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Sample records for levels total oxidant

  1. Total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity and ischemia modified albumin levels in children with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Sayar, Ersin; Özdem, Sebahat; Uzun, Gülbahar; İşlek, Ali; Yılmaz, Aygen; Artan, Reha

    2015-01-01

    In our study, we aimed to investigate ischemia modified albumin (IMA) as an oxidative stress marker, as well as other oxidant and antioxidant markers that have not been evaluated in children with celiac disease. A total of 37 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with celiac disease (CD) and 29 healthy children were enrolled in this prospective study. We evaluated the IMA, total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity, sulfhydryl, and advanced oxidation protein products in all of the subjects. We also compared the levels at the time of the diagnosis, and following a gluten-free diet (GFD) in the children with CD. While the IMA and the other oxidant marker levels were significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control group, the antioxidant marker levels were found to be significantly lower in the patient group, compared to the control group. We also determined that the tissue transglutaminase IgA showed a highly positive correlation, and that the IMA showed a moderately positive correlation with the Marsh-Oberhuber histopathological stage. Additionally, the IMA and other oxidant marker levels were significantly lower, while the antioxidant marker levels were significantly higher after the GFD, compared to the pre-diet period. We detected that oxidative stress played a role in the pathogenesis of CD, and that this could be evaluated using oxidative stress markers, which would regress after the GFD. We also detected that IMA is a marker that shows a correlation with the histopathological stage, and may be used in the diagnosis. PMID:27411418

  2. Total oxidative stress, paraoxonase and arylesterase levels at patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Dursun, Feyza; Vural Ozec, Ayse; Aydin, Huseyin; Topalkara, Aysen; Dursun, Ayhan; Toker, Mustafa Ilker; Erdogan, Haydar; Arici, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the oxidative stress status of the aqueous humor and serum of patients with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEG) and to measure paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARE) levels. METHODS A total of 78 patients were enrolled in the study, with 26 patients in each separate group. The patients were divided into three groups: the first group entailed PEX syndrome patients, while the second group consisted of patients with PEG and the third group involved patients with no additional systemic diseases, other than the diagnosis of cataract as control. Total oxidative stress (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), PON, and ARE levels in aqueous humor and serum were measured. RESULTS TAC, PON and arylesterase levels in aqueous humor and serum of the PEX syndrome and PEG patients were significantly decreased compared with control group (P<0.05). TOS values were higher in patients with PEX syndrome and PEG than controls (P<0.05). TAC, PON and ARE levels of aqueous humor did not differ significantly between the PEX syndrome and PEG groups CONCLUSION These findings are potentially of significance and add to the growing body of evidence for oxidative stress in PEX syndrome and PEG. Decreased antioxidant defense and increased oxidative stress system may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PEX syndrome and PEG. PMID:26558214

  3. Pentraxin-3 Levels in Beta Thalassemia Major and Minor Patients and Its Relationship With Antioxidant Capacity and Total Oxidant Stress.

    PubMed

    Isık Balcı, Yasemin; Nuray, Esin; Polat, Aziz; Enlı, Yaşar; Ozgurler, Funda; Akın, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Thalassemia major (TM) results in hemolytic anemia, an increase in intestinal iron absorption, and occurrence of iron loading due to erythrocyte transfusion; the disease is characterized by oxidative damage in major organs. Oxidative stress leads to vascular endothelial damage and forms the basis for serious cardiovascular diseases. Pentraxin-3 (PTX-3) is one of the markers of vascular endothelial damage that increases in response to the oxidative stress, which can be used as an early diagnostic marker for inflammation. This study's purpose is to define the relation between PTX-3 and the vascular endothelial damage that increases with oxidative stress in thalassemia patients. Our study included 35 TM patients, 30 β-thalassemia minor patients, and 30 healthy children. As a result of our study, in TM patients, a positive relation was detected between the PTX-3 levels and the total oxidative stress, triglyceride, and very low-density lipoprotein values, whereas a negative relation was detected with the total antioxidant capacity and high-density lipoprotein values. This result shows that as oxidant stress increases, PTX-3 levels also increase; very low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride contribute to the endothelial damage occurring with oxidative stress. As a result, it was concluded that vascular endothelial damage in thalassemia patients can be evaluated through the serum PTX-3 level.

  4. Total Salivary Anti-oxidant Levels, Dental Development and Oral Health Status in Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Gunjalli, Gururaj; Kumar, K Naveen; Jain, Swapnil Kumar; Reddy, Satheesh Kumar; Shavi, Girish R; Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to assess the total antioxidant levels, dental development, and oral health status in childhood obesity. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 children aged 6-12 years consisting of both genders from different school along Coastal Karnataka, India were part of the study and were categorized into obese/overweight, and normal children based on body mass index for age and sex. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels determined by phosphomolybidic acid and spectrophotometric method were considered. Oral hygiene index-simplified, modified gingival index and dentition status index were used to analyze oral health status. Dental development was assessed using a clinical method and correlated with standard chronology of human dentition. Results: Levels of the total salivary antioxidants were increased in the study group which is very highly significant when compared with control group, oral health status in both the study group and control group was good. Number of children in study group showing accelerated dental development is relatively less when compared with control group, but is not statistically significant. Conclusion: Salivary TAC was significantly high in overweight and obese children than their normal counterparts. Prevalence of dental caries was high in obese/overweight children when compared to normal children. PMID:25214735

  5. Investigation of the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, total antioxidant and nitric oxide levels of serum in dogs infected with Babesia vogeli.

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Gulay; Ural, Kerem; Aysul, Nuran; Cenesiz, Sena; Guzel, Murat; Pekmezci, Didem; Sogut, Mehtap Ünlü

    2014-08-29

    Oxidative stress was defined as corruption of balance between oxidant-antioxidant states in favor of oxidants. In this study, it was aimed to determine oxidative stress in naturally infected dogs with Babesia vogeli. The 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in the sera were analyzed by ELISA. 8-OHdG levels increased in B. vogeli infected dogs compared to control group (P<0.05). Also, NO levels increased while TOC levels decreased in B. vogeli infected dogs but these variations were not found as statistically important (P>0.05).

  6. Effect of carnosine supplementation on apoptosis and irisin, total oxidant and antioxidants levels in the serum, liver and lung tissues in rats exposed to formaldehyde inhalation.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Suna; Ogeturk, Murat; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Kavakli, Ahmet; Aydin, Suleyman

    2015-02-01

    The main objective of the study has been to show whether carnosine has positive effects on liver and lung tissues of rats exposed to a range of formaldehyde concentrations, and to explore how irisin expression and antioxidant capacity are altered in these tissues by carnosine supplementation. Sprague-Dawley type male rats were divided into 8 groups with 6 animals in each: (I) Control; no chemical supplementation); (II) sham (100mg/kg/day carnosine); (III) low dose formaldehyde (LDFA) for 5 days/week; (IV) LDFA for 5 days/week and carnosine); (V) moderate dose formaldehyde (MDFA) for 5 days/week); (VI) MDFA for 5 days/week and carnosine; (VII) high dose formaldehyde (HDFA) for 5 days/week; (VIII) and HDFA for 5 days/week and carnosine. Sham and control groups were exposed to normal air. Irisin levels of the serum, liver and lung tissue supernatants were analyzed by ELISA, while the REL method was used to determine total oxidant/antioxidant capacity. Irisin production by the tissues was detected immunohistochemically. Increasing doses of FA decreased serum/tissue irisin and total antioxidant levels relative to the controls, as also to increases in TUNEL expressions, total oxidant level, oxidant and apoptosis index. Irisin expression was detected in hepatocyte and sinusoidal cells of the liver and parenchymal cells of the lung. In conclusion, while FA exposure reduces irisin and total oxidant in the serum, liver and lung tissues in a dose-dependent manner and increases the total antioxidant capacity, carnosine supplementation reduces the oxidative stress and restores the histopathological and biochemical signs.

  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptom effects of long-term cumulative exposure to ambient levels of total oxidants and nitrogen dioxide in California Seventh-Day Adventist residents

    SciTech Connect

    Euler, G.L.; Abbey, D.E.; Hodgkin, J.E.; Magie, A.R.

    1988-07-01

    To assess the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptoms due to long-term exposure to ambient levels of total oxidants and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), symptoms were ascertained using the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) respiratory symptoms questionnaire. A total of 7,445 Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) nonsmokers who were 25 yr of age or older and had resided at least 11 yr in areas of California with high to low photochemical air pollution were included in this study. Cumulative exposures to each pollutant in excess of four thresholds were estimated for each participant, using zip codes for months of residence and interpolated dosages from state air-monitoring stations. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted individually and together for pollutants and included eight covariables, including passive smoking. A statistically significant association with chronic symptoms was seen for total oxidants above 10 pphm (196 mcg/m3) (p less than .004, relative risk of 1.20 for 750 hr/yr). Chronic respiratory disease symptoms were not associated with relatively low NO2 exposure levels in this population. When these pollutant exposures were studied with exposures to total suspended particulates (TSP) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), only TSP exposure above 200 mcg/m3 showed statistical significance (p less than .01). Exposure to TSP is either more strongly associated with symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than the other measured exposures or is the best single surrogate representing the mix of pollutants present.

  8. The Effects of Zinc Sulfate on the Levels of Some Elements and Oxidative Stress Occurring in Lenses of Rats Exposed to Total Cranium Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kandaz, Mustafa; Ertekin, Mustafa Vecdi; Erdemci, Burak; Kızıltunç, Ahmet; Koçer, İbrahim; Özmen, Hilal Kızıltunç; Aktan, Meryem Işık; Beşe, Ayşe Vildan

    2009-01-01

    Objective There is currently substantial clinical interest in zinc (Zn) as an antioxidant and a protective agent against radiation-related normal tissue injury. To further assess the potential antioxidative effects, the effects of Zn were studied in rat lenses, a model of radiation-induced oxidative stress. Materials and Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three equal groups. Group 1 received neither Zn nor irradiation (control group). Group 2 (RT group) and 3 (RT+Zn group) were exposed to total cranium irradiation of 5 Gy in a single dose by using a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. In addition to irradiation, group 3 was administered 10 mg/kg/day Zn. At the end of 10 days, the rats were killed. Their eyes were enucleated to measure the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the levels of iron, calcium, sodium and potassium. Results Irradiation significantly increased malondialdehyde levels as an end product of lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, and iron and calcium concentrations. Irradiation decreased super-oxide dismutase activities and zinc concentrations in the rat lens, indicating an increased oxidative stress generated by the decomposition of water and/or Fenton reaction. Malondialdehyde levels and iron and calcium concentrations were significantly decreased, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and zinc concentrations were increased, in the rat lenses of the RT+Zn group. No differences were detected in any final measurement of sodium and potassium in the direct comparison among all groups. Conclusion Zinc, acting as an antioxidant agent, may protect the lens from radiation-induced injury by improving oxidative stress generated by the decomposition of water and/or Fenton reaction. PMID:25610080

  9. Chemical state analysis of trace-level alkali metals sorbed in micaceous oxide by total reflection X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Y.; Shimoyama, I.; Hirao, N.

    2016-10-01

    In order to determine the chemical states of radioactive cesium (137Cs or 134Cs) sorbed in clay minerals, chemical states of cesium as well as the other alkali metals (sodium and rubidium) sorbed in micaceous oxides have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Since the number of atoms in radioactive cesium is extremely small, we specially focused on chemical states of trace-level alkali metals. For this purpose, we have measured XPS under X-ray total reflection (TR) condition. For cesium, it was shown that ultra-trace amount of cesium down to about 100 pg cm-2 can be detected by TR-XPS. This amount corresponds to about 200 Bq of 137Cs (t1/2 = 30.2 y). It was demonstrated that ultra-trace amount of cesium corresponding to radioactive cesium level can be measured by TR-XPS. As to the chemical states, it was found that core-level binding energy in TR-XPS for trace-level cesium shifted to lower-energy side compared with that for thicker layer. A reverse tendency is observed in sodium. Based on charge transfer within a simple point-charge model, it is concluded that chemical bond between alkali metal and micaceous oxide for ultra-thin layer is more polarized that for thick layer.

  10. Effect of lipid source and oxidation level on DE, ME, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, GE, EE, N, and C in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effect of lipid source and oxidation level on DE, ME, and ATTD of DM, GE, EE, N, and C of young pigs, 108 barrows (~ 6.66 kg BW) were assigned to 1 of 13 dietary treatments, including a corn-soybean meal control diet and 12 diets containing 10% lipid (corn oil, canola oil, poultry fa...

  11. Evaluation of total antioxidant status, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index in patients with alopecia areata

    PubMed Central

    Motor, Sedat; Ozturk, Sahin; Ozcan, Oguzhan; Gurpinar, Ahmet Burak; Can, Yesim; Yuksel, Rana; Yenin, Julide Zehra; Seraslan, Gamze; Ozturk, O Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we aimed to evaluate total oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in serum samples from patients with Alopesia Areata (AA) in our laboratory conditions. Methods: In this study, 46 subjects with AA (26 females, 20 males) and the control subjects of 36 (20 females, 16 males) age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers from our hospital staffs were enrolled (the mean age was 23.7 ± 11.0 years). Blood samples were obtained following an overnight fasting state, and were collected on ice at 4°C. The serum samples were separated from the cells by centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 15 min and were stored at -80°C and used for the analysis of the Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) and Total Oxidant Status (TOS). Results: Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) and Total Oxidant Status (TOS), Oxidative Stress Index (OSI) (TOS/TAS) levels of AA patients were 1.4777 ± 0.1986; 9.7490 ± 6.0445; 0.6593 ± 0.4069 respectively. TAS; TOS; OSİ (TOS/TAS) levels of controls were 1.4028 ± 0.1687; 9.4627 ± 4.2781; 0.6875 ± 0.3232 respectively. TAS, TOS and OSİ levels showed no significant difference between the control and AA group (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Future studies about AA pathogenesis should be based not only on oxidant/antioxidant balance but also on several other factors. Because it was observed that the disease showed recurrence in different situations. Since the selection criteria of patients is affected from disease severity and environmental and genetical factors, multicentric studies with better sampled patient population and higher patient number is required. PMID:24955187

  12. Evaluation of total oxidative status and total antioxidant capacity in patients with endemic fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Varol, Ercan; Icli, Atilla; Aksoy, Fatih; Bas, Hasan Aydin; Sutcu, Recep; Ersoy, Ismail Hakki; Varol, Simge; Ozaydin, Mehmet

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the plasma total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in patients with endemic fluorosis. A total of 79 (35 males and 44 females; mean age 44.0 ± 11.9 years) patients with endemic fluorosis and 55 (23 males and 32 females; mean age 48.3 ± 8.5 years) age-, sex- and body mass index-matched healthy controls were included in this study. The urine fluoride levels and plasma TOS and TAC levels were measured. The urine fluoride levels of fluorosis patients were significantly higher than control subjects as expected (1.91 ± 0.15 vs. 0.49 ± 0.13 mg/L, respectively; p < 0.001). TOS was significantly higher in fluorosis group than in control group (17.55 ± 3.82 vs. 15.06 ± 4.31 μmol H(2)O(2) Eq/L, respectively; p = 0.001). TAC was significantly lower in fluorosis group than in control group (1.60 ± 0.36 vs. 1.82 ± 0.51 mmol Trolox Eq/L, respectively; p = 0.004). Oxidative stress index (OSI) was significantly higher in fluorosis group than in control group (11.5 ± 3.8 vs. 8.8 ± 3.7, respectively; p < 0.001). Correlation analysis in all the groups indicated that TAC was negatively correlated with urine fluoride (r = -0.25, p = 0.003), TOS was positively correlated with urine fluoride (r = 0.34, p < 0.001) and OSI was positively correlated with urine fluoride (r = 0.36, p < 0.001). The results of our study demonstrate that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the endemic fluorosis.

  13. Determination of total sulfur at microgram per gram levels in geological materials by oxidation of sulfur into sulfate with in situ generation of bromine using isotope dilution high-resolution ICPMS.

    PubMed

    Makishima, A; Nakamura, E

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a new, simple, and accurate method for the determination of total sulfur at microgram per gram levels in milligram-sized silicate materials with isotope dilution high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with a flow injection system. In this method, sulfur can be quantitatively oxidized by bromine into sulfate with achievement of isotope equilibrium between the sample and spike. Detection limits for 32S+ and 34S+ in the ideal solution and silicate samples were 1 and 6 ng mL(-1) and 0.07 and 0.3 microg g(-1), respectively. The total blank was 46 ng, so that a 40-mg silicate sample containing 10 mirog g(-1) sulfur can be measured with a blank correction of < 10%. This total blank can be lowered to 8 ng if a low-blank air system is used for evaporations. To evaluate the applicability of this method, we analyzed not only silicate reference materials with sulfur content of 5.25-489 microg g(-1) and sample sizes of 13-40 mg but also the Allende meteorite with a sulfur content of 2%. The reproducibility for various rock types was < 9%, even though blank corrections in some samples of low sulfur content were up to 24%. This method is suitable for analyzing geological samples as well environmental samples such as soils, sediments, and water samples.

  14. Oxidized Zirconium Bearing Surfaces in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Schüttler, Karl Friedrich; Efe, Turgay; Heyse, Thomas J; Haas, Steven B

    2015-10-01

    Polyethylene wear in total knee arthroplasty is a still unsolved problem resulting in osteolysis and long-term failure of knee joint replacement. To address the problem of polyethylene wear, research aimed for an optimal implant design and for an optimal combination of bearing surfaces. Oxidized zirconium was introduced to minimize surface wear and thus potentially increase long-term implant survival. This review comprises the current literature related to in vitro and in vivo studies evaluating performance of oxidized zirconium total knee arthroplasty and results from retrieval analyses. PMID:26216647

  15. Oxidized Zirconium Bearing Surfaces in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Schüttler, Karl Friedrich; Efe, Turgay; Heyse, Thomas J; Haas, Steven B

    2015-10-01

    Polyethylene wear in total knee arthroplasty is a still unsolved problem resulting in osteolysis and long-term failure of knee joint replacement. To address the problem of polyethylene wear, research aimed for an optimal implant design and for an optimal combination of bearing surfaces. Oxidized zirconium was introduced to minimize surface wear and thus potentially increase long-term implant survival. This review comprises the current literature related to in vitro and in vivo studies evaluating performance of oxidized zirconium total knee arthroplasty and results from retrieval analyses.

  16. Probable preventive effects of placenta from oxidative stress; Evaluation of total antioxidant status, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index in fetal cord blood during the delivery.

    PubMed

    Camkurt, Mehmet Akif; Fındıklı, Ebru; Tolun, Fatma İnanç; Bakacak, Murat; Bal, Nilay Gül; Sakallı, Hilal; Güneş, Mehmet

    2016-06-30

    Depression in pregnancy may have negative effects on birth outcomes. It may also effect the intrauterine environment of the fetus. The umbilical cord is the conduit between the fetus and placenta, and functions in the transport between fetus and mother. Investigating biochemical parameters in fetal cord blood (FCB) during delivery may be helpful to understanding to what the fetus is exposed to, at least in the last trimester. In this study, we aimed to investigate total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in the FCB of depressed mothers and healthy controls during delivery. Our study included 33 depressed mothers and 37 healthy controls. TAS, TOS, and OSI were measured according to Erel's method. We found that TAS, TOS, and OSI levels were similar in patients and healthy controls; however, the birth weights of depressed patients were significantly lower than those of healthy controls. Our results suggest that the placental barrier may prevent from oxidative stress. Future studies should include blood samples collected simultaneously from mothers during delivery.

  17. Persulfate activation during exertion of total oxidant demand.

    PubMed

    Teel, Amy L; Elloy, Farah C; Watts, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    Total oxidant demand (TOD) is a parameter that is often measured during in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatability studies. The importance of TOD is based on the concept that the oxidant demand created by soil organic matter and other reduced species must be overcome before contaminant oxidation can proceed. TOD testing was originally designed for permanganate ISCO, but has also recently been applied to activated persulfate ISCO. Recent studies have documented that phenoxides activate persulfate; because soil organic matter is rich in phenolic moieties, it may activate persulfate rather than simply exerting TOD. Therefore, the generation of reactive oxygen species was investigated in three soil horizons of varied soil organic carbon content over 5-day TOD testing. Hydroxyl radical may have been generated during TOD exertion, but was likely scavenged by soil organic matter. A high flux of reductants + nucleophiles (e.g. alkyl radicals + superoxide) was generated as TOD was exerted, resulting in the rapid destruction of the probe compound hexachloroethane and the common groundwater contaminant trichloroethylene (TCE). The results of this research document that, unlike permanganate TOD, contaminant destruction does occur as TOD is exerted in persulfate ISCO systems and is promoted by the activation of persulfate by soil organic matter. Future treatability studies for persulfate ISCO should consider contaminant destruction as TOD is exerted, and the potential for persulfate activation by soil organic matter. PMID:27269993

  18. Low serum total nitrite and nitrate levels in severe leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between inducible nitric oxide synthatase activity and disease severity in leptospirosis is unclear. Nitric oxide is converted to nitrites and nitrates, thus nitrite and nitrate levels (NOx) in serum are considered surrogate markers for nitric oxide. NOx are excreted through the kidneys, and elimination is diminished in renal impairment. We assessed the correlation of NOx with disease severity in patients with leptospirosis, compared with healthy controls and non-leptospirosis fever patients. Methods All patients admitted over a two-month period to the National Hospital, Colombo, Sri Lanka with a clinical picture suggestive of leptospirosis were included. Leptospirosis was confirmed by the microscopic agglutination test (titre≥400). Severe leptospirosis was defined by the presence of two or more of the following criteria: jaundice (bilirubin> 51.3 μmol/l), oliguria (urine output < 400 ml/day), serum creatinine> 133 μmol/l or blood urea > 25.5 mmol/l, or the presence of organ dysfunction. Non-leptospirosis fever patients and healthy volunteers were used as control groups. NOx levels were measured using a modified Griess reaction. Results Forty patients were confirmed as having leptospirosis and 26 of them had severe disease. NOx levels were significantly higher in confirmed leptospirosis patients compared to healthy controls, MAT equivocal patients and non-leptospirosis fever patients (p<0.001). NOx concentrations were also significantly higher in patients with severe compared to mild leptospirosis (p<0.001). Once NOx levels were corrected for renal function, by using the ratio NOx/creatinine, NOx levels were actually significantly lower in patients with severe disease compared to other patients, and values were similar to those of healthy controls. Conclusions We postulate that high NOx levels may be protective against severe leptospirosis, and that finding low NOx levels (when corrected for renal function) in patients with

  19. 40 CFR 142.60 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes. 142.60 Section 142.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... disinfectant or oxidant. (2) Use of chlorine dioxide as an alternate or supplemental disinfectant or...

  20. 40 CFR 142.60 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes. 142.60 Section 142.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... disinfectant or oxidant. (2) Use of chlorine dioxide as an alternate or supplemental disinfectant or...

  1. 40 CFR 142.60 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes. 142.60 Section 142.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... disinfectant or oxidant. (2) Use of chlorine dioxide as an alternate or supplemental disinfectant or...

  2. Polyethylene Oxidation in Total Hip Arthroplasty: Evolution and New Advances

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Barrena, Enrique; Medel, Francisco; Puértolas, José Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) remains the gold standard acetabular bearing material for hip arthroplasty. Its successful performance has shown consistent results and survivorship in total hip replacement (THR) above 85% after 15 years, with different patients, surgeons, or designs. As THR results have been challenged by wear, oxidation, and liner fracture, relevant research on the material properties in the past decade has led to the development and clinical introduction of highly crosslinked polyethylenes (HXLPE). More stress on the bearing (more active, overweighted, younger patients), and more variability in the implantation technique in different small and large Hospitals may further compromise the clinical performance for many patients. The long-term in vivo performance of these materials remains to be proven. Clinical and retrieval studies after more than 5 years of in vivo use with HXLPE in THR are reviewed and consistently show a substantial decrease in wear rate. Moreover, a second generation of improved polyethylenes is backed by in vitro data and awaits more clinical experience to confirm the experimental improvements. Also, new antioxidant, free radical scavengers, candidates and the reinforcement of polyethylene through composites are currently under basic research. Oxidation of polyethylene is today significantly reduced by present formulations, and this forgiving, affordable, and wellknown material is still reliable to meet today’s higher requirements in total hip replacement. PMID:20111694

  3. Measurements of Total Hemispherical Emissivity of Several Stably Oxidized Metals and Some Refractory Oxide Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, William R.

    1959-01-01

    A description of the apparatus and methods used for obtaining total hemispherical emissivity is presented, and data for several stably oxidized metals are included. The metals which were tested included type 347 stainless steel, tungsten, and Haynes alloys B, C, X, and 25. No values of emissivity were obtained for tungsten or Haynes alloy B because of the nature of the oxides produced. The refractory oxide coatings tested were flame-sprayed alumina and zirconia. The results of the investigation indicate that strongly adherent, oxidized surfaces of a high stable emissivity can be produced on type 347 stainless steel for which the total hemispherical emissivity varied from 0.87 to 0.91 for temperatures from 600 F to 2,000 F. For this same temperature range, the Haynes alloys tested showed values of total hemispherical emissivity from 0.90 to 0.96 for alloy C, from 0.85 to 0.88 for alloy X, and from 0.85 to 0.89 for alloy 25. Haynes alloy B and tungsten formed nonadherent oxides at elevated temperatures and, therefore, stable emissivities were not obtained. The results obtained for the flame-sprayed ceramics (alumina and zirconia) showed considerably higher values of total emissivity than those measured for coatings applied by other methods. Emissivity values ranging from 0.69 to 0.44 for aluminum oxide and from 0.62 to 0.44 for zirconium oxide were measured for temperatures from 800 F to 2,000 F.

  4. Techniques for determining total body water using deuterium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Phillip A.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of total body water (TBW) is fundamental to the study of body fluid changes consequent to microgravity exposure or treatment with microgravity countermeasures. Often, the use of radioactive isotopes is prohibited for safety or other reasons. It was selected and implemented for use by some Johnson Space Center (JCS) laboratories, which permitted serial measurements over a 14 day period which was accurate enough to serve as a criterion method for validating new techniques. These requirements resulted in the selection of deuterium oxide dilution as the method of choice for TBW measurement. The development of this technique at JSC is reviewed. The recommended dosage, body fluid sampling techniques, and deuterium assay options are described.

  5. Total Phenolics, Total Anthocyanins, Antioxidant and Pro-oxidant Activity of Some Red Fruits Teas.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Bianca; Hosu, Anamaria; David, Luminita; Cimpoiu, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Fruits represent one of the main dietary sources of bioactive compounds. Due to their remarkable health benefits, many functional foods of fruit origin, including fruit teas, are present on the market and there is an increased interest regarding the investigation of their nutritional parameters and quality. The aims of our study were: 1) to determine the total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanins content (TAC), antioxidant activity (AA), the scavenging capacity (IC50), the pro-oxidant activity (Pro-ox) and Pro-Antidex of 12 commercially available red fruit teas, 2) to classify the analysed teas and 3) to evaluate the similarities between samples. The TPC was between 12.5 and 29.3 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g tea, the TAC varied between 2.6 and 5.6 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-glu)/g tea and AA was in the range of 10.9-19.1 mg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/g tea. The Pro-ox activity varied between 3.9 and 10.0 mg/mL tea extract and Pro-Antidex was between 3.3 and 7.3.

  6. Total Phenolics, Total Anthocyanins, Antioxidant and Pro-oxidant Activity of Some Red Fruits Teas.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Bianca; Hosu, Anamaria; David, Luminita; Cimpoiu, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Fruits represent one of the main dietary sources of bioactive compounds. Due to their remarkable health benefits, many functional foods of fruit origin, including fruit teas, are present on the market and there is an increased interest regarding the investigation of their nutritional parameters and quality. The aims of our study were: 1) to determine the total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanins content (TAC), antioxidant activity (AA), the scavenging capacity (IC50), the pro-oxidant activity (Pro-ox) and Pro-Antidex of 12 commercially available red fruit teas, 2) to classify the analysed teas and 3) to evaluate the similarities between samples. The TPC was between 12.5 and 29.3 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g tea, the TAC varied between 2.6 and 5.6 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-glu)/g tea and AA was in the range of 10.9-19.1 mg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/g tea. The Pro-ox activity varied between 3.9 and 10.0 mg/mL tea extract and Pro-Antidex was between 3.3 and 7.3. PMID:27333542

  7. Study on Total Antioxidant Status in Relation to Oxidative Stress in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Rani, A. Jamuna; Mythili, S.V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus is a condition of increased oxidative stress and requiries antioxidants. The sum of endogenous and food derived antioxidants represents the total antioxidant activity of the system. The cooperation among different antioxidants provides greater protection against damage caused by reactive oxygen species or reactive nitrogen species, than any single compound alone. Thus the overall antioxidant capacity may provide more relevant biological information compared to that obtained by the measurement of individual components, as it considers the cumulative effect of all antioxidants present in plasma and body fluids and hence the study. Materials and Methods: The study population included healthy volunteers from staff of Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital (SBMC&H) and Type 2 Diabetic patients attending SBMC&H, Chennai, India. Malondialdehyde levels and total antioxidant status of the case and controls was assessed. Results: A significant decrease in the total antioxidant status among Diabetic patients and significant increase in their malondialdehyde levels in comparison to healthy controls was observed. Conclusion: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a condition in which there is increased oxidative stress as evident by increased Malondialdehyde levels and the condition calls for utilization of antioxidants to combat the oxidants thereby resulting in decreased total antioxidants status. PMID:24783095

  8. Effect of elevated total CoA levels on metabolic pathways in cultured hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, C.A.; Smith, C.M.

    1987-05-01

    Livers from fasted rats have 30% higher total CoA levels than fed rats. To determine whether this increase of total CoA influences metabolism, the rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis were measured in hepatocytes with cyanamide (CYM) or pantothenate (PA) deficient medium used to vary total CoA levels independently of hormonal status. Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were incubated 14 hrs with Bt/sub 2/ cAMP, dexamethasone + theophylline in PA deficient medium or with CYM (500 ..mu..M) + PA, rinsed and preincubated 0.5 hr to remove the CYM. Hepatocytes treated with CYM had total CoA levels 10-24% higher than PA deficient cells and lower rates of glucose production from lactate + pyruvate (L/P) or from alanine (0.23 +/- 0.05 and 0.089 +/- 0.02 ..mu..m/mg protein, respectively in CYM treated cells compared to 0.33 +/- 0.06 and 0.130 +/- 0.006 in PA deficient cells). This decrease was not due to CYM per se, as the direct addition of CYM stimulated glucose production from L/P. CYM treated cells with 15-40% higher total CoA and 30% higher fatty acyl-CoA levels had the same rates of (/sup 14/C)-palmitate oxidation as PA deficient cells. However, rates of ketogenesis were lower in CYM treated cells (163 +/- 11 nm/mg compared to 217 +/- 14 nm/mg protein). These results suggest that physiological alterations of hepatic total CoA levels are not necessary for fasting rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis.

  9. Total Antioxidant Capacity and Total Oxidant Status in Saliva of Periodontitis Patients in Relation to Bacterial Load

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Taowen; Andrukhov, Oleh; Haririan, Hady; Müller-Kern, Michael; Liu, Shutai; Liu, Zhonghao; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    The detection of salivary biomarkers has a potential application in early diagnosis and monitoring of periodontal inflammation. However, searching sensitive salivary biomarkers for periodontitis is still ongoing. Oxidative stress is supposed to play an important role in periodontitis progression and tissue destruction. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) in saliva of periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls and their relationship with periodontopathic bacteria and periodontal disease severity. Unstimulated saliva was collected from 45 patients with generalized severe periodontitis and 37 healthy individuals and the TAC/TOS were measured. In addition, salivary levels of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva were measured. Salivary TAC was lower in periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, a significant negative correlation of salivary TAC with clinical attachment loss was observed in periodontitis patients. No significant difference in the salivary TOS was observed between periodontitis patients and healthy controls. Bacterial load was enhanced in periodontitis patients and exhibited correlation with periodontal disease severity but not with salivary TAC/TOS. Our data suggest that changes in antioxidant capacity in periodontitis patients are not associated with increased bacterial load and are probably due to a dysregulated immune response. PMID:26779448

  10. Total Antioxidant Capacity and Total Oxidant Status in Saliva of Periodontitis Patients in Relation to Bacterial Load.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Taowen; Andrukhov, Oleh; Haririan, Hady; Müller-Kern, Michael; Liu, Shutai; Liu, Zhonghao; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    The detection of salivary biomarkers has a potential application in early diagnosis and monitoring of periodontal inflammation. However, searching sensitive salivary biomarkers for periodontitis is still ongoing. Oxidative stress is supposed to play an important role in periodontitis progression and tissue destruction. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) in saliva of periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls and their relationship with periodontopathic bacteria and periodontal disease severity. Unstimulated saliva was collected from 45 patients with generalized severe periodontitis and 37 healthy individuals and the TAC/TOS were measured. In addition, salivary levels of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva were measured. Salivary TAC was lower in periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, a significant negative correlation of salivary TAC with clinical attachment loss was observed in periodontitis patients. No significant difference in the salivary TOS was observed between periodontitis patients and healthy controls. Bacterial load was enhanced in periodontitis patients and exhibited correlation with periodontal disease severity but not with salivary TAC/TOS. Our data suggest that changes in antioxidant capacity in periodontitis patients are not associated with increased bacterial load and are probably due to a dysregulated immune response.

  11. Exposures influencing total IgA level in colostrum.

    PubMed

    Munblit, D; Sheth, S; Abrol, P; Treneva, M; Peroni, D G; Chow, L-Y; Boner, A L; Pampura, A; Warner, J O; Boyle, R J

    2016-02-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a predominant immunoglobulin present in human breast milk and is known to play an important role in infant gut immunity maturation. Breast milk composition varies between populations, but the environmental and maternal factors responsible for these variations are still unclear. We examined the relationship between different exposures and levels of IgA in colostrum. The objective of this study was to examine whether exposures analysed influence levels of IgA in colostrum. The present study used 294 colostrum samples from the MecMilk International cohort, collected from women residing in London, Moscow and Verona. Samples were analysed in automated Abbott Architect Analyser. We found an inverse correlation between time postpartum and colostrum total IgA level (r=-0.49, P<0.001). Adjusting for maternal parity, smoking, fresh fruit and fish consumption and allergen sensitization, multiple regression model showed that IgA levels were influenced by colostrum collection time (P<0.0001) and country of collection (P<0.01). Mode of delivery influence did not appear to be significant in univariate comparisons, once adjusted for the above maternal characteristics it showed a significant influence on total IgA (P=0.01). We conclude that the concentration of IgA in colostrum drops rapidly after birth and future studies should always consider this factor in analysis. IgA concentration varied significantly between countries, with the highest level detected in Moscow and lowest in Verona. Mode of delivery effect should be confirmed on larger cohorts. Further work is needed to determine ways to correct for IgA decline over time in colostrum, and to find the cause of variations in IgA levels between the countries.

  12. Evaluation of oxidant, antioxidant, and S100B levels in patients with conversion disorder

    PubMed Central

    Büyükaslan, Hasan; Kandemir, Sultan Basmacı; Asoğlu, Mehmet; Kaya, Halil; Gökdemir, Mehmet Tahir; Karababa, İbrahim Fatih; Güngörmez, Fatih; Kılıçaslan, Fethiye; Şavik, Emin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Various psychodynamic, neurobiological, genetic, and sociocultural factors are believed to be involved in the etiology of conversion disorder (CD). Oxidative metabolism has been shown to deteriorate in association with many health problems and psychiatric disorders. We evaluated oxidative metabolism and S100B levels in the context of this multifactorial disease. Methods Thirty-seven patients with CD (25 females and 12 males) and 42 healthy volunteers (21 females and 21 males), all matched for age and sex, were included in this study. The total oxidant status, total antioxidant status, oxidative stress index, and S100B levels were compared between the two groups. Results The total oxidant status, oxidative stress index, and S100B levels were significantly higher in patients with CD than in the control group, whereas the total antioxidant status was significantly lower. Conclusion CD is associated with deterioration of oxidative metabolism and increased neuronal damage. PMID:27471386

  13. Advanced oxidation protein products and total antioxidant activity in colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Avinash, S S; Anitha, M; Vinodchandran; Rao, Gayathri M; Sudha, K; Shetty, Beena V

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and percent hemolysis (that indirectly indicates the degree of membrane damage secondary to lipid peroxidation) in colorectal carcinoma. Glutathione (GSH), total thiols and albumin were measured to determine the antioxidant status. Considering the dynamic interaction between various antioxidants in the body, we measured the total antioxidant activity (AOA). Globulin was measured to assess the inflammatory response secondary to oxidative stress. Investigations were conducted in 45 cases of recently diagnosed primary colorectal adenocarcinoma. As control, 45 age and sex matched healthy persons were chosen. GSH was estimated in whole blood, percent hemolysis in RBC suspension and other parameters in plasma. We observed a very high significant increase (P<0.001) in AOPP, percent hemolysis and a highly significant increase (P<0.01) in globulin in colorectal carcinoma. We observed a very high significant decrease (P<0.001) in whole blood GSH, total thiols, albumin, AOA and a significant decrease (P<0.05) in plasma GSH in colorectal carcinoma. A very high significant negative correlation between percent hemolysis and AOA and an apparent negative correlation between total thiols and AOPP was seen in colorectal carcinoma. This demonstrated oxidative stress, decreased antioxidant status and secondary inflammatory response in colorectal carcinoma.

  14. Total and speciated arsenic levels in rice from China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Feng; Li, Yulan; Zhang, Guilin; Tan, Mingguang; Lin, Jun; Liu, Wei; Li, Yan; Lu, Wenwei

    2010-06-01

    Although the need for policy development on arsenic (As) in rice has been recognized and a legally enforceable maximum contaminant level (MCL) for inorganic arsenic (As(i)) in rice has been established in China, evidence reported in this article indicates that the risk of exposure to As for the Chinese population through rice is still underestimated. Polished rice from various production regions of China was analyzed for total As and arsenic species using HPLC-ICPMS. Total As concentration ranged 65.3-274.2 ng g(-1), with an average value of 114.4 ng g(-1). Four arsenic species, including arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), were detected in most rice samples. The As(i) (As(III) + As(V)) species was predominant, accounting for approximately 72% of the total As in rice, with a mean concentration of 82.0 ng g(-1). In assessing the risk from As in rice, we found that As intake for the Chinese population through rice is higher than from drinking water, with a 37.6% contribution to the maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI) of As recommended by World Health Organization (WHO), compared with 1.5% from drinking water. Compared to other countries, the risk for the Chinese from exposure to As through rice is more severe due to the large rice consumption in China. Therefore, not only the scientific community but also local authorities should take this risk seriously. Furthermore, more stringent legislation of the MCL for rice should be enacted to protect the Chinese consumer from a high intake of As.

