometry. Results TCF7L2 risk allele carriers had a reduced first-phase insulin response and normal insulin sensitivity. Under fasting conditions, carriers of TCF7L2 rs7903146 exhibited a non-significant increase of plasma sphingomyelins (SMs), phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs) species. A significant genotype effect was detected in response to challenge tests in 6 SMs (C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C24:0, C24:1), 5 hydroxy-SMs (C14:1, C16:1, C22:1, C22:2, C24:1), 4 lysoPCs (C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C17:0), 3 diacyl-PCs (C28:1, C36:6, C40:4) and 4 long-chain acyl-alkyl-PCs (C40:2, C40:5, C44:5, C44:6). Discussion Plasma metabolomic profiling identified alterations of phospholipid metabolism in response to challenge tests in subjects with TCF7L2 rs7903146 genotype. This may reflect a genotype-mediated link to early metabolic abnormalities prior to the development of disturbed glucose tolerance. PMID:24205231

  12. Thyroglobulin level at week 16 of pregnancy is superior to urinary iodine concentration in revealing preconceptual and first trimester iodine supply

    PubMed Central

    Katko, Monika; Gazso, Andrea Anett; Hircsu, Ildiko; Bhattoa, Harjit Pal; Molnar, Zsuzsanna; Kovacs, Bela; Andrasi, David; Aranyosi, Janos; Makai, Rita; Veress, Lajos; Torok, Olga; Bodor, Miklos; Samson, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pregnant women are prone to iodine deficiency due to the increased need for iodine during gestation. Progress has recently occurred in establishing serum thyroglobulin (Tg) as an iodine status biomarker, but there is no accepted reference range for iodine sufficiency during pregnancy. An observational study was conducted in 164 pregnant women. At week 16 of gestation urinary iodine concentration (UIC), serum Tg, and thyroid functions were measured, and information on the type of iodine supplementation and smoking were recorded. The parameters of those who started iodine supplementation (≥150 μg/day) at least 4 weeks before pregnancy (n = 27), who started at the detection of pregnancy (n = 51), and who had no iodine supplementation (n = 74) were compared. Sufficient iodine supply was found in the studied population based on median UIC (162 μg/L). Iodine supplementation ≥150 μg/day resulted in higher median UIC regardless of its duration (nonusers: 130 μg/L vs. prepregnancy iodine starters: 240 μg/L, and pregnancy iodine starters: 205 μg/L, p < .001, and p = .023, respectively). Median Tg value of pregnancy starters was identical to that of nonusers (14.5 vs. 14.6 μg/L), whereas prepregnancy starters had lower median Tg (9.1 μg/L, p = .018). Serum Tg concentration at week 16 of pregnancy showed negative relationship (p = .010) with duration of iodine supplementation and positive relationship (p = .008) with smoking, a known interfering factor of iodine metabolism, by multiple regression analysis. Serum Tg at week 16 of pregnancy may be a promising biomarker of preconceptual and first trimester maternal iodine status, the critical early phase of foetal brain development. PMID:28593684

  13. Work stress and hair cortisol levels among workers in a Bangladeshi ready-made garment factory - Results from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Steinisch, Maria; Yusuf, Rita; Li, Jian; Stalder, Tobias; Bosch, Jos A; Rahman, Omar; Strümpell, Christian; Ashraf, Hasan; Fischer, Joachim E; Loerbroks, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Evidence on the association of work stress with cortisol levels is inconsistent and mostly stems from Western countries, with limited generalizability to other regions of the world. These inconsistencies may partly be due to methodological limitations associated with the measurement of cortisol secretion in saliva, serum or urine. The present study set out to explore associations of work stress with long-term integrated cortisol levels in hair among 175 workers of an export oriented ready-made garment (RMG) factory in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Work-related demands (WD), interpersonal resources (IR) and work-related values (WV) were assessed using a psychometrically evaluated interview. WD consisted of four items on physical demands, time pressure, worries about mistakes and exposure to abusive language. IR comprised five items addressing support, recognition, adequate payment, workers' trust in the management, and the management's trust in workers, as perceived by the workers. WV captured job security, promotion prospects and job latitude by three items. Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Stepwise multivariable linear regression models (backward elimination of predictors) were used to estimate associations of HCC with the three work stress components. For significant work stress component(s), further multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted to explore whether, and if so, which individual item(s) contributed most. The mean HCC equaled 3.27 (SD 2.58) pg/mg. HCC were found to be significantly associated with WV (beta=0.209, p=0.021). Additional analyses of the three WV items revealed that this association was largely driven the item on "promotion prospects" (beta=0.230, p=0.007) implying that the perception of good promotion prospects was associated with higher HCC. The finding of elevated HCC with good promotion prospects may initially seem counter-intuitive, but is supported by research documenting

  14. Factors Associated with Low-Level Viraemia and Virological Failure: Results from the Austrian HIV Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Leierer, Gisela; Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Katharina; Steuer, Andrea; Geit, Maria; Sarcletti, Mario; Haas, Bernhard; Kanatschnig, Manfred; Rappold, Michaela; Zangerle, Robert; Ledergerber, Bruno; Taylor, Ninon

    2015-01-01

    In human immunodeficiency virus treatment adequate virological suppression is warranted, nevertheless for some patients it remains a challenge. We investigated factors associated with low-level viraemia (LLV) and virological failure (VF) under combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). We analysed patients receiving standard regimens between 1st July 2012 and 1st July 2013 with at least one viral load (VL