  15. Evaluation of oxidant-antioxidant balance and total antioxidant capacity of serum in children with urinary tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Gholamreza; Sadeghi-Bojd, Simin; Teimouri, Alireza; Nakhaee, Alireza; Sheikhhosseini, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infections in children. This studyaimed to investigate the oxidative and antioxidate status of plasma in patients with UTI and to compare them with those of the controls. Methods: This case–control study of 50–75 children in the given order was performed in 2013 at the Pediatric Clinic of infections in Zahedan Hospital of Ali Ibn Abi Talib. The antioxidative status of plasma were evaluated by measuring the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) The oxidative status of samples was assessed by measuring the total peroxide and the oxidative stress index (OSI) levels. The means of the parameters were compared and the relationship among them was determined. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20 (IBM Corp. Released 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Student's t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test were applied in various situations of our questions; 95% confidence interval was considered for the level of significance. Results: The results showed that total oxidant serum status in UTI patients was higher compared to controls when total antioxidant serum was lower. The balance of oxidant-antioxidant serum was in favor of oxidant serum and this term was confirmed by OSI. Conclusion: Our results showed that the plasma levels of TAC in patients with UTI were decreased compared to controls, and oxidant-antioxidant balance and OSI caused increased OS in patients. PMID:27226686

  16. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Maria José; Paim, Ana Paula S; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2014-08-01

    Total mercury, at μg kg(-1) level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7μg kg(-1) by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3μg kg(-1), respectively. PMID:25064238

  17. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Maria José; Paim, Ana Paula S; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2014-08-01

    Total mercury, at μg kg(-1) level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7μg kg(-1) by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3μg kg(-1), respectively.

  18. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (−)-Nardoaristolone B via a Gold(I)-Catalyzed Oxidative Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of (−)-nardoaristolone B is accomplished by the implementation of an enantio- and diastereoselective copper(I)-catalyzed conjugate addition/enolate trapping sequence and a gold(I)-catalyzed oxidative cyclization (intermolecular oxidant), employed for the first time in total synthesis. PMID:25563976

  19. Destruction of OPA from munitions demilitarization in supercritical water oxidation: kinetics of total organic carbon disappearance.

    PubMed

    Veriansyah, Bambang; Kim, Jae-Duck; Lee, Jong-Chol; Hong, Deasik

    2006-01-01

    The destruction of OPA from munitions demilitarization has been accomplished in supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) with oxygen as oxidant in an isothermal continuous-flow reactor. The experiments were conducted at a temperature of 689-887 K and a fixed pressure of 25 MPa, with a residence time that ranged from 7 s to 14 s. The destruction efficiency was measured by total organic carbon (TOC) conversion. At the reaction condition, the initial TOC concentrations of OPA were varied from 1.41 mmol/L to 19.57 mmol/L and the oxygen concentrations were varied from 15.03 mmol/L to 81.85 mmol/L. Experimental data showed that all the TOC conversions were >80% under the above experimental conditions. The kinetics of TOC disappearance, which is essential for the design, optimization, and control of reliable commercial SCWO reactor was developed by taking into account the dependence of the oxidant and TOC concentration on the reaction rate. A global TOC disappearance rates expression was regressed from the data of 38 experiments, to a 95% confidence level. The resulting activation energy was determined to be 44.01 +/- 1.52 kJ/mol, and the pre-exponential factor was (1.67 +/- 0.45) x 10(2) L(1.14) mmol(-0.14) s(-1). The reaction orders for the TOC and the oxidant were 0.98 +/- 0.01 and 0.16 +/- 0.02, respectively.

  20. Molecular Level Coating for Metal Oxide Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniel, Patricia R. (Inventor); Saint Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Polymer encapsulated metal oxide particles are prepared by combining a polyamide acid in a polar aprotic solvent with a metal alkoxide solution. The polymer was imidized and the metal oxide formed simultaneously in a refluxing organic solvent. The resulting polymer-metal oxide is an intimately mixed commingled blend, possessing synergistic properties of both the polymer and preceramic metal oxide. The encapsulated metal oxide particles have multiple uses including, being useful in the production of skin lubricating creams, weather resistant paints, as a filler for paper, making ultraviolet light stable filled printing ink, being extruded into fibers or ribbons, and coatings for fibers used in the production of composite structural panels.

  1. Determination of total sulfite in wine by ion chromatography after in-sample oxidation.

    PubMed

    Koch, Matthias; Köppen, Robert; Siegel, David; Witt, Angelika; Nehls, Irene

    2010-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) or sulfites are the most common preservatives used in winemaking. The level of total SO2 is subject to regulation. Currently, the regulatory determination of total SO2 (including sulfites) is done by the optimized Monier-Williams (OMW) method, which includes time-consuming distillation and titration steps. This paper describes the development and application of an alternative, rapid, straightforward, and reliable method for the determination of total sulfite in wine. In this method, a simple oxidation step using alkaline hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution is followed by ion chromatographic (IC) analysis of sulfate coupled with conductometric detection. Thirteen wines were analyzed in order to compare the in-sample oxidation method with the OMW-procedure. A t-test revealed satisfying compliance regarding sample preparation, i.e., alkaline H2O2 treatment and acidic distillation (OMW method). Comparable results were also obtained between IC analysis and acid/base titration. Our results indicate that the novel method (limit of quantification: 4 mg SO2 L(-1)) is well suited for the cost-efficient monitoring of regulatory limits. PMID:20690603

  2. Determination of total sulfite in wine by ion chromatography after in-sample oxidation.

    PubMed

    Koch, Matthias; Köppen, Robert; Siegel, David; Witt, Angelika; Nehls, Irene

    2010-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) or sulfites are the most common preservatives used in winemaking. The level of total SO2 is subject to regulation. Currently, the regulatory determination of total SO2 (including sulfites) is done by the optimized Monier-Williams (OMW) method, which includes time-consuming distillation and titration steps. This paper describes the development and application of an alternative, rapid, straightforward, and reliable method for the determination of total sulfite in wine. In this method, a simple oxidation step using alkaline hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution is followed by ion chromatographic (IC) analysis of sulfate coupled with conductometric detection. Thirteen wines were analyzed in order to compare the in-sample oxidation method with the OMW-procedure. A t-test revealed satisfying compliance regarding sample preparation, i.e., alkaline H2O2 treatment and acidic distillation (OMW method). Comparable results were also obtained between IC analysis and acid/base titration. Our results indicate that the novel method (limit of quantification: 4 mg SO2 L(-1)) is well suited for the cost-efficient monitoring of regulatory limits.

  3. Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I.; Pool, K.H.

    1994-05-01

    Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na{sub 2-x}Cs{sub x}NiFe (CN){sub 6}) were produced in a scavenging process to remove {sup 137}Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described.

  4. Total Ionizing Dose Effects in MOS Oxides and Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldham, Timothy R.; McLean, F. B.

    2003-01-01

    The development of military and space electronics technology has traditionally been heavily influenced by the commercial semiconductor industry. The development of MOS technology, and particularly CMOS technology, as dominant commercial technologies has occurred entirely within the lifetime of the NSREC. For this reason, it is not surprising that the study of radiation interactions with MOS materials, devices and circuits has been a major theme of this conference for most of its history. The basic radiation problem in a MOS transistor is illustrated. The application of an appropriate gate voltage causes a conducting channel to form between the source and drain, so that current flows when the device is turned on. In Fig. lb, the effect of ionizing radiation is illustrated. Radiation-induced trapped charge has built up in the gate oxide, which causes a shift in the threshold voltage (that is, a change in the voltage which must be applied to turn the device on). If this shift is large enough, the device cannot be turned off, even at zero volts applied, and the device is said to have failed by going depletion mode.

  5. Effects of shade on physiological changes, oxidative stress, and total antioxidant power in Thai Brahman cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Kongbuntad, Watee; Boonsorn, Thongchai

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of artificial shade, tree shade, and no shade on physiological changes, oxidative stress, and total antioxidant power in Thai Brahman cattle. Twenty-one cattle were divided into three groups: cattle maintained under artificial shade, under tree shade, and without shade. On days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the experimental period, after the cattle were set in individual stalls for 2 h, physiological changes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and total antioxidant power were investigated. The results revealed that the respiratory rate, heart rate, sweat rate and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio of the no-shade cattle were significantly higher than those of cattle maintained under artificial shade and tree shade ( P < 0.05). During the early period of heat exposure, the total antioxidant power of the no-shade cattle was lower than those of cattle maintained under artificial shade and tree shade, but the total antioxidant power of cattle maintained under artificial shade and tree shade were not different ( P > 0.05). However, rectal temperature and packed cell volume of the cattle in all groups did not differ ( P > 0.05). These results showed that artificial shade and tree shade can protect cattle from sunlight compared to no shade, and that the effectiveness of tree shade for sunlight protection is at an intermediate level.

  6. The atomic level journey from aqueous polyoxometalate to metal oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Yu; Fast, Dylan B.; Ruther, Rose E.; Amador, Jenn M.; Fullmer, Lauren B.; Decker, Shawn R.; Zakharov, Lev N.; Dolgos, Michelle R. Nyman, May

    2015-01-15

    Aqueous precursors tailored for the deposition of thin film materials are desirable for sustainable, simple, low energy production of advanced materials. Yet the simple practice of using aqueous precursors is complicated by the multitude of interactions that occur between ions and water during dehydration. Here we use lithium polyoxoniobate salts to investigate the fundamental interactions in the transition from precursor cluster to oxide film. Small-angle X-ray scattering of solutions, total X-ray scattering of intermediate gels, and morphological and structural characterization of the lithium niobate thin films reveal the atomic level transitions between these states. The studies show that (1) lithium–[H{sub 2}Nb{sub 6}O{sub 19}]{sup 6−} has drastically different solution behaviour than lithium–[Nb{sub 6}O{sub 19}]{sup 8−}, linked to the precursor salt structure (2) in both compositions, the intermediate gel preserves the polyoxoniobate clusters and show similar local order and (3) the morphology and phases of deposited films reflect the ions behaviour throughout the journey from cluster solution to metal oxide. - Graphical abstract: Aqueous lithium polyoxoniobate salts were used to prepare lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) thin films. Fundamental studies were performed to investigate the interactions in the transition from precursor cluster to the oxide film. It was found that acid–base and ion-association chemistries of the aqueous and gel systems significantly affect the key processes in this atom-level journey. - Highlights: • Lithium polyoxoniobate clusters were synthesized with control over Li:Nb ratio as precursors for LiNbO{sub 3} films. • X-ray scattering studies in solution and the solid-state revealed differences controlled by Li:Nb ratio. • Film deposition studies revealed phase, composition and morphology is controlled by Li:Nb ratio. • Cluster to film transformation was revealed using total X-ray scattering and TGA.

  7. Oxidative DNA damage and total antioxidant status in rats during experimental gram-negative sepsis.

    PubMed

    Kaymak, C; Kadioglu, E; Ozcagli, E; Osmanoglu, G; Izdes, S; Agalar, C; Basar, H; Sardas, S

    2008-06-01

    Sepsis and septic shock remains as leading cause of death in adult intensive care units. It is widely accepted that gram-negative bacteria and their endotoxins cause sepsis and septic shock, predominantly. Enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species may be responsible for tissue injury in septic shock and endotoxemia. The aim of this study was to assess oxidative DNA damage and the total antioxidant status (TAS) in peripheral lymphocytes of rats during different intraperitoneal gram-negative sepsis stages. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into four groups. Control group was intraperitoneally inoculated with 2 mL of pyrogene-free saline (Group I, n = 6), and the other rats received an intraperitoneal inoculum with 2 mL of saline containing 2 x 10(8) CFU of Escherichia coli. The animals were killed at time zero (Group I, n = 6), at 6th (Group II, n = 7), 12th (Group III, n = 7), and 24th (Group IV, n = 7) hour after the E. coli inoculation. Oxidative DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes of rats was evaluated by modified comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis). Formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and Endonuclease III (Endo III) were used to detect oxidized purines and pyrimidines, respectively. Total antioxidant quantification was carried out using ABTS+ (2,2'-Azino-di-[3 ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate]) radical formation kinetics (Randox kit) in serum samples. Significant elevations of basal levels of strand breaks (SB) in Group IV were observed as compared with Group I, II, and III. There was a significant increase in Fpg sites in Group III as compared with Group I and II. However, there was no significant difference in terms of Endo III sites in any of the groups. Although the TAS was decreased with the stages of sepsis, this moderate decrease was significant in only Group IV as compared with Group I. There was no statistically significant correlation between DNA damage and TAS for any of the groups. PMID:18784201

  8. IN VIVO OXIDATION CONTRIBUTES TO DELAMINATION BUT NOT PITTING IN POLYETHYLENE COMPONENTS FOR TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    Medel, Francisco J.; Kurtz, Steven M.; Sharkey, Peter; Parvizi, Javad; Klein, Gregg; Hartzband, Mark; Kraay, Matthew; Rimnac, Clare M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand how in vivo oxidation contributes to fatigue damage in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). 119 tibial inserts were consecutively collected after revision surgery. Of the 119 polyethylene retrievals, 29 were gamma sterilized in air (historical), while the remaining 90 were gamma sterilized in nitrogen (conventional). Surface damage assessment and characterization of oxidation were performed on all the retrievals. Delamination was significantly more prevalent and extensive in the longer-term, highly oxidized, historical tibial inserts. Pitting damage, in contrast, appeared to be equally prevalent between both retrieval groups, and was not correlated with in vivo oxidation. Our findings support our hypothesis that in vivo oxidation is a contributing factor to delamination, but not pitting, in TKA. Despite the lower oxidation displayed by conventional retrievals, this study provides strong evidence that delamination secondary to in vivo oxidation may occur during the second decade of implantation. PMID:20875942

  9. Free radicals hasten head and neck cancer risk: A study of total oxidant, total antioxidant, DNA damage, and histological grade

    PubMed Central

    Singh, AK; Pandey, P; Tewari, M; Pandey, HP; Gambhir, IS; Shukla, HS

    2016-01-01

    Background: Free radicals such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce oxidative stress, are the main contributors to head and neck carcinogenesis (HNC). The present study was conducted with the aim to assess the oxidant/antioxidant status and DNA damage analysis in head and neck cancer/control patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 60 patients with biopsy-proven HNC and 17 patients of head and neck disease (HND). The total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined by novel automatic colorimetric methods from tissue homogenate. DNA damage analysis was determined by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Results: The mean age of the study cohort was 46.65 ± 14.84 years for HNC patients, while it was 49.41 ± 13.00 years for HND patients. There were no significant differences found between the two groups with respect to demographic presentation except tobacco addiction. The association between oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage analysis with study group revealed the following. (A) DNA damage - tissue homogenate TOS and OSI were significantly higher in HNC subjects than in HND (16.06 ± 1.78 AU vs 7.86 ± 5.97 AU, P < 0.001; 53.00 ± 40.61 vs 19.67 ± 21.90, P < 0.01; 7.221 ± 5.80 vs 2.40 ± 2.54, P < 0.01, respectively), while TAS was significantly decreased. (B) Aggressive histological features were identified, more commonly with higher TOS and lower TAS [probability (P) = 0.002, relative risk (RR) = 11.838, 95% confidence interval CI = 2.514-55.730 and P = 0.043, RR = 0.271, 95% CI = 0.077-0.960, respectively]. Conclusion: The increase in free radicals may be the event that led to the reduction of antioxidant status in HNC, thus explaining the oxidative damage of DNA and the severity of disease. Increased OSI represents a general mechanism in its pathogenesis. PMID:27089108

  10. Effects of local curcumin on oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Al-Rubaei, Z M Malik; Mohammad, Taghreed U; Ali, Layla Karim

    2014-12-01

    Plants have been one of the important sources of medicine even since the-dawn of human civilization. Curcumin has been found to possess tremendous therapeutic potency as antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. The present study was designed to examine possible potential therapeutic and protective effect of curcumin from oxidative stress and on total antioxidant capacity in liver damage. The study was conducted using H2O2 as inducing agent of oxidative stress in vivo. Rats were randomly divided into five groups, where n = 20 for each group. Group 1 (G1) rats served as control group. Group 2 (G2) rats subjected to experimentally induced oxidative stress by the ad libitum supply of drinking water containing 0.5% H2O2(v/v) was prepared daily over entire 60 days. Group 3 (G3) rats received H2O2 for sixty days followed by giving 200 mg kg(-1) of curcumin for 30 days. Group 4 (G4) was simultaneously given curcumin (200 mg kg(-1)) for 15 days then followed by receiving H2O2 with curcumin for sixty days. Group 5 (G5) rats was received H2O2 for sixty days followed by giving 200 mg kg(-1) of N-acetyl 1-cystine as standard drug for 30 days. Levels of marker enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP), uric acid, Total Protein (TP) and tumor necrosis factor (α-TNF) were assessed in serum for all studied groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguinosine, Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) were assayed in liver homogenates for all studied groups. The results revealed significant increase (p < 0.05) in levels of ALT, AST, ALP, uric acid and α-TNF while there are significant decrease (p < 0.05) in levels of TP in G2 comparing to G1. Also there are significant differences (p < 0.05) between G3 and G4 comparing to G2 and between G3, G4 and G5 which curcumin elicited a significant hepatoprotective activity by lowering the levels of serum marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation. The results also revealed a

  11. Total OH reactivity study from VOC photochemical oxidation in the SAPHIR chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z.; Tillmann, R.; Hohaus, T.; Fuchs, H.; Novelli, A.; Wegener, R.; Kaminski, M.; Schmitt, S. H.; Wahner, A.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that hydroxyl radicals (OH) act as a dominant reactive species in the degradation of VOCs in the atmosphere. In recent field studies, directly measured total OH reactivity often showed poor agreement with OH reactivity calculated from VOC measurements (e.g. Nölscher et al., 2013; Lu et al., 2012a). This "missing OH reactivity" is attributed to unaccounted biogenic VOC emissions and/or oxidation products. The comparison of total OH reactivity being directly measured and calculated from single component measurements of VOCs and their oxidation products gives us a further understanding on the source of unmeasured reactive species in the atmosphere. This allows also the determination of the magnitude of the contribution of primary VOC emissions and their oxidation products to the missing OH reactivity. A series of experiments was carried out in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich, Germany, to explore in detail the photochemical degradation of VOCs (isoprene, ß-pinene, limonene, and D6-benzene) by OH. The total OH reactivity was determined from the measurement of VOCs and their oxidation products by a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) with a GC/MS/FID system, and directly measured by a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) at the same time. The comparison between these two total OH reactivity measurements showed an increase of missing OH reactivity in the presence of oxidation products of VOCs, indicating a strong contribution to missing OH reactivity from uncharacterized oxidation products.

  12. The atomic level journey from aqueous polyoxometalate to metal oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yu; Fast, Dylan B.; Ruther, Rose E.; Amador, Jenn M.; Fullmer, Lauren B.; Decker, Shawn R.; Zakharov, Lev N.; Dolgos, Michelle R.; Nyman, May

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous precursors tailored for the deposition of thin film materials are desirable for sustainable, simple, low energy production of advanced materials. Yet the simple practice of using aqueous precursors is complicated by the multitude of interactions that occur between ions and water during dehydration. Here we use lithium polyoxoniobate salts to investigate the fundamental interactions in the transition from precursor cluster to oxide film. Small-angle X-ray scattering of solutions, total X-ray scattering of intermediate gels, and morphological and structural characterization of the lithium niobate thin films reveal the atomic level transitions between these states. The studies show that (1) lithium-[H2Nb6O19]6- has drastically different solution behaviour than lithium-[Nb6O19]8-, linked to the precursor salt structure (2) in both compositions, the intermediate gel preserves the polyoxoniobate clusters and show similar local order and (3) the morphology and phases of deposited films reflect the ions behaviour throughout the journey from cluster solution to metal oxide.

  13. Increased Hepatic Fatty Acids Uptake and Oxidation by LRPPRC-Driven Oxidative Phosphorylation Reduces Blood Lipid Levels.

    PubMed

    Lei, Shi; Sun, Run-Zhu; Wang, Di; Gong, Mei-Zhen; Su, Xiang-Ping; Yi, Fei; Peng, Zheng-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of leucine rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC)-driven hepatic oxidative phoshorylation on blood lipid levels. The hepatic LRPPRC level was modulated by liver-specific transgenic or adeno-associated virus 8 carried shRNA targeting Lrpprc (aav-shLrpprc). Mice were fed with a high fat diet to induce obesity. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and / or western blot. The hepatic ATP level, hepatic and serum lipids contents, and mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) complex activities were measured using specific assay kits. The uptake and oxidation of fatty acid by hepatocytes were assessed using (14)C-palmitate. LRPPRC regulated the expression of genes encoded by mitochondrial genome but not those by nuclear genome involved in mitochondria biogenesis, OxPhos, and lipid metabolism. Increased OxPhos in liver mediated by LRPPRC resulted in the increase of hepatic ATP level. Lrpprc promoted palmitate uptake and oxidation by hypatocytes. The hepatic and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the hepatic LRPPRC level. These data demonstrated that LRPPRC-driven hepatic OxPhos could promote fatty acids uptake and oxidation by hepatocytes and reduce both hepatic and circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels. PMID:27462273

  14. Increased Hepatic Fatty Acids Uptake and Oxidation by LRPPRC-Driven Oxidative Phosphorylation Reduces Blood Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shi; Sun, Run-zhu; Wang, Di; Gong, Mei-zhen; Su, Xiang-ping; Yi, Fei; Peng, Zheng-wu

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of leucine rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC)-driven hepatic oxidative phoshorylation on blood lipid levels. The hepatic LRPPRC level was modulated by liver-specific transgenic or adeno-associated virus 8 carried shRNA targeting Lrpprc (aav-shLrpprc). Mice were fed with a high fat diet to induce obesity. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and / or western blot. The hepatic ATP level, hepatic and serum lipids contents, and mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) complex activities were measured using specific assay kits. The uptake and oxidation of fatty acid by hepatocytes were assessed using 14C-palmitate. LRPPRC regulated the expression of genes encoded by mitochondrial genome but not those by nuclear genome involved in mitochondria biogenesis, OxPhos, and lipid metabolism. Increased OxPhos in liver mediated by LRPPRC resulted in the increase of hepatic ATP level. Lrpprc promoted palmitate uptake and oxidation by hypatocytes. The hepatic and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the hepatic LRPPRC level. These data demonstrated that LRPPRC-driven hepatic OxPhos could promote fatty acids uptake and oxidation by hepatocytes and reduce both hepatic and circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels. PMID:27462273

  15. 45. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL CRUSHER ADDITION FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL CRUSHER ADDITION FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR BIN FEED, LOWER CENTER, WITH STEPHENS-ADAMSON 25 TON/HR ELEVATOR SPLIT DISCHARGE (OXIDIZED/UNOXIDIZED) IN CENTER. CRUDE ORE BINS AND MACHINE SHOP BEYOND. NOTE TOP OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN IS BELOW TOP OF CRUDE ORE BINS. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  16. Total glutamine synthetase levels in cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer's disease patients are unchanged.

    PubMed

    Timmer, Nienke M; Herbert, Megan K; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Kuiperij, H Bea; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2015-03-01

    Decreased cerebral protein and activity levels of glutamine synthetase (GS) have been reported for Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Using a recently established method, we quantified total GS levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from AD patients and control subjects. Furthermore, we investigated if total GS levels in CSF could differentiate AD from frontotemperal dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies patients. As we found no significantly altered total GS levels in any of the patient groups compared with control subjects, we conclude that levels of total GS in CSF have no diagnostic value for AD, dementia with Lewy bodies, or frontotemperal dementia.

  17. Fermi level stabilization energy in cadmium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Speaks, D. T.; Mayer, M. A.; Yu, K. M.; Mao, S. S.; Haller, E. E.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2010-04-08

    We have studied the effects of high concentrations of native point defects on the electrical and optical properties of CdO. The defects were introduced by irradiation with high energy He+, Ne+, Ar+ and C+ ions. Increasing the irradiation damage with particles heavier than He+ increases the electron concentration until a saturation level of 5x1020 cm-3 is reached. In contrast, due to the ionic character and hence strong dynamic annealing of CdO, irradiation with much lighter He+ stabilizes the electron concentration at a much lower level of 1.7x1020 cm-3. A large shift of the optical absorption edge with increasing electron concentration in irradiated samples is explained by the Burstein-Moss shift corrected for electron-electron and electron-ion interactions. The saturation of the electron concentration and the optical absorption edge energy are consistent with a defect induced stabilization of the Fermi energy at 1 eV above the conduction band edge. The result is in a good agreement with previously determined Fermi level pinning energies on CdO surfaces. The results indicate that CdO shares many similarities with InN, as both materials exhibit extremely large electron affinities and an unprecedented propensity for n-type conductivity.

  18. Antioxidant profile of red wines evaluated by total antioxidant capacity, scavenger activity, and biomarkers of oxidative stress methodologies.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Pérez, M Dolores; Muñiz, Pilar; Gonzalez-Sanjosé, Maria L

    2007-07-11

    The study of the antioxidant capacity of foodstuffs requires the use of diverse determination methods to gain a wider picture of their multiple effects. The aim of this work was to evaluate the "antioxidant profile" of red wines applying TAC (total antioxidant capacity) methods: 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenger activities, and biomarkers of oxidative stress methods such as lipid peroxidation inhibition and inhibition of damage to DNA. Furthermore, levels of total polyphenols (TPP) of wines were also evaluated. Three bottles of 107 different Spanish red wines (total samples 321), made from different grape varieties, aging processes, and vintages, were analyzed. The validation of TAC methods, the first step in this work, provided a good linearity, proportionality, and low detection limits. Among these methods, the ABTS was the most satisfactory for its rapidity, cost, and precision. All wines showed an important capacity to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and were capable of blocking superoxide radicals but with 10 times lower intensity. Wines also showed important protective action on biomarkers of oxidative stress; they were much more active to inhibit lipid peroxidation than DNA oxidation. Few statistically significant correlations among levels of TPP and antioxidant properties of wines were detected. Furthermore, values of these correlations were very low.

  19. Correlation of total antioxidant capacity with reactive oxygen species (ROS) consumption measured by oxidative conversion.

    PubMed

    Çekiç, Sema Demirci; Çetinkaya, Aydan; Avan, Aslı Neslihan; Apak, Reşat

    2013-06-01

    Although both antioxidant capacity and oxidative conversion (hazard) are important in food and bioanalytical chemistry, there is considerable confusion in the literature between the results of these two types of assays. After the generation of ROS in the medium via Fe(III)-H₂O₂ reaction, attenuation of total oxidative conversion (TOC; as measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD) assays) was tested for possible correlation with the total antioxidant capacity (TAC; as measured by cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (ABTS/TEAC) assays) of the introduced antioxidant sample. The inverse relationship between oxidative conversion and antioxidant capacity was processed to establish a curvilinear relationship between the absolute values of TAC increments and TOC decrements as a function of added antioxidant concentration. This simple relationship may form a bridge between the two diverse disciplines of medical biochemistry and food analytical chemistry mainly using TOC and TAC results, respectively.

  20. Effects of bisphosphonate on oxidative stress levels in patients with different types of cancer.

    PubMed

    Koçer, Murat; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Koçer, Gülperi; Sönmez, Tolga Taha

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the effects of bisphosphonate (BP) on oxidative stress levels in blood of patients with cancer. In total, 19 patients with cancer and 21 healthy subjects were included in the study. BP was intravenously administrated to the participants for 6 weeks. The patients had higher lipid peroxidation (LP) levels in the plasma and erythrocyte samples but lower glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and plasma vitamin E values. In patients treated with BP, calcium and LP levels decreased, but GSH-Px and vitamin E values improved. In conclusion, we observed that treatment with BP alleviated oxidative stress induced by cancer.

  1. 50 CFR 600.516 - Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Total allowable level of foreign fishing... Fishing § 600.516 Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF). (a) The TALFF, if any, with respect to... OY and each assessment of the anticipated U.S. harvest will be reviewed during each fishing...

  2. 50 CFR 600.516 - Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Total allowable level of foreign fishing... Fishing § 600.516 Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF). (a) The TALFF, if any, with respect to... OY and each assessment of the anticipated U.S. harvest will be reviewed during each fishing...

  3. 50 CFR 600.516 - Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Total allowable level of foreign fishing... Fishing § 600.516 Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF). (a) The TALFF, if any, with respect to... OY and each assessment of the anticipated U.S. harvest will be reviewed during each fishing...

  4. 50 CFR 600.516 - Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Total allowable level of foreign fishing... Fishing § 600.516 Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF). (a) The TALFF, if any, with respect to... OY and each assessment of the anticipated U.S. harvest will be reviewed during each fishing...

  5. Increased brain nitric oxide levels following ethanol administration.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Niall; O'Riordan, Saidhbhe L; Klamer, Daniel; Lowry, John; Pålsson, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Nitric oxide is a ubiquitous messenger molecule, which at elevated concentrations has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders. Its role in oxidative stress, attributed in particular to the formation of peroxynitrite, proceeds through its high affinity for the superoxide radical. Alcoholism has recently been associated with the induction of oxidative stress, which is generally defined as a shift in equilibrium between pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant species in the direction of the former. Furthermore, its primary metabolite acetaldehyde, has been extensively associated with oxidative damage related toxic effects following alcohol ingestion. The principal objective of this study was the application of long term in vivo electrochemistry (LIVE) to investigate the effect of ethanol (0.125, 0.5 and 2.0 g kg(-1)) and acetaldehyde (12.5, 50 and 200 mg kg(-1)) on NO levels in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats. Systemic administrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde resulted in a dose-dependent increases in NO levels, albeit with very differing time courses. Subsequent to this the effect on accumbal NO levels, of subjecting the animal to different drug combinations, was also elucidated. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (20 mg kg(-1)) and acetaldehyde sequestering agent D-penicillamine (50 mg kg(-1)) both attenuated the increase in NO levels following ethanol (1 g kg(-1)) administration. Conversely, the alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (25 mg kg(-1)) and catalase inhibitor sodium azide (10 mg kg(-1)) potentiated the increase in NO levels following ethanol administration. Finally, dual inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase and catalase by cyanamide (25 mg kg(-1)) caused an attenuation of ethanol effects on NO levels. Taken together these data highlight a robust increase in brain NO levels following systemic alcohol administration which is dependent on NO synthase activity and may involve both alcohol- and acetaldehyde

  6. Effect of lipid source and oxidation level on metabolic oxidation status of young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effects of lipid source and oxidation level on metabolic oxidation status of young pigs, 108 barrows (~ 6.66 kg BW) were assigned to 1 of 13 dietary treatments in a 4 × 3 factorial design, including one control diet and 12 diets containing 10% lipid [corn oil (CN), canola oil (CA), p...

  7. [Optimization of a spectrophotometry assay of total and oxidized blood glutathione: comparison with a fluorimetric method].

    PubMed

    Coutelle, C; Iron, A; Higueret, D; Cassaigne, A

    1992-01-01

    We developed a method for the enzymatic assay of glutathione which is easy to practice, rapid, specific, based on the reaction of the thiol group of glutathione with dithiobis-nitrobenzoic acid after the action of glutathione reductase in the presence of NADPH. This spectrophotometric technique allowed, on the one hand, the determination of total glutathione and on the other hand, that of oxidized glutathione (disulfide), after the blockage of reduced glutathione by 2-vinyl-pyridine. The improvements of the assay of blood glutathione concerned the sample preparation, the reaction sensitivity, thanks to a better definition of the optimal pH and a reduction ot the blockage time by 2-vinyl-pyridine in well defined operating conditions. We compared the performances of our technique with a fluorimetric method. We used our method for the determination of total and oxidized blood glutathione in a control population.

  8. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence trace mercury determination by trapping complexation: Application in advanced oxidation technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custo, Graciela; Litter, Marta I.; Rodríguez, Diana; Vázquez, Cristina

    2006-11-01

    It is well known that Hg species cause high noxious effects on the health of living organisms even at very low levels (5 μg/L). Quantification of this element is an analytical challenge due to the peculiar physicochemical properties of all Hg species. The regulation of the maximal allowable Hg concentration led to search for sensitive methods for its determination. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence is a proved instrumental analytical tool for the determination of trace elements. In this work, the use of total reflection X-ray fluorescence for Hg quantification is investigated. However, experimental determination by total reflection X-ray fluorescence requires depositing a small volume of sample on the reflector and evaporation of the solvent until dryness to form a thin film. Because of volatilization of several Hg forms, a procedure to capture these volatile species in liquid samples by using complexing agents is proposed. Acetate, oxalic acid, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid and ammonium pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate were assayed for trapping the analytes into the solution during the preparation of the sample and onto the reflector during total reflection X-ray fluorescence measurements. The proposed method was applied to evaluate Hg concentration during TiO 2-heterogeneous photocatalysis, one of the most known advanced oxidation technologies. Advanced oxidation technologies are processes for the treatment of effluents in waters and air that involve the generation of very active oxidative and reductive species. In heterogeneous photocatalysis, Hg is transformed to several species under ultraviolet illumination in the presence of titanium dioxide. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence was demonstrated to be applicable in following the extent of the heterogeneous photocatalysis reaction by determining non-transformed Hg in the remaining solution.

  9. Interface effects on calculated defect levels for oxide defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Arthur; Barnaby, Hugh; Schultz, Peter; Pineda, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) has had impressive recent success predicting defect levels in insulators and semiconductors [Schultz and von Lillienfeld, 2009]. Such success requires care in accounting for long-range electrostatic effects. Recently, Komsa and Pasquarello have started to address this problem in systems with interfaces. We report a multiscale technique for calculating electrostatic energies for charged defects in oxide of the metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) system, but where account is taken of substrate doping density, oxide thickness, and gate bias. We use device modeling to calculate electric fields for a point charge a fixed distance from the interface, and used the field to numerically calculate the long-range electrostatic interactions. We find, for example, that defect levels in the oxide do depend on both the magnitude and the polarity the substrate doping density. Furthermore, below 20 Å, oxide thickness also has significant effects. So, transferring results directly from bulk calculations leads to inaccuracies up to 0.5 eV- half of the silicon band gap. We will present trends in defect levels as a function of device parameters. We show that these results explain previous experimental results, and we comment on their potential impact on models for NBTI. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under co.

  10. Total serum immunoglobulin M levels are affected by immunomodulators in seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Cuesta, A; Meseguer, J; Esteban, M A

    2004-10-01

    Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a major component of the teleost humoral immune system. Despite the significance of IgM levels as an immune parameter, there are relatively few studies on changes induced in its total levels in serum. This study examines the effects of several immunomodulators (vitamin A, chitin, yeast cells or levamisole, which act as immunostimulants, and crowding, hypoxia or anaesthetics, which act as stressors) upon the total serum IgM levels of non-immunized gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). Total serum IgM levels of fish fed with the assayed immunostimulant-supplemented diets were statistically higher than those in fish fed a non-supplemented diet, especially in the case of levamisole. On the other hand, serum IgM levels of fish subjected to different stressors were not affected by crowding, hypoxia or certain anaesthetics. However, benzocaine and a narcotic dose of 2-phenoxyethanol provoked a great reduction, while quinaldine sulphate increased IgM levels to a significant degree. These results show how the seric IgM levels can be differently affected by some immunomodulators and the important role they may play in the regulation of total circulating IgM levels in seabream. The possibility of using total serum IgM for assessing immunostimulation, disease diagnosis and stress symptoms during fish farming is discussed.

  11. 47. VIEW OF FEED LEVEL, CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. VIEW OF FEED LEVEL, CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR FEED IS AT CENTER, WITH DRIVE GEAR. THE 16 INCH FINES FEED IS IN THE BACKGROUND AND 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR DISCHARGE IS SLIGHTLY RIGHT OF CENTER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  12. Effect of omega-3 dietary supplements with different oxidation levels in the lipidic profile of women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, V M; Gallar, M; Sánchez-Soriano, J; Micol, V; Roche, E; García-García, E

    2013-12-01

    The oxidation level of omega-3 fatty acid supplements commercialized in capsules may be a risk to consumers' health. For this purpose, we have designed a single-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial in which 52 women participated. Volunteers were randomly distributed into three groups consuming: (1) less oxidized oil pills, (2) highly oxidized oil pills and (3) no capsules. All groups consumed a fish-rich diet. Circulating glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were determined at the beginning and end (30 days) of the study. As a result, the ingestion of less oxidized ω-3 supplements reduced circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels, as opposed to the highly oxidized omega-3 capsules, which had a negative effect on cholesterol levels. In conclusion, the level of oxidation of the supplements is a key factor in controlling circulating lipid profile. Therefore, manufacturers must pay attention to the quality of the prime product prior to encapsulation.

  13. Effect of omega-3 dietary supplements with different oxidation levels in the lipidic profile of women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, V M; Gallar, M; Sánchez-Soriano, J; Micol, V; Roche, E; García-García, E

    2013-12-01

    The oxidation level of omega-3 fatty acid supplements commercialized in capsules may be a risk to consumers' health. For this purpose, we have designed a single-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial in which 52 women participated. Volunteers were randomly distributed into three groups consuming: (1) less oxidized oil pills, (2) highly oxidized oil pills and (3) no capsules. All groups consumed a fish-rich diet. Circulating glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were determined at the beginning and end (30 days) of the study. As a result, the ingestion of less oxidized ω-3 supplements reduced circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels, as opposed to the highly oxidized omega-3 capsules, which had a negative effect on cholesterol levels. In conclusion, the level of oxidation of the supplements is a key factor in controlling circulating lipid profile. Therefore, manufacturers must pay attention to the quality of the prime product prior to encapsulation. PMID:23863036

  14. Total hip replacement with a zirconium oxide ceramic femoral head: a randomised roentgen stereophotogrammetric study.

    PubMed

    von Schewelov, T; Sanzén, L; Onsten, I; Carlsson, A; Besjakov, J

    2005-12-01

    We investigated the wear characteristics and clinical performance of four different total hip joint articulations in 114 patients. Wear and migration was measured by roentgenstereophotogrammetric analysis at five years or at the last follow-up. The mean annual wear was 0.11 mm for a stainless steel/Enduron articulation, 0.34 mm for stainless steel/Hylamer cup, 0.17 mm for zirconium oxide ceramic/Enduron and 0.40 mm for zirconium oxide ceramic/Hylamer. The difference between the groups was significant (p < 0.008) except for stainless steel/Hylamer vs zirconium oxide ceramic/Hylamer (p = 0.26). At present, 12 patients have undergone a revision procedure, four at five years and eight thereafter. No patient who received a stainless steel/Enduron articulation at their primary replacement required revision. Conflicting results have been reported about the performance of the zirconium oxide ceramic femoral head, but our findings suggest that it should not be used with a polymethylmethacrylate acetabular component. Hylamer has already been withdrawn from the market.

  15. Effects of acute cigarette smoking on total blood count and markers of oxidative stress in active and passive smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lymperaki, E; Makedou, K; Iliadis, S; Vagdatli, E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Free radicals, as a product of cigarette smoke, are considered to have deleterious effects causing oxidative stress. Acute active smoking seems to be followed by transient leukocytosis and delayed increase in neutrophil activation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the oxidative status of smokers and passive non-smokers, as well as the impact that acute cigarette smoking has on hematological parameters. Methods: Thirty-two healthy volunteers, 16 active smokers (Group A) aged 20-23 years and 16 age-matched, non-smokers (Group B), 18 women and 14 men in total, participated voluntarily in the study. All subjects did not have any food, drink, or cigarette smoking for eight hours before the study. Each time, two active smokers and two non-smokers were exposed simultaneously for half an hour to the smoke of two cigarettes smoked consecutively by the smokers. Blood was drawn before and after the exposure to cigarette smoke. Whole blood was analyzed immediately for total blood count parameters and serum was stored in -70◦C until serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and vitamin E (VitE), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. Results: No statistical significant difference was observed in the values of white blood cells and their subpopulations between the two groups and within the same group before and after exposure to cigarette smoke. In the group of smokers, granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio increased significantly, MDA levels showed significant elevation and protective VitE serum levels decreased significantly, whereas TAC was reduced, but not significantly, after the exposure. In the group of passive, non-smokers the results of the blood count parameters, MDA and VitE were similar to Group A, and there was a significant decrease in TAC, as well. Between the two groups, only hematocrit values and MDA levels differed significantly before the exposure to smoke, and no other significant difference was detected before or after the

  16. Serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease--Causal association or epiphenomenon?

    PubMed

    Kunutsor, Setor K

    2015-12-01

    Observational epidemiological evidence supports a linear inverse and independent association between serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but whether this association is causal remains to be ascertained. A Mendelian randomization approach was employed to test whether serum total bilirubin is causally linked to CHD. The genetic variant rs6742078--well known to specifically modify levels of serum total bilirubin and accounting for up to 20% of the variance in circulating serum total bilirubin levels--was used as an instrumental variable. In pooled analysis of estimates reported from published genome-wide association studies, every copy of the T allele of rs6742078 was associated with 0.42 standard deviation (SD) higher levels of serum total bilirubin (95% confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.43). Based on combined data from the Coronary Artery Disease Genome wide Replication and Meta-analyses and the Coronary Artery Disease (C4D) Genetics Consortium involving a total of 36,763 CHD cases and 76,997 controls, the odds ratio for CHD per copy of the T allele was 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.04). The odds ratio of CHD for a 1 SD genetically elevated serum total bilirubin level was 1.03 (95% confidence interval, 0.98 to 1.09). The current findings casts doubt on a strong causal association of serum total bilirubin levels with CHD. The inverse associations demonstrated in observational studies may be driven by biases such as unmeasured confounding and/or reverse causation. However, further research in large-scale consortia is needed. PMID:26408227

  17. Validation of algal viability treated with total residual oxidant and organic matter by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junghyun; Choi, Eun Joo; Rhie, Kitae

    2015-08-15

    Algal cell growth after starch and oxidant treatments in seawater species (Isochrysis galbana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) and freshwater species (Selenastrum capricornutum and Scenedesmus obliquus) were evaluated by flow cytometry with fluorescein diacetate (FDA) staining to determine algal viability. Growth of algal cell was found to be significantly different among groups treated with NaOCl, starch and/or sodium thiosulfate, which are active substance (Total Residual Oxidant; TRO as Cl2), organic compound to meet efficacy testing standard and neutralizer of TRO by Ballast Water Management Convention of International Maritime Organization, respectively. The viability of algal cell treated with TRO in starch-add culture of 5days after treatment and neutralization was decreased significantly. ATP contents of the treated algal cells corresponded to the FL1 fluorescent signal of flow cytometry with FDA staining. I. galbana was the most sensitive to TRO-neutralized cultures during viability analysis.

  18. Decreased levels of serum nitric oxide in different forms of dementia.

    PubMed

    Corzo, Lola; Zas, Raquel; Rodríguez, Susana; Fernández-Novoa, Lucía; Cacabelos, Ramón

    2007-06-15

    Nitric oxide is involved in normal physiological functions and also in pathological processes leading to tissue damage due, in part, to its free radical nature (oxidative stress). Oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction have been recognized as contributing factors in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD). In order to study the possible links between these processes and dementia, we have analysed plasma amyloid-beta(1-42) levels (Abeta) and total nitric oxide (NOx), apolipoprotein E (ApoE), lipids, vitamin B12, and folate concentrations in the serum of 99 patients with dementia and 55 age-matched non-demented controls. Both nitrate and nitrite levels were measured by a colorimetric method using Griess Reagent and plasma Abeta levels were analysed by a hypersensitive ELISA method. Our data showed a significant decrease of serum NOx levels in dementia, especially in probable AD and VD patients, as compared with controls. We observed a weak correlation between serum NOx levels and cognitive deterioration in dementia; however, NOx levels were not associated with ApoE and Abeta levels. In dementia and controls, a similar correlation pattern between HDL-cholesterol versus NOx was found. No apparent association between NOx, Abeta and AD-related genes [APOE (apolipoprotein E), PSEN1 (Presenilin 1)] was observed. Our data suggest that NOx may contribute to the pathogenesis of dementia through a process mediated by HDL-cholesterol.

  19. Oxidized low density lipoprotein increases RANKL level in human vascular cells. Involvement of oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mazière, Cécile; Salle, Valéry; Gomila, Cathy; Mazière, Jean-Claude

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •Oxidized LDL enhances RANKL level in human smooth muscle cells. •The effect of OxLDL is mediated by the transcription factor NFAT. •UVA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and buthionine sulfoximine also increase RANKL level. •All these effects are observed in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. -- Abstract: Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand (RANKL) and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been shown to play a role not only in bone remodeling but also in inflammation, arterial calcification and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. In human smooth muscle cells, Cu{sup 2+}-oxidized LDL (CuLDL) 10–50 μg/ml increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RANKL level in a dose-dependent manner, whereas OPG level was not affected. The lipid extract of CuLDL reproduced the effects of the whole particle. Vivit, an inhibitor of the transcription factor NFAT, reduced the CuLDL-induced increase in RANKL, whereas PKA and NFκB inhibitors were ineffective. LDL oxidized by myeloperoxidase (MPO-LDL), or other pro-oxidant conditions such as ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation, incubation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis{sub ,} also induced an oxidative stress and enhanced RANKL level. The increase in RANKL in pro-oxidant conditions was also observed in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Since RANKL is involved in myocardial inflammation, vascular calcification and plaque rupture, this study highlights a new mechanism whereby OxLDL might, by generation of an oxidative stress, exert a deleterious effect on different cell types of the arterial wall.

  20. Total dose effect on soft error rate for dynamic metal-oxide-semiconductor memory cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benumof, Reuben

    1989-01-01

    A simple model for the soft error rate for dynamic metal-oxide-semiconductor random access memories due to normal galactic radiation was devised and then used to calculate the rate of decrease of the single-event-upset rate with total radiation dose. The computation shows that the decrease in the soft error rate is less than 10 percent per day if the shielding is 0.5 g/sq cm and the spacecraft is in a geosynchronous orbit. The decrease is considerably less in a polar orbiting device.

  1. Adult total wellness: group differences based on sitting time and physical activity level

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing body of evidence associates a high level of sitting time with poor health outcomes. The benefits of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activities to various aspects of health are now well documented; however, individuals may engage in moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 30 minutes on five or more days of the week and still exhibit a high level of sitting time. This purpose of this study was to examine differences in total wellness among adults relative to high/low levels of sitting time combined with insufficient/sufficient physical activity (PA). The construct of total wellness incorporates a holistic approach to the body, mind and spirit components of life, an approach which may be more encompassing than some definitions of health. Methods Data were obtained from 226 adult respondents (27 ± 6 years), including 116 (51%) males and 110 (49%) females. Total PA and total sitting time were assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) (short-version). The Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle Inventory was used to assess total wellness. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was utilised to assess the effects of the sitting time/physical activity group on total wellness. A covariate was included to partial out the effects of age, sex and work status (student or employed). Cross-tabulations were used to show associations between the IPAQ derived high/low levels of sitting time with insufficient/sufficient PA and the three total wellness groups (i.e. high level of wellness, moderate wellness and wellness development needed). Results The majority of the participants were located in the high total sitting time and sufficient PA group. There were statistical differences among the IPAQ groups for total wellness [F (2,220) = 32.5 (p <0.001)]. A Chi-square test revealed a significant difference in the distribution of the IPAQ categories within the classification of wellness [χ2 (N = 226) = 54.5, p < .001

  2. Copper and ceruloplasmin levels in relation to total thiols and GST in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, A; Dash, S; Barik, B K; Muttigi, Manjunatha S; Kedage, V; Shetty, J K; Prakash, M

    2010-01-01

    Presence of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is well proved. Current study was undertaken to know the relation between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and copper along with antioxidants like total thiols and ceruloplasmin, and antioxidant enzyme glutathione S transferase (GST). The study group consisted of a total of 201 subjects which included nondiabetic healthy control subjects (n = 78) and diabetic patients (n = 123). Plasma total thiols, GST, copper and ceruloplasmin levels were measured all the subjects using spectrophotometric methods and FPG levels were determined in clinical chemistry analyzer Hitachi 912. There was significant increase in FPG (P<0.001) and copper (P<0.001) and decrease in ceruloplasmin (P<0.001) and protein thiols (P<0.001) in type 2 DM cases compared to healthy controls. There was no significant change in GST between type 2 DM cases and controls. There was significant negative correlation of FPG with antioxidants like ceruloplasmin (r = -0.420, P<0.001) and total thiols (r = -0.565, P<0.001). Protein thiols correlated positively with ceruloplasmin (r = 0.364, P<0.001). Our study indicates possible increase in copper mediated generation of ROS leading to increased consumption of available antioxidants in the body.

  3. Catalysis of CuSO4 for total organic carbon detection based on supercritical water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hui, Zhang; Dongdong, Han; Yi, Chen; Chunmian, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic effects of CuSO4 in total organic carbon (TOC) detecting processes based on supercritical water oxidation have been investigated. Using benzoic acid as a model pollutant, the presence of a CuSO4 catalyst can significantly decrease the reaction temperature and H2O2 multiple during the TOC detection processes. A better TOC conversion efficiency was obtained at a much lower temperature in the catalytic system compared with the non-catalytic condition. The use of the catalyst effectively lowered the necessary H2O2 multiple from 20.0 without catalyst to 3.0 in the catalytic system. The established device could detect the TOC concentration precisely in model wastewater without inorganic carbon (IC). Moreover, the detection of the practical wastewater was studied. Detection results were total carbon of wastewater rather than TOC of practical wastewater. A detection or removal unit of IC is necessary before it can be practically utilized. PMID:27438232

  4. In Vivo Wear Performance of Cobalt-Chromium Versus Oxidized Zirconium Femoral Total Knee Replacements.

    PubMed

    Gascoyne, Trevor C; Teeter, Matthew G; Guenther, Leah E; Burnell, Colin D; Bohm, Eric R; Naudie, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the damage and wear on the polyethylene (PE) inserts from 52 retrieved Genesis II total knee replacements to identify differences in tribological performance between matched pairs of cobalt-chromium (CoCr) and oxidized zirconium (OxZr) femoral components. Observer damage scoring and microcomputed tomography were used to quantify PE damage and wear, respectively. No significant differences were found between CoCr and OxZr groups in terms of PE insert damage, surface penetration, or wear. No severe damage such as cracking or delamination was noted on any of the 52 PE inserts. Observer damage scoring did not correlate with penetrative or volumetric PE wear. The more costly OxZr femoral component does not demonstrate clear tribological benefit over the standard CoCr component in the short term with this total knee replacement design.

  5. Effect of Cell Phone Use on Salivary Total Protein, Enzymes and Oxidative Stress Markers in Young Adults: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Jasmi; Sunitha, Venkatesh; Rai, Manoj P.; Rao, Suresh; Nambranathayil, Shafeeque; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present study aimed to assess the levels of salivary enzymes, protein and oxidant-antioxidant system in young college-going cell phone users. Materials and Methods: The cell users (students) were categorized in to two groups – less mobile users and high mobile users, based on the duration and frequency of cell use. Unstimulated whole saliva samples of the volunteers were analysed for amylase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehdye (MDA) and glutathione (GSH). Results: High mobile users had significantly higher levels of amylase (p = 0.001), LDH (p = 0.002) and MDA (p = 0.002) in saliva, when compared to less mobile users. The marginal decrease in salivary total proteins, GSH and flow rate were statistically not significant (p >0.05). Conclusion: Significant changes in salivary enzymes and MDA suggest adverse effect of high use of cell phones on cell health. PMID:25859446

  6. Total organic carbon disappearance kinetics for the supercritical water oxidation of monosubstituted phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.J.; Savage, P.E.

    1999-06-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a process technology for destroying organic compounds present in aqueous waste streams. The authors oxidized phenols bearing single -CH{sub 3}, -C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, -COCH{sub 3}, -CHO, -OH, -OCH{sub 3}, and -NO{sub 2} substituents in supercritical water at 460 C and 25.3 MPa. The observed effects of the concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) and oxygen on the global disappearance rates for TOC were correlated by using power-law rate expressions. This kinetics study revealed that the rate of TOC disappearance is more sensitive to the oxygen concentration than is the rate of reactant disappearance. Additionally, the rate of TOC disappearance is always slower than the rate of reactant disappearance, with the ratio of these rates ranging from 0.10 to 0.65 for the different phenols at the conditions studied. The rates of TOC disappearance during SCWO of these substituted phenols varied by nearly 2 orders of magnitude, showing significant effects from both the identity and location of the substituent. These substituent effects are greater for TOC disappearance kinetics than for reactant disappearance kinetics. Additionally, all of the substituted phenols exhibit faster TOC disappearance rates than does phenol. Accordingly, phenol is a good worst case model compound for SCWO studies. The pronounced substituent effects for TOC disappearance rates indicate that the oxidation of a common refractory intermediate is not an important feature of the SCWO networks for these phenols at the conditions studied.

  7. Increased platelet oxidative metabolism, blood oxidative stress and neopterin levels after ultra-endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    de Lucas, Ricardo Dantas; Caputo, Fabrizio; Mendes de Souza, Kristopher; Sigwalt, André Roberto; Ghisoni, Karina; Lock Silveira, Paulo Cesar; Remor, Aline Pertile; da Luz Scheffer, Débora; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci; Latini, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to identify muscle damage, inflammatory response and oxidative stress blood markers in athletes undertaking the ultra-endurance MultiSport Brazil race. Eleven well-trained male athletes (34.3 ± 3.1 years, 74.0 ± 7.6 kg; 172.2 ± 5.1 cm) participated in the study and performed the race, which consisted of about 90 km of alternating off-road running, mountain biking and kayaking. Twelve hours before and up to 15 minutes after the race a 10 mL blood sample was drawn in order to measure the following parameters: lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities, lipid peroxidation, catalase activity, protein carbonylation, respiratory chain complexes I, II and IV activities, oxygen consumption and neopterin concentrations. After the race, plasma lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities were significantly increased. Erythrocyte TBA-RS levels and plasma protein carbonylation were markedly augmented in post-race samples. Additionally, mitochondrial complex II activity and oxygen consumption in post-race platelet-rich plasma were also increased. These altered biochemical parameters were accompanied by increased plasma neopterin levels. The ultra-endurance event provoked systemic inflammation (increased neopterin) accompanied by marked oxidative stress, likely by increasing oxidative metabolism (increased oxidative mitochondrial function). This might be advantageous during prolonged exercise, mainly for efficient substrate oxidation at the mitochondrial level, even when tissue damage is induced.

  8. Serum total IgG and IgG4 levels in thyroid eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Sy, Aileen; Silkiss, Rona Z

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between immunoglobulin G (IgG)4-related disease (IgG4-RD) and thyroid eye disease (TED) with respect to IgG levels. Patients and methods A retrospective review of total IgG, IgG subclass, and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) levels in 24 patients with TED. Results Five patients (20.8%) demonstrated serum IgG4 levels consistent with IgG4-RD without any additional systemic disease. Total IgG and IgG subclass levels were found to be an inadequate proxy for TSI elevation. Conclusion There may be a subtype of TED patients with elevated IgG4 in the absence of IgG4-RD systemic findings. PMID:27799828

  9. Oxidative stress and decreased thiol level in patients with migraine: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Eren, Yasemin; Dirik, Ebru; Neşelioğlu, Salim; Erel, Özcan

    2015-12-01

    Although migraine is a neurological disorder known since long, its physiopathology remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that migraine is associated with oxidative stress; however, they report divergent results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and serum thiol level in migraine patients with or without aura. The study group consisted of 141 migraine patients. The control group included 70 healthy subjects. TAS, TOS, OSI were evaluated using a method developed by Erel. Serum thiol level was measured using the Hu method. No difference was found in TAS, TOS, OSI between the patients and controls. The level of thiol was significantly lower in patients than in controls. Negative correlations were detected between thiol level and Migraine Disability Assessment score in patients. Although TAS, TOS, and OSI were similar to those of the control group, serum thiol level, an important marker of antioxidant capacity, was significantly lower in migraines compared with controls, and caused more serious disability. Novel treatment approaches may be developed based on these data, and compounds containing thiol, such as alpha lipoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine, may be used in prophylaxis.

  10. Reference ranges and determinants of total hCG levels during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Korevaar, Tim I M; Steegers, Eric A P; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Schalekamp-Timmermans, Sarah; Visser, W Edward; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tiemeier, Henning; Visser, Theo J; Medici, Marco; Peeters, Robin P

    2015-09-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a pregnancy hormone secreted by the placental synctiotrophoblast cell layer that has been linked to fetal growth and various placental, uterine and fetal functions. In order to investigate the effects of hCG on clinical endpoints, knowledge on reference range (RR) methodology and determinants of gestational hCG levels is crucial. Moreover, a better understanding of gestational hCG physiology can improve current screening programs and future clinical management. Serum total hCG levels were determined in 8195 women participating in the Generation R Study. Gestational age specific RRs using 'ultrasound derived gestational age' (US RRs) were calculated and compared with 'last menstrual period derived gestational age' (LMP RRs) and a model-based RR. We also investigated which pregnancy characteristics were associated with hCG levels. Compared to the US RRs, the LMP RRs were lower, most notably for the median and lower limit levels. No considerable differences were found between RRs calculated in the general population or in uncomplicated pregnancies only. Maternal smoking, BMI, parity, ethnicity, fetal gender, placental weight and hyperemesis gravidarum symptoms were associated with total hCG. We provide gestational RRs for total hCG and show that total hCG values and RR cut-offs during pregnancy vary depending on pregnancy dating methodology. This is likely due to the influence of hCG on embryonic growth, suggesting that ultrasound based pregnancy dating might be less reliable in women with high/low hCG levels. Furthermore, we identify different pregnancy characteristics that influence total hCG levels considerably and should therefore be accounted for in clinical studies.

  11. Oxidation Kinetics of Spent Low-Level Radioactive Resins

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.-J.; Wang, H. Paul; Chao, Chih C.; Liu, H.H.; Hsiao, M.C.; Liu, S.H.

    2005-11-15

    Experimentally, two-stage oxidation of spent low-level radioactive resin was found by thermo- gravimetric analysis (TGA). About 24% of the spent resins was oxidized at 600 to 900 K. Online Fourier transform infrared spectra showed that the decomposition of the -SO{sub 3}H species in the resin to SO{sub 2} occurred at 670 and 1020 K. The numerical calculation from TGA weight loss data at different heating rates showed that the global activation energies for oxidation of the spent resins were 108 to 138 kJ.mol{sup -1}. The reaction orders for resin and oxygen were about 1.0 and 3.5, respectively. The global rate equations for oxidation of the resin in the first and second stages can be expressed as dx{sub 1}/dt (s{sup -1}) = 2.3 x 10{sup 7} (s{sup -1})exp[-117 900(J.mol{sup -1})/T(K)][1 - x (%)]{sup 0.82} [O{sub 2} (vt%)]{sup 3.5} (x denotes the reaction conversion) and dx{sub 2}/dt = 8.4 x 10{sup 17} exp(-239 500/RT) (1 - x){sup 0.9}[O{sub 2}]{sup 4.5}, respectively.

  12. 50 CFR 600.516 - Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF). 600.516 Section 600.516 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS...

  13. TIME TO PREGNANCY IN RELATION TO TOTAL TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS IN TAP WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Time to pregnancy in relation to total trihalomethane levels in tap water
    Shanna H. Swan, Cuirong Ren, Gayle C. Windham, Laura Fenster, Kirsten Waller. (University of Missouri and California Department of Health Services).

    We have previously reported increased risks o...

  14. Serum total renin levels after ovarian electrocautery in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anttila, L; Penttilä, T A; Matinlauri, I; Koskinen, P; Irjala, K

    1998-10-01

    Recent observations have suggested an enhanced activity of the ovarian renin-angiotensin system in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Owing to technical restrictions, the direct measurement of ovarian renin-angiotensin activity is impossible. The measurement of total renin (active renin + prorenin) in serum is particularly valuable for analyzing the ovarian renin-angiotensin system, as 90% of circulating renin is in the form of prorenin and ovaries are the major extrarenal source of prorenin in females. Also, the renin synthesized by ovaries is in the form of prorenin. In the present study we hypothesized that ovarian trauma caused by electrocautery 'impairs' the activity of the ovarian renin-angiotensin system, which in turn would interrupt the endocrine vicious cycle of PCOS, and restore normal ovarian function. To test this, we examined the effect of ovarian electrocautery on serum levels of total renin in 11 oligomenorrheic women, aged 25 to 36 years, with PCOS and anovulatory infertility. Against our basic hypothesis the serum total renin levels remained unaltered after ovarian electrocautery, while the serum levels of luteinizing hormone, testosterone and androstenedione declined. The mechanism that induces ovulation without altering total renin levels in serum remains to be resolved.

  15. Total Quality Education at the Middle Level. ERIC Clearinghouse on EECE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Dianne

    1995-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of ERIC documents and journals discussing issues related to implementing total quality management (TQM) principles in middle level education. Topics include guidelines for implementation, profiles of schools demonstrating TQM principles, and efforts in other fields. Journal article topics include TQM in school…

  16. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb. PMID:25070289

  17. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb.

  18. Thermal degradation behavior of hypochlorite-oxidized starch nanocrystals under different oxidized levels.

    PubMed

    Wei, Benxi; Li, Hongyan; Tian, Yaoqi; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2015-06-25

    The thermal degradation behavior of hypochlorite-oxidized starch nanocrystals (OSNCs) was evaluated in this study. Carbonyl and carboxyl groups in OSNCs increased from 0.006 and 0.091mmol/g to 0.033 and 0.129mmol/g, respectively, as the active chlorine concentration increased from 1% to 4% (w/w). Compared with starch nanocrystals (SNCs), the initial degradation temperature of OSNCs with 4% oxidization decreased from 273°C to 253°C. Two degradation processes were detected using differential thermal analysis. The activation energy of the low-temperature process increased with increasing oxidization level because of removal of sulfate esters and reduction of the decomposition products of H2O during oxidation. With increasing temperature, the H2O generating from decarboxylation and decomposition of the carboxyl groups may catalyze SNCs depolymerization, leading to decrease in the activation energy of the high-temperature process. OSNCs (4% oxidized level) can be used in dry process below 253°C to avoid degradation.

  19. Blood Levels of Oxidant/Antioxidant Parameters in Rats Infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Shahriari, Ali; Tavalla, Mehdi; Azadmanesh, Somayeh; Hamidinejat, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection in the world. Since increased free radicals and oxidative stress are reported in many parasitic diseases the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. RH strains of Toxoplasma tachyzoites were used in the present study. Twenty-five female rats were infected with the parasite while 25 other rats were as the control group that received normal saline. Zero-, 5-, 7-, 10-, and 45-day postinfection (DPI) blood samples were taken. Some parameters related to oxidant and antioxidants such as antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde, and total antioxidant capacity were measured. On day 7 after infection, GPX activity and GSH level were significantly increased and in the mentioned day the amount of total antioxidant capacity was significantly reduced. In other cases, there were no significant differences between the groups in different days. Overall, based on the results it seems that, on day 7 after infection, in infected rats responses to oxidative stress were triggered and led to decrease of total antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, glutathione was increased to cope with stress. It seems that probably antioxidant defense system entered the infection to the chronic phase and changed the parasites stage. PMID:27746857

  20. Total serum IgE levels in systemic lupus erythematosus and associations with childhood onset allergies.

    PubMed

    Parks, C G; Biagini, R E; Cooper, G S; Gilkeson, G S; Dooley, M A

    2010-12-01

    Elevated serum IgE has been described in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but associations with disease risk and characteristics remain unresolved. We assessed total serum IgE levels and atopy (IgE > 100 IU/ml) in recently diagnosed SLE patients (n = 228) compared with population controls (n = 293) and in relation to disease activity, autoantibodies, clinical features, total immunoglobulins, C-reactive protein, and allergy history. Multivariate models estimated determinants of IgE and atopy in patients and controls, and associations of SLE with allergy and atopy. Total IgE levels were higher in patients than controls (median = 42 vs. 29 IU/ml); 32% of patients and 25% of controls were atopic (p = 0.06). IgE levels were significantly higher in non-Whites and patients reporting childhood onset (<18 years) asthma and hives, and in controls reporting childhood asthma, hay fever, eczema, and adult onset hives. After accounting for racial differences, atopy was not associated with SLE, nephritis, or other clinical and laboratory parameters. In sum, our findings provide limited evidence of a direct association between total serum IgE and SLE overall or with other disease characteristics after adjusting for demographic characteristics and allergy history. Future studies may want to explore potentially shared risk factors for development of allergy, atopy, and SLE.

  1. Changes in plasma methionine and total homocysteine levels in patients receiving methotrexate infusions.

    PubMed

    Broxson, E H; Stork, L C; Allen, R H; Stabler, S P; Kolhouse, J F

    1989-11-01

    Methotrexate reduces intracellular pools of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and could result in reduced conversion of homocysteine to methionine by methionine synthetase. This study was designed to investigate the effects of moderate dose to very high dose methotrexate on methionine and total homocysteine as reflections of methotrexate induced intracellular events. Methionine and total homocysteine were measured prior to, during, and following twenty-six 24-h i.v. infusions of 33.6 g/m2 methotrexate (very high dose methotrexate) in 16 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia and seven 4-h i.v. infusions of 8 g/m2 methotrexate (high dose methotrexate) in 5 children with osteogenic sarcoma. Amino acids were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry. Mean methionine levels decreased by 70.0 +/- 3.1% (SE) with very high dose methotrexate and 72.6 +/- 5.9% with high dose methotrexate at 24 and 4.5 h, respectively, after beginning methotrexate infusions. Mean total homocysteine levels increased by 61.7 +/- 3.1% with very high dose methotrexate and 55.6 +/- 17.5% with high dose methotrexate at 36 and 24 h, respectively, after beginning methotrexate infusions. No consistent or significant changes were noted in levels of total cysteine, leucine, isoleucine, or valine. Similar changes did not occur in patients receiving prednisone, vincristine, daunomycin, and intrathecal methotrexate as therapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia. These changes in homocysteine and methionine may reflect biological effects of methotrexate that may predict cytotoxicity of methotrexate.

  2. Effects of antidepressant treatment on total antioxidant capacity and free radical levels in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Chen; Lee, Chun-Te; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Ju, Po-Chung; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Lai, Te-Jen

    2015-12-15

    In this prospective study, we investigated the effects of antidepressant therapy on total antioxidant capacity and free radical levels in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We recruited thirty-five first-episode patients who met the criteria of the Fourth Edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of MDD and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Superoxide and hydroxyl radicals were measured to investigate oxidative status and the total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) assay was performed to evaluate antioxidant capacity in healthy controls and in patients before and after receiving a 12-week regimen of sertraline. The severity of depression was evaluated using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Before treatment, the mean HDRS score in patients with MDD was 26.11±4.93. Of the 35 patients with MDD, 19 (54.29%) completed the 12-week treatment regimen and all achieved remission. Patients with MDD had significantly lower TRAP baseline values than healthy controls. After adjusting for age, sex, occupation, education and marital status, we found that HDRS score was negatively correlated with TRAP value and level of superoxide radicals. After treatment, the MDD group demonstrated significantly higher TRAP values and significantly lower levels of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. In conclusion, MDD patients are accompanied by lowered antioxidant capacity than healthy individuals. Antidepressant treatment for 12 weeks results in increased antioxidant capacity and a decrease in circulating free radicals.

  3. Pistachio intake increases high density lipoprotein levels and inhibits low-density lipoprotein oxidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Nur; Aksoy, Mehmet; Bagci, Cahit; Gergerlioglu, H Serdar; Celik, Hakim; Herken, Emine; Yaman, Abdullah; Tarakcioglu, Mehmet; Soydinc, Serdar; Sari, Ibrahim; Davutoglu, Vedat

    2007-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that nuts have protective effects against coronary artery disease by improving lipid profile and inhibiting lipid oxidation. However, data about pistachio nuts are limited, and to our knowledge, there is no study investigating the effects of pistachio intake on lipid oxidation and serum antioxidant levels. This study, therefore, sought to determine the effects of pistachio intake on serum lipids and determine whether consumption of pistachio would alter serum antioxidant levels. Rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=12 for each): control group fed basic diet for 10 weeks and treated groups fed basic diet plus pistachio which constituted 20% and 40% of daily caloric intake, respectively. Consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and decreased total cholesterol (TC)/HDL ratio, compared with those not taking pistachio. However, TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were unaffected by pistachio consumption. Consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake increased serum paraoxonase activity by 35% and arylesterase activity by 60%, which are known to inhibit LDL cholesterol oxidation, compared with the control group. However, increased antioxidant activity was blunted when pistachio intake was increased to 40% of daily caloric intake. In conclusion, the present results show that consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake leads to significant improvement in HDL and TC/HDL ratio and inhibits LDL cholesterol oxidation. These results suggest that pistachio may be beneficial for both prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease.

  4. Total Synthesis of (±)–Rocaglamide via Oxidation-Initiated Nazarov Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    Malona, John A.; Cariou, Kevin; Spencer, William T.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of a Nazarov cyclization-based synthetic strategy targeting the anticancer, antiinflammatory, and insecticidal natural product (±)–rocaglamide. Initial pursuit of a polarized heteroaromatic Nazarov cyclization to construct the congested cyclopentane core revealed an unanticipated electronic bias in the pentadienyl cation. This reactivity was harnessed in a successful second-generation approach using an oxidation-initiated Nazarov cyclization of a heteroaryl alkoxyallene. Full details of these two approaches are given, as well as the characterization of undesired reaction pathways available to the Nazarov cyclization product. A sequence of experiments that led to an understanding of the unexpected reactivity of this key intermediate is described, which culminated in the successful total synthesis of (+)-rocaglamide. PMID:22283818

  5. Evaluation of anti-oxidant activities and total phenolic content of Chromolaena odorata.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa Rao, K; Chaudhury, Pradeep Kumar; Pradhan, Anshuman

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro potential of chloroform extract of Chromolaena odorata leaves. The DPPH activity of the extract (0.1-5 mg/ml) was increased in a dose dependent manner, which was found in the range of 23.48-91.61% as compared to ascorbic acid (33.69-94.10%). The IC50 values of chloroform extract in DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, ABTS radical were obtained to be 0.31, 0.43, 0.28 and 1.32 mg/ml, respectively. However, the IC50 values for the standard ascorbic acid were noted to be 0.24, 0.41, 0.23 and 1 mg/ml, respectively. Measurement of total phenolic content of the chloroform extract of C. odorata was achieved using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent containing 242.2 mg/g of phenolic content, which was found significantly higher when compared to reference standard gallic acid. The results obtained in this study clearly indicate that C. odorata has a significant potential to use as a natural anti-oxidant agent.

  6. Concise Total Syntheses of (+)-Haplocidine and (+)-Haplocine via Late-Stage Oxidation of (+)-Fendleridine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    White, Kolby L; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    We report the first total syntheses of (+)-haplocidine and its N1-amide congener (+)-haplocine. Our concise synthesis of these alkaloids required the development of a late-stage and highly selective C-H oxidation of complex aspidosperma alkaloid derivatives. A versatile, amide-directed ortho-acetoxylation of indoline amides enabled our implementation of a unified strategy for late-stage diversification of hexacyclic C19-hemiaminal ether structures via oxidation of the corresponding pentacyclic C19-iminium ions. An electrophilic amide activation of a readily available C21-oxygenated lactam, followed by transannular cyclization and in situ trapping of a transiently formed C19-iminium ion, expediently provided access to hexacyclic C19-hemiaminal ether alkaloids (+)-fendleridine, (+)-acetylaspidoalbidine, and (+)-propionylaspidoalbidine. A highly effective enzymatic resolution of a non-β-branched primary alcohol (E = 22) allowed rapid preparation of both enantiomeric forms of a C21-oxygenated precursor for synthesis of these aspidosperma alkaloids. Our synthetic strategy provides succinct access to hexacyclic aspidosperma derivatives, including the antiproliferative alkaloid (+)-haplocidine. PMID:27510728

  7. Increased levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in metal oxides nanomaterial-handling workers.

    PubMed

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Liao, Hui-Yi; Wang, Chien-Jen; Chen, Jhih-Sheng; Lee, Hui-Ling

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed oxidatively damaged DNA and antioxidant enzyme activity in workers occupational exposure to metal oxides nanomaterials. Exposure to TiO2, SiO2, and ITO resulted in significant lower antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) and higher oxidative biomarkers 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) than comparison workers. Statistically significant correlations were noted between plasma and urine 8-oxodG, between white blood cells (WBC) and urine 8-oxodG, and between WBC and plasma 8-oxodG. In addition, there were significant negative correlations between WBC 8-oxodG and SOD and between urinary 8-oxodG and GPx levels. The results showed that urinary 8-oxodG may be considered to be better biomarker.

  8. Effect of sweetener and flavoring agent on oxidative indices, liver and kidney function levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Amin, Kamal A; Al-muzafar, Hessa M; Abd Elsttar, Adel H

    2016-01-01

    Food additives while attract consumers, improve quality, control weight and replace sugar, may affect seriously children and adults health. Here, we investigated the adverse effects of saccharin and methylsalicyltaes as sweetener and flavoring agent on lipid profile, blood glucose, renal, hepatic function and oxidative stress/antioxidants (lipid peroxidation, catalase and reduced glutathione in liver tissues). Saccharin and methylsalicylate were administered orally in young male albino rats at low and high dose for 30 days. Rats were divided into 5 groups, 1st control group, 2nd and 3rd (low and high saccharin-treated groups) and 4th and 5th (low and high methylsalicylate-treated group). Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose levels and body weight gain were found decreased in saccharin high dose group compared to control. Rats consumed high dose of saccharin showed a significant decrease in serum triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL levels. Low and high doses of saccharin exhibited a significant increase in liver function marker of ALT, AST, ALP activity, total proteins and albumin levels and renal function test (urea and creatinine levels) in comparison with control group. Further, saccharin at high dose induced significant decrease in liver GSH levels, catalase and SOD activity and increase in hepatic MDA level. Overall saccharin harmfully altered biochemical markers in liver and kidney at higher as well as lower doses. Whereas, methyl salicylates did not pose a risk for renal function and hepatic oxidative markers. PMID:26891553

  9. Theory and measurement of early, late and total sound levels in rooms.

    PubMed

    Barron, Mike

    2015-06-01

    A revised theory of sound level distribution in rooms was proposed in 1988, which responded to the observation that reflected sound level decreases as one moves away from the source. This behavior is ubiquitous in concert spaces and has been shown also to occur in an acoustically diffuse space. This paper presents a more general theoretical derivation and compares measured levels of the early, late, and total sound, as well as the early-to-late index, with theoretical predictions. The scatter of measured sound levels in concert spaces about a linear relationship with source-receiver distance was also compared with a theoretical prediction. Two modifications to the basic theory were investigated, though the original formulation proves best for the general concert space. The revised theory matches average behavior well and represents predicted behavior in a diffuse sound field with the same reverberation time and auditorium volume. Consistent deviations within concert halls were matched with design details. PMID:26093400

  10. Theory and measurement of early, late and total sound levels in rooms.

    PubMed

    Barron, Mike

    2015-06-01

    A revised theory of sound level distribution in rooms was proposed in 1988, which responded to the observation that reflected sound level decreases as one moves away from the source. This behavior is ubiquitous in concert spaces and has been shown also to occur in an acoustically diffuse space. This paper presents a more general theoretical derivation and compares measured levels of the early, late, and total sound, as well as the early-to-late index, with theoretical predictions. The scatter of measured sound levels in concert spaces about a linear relationship with source-receiver distance was also compared with a theoretical prediction. Two modifications to the basic theory were investigated, though the original formulation proves best for the general concert space. The revised theory matches average behavior well and represents predicted behavior in a diffuse sound field with the same reverberation time and auditorium volume. Consistent deviations within concert halls were matched with design details.

  11. Measuring total health inequality: adding individual variation to group-level differences.

    PubMed

    Gakidou, Emmanuela; King, Gary

    2002-08-12

    BACKGROUND: Studies have revealed large variations in average health status across social, economic, and other groups. No study exists on the distribution of the risk of ill-health across individuals, either within groups or across all people in a society, and as such a crucial piece of total health inequality has been overlooked. Some of the reason for this neglect has been that the risk of death, which forms the basis for most measures, is impossible to observe directly and difficult to estimate. METHODS: We develop a measure of total health inequality - encompassing all inequalities among people in a society, including variation between and within groups - by adapting a beta-binomial regression model. We apply it to children under age two in 50 low- and middle-income countries. Our method has been adopted by the World Health Organization and is being implemented in surveys around the world; preliminary estimates have appeared in the World Health Report (2000). RESULTS: Countries with similar average child mortality differ considerably in total health inequality. Liberia and Mozambique have the largest inequalities in child survival, while Colombia, the Philippines and Kazakhstan have the lowest levels among the countries measured. CONCLUSIONS: Total health inequality estimates should be routinely reported alongside average levels of health in populations and groups, as they reveal important policy-related information not otherwise knowable. This approach enables meaningful comparisons of inequality across countries and future analyses of the determinants of inequality.

  12. Ketosis in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): clinical findings and the associated oxidative stress level.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Mohamed A; El-Khodery, Sabry Ahmed; El-deeb, Wael M; Abou El-Amaiem, Waleed E E

    2010-12-01

    As little is known about the oxidant/antioxidant status in buffalo with ketosis, the present study was delineated to assess the oxidative stress level associated with clinical ketosis in water buffalo. A total of 91 parturient buffalo at smallholder farms were studied (61 suspected to be ketotic and 30 healthy). Clinical and biochemical investigations were carried out for each buffalo. Based on clinical findings and the level of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), buffalo were allocated into ketotic (42), subclinical cases (19). Clinically, there was an association between clinical ketosis and anorexia (p<0.001), constipation (p<0.001), decreased milk yield (p<0.001), ruminal stasis (p<0.001), and loss of body condition (p<0.01). Biochemically, in clinical ketosis compared with subclinical and control cases, there was a significant increase (p<0.05) of BHB, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), L-alanine aminotransferase (ALT). However, there was a significant decrease of glucose, phosphorus, magnesium,total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. There was a positive correlation between BHB and MDA (r=0.433), BHB and NO (r=0.37), MDA and NO (r=0.515), and Glucose and phosphorus(r=0.521). However, there was a negative correlation between BHB and glucose (r= -0.341) and HDL and NO (r= -0.379). The result of the present study indicates that hyperketonemia in buffalo is associated with an increase of oxidative stress levels. Further studies need to be done on the efficacy of antioxidants as an ancillary treatment to relief the oxidative stress caused by ketosis.

  13. Low erythrocyte catalase enzyme activity is correlated with high serum total homocysteine levels in tunisian patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidant systems has been suggested to be implicated in the physiopathology of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We aimed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity in Tunisian patients and to assess the possible relationship between erythrocyte catalase enzyme activity and hyperhomocysteinaemia. Methods 108 patients with AMI and 81 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Catalase erythrocyte enzyme activity was determined spectrophotometrically whereas “total antioxidant status” (TAS) concentration was measured by a commercially available method. Serum total homocysteine (tHcy) level was determined by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). Lipid peroxidation was measured with a fluorimetric method as “thiobarbituric acid reactive substances” (TBARS). Results Compared with healthy subjects, patients with AMI had significantly lower catalase activity (P<0.001), TAS concentrations (P<0.001), and significantly higher serum tHcy (P<0.001) and TBARS levels (P<0.001). Erythrocyte catalase enzyme activity was negatively correlated with serum tHcy and TBARS while serum tHcy and TBARS were in positive correlation. Furthermore, the unbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants seems to be more aggravated in patients with Q wave AMI compared to patients with non-Q wave AMI. Conclusion Our results suggest the involvement of hyperhomocysteinaemia in the drop of erythrocyte catalase activity related to myocardial ischemia reperfusion. Hyperhomocysteinaemia may increase the myocardial wall dysfunction under ischemia reperfusion by excessive production of reactive oxygen species which is made evident by increased lipid peroxidation. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1623509866881834 PMID:23631751

  14. Application of annular centrifugal contactors in the hot test of the improved total partitioning process for high level liquid waste.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wuhua; Chen, Jing; Wang, Jianchen; Wang, Shuwei; Feng, Xiaogui; Wang, Xinghai; Li, Shaowei; Xu, Chao

    2014-08-15

    High level liquid waste (HLLW) produced from the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel still contains moderate amounts of uranium, transuranium (TRU) actinides, (90)Sr, (137)Cs, etc., and thus constitutes a permanent hazard to the environment. The partitioning and transmutation (P&T) strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of HLLW, in which the partitioning of HLLW is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a TRPO (tri-alkylphosphine oxide) process for the removal of actinides, a CESE (crown ether strontium extraction) process for the removal of Sr, and a CECE (calixcrown ether cesium extraction) process for the removal of Cs, has been developed to treat Chinese HLLW. A 160-hour hot test of the improved total partitioning process was carried out using 72-stage 10-mm-dia annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) and genuine HLLW. The hot test results showed that the average DFs of total α activity, Sr and Cs were 3.57 × 10(3), 2.25 × 10(4) and 1.68 × 10(4) after the hot test reached equilibrium, respectively. During the hot test, 72-stage 10-mm-dia ACCs worked stable, continuously with no stage failing or interruption of the operation.

  15. Effect of calcium oxide on the efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation during ferrous ion oxidation in simulated acid mine drainage treatment with inoculation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Jin, Tongjun; Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Lanlan

    2016-01-01

    Calcium oxide was added into ferrous ion oxidation system in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans at concentrations of 0-4.00 g/L. The pH, ferrous ion oxidation efficiency, total iron precipitation efficiency, and phase of the solid minerals harvested from different treatments were investigated during the ferrous ion oxidation process. In control check (CK) system, pH of the solution decreased from 2.81 to 2.25 when ferrous ions achieved complete oxidation after 72 h of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans incubation without the addition of calcium oxide, and total iron precipitation efficiency reached 20.2%. Efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation was significantly improved when the amount of calcium oxide added was ≤1.33 g/L, and the minerals harvested from systems were mainly a mixture of jarosite and schwertmannite. For example, the ferrous ion oxidation efficiency reached 100% at 60 h and total iron precipitation efficiency was increased to 32.1% at 72 h when 1.33 g/L of calcium oxide was added. However, ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation for jarosite and schwertmannite formation were inhibited if the amount of calcium oxide added was above 2.67 g/L, and large amounts of calcium sulfate dihydrate were generated in systems.

  16. Nitrogen oxide cycle regulates nitric oxide levels and bacterial cell signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Oguchi, Haruka; Kobayashi, Takuya; Kusama, Shinichiro; Sugiura, Ryo; Moriya, Kenta; Hirata, Takuya; Yukioka, Yuriya; Takaya, Naoki; Yajima, Shunsuke; Ito, Shinsaku; Okada, Kiyoshi; Ohsawa, Kanju; Ikeda, Haruo; Takano, Hideaki; Ueda, Kenji; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) signaling controls various metabolic pathways in bacteria and higher eukaryotes. Cellular enzymes synthesize and detoxify NO; however, a mechanism that controls its cellular homeostasis has not been identified. Here, we found a nitrogen oxide cycle involving nitrate reductase (Nar) and the NO dioxygenase flavohemoglobin (Fhb), that facilitate inter-conversion of nitrate, nitrite, and NO in the actinobacterium Streptomyces coelicolor. This cycle regulates cellular NO levels, bacterial antibiotic production, and morphological differentiation. NO down-regulates Nar and up-regulates Fhb gene expression via the NO-dependent transcriptional factors DevSR and NsrR, respectively, which are involved in the auto-regulation mechanism of intracellular NO levels. Nitrite generated by the NO cycles induces gene expression in neighboring cells, indicating an additional role of the cycle as a producer of a transmittable inter-cellular communication molecule. PMID:26912114

  17. Molecular-level assemblies on metal oxide surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Schoonover, J.R.; Bignozzi, C.; Meyer, T.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to explore molecular-level assemblies based on polypyridyl transition metal complexes attached to metal oxide surfaces to provide the basis for applications such as energy conversion and electricity generation, photoremediation of hazardous waste, chemical sensors, and optical storage and photorefractive devices for communications and optical computing. We have elucidated the fundamental factors that determine the photochemistry and photophysics of a series of these photoactive inorganic complexes in solution and on metal oxide substrates by exploiting our unique transient laser capabilities. This data is being utilized to design and fabricate molecular-level photonic devices. The rich chemistry of transition metal polypyridyl complexes can be utilized to prepare molecular assemblies having well-defined redox or excited-state properties that can be finely tuned to produce desired materials properties. We plan to explore other novel applications such as photorefractive switches and optical sensors using this molecular engineering approach.

  18. Effect of oxidation level on the inclusion capacity and solution stability of oxidized amylose in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Xinying; Lv, Yongbo; Shi, Yifeng; Zeng, Yu; Li, Defu; Mu, Changdao

    2016-03-15

    The oxidized amyloses with high oxidation level and carboxyl content were successfully prepared through a two-step oxidation method using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant and copper sulfate as the catalyst. The results showed that oxidation would prevent the oxidized product to crystallize and induce depolymerization of amylose molecules. Accordingly, the helices and inclusion capacity of oxidized amylose molecules were reduced. However, the solubility of oxidized amyloses in water was highly improved due to the introduced carboxyl groups. The solution stability of oxidized amylose-guest inclusion complexes in aqueous solution was efficiently improved to a large extent. The result suggested that the two-step oxidation method was an efficient way to highly broaden the applications of amylose-guest inclusion complexes in water environment. PMID:26794736

  19. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels.

    PubMed

    Ragettli, Martina S; Goudreau, Sophie; Plante, Céline; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels-LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels-Lden) for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression-LUR) that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR) for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07-1.13) and 1.04 (1.02-1.06) per 1 dB(A) Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic. PMID:26729143

  20. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels.

    PubMed

    Ragettli, Martina S; Goudreau, Sophie; Plante, Céline; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2015-12-29

    There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels-LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels-Lden) for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression-LUR) that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR) for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07-1.13) and 1.04 (1.02-1.06) per 1 dB(A) Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic.

  1. The impact of Southwest Airline's contribution to atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide totals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Cody L.

    Over the last century, aviation has grown to become an economical juggernaut. The industry creates innovation, connects people, and maintains a safety goal unlike any other field. However, as the world becomes more populated with technology and individuals, a general curiosity as to how human activity effects the planet is becoming of greater interest. This study presents what one domestic airline in the United States, Southwest Airlines, contributes to the atmospheric make-up of the planet. Utilizing various sources of quantifiable data, an outcome was reached that shows the amount of Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide produced by Southwest Airlines from 2002 to 2013. This topic was chosen due to the fact that there are no real quantifiable values of emission statistics from airlines available to the public. Further investigation allowed for Southwest Airlines to be compared to the overall Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide contributions of the United States for the year 2011. The results showed that with the absence of any set standard on emissions, it is vital that one should be established. The data showed that the current ICAO standard emission values showed a higher level of emissions than when Southwest Airline's fleet was analyzed using their actual fleet mix.

  2. Estimation of Salivary and Serum Total Sialic Acid Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Surekha R; Kolte, Abhay P; Gupta, Madhur

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic gingivitis and periodontitis are inflammatory diseases. An important function of host sialic acid is to regulate innate immunity. The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of Total sialic acid (TSA) in saliva and serum and also to find out their association if any, in periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 subjects were clinically examined and distributed into three groups (n=30) according to the periodontal status namely healthy, chronic gingivitis and chronic periodontitis.Clinical measurements including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, oral hygeine index were recorded .TSA concentration was determined in saliva and serum of all subjects. Results: In healthy group the mean salivary TSA level was 39.05mg/dl ±6.35(p<0.0001), mean serum TSA level was 49.75 mg/dl ± 4.87 (p<0.0001). In the chronic gingivitis group the mean salivary TSA level was 68.23 mg/dl ± 2.71 (p<0.0001), mean serum TSA level was 65.65 mg/dl ±3.56 (p<0.0001). In the chronic periodontitis group the mean salivary TSA was 81.33 mg/dl ±3.94 (p<0.0001), mean serum TSA level was 75.98 mg/dl ±3.58 (p<0.0001). Conclusion:The present data indicates that salivary & serum TSA levels can differentiate between chronic periodontitis patients and normal individuals. Thus it can be used as an adjunct to diagnose, monitor response to therapy, to determine the current periodontal disease status and to assess the treatment outcomes. PMID:25386514

  3. Reduced serum levels of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D during long-term total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Klein, G L; Horst, R L; Norman, A W; Ament, M E; Slatopolsky, E; Coburn, J W

    1981-05-01

    Painful bone disease, characterized by patchy osteomalacia and inactive bone, can develop in patients treated with total parenteral nutrition for more than 3 months. Serum levels of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1 alpha, 25(OH)2D), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured in seven adults and five children treated with parenteral nutrition for 9 to 60 months. Serum levels of 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D were markedly reduced, while levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were normal. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were normal or slightly increased, and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone levels were normal or low. Renal function was normal or minimally reduced. Skeletal symptoms disappeared and serum 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D levels rose to normal in one patient when nutrient infusions were discontinued for 6 weeks. Removal of calcium from the nutrient solution for 2 to 4 days was associated with no change in serum 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D in two patients. The cause of the reduction in serum levels of 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D and its role in the pathogenesis of bone disease in these patients remain uncertain. PMID:6786151

  4. Effects of Cobalt and Chromium Levels Following Modular Hip Stem Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Koziara, Christopher R; Lombardo, Daniel J; Petersen-Fitts, Graysen R; Jildeh, Toufic R; Morawa, Lawrence

    2016-09-01

    Due to the increased number of revision total hip arthroplasties (THAs) to correct pain secondary to fretting from modular hip stems, this study was conducted in an effort to correlate objective findings of serum cobalt (Co) levels, serum chromium (Cr) levels, and/or reactive tissue seen on metal artifact reduction sequence (MARS) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a patient's need for revision THA. The study group comprised 66 patients, 18 of whom received MARS MRI. Serum Co levels, serum Cr levels, and standard numeric rating scale for pain were documented for all patients. Statistical analysis was then performed to determine whether there was a correlation between the aforementioned variables and the need for revision THA. Serum Cr levels were higher in patients with positive reactive tissue findings on MARS MRI, although this only approached significance (P=.083). Serum Co levels were higher in those undergoing revision THA, but this also only approached significance (P=.076). Pain scores were significantly different between those undergoing revision and those not (P<.001). It is the opinion of the authors that there is no objective finding in this study that can be used to identify patients who require revision THA secondary to fretting of a modular hip stem prosthesis. Only a patient's stated pain level can assist a surgeon in the decision-making process regarding the need for revision THA secondary to fretting. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):288-292.]. PMID:27337670

  5. Inverse associations of total and decaffeinated coffee with liver enzyme levels in NHANES 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qian; Sinha, Rashmi; Graubard, Barry I.; Freedman, Neal D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Coffee may have hepatoprotective effects and higher coffee consumption has been associated inversely with levels of liver enzymatic markers. However, it is unclear whether decaffeinated coffee is also associated with liver enzymes. Methods The study population included 27,793 participants, age 20 or older, in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2010). Coffee intake was evaluated by 24-hour dietary recall. Serum levels of aminotransferase (ALT), aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT) were measured. We examined the relationship between coffee intake and enzymatic levels using weighted multiple variable logistic (abnormally elevated levels of enzymes) and linear regression (continuous enzymatic levels). Results Total coffee consumption was inversely associated with abnormal levels of all four liver enzymes and continuous levels of AST, ALP and GGT. Compared to those reporting no coffee consumption, participants reporting ≥3 cups per day had an odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) of 0.75 (0.63, 0.89)), 0.82 (0.68, 0.98), 0.73 (0.55, 0.95) and 0.69 (0.57, 0.83) for abnormal levels of ALT, AST, ALP and GGT, respectively. Similar inverse associations were found with decaffeinated coffee intake and abnormal levels of ALT (OR≥2 vs 0 cup/d: 0.62 (0.41, 0.94)), AST (0.74 (0.49, 1.11)), and GGT (0.70, 0.49–1.00). Conclusion Higher intakes of coffee, regardless of its caffeine content, were associated with lower levels of liver enzymes. PMID:25124935

  6. Ten-Year Comparison of Oxidized Zirconium and Cobalt-Chromium Femoral Components in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Justin; Vioreanu, Mihai; Salmon, Lucy; Waller, Alison; Pinczewski, Leo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if oxidized zirconium femoral components had better outcomes than cobalt-chromium in vivo at medium and long term and if the use of oxidized zirconium components had clinical adverse effects. Methods: Forty consecutive patients (eighty knees) underwent simultaneous bilateral cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty for primary osteoarthritis from January 2002 to December 2003. For each patient, the knees were randomized to receive the oxidized zirconium femoral component, with the contralateral knee receiving the cobalt-chromium component. Outcome measures included the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Knee Society score, and British Orthopaedic Association patient satisfaction scale. Radiographic outcomes include the Knee Society total knee arthroplasty roentgenographic evaluation and scoring system and measurement of radiographic wear. Patients and assessors were blinded to the treatment groups and results. Results: There were no significant differences in clinical, subjective, and radiographic outcomes between the two implants at ten years postoperatively. Ten years following surgery, 36% of the patients preferred the cobalt-chromium knee compared with 11% who preferred the oxidized zirconium knee (p = 0.02) and 53% had no preference. Conclusions: Ten-year outcomes after total knee arthroplasty with oxidized zirconium and cobalt-chromium femoral components showed no significant differences in clinical, subjective, and radiographic outcomes. Patients had no preference or preferred the cobalt chromium prosthesis to the oxidized zirconium prosthesis. There were no adverse effects associated with the use of oxidized zirconium femoral implants.

  7. Increased acetyl and total histone levels in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Pritika J; Lill, Claire; Faull, Richard; Curtis, Maurice A; Dragunow, Mike

    2015-02-01

    Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification that plays a critical role in chromatin remodelling and transcriptional regulation. There is increasing evidence that epigenetic modifications may become compromised in aging and increase susceptibility to the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Immunohistochemical labelling of free-floating sections from the inferior temporal gyrus (Alzheimer's disease, n=14; control, n=17) and paraffin-embedded tissue microarrays containing tissue from the middle temporal gyrus (Alzheimer's disease, n=29; control, n=28) demonstrated that acetyl histone H3 and acetyl histone H4 levels, as well as total histone H3 and total histone H4 protein levels, were significantly increased in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain tissue compared to age- and sex-matched neurologically normal control brain tissue. Changes in acetyl histone levels were proportional to changes in total histone levels. The increase in acetyl histone H3 and H4 was observed in Neuronal N immunopositive pyramidal neurons in Alzheimer's disease brain. Using immunolabelling, histone markers correlated significantly with the level of glial fibrillary acidic protein and HLA-DP, -DQ and -DR immunopositive cells and with the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (hyperphosphorylated tau load and β-amyloid plaques). Given that histone acetylation changes were correlated with changes in total histone protein, it was important to evaluate if protein degradation pathways may be compromised in Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, significant positive correlations were also found between ubiquitin load and histone modifications. The relationship between histone acetylation and ubiquitin levels was further investigated in an in vitro model of SK-N-SH cells treated with the proteasome inhibitor Mg132 and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid. In this model, compromised protein degradation caused by Mg132 lead to elevated histone

  8. Office workers' objectively assessed total and prolonged sitting time: Individual-level correlates and worksite variations.

    PubMed

    Hadgraft, Nyssa T; Healy, Genevieve N; Owen, Neville; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Lynch, Brigid M; Sethi, Parneet; Eakin, Elizabeth G; Moodie, Marj; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Wiesner, Glen; Willenberg, Lisa; Dunstan, David W

    2016-12-01

    Sedentary behavior is highly prevalent in office-based workplaces; however, few studies have assessed the attributes associated with this health risk factor in the workplace setting. This study aimed to identify the correlates of office workers' objectively-assessed total and prolonged (≥ 30 min bouts) workplace sitting time. Participants were 231 Australian office workers recruited from 14 sites of a single government employer in 2012-13. Potential socio-demographic, work-related, health-related and cognitive-social correlates were measured through a self-administered survey and anthropometric measurements. Associations with total and prolonged workplace sitting time (measured with the activPAL3) were tested using linear mixed models. Worksites varied significantly in total workplace sitting time (overall mean [SD]: 79% [10%] of work hours) and prolonged workplace sitting time (42% [19%]), after adjusting for socio-demographic and work-related characteristics. Organisational tenure of 3-5 years (compared to tenure > 5 years) was associated with more time spent in total and prolonged workplace sitting time, while having a BMI categorised as obese (compared to a healthy BMI) was associated with less time spent in total and prolonged workplace sitting time. Significant variations in sitting time were observed across different worksites of the same employer and the variation remained after adjusting for individual-level factors. Only BMI and organisational tenure were identified as correlates of total and prolonged workplace sitting time. Additional studies are needed to confirm the present findings across diverse organisations and occupations. PMID:27413681

  9. Evidence for a locus regulating total serum IgE levels mapping to chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, D.A.; Xu, J.; Levitt, R.C.

    1994-09-15

    Genetic studies of total serum IgE levels were preformed since high IgE levels correlate with clinical expression of allergy and asthma. Families ascertained through a parent with asthma were genotyped for markers on 5q where there are multiple candidate genes that may influence the control of IgE and inflammation. Evidence for linkage of the IgE phenotype to 5q was obtained by both sib-pair and lod score analysis with evidence for recessive inheritance of high IgE levels from segregation analysis. These findings represent a major step in mapping genes important in the regulation of allergic responses and the pathogenesis of asthma. 52 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Effects of Regular Treadmill Exercise on a DNA Oxidative-Damage Marker and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rat Hippocampal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mahjoub, Soleiman; Ghadi, Arezoo; Pourbagher, Roghayeh; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Regular exercise can result in changes in the levels of oxidative stress in the hippocampus; however, little attention has been paid to physical-activity-induced neuronal protection to exposure to lead compounds. This study investigated the effects of regular treadmill exercise on a DNA oxidative-damage marker [8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)] and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of hippocampal tissue in lead-acetate exposed rats. Methods This study investigated the effects of 8 weeks of regular treadmill exercise on 8-OHdG and the TAC of hippocampal tissue in lead-acetate-exposed rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: baseline, sham (control), lead, and exercise+lead. The exercise program involved running on a treadmill with increasing intensity five times a week for 8 weeks. Animals in the lead and exercise+lead groups received lead acetate at 20 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally three times weekly for 8 weeks. Animals in the sham group received solvent (ethyl oleate) at 30 mg/kg body weight three times weekly for 8 weeks. TAC and 8-OHdG were measured by spectrophotometric and ELISA techniques, respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test with a significance cutoff of p≤0.05. Results The level of 8-OHdG and the TAC were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in the lead group than in the baseline and sham groups (p<0.01). However, the 8-OHdG level and TAC value in hippocampal tissue were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, in the exercise+lead group relative to the lead group (p<0.05). Conclusions The TAC of hippocampal tissue may be directly associated with neural protection mechanisms of exercise following lead acetate injection, and the beneficial effects of regular exercise in preventing hippocampal neuronal damage could be due to decreased hippocampal oxidative stress such as reflected by a lower 8-OHdG level and increased TAC.

  11. Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

  12. Combined atmospheric oxidant capacity and increased levels of exhaled nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Changyuan; Li, Huichu; Chen, Renjie; Xu, Wenxi; Wang, Cuicui; Tse, Lap Ah; Zhao, Zhuohui; Kan, Haidong

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen dioxide and ozone are two interrelated oxidative pollutants in the atmosphere. Few studies have evaluated the health effects of combined oxidant capacity (O x ). We investigated the short-term effects of O x on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a well-established biomarker for airway inflammation, in a group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Real-time concentrations of O x were obtained by calculating directly the sum of nitrogen dioxide and ozone. Linear mixed-effect models were applied to explore the acute effects of O x on FeNO levels. Short-term exposure to Ox was significantly associated with elevated FeNO. This effect was strongest in the first 24 h after exposure, and was robust to the adjustment of PM2.5. A 10 μg m-3 increase in 24 h average concentrations of O x was associated with 4.28% (95% confidence interval: 1.19%, 7.37%) increase in FeNO. The effect estimates were statistically significant only among males, elders, and those with body mass index ≥24 kg m-2, a comorbidity, higher educational attainment, or moderate airflow limitation. This analysis demonstrated an independent effect of O x on respiratory inflammation, and suggested that a single metric O x might serve as a preferable indicator of atmospheric oxidative capacity in further air pollution epidemiological studies.

  13. Combined atmospheric oxidant capacity and increased levels of exhaled nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Changyuan; Li, Huichu; Chen, Renjie; Xu, Wenxi; Wang, Cuicui; Tse, Lap Ah; Zhao, Zhuohui; Kan, Haidong

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen dioxide and ozone are two interrelated oxidative pollutants in the atmosphere. Few studies have evaluated the health effects of combined oxidant capacity (O x ). We investigated the short-term effects of O x on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a well-established biomarker for airway inflammation, in a group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Real-time concentrations of O x were obtained by calculating directly the sum of nitrogen dioxide and ozone. Linear mixed-effect models were applied to explore the acute effects of O x on FeNO levels. Short-term exposure to Ox was significantly associated with elevated FeNO. This effect was strongest in the first 24 h after exposure, and was robust to the adjustment of PM2.5. A 10 μg m‑3 increase in 24 h average concentrations of O x was associated with 4.28% (95% confidence interval: 1.19%, 7.37%) increase in FeNO. The effect estimates were statistically significant only among males, elders, and those with body mass index ≥24 kg m‑2, a comorbidity, higher educational attainment, or moderate airflow limitation. This analysis demonstrated an independent effect of O x on respiratory inflammation, and suggested that a single metric O x might serve as a preferable indicator of atmospheric oxidative capacity in further air pollution epidemiological studies.

  14. The role of nitric oxide in low level light therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamblin, Michael R.

    2008-02-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing tissue damage by reducing cellular apoptosis has been known for almost forty years since the invention of lasers. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial. Firstly the biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and secondly the complexity of choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. This review will focus on the role of nitric oxide in the cellular and tissue effects of LLLT. Red and near-IR light is primarily absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase (unit four in the mitochondrial respiratory chain). Nitric oxide produced in the mitochondria can inhibit respiration by binding to cytochrome c oxidase and competitively displacing oxygen, especially in stressed or hypoxic cells. If light absorption displaced the nitric oxide and thus allowed the cytochrome c oxidase to recover and cellular respiration to resume, this would explain many of the observations made in LLLT. Why the effect is only seen in hypoxic, stressed or damaged cells or tissues? How the effects can keep working for some time (hours or days) postillumination? Why increased NO concentrations are sometimes measured in cell culture or in animals? How blood flow can be increased? Why angiogenesis is sometimes increased after LLLT in vivo?

  15. Comparison of Single-Level and Multiple-Level Outcomes of Total Disc Arthroplasty: 24-Month Results

    PubMed Central

    Ritter-Lang, Karsten; Gössel, Lutz; Dreßler, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Background Low back pain is one of the most prevalent problems in industrialized countries, affecting as many as 80% of all adults at some time in their lives. Among the significant contributors to low back pain is degenerative disc disease (DDD). Although fusion has been well accepted for treatment of DDD, high rates of complications and stress to adjacent segments remain a concern. Lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) was developed with a goal of preserving motion and avoiding various fusion-related complications, but the relative merits of single vs. multiple level arthroplasty remain unclear. Methods This is a multi-center, single arm, prospective post-market registry of the M6-L, consisting of consecutive patients presenting with lumbar DDD who agreed to participate. This paper reports on those patients who have completed at least 24 months of followup to date. Clinical outcome measures include the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and back and leg Visual Analogue Scales (VAS). Radiographic analysis of disc angle and range of motion (ROM) was also performed. Results Results for 83 patients comprising 121 implants in two cohorts (49 single level (SL), 34 multiple levels (ML)) are reported. Both cohorts experienced significant improvement at 24 months including significant decreases in ODI and VAS. Relative to SL procedures, ML procedures demonstrated either comparable results, or results that trended favorably towards the ML procedures. Index and global ROM at 24 months were not significantly different between the two cohorts, while the disc angles were larger in the SL cohort regardless of index level. Conclusions This is the first study to report clinical and radiographic outcomes of TDR with the M6-L in SL vs ML procedures with two years of followup. The results suggest initial device safety and effectiveness when used for the treatment of lumbar degenerative disc disease at one or more levels. PMID:26056629

  16. Influence of cyclophilin D protein expression level on endothelial cell oxidative damage resistance.

    PubMed

    Peng, J Z; Xue, L; Chen, J; Chen, B S; Yang, Y Q

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of cyclophilin-D (CypD) protein expression level on endothelial cell oxidative damage resistance. A model of CypD protein expression or high expression in endothelial cells was established through gene silencing or cloning. The comparable groups were normal endothelial cells cultured in phosphate-buffered solution in liquid handling cells containing 500 mM H2O2 for 90 or 120 min, and then the medium was replaced with common nutrient solution and cultured again for 24 h. The apoptosis rate and nitric oxide (NO) levels of each group were tested. The cell apoptosis rate of the CyPD low expression group (32.51 ± 6.6 %) was significantly lower than that of the control group (52.57 ± 5.84%, P = 0.001), and total NO production was 24.06 ± 3 and 13.03 ± 3.55 μM. The apoptosis rate of the CyPD high expression group (24.24 + 3.08%) was significantly higher than that of the control group (7.7 + 0.68%, P < 0.001); total NO production was 3.55 ± 1.53 and 8.46 ± 0.77 μM, which was significantly different (P = 0.008). CypD protein could increase oxidative stress and cause endothelial cell injury and apoptosis.

  17. Effect of altered eating pattern on serum fructosamine: total protein ratio and plasma glucose level.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, S L; Cheah, S H; Husain, R; Duncan, M T

    1989-05-01

    The effect of alteration of eating pattern during Ramadan on body mass index (BMI), serum fructosamine: total protein ratio (F/TP), and glucose level in 18 healthy male Asiatic Moslems were studied. The results showed a significant decrease (p less than 0.025) in F/TP at the second week of Ramadan in 11 subjects who experienced continuous decrease in BMI throughout Ramadan. The remaining 7 subjects showed no significant changes in BMI and F/TP. No evidence of hypoglycaemia was observed in the subjects during the study. Serum fructosamine: total protein ratio in subjects with altered eating pattern preferably should be interpreted along with the change in body mass index.

  18. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2012-04-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P < 0.004). d-ROM levels were significantly lower in vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P < 0.011). Additionally, total cholesterol levels in the vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P < 0.018). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 101.36 ± 23.57 mg/dL and 120.60 ± 34.62 mg/dL (P < 0.005) in the vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores.

  19. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon

    2012-01-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P < 0.004). d-ROM levels were significantly lower in vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P < 0.011). Additionally, total cholesterol levels in the vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P < 0.018). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 101.36 ± 23.57 mg/dL and 120.60 ± 34.62 mg/dL (P < 0.005) in the vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores. PMID:22586505

  20. Total mercury and methylmercury levels in fish from hydroelectric reservoirs in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ikingura, J R; Akagi, H

    2003-03-20

    Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) levels have been determined in fish species representing various tropic levels in four major hydroelectric reservoirs (Mtera, Kidatu, Hale-Pangani, Nyumba ya Mungu) located in two distinct geographical areas in Tanzania. The Mtera and Kidatu reservoirs are located along the Great Ruaha River drainage basin in the southern central part of the country while the other reservoirs are located within the Pangani River basin in the north eastern part of Tanzania. Fish mercury levels ranged from 5 to 143 microg/kg (mean 40 microg/kg wet weight) in the Mtera Reservoir, and from 7 to 119 microg/kg (mean 21 microg/kg) in the Kidatu Reservoir downstream of the Great Ruaha River. The lowest THg levels, in the range 1-10 microg/kg (mean 5 microg/kg), were found in fish from the Nyumba ya Mungu (NyM) Reservoir, which is one of the oldest reservoirs in the country. Fish mercury levels in the Pangani and Hale mini-reservoirs, downstream of the NyM Reservoir, were in the order of 3-263 microg/kg, with an average level of 21 microg/kg. These THg levels are among the lowest to be reported in freshwater fish from hydroelectric reservoirs. Approximately 56-100% of the total mercury in the fish was methylmercury. Herbivorous fish species contained lower THg levels than the piscivorous species; this was consistent with similar findings in other fish studies. In general the fish from the Tanzanian reservoirs contained very low mercury concentrations, and differed markedly from fish in hydroelectric reservoirs of similar age in temperate and other regions, which are reported to contain elevated mercury concentrations. The low levels of mercury in the fish correlated with low background concentrations of THg in sediment and flooded soil (mean 2-8 microg/kg dry weight) in the reservoir surroundings. This suggested a relatively clean reservoir environment that has not been significantly impacted by mercury contamination from natural or anthropogenic

  1. [Levels of Ochratoxin A and total Aflatoxins in Panamanian exportation coffee by an ELISA Method].

    PubMed

    Franco, Heriberto; Vega, Aracelly; Reyes, Stephany; De Léon, Javier; Bonilla, Alexis

    2014-03-01

    A study about processing conditions of exportation coffee in 15 benefits located in Chiriqui, western region of Panama, was conducted. In addition, 21 samples of processed coffee (green beans), from the benefits, were analyzed. The samples were microbiologically tested in order to quantify total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) and Ochratoxin A (OTA), using the immunoaffinity ELISA method. A detection limit of 0.017 ng/mL, was determined for Ochratoxin A, which is equivalent to a concentration of 0.829 µg/kg, and a detection limit of 0.027 ng/mL, for total aflatoxins, which is equivalent to a concentration of 1.350 µg/kg. It was found that four (19%) out of the 21 samples were positive to the presence of Ochratoxin A and three (14%) to the presence of total aflatoxins. Samples showed levels of Ochratoxin A in the range 4.90 - 37.73 µg/kg; only three of them exceeded the maximum limit allowed by the European Union, for the concentration of Ochratoxin, which is of 5.0 µg/kg. Total aflatoxins were found in the range 1.51 - 1.93 µg/kg, below 10 µg/kg which is the maximum limit allowed for coffee by the European Union. The results indicate that the processing of coffee produced in Panama successfully meets international standards for postharvest handling, which leads to a low incidence ofmycotoxins and very low levels ofmycotoxin-producing fungi. PMID:25796716

  2. [Levels of Ochratoxin A and total Aflatoxins in Panamanian exportation coffee by an ELISA Method].

    PubMed

    Franco, Heriberto; Vega, Aracelly; Reyes, Stephany; De Léon, Javier; Bonilla, Alexis

    2014-03-01

    A study about processing conditions of exportation coffee in 15 benefits located in Chiriqui, western region of Panama, was conducted. In addition, 21 samples of processed coffee (green beans), from the benefits, were analyzed. The samples were microbiologically tested in order to quantify total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) and Ochratoxin A (OTA), using the immunoaffinity ELISA method. A detection limit of 0.017 ng/mL, was determined for Ochratoxin A, which is equivalent to a concentration of 0.829 µg/kg, and a detection limit of 0.027 ng/mL, for total aflatoxins, which is equivalent to a concentration of 1.350 µg/kg. It was found that four (19%) out of the 21 samples were positive to the presence of Ochratoxin A and three (14%) to the presence of total aflatoxins. Samples showed levels of Ochratoxin A in the range 4.90 - 37.73 µg/kg; only three of them exceeded the maximum limit allowed by the European Union, for the concentration of Ochratoxin, which is of 5.0 µg/kg. Total aflatoxins were found in the range 1.51 - 1.93 µg/kg, below 10 µg/kg which is the maximum limit allowed for coffee by the European Union. The results indicate that the processing of coffee produced in Panama successfully meets international standards for postharvest handling, which leads to a low incidence ofmycotoxins and very low levels ofmycotoxin-producing fungi.

  3. Ethanol affects acylated and total ghrelin levels in peripheral blood of alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Michal; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Geppert, Bogna; Wachowiak, Roman; Dyr, Wanda; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa

    2013-07-01

    There is a hypothesis that ghrelin could take part in the central effects of alcohol as well as function as a peripheral indicator of the changes which occur during long-term alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between alcohol concentration and acylated and total form of ghrelin after a single administration of alcohol (intraperitoneal, i.p.) (experiment 1) and prolonged ethanol consumption (experiment 2). The study was performed using Wistar alcohol preferring (PR) and non-preferring (NP) rats and rats from inbred line (Warsaw High Preferring, WHP; Warsaw Low Preferring, WLP). It was found that ghrelin in ethanol-naive WHP animals showed a significantly lower level when compared with the ethanol-naive WLP or Wistar rats. After acute ethanol administration in doses of 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg, i.p., the simple (WHP) or inverse (WLP and Wistar) relationship between alcohol concentration and both form of ghrelin levels in plasma were found. Chronic alcohol intake in all groups of rats led to decrease of acylated ghrelin concentration. PR and WHP rats, after chronic alcohol drinking, had lower levels of both form of ghrelin in comparison with NP and WLP rats, respectively, and the observed differences in ghrelin levels were in inverse relationship with their alcohol intake. In conclusion, it is suggested that there is a strong relationship between alcohol administration or intake, ethanol concentration in blood and both active and total ghrelin level in the experimental animals, and that ghrelin plasma concentration can be a marker of alcohol drinking predisposition.

  4. Salivary and Urinary Total Antioxidant Capacity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Ilaria; Raguzzini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) is a biomarker often used in order to investigate oxidative stress in many pathological conditions. Saliva and urine can be collected noninvasively and represent attractive diagnostic fluids for detecting biomarkers of various pathological conditions. The reviewed case-control and intervention studies that measured salivary or urinary TAC revealed that diseases, antioxidant foods, or supplements and age, gender, and lifestyle factors influenced salivary or urinary TAC. Salivary and urinary TAC were particularly affected by oral or renal status, respectively, as well as by infection; therefore these factors must be taken into account in both case-control and intervention studies. Furthermore, some considerations on sample collection and normalization strategies could be made. In particular, unstimulated saliva could be the better approach to measure salivary TAC, whereas 24 h or spontaneous urine collection should be chosen on the basis of the study outcome and of the creatinine clearance. Finally, the uric acid-independent TAC could be the better approach to evaluate red-ox status of body, in particular after nutritional interventions and in diseases associated with hyperuricaemia. PMID:26966611

  5. Increased force simulator wear testing of a zirconium oxide total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joshua K L; Maruthainar, Kunalan; Wardle, Nic; Haddad, Fares; Blunn, Gordon W

    2009-08-01

    Total knee replacements provide cost effective treatment for debilitating conditions such as osteoarthritis. Their long term performance is governed by ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear which produces wear debris leading to osteolysis and aseptic loosening of the implant. An oxidised zirconium alternative to cobalt chrome is being used to reduce wear debris formation in the younger patients. Two TKRs of cobalt chrome and two of zirconium oxide coated zirconium were tested in a six degrees of freedom of motion, Stanmore-Instron force controlled knee wear simulator over 4 million increased force cycles. Oxidised zirconium was demonstrated to be more scratch resistant than CoCr. Increases in Ra (mean average roughness) of 12-fold compared to 1.9 fold rise for ZrO. The differences in roughness were accompanied by a 78%, statistically significant, reduction in wear of UHMWPE with the ZrO femoral components compared to the CoCr (p=0.037). Long term clinical results from the use of oxidised zirconium femoral components are awaited. However, it shows potential to reduce the wear rate.

  6. Salivary and Urinary Total Antioxidant Capacity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Humans.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Raguzzini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) is a biomarker often used in order to investigate oxidative stress in many pathological conditions. Saliva and urine can be collected noninvasively and represent attractive diagnostic fluids for detecting biomarkers of various pathological conditions. The reviewed case-control and intervention studies that measured salivary or urinary TAC revealed that diseases, antioxidant foods, or supplements and age, gender, and lifestyle factors influenced salivary or urinary TAC. Salivary and urinary TAC were particularly affected by oral or renal status, respectively, as well as by infection; therefore these factors must be taken into account in both case-control and intervention studies. Furthermore, some considerations on sample collection and normalization strategies could be made. In particular, unstimulated saliva could be the better approach to measure salivary TAC, whereas 24 h or spontaneous urine collection should be chosen on the basis of the study outcome and of the creatinine clearance. Finally, the uric acid-independent TAC could be the better approach to evaluate red-ox status of body, in particular after nutritional interventions and in diseases associated with hyperuricaemia. PMID:26966611

  7. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ragettli, Martina S.; Goudreau, Sophie; Plante, Céline; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels—LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels—Lden) for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression—LUR) that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR) for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07–1.13) and 1.04 (1.02–1.06) per 1 dB(A) Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic. PMID:26729143

  8. Cellular level loading and heating of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kalambur, Venkat S; Longmire, Ellen K; Bischof, John C

    2007-11-20

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) hold promise for a variety of biomedical applications due to their properties of visualization using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), heating with radio frequency (rf), and movement in an external magnetic field. In this study, the cellular loading (uptake) mechanism of dextran- and surfactant-coated iron oxide NPs by malignant prostate tumor cells (LNCaP-Pro5) has been studied, and the feasibility of traditional rf treatment and a new laser heating method was evaluated. The kinetics of cell loading was quantified using magnetophoresis and a colorimetric assay. The results showed that loading of surfactant-coated iron oxide NPs with LNCaP-Pro5 was saturable with time (at 24 h) and extracellular concentration (11 pg Fe/cell at 0.5 mg Fe/mL), indicating that the particles are taken up by an "adsorptive endocytosis" pathway. Dextran-coated NPs, however, were taken up less efficiently (1 pg Fe/cell at 0.5 mg Fe/mL). Loading did not saturate with concentration suggesting uptake by fluid-phase endocytosis. Magnetophoresis suggests that NP-loaded cells can be held using external magnetic fields in microcirculatory flow velocities in vivo or in an appropriately designed extracorporeal circuit. Loaded cells were heated using traditional rf (260A, 357 kHz) and a new laser method (532 nm, 7 ns pulse duration, 0.03 J/pulse, 20 pulse/s). Iron oxide in water was found to absorb sufficiently strongly at 532 nm such that heating of individual NPs and thus loaded cells (1 pg Fe/cell) was effective (<10% cell survival) after 30 s of laser exposure. Radio frequency treatment required higher loading (>10 pg Fe/cell) and longer duration (30 min) when compared to laser to accomplish cell destruction (50% viability at 10 pg Fe/cell). Scaling calculations show that the pulsed laser method can lead to single-cell (loaded with NPs) treatments (200 degrees C temperature change at the surface of an individual NP) unlike traditional rf heating

  9. Totally confined explosive welding. [apparatus to reduce noise level and protect personnel during explosive bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A method and associated apparatus for confining the undesirable by-products and limiting noise of explosive welding are discussed. The apparatus consists fo a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and within which the explosion occurs. The shape of the enclosure, the placement of the explosive, and the manner in which the enclosure is placed upon the material to be welded determine the force of the explosion transmitted to the proposed bond area. The explosion is totally confined within the enclosure thus reducing the noise level and preventing debris from being strewn about to contaminate the weld area or create personnel hazards.

  10. Correlation between in vivo stresses and oxidation of UHMWPE in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Regis, M; Bracco, P; Giorgini, L; Fusi, S; Dalla Pria, P; Costa, L; Schmid, C

    2014-09-01

    The possibility of in vivo, stress-induced oxidation in orthopaedic UHMWPE has been investigated. EtO sterilised, uncrosslinked UHMWPE liners, explanted or shelf-aged, have been collected. Linear wear and wear rate were assessed and FTIR spectroscopy was employed to detect oxidation and to build up oxidation products spatial maps across the liners section. Oxidation profiles have been compared to stress distribution profiles, resulting from a FE analysis conducted on the same liners geometries and couplings. It was found that oxidised and stressed areas followed the same asymmetrical, localized distribution profile. It was therefore possible to establish a correlation between stressed areas and observed oxidation.

  11. Protective Effect of Total Phenolic Compounds from Inula helenium on Hydrogen Peroxide-induced Oxidative Stress in SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J.; Zhao, Y. M.; Zhang, B.; Guo, C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Inula helenium has been reported to contain a large amount of phenolic compounds, which have shown promise in scavenging free radicals and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. This study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of total phenolic compounds from I. helenium on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in human SH-SY5Y cells. Antioxidant capacity of total phenolic compounds was determined by radical scavenging activity, the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species and superoxide dismutase activity. The cytotoxicity of total phenolic compounds was determined using a cell counting kit-8 assay. The effect of total phenolic compounds on cell apoptosis due to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage was detected by Hoechst 33258 and Annexin-V/PI staining using fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry, respectively. Mitochondrial function was evaluated using the mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ATP synthesis by JC-1 dye and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. It was shown that hydrogen peroxide significantly induced the loss of cell viability, increment of apoptosis, formation of reactive oxygen species, reduction of superoxide dismutase activity, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and a decrease in adenosine triphosphate production. On the other hand, total phenolic compounds dose-dependently reversed these effects. This study suggests that total phenolic compounds exert neuroprotective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage via blocking reactive oxygen species production and improving mitochondrial function. The potential of total phenolic compounds and its neuroprotective mechanisms in attenuating hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress-related cytotoxicity is worth further exploration. PMID:26009648

  12. Serum Metal Ion Levels Following Total Hip Arthroplasty With Modular Dual Mobility Components.

    PubMed

    Matsen Ko, Laura J; Pollag, Kimberley E; Yoo, Joanne Y; Sharkey, Peter F

    2016-01-01

    Dual mobility acetabular components can reduce the incidence of total hip arthroplasty (THA) instability. Modular dual mobility (MDM) components facilitate acetabular component implantation. However, corrosion can occur at modular junctions. Serum cobalt and chromium levels and Oxford scores were obtained at minimum two year follow-up for 100 consecutive patients who had THA with MDM components. Average Oxford score was 43 (range 13-48). Average serum cobalt and chromium values were 0.7 mcg/L (range, 0.0 to 7.0) and 0.6 mcg/L (range, 0.1 to 2.7), respectively. MARS MRI was performed for four patients with pain and elevated serum cobalt levels. Two of these studies were consistent with adverse local tissue reaction. We recommend use of MDM implants in only patients at high risk for dislocation following THA.

  13. Tomato juice decreases LDL cholesterol levels and increases LDL resistance to oxidation.

    PubMed

    Silaste, Marja-Leena; Alfthan, Georg; Aro, Antti; Kesäniemi, Y Antero; Hörkkö, Sohvi

    2007-12-01

    High dietary intakes of tomato products are often associated with a reduced risk of CVD, but the atheroprotective mechanisms have not been established. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of increased dietary intake of tomato products on plasma lipids and LDL oxidation. The diet intervention included a baseline period, a 3-week low tomato diet (no tomato products allowed) and a 3-week high tomato diet (400 ml tomato juice and 30 mg tomato ketchup daily). Twenty-one healthy study subjects participated in the study. Total cholesterol concentration was reduced by 5.9 (sd 10) % (P = 0.002) and LDL cholesterol concentration by 12.9 (sd 17.0) % (P = 0.0002) with the high tomato diet compared to the low tomato diet. The changes in total and LDL cholesterol concentrations correlated significantly with the changes in serum lycopene (r 0.56, P = 0.009; r 0.60, P = 0.004, total and LDL, respectively), beta-carotene (r 0.58, P = 0.005; r 0.70, P < 0.001) and gamma-carotene concentrations (r 0.64, P = 0.002; r 0.64, P = 0.002). The level of circulating LDL to resist formation of oxidized phospholipids increased 13 % (P = 0.02) in response to the high tomato diet. In conclusion, a high dietary intake of tomato products had atheroprotective effects, it significantly reduced LDL cholesterol levels, and increased LDL resistance to oxidation in healthy normocholesterolaemic adults. These atheroprotective features associated with changes in serum lycopene, beta-carotene and gamma-carotene levels. PMID:17617941

  14. Effects of Dry Storage and Resubmersion of Oysters on Total Vibrio vulnificus and Total and Pathogenic (tdh+/trh+) Vibrio parahaemolyticus Levels.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, Thomas P; Lydon, Keri A; Bowers, John C; Jones, Jessica L

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) are the two leading causes of bacterial illnesses associated with raw shellfish consumption. Levels of these pathogens in oysters can increase during routine antifouling aquaculture practices involving dry storage in ambient air conditions. After storage, common practice is to resubmerge these stored oysters to reduce elevated Vv and Vp levels, but evidence proving the effectiveness of this practice is lacking. This study examined the changes in Vv and in total and pathogenic (thermostable direct hemolysin gene and the tdh-related hemolysin gene, tdh+ and trh+) Vp levels in oysters after 5 or 24 h of dry storage (28 to 32°C), followed by resubmersion (27 to 32°C) for 14 days. For each trial, replicate oyster samples were collected at initial harvest, after dry storage, after 7 days, and after 14 days of resubmersion. Oysters not subjected to dry storage were collected and analyzed to determine natural undisturbed vibrio levels (background control). Vibrio levels were measured using a most-probable-number enrichment followed by real-time PCR. After storage, vibrio levels (excluding tdh+ and trh+ Vp during 5-h storage) increased significantly (P < 0.001) from initial levels. After 7 days of resubmersion, Vv and total Vp levels (excluding total Vp in oysters stored for 5 h) were not significantly different (P < 0.1) from levels in background oysters. Vv and total and pathogenic Vp levels were not significantly different (P > 0.1) from levels in background oysters after 14 days of resubmersion, regardless of dry storage time. These data demonstrate that oyster resubmersion after dry storage at elevated ambient temperatures allows vibrio levels to return to those of background control samples. These results can be used to help minimize the risk of Vv and Vp illnesses and to inform the oyster industry on the effectiveness of routine storing and resubmerging of aquaculture oysters.

  15. Decreased aortic glutathione levels may contribute to impaired nitric oxide-induced relaxation in hypercholesterolaemia

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Takeshi; Cohen, Richard A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the decrease in aortic total glutathione (GSH) levels in hypercholesterolaemia is related to the impairment of relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) and exogenous nitric oxide (NO). Isometric tension and vascular GSH levels were measured in thoracic aortic rings from rabbits fed for 12 weeks with 0.5% cholesterol diet. Hypercholesterolaemia decreased aortic GSH levels and impaired relaxation to ACh and NO. To determine if GSH depletion impaired the response to NO, normal rabbit thoracic aorta was incubated with 1,3-bis [2-chloroethyl]-1-nitrosourea (BCNU; 0.2 mmol L−1), a GSH reductase inhibitor, or diazine-dicarboxylic acid bis [N, N dimethylamide] (diamide; 1 mmol L−1), a thiol oxidizing agent. BCNU or diamide decreased aortic GSH levels and impaired ACh and NO-induced relaxation. The effects of diamide on GSH levels and relaxation were partially prevented by co-incubation with GSH ester (GSE; 2 mmol L−1). Increasing GSH with GSE significantly enhanced NO-induced relaxation in aorta from both hypercholesterolaemic and normal rabbits, however relaxation of hypercholesterolaemic rabbit aorta was not restored to normal. These data suggest that other factors, perhaps related to the long-term decrease in GSH levels, are responsible for reduced NO bioactivity in hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:10696103

  16. Levels of total mercury in marine organisms from Adriatic Sea, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Olivieri, Vincenzo; Amorena, Michele

    2009-08-01

    The presence of total mercury in fish, crustacean and cephalopod from Adriatic Sea, was investigated. The highest concentrations were observed in decreasing order in: Norway lobster (0.97 +/- 0.24 mg/kg; mean +/- SE), European hake (0.59 +/- 0.14 mg/kg), red mullet (0.48 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), blue whiting (0.38 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), Atlantic mackerel (0.36 +/- 0.08 mg/kg) and European flying squid (0.25 +/- 0.03 mg/kg). A significant difference (p < 0.01) was found between the levels of total mercury in Norway lobster and those detected in all other species. The 25% of all samples exceeded the maximum limit fixed by Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006. The results show that fish and fishery products can exceed the maximum levels and stress the need of more information for consumers in particular for people that eat large amount of fish.

  17. Levels of total mercury in marine organisms from Adriatic Sea, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Olivieri, Vincenzo; Amorena, Michele

    2009-08-01

    The presence of total mercury in fish, crustacean and cephalopod from Adriatic Sea, was investigated. The highest concentrations were observed in decreasing order in: Norway lobster (0.97 +/- 0.24 mg/kg; mean +/- SE), European hake (0.59 +/- 0.14 mg/kg), red mullet (0.48 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), blue whiting (0.38 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), Atlantic mackerel (0.36 +/- 0.08 mg/kg) and European flying squid (0.25 +/- 0.03 mg/kg). A significant difference (p < 0.01) was found between the levels of total mercury in Norway lobster and those detected in all other species. The 25% of all samples exceeded the maximum limit fixed by Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006. The results show that fish and fishery products can exceed the maximum levels and stress the need of more information for consumers in particular for people that eat large amount of fish. PMID:19434348

  18. Levels of total mercury in predatory fish sold in Canada in 2005.

    PubMed

    Dabeka, R W; McKenzie, A D; Forsyth, D S

    2011-06-01

    Total mercury was analysed in 188 samples of predatory fish purchased at the retail level in Canada in 2005. The average concentrations (ng g(-1), range) were: sea bass 329 (38-1367), red snapper 148 (36-431), orange roughy 543 (279-974), fresh water trout 55 (20-430), grouper 360 (8-1060), black cod 284 (71-651), Arctic char 37 (28-54), king fish 440 (42-923), tilefish 601 (79-1164) and marlin 854 (125-2346). The Canadian standard for maximum total mercury allowed in the edible portions of fish sold at the retail level is 1000 ng g(-1) for shark, swordfish, marlin, orange roughy, escolar and both fresh and frozen tuna. The standard is 500 ng g(-1) for all other types of fish. In this study, despite the small number of samples of each species, the 1000 ng g(-1) maximum was exceeded in five samples of marlin (28%). The 500 ng g(-1) maximum was exceeded by six samples of sea bass (20%), four of tilefish (50%), five of grouper (24%), six of king fish (40%) and one of black cod (13%). PMID:21623497

  19. Aerobic Denitrifying Bacteria That Produce Low Levels of Nitrous Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Takaya, Naoki; Catalan-Sakairi, Maria Antonina B.; Sakaguchi, Yasushi; Kato, Isao; Zhou, Zhemin; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2003-01-01

    Most denitrifiers produce nitrous oxide (N2O) instead of dinitrogen (N2) under aerobic conditions. We isolated and characterized novel aerobic denitrifiers that produce low levels of N2O under aerobic conditions. We monitored the denitrification activities of two of the isolates, strains TR2 and K50, in batch and continuous cultures. Both strains reduced nitrate (NO3−) to N2 at rates of 0.9 and 0.03 μmol min−1 unit of optical density at 540 nm−1 at dissolved oxygen (O2) (DO) concentrations of 39 and 38 μmol liter−1, respectively. At the same DO level, the typical denitrifier Pseudomonas stutzeri and the previously described aerobic denitrifier Paracoccus denitrificans did not produce N2 but evolved more than 10-fold more N2O than strains TR2 and K50 evolved. The isolates denitrified NO3− with concomitant consumption of O2. These results indicated that strains TR2 and K50 are aerobic denitrifiers. These two isolates were taxonomically placed in the β subclass of the class Proteobacteria and were identified as P. stutzeri TR2 and Pseudomonas sp. strain K50. These strains should be useful for future investigations of the mechanisms of denitrifying bacteria that regulate N2O emission, the single-stage process for nitrogen removal, and microbial N2O emission into the ecosystem. PMID:12788710

  20. SPONTANEOUS CATALYTIC WET AIR OXIDATION DURING PRE-TREATMENT OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Herman, C.; Pareizs, J.; Bannochie, C.; Best, D.; Bibler, N.; Fellinger, T.

    2009-10-01

    Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) operates the Defense Waste Processing Facility for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site. This facility immobilizes high-level radioactive waste through vitrification following chemical pretreatment. Catalytic destruction of formate and oxalate ions to carbon dioxide has been observed during qualification testing of non-radioactive analog systems. Carbon dioxide production greatly exceeded hydrogen production, indicating the occurrence of a process other than the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. Statistical modeling was used to relate the new reaction chemistry to partial catalytic wet air oxidation of both formate and oxalate ions driven by the low concentrations of palladium, rhodium, and/or ruthenium in the waste. Variations in process conditions led to increases or decreases in the total oxidative destruction, as well as partially shifting the preferred species undergoing destruction from oxalate ion to formate ion.

  1. Total antioxidant and oxidant status of plasma and renal tissue of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats: protection by floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pawan Kumar; Raina, Rajinder; Sultana, Mudasir; Singh, Maninder; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of plasma and renal tissue in cisplatin (cDDP) induced nephrotoxic rats and its protection by treatments with floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn. Treatment with cDDP elevated (p < 0.05) the levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine (CR), TOS, OSI and malondialdehyde (MDA) but lowered (p < 0.05) total plasma proteins, TAS, total thiols (TTH), blood glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes compared to the control group. Pre- and post-treatments of ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis along with cDDP restored (p > 0.05) CR, albumin, TOS, GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and renal tissue. Ethanolic extract treatments reduced (p < 0.05) MDA level in renal tissue without restoring the erythrocyte MDA level following cDDP treatment. These observations were further supported by the histopathological findings in renal tissue. Observations of the present study have shown that treatments with ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis protect cDDP induced nephrotoxicity by restoring antioxidant system of the renal tissue. PMID:26513373

  2. Total antioxidant and oxidant status of plasma and renal tissue of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats: protection by floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pawan Kumar; Raina, Rajinder; Sultana, Mudasir; Singh, Maninder; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of plasma and renal tissue in cisplatin (cDDP) induced nephrotoxic rats and its protection by treatments with floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn. Treatment with cDDP elevated (p < 0.05) the levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine (CR), TOS, OSI and malondialdehyde (MDA) but lowered (p < 0.05) total plasma proteins, TAS, total thiols (TTH), blood glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes compared to the control group. Pre- and post-treatments of ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis along with cDDP restored (p > 0.05) CR, albumin, TOS, GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and renal tissue. Ethanolic extract treatments reduced (p < 0.05) MDA level in renal tissue without restoring the erythrocyte MDA level following cDDP treatment. These observations were further supported by the histopathological findings in renal tissue. Observations of the present study have shown that treatments with ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis protect cDDP induced nephrotoxicity by restoring antioxidant system of the renal tissue.

  3. Quercetin Induces Hepatic Lipid Omega-Oxidation and Lowers Serum Lipid Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hoek-van den Hil, Elise F.; Keijer, Jaap; Bunschoten, Annelies; Vervoort, Jacques J. M.; Stankova, Barbora; Bekkenkamp, Melissa; Herreman, Laure; Venema, Dini; Hollman, Peter C. H.; Tvrzicka, Eva; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.; van Schothorst, Evert M.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated circulating lipid levels are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In order to examine the effects of quercetin on lipid metabolism, mice received a mild-high-fat diet without (control) or with supplementation of 0.33% (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Gas chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance were used to quantitatively measure serum lipid profiles. Whole genome microarray analysis of liver tissue was used to identify possible mechanisms underlying altered circulating lipid levels. Body weight, energy intake and hepatic lipid accumulation did not differ significantly between the quercetin and the control group. In serum of quercetin-fed mice, triglycerides (TG) were decreased with 14% (p<0.001) and total poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were increased with 13% (p<0.01). Palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were all decreased by 9–15% (p<0.05) in quercetin-fed mice. Both palmitic acid and oleic acid can be oxidized by omega (ω)-oxidation. Gene expression profiling showed that quercetin increased hepatic lipid metabolism, especially ω-oxidation. At the gene level, this was reflected by the up-regulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) 4a10, Cyp4a14, Cyp4a31 and Acyl-CoA thioesterase 3 (Acot3). Two relevant regulators, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por, rate limiting for cytochrome P450s) and the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3) were also up-regulated in the quercetin-fed mice. We conclude that quercetin intake increased hepatic lipid ω-oxidation and lowered corresponding circulating lipid levels, which may contribute to potential beneficial effects on CVD. PMID:23359794

  4. Evidence for two unlinked loci regulating total serum IgE levels.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J; Levitt, R C; Panhuysen, C I; Postma, D S; Taylor, E W; Amelung, P J; Holroyd, K J; Bleecker, E R; Meyers, D A

    1995-01-01

    Studies investigating the genetic control of total serum IgE levels are of major importance in understanding basic pathophysiologic mechanisms in atopy and asthma, since IgE levels predict onset and correlate with the clinical expression of these disorders. Previous analysis of data from 92 families, ascertained through a parent with asthma, showed evidence for recessive inheritance of high IgE levels with linkage to chromosome 5q. Since there was significant residual familial correlation in the one-locus segregation analysis, two-locus segregation and linkage analyses were performed. Segregation analyses provided evidence for a second major locus unlinked to the locus on 5q. Utilization of this two-locus model corroborates the previous evidence for linkage between this trait and markers on 5q31-q33. The LODs for the most informative marker D5S436 increased from 3.00 at 10% recombination to 4.67 at 9% recombination, when the two-locus model was used. Additional linkage studies are needed to map this second locus. These results demonstrate the importance of performing multilocus segregation and linkage analyses for quantitative traits that are related to the phenotype of a complex disorder. This approach has given further insight into the genetics of allergy and asthma by providing evidence for a two-locus model. PMID:7668269

  5. Evidence for two unlinked loci regulating total serum IgE levels

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Levitt, R.C.; Taylor, E.W.

    1995-08-01

    Studies investigating the genetic control of total serum IgE levels are of major importance in understanding basic pathophysiologic mechanisms in atopy and asthma, since IgE levels predict onset and correlate with the clinical expression of these disorders. Previous analysis of data from 92 families, ascertained through a parent with asthma, showed evidence for recessive inheritance of high IgE levels with linkage to chromosome 5q. Since there was significant residual familial correlation in the one-locus segregation analysis, two-locu segregation and linkage analyses were performed. Segregation analyses provided evidence for a second major locus unlinked to the locus on 5q. Utilization of this two-locus model corroborates the previous evidence for linkage between this trait and markers on 5q{sub 31}-q{sub 33}. The LODs for the most informative marker D5S436 increased from 3.00 at 10% recombination to 4.67 at 9% recombination when the two-locus model was used. Additional linkage studies are needed to map this second locus. These results demonstrate the importance of performing multilocus segregation and linkage analyses for quantitative traits that are related to the phenotype of a complex disorder. This approach has given further insight into the genetics of allergy and asthma by providing evidence for a two-locus model. 34 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Cough and exhaled nitric oxide levels: what happens with exercise?

    PubMed

    Petsky, Helen L; Kynaston, Jennifer Anne; McElrea, Margaret; Turner, Catherine; Isles, Alan; Chang, Anne B

    2013-01-01

    Cough associated with exertion is often used as a surrogate marker of asthma. However, to date there are no studies that have objectively measured cough in association with exercise in children. Our primary aim was to examine whether children with a pre-existing cough have an increase in cough frequency during and post-exercise. We hypothesized that children with any coughing illness will have an increase in cough frequency post-exercise regardless of the presence of exercise-induced broncho-constriction (EIB) or atopy. In addition, we hypothesized that Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels decreases post-exercise regardless of the presence of EIB or atopy. Children with chronic cough and a control group without cough undertook an exercise challenge, FeNO measurements and a skin prick test, and wore a 24-h voice recorder to objectively measure cough frequency. The association between recorded cough frequency, exercise, atopy, and presence of EIB was tested. We also determined if the change in FeNO post exercise related to atopy or EIB. Of the 50 children recruited (35 with cough, 15 control), 7 had EIB. Children with cough had a significant increase in cough counts (median 7.0, inter-quartile ranges, 0.5, 24.5) compared to controls (2.0, IQR 0, 5.0, p = 0.028) post-exercise. Presence of atopy or EIB did not influence cough frequency. FeNO level was significantly lower post-exercise in both groups but the change was not influenced by atopy or EIB. Cough post-exertion is likely a generic response in children with a current cough. FeNO level decreases post-exercise irrespective of the presence of atopy or EIB. A larger study is necessary confirm or refute our findings.

  7. Comparison of Total Antioxidant Capacity Oxidative Stress and Blood Lipoprotein Parameters in Volleyball Players and Sedentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokhan, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to measure, then compare sedentary blood lipoproteins, oxidant- antioxidant state and oxidative stress index in volleyball players. The experimental group of the research consists of regularly practising 20 boys between the ages of 12 and 17, and the control group comprises 32 children practising no particular sports branch, 12 of…

  8. The Determination of Total Nitrogen Oxides in Stack Gases. Phenoldisulfonic Acid Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Charles J. D.

    The well known Saltzman method for oxides of nitrogen is intended for the determination of these constituents in the ambient atmosphere in the range of a few parts per billion to about 5ppm. However, when sulfur dioxide is present in the gas to be sampled and/or the concentration range of the oxides of nitrogen is from five to several thousand…

  9. Measurements of nitric oxide and total reactive nitrogen in the Antarctic stratosphere - Observations and chemical implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, D. W.; Kelly, K. K.; Murphy, D. M.; Proffitt, M. H.; Eubank, C. S.; Ko, M. K. W.; Ferry, G. V.; Loewenstein, M.; Chan, K. R.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented on measurements of NO and the sum of reactive nitrogen species, NO(y), which include NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, and ClONO2 (in addition to ClO, O3, H2O, and N2O measurements), obtained aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft flying over the Antarctica between the latitudes of 53 and 72 deg S during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. The boundary of the chemically perturbed region (CPR), as indicated by a sharp increase in the level of ClO, occurred near 66 deg S; outside or equatorward of the CPR, the NO(y) mixing ratios ranged between 6 and 12 ppbv, with values decreasing poleward and reaching total NO(y) levels of 4 ppbv or less within 5-deg poleward of the boundary. Data presented in this paper clearly associate the Antarctic ozone decrease with perturbed conditions of ClO, NO(y), and H2O, which are in turn associated with processes defined as nonstandard heterogeneous chemistry, denitrification, and dehydration, respectively.

  10. [Correlation of fat content and dioxins, total mercury and methyl mercury levels in tuna].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hiroyuki; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Kumiko; Iketsu, Ayumi; Inasaki, Mizue; Kubota, Emi; Toyoda, Masatake

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the concentrations of mercury and dioxins in tuna with various fat contents (akami; the leaner meat, Chutoro; the belly area of the tuna along the side of the fish between the akami and the otoro. Otoro; the fattiest portion of the tuna) in wild and farmed bluefin tuna and farmed southern bluefin tuna. In the three kinds of tuna, average dioxins concentrations in Akami, chutoro and otoro were 1.7, 4.7 and 9.6 pg TEQ/g, respectively. The dioxins concentration in all three regions of tuna was in direct proportion to the fat content. In the farmed bluefin tuna, the dioxins concentration was almost the same as that of the wild tuna, but differed from that of the farmed southern bluefin tuna. Average total mercury concentration based on wet weight in akami was 0.42 µg/g, being higher than the values of 0.36 µg/g of chutoro and 0.31 µg/g of otoro, and in inverse proportion to the fat content. In all three regions, the total mercury concentration of the wild bluefin tuna was equal to that of the farmed tuna. The total mercury concentration in the latter was two to three times higher than that of the farmed southern bluefin tuna. If the Japanese intake is one fin of tuna (80 g) a day, the daily intake levels of dioxins and methyl mercury can be estimated as 0.48-37 pg TEQ/kg bw and 0.21-0.90 µg/kg bw, respectively.

  11. [Correlation of fat content and dioxins, total mercury and methyl mercury levels in tuna].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hiroyuki; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Kumiko; Iketsu, Ayumi; Inasaki, Mizue; Kubota, Emi; Toyoda, Masatake

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the concentrations of mercury and dioxins in tuna with various fat contents (akami; the leaner meat, Chutoro; the belly area of the tuna along the side of the fish between the akami and the otoro. Otoro; the fattiest portion of the tuna) in wild and farmed bluefin tuna and farmed southern bluefin tuna. In the three kinds of tuna, average dioxins concentrations in Akami, chutoro and otoro were 1.7, 4.7 and 9.6 pg TEQ/g, respectively. The dioxins concentration in all three regions of tuna was in direct proportion to the fat content. In the farmed bluefin tuna, the dioxins concentration was almost the same as that of the wild tuna, but differed from that of the farmed southern bluefin tuna. Average total mercury concentration based on wet weight in akami was 0.42 µg/g, being higher than the values of 0.36 µg/g of chutoro and 0.31 µg/g of otoro, and in inverse proportion to the fat content. In all three regions, the total mercury concentration of the wild bluefin tuna was equal to that of the farmed tuna. The total mercury concentration in the latter was two to three times higher than that of the farmed southern bluefin tuna. If the Japanese intake is one fin of tuna (80 g) a day, the daily intake levels of dioxins and methyl mercury can be estimated as 0.48-37 pg TEQ/kg bw and 0.21-0.90 µg/kg bw, respectively. PMID:21071911

  12. Macadamia nut consumption lowers plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic men.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manohar L; Blake, Robert J; Wills, Ron B H

    2003-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the cholesterol-lowering potential of macadamia nuts. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic men (mean age 54 y) were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/d), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for 4 wk. Plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and homocysteine concentrations and the fatty acid composition of plasma lipids were determined before and after treatment. Plasma MUFA 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-7) and 20:1(n-9) were elevated after intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma (n-6) and (n-3) PUFA concentrations were unaffected by macadamia nut consumption. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased by 3.0 and 5.3%, respectively, and HDL cholesterol levels increased by 7.9% in hypercholesterolemic men after macadamia nut consumption. Plasma triglyceride and homocysteine concentrations were not affected by treatment. Macadamia nut consumption was associated with a significant increase in the relative intake of MUFA and a reduced relative intake of saturated fatty acids and PUFA. This study demonstrates that macadamia nut consumption as part of a healthy diet favorably modifies the plasma lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic men despite their diet being high in fat.

  13. Sleep Disturbance from Road Traffic, Railways, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Perron, Stéphane; Plante, Céline; Ragettli, Martina S; Kaiser, David J; Goudreau, Sophie; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-08-11

    The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related noise and total environmental noise on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on noise-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR) model. Distance of the respondent's residence to the nearest transportation noise source was also used as an indicator of noise exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental noise in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway noise was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road noise when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation noise sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation noise sources (railway, airplane and road traffic) and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental noise levels estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation noise.

  14. Macadamia nut consumption lowers plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic men.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manohar L; Blake, Robert J; Wills, Ron B H

    2003-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the cholesterol-lowering potential of macadamia nuts. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic men (mean age 54 y) were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/d), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for 4 wk. Plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and homocysteine concentrations and the fatty acid composition of plasma lipids were determined before and after treatment. Plasma MUFA 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-7) and 20:1(n-9) were elevated after intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma (n-6) and (n-3) PUFA concentrations were unaffected by macadamia nut consumption. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased by 3.0 and 5.3%, respectively, and HDL cholesterol levels increased by 7.9% in hypercholesterolemic men after macadamia nut consumption. Plasma triglyceride and homocysteine concentrations were not affected by treatment. Macadamia nut consumption was associated with a significant increase in the relative intake of MUFA and a reduced relative intake of saturated fatty acids and PUFA. This study demonstrates that macadamia nut consumption as part of a healthy diet favorably modifies the plasma lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic men despite their diet being high in fat. PMID:12672919

  15. Comparison of two methods of assessing total body water at sea level and increasing high altitude.

    PubMed

    Boos, C J; Holdsworth, D A; Hall, D P; Mellor, A; O'Hara, J; Woods, D R

    2014-11-01

    Fluid retention is a recognized feature of acute mountain sickness. However, accurate assessment of hydration, including the quantification of body water, has traditionally relied on expensive and non-portable equipment limiting its utility in the field setting. We compared the assessment of total body water (TBW) and their relationship to total body weight using two non-invasive methods using the NICas single-frequency bioimpedance analysis (SF-BIA) system and the BodyStat QuadScan 4000 multifrequency BIA system (MF-BIA). TBW measurements were performed at rest at sea level and at high altitude (HA) at 3833 m postexercise and at rest and thereafter at rest at 4450 m and 5129 m on 47 subjects. The average age was 34.5 ± 9.3 years with an age range of 21-54 years (70.2% male). There were strong correlations between TBW assessment with both methods at sea level (r = 0.90; 95% CI 0.78-0.95: P<0.0001) and at HA (r = 0.92; 0.89-0.94: P<0.0001), however, TBW readings were 0.2 l and 1.91 l lower, respectively, with the NICaS. There was a stronger correlation between TBW and body weight with the QuadScan (r = 0.91; P<0.0001) than with the NICaS (r = 0.83; P<0.0001). The overall agreement between the two TBW methods was good, but the 95% confidence intervals around these agreements were relatively wide. We conclude that there was reasonable agreement between the two methods of BIA for TBW, but this agreement was lower at HA.

  16. Measurements of nitric oxide and total reactive nitrogen in the Antarctic stratosphere: Observations and chemical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Fahey, D.W.; Kelly, K.K. ); Murphy, D.M.; Proffitt, M.H.; Eubank, C.S. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder ); Ko, M.K.W. ); Ferry, G.V.; Lowenstein, M.; Chan, K.R. )

    1989-11-30

    Measurements of NO and the sum of reactive nitrogen species, NO{sub y}, were made as part of the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) on flights of the NASA ER-2 aircraft over the Antarctic continent. Reactive nitrogen species include NO,NO{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O{sub 5}, HNO{sub 3}, and ClONO{sub 2}. The technique utilized the conversion of NO{sub y} components to NO on a gold catalyst and the subsequent detection of NO by the chemiluminescent reaction of NO with O{sub 3}. NO was measured on two of the flights by removing the catalyst from the sample line. The boundary of a chemically perturbed region (CPR) above the continent occurred on average near 66{degree}S as indicated by a sharp increase in the level of ClO. Outside or equatorward of the CPR, NO{sub y} mixing ratios ranged between 6 and 12 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), with values increasing with latitude. At the edge of the CPR, large latitude gradients of NO{sub y}and NO were found with values decreasing poleward. Total NO{sub y} levels dropped to 4 ppbv or less within 5{degree} poleward of the boundary. NO values were 0.1-0.2 ppbv outside and below the detection limit of 0.03 ppbv inside the CPR. The levels of NO and NO{sub y} observed preclude a chemical loss of ozone due to reaction with NO.

  17. Twenty-Four Hour Total and Dietary Fat Oxidation in Lean, Obese and Reduced-Obese Adults with and without a Bout of Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Kealey, Elizabeth H.; Schmidt, Stacy L.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Bessesen, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that obese and reduced-obese individuals have decreased oxidative capacity, which contributes to weight gain and regain. Recent data have challenged this concept. Objective To determine (1) whether total and dietary fat oxidation are decreased in obese and reduced-obese adults compared to lean but increase in response to an acute exercise bout and (2) whether regular physical activity attenuates these metabolic alterations. Design We measured 24-hr total (whole-room calorimetry) and dietary fat (14C-oleate) oxidation in Sedentary Lean (BMI = 21.5±1.6; n = 10), Sedentary Obese (BMI = 33.6±2.5; n = 9), Sedentary Reduced-Obese (RED-SED; BMI = 26.9±3.7; n = 7) and in Physically Active Reduced-Obese (RED-EX; BMI = 27.3±2.8; n = 12) men and women with or without an acute exercise bout where energy expended during exercise was not replaced. Results Although Red-SED and Red-EX had a similar level of fatness, aerobic capacity and metabolic profiles were better in Red-EX only compared to Obese subjects. No significant between-group differences were seen in 24-hr respiratory quotient (RQ, Lean: 0.831±0.044, Obese: 0.852±0.023, Red-SED: 0.864±0.037, Red-EX: 0.842±0.039), total and dietary fat oxidation. A single bout of exercise increased total (+27.8%, p<0.0001) and dietary (+6.6%, p = 0.048) fat oxidation across groups. Although exercise did not impact RQ during the day, it decreased RQ during sleep (p = 0.01) in all groups. Red-EX oxidized more fat overnight than Red-SED subjects under both resting (p = 0.036) and negative energy balance (p = 0.003) conditions, even after adjustment for fat-free mass. Conclusion Obese and reduced-obese individuals oxidize as much fat as lean both under eucaloric and negative energy balance conditions, which does not support the hypothesis of reduced oxidative capacity in these groups. Reduced-obese individuals who exercise regularly have markers of

  18. Chronic social isolation decreases glutamate and glutamine levels and induces oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yuan; Yan, Gen; Xuan, Yinghua; Peng, Hui; Huang, Qing-Jun; Wu, Renhua; Xu, Haiyun

    2015-04-01

    Social isolation (SI) rearing of rodents is a developmental manipulation, which is commonly compared with the psychological stressors in humans as it produces several behavioral outcomes similar to those observed in humans with early life stress. To explain the SI-induced behavioral outcomes, animal studies have been performed to examine the dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems in the brain. In this study, we measured possible changes in levels of glutamate and glutamine of SI-rats using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We also assessed the oxidative stress parameters in certain brain regions to see if glutamate and/or glutamine changes, if any, are associated with oxidative stress. SI rearing for 8 weeks decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and the total antioxidant capacity, but increased levels of hydrogen peroxide, in certain brain regions, of which prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were most vulnerable. It also decreased levels of glutamate, glutamine, N-acetyl-l-aspartate (NAA), and phosphocreatine in the dorsal hippocampus, but not in the cerebral cortex. Decreased phosphocreatine and NAA indicate energy metabolism deficit in brain cells; the latter also suggests the neuronal viability was inhibited. Decreased glutamate and glutamine may suggest the neuron-glial integrity was implicated by chronic SI. These neurochemical and biochemical changes may contribute to the SI-induced behavioral abnormalities including a high level of anxiety, social interaction deficit, and impaired spatial working memory shown in this study.

  19. Early postoperative albumin level following total knee arthroplasty is associated with acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ha-Jung; Koh, Won-Uk; Kim, Sae-Gyeol; Park, Hyeok-Seong; Song, Jun-Gol; Ro, Young-Jin; Yang, Hong-Seuk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypoalbuminemia has been reported to be an independent risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI). However, little is known about the relationship between the albumin level and the incidence of AKI in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of our study was to assess incidence and risk factors for AKI and to evaluate the relationship between albumin level and AKI following TKA. The study included a retrospective review of medical records of 1309 consecutive patients who underwent TKA between January 2008 and December 2014. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the lowest serum albumin level within 2 postoperative days (POD2_alb level < 3.0 g/dL vs ≥3.0 g/dL). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors for AKI. A comparison of incidence of AKI, hospital stay, and overall mortality in the 2 groups was performed using propensity score analysis. Of 1309 patients, 57 (4.4%) developed AKI based on Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Factors associated with AKI included age (odds ratio [OR] 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.09; P = 0.030), diabetes (OR 3.12; 95% CI 1.65–5.89; P < 0.001), uric acid (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.26–1.82; P < 0.001), beta blocker use (OR 2.65; 95% CI 1.48–4.73; P = 0.001), diuretics (OR 16.42; 95% CI 3.08–87.68; P = 0.001), and POD2_alb level < 3.0 g/dL (OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.09–3.37; P = 0.023). After propensity score analysis, POD2_alb level<3.0 g/dL was associated with AKI occurrence (OR 1.82; 95% CI 1.03–3.24, P = 0.041) and longer hospital stay (P = 0.001). In this study, we demonstrated that POD2_alb level<3.0 g/dL was an independent risk factor for AKI and lengthened hospital stay in patients undergoing TKA. PMID:27495094

  20. Dependence of riverine nitrous oxide emissions on dissolved oxygen levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosamond, Madeline S.; Thuss, Simon J.; Schiff, Sherry L.

    2012-10-01

    Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas, and it destroys stratospheric ozone. Seventeen per cent of agricultural nitrous oxide emissions come from the production of nitrous oxide in streams, rivers and estuaries, in turn a result of inorganic nitrogen input through leaching, runoff and sewage. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and global nitrous oxide budgets assume that riverine nitrous oxide emissions increase linearly with dissolved inorganic nitrogen loads, but data are sparse and conflicting. Here we report measurements over two years of nitrous oxide emissions in the Grand River, Canada, a seventh-order temperate river that is affected by agricultural runoff and outflow from a waste-water treatment plant. Emissions were disproportionately high in urban areas and during nocturnal summer periods. Moreover, annual emission estimates that are based on dissolved inorganic nitrogen loads overestimated the measured emissions in a wet year and underestimated them in a dry year. We found no correlations of nitrous oxide emissions with nitrate or dissolved inorganic nitrogen, but detected negative correlations with dissolved oxygen, suggesting that nitrate concentrations did not limit emissions. We conclude that future increases in nitrate export to rivers will not necessarily lead to higher nitrous oxide emissions, but more widespread hypoxia most likely will.

  1. Effects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Tomruk, Arın; Canseven, Ayse G; Yücel, Engin; Aktuna, Zuhal; Keskil, Semih; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular phone radiation on oxidative stress parameters and oxide levels in mouse brain during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic seizure. Eight weeks old mice were used in the study. Animals were distributed in the following groups: Group I: Control group treated with PTZ, Group II: 15min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation, Group III: 30min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation. The RF radiation was produced by a 900MHz cellular phone. Lipid peroxidation, which is the indicator of oxidative stress was quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by the Ellman method. Tissue total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were obtained using the Griess assay. Lipid peroxidation and NOx levels of brain tissue increased significantly in group II and III compared to group I. On the contrary, GSH levels were significantly lower in group II and III than group I. However, no statistically significant alterations in any of the endpoints were noted between group II and Group III. Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that cellular phone radiation may increase the oxidative damage and NOx level during epileptic activity in mouse brain.

  2. Effects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Tomruk, Arın; Canseven, Ayse G; Yücel, Engin; Aktuna, Zuhal; Keskil, Semih; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular phone radiation on oxidative stress parameters and oxide levels in mouse brain during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic seizure. Eight weeks old mice were used in the study. Animals were distributed in the following groups: Group I: Control group treated with PTZ, Group II: 15min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation, Group III: 30min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation. The RF radiation was produced by a 900MHz cellular phone. Lipid peroxidation, which is the indicator of oxidative stress was quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by the Ellman method. Tissue total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were obtained using the Griess assay. Lipid peroxidation and NOx levels of brain tissue increased significantly in group II and III compared to group I. On the contrary, GSH levels were significantly lower in group II and III than group I. However, no statistically significant alterations in any of the endpoints were noted between group II and Group III. Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that cellular phone radiation may increase the oxidative damage and NOx level during epileptic activity in mouse brain. PMID:26836107

  3. Sleep Disturbance from Road Traffic, Railways, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Perron, Stéphane; Plante, Céline; Ragettli, Martina S; Kaiser, David J; Goudreau, Sophie; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related noise and total environmental noise on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on noise-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR) model. Distance of the respondent's residence to the nearest transportation noise source was also used as an indicator of noise exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental noise in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway noise was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road noise when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation noise sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation noise sources (railway, airplane and road traffic) and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental noise levels estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation noise. PMID:27529260

  4. Sleep Disturbance from Road Traffic, Railways, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels in Montreal

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Stéphane; Plante, Céline; Ragettli, Martina S.; Kaiser, David J.; Goudreau, Sophie; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related noise and total environmental noise on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on noise-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR) model. Distance of the respondent’s residence to the nearest transportation noise source was also used as an indicator of noise exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental noise in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway noise was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road noise when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation noise sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation noise sources (railway, airplane and road traffic) and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental noise levels estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation noise. PMID:27529260

  5. Biochemical assessments of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, pyridoxal--5-phosphate oxidative stress index and total antioxidant status in adolescent professional basketball players and sedentary controls.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Necat; Erel, Ozcan; Hazer, Muhsin; Bağci, Cahit; Namiduru, Emine; Gül, Ece

    2007-01-01

    Physical training is known to increase the antioxidant defence system and reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress. However, intense physical aerobic and anaerobic training with competition, such as those imposed on young professional basketball players can induce an increase of oxidative stress, which can be implicated with overtraining. The aim of this study was to test the effect of training and competition load on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and vitamin levels in basketball players. Oxidative Stres Index (OSI 1), Total Peroxide (TPx) antioxidant (vitamin E, A and The total antioxidant status (TAC 1)), biochemical lipid parameters, as well as training results were measured. Results showed that all plasma vitamin levels were significantly higher in basketball players (vitamin A: 1.61 +/- 0.05 mmol/l, vitamin E: 26.45 +/- 0.72 mmol/l, vitamin B6: 10.58 +/- 0.7 mgr/l) than sedentary controls (vitamin A: 1.22 +/- 0.04 mmol /l, vitamin E: 19.24 +/- 0.73 mmol/l, vitamin B6: 6.0 +/- 0.35 mgr/l) (p < 0.01). In addition TAC 1 was 2.06 +/- 0.02 and 1.89 +/- 0.01 mmol Trolox eq/L in basketball players and controls, respectively (p < 0.01). Conversely OSI was 0.89 +/- 0.09 arbitrary unit and 0.88 +/- 0.071 arbitrary unit in basketball players and controls, respectively (p > 0.05). However, total plasma peroxide level (TPx) of basketball players and controls was not statistically different (18.55 +/- 2.07 and 17.18 +/- 1.61 micromol H2O2/L, respectively; p > 0.05). We conclude that physical exercise increase antioxidant levels and cause balance of the homeostasis. Training can not have positive or negative effects on oxidative stress depending on training load. The results suggested that oxidative stress and antioxidant measurement are significant in the biological follow-up of young basketball players.

  6. Does bearing size influence metal ion levels in large-head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty? A comparison of three total hip systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was twofold: first, to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference in the metal ion levels among three different large-head metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip systems. The second objective was to assess whether position of the implanted prostheses, patient demographics or factors such as activity levels influence overall blood metal ion levels and whether there is a difference in the functional outcomes between the systems. Methods In a cross-sectional cohort study, three different metal-on-metal total hip systems were assessed: two monoblock heads, the Durom socket (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN, USA) and the Birmingham socket (Smith and Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA), and one modular metal-on-metal total hip system (Pinnacle, Depuy Orthopedics, Warsaw, IN, USA). Fifty-four patients were recruited, with a mean age of 59.7 years and a mean follow-up time of 41 months (12 to 60). Patients were evaluated clinically, radiologically and biochemically. Statistical analysis was performed on all collected data to assess any differences between the three groups in terms of overall blood metal ion levels and also to identify whether there was any other factor within the group demographics and outcomes that could influence the mean levels of Co and Cr. Results Although the functional outcome scores were similar in all three groups, the blood metal ion levels in the larger monoblock large heads (Durom, Birmingham sockets) were significantly raised compared with those of the Pinnacle group. In addition, the metal ion levels were not found to have a statistically significant relationship to the anteversion or abduction angles as measured on the radiographs. Conclusions When considering a MOM THR, the use of a monoblock large-head system leads to higher elevations in whole blood metal ions and offers no advantage over a smaller head modular system. PMID:24472283

  7. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Level-3 Data Products User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, Richard D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Herman, Jay R.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.; Seftor, Colin J.; Byerly, William; Celarier, Edward A.

    2000-01-01

    Data from the TOMS series of instruments span the time period from November 1978, through the present with about a one and a-half year gap from January 1994 through July 1996. A set of four parameters derived from the TOMS measurements have been archived in the form of daily global maps or Level-3 data products. These products are total column ozone, effective surface reflectivity, aerosol index, and erythermal ultraviolet estimated at the Earth surface. A common fixed grid of I degree latitude by 1.25 degree longitude cells over the entire globe is provided daily for each parameter. These data are archived at the Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAQ in Hierarchical Data Format (HDF). They are also available in a character format through the TOMS web site at http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov. The derivations of the parameters, the mapping algorithm, and the data formats are described. The trend uncertainty for individual TOMS instruments is about 1% decade, but additional uncertainty exists in the combined data record due to uncertainty in the relative calibrations of the various TOMS.

  8. Effect of Preoperative Vitamin D Levels on Functional Performance after Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Aniket Machindra; Maniar, Adit Rajesh; Gangaraju, Bharat; Singh, Jaivardhan

    2016-01-01

    Background Low vitamin D levels affects muscle function. Vitamin D and calcium deficiency cause osteomalacic myopathy and poor functional recovery after hip fractures. The relationship of vitamin D and functional performance after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is not previously reported. Methods Influence of vitamin D on functional performance before and after TKA was reviewed retrospectively in 120 patients. Of these, 64 had vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxy vitamin D < 30 ng/mL) preoperatively. All 120 patients received vitamin D oral supplementation postoperatively. Functional parameters including Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Short-Form Health Survey questionnaire, and Knee Society Score were assessed pre- and postoperatively at 3 months. Results Preoperative function was significantly lower in osteoarthritic patients with vitamin D deficiency (WOMAC score; p = 0.040), but at 3 months all functional scores were similar. Conclusions We concluded that vitamin D deficiency has a negative effect on function in knee osteoarthritic patients. However, postoperative vitamin D supplementation can lead to functional recovery in these patients. Thus, TKA should not be delayed in vitamin D deficient patients; rather supplementation in the postoperative period is preferable to achieve comparable functional outcome at 3 months to patients with vitamin D sufficiency. PMID:27247739

  9. Pomegranate juice consumption increases GSH levels and reduces lipid and protein oxidation in human blood.

    PubMed

    Matthaiou, Chrysoula M; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Sarafoglou, Eleni; Jamurtas, Athanasios; Koulocheri, Sofia D; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was the assessment of the antioxidant effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) consumption in humans. Thus, 14 healthy volunteers consumed PJ daily for a period of 15days and the changes of oxidative stress markers in their blood were assessed at four different time points, immediately before the experiment (T1), after 15days of juice administration (T2), one (T3) and three weeks (T4) after the interruption of PJ administration. The markers studied were total antioxidant capacity (TAC), levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyls (CARB) measured in plasma, as well as reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase activity (CAT) measured in erythrocytes. The MDA was reduced by 24.4% at T3 and CARB were reduced by 19.6% and 17.7% at T2 and T3, respectively, supporting the evidence that PJ consumption enhances the antioxidant status in humans by decreasing lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. Moreover, GSH levels were significantly increased (22.6%) at T2, indicating that PJ consumption improves the antioxidant mechanisms in erythrocytes by increasing GSH levels. Finally, it was shown that even a week after stopping PJ consumption some of its beneficial effects on antioxidant status still remained in the organism.

  10. Oxidative allylic rearrangement of cycloalkenols: Formal total synthesis of enantiomerically pure trisporic acid B

    PubMed Central

    Dubberke, Silke; Abbas, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Summary Enantiomerically highly enriched unsaturated β-ketoesters bearing a quaternary stereocenter can be utilized as building blocks for the synthesis of natural occurring terpenes, i. a., trisporic acid and its derivatives. An advanced building block has been synthesized in a short reaction sequence, which involves an oxidative allylic rearrangement initiated by pyridinium dichromate (PDC) as the key step. PMID:21512603

  11. Reduced antioxidant level and increased oxidative damage in intact liver lobes during ischaemia-reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Váli, László; Taba, Gabriella; Szentmihályi, Klára; Fébel, Hedvig; Kurucz, Tímea; Pallai, Zsolt; Kupcsulik, Péter; Blázovics, Anna

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether increased blood flow of the liver can cause oxidative stress and hepatocyte damage, and to elaborate methods suitable for measuring the antioxidant defence during hepatic surgery on rat model. METHODS: In nembutal narcosis, the left lateral and the medial lobes of the liver were clipped for 45 min to make the total blood supply flow through the other lobes. Total antioxidant status, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dysmutase activity, as well as the concentrations of diene conjugates and free sulphydril groups, H-donating ability and reducing power of the liver samples were determined. Chemiluminescent intensity of the liver was also measured. Metal ions (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn) and P and S concentrations of the liver were determined with an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and Se content was measured by cathodic stripping voltammetry. RESULTS: Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dysmutase activities of the liver decreased significantly in the hyperemia group compared to those observed in the sham operated group. The level of total antioxidant status was also significantly lower in the hyperemia group. H-donating ability, reducing power and free sulphydril group concentration showed the same tendency. A significant correlation (P<0.05) was found between the changes in non-specific antioxidant activities. This pointed to simultaneous activity of the antioxidant defence system. Al, Cu, Mn, Zn, and S were lower in the hyperemia group than in the sham operated group when the levels of Ca, Fe, Mg, Se and P ions were higher during hyperemia. CONCLUSION: Oxidative stress is one of the main factors for the injury of intact liver lobes during ischaemia-reperfusion. PMID:16534850

  12. Investigating Storm-Induced Total Water Levels on Complex Barred Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, N.; Ruggiero, P.; Walstra, D.

    2013-12-01

    Water levels in coastal environments are not static, but rather vary from a range of factors including mean sea level, tides, storm surge, and wave runup. Cumulatively these superimposed factors determine the total water level (TWL), the extent of which has major implications for coastal erosion and inundation during periods of high energy. Storm-induced, super-elevated water levels pose a threat to low lying coastal regions, as clearly demonstrated by recent events such as Hurricanes Sandy and Katrina. For this reason, the ability to accurately predict the TWL is crucial for both emergency managers and coastal planners. While some components of TWL are well understood (e.g., tides) there is still significant uncertainty in predicting runup, a process that can be a major contributor to instantaneous TWLs. Traditionally, empirical relationships derived from observational field data have been used to estimate runup, including wave setup and both incident and infragravity swash (Stockdon et al., 2006). While these formulations have shown skill in predicting the runup extent on natural beaches, these equations consider only the most basic contributing factors - namely the mean foreshore beach slope, the offshore wave height, and offshore wave period. Not included in these empirical estimates is the role of nearshore morphology on TWLs. However, it has long been recognized that nearshore sandbars act as natural barriers to coastal erosion during storm events by dissipating wave energy far from the beach face. Nonetheless, the influence of nearshore morphology on inner surf zone processes, including wave runup, is poorly understood. Recent pioneering studies (eg., Soldini et al., 2013 and Stephens et al., 2011) have explored the role of simple nearshore features (single Gaussian bars) on swash processes. Many locations in the world, however, are characterized by more complex morphologies such as multiple barred systems. Further, in many such places, including Columbia

  13. [Investigation of the relationship between serum nitric oxide levels, HBV-DNA and ALT levels in chronic hepatitis B patients].

    PubMed

    Sener, Asli Gamze; Kirdar, Sevin; Serter, Mukadder; Afşar, Ilhan; Demir, Ece Mine; Ceylan, Cengiz; Aydin, Neriman

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that increased nitric oxide (NO) production by the hepatocytes during chronic inflammatory processes, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum levels of NOx (nitrite + nitrate) with the viral load and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. A total of 93 CHB patients (67 male, 26 female; mean age: 47.3 +/- 10.9 years) and 53 healthy control subjects (17 male, 36 female; mean age: 58.6 +/- 2.1 years) followed-up during 2006-2007 period were included to the study. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) serologic markers, viral load and ALT levels were studied by chemiluminescence method (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, USA), by real-time polimerase chain reaction (PCR) (ABI PRISM 7700, Applied Biosystem, CA), and by Aeroset System (Abbott Laboratories, USA), respectively. NOx levels were determined by a method which was based on the reduction of nitrate to nitrite by cadmium. Mean levels of ALT and HBV-DNA of the patients were found as 98.7 +/- 138.4 IU/I and 1.6 x 10(9) +/- 4.0 x 10(9) copies/ml, respectively. In the evaluation of mean levels of NOx in patient and control groups, the difference was found statistically significant (30.6 +/- 21.7 micromol/l and 23.7 +/- 5.2 micromol/l, respectively; p< 0.05). In view of the relationship between the parameters, a positive correlation was detected between viral load and ALT levels (r= 0.768; p< 0.001), besides the significant correlations between NOx and viral load, and NOx and ALT (r= 0.346, p= 0.001 and r= 0.314, p= 0.002, respectively). As a result, although the NOx levels in chronic hepatitis patients were found higher than those in the control group, and significant correlations were detected between NO, viral load and ALT, the exact role of NO in the disease pathogenesis and outcome needs to be studied further at cellular level. PMID:19334384

  14. Oxidation in Environments with Elevated CO2 Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon H. Holcomb

    2009-05-01

    Efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil energy power productions focus primarily on either pre- or post-combustion removal of CO2. The research presented here examines corrosion and oxidation issues associated with two types of post-combustion CO2 removal processes—oxyfuel combustion in refit boilers and oxyfuel turbines.

  15. Characterization of cardiac oxidative stress levels in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Okada, Ayako; Kashima, Yuichiro; Tomita, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Takahiro; Aizawa, Kazunori; Takahashi, Masafumi; Ikeda, Uichi

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with oxidative stress and elevated brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels. However, the exact cardiac origin of oxidative stress and its association with BNP levels in AF patients remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the chamber-specific plasma oxidative stress levels in patients with paroxysmal AF (PAF) and persistent AF (PSAF). Diacron-reactive oxygen metabolite (dROM) levels were measured in patients with PAF (n = 50) and PSAF (n = 35) at different cardiac sites before ablation and in peripheral vein 3 months after ablation. For all sites, dROM levels were higher in PSAF patients than in PAF patients; the levels were the highest in the coronary sinus at 429.0 (interquartile range: 392.0-449.0) vs. 374.0 (357.0-397.8) Carratelli units (P < 0.05). dROM levels in the coronary sinus were related to the BNP levels (r = 0.436, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the reduction in the peripheral dROM levels was related to that in the peripheral BNP levels in patients with symptomatic improvement (r = 0.473, P < 0.001). Cardiac oxidative stress may either be a cause or consequence of prolonged AF, and cardiac oxidative stress levels correlated with BNP levels, though a possible source of oxidative stress in AF patients may be systemic circulation.

  16. Changes in oxidative stress in response to different levels of energy restriction in obese ponies.

    PubMed

    Bruynsteen, Lien; Janssens, Geert P J; Harris, Patricia A; Duchateau, Luc; Valle, Emanuela; Odetti, Patrizio; Vandevelde, Kimberley; Buyse, Johan; Hesta, Myriam

    2014-10-28

    The present study evaluated the effect of different levels of energy restriction on metabolic parameters in obese ponies. Relative weight changes, markers of lipid metabolism and oxidant/antioxidant balance were monitored. A total of eighteen obese (body condition score ≥ 7/9) Shetland ponies were studied over a 23·5-week trial, which was divided into three periods. The first period involved a 4-week adaptation period in which each animal was fed 100% of their maintenance energy requirements needed to maintain a stable obese body weight (MERob). This was followed by a 16·5-week weight-loss period in which ponies were assigned to receive either 100% (control group, CONTROL), 80% (slow weight-loss (SLOW) group) or 60% (rapid weight-loss (RAPID) group) of their MERob. During the 3-week end-phase period, all ponies were again fed 100% of their MERob. Relative weight loss was higher in the RAPID group (P< 0·001) compared with the SLOW group. No linear relationship was found as a doubling of the percentage of energy restriction was accompanied by a tripling of the percentage of weight loss. Relative weight gain afterwards in the end-phase period was higher in the RAPID group (P< 0·001) compared with the SLOW and CONTROL groups. During the weight-loss period, TAG and NEFA concentrations were highest in the RAPID group, as were α-tocopherol and ferric-reducing ability of plasma concentrations. After 8 weeks of weight loss, the concentrations of advanced oxidation protein products were higher in the RAPID group compared with the SLOW and CONTROL groups (P< 0·001). In conclusion, the level of energy restriction influences the extent of changes in oxidant/antioxidant balance. Practically, more severe energy restriction regimens may be associated with a greater regain of weight after the restriction period. PMID:25181634

  17. Levels of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and total phthalate esters in milk, cream, butter and cheese.

    PubMed

    Sharman, M; Read, W A; Castle, L; Gilbert, J

    1994-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and total phthalate ester plasticizer levels were determined in milk, cream, butter and cheese samples from a variety of sources from three European countries (UK, Norway and Spain). Samples of milk (from Norway) obtained at various stages during collection, transportation and packaging operations showed no apparent trends in phthalate contamination with total phthalate levels (expressed as DEHP equivalents) in the raw milk of between 0.12 and 0.28 mg/kg. On processing the DEHP was concentrated in the cream at levels up to 1.93 mg/kg, whereas low fat milk contained from < 0.01 to 0.07 mg/kg. Retail dairy products (from Spain) were contaminated with < 0.01-0.55 mg/kg DEHP with a maximum total phthalate level of 3.0 mg/kg in cream samples. UK pooled milk samples from doorstep delivery (obtained from different regions of the country) contained low levels of DEHP (< 0.01-0.09 mg/kg) and total phthalate (0.06-0.32 mg/kg). Retail UK samples of cheese, butter and other fatty products varied considerably in their levels of contamination, the highest being cheese samples containing 17 mg/kg of DEHP and 114 mg/kg total phthalate. However, the majority of samples contained 0.6-3.0 mg/kg DEHP and 4-20 mg/kg total phthalate. UK cream samples contained levels of 0.2-2.7 mg/kg DEHP and 1.8-19.0 mg/kg total phthalate. The level found in these products was too high to have resulted solely from milk by concentration in the fat phase and must therefore have arisen in other ways.

  18. Effect of vitamin E and C supplementation on oxidative damage and total antioxidant capacity in lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Rendón-Ramírez, Adela-Leonor; Maldonado-Vega, María; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Hernández, Gerardo; Arévalo-Rivas, Bertha-Isabel; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    The molecular response of the antioxidant system and the effects of antioxidant supplementation against oxidative insult in lead-exposed workers has not been sufficiently studied. In this work, antioxidants (vitamin E 400 IU+vitamin C 1g/daily) were supplemented for one year to 15 workers exposed to lead (73 μg of lead/dl of blood) and the results were compared with those on 19 non-lead exposed workers (6.7 μg of lead/dl). Lead intoxication was accompanied by a high oxidative damage and an increment in the erythrocyte antioxidant response due to increased activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Antioxidant supplementations decreased significantly the oxidative damage as well as the total antioxidant capacity induced by lead intoxication with reduction of the antioxidant enzyme activities. We conclude that antioxidant supplementation is effective in reducing oxidative damage and induces modifications in the physiopathological status of the antioxidant response in lead-exposed workers.

  19. Systems-level characterization and engineering of oxidative stress tolerance in Escherichia coli under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kang, Aram; Tan, Mui Hua; Ling, Hua; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2013-02-01

    Despite many prior studies on microbial response to oxidative stress, our understanding of microbial tolerance against oxidative stress is currently limited to aerobic conditions, and few engineering strategies have been devised to resolve toxicity issues of oxidative stress under anaerobic conditions. Since biological processes, such as anaerobic fermentation, are frequently hampered by toxicity arising from oxidative stress, increased microbial tolerance against oxidative stress improves the overall productivity and yield of biological processes. Here, we show a systems-level analysis of oxidative stress response of Escherichia coli under anaerobic conditions, and present an engineering strategy to improve oxidative stress tolerance. First, we identified essential cellular mechanisms and regulatory factors underlying oxidative stress response under anaerobic conditions using a transcriptome analysis. In particular, we showed that nitrogen metabolisms and respiratory pathways were differentially regulated in response to oxidative stress under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Further, we demonstrated that among transcription factors with oxidative stress-derived perturbed activity, the deletion of arcA and arcB significantly improved oxidative stress tolerance under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively, whereas fnr was identified as an essential transcription factor for oxidative stress tolerance under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, we showed that oxidative stress increased the intracellular NADH : NAD(+) ratio under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, which indicates a regulatory role of NADH in oxidative stress tolerance. Based on this finding, we demonstrated that increased NADH availability through fdh1 overexpression significantly improved oxidative stress tolerance under aerobic conditions. Our results here provide novel insight into better understanding of cellular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress tolerance under anaerobic conditions, and

  20. RT-MATRIX: Measuring Total Organic Carbon by Photocatalytic Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) inevitably accumulate in enclosed habitats such as the International Space Station and the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) as a result of human metabolism, material off-gassing, and leaking equipment. Some VOCs can negatively affect the quality of the crew's life, health, and performance; and consequently, the success of the mission. Air quality must be closely monitored to ensure a safe living and working environment. Currently, there is no reliable air quality monitoring system that meets NASA's stringent requirements for power, mass, volume, or performance. The ultimate objective of the project -- the development of a Real-Time, Miniaturized, Autonomous Total Risk Indicator System (RT.MATRIX).is to provide a portable, dual-function sensing system that simultaneously determines total organic carbon (TOC) and individual contaminants in air streams.

  1. Association between Plasma PFOA and PFOS Levels and Total Cholesterol in a Middle-Aged Danish Population

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Lipworth, Loren; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are used in a variety of consumer products and have been detected worldwide in human blood. Recent studies mainly of highly exposed populations have indicated that PFOA and PFOS may affect serum cholesterol levels, but the magnitude of the effect may be inconsistent across exposure levels. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between plasma PFOA and PFOS and total cholesterol in a general, middle-aged Danish population. The study population comprised 753 individuals (663 men and 90 women), 50–65 years of age, nested within a Danish cohort of 57,053 participants. Blood samples were taken from all cohort members at enrolment (1993–1997) and stored in a biobank at -150°C. Plasma levels of PFOA and PFOS and serum levels of total cholesterol were measured. The associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol levels were analysed by generalized linear models, both crude and adjusted for potential confounders. We observed statistically significant positive associations between both perfluorinated compounds and total cholesterol, e.g. a 4.4 [95% CI  =  1.1–7.8] higher concentration of total cholesterol (mg/dL) per interquartile range of PFOA plasma level. Sex and prevalent diabetes appeared to modify the association between PFOA and PFOS, respectively, and cholesterol. In conclusion, this study indicated positive associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol in a middle-aged Danish population, although whether the observed pattern of results reflects a causal association is unclear. PMID:23441227

  2. Community-Level Effects of Excess Total Dissolved Solids Doses Using Model Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Model stream chronic dosing studies (42 days) were conducted with four different total dissolved solids (TDS) recipes. The recipes differed in their relative dominance of major ions. One was made from sodium and calcium chloride salts only. Another was similar to the first, but a...

  3. Integrating Total Physical Response Strategy in a Level I Spanish Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David E.; Jones, Gwendolyn

    1982-01-01

    Reports on an experiment in which one group of high school students was taught using Total Physical Response (TPR) for 20 minutes a day and a control group was taught by the usual manner. Results showed students in the TPR group scored better on standard unit tests and expressed greater satisfaction with their teacher and course. (EKN)

  4. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on levels of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and in rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Tanay, A.; Schiffman, G.; Strober, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on serum levels of autoantibodies, and of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal polysaccharide in patients with lupus nephritis were compared with those previously observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Baseline levels of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid decreased significantly after TLI in patients with lupus and RA, but antibody levels to pneumococcal polysaccharide remained unchanged. After TLI, the levels of antinuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were reduced significantly in lupus, but levels of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, and antigranulocyte antibodies all tended to increase in RA.

  5. Low-level 14C methane oxidation rate measurements modified for remote field settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pack, M. A.; Pohlman, J.; Ruppel, C. D.; Xu, X.

    2012-12-01

    Aerobic methane oxidation limits atmospheric methane emissions from degraded subsea permafrost and dissociated methane hydrates in high latitude oceans. Methane oxidation rate measurements are a crucial tool for investigating the efficacy of this process, but are logistically challenging when working on small research vessels in remote settings. We modified a low-level 14C-CH4 oxidation rate measurement for use in the Beaufort Sea above hydrate bearing sediments during August 2012. Application of the more common 3H-CH4 rate measurement that uses 106 times more radioactivity was not practical because the R/V Ukpik cannot accommodate a radiation van. The low-level 14C measurement does not require a radiation van, but careful isolation of the 14C-label is essential to avoid contaminating natural abundance 14C measurements. We used 14C-CH4 with a total activity of 1.1 μCi, which is far below the 100 μCi permitting level. In addition, we modified field procedures to simplify and shorten sample processing. The original low-level 14C-CH4 method requires 6 steps in the field: (1) collect water samples in glass serum bottles, (2) inject 14C-CH4 into bottles, (3) incubate for 24 hours, (4) filter to separate the methanotrophic bacterial cells from the aqueous sample, (5) kill the filtrate with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and (6) purge with nitrogen to remove unused 14C-CH4. Onshore, the 14C-CH4 respired to carbon dioxide or incorporated into cell material by methanotrophic bacteria during incubation is quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). We conducted an experiment to test the possibility of storing samples for purging and filtering back onshore (steps 4 and 6). We subjected a series of water samples to steps 1-3 & 5, and preserved with mercuric chloride (HgCl2) instead of NaOH because HgCl2 is less likely to break down cell material during storage. The 14C-content of the carbon dioxide in samples preserved with HgCl2 and stored for up to 2 weeks was stable

  6. Effect of temperature on oxidative stress, antioxidant levels and uncoupling protein expression in striped hamsters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Si-Si; Cao, Li-Li; Xu, Wei-Dong; Cao, Jing; Zhao, Zhi-Jun

    2015-11-01

    According to the rate of living-free radical hypothesis, higher metabolic rates should increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, the "uncoupling to survive" hypothesis postulates that uncoupling proteins (UCPs) can decrease ROS production by lowering the potential of the inner mitochondrial membrane, in which case the correlation between metabolic rate and ROS levels would be a negative rather than positive. In this study, we examined energy intake, oxidative stress levels, antioxidant activity and the expression of UCPs in brown adipose tissue (BAT), and in the liver, heart, skeletal muscle and brain, of striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis) acclimated to either 5 °C or 32.5 °C. The energy intake of hamsters acclimated to 5 °C increased by 70.7%, whereas the energy intake of hamsters acclimated to 32.5 °C decreased by 31.3%, relative to hamsters kept at room temperature (21 °C) (P<0.05). Malonadialdehyde (MDA) levels, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity in BAT significantly decreased in 5 °C group, but increased in 32.5 °C group, relative to the 21 °C group. Neither ROS levels (i.e. H2O2 levels), nor antioxidants in skeletal muscle, liver, heart or brain tissue, were affected by temperature. UCP1 expression in BAT was significantly up-regulated in 5 °C group, but down-regulated in 32.5 °C group, relative to the 21 °C group. UCP3 expression of skeletal muscle was also up-regulated significantly in hamsters acclimated to 5 °C. These results suggest that the relationship between ROS levels and metabolic rate was negative, rather than positive. UCP1 expression in BAT may have played a role in lowering ROS levels. PMID:26244518

  7. Effect of temperature on oxidative stress, antioxidant levels and uncoupling protein expression in striped hamsters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Si-Si; Cao, Li-Li; Xu, Wei-Dong; Cao, Jing; Zhao, Zhi-Jun

    2015-11-01

    According to the rate of living-free radical hypothesis, higher metabolic rates should increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, the "uncoupling to survive" hypothesis postulates that uncoupling proteins (UCPs) can decrease ROS production by lowering the potential of the inner mitochondrial membrane, in which case the correlation between metabolic rate and ROS levels would be a negative rather than positive. In this study, we examined energy intake, oxidative stress levels, antioxidant activity and the expression of UCPs in brown adipose tissue (BAT), and in the liver, heart, skeletal muscle and brain, of striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis) acclimated to either 5 °C or 32.5 °C. The energy intake of hamsters acclimated to 5 °C increased by 70.7%, whereas the energy intake of hamsters acclimated to 32.5 °C decreased by 31.3%, relative to hamsters kept at room temperature (21 °C) (P<0.05). Malonadialdehyde (MDA) levels, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity in BAT significantly decreased in 5 °C group, but increased in 32.5 °C group, relative to the 21 °C group. Neither ROS levels (i.e. H2O2 levels), nor antioxidants in skeletal muscle, liver, heart or brain tissue, were affected by temperature. UCP1 expression in BAT was significantly up-regulated in 5 °C group, but down-regulated in 32.5 °C group, relative to the 21 °C group. UCP3 expression of skeletal muscle was also up-regulated significantly in hamsters acclimated to 5 °C. These results suggest that the relationship between ROS levels and metabolic rate was negative, rather than positive. UCP1 expression in BAT may have played a role in lowering ROS levels.

  8. Total Synthesis of Plakilactones C, B and des-Hydroxyplakilactone B by the Oxidative Cleavage of Gracilioether Furanylidenes.

    PubMed

    Norris, Matthew D; Perkins, Michael V

    2016-08-01

    A chemoselective oxidative cleavage of synthetic gracilioether B, 11-epi-gracilioether C benzoate, and des-hydroxygracilioether C with pyridinium chlorochromate, which proceeds with loss of the furanyl acetate, has enabled total synthesis and stereochemical elucidation of the marine sponge metabolites (4R,6R)-plakilactone C, (4R,6R,9R)-plakilactone B, and (4R,6R)-des-hydroxyplakilactone B. des-Hydroxygracilioether C, the putative biosynthetic precursor to hippolachnin A, was also found to undergo a facile ene cyclization on treatment with SnCl4. PMID:27359169

  9. Total Synthesis of Plakilactones C, B and des-Hydroxyplakilactone B by the Oxidative Cleavage of Gracilioether Furanylidenes.

    PubMed

    Norris, Matthew D; Perkins, Michael V

    2016-08-01

    A chemoselective oxidative cleavage of synthetic gracilioether B, 11-epi-gracilioether C benzoate, and des-hydroxygracilioether C with pyridinium chlorochromate, which proceeds with loss of the furanyl acetate, has enabled total synthesis and stereochemical elucidation of the marine sponge metabolites (4R,6R)-plakilactone C, (4R,6R,9R)-plakilactone B, and (4R,6R)-des-hydroxyplakilactone B. des-Hydroxygracilioether C, the putative biosynthetic precursor to hippolachnin A, was also found to undergo a facile ene cyclization on treatment with SnCl4.

  10. Total serum IgE level influences oral food challenge tests for IgE-mediated food allergies.

    PubMed

    Horimukai, K; Hayashi, K; Tsumura, Y; Nomura, I; Narita, M; Ohya, Y; Saito, H; Matsumoto, K

    2015-03-01

    Probability curves predicting oral food challenge test (OFC) results based on specific IgE levels are widely used to prevent serious allergic reactions. Although several confounding factors are known to affect probability curves, the main factors that affect OFC outcomes are currently unclear. We hypothesized that an increased total IgE level would reduce allergic reactivity. Medical records of 337 and 266 patients who underwent OFCs for 3.5 g boiled hen's egg white and 3.1 ml raw cow's milk, respectively, were examined retrospectively. We subdivided the patients into three groups based on total IgE levels and age by percentile (<25th, 25-75th, and >75th percentiles), and logistic regression analyses were performed on each group. Patients with higher total IgE levels were significantly less responsive. In addition, age did not significantly affect the OFC results. Therefore, total IgE levels should be taken into account when predicting OFC results based on food-specific IgE levels.

  11. Reduction in total plasma ghrelin levels following catecholamine depletion: relation to bulimic and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Homan, Philipp; Grob, Simona; Milos, Gabriella; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hasler, Gregor

    2013-09-01

    There is increasing preclinical and clinical evidence of the important role played by the gastric peptide hormone ghrelin in the pathogenesis of symptoms of depression and eating disorders. To investigate the role of ghrelin and its considered counterpart, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), in the development of bulimic and depressive symptoms induced by catecholamine depletion, we administered the tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor alpha-methyl-paratyrosine (AMPT) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover, single-site experimental trial to 29 healthy controls and 20 subjects with fully recovered bulimia nervosa (rBN). We found a decrease between preprandial and postprandial plasma ghrelin levels (p<0.0001) and a postprandial rise in plasma PYY levels (p<0.0001) in both conditions in the entire study population. Plasma ghrelin levels decreased in the entire study population after treatment with AMPT compared to placebo (p<0.006). AMPT-induced changes in plasma ghrelin levels were negatively correlated with AMPT-induced depressive symptoms (p<0.004). Plasma ghrelin and plasma PYY levels were also negatively correlated (p<0.05). We did not observe a difference in ghrelin or PYY response to catecholamine depletion between rBN subjects and healthy controls, and there was no correlation between plasma ghrelin and PYY levels and bulimic symptoms induced by catecholamine depletion. These findings suggest a relationship between catecholamines and ghrelin with depressive symptoms.

  12. KDM5 Interacts with Foxo to Modulate Cellular Levels of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingyin; Greer, Christina; Secombe, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Increased cellular levels of oxidative stress are implicated in a large number of human diseases. Here we describe the transcription co-factor KDM5 (also known as Lid) as a new critical regulator of cellular redox state. Moreover, this occurs through a novel KDM5 activity whereby it alters the ability of the transcription factor Foxo to bind to DNA. Our microarray analyses of kdm5 mutants revealed a striking enrichment for genes required to regulate cellular levels of oxidative stress. Consistent with this, loss of kdm5 results in increased sensitivity to treatment with oxidizers, elevated levels of oxidized proteins, and increased mutation load. KDM5 activates oxidative stress resistance genes by interacting with Foxo to facilitate its recruitment to KDM5-Foxo co-regulated genes. Significantly, this occurs independently of KDM5's well-characterized demethylase activity. Instead, KDM5 interacts with the lysine deacetylase HDAC4 to promote Foxo deacetylation, which affects Foxo DNA binding. PMID:25329053

  13. Plasma levels of oxidative stress-responsive apoptosis inducing protein (ORAIP) in rats subjected to physicochemical oxidative stresses

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Takako; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Murayama, Kimie; Seko, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is known to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of various disorders including atherosclerosis, aging and especially ischaemia/reperfusion injury. It causes cell damage that leads to apoptosis. However, the precise mechanism has been uncertain. Recently, we identified an apoptosis-inducing humoral factor in a hypoxia/reoxygenated medium of cardiac myocytes. We named this novel post-translationally modified secreted form of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) as oxidative stress-responsive apoptosis inducing protein (ORAIP). We developed a sandwich ELISA and confirmed that myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion markedly increased plasma levels of ORAIP. To investigate whether the role of ORAIP is common to various types of oxidative stress, we measured plasma ORAIP levels in rats subjected to three physicochemical models of oxidative stress including N2/O2 inhalation, cold/warm-stress (heat shock) and blood acidification. In all three models, plasma ORAIP levels significantly increased and reached a peak level at 10–30 min after stimulation, then decreased within 60 min. The (mean±S.E.M.) plasma ORAIP levels before and after (peak) stimulation were (16.4±9.6) and (55.2±34.2) ng/ml in N2/O2 inhalation, (14.1±12.4) and (34.3±14.6) ng/ml in cold/warm-stress, and (18.9±14.3) and (134.0±67.2) ng/ml in blood acidification study. These data strongly suggest that secretion of ORAIP in response to oxidative stress is universal mechanism and plays an essential role. ORAIP will be an important novel biomarker as well as a specific therapeutic target of these oxidative stress-induced cell injuries. PMID:26934977

  14. Pancreatic cancer mortality and total hardness levels in Taiwan's drinking water.

    PubMed

    Yang, C Y; Chiu, H F; Cheng, M F; Tsai, S S; Hung, C F; Tseng, Y T

    1999-03-12

    The possible association between the risk of pancreatic cancer mortality and hardness levels in drinking water from municipal supplies was investigated in a matched case-control study in Taiwan. All eligible pancreatic cancer deaths (883 cases) of Taiwan residents from 1990 through 1994 were compared with deaths from other causes (883 controls), and the hardness levels of the drinking water used by these residents were determined. Data on water hardness throughout Taiwan was collected from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The control group consisted of people who died from other causes and were pair matched to the cancer cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. The results show that there is a 39 % excess risk of mortality from pancreatic cancer in relation to the use of soft water. Trend analyses showed an increasing odds ratio for pancreatic cancer with decreasing levels of hardness in drinking water. This is an important finding for the Taiwan water industry and human health.

  15. Evaluation of approaches to quantify total residual oxidants in ballast water management systems employing chlorine for disinfection.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Faust, Amity G; Ambrose, Richard F; Tamburri, Mario N

    2014-01-01

    With the maturation and certification of several ballast water management systems that employ chlorine as biocide to prevent the spread of invasive species, there is a clear need for accurate and reliable total residual oxidants (TRO) technology to monitor treatment dose and assure the environmental safety of treated water discharged from ships. In this study, instruments used to measure TRO in wastewater and drinking water applications were evaluated for their performance in scenarios mimicking a ballast water treatment application (e.g., diverse hold times, temperatures, and salinities). Parameters chosen for testing these technologies in the past do not reflect conditions expected during ballast water treatment. Salinity, temperature, and oxidant concentration all influenced the response of amperometric sensors. Oxidation reduction potential (ORP) sensors performed more consistently than amperometric sensors under different conditions but it may be difficult to correlate ORP and TRO measurements for the multitude of biogeochemical conditions found naturally in ballast water. N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD) analyzers and amperometric sensors were also tested under intermittent sampling conditions mimicking a ballasting scenario, with cyclical dosage and discharge operations. When sampling was intermittent, amperometric sensors required excessive response and conditioning times, whereas DPD analyzers provided reasonable estimates of TRO under the ballasting scenario.

  16. Understanding complete oxidation of methane on spinel oxides at a molecular level

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Franklin Feng; Shan, Jun-jun; Nguyen, Luan; Wang, Ziyun; Zhang, Shiran; Zhang, Li; Wu, Zili; Huang, Weixin; Zeng, Shibi; Hu, P.

    2015-08-04

    It is crucial to develop a catalyst made of earth-abundant elements highly active for a complete oxidation of methane at a relatively low temperature. NiCo2O4 consisting of earth-abundant elements which can completely oxidize methane in the temperature range of 350-550 °C. Being a cost-effective catalyst, NiCo2O4 exhibits activity higher than precious-metal-based catalysts. Here we report that the higher catalytic activity at the relatively low temperature results from the integration of nickel cations, cobalt cations and surface lattice oxygen atoms/oxygen vacancies at the atomic scale. Finally, in situ studies of complete oxidation of methane on NiCo2O4 and theoretical simulations show that methane dissociates to methyl on nickel cations and then couple with surface lattice oxygen atoms to form -CH3O with a following dehydrogenation to -CH2O; a following oxidative dehydrogenation forms CHO; CHO is transformed to product molecules through two different sub-pathways including dehydrogenation of OCHO and CO oxidation.

  17. Understanding complete oxidation of methane on spinel oxides at a molecular level

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tao, Franklin Feng; Shan, Jun-jun; Nguyen, Luan; Wang, Ziyun; Zhang, Shiran; Zhang, Li; Wu, Zili; Huang, Weixin; Zeng, Shibi; Hu, P.

    2015-08-04

    It is crucial to develop a catalyst made of earth-abundant elements highly active for a complete oxidation of methane at a relatively low temperature. NiCo2O4 consisting of earth-abundant elements which can completely oxidize methane in the temperature range of 350-550 °C. Being a cost-effective catalyst, NiCo2O4 exhibits activity higher than precious-metal-based catalysts. Here we report that the higher catalytic activity at the relatively low temperature results from the integration of nickel cations, cobalt cations and surface lattice oxygen atoms/oxygen vacancies at the atomic scale. Finally, in situ studies of complete oxidation of methane on NiCo2O4 and theoretical simulations show thatmore » methane dissociates to methyl on nickel cations and then couple with surface lattice oxygen atoms to form -CH3O with a following dehydrogenation to -CH2O; a following oxidative dehydrogenation forms CHO; CHO is transformed to product molecules through two different sub-pathways including dehydrogenation of OCHO and CO oxidation.« less

  18. Light-induced oxidation in semihard cheeses. Evaluation of methods used to determine levels of oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Grith; Sørensen, John; Stapelfeldt, Henrik

    2002-07-17

    Light-induced oxidation in Havarti cheese (38% fat) stored in the dark and exposed to fluorescent light was evaluated by an array of chemical, physical, and spectroscopic methods. Light-induced changes were noticeable already after short exposure times (<12 h). A clear differentiation between samples stored in the dark and samples exposed to 1000 lx fluorescent light was obtained by means of the following methods: color measurements (a values), peroxide value determinations, and evaluations of volatile oxidation products by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography (SPME-GC). The expected changes in peroxide values in relation to storage time were not evident. Measuring free radicals by electron spin resonance spectrometry could not be done to distinguish between samples, possibly due to the conversion of radicals during sample preparation. However, significant light-exposure effects on secondary oxidation products, detected by SPME-GC, were noted for 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, nonanal, and benzaldehyde. PMID:12105971

  19. Alterations in zinc binding capacity, free zinc levels and total serum zinc in a porcine model of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Hoeger, Janine; Simon, Tim-Philipp; Doemming, Sabine; Thiele, Christoph; Marx, Gernot; Schuerholz, Tobias; Haase, Hajo

    2015-08-01

    Zinc is crucial for immune function. In addition, the redistribution of zinc and other nutrients due to infection is an integral part of the host immune response to limit availability to pathogens. However, the major zinc binding protein albumin is down regulated during the acute phase response, implicating a decrease in zinc binding capacity. A prospective animal study with eight female German landrace pigs was conducted to investigate alterations in zinc binding capacity, total serum zinc and free zinc levels in the initial phase of sepsis. Sepsis was induced by instillation of autologous feces via midline laparotomy. Total serum zinc declined significantly after 1 h (10.89 ± 0.42 µM vs. 7.67 ± 0.41 µM, p < 0.001), total serum copper and iron reached a significant reduction at 4 h. Urinary excretion of zinc declined in line with total serum zinc. In comparison to total serum zinc, free zinc levels declined to a lesser, though significant, extent. Zinc binding capacity of serum decreased over time, whereby free zinc levels after addition of zinc correlated negatively with total serum protein and albumin levels. In addition IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations were measured and increased significantly 2 h after induction of sepsis. Hence, total serum zinc was the first marker of inflammation in our experiment, and might therefore be a promising biomarker for the early diagnosis of sepsis. Furthermore the observation of a substantially different serum free zinc homeostasis during sepsis provides valuable information for a potential therapeutic zinc supplementation, which has to take buffering capacity by serum proteins into account.

  20. Spatial distribution of total, ammonia-oxidizing, and denitrifying bacteria in biological wastewater treatment reactors for bioregenerative life support.

    PubMed

    Sakano, Yuko; Pickering, Karen D; Strom, Peter F; Kerkhof, Lee J

    2002-05-01

    Bioregenerative life support systems may be necessary for long-term space missions due to the high cost of lifting supplies and equipment into orbit. In this study, we investigated two biological wastewater treatment reactors designed to recover potable water for a spacefaring crew being tested at Johnson Space Center. The experiment (Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project-Phase III) consisted of four crew members confined in a test chamber for 91 days. In order to recycle all water during the experiment, an immobilized cell bioreactor (ICB) was employed for organic carbon removal and a trickling filter bioreactor (TFB) was utilized for ammonia removal, followed by physical-chemical treatment. In this study, the spatial distribution of various microorganisms within each bioreactor was analyzed by using biofilm samples taken from four locations in the ICB and three locations in the TFB. Three target genes were used for characterization of bacteria: the 16S rRNA gene for the total bacterial community, the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene for ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and the nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) gene for denitrifying bacteria. A combination of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), sequence, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the microbial community composition in the ICB and the TFB consisted mainly of Proteobacteria, low-G+C gram-positive bacteria, and a Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides group. Fifty-seven novel 16S rRNA genes, 8 novel amoA genes, and 12 new nosZ genes were identified in this study. Temporal shifts in the species composition of total bacteria in both the ICB and the TFB and ammonia-oxidizing and denitrifying bacteria in the TFB were also detected when the biofilms were compared with the inocula after 91 days. This result suggests that specific microbial populations were either brought in by the crew or enriched in the reactors during the course of operation.

  1. Spatial distribution of total, ammonia-oxidizing, and denitrifying bacteria in biological wastewater treatment reactors for bioregenerative life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakano, Yuko; Pickering, Karen D.; Strom, Peter F.; Kerkhof, Lee J.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Bioregenerative life support systems may be necessary for long-term space missions due to the high cost of lifting supplies and equipment into orbit. In this study, we investigated two biological wastewater treatment reactors designed to recover potable water for a spacefaring crew being tested at Johnson Space Center. The experiment (Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project-Phase III) consisted of four crew members confined in a test chamber for 91 days. In order to recycle all water during the experiment, an immobilized cell bioreactor (ICB) was employed for organic carbon removal and a trickling filter bioreactor (TFB) was utilized for ammonia removal, followed by physical-chemical treatment. In this study, the spatial distribution of various microorganisms within each bioreactor was analyzed by using biofilm samples taken from four locations in the ICB and three locations in the TFB. Three target genes were used for characterization of bacteria: the 16S rRNA gene for the total bacterial community, the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene for ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and the nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) gene for denitrifying bacteria. A combination of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), sequence, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the microbial community composition in the ICB and the TFB consisted mainly of Proteobacteria, low-G+C gram-positive bacteria, and a Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides group. Fifty-seven novel 16S rRNA genes, 8 novel amoA genes, and 12 new nosZ genes were identified in this study. Temporal shifts in the species composition of total bacteria in both the ICB and the TFB and ammonia-oxidizing and denitrifying bacteria in the TFB were also detected when the biofilms were compared with the inocula after 91 days. This result suggests that specific microbial populations were either brought in by the crew or enriched in the reactors during the course of operation.

  2. Cell-Free Fetal DNA and Cell-Free Total DNA Levels in Spontaneous Abortion with Fetal Chromosomal Aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji Hyae; Kim, Min Hyoung; Han, You Jung; Lee, Da Eun; Park, So Yeon; Han, Jung Yeol; Kim, Moon Young; Ryu, Hyun Mee

    2013-01-01

    Background Cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in maternal circulation have been proposed as potential markers for noninvasive monitoring of the placental condition during the pregnancy. However, the correlation of and change in cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in spontaneous abortion (SA) with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy have not yet been reported. Therefore, we investigated cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels in SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. Methodology/Principal Findings A nested case-control study was conducted with maternal plasma collected from 268 women in their first trimester of pregnancy. Subjects included 41 SA with normal fetal karyotype, 26 SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy, and 201 normal controls. The unmethylated PDE9A gene was used to measure the maternal plasma levels of cell-free fetal DNA. The GAPDH gene was used to measure the maternal plasma levels of cell-free total DNA. The diagnostic accuracy was measured using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Levels of cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA were significantly higher in both SA women with normal fetal karyotype and SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy in comparison with the normal controls (P<0.001 in both). The correlation between cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels was stronger in the normal controls (r = 0.843, P<0.001) than in SA women with normal karyotype (r = 0.465, P = 0.002) and SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy (r = 0.412, P = 0.037). The area under the ROC curve for cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA was 0.898 (95% CI, 0.852–0.945) and 0.939 (95% CI, 0.903–0.975), respectively. Conclusions Significantly high levels of cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA were found in SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. Our findings suggest that cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA may be useful biomarkers for the prediction of SA with fetal

  3. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed varying levels of total mixed ration and pasture.

    PubMed

    Vibart, Ronaldo E; Fellner, Vivek; Burns, Joseph C; Huntington, Gerald B; Green, James T

    2008-11-01

    Two, 8-week experiments, each using 30 lactating Holstein cows, were conducted to examine performance of animals offered combinations of total mixed ration (TMR) and high-quality pasture. Experiment 1 was initiated in mid October 2004 and Experiment 2 was initiated in late March 2005. Cows were assigned to either a 100% TMR diet (100:00, no access to pasture) or one of the following three formulated partial mixed rations (PMR) targeted at (1) 85% TMR and 15% pasture, (2) 70% TMR and 30% pasture and (3) 55% TMR and 45% pasture. Based on actual TMR and pasture intake, the dietary TMR and pasture proportions of the three PMR in Experiment 1 were 79% TMR and 21% pasture (79:21), 68% TMR and 32% pasture (68:32), and 59% TMR and 41% pasture (59:41), respectively. Corresponding proportions in Experiment 2 were 89% TMR and 11% pasture (89:11), 79% TMR and 21% pasture (79:21) and 65% TMR and 35% pasture (65:35), respectively. Reducing the proportion of TMR in the diets increased pasture consumption of cows on all PMR, but reduced total dry matter intake compared with cows on 100:00. An increase in forage from pasture increased the concentration of conjugated linoleic acids and decreased the concentration of saturated fatty acids in milk. Although milk and milk protein yields from cows grazing spring pastures (Experiment 2) increased with increasing intakes of TMR, a partial mixed ration that was composed of 41% pasture grazed in the fall (Experiment 1) resulted in a similar overall lactation performance with increased feed efficiency compared to an all-TMR ration. PMID:18701000

  4. Rectal cancer mortality and total hardness levels in Taiwan's drinking water.

    PubMed

    Yang, C Y; Tsai, S S; Lai, T C; Hung, C F; Chiu, H F

    1999-05-01

    The possible association between the risk of rectal cancer and hardness levels in drinking water from municipal supplies was investigated in a matched case-control study in Taiwan. All eligible rectal cancer deaths (986 cases) of Taiwan residents from 1990 through 1994 were compared with deaths from other causes (986 controls), and the hardness levels of the drinking water used by these residents were determined. Data on water hardness throughout Taiwan were collected from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The control group consisted of people who died from other causes and the controls were pair matched to the cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. The results show a significant negative relationship between drinking water hardness and rectal cancer mortality. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were 1.24 (1.01-1. 55) and 1.38 (1.10-1.73), respectively, for exposure to moderately hard water and soft water compared with the use of hard water. Trend analyses showed an increasing odds ratio for rectal cancer with decreasing levels of hardness in drinking water. This is an important finding for the Taiwan water industry and human health.

  5. Colon cancer mortality and total hardness levels in Taiwan's drinking water.

    PubMed

    Yang, C Y; Hung, C F

    1998-07-01

    The possible association between the risk of colon cancer and hardness levels in drinking water from municipal supplies was investigated in a matched case-control study in Taiwan. All eligible colon cancer deaths (1,714 cases) of Taiwan residents from 1989 through 1993 were compared with deaths from other causes (1,714 controls) and the hardness levels of the drinking water used by these residents were determined. Data on water hardness throughout Taiwan have been collected from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The control group consisted of people who died from other causes and the controls were pair matched to the cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. The results show a significant negative relationship between drinking water hardness and colon cancer mortality. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were 1.22 (1.04-1. 43) and 1.46 (1.22-1.75), respectively, for exposure to moderately hard water and soft water compared with the use of hard water. Trend analyses showed an increasing odds ratio for colon cancer with decreasing levels of hardness in drinking water. This is an important finding for the Taiwan water industry and human health.

  6. Elevated levels of oxidative DNA damage in lymphocytes from patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mórocz, Mónika; Kálmán, János; Juhász, Anna; Sinkó, Ildikó; McGlynn, Angela P; Downes, C Stephen; Janka, Zoltán; Raskó, István

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have provided evidence of the involvement of oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the role of oxidative stress in the aetiology of the disease is still not clear, the detection of an increased damage status in the cells of patients could have important therapeutic implications. The level of oxidative damage and repair capacity in peripheral lymphocytes of AD patients and of age-matched controls was determined by the Comet assay applied to freshly isolated blood samples with oxidative lesion-specific DNA repair endonucleases. This is less prone to errors arising from oxidative artifacts than chemical analytical methods; and is therefore a relatively reliable, as well as rapid method for assay of oxidative DNA damage in cells. Statistically significant elevations (P < 0.05) of oxidized purines were observed in nuclear DNA of peripheral lymphocytes from AD patients, compared to age matched control subjects, both at basal level and after oxidative stress induced by H(2)O(2.) AD patients also showed a diminished repair of H(2)O(2) -induced oxidized purines.

  7. Effect of hydrogen peroxide and camellia sinensis extract on reduction of oxygen level in graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celina Selvakumari, J.; Dhanalakshmi, J.; Pathinettam Padiyan, D.

    2016-10-01

    The intention of this work is to reduce the oxygen level in graphene oxide. The reduction process was initiated while preparing graphene oxide using modified Hummer’s method. In this new method, increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration during the preparation process results in the oxygen content reduction. Adding green tea (camellia sinensis) extract with increased hydrogen peroxide results in further reduction of oxygen content and changed the graphene oxide to reduced graphene oxide. The structural and optical properties of the new found reduced graphene oxide was analysed using XRD, FTIR, TEM, Raman and UV–vis spectra. The overall observation reflects that the sp3 carbon network of graphene oxide changed into sp2 carbon lattice of graphene which is very handful in supercapacitor and biosensor fields.

  8. Biogenic isoprene and implications for oxidant levels in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Chung; Shao, Min; Chou, Charles C. K.; Liu, Shaw-Chen; Zhu, Tong; Lee, Kun-Zhang; Lai, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Po-Hsiung; Wang*, Jia-Lin

    2014-05-01

    As the host of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, Beijing implemented a series of stringent, short-term air quality control measures to reduce the emissions of anthropogenic air pollutants. Large reductions in the daily average concentrations of primary pollutants, e.g., non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) of approximately 50% were observed at the air quality observatory of Peking University. Nevertheless, high levels of ozone were present during the control period. Although anthropogenic precursors were greatly reduced, the meteorological conditions in summer, including high temperature and light flux, are conducive to the production of large amounts of biogenic isoprene, which is extremely reactive. The diurnal pattern of isoprene showed daily maximum mixing ratios of 0.83 ppbv at noon and a minimum at night, reflecting its primarily biogenic properties. Using the ratio of isoprene to vehicle exhaust tracers, approximately 92% of the daytime isoprene was estimated from biogenic sources, and only 8% was attributed to vehicular emissions. In terms of OH reactivity and the ozone formation potential (OFP), biogenic isoprene with its midday surge can contribute approximately 20% of the total OFPs and 40-50% of the total OH reactivities of the 65 measured NMHCs during the midday hours. The discrepancy between decreased precursor levels and the observed high ozone was most likely caused by a combination of many factors. The changes in the partition among the components of oxidation products (O3, NO2 and NOz) and the contribution of air pollutants from regional sources outside Beijing should be two primary reasons. Furthermore, the influences of biogenic isoprene as well as the non-linearity of O3-VOC-NOx chemistry are other major concerns that can reduce the effectiveness of the control measures for decreasing ozone formation. Although anthropogenic precursors were greatly reduced during the Olympic Games, the presence of sufficient biogenic isoprene

  9. Total copper, manganese, and zinc levels in a Cecil soil during ten years of poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heavy metals in poultry litter (PL) can cause environmental problems despite the cost-effectiveness of PL as source of plant nutrients. We compared total Cu, Mn, and Zn levels in a Cecil soil near Watkinsville, GA, in a 5-yr of cotton and 5-yr of corn study under conventional tillage (CT) and no-til...

  10. Fermentation with Aspergillus awamori enhanced contents of amino nitrogen and total phenolics as well as the low-density lipoprotein oxidation inhibitory activity of black soybeans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Fei; Lee, Shiow-Ling; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2011-04-27

    A solid fermentation was performed on black soybeans with Aspergillus awamori. The effects of fermentation on the contents of total phenolics and amino nitrogen and on the inhibitory effect on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation of black soybeans were examined. Results revealed that fermentation significantly enhanced the LDL oxidation inhibitory activity and total phenolics and amino nitrogen contents of black soybeans. The increased content of amino nitrogen was closely related to the enhanced LDL oxidation inhibitory activity of fermented black soybeans and its water extract. Fermentation temperature and length affected the LDL oxidation inhibitory effect exerted by the prepared fermented black soybeans. The A. awamori-fermented black soybean prepared at 30 °C for 3 days exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation. The bioactive principles related to the inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation in black soybeans, regardless of fermentation, could be most efficiently extracted with water rather than 80% methanol or 80% ethanol.

  11. Total and methyl mercury levels in wild mammals from the PreCambrian Shield area of south central Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, C.; MacCrimmon, H.; Frank, R.; Suda, P.

    1980-07-01

    It has been established that elevated mercury levels in fish occur in areas remote from recognized point sources of mercury contamination. It may be expected, therefore, that mercury levels may also be accumulated through natural processes in wild mammals inhabiting those areas. A process for demethylating organic mercury to less toxic inorganic mercury has been suggested in some marine mammals exposed to high mercury levls. It is possible that similar demethylating process exists in terrestial mammals which are exposed to elevated levels of mercury in their diet. Natural mercury levels in fish have been reported in the PreCambrian Shield of the Muskoka District. The present paper compares total and methyl mercury levels occurring in various organs of wilder beaver, raccoon and otter representing herbivorous, omnivorous and carnivorous life styles, collected from the same general area where substantial mercury levels are known to occur in fish.

  12. Determination of element levels in human serum: Total reflection X-ray fluorescence applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewska, U.; Łyżwa, P.; Łyżwa, K.; Banaś, D.; Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Wudarczyk-Moćko, J.; Stabrawa, I.; Braziewicz, J.; Pajek, M.; Antczak, G.; Borkowska, B.; Góźdź, S.

    2016-08-01

    Deficiency or excess of elements could disrupt proper functioning of the human body and could lead to several disorders. Determination of their concentrations in different biological human fluids and tissues should become a routine practice in medical treatment. Therefore the knowledge about appropriate element concentrations in human organism is required. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of several elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Pb) in human serum and to define the reference values of element concentration. Samples of serum were obtained from 105 normal presumably healthy volunteers (66 women aged between 15 and 78 years old; 39 men aged between 15 and 77 years old). Analysis has been done for the whole studied population and for subgroups by sex and age. It is probably first so a wide study of elemental composition of serum performed in the case of Świętokrzyskie region. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) method was used to perform the elemental analysis. Spectrometer S2 Picofox (Bruker AXS Microanalysis GmbH) was used to identify and measure elemental composition of serum samples. Finally, 1st and 3rd quartiles were accepted as minimum and maximum values of concentration reference range.

  13. Levels of Total Mercury in Tissues of Mallard Drakes from Industrialized Wetlands Area.

    PubMed

    Binkowski, Łukasz J; Przystupińska, Anna; Wojtaś, Włodzimierz

    2016-02-01

    The distribution of total mercury in the bodies of drake mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) inhabiting an industrialized wetland area in southern Poland was studied. The median Hg concentration in tissue of various bones (0.017 µg/g w.w.) was statistically lower than the concentration found in muscle tissue (0.023 µg/g w.w.) and in internal organ tissue samples calculated across the whole range of organ types (0.036 µg/g w.w.). The median concentrations in muscle tissue and organ tissue were comparable. Significant differences within the examined bones were observed, with the beak accumulating the highest amount (0.105 µg/g w.w.). Concentrations were comparable in tissue from various muscles, whereas internal organ tissue displayed a significant variation. The highest median concentration was detected in the kidneys (0.109 µg/g w.w.). Correlations of Hg concentrations between major groups of tissue (i.e. bone, muscle and internal organs) were not statistically significant, but several significant relationships were noted between internal organs.

  14. Total suspended dust and heavy metal levels emitted from a workplace compared with nearby residential houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A.; Yaghi, Basma

    Total suspended particulate matter (TSP) were collected from the workplace in Sohar Industrial Estate (SIE) in Oman. The samples were taken from 19 different industrial activities that represent major sources of particulate matter in the SIE. The collected samples were analyzed for 9 heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, V and Mo) by using the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry analysis (ICP-OES). Furthermore, the indoor TSP and heavy metal concentrations were measured inside 12 houses within Sohar residential area to determine the contributions of various industrial activities on nearby residential houses. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of heavy metals in the TSP were too low to yield any known environmental health effects. In general, the results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the workplaces of SIE and its nearby houses were low compared to the guideline values. In addition, the values were low in comparison with other known sites around the world. Moreover, significant contribution from industrial sources at SIE was evidenced at nearby houses.

  15. Levels of selected oxidative stress markers in the vitreous and serum of diabetic retinopathy patients

    PubMed Central

    Brzović-Šarić, Vlatka; Landeka, Irena; Šarić, Borna; Barberić, Monika; Andrijašević, Lidija; Cerovski, Branimir; Oršolić, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In diabetes, an impaired antioxidant defense system contributes to the development of diabetic retinopathy. The main objective of this paper was to find correlations of oxidative stress parameters within and between the vitreous and serum in patients with type 2 diabetes who had developed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods The study included and compared two groups of patients who underwent vitrectomy: 37 patients with type 2 diabetes and proliferative retinopathy (PDR), and 50 patients with non-diabetic eye disorders (NDED). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), advanced oxidized protein product (AOPP), and oxidative stress markers (direct lipid hydroperoxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH)) were measured in the vitreous and serum of both groups and correlated with one another, between humoral compartments and with gender, age, and serum glucose levels. Results In the vitreous of PDR patients, VEGF, LPO, and MDA (p<0.05) were increased and SOD values were slightly lowered (p<0.05) than in NDED patients. Vitreous AOPP and GSH showed no differences between the groups. In the serum, AOPP, MDA, and SOD were increased (p<0.05) and VEGF was slightly increased (p<0.05) in the PDR group compared to NDED. With regard to gender, similar changes were recorded for both groups, except for the lower serum MDA in males than females in the NDED group. Advanced age showed no significant effect on changes of measured parameters in the vitreous. In the serum, VEGF was positively correlated (p<0.05) and MDA and SOD negatively correlated (p<0.05) with increasing age. Among measured parameters within and between the vitreous and serum, several correlative links occurred in the PDR group that were not present in the NDED group. The most prominent correlation changes were between serum LPO and vitreal LPO, serum SOD and vitreal LPO, serum LPO and serum SOD, and vitreal VEGF and serum SOD. Conclusions Among

  16. Insulin Resistance is Associated With Total Bile Acid Level in Type 2 Diabetic and Nondiabetic Population

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wanwan; Zhang, Di; Wang, Zhengyi; Sun, Jichao; Xu, Baihui; Chen, Ying; Ding, Lin; Huang, Xiaolin; Lv, Xiaofei; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Xu, Qinyi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bile acid metabolism was reported to be involved in glucose metabolism homeostasis. However, the exact relationship between bile acid and glucose metabolism as well as insulin sensitivity is not clarified. Therefore, we sought to investigate the association between insulin sensitivity and hyperbileacidemia in type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic population. This community-based cross-sectional study included 9603 residents from Jiading, Shanghai, China, who were 40 years and older. Standardized questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests were conducted. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ≥ 2.7 was defined as insulin resistance and fasting TBA ≥ 10 mmol/L was defined as hyperbileacidemia. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis revealed that HOMA-IR, age, and male sex were positively associated with hyperbileacidemia in both nondiabetic and diabetic participants. In multivariate logistic models, participants with insulin resistance had significantly higher risk of hyperbileacidemia compared to those who have no insulin resistance, in both nondiabetic and diabetic population (nondiabetic: OR = 1.76; 95% CI 1.42–2.19; P < 0.001; diabetic: OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.06 – 2.31; P = 0.025, respectively). Further adjustment for the HbA1c level in diabetic population did not change the significant association (OR = 1.59; 95% CI 1.06 − 2.40; P = 0.024). In nondiabetic participants, each 1-unit increment of HOMA-IR conferred an 18% higher risk of hyperbileacidemia (95% CI 1.04–1.35; P = 0.013), whereas in diabetic participants, this association was similar but not significant (95% CI 0.95–1.59; P = 0.117). Insulin resistance was positively associated with hyperbileacidemia in both nondiabetic and diabetic population. The increase in the bile acid level in insulin-resistant population regardless of status of diabetes and glucose level indicated the important role of insulin resistance

  17. Conditions necessary for low-level measurements of reactive oxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Nakareseisoon, S.

    1988-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide and ozone are considered to be the alternatives to chlorine for the disinfection of drinking water supplies and also for the treatment of wastewaters prior to discharge. Chlorine dioxide, under normal circumstances, is reduced to chlorite ion which is toxic. The recommended seven-day suggested no-adverse-response levels (SNARL's) of chlorite ion is 0.007 mg/l (7 ppb). Chlorite ion at these low levels cannot be satisfactorily determined by existing methods, and so, it became necessary to develop an analytical method for determining ppb levels of chlorite ion. Such a method can be developed using differential pulse polarography (DPP). The electrochemical reduction of chlorite ion has been studied between pH 3.7-14 and in an ionic strength range of 0.05-3.0 M. The optimum conditions are pH 4.1-4.4 and an ionic strength of 0.45 M. The current under these conditions is a linear function of chlorite ion concentration ranging from 2.77 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} to 2.80 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M (19 ppb to 19 ppm). The imprecision is better than {plus minus} 1.0% and {plus minus} 3.4% at concentrations of 2.87 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} M and 1.74 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} M, respectively, with a detection limit of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} M (7 ppb). The rate of ozone decomposition has been studied in highly basic solutions (8-15 NaOH), where ozone becomes stable. The mechanism of ozone regeneration was proposed to explain the observed kinetic and to clarify the contradiction concerning the very slow observed rate of ozone decomposition in basic solution.

  18. Effect of Buddhist meditation on serum cortisol and total protein levels, blood pressure, pulse rate, lung volume and reaction time.

    PubMed

    Sudsuang, R; Chentanez, V; Veluvan, K

    1991-09-01

    Serum cortisol and total protein levels, blood pressure, heart rate, lung volume, and reaction time were studied in 52 males 20-25 years of age practicing Dhammakaya Buddhist meditation, and in 30 males of the same age group not practicing meditation. It was found that after meditation, serum cortisol levels were significantly reduced, serum total protein level significantly increased, and systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and pulse rate significantly reduced. Vital capacity, tidal volume and maximal voluntary ventilation were significantly lower after meditation than before. There were also significant decreases in reaction time after mediation practice. The percentage decrease in reaction time during meditation was 22%, while in subjects untrained in meditation, the percentage decrease was only 7%. Results from these studies indicate that practising Dhammakaya Buddhist meditation produces biochemical and physiological changes and reduces the reaction time.

  19. Nitric oxide mediates glutamate-linked enhancement of cGMP levels in the cerebellum

    SciTech Connect

    Bredt, D.S.; Snyder, S.H. )

    1989-11-01

    Nitric oxide, which mediates influences of numerous neurotransmitters and modulators on vascular smooth muscle and leukocytes, can be formed in the brain from arginine by an enzymatic activity that stoichiometrically generates citrulline. The authors show that glutamate and related amino acids, such as N-methyl-D-aspartate, markedly stimulate arginine-citrulline transformation in cerebellar slices stoichiometrically with enhancement of cGMP levels. N{sup {omega}}-monomethyl-L-arginine blocks the augmentation both of citrulline and cGMP with identical potencies. Arginine competitively reverses both effects of N{sup {omega}}-monomethyl-L-arginine with the same potencies. Hemoglobin, which complexes nitric oxide, prevents the stimulation by N-methyl-D-aspartate of cGMP levels, and superoxide dismutase, which elevates nitric oxide levels, increases cGMP formation. These data establish that nitric oxide mediates the stimulation by glutamate of cGMP formation.

  20. Nitric Oxide Mediates Glutamate-Linked Enhancement of cGMP Levels in the Cerebellum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredt, David S.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1989-11-01

    Nitric oxide, which mediates influences of numerous neurotransmitters and modulators on vascular smooth muscle and leukocytes, can be formed in the brain from arginine by an enzymatic activity that stoichiometrically generates citrulline. We show that glutamate and related amino acids, such as N-methyl-D-aspartate, markedly stimulate arginine-citrulline transformation in cerebellar slices stoichiometrically with enhancement of cGMP levels. Nω-monomethyl-L-arginine blocks the augmentation both of citrulline and cGMP with identical potencies. Arginine competitively reverses both effects of Nω-monomethyl-L-arginine with the same potencies. Hemoglobin, which complexes nitric oxide, prevents the stimulation by N-methyl-D-aspartate of cGMP levels, and superoxide dismutase, which elevates nitric oxide levels, increases cGMP formation. These data establish that nitric oxide mediates the stimulation by glutamate of cGMP formation.

  1. Crucial Roles of Systemic and Tissue Lipid Peroxidation Levels and Anti-Oxidant Defences Following Contrast Agent Application

    PubMed Central

    Sitar, Gungor; Kucuk, Mehmet; Erinc Sitar, Mustafa; Yasar, Ozgur; Aydin, Seval; Yanar, Karolin; Cakatay, Ufuk; Buyukpınarbasili, Nur

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the most important side effects of contrast pharmaceutical agents, which are used very common in routine radiology practice, is contrast induced nephropathy. Even ischemia, oxidative stress and osmolality related cytotoxic effects are considered, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology have not been identified completely yet. Objectives The aim of the current study was to reveal the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymatic defence mechanisms in the aetiopathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy. We also studied possible alleviating effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, to obtain extra information regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology. Materials and Methods This is an clinical-experimental study, This study was conducted of Istanbul/Turkey between September 15, 2012 and April 15, 2013. Three groups of male rats were randomly set up as a control group (C), a 100 mg/kg intraperitoneal NAC + 7 mL/kg contrast agent group (N + CIN) and a 7 mL/kg intraperitoneal contrast agent group (CIN). They were placed in individual metabolic cages 48 hours after agent administration to obtain 24-hour urine samples. Renal function tests (albumin, urea, creatinine, total protein) were conducted, oxidative stress parameters (Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase activity - Cu, Zn-SOD; advanced oxidation protein products - AOPP; protein carbonyls - PCO; total thiol groups - T-SH; and lipid hydroperoxides -LHP) were measured and tissues were analysed histopathologically. Results Compared with the control group, groups CIN and N + CIN had significantly higher urea and LHP levels (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) and significantly lower Cu, Zn-SOD activity and creatinine clearance (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in PCO or AOPP levels despite differences in descriptive statistics. Conclusions Contrast-agent-induced nephropathic changes are more closely related to

  2. Crucial Roles of Systemic and Tissue Lipid Peroxidation Levels and Anti-Oxidant Defences Following Contrast Agent Application

    PubMed Central

    Sitar, Gungor; Kucuk, Mehmet; Erinc Sitar, Mustafa; Yasar, Ozgur; Aydin, Seval; Yanar, Karolin; Cakatay, Ufuk; Buyukpınarbasili, Nur

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the most important side effects of contrast pharmaceutical agents, which are used very common in routine radiology practice, is contrast induced nephropathy. Even ischemia, oxidative stress and osmolality related cytotoxic effects are considered, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology have not been identified completely yet. Objectives The aim of the current study was to reveal the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymatic defence mechanisms in the aetiopathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy. We also studied possible alleviating effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, to obtain extra information regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology. Materials and Methods This is an clinical-experimental study, This study was conducted of Istanbul/Turkey between September 15, 2012 and April 15, 2013. Three groups of male rats were randomly set up as a control group (C), a 100 mg/kg intraperitoneal NAC + 7 mL/kg contrast agent group (N + CIN) and a 7 mL/kg intraperitoneal contrast agent group (CIN). They were placed in individual metabolic cages 48 hours after agent administration to obtain 24-hour urine samples. Renal function tests (albumin, urea, creatinine, total protein) were conducted, oxidative stress parameters (Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase activity - Cu, Zn-SOD; advanced oxidation protein products - AOPP; protein carbonyls - PCO; total thiol groups - T-SH; and lipid hydroperoxides -LHP) were measured and tissues were analysed histopathologically. Results Compared with the control group, groups CIN and N + CIN had significantly higher urea and LHP levels (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) and significantly lower Cu, Zn-SOD activity and creatinine clearance (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in PCO or AOPP levels despite differences in descriptive statistics. Conclusions Contrast-agent-induced nephropathic changes are more closely related to

  3. Relationship between plasma total homocysteine level and dietary caffeine and vitamin B6 intakes in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Ota, Erika; Murayama, Ryoko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yeo, SeonAe; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2014-06-01

    A high total homocysteine (tHcy) level during pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes, such as fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. Caffeine is assumed to increase tHcy levels by acting as a vitamin B6 antagonist. The objective of this study was to examine a relationship between circulating tHcy levels and dietary caffeine and vitamin B6 intakes in pregnant Japanese women. A total of 321 healthy women with singleton pregnancies were recruited in metropolitan Tokyo, from June to December 2008, resulting in the final number included in the study as 254. Dietary caffeine intakes did not correlate with plasma tHcy levels. When we analyzed the data according to caffeinated beverages, caffeinated tea consumption was positively associated with plasma tHcy levels only among the women with a high intake of vitamin B6 , after controlling for confounding factors (P = 0.029). No correlation between coffee consumption and plasma tHcy levels was found. Pregnant Japanese women might need to cut down the consumption of caffeinated tea as well as take sufficient vitamin B6 in order to prevent the tHcy levels from increasing.

  4. Complex I and complex III inhibition specifically increase cytosolic hydrogen peroxide levels without inducing oxidative stress in HEK293 cells

    PubMed Central

    Forkink, Marleen; Basit, Farhan; Teixeira, José; Swarts, Herman G.; Koopman, Werner J.H.; Willems, Peter H.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitor studies with isolated mitochondria demonstrated that complex I (CI) and III (CIII) of the electron transport chain (ETC) can act as relevant sources of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we studied ROS generation and oxidative stress induction during chronic (24 h) inhibition of CI and CIII using rotenone (ROT) and antimycin A (AA), respectively, in intact HEK293 cells. Both inhibitors stimulated oxidation of the ROS sensor hydroethidine (HEt) and increased mitochondrial NAD(P)H levels without major effects on cell viability. Integrated analysis of cells stably expressing cytosolic- or mitochondria-targeted variants of the reporter molecules HyPer (H2O2-sensitive and pH-sensitive) and SypHer (H2O2-insensitive and pH-sensitive), revealed that CI- and CIII inhibition increased cytosolic but not mitochondrial H2O2 levels. Total and mitochondria-specific lipid peroxidation was not increased in the inhibited cells as reported by the C11-BODIPY581/591 and MitoPerOx biosensors. Also expression of the superoxide-detoxifying enzymes CuZnSOD (cytosolic) and MnSOD (mitochondrial) was not affected. Oxyblot analysis revealed that protein carbonylation was not stimulated by CI and CIII inhibition. Our findings suggest that chronic inhibition of CI and CIII: (i) increases the levels of HEt-oxidizing ROS and (ii) specifically elevates cytosolic but not mitochondrial H2O2 levels, (iii) does not induce oxidative stress or substantial cell death. We conclude that the increased ROS levels are below the stress-inducing level and might play a role in redox signaling. PMID:26516986

  5. Effect of Short-Term Maximal Exercise on Biochemical Markers of Muscle Damage, Total Antioxidant Status, and Homocysteine Levels in Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Hammouda, Omar; Chtourou, Hamdi; Chaouachi, Anis; Chahed, Henda; Ferchichi, Salyma; Kallel, Choumous; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Prolonged physical exercise results in transient elevations of biochemical markers of muscular damage. This study examined the effect of short-term maximal exercise on these markers, homocysteine levels (Hcy), and total antioxidant status (TAS) in trained subjects. Methods Eighteen male football players participated in this study. Blood samples were collected 5-min before and 3-min after a 30-s Wingate test. Results The results indicated that plasma biochemical markers of muscle injury increased significantly after the Wingate test (P<0.05). Moreover, significant increase of white blood Cells and their main subpopulations (i.e. monocytes, neutrophiles, and lymphocytes) (P<0.001) has been observed. Likewise, uric acid, total bilirubin, and TAS increased significantly after exercise (P<0.05). However, Hcy levels were unaffected by the Wingate test (for 3-min post-exercise measurement). Conclusions Short-term maximal exercise (e.g. 30-s Wingate test) is of sufficient intensity and duration to increase markers of muscle damage, and TAS; but not Hcy levels. Increases in the selected enzymes probably come primarily from muscle damage, rather than liver damage. Moreover, increase of TAS confirms the Wingate test induced oxidative stress. PMID:23342222

  6. The impact of influent total ammonium nitrogen concentration on nitrite-oxidizing bacteria inhibition in moving bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Kouba, Vojtech; Catrysse, Michael; Stryjova, Hana; Jonatova, Ivana; Volcke, Eveline I P; Svehla, Pavel; Bartacek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The application of nitrification-denitrification over nitrite (nitritation-denitritation) with municipal (i.e. diluted and cold (or low-temperature)) wastewater can substantially improve the energy balance of municipal wastewater treatment plants. For the accumulation of nitrite, it is crucial to inhibit nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) with simultaneous proliferation of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The present study describes the effect of the influent total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentration on AOB and NOB activity in two moving bed biofilm reactors operated as sequencing batch reactors (SBR) at 15 °C (SBR I) and 21 °C (SBR II). The reactors were fed with diluted reject water containing 600, 300, 150 and 75 mg TAN L(-1). The only factor limiting NOB activity in these reactors was the high concentrations of free ammonia and/or free nitrous acid (FNA) during the SBR cycles. Nitrite accumulation was observed with influents containing 600, 300 and 150 mg TAN L(-1) in SBR I and 600 and 300 in SBR II. Once nitrate production established in the reactors, the increase of influent TAN concentration up to the original 600 mg TAN L(-1) did not limit NOB activity. This was due to the massive development of NOB clusters throughout the biofilm that were able to cope with faster formation of FNA. The results of the fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis preliminarily showed the stratification of bacteria in the biofilm.

  7. Serum specific vasopressin-degrading activity is related to blood total cholesterol levels in men but not in women.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Arrazola, Marcelina; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Arias de Saavedra, José Manuel; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The role of vasopressin (AVP) in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is controversial, but this peptide hormone is elevated in heart failure and some forms of hypertension. Also, AVP has vasoconstrictor, mitogenic, hyperplasic and renal fluid retaining properties which, by analogy with angiotensin II, may have deleterious effects when present in chronic excess. Furthermore, cholesterol blood levels are also associated with hypertension, although the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we analyze the relationship between blood total cholesterol levels and serum vasopressin- degrading cystyl-aminopeptidase activity (AVP-DA) in healthy humans, and the differences between men and women. Linear correlation coefficients were calculated to test relationships between AVP-DA and blood total cholesterol levels. Sex differences were observed for AVP-DA, being this activity higher in men than in women. According to the linear model of the regression analysis, AVP-DA showed a significant negative correlation with blood total cholesterol levels in men, whereas no correlation was observed in women. Several studies in humans demonstrate the existence of greater plasma AVP concentrations in normal men compared to normal women, which could explain the gender-differences observed in the present work in relation with AVP-DA. However, AVP-DA is related to blood cholesterol levels only in men, although in our hands, women showed higher blood cholesterol levels than men. This could indicate that the risk of high cholesterol-related hypertension is more probable in men than in women. Although AVP-DA misregulation could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, its relation with cholesterol levels appears only in men, but not in women.

  8. Higher levels of total pepsin and bile acids in the saliva as a possible risk factor for early laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sereg-Bahar, Maja; Jerin, Ales; Hocevar-Boltezar, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux is suspected to be an etiological factor in laryngeal and pharyngeal cancer. The aim of this study was to establish, using a non-invasive method, whether laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) appears more often in patients with early laryngeal cancer than in a control group. Patients and methods We compared the pH, the level of bile acids, the total pepsin and the pepsin enzymatic activity in saliva in a group of 30 patients with T1 laryngeal carcinoma and a group of 34 healthy volunteers. Results The groups differed significantly in terms of levels of total pepsin and bile acids in the saliva sample. Higher levels of total pepsin and bile acids were detected in the group of cancer patients. No significant impact of other known factors influencing laryngeal mucosa (e.g. smoking, alcohol consumption, and the presence of irritating substances in the workplace) on the results of saliva analysis was found. Conclusions A higher level of typical components of LPR in the saliva of patients with early laryngeal cancer than in the controls suggests the possibility that LPR, especially biliary reflux, has a role in the development of laryngeal carcinoma. PMID:25810702

  9. Evaluating the potential efficacy of mercury total maximum daily loads on aqueous methylmercury levels in four coastal watersheds.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Ambrose, Richard F; Jay, Jennifer A

    2008-08-01

    Of the approximately 780 U.S. EPA approved mercury total maximum daily loads (TMDLs), most specify a reduction in total mercury (Hg(T)) loads to reduce methylmercury levels in fish tissue, assuming a 1:1 correspondence. However, mercury methylation is more complex, and therefore, proposed load reductions may not be adequate. Using multiple regression with microlevel and macrolevel variables, the potential efficacy of mercury TMDLs on decreasing aqueous methylmercury levels was investigated in four coastal watersheds: Mugu Lagoon (CA), San Francisco Bay Estuary, Long Island Sound, and south Florida. Hg(T) and methylmercury levels were positively correlated in all watersheds except in Long Island Sound, where spatial differences explained over 40% of the variability in methylmercury levels. A mercury TMDL would be least effective in Long Island Sound due to spatial heterogeneity but most effective in south Florida, where the ratio between aqueous Hg(T) and methylmercury levels was close to 1 and the 95% confidence interval was narrow, indicating a probable reduction in aqueous methylmercury levels if Hg(T) loads were reduced.

  10. Molten salt oxidation for treating low-level mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M G; Ford, T D; Foster, K G; Hipple, D L; Hopper, R W; Hsu, P C

    1998-12-10

    MS0 is a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility (please see the photo attached) in which an integrated pilot-scale MS0 treatment system is being tested and demonstrated. The system consists of a MS0 vessel with a dedicated off-gas treatment system, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and a ceramic final waste forms immobilization system. The MSO/off-gas system has been operational since December 1997. The salt recycle system and the ceramic final forms immobilization became operational in May and August 1998, respectively. We have tested the MS0 facility with various organic feeds, including chlorinated solvents; tributyl phosphate/kerosene, PCB-contaminated waste oils & solvents, booties, plastic pellets, ion exchange resins, activated carbon, radioactive-spiked organics, and well-characterized low- level liquid mixed wastes. MS0 is a versatile technology for hazardous waste treatment and may be a solution to many waste disposal problems. In this paper we will present our operational experience with MS0 and also discuss its process capabilities as well as performance data with different feeds.

  11. Elevated levels of total and dengue virus-specific immunoglobulin E in patients with varying disease severity.

    PubMed

    Koraka, Penelopie; Murgue, Bernadette; Deparis, Xavier; Setiati, Tatty E; Suharti, Catarina; van Gorp, Eric C M; Hack, C E; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Groen, Jan

    2003-05-01

    The kinetics of total and dengue virus-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) were studied in serial serum samples obtained from 168 patients, 41 of whom suffered from primary dengue virus infection and 127 suffered from secondary dengue virus infection. Seventy-one patients were classified as dengue fever, 30 as dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 67 as dengue shock syndrome. A control group included single serum samples from patients with a herpes virus infection (n = 14), non-dengue febrile patients (n = 10), and healthy blood donors (n = 10). Patients with dengue virus infection had higher levels of total and dengue virus-specific IgE than non-dengue patients (P < 0.05). Patients with secondary dengue virus infections had not significantly increased levels of both total and dengue virus-specific IgE in the acute phase of disease compared to patients with primary dengue virus infections. Dengue virus-specific IgE was significantly higher in dengue hemorrhagic fever and/or dengue shock syndrome patients compared to dengue fever and non-dengue patients (P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study showed elevated total and dengue virus-specific IgE serum antibody levels in the acute stage of disease. Therefore, measurement of both total and dengue virus-specific IgE serum antibodies can be used as an additional prognostic marker in the development of severe complications in dengue virus infections. In addition, the presence and increase of dengue virus-specific IgE serum antibodies in patients with dengue virus infections is suggestive of the pathogenetic role that IgE may play in the hemostatic disorders observed in dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome.

  12. Self-stressing structures for wafer-level oxide breakdown to 200 MHz

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, E.S.; Tanner, D.M.; Bowles, M.R.; Swanson, S.E.; Anderson, C.H.; Perry, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    We have demonstrated for the first time high frequency (210 MHz) oxide breakdown at the wafer-level using on-chip, self-stressing test structures. This is the highest frequency oxide breakdown that has been reported. We used these structures to characterize the variation in oxide breakdown with frequency (from 1 Hz to over 200 MHz) and duty cycle (from 10% to 90%). Since the stress frequency, duty cycle and temperature are controlled by DC signals in these structures, we used conventional DC wafer-level equipment without any special modifications (such as high frequency cabling). This self-stressing structure significantly reduces the cost of performing realistic high frequency oxide breakdown experiments necessary for developing reliability models and building-in-reliability.

  13. Miniaturized dielectric barrier discharge carbon atomic emission spectrometry with online microwave-assisted oxidation for determination of total organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Han, Bingjun; Jiang, Xiaoming; Hou, Xiandeng; Zheng, Chengbin

    2014-07-01

    A simple, rapid, and portable system consisted of a laboratory-built miniaturized dielectric barrier discharge atomic emission spectrometer and a microwave-assisted persulfate oxidation reactor was developed for sensitive flow injection analysis or continuous monitoring of total organic carbon (TOC) in environmental water samples. The standard/sample solution together with persulfate was pumped to the reactor to convert organic compounds to CO2, which was separated from liquid phase and transported to the spectrometer for detection of the elemental specific carbon atomic emission at 193.0 nm. The experimental parameters were systematically investigated. A limit of detection of 0.01 mg L(-1) (as C) was obtained based on a 10 mL sample injection volume, and the precision was better than 6.5% (relative standard deviation, RSD) at 0.1 mg L(-1). The system was successfully applied for TOC analysis of real environmental water samples. The obtained TOC value of 30 test samples agreed well with those by the standard high-temperature combustion coupled nondispersive infrared absorption method. Most importantly, the system showed good capability of in situ continuous monitoring of total organic carbon in environmental water.

  14. Carotene Hydroxylase Activity Determines the Levels of Both α-Carotene and Total Carotenoids in Orange Carrots[W

    PubMed Central

    Arango, Jacobo; Jourdan, Matthieu; Geoffriau, Emmanuel; Beyer, Peter; Welsch, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    The typically intense carotenoid accumulation in cultivated orange-rooted carrots (Daucus carota) is determined by a high protein abundance of the rate-limiting enzyme for carotenoid biosynthesis, phytoene synthase (PSY), as compared with white-rooted cultivars. However, in contrast to other carotenoid accumulating systems, orange carrots are characterized by unusually high levels of α-carotene in addition to β-carotene. We found similarly increased α-carotene levels in leaves of orange carrots compared with white-rooted cultivars. This has also been observed in the Arabidopsis thaliana lut5 mutant carrying a defective carotene hydroxylase CYP97A3 gene. In fact, overexpression of CYP97A3 in orange carrots restored leaf carotenoid patterns almost to those found in white-rooted cultivars and strongly reduced α-carotene levels in the roots. Unexpectedly, this was accompanied by a 30 to 50% reduction in total root carotenoids and correlated with reduced PSY protein levels while PSY expression was unchanged. This suggests a negative feedback emerging from carotenoid metabolites determining PSY protein levels and, thus, total carotenoid flux. Furthermore, we identified a deficient CYP97A3 allele containing a frame-shift insertion in orange carrots. Association mapping analysis using a large carrot population revealed a significant association of this polymorphism with both α-carotene content and the α-/β-carotene ratio and explained a large proportion of the observed variation in carrots. PMID:24858934

  15. Total quantum Zeno effect and intelligent states for a two-level system in a squeezed bath

    SciTech Connect

    Mundarain, D.; Stephany, J.; Orszag, M.

    2006-11-15

    In this work we show that, by frequent measurements of adequately chosen observables, a complete suppression of the decay in an exponentially decaying two-level system interacting with a squeezed bath is obtained. The observables for which the effect is observed depend on the squeezing parameters of the bath. The initial states that display total Zeno effect are intelligent states of two conjugate observables associated to the electromagnetic fluctuations of the bath.

  16. Modulating nitric oxide levels in dorsal root ganglion neurons of rat with low-level laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Li-qin; Wang, Yu-hua; He, Yi-peng; Zhou, Jie; Yang, Hong-qin; Zhang, Yan-ding; Xie, Shu-sen

    2015-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) have an important role in pain signaling transmission in animal models. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is known to have an analgesic effect, but the mechanism is unclear. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of LLLT on NO release and NOS synthesis in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, in order to find whether LLLI can ameliorate pain through modulating NO production at the cellular level. The results show that in stress conditions, the laser irradiation at 658 nm can modulate NO production in DRG neurons with soma diameter of about 20 μm in a short time after illumination, and affect NOS synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. It is demonstrated that LLLT might treat pain by altering NO release directly and indirectly in DRG neurons.

  17. Evaluation of Salivary Nitric Oxide Levels in Smokers, Tobacco Chewers and Patients with Oral Lichenoid Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Joy Idiculla; Sivapathasundharam, B.; Sabarinath, B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical, acts as a signalling molecule affecting numerous physiological and pathological processes. Role of nitric oxide as a mediator in tobacco related habits and the resultant oral lichenoid reactions was assessed. Aim The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the salivary nitric oxide levels in normal patients with that of smokers, tobacco chewers and patients with oral lichenoid reactions. Materials and Methods One hundred and twenty patients were enrolled in the study which included 30 healthy patients without any chronic inflammatory lesion and habit as controls (group I), 30 smokers without the habit of tobacco/betel nut chewing and any oral lesion (group II), 30 tobacco chewers without the habit of smoking and any oral lesion (group III) and 30 histologically confirmed cases of oral lichenoid reaction with the habit of tobacco usage (group IV). Saliva from these patients was collected and the nitrite concentration was assessed. Results Our results concluded that there was highly significant increase in the nitric oxide levels in smokers, tobacco chewers and patients with oral lichenoid reactions compared to that of controls. Also, there was a significant increase in nitric oxide levels in patients with smoking associated oral lichenoid reactions in comparison with smokers and in patients with lichenoid reactions associated with tobacco chewing in comparison with tobacco chewers. Conclusion Estimation of salivary nitric oxide levels is a simple, non-invasive procedure and could be analysed to suggest the role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of these lesions. The increased activity of the enzyme may indicate that nitric oxide has a pathophysiological role in these lesions. PMID:26894179

  18. Comments on "thermal degradation behavior of hypochlorite-oxidized starch nanocrystals under different oxidized levels".

    PubMed

    Trache, Djalal

    2016-10-20

    This paper intends to discuss the employment of the Coats-Redfern equation to compute the kinetic parameters of the thermal degradation of hypochlorite-oxidized starch nancrystals by Wei et al. [Carbohydrate Polymers 124 (2015) 124-130]. The original paper has shown some fundamental errors when presenting the Coats-Redfern (CR) integral kinetic model. This CR equation is commonly used to calculate the activation energy of the thermal degradation from a single non isothermal thermogravimetric curve. However, the use of a set of experiments recorded under different heating rates is often required to obtain accurate results, as recommended by the International Confederation for Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry (ICTAC) Kinetics Committee. The present comments are focused on these statements giving some arguments and elucidations concerning the Coats-Redfern equation.

  19. Comments on "thermal degradation behavior of hypochlorite-oxidized starch nanocrystals under different oxidized levels".

    PubMed

    Trache, Djalal

    2016-10-20

    This paper intends to discuss the employment of the Coats-Redfern equation to compute the kinetic parameters of the thermal degradation of hypochlorite-oxidized starch nancrystals by Wei et al. [Carbohydrate Polymers 124 (2015) 124-130]. The original paper has shown some fundamental errors when presenting the Coats-Redfern (CR) integral kinetic model. This CR equation is commonly used to calculate the activation energy of the thermal degradation from a single non isothermal thermogravimetric curve. However, the use of a set of experiments recorded under different heating rates is often required to obtain accurate results, as recommended by the International Confederation for Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry (ICTAC) Kinetics Committee. The present comments are focused on these statements giving some arguments and elucidations concerning the Coats-Redfern equation. PMID:27474597

  20. Oxidation Stability of Pig Liver Pâté with Increasing Levels of Natural Antioxidants (Grape and Tea)

    PubMed Central

    Pateiro, Mirian; Lorenzo, José M.; Vázquez, José A.; Franco, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of the addition of increasing levels of the natural antioxidants tea (TEA) and grape seed extracts (GRA) on the physiochemical and oxidative stability of refrigerated stored pig pâtés. In addition, a synthetic antioxidant and a control batch were used, thus a total of eight batches of liver pâté were prepared: CON, BHT, TEA (TEA50, TEA200 and TEA1000) and GRA (GRA50, GRA200 and GRA1000). Pâté samples were analyzed following 0, 4, 8 and 24 weeks of storage. Color parameters were affected by storage period and level of antioxidant extract. Samples with TEA200 and GRA1000 levels of extracts showed lower total color difference between 0 and 24 weeks. At the end of storage period, the lower TBARs values were obtained in samples with the highest concentration on natural extract. Overall, the evolution of volatile compounds showed an increase in those ones that arise from the lipid oxidation and samples with TEA1000 extract showed the lowest values. PMID:26785340

  1. Oxidation Stability of Pig Liver Pâté with Increasing Levels of Natural Antioxidants (Grape and Tea).

    PubMed

    Pateiro, Mirian; Lorenzo, José M; Vázquez, José A; Franco, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of the addition of increasing levels of the natural antioxidants tea (TEA) and grape seed extracts (GRA) on the physiochemical and oxidative stability of refrigerated stored pig pâtés. In addition, a synthetic antioxidant and a control batch were used, thus a total of eight batches of liver pâté were prepared: CON, BHT, TEA (TEA50, TEA200 and TEA1000) and GRA (GRA50, GRA200 and GRA1000). Pâté samples were analyzed following 0, 4, 8 and 24 weeks of storage. Color parameters were affected by storage period and level of antioxidant extract. Samples with TEA200 and GRA1000 levels of extracts showed lower total color difference between 0 and 24 weeks. At the end of storage period, the lower TBARs values were obtained in samples with the highest concentration on natural extract. Overall, the evolution of volatile compounds showed an increase in those ones that arise from the lipid oxidation and samples with TEA1000 extract showed the lowest values. PMID:26785340

  2. Total antioxidant status of zinc, manganese, copper and selenium levels in rats exposed to premium motor spirit fumes

    PubMed Central

    Okuonghae, Patrick O.; Aberare, Lewis O.; Mukoro, Nathaniel; Osazuwa, Favour; Dirisu, John O.; Ogbuzulu, Johanna; Omoregie, Richard; Igbinuwen, Moses

    2011-01-01

    Background: Frequent exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS) is common and could be a risk factor for liver dysfunction in those occupationally exposed. A possible association between PMS fumes and plasma total antioxidant status as well as plasma levels of zinc, manganese, copper and selenium using a rodent model could provide new insights into the pathology of the liver where cellular dysfunction is an established risk factor. Aim: This study aimed to determine the total antioxidant status and plasma levels of zinc, copper, selenium and manganese in those occupationally exposed using rodent model. Materials and Methods: 25 albino Wistar rats of both sexes were used for this study. The animals were divided into five groups of five rats in each group. Group 1 rats were not exposed to PMS fumes (control group), group 2 rats were exposed for 1 hour daily, group 3 for 3 hours daily, group 4 for 5 hours daily and group 5 for 7 hours daily. The experiment lasted for a period of 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained from all the groups after 4 weeks of exposure were used for the determination of plasma total antioxidant status as well as plasma levels of zinc, manganese, copper and selenium. Results: Results showed significant increases in means of plasma copper (69.70±0.99 for test and 69.20±1.02 for control, P < 0.05) and selenium (72.70±1.58 for test and 68.20±0.86 for control, P < 0.05) in the exposed rats when respective mean values were compared with those of corresponding controls. Mean body weight index (BWI) and percentage weight increase (PWI) were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in exposed rats when compared with the unexposed group. The mean plasma levels of zinc (137.40±4.06 for test and 147.80±2.52 for control) and manganese (65.75±1.02 for test and 70.00±0.71 for control) showed significant decrease (P < 0.05) when compared with control. Plasma level of total antioxidant status (TAS) did not differ significantly in exposed rats when compared with the

  3. Genome-Wide Scan on Total Serum IgE Levels Identifies FCER1A as Novel Susceptibility Locus

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Elke; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Mempel, Martin; Klopp, Norman; Gohlke, Henning; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Ollert, Markus; Ring, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Heinrich, Joachim; Novak, Natalija; Bieber, Thomas; Krämer, Ursula; Berdel, Dietrich; von Berg, Andrea; Bauer, Carl Peter; Herbarth, Olf; Koletzko, Sibylle; Prokisch, Holger; Mehta, Divya; Meitinger, Thomas; Depner, Martin; von Mutius, Erika; Liang, Liming; Moffatt, Miriam; Cookson, William; Kabesch, Michael; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Illig, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    High levels of serum IgE are considered markers of parasite and helminth exposure. In addition, they are associated with allergic disorders, play a key role in anti-tumoral defence, and are crucial mediators of autoimmune diseases. Total IgE is a strongly heritable trait. In a genome-wide association study (GWAS), we tested 353,569 SNPs for association with serum IgE levels in 1,530 individuals from the population-based KORA S3/F3 study. Replication was performed in four independent population-based study samples (total n = 9,769 individuals). Functional variants in the gene encoding the alpha chain of the high affinity receptor for IgE (FCER1A) on chromosome 1q23 (rs2251746 and rs2427837) were strongly associated with total IgE levels in all cohorts with P values of 1.85×10−20 and 7.08×10−19 in a combined analysis, and in a post-hoc analysis showed additional associations with allergic sensitization (P = 7.78×10−4 and P = 1.95×10−3). The “top” SNP significantly influenced the cell surface expression of FCER1A on basophils, and genome-wide expression profiles indicated an interesting novel regulatory mechanism of FCER1A expression via GATA-2. Polymorphisms within the RAD50 gene on chromosome 5q31 were consistently associated with IgE levels (P values 6.28×10−7−4.46×10−8) and increased the risk for atopic eczema and asthma. Furthermore, STAT6 was confirmed as susceptibility locus modulating IgE levels. In this first GWAS on total IgE FCER1A was identified and replicated as new susceptibility locus at which common genetic variation influences serum IgE levels. In addition, variants within the RAD50 gene might represent additional factors within cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 5q31, emphasizing the need for further investigations in this intriguing region. Our data furthermore confirm association of STAT6 variation with serum IgE levels. PMID:18846228

  4. Impact of nitrous acid photolysis on the total hydroxyl radical budget during the Limitation of Oxidant Production/Pianura Padana Produzione di Ozono study in Milan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alicke, B.; Platt, U.; Stutz, J.

    2002-11-01

    The photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO) in the early morning hours is believed to be a significant source of hydroxyl radicals (OH), the most important daytime oxidizing species. Although the importance of this mechanism has been recognized for many years, no accurate experimental quantification is available. Here we present measurements of HONO, NO2, SO2, O3 and HCHO by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) during the Limitation of Oxidant Production/Pianura Padana Produzione di Ozono (LOOP/PIPAPO) study in May-June 1998 in Milan, Italy. The concentration of NO and J(NO2)/J(HONO) were simultaneously monitored by in situ monitors. The photolysis frequencies of HCHO and O3 were determined with a radiative transfer model. High nocturnal HONO mixing ratios of up to 4.4 ppb were regularly observed. Elevated daytime HONO levels during cloudy periods show that the formation of HONO proceeds after sunrise and therefore also represents a source of hydroxyl radicals throughout the day. Averaged over 24 hours, HCHO photolysis is the most important source of OH in Milan, followed by either ozone or HONO photolysis. Our observations indicate that on certain days the OH production from HONO can be even more important than that from ozone photolysis. The diurnal variation of the different OH formation mechanisms shows that HONO photolysis is by far the most important source in the early hours of the morning, and can be as large as and even surpass the total OH production at noon.

  5. A wafer-level liquid cavity integrated amperometric gas sensor with ppb-level nitric oxide gas sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatty, Hithesh K.; Stemme, Göran; Roxhed, Niclas

    2015-10-01

    A miniaturized amperometric nitric oxide (NO) gas sensor based on wafer-level fabrication of electrodes and a liquid electrolyte chamber is reported in this paper. The sensor is able to detect NO gas concentrations of the order of parts per billion (ppb) levels and has a measured sensitivity of 0.04 nA ppb-1 with a response time of approximately 12 s. A sufficiently high selectivity of the sensor to interfering gases such as carbon monoxide (CO) and to ammonia (NH3) makes it potentially relevant for monitoring of asthma. In addition, the sensor was characterized for electrolyte evaporation which indicated a sensor operation lifetime allowing approximately 200 measurements.

  6. The level of red cell distribution width cannot identify deep vein thrombosis in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhihong; Li, Lan; Shi, Dongquan; Chen, Dongyang; Dai, Jin; Yao, Yao; Teng, Huajian; Jiang, Qing

    2015-04-01

    Recently, studies have reported that increased level of red cell distribution width (RDW) is associated with deep vein thrombosis (DVT). We are aiming to evaluate the validity of RDW in DVT in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA). A total of 110 patients (55 patients with DVT and 55 control individuals undergoing TJA) were included in this retrospective cross-sectional study. Age, sex, RDW, red blood cell count, D-dimer, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels of patients were matched. The relationship between RDW and DVT has been estimated. There is no statistical difference of RDW levels between the DVT group and the control group (13.12 ± 0.12 vs. 13.08 ± 0.13; P = 0.84). Pearson's correlation analysis showed that there were no significant associations between RDW and other referral groups. Logistic regression analysis indicated that RDW, red blood cell count, hemoglobin and hematocrit were not associated with DVT. Meanwhile, age, sex and D-dimer were independently associated with DVT. The receiver-operating characteristic curve and area under the curve demonstrated low accuracy of RDW in predicting DVT. Although D-dimer may identify the risk of venous thrombosis, the specificity and sensitivity were low. Preoperative level of RDW does not show predictive value for diagnosis of DVT in patients undergoing TJA. PMID:25806961

  7. Total Flavonoids from Rosa laevigata Michx Fruit Ameliorates Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xufeng; Sun, Xiance; Xu, Lina; Yin, Lianhong; Han, Xu; Qi, Yan; Xu, Youwei; Zhao, Yanyan; Wang, Changyuan; Peng, Jinyong

    2016-01-01

    The effects of total flavonoids (TFs) from Rosa laevigata Michx fruit against liver damage and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury have been reported, but its action on hepatic I/R injury remains unknown. In this work, the effects and possible mechanisms of TFs against hepatic I/R injury were examined using a 70% partial hepatic warm ischemia rat model. The results demonstrated TFs decreased serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, improved liver histopathology and ultrastructure through hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and electron microscope observation. In addition, TFs significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), which indicated that TFs alleviated oxidative stress caused by I/R injury. RT-PCR results proved that TFs downregulated the gene levels of inflammatory factors including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-1 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Further research indicated that TF-induced hepatoprotection was completed through inhibiting TLR4/MyD88 and activating Sirt1/Nrf2 signaling pathways. Blockade of the TLR4 pathway by TFs inhibited NF-κB and AP-1 transcriptional activities and inflammatory reaction. Activation of Sirt1/Nrf2 pathway by TFs increased the protein levels of HO-1 and GST to improve oxidative stress. Collectively, these findingsconfirmed the potent effects of TFs against hepatic I/R injury, which should be developed as a candidate for the prevention of this disease. PMID:27399769

  8. Total Flavonoids from Rosa laevigata Michx Fruit Ameliorates Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xufeng; Sun, Xiance; Xu, Lina; Yin, Lianhong; Han, Xu; Qi, Yan; Xu, Youwei; Zhao, Yanyan; Wang, Changyuan; Peng, Jinyong

    2016-01-01

    The effects of total flavonoids (TFs) from Rosa laevigata Michx fruit against liver damage and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury have been reported, but its action on hepatic I/R injury remains unknown. In this work, the effects and possible mechanisms of TFs against hepatic I/R injury were examined using a 70% partial hepatic warm ischemia rat model. The results demonstrated TFs decreased serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, improved liver histopathology and ultrastructure through hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and electron microscope observation. In addition, TFs significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), which indicated that TFs alleviated oxidative stress caused by I/R injury. RT-PCR results proved that TFs downregulated the gene levels of inflammatory factors including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-1 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Further research indicated that TF-induced hepatoprotection was completed through inhibiting TLR4/MyD88 and activating Sirt1/Nrf2 signaling pathways. Blockade of the TLR4 pathway by TFs inhibited NF-κB and AP-1 transcriptional activities and inflammatory reaction. Activation of Sirt1/Nrf2 pathway by TFs increased the protein levels of HO-1 and GST to improve oxidative stress. Collectively, these findingsconfirmed the potent effects of TFs against hepatic I/R injury, which should be developed as a candidate for the prevention of this disease. PMID:27399769

  9. Relationship between oxidation level and optical properties of secondary organic aerosol.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Andrew T; Cappa, Christopher D; Massoli, Paola; Onasch, Timothy B; Forestieri, Sara D; Martin, Alexander T; Cummings, Molly J; Croasdale, David R; Brune, William H; Worsnop, Douglas R; Davidovits, Paul

    2013-06-18

    Brown carbon (BrC), which may include secondary organic aerosol (SOA), can be a significant climate-forcing agent via its optical absorption properties. However, the overall contribution of SOA to BrC remains poorly understood. Here, correlations between oxidation level and optical properties of SOA are examined. SOA was generated in a flow reactor in the absence of NOx by OH oxidation of gas-phase precursors used as surrogates for anthropogenic (naphthalene, tricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]decane), biomass burning (guaiacol), and biogenic (α-pinene) emissions. SOA chemical composition was characterized with a time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. SOA mass-specific absorption cross sections (MAC) and refractive indices were calculated from real-time cavity ring-down photoacoustic spectrometry measurements at 405 and 532 nm and from UV-vis spectrometry measurements of methanol extracts of filter-collected particles (300 to 600 nm). At 405 nm, SOA MAC values and imaginary refractive indices increased with increasing oxidation level and decreased with increasing wavelength, leading to negligible absorption at 532 nm. Real refractive indices of SOA decreased with increasing oxidation level. Comparison with literature studies suggests that under typical polluted conditions the effect of NOx on SOA absorption is small. SOA may contribute significantly to atmospheric BrC, with the magnitude dependent on both precursor type and oxidation level. PMID:23701291

  10. Relationship between Oxidation Level and Optical Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambe, A. T.; Cappa, C. D.; Massoli, P.; Onasch, T. B.; Forestieri, S.; Martin, A. T.; Cummings, M. J.; Croasdale, D. R.; Brune, W. H.; Worsnop, D. R.; Davidovits, P.

    2013-12-01

    Brown carbon (BrC), which may include secondary organic aerosol (SOA), can be a significant climate-forcing agent via its optical absorption properties. However, the overall contribution of SOA to BrC remains poorly understood. Here, correlations between oxidation level and optical properties of SOA are examined. SOA was generated in a flow reactor in the absence of NOx by OH oxidation of gas-phase precursors used as surrogates for anthropogenic (naphthalene, tricyclo-[5.2.1.02,6]decane), biomass burning (guaiacol), and biogenic (α-pinene) emissions. SOA chemical composition was characterized with a time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. SOA mass-specific absorption cross sections (MAC) and refractive indices were calculated from real-time cavity ring-down photoacoustic spectrometry measurements at 405 and 532 nm and from UV-vis spectrometry measurements of methanol extracts of filter-collected particles (300 to 600 nm). At 405 nm, SOA MAC values and imaginary refractive indices increased with increasing oxidation level and decreased with increasing wavelength, leading to negligible absorption at 532 nm. Real refractive indices of SOA decreased with increasing oxidation level. Comparison with literature studies suggests that under typical polluted conditions the effect of NOx on SOA absorption is small. SOA may contribute significantly to atmospheric BrC, with the magnitude dependent on both precursor type and oxidation level. Mass-specific absorption cross sections (MAC) of SOA at λ = 405 nm as a function of the O/C ratio

  11. Free and total leptin serum levels and soluble leptin receptors levels in two models of genetic obesity: the Prader-Willi and the Down syndromes.

    PubMed

    Proto, Caterina; Romualdi, Daniela; Cento, Rosa Maria; Romano, Corrado; Campagna, Giuseppe; Lanzone, Antonio

    2007-08-01

    Alterations in energy balance and feeding behavior and the subsequent high frequency of obesity are hallmarks of 2 chromosomal diseases: the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and the Down syndrome (DS). Leptin, an important regulator of food intake and energy homeostasis, circulates in 2 forms: a free, therefore active, fraction and a fraction bound to the soluble leptin receptor, whose bioavailability consequently participates in the regulation of leptin action. To investigate the possible role of the free-bound leptin balance in the pathogenesis of obesity in PWS and DS, we enrolled 7 obese women with DS, 5 obese women with PWS, 7 obese women, and 7 normal-weight healthy control women. Basal hormonal concentrations, total and free leptin levels, and leptin receptors levels were measured in plasma samples obtained from the 4 groups. No significant differences were observed in the hormonal milieu. Women with DS exhibited lower total leptin concentrations (P<.01), comparable leptin receptor level and, therefore, lower free leptin values (P<.01) when compared with obese controls, then resembling the profile peculiar to normal-weight control women. At variance, subjects with PWS did not differ from obese controls regarding both leptin and leptin receptor levels. Our data suggest that, whereas subjects with PWS have a leptin assessment corresponding to their degree of obesity, subjects with DS may have a defect in the secretion of leptin that could at least partially account for this form of syndromal obesity.

  12. Intake of Red Wine in Different Meals Modulates Oxidized LDL Level, Oxidative and Inflammatory Gene Expression in Healthy People: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Di Renzo, Laura; Valente, Roberto; Colica, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, including consumption of red wine, is associated with beneficial effects on oxidative and inflammatory conditions. We evaluate the outcome of consumption of a McDonald's Meal (McD) and a Mediterranean Meal (MM), with and without the additive effect of red wine, in order to ascertain whether the addition of the latter has a positive impact on oxidized (ox-) LDL and on expression of oxidative and inflammatory genes. A total of 24 subjects were analyzed for ox-LDL, CAT, GPX1, SOD2, SIRT2, and CCL5 gene expression levels, before and after consumption of the 4 different meal combinations with washout intervals between each meal. When red wine is associated with McD or MM, values of ox-LDL are lowered (P < 0.05) and expression of antioxidant genes is increased, while CCL5 expression is decreased (P < 0.05). SIRT2 expression after MM and fasting with red wine is significantly correlated with downregulation of CCL5 and upregulation of CAT (P < 0.001). GPX1 increased significantly in the comparison between baseline and all conditions with red wine. We highlighted for the first time the positive effect of red wine intake combined with different but widely consumed meal types on ox-LDL and gene expression. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01890070. PMID:24876915

  13. Intake of red wine in different meals modulates oxidized LDL level, oxidative and inflammatory gene expression in healthy people: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, Laura; Carraro, Alberto; Valente, Roberto; Iacopino, Leonardo; Colica, Carmen; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, including consumption of red wine, is associated with beneficial effects on oxidative and inflammatory conditions. We evaluate the outcome of consumption of a McDonald's Meal (McD) and a Mediterranean Meal (MM), with and without the additive effect of red wine, in order to ascertain whether the addition of the latter has a positive impact on oxidized (ox-) LDL and on expression of oxidative and inflammatory genes. A total of 24 subjects were analyzed for ox-LDL, CAT, GPX1, SOD2, SIRT2, and CCL5 gene expression levels, before and after consumption of the 4 different meal combinations with washout intervals between each meal. When red wine is associated with McD or MM, values of ox-LDL are lowered (P < 0.05) and expression of antioxidant genes is increased, while CCL5 expression is decreased (P < 0.05). SIRT2 expression after MM and fasting with red wine is significantly correlated with downregulation of CCL5 and upregulation of CAT (P < 0.001). GPX1 increased significantly in the comparison between baseline and all conditions with red wine. We highlighted for the first time the positive effect of red wine intake combined with different but widely consumed meal types on ox-LDL and gene expression. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01890070. PMID:24876915

  14. Intake of red wine in different meals modulates oxidized LDL level, oxidative and inflammatory gene expression in healthy people: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, Laura; Carraro, Alberto; Valente, Roberto; Iacopino, Leonardo; Colica, Carmen; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, including consumption of red wine, is associated with beneficial effects on oxidative and inflammatory conditions. We evaluate the outcome of consumption of a McDonald's Meal (McD) and a Mediterranean Meal (MM), with and without the additive effect of red wine, in order to ascertain whether the addition of the latter has a positive impact on oxidized (ox-) LDL and on expression of oxidative and inflammatory genes. A total of 24 subjects were analyzed for ox-LDL, CAT, GPX1, SOD2, SIRT2, and CCL5 gene expression levels, before and after consumption of the 4 different meal combinations with washout intervals between each meal. When red wine is associated with McD or MM, values of ox-LDL are lowered (P < 0.05) and expression of antioxidant genes is increased, while CCL5 expression is decreased (P < 0.05). SIRT2 expression after MM and fasting with red wine is significantly correlated with downregulation of CCL5 and upregulation of CAT (P < 0.001). GPX1 increased significantly in the comparison between baseline and all conditions with red wine. We highlighted for the first time the positive effect of red wine intake combined with different but widely consumed meal types on ox-LDL and gene expression. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01890070.

  15. No effect of oral tyrosine on total tyrosine levels in breast milk: implications for dietary supplementation in early postpartum.

    PubMed

    Dowlati, Yekta; Ravindran, Arun V; Maheux, Maxim; Steiner, Meir; Stewart, Donna E; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2014-12-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common complication of childbearing with a 13 % prevalence rate, and there is no widespread approach for prevention. There is an appealing theoretical rationale for oral tyrosine to help prevent PPD. However, the effect of oral tyrosine on its total and free concentrations in breast milk and plasma of breastfeeding mothers is not known. Twenty-four healthy breastfeeding women were randomly assigned to 0, 2, 5, or 10 g of oral tyrosine. Free and total tyrosine in breast milk and free tyrosine in plasma were measured. Free tyrosine was also measured in 12 different infant formulas. Total tyrosine in breast milk did not rise, but there was a slight tendency towards a reduction (up to −12 %; repeated measures ANOVA (RMANOVA): p = 0.074). Maternal plasma tyrosine rose (RMANOVA: p < 0.005). In breast milk, 98 % of tyrosine was in proteins or peptides and 2 % was free. Free tyrosine levels in breast milk rose in each group (RMANOVA: p < 0.005), but levels were within the range found in common infant formulas. The negligible effect of oral tyrosine on its concentration in breast milk supports further development of oral tyrosine as part of a prevention strategy for PPD. PMID:25015680

  16. VIALS: An Eulerian tool based on total variation and the level set method for studying dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Guoqiao; Leung, Shingyu

    2014-06-01

    We propose a new Eulerian tool to study complicated dynamical systems based on the average growth in the surface area of a family of level surfaces represented implicitly by a level set function. Since this proposed quantity determines the temporal variation of the averaged surface area of all level surfaces, we name the quantity the Variation of the Integral over Area of Level Surfaces (VIALS). Numerically, all these infinitely many level surfaces are advected according to the given dynamics by solving one single linear advection equation. To develop a computationally efficient approach, we apply the coarea formula and rewrite the surface area integral as a simple integral relating the total variation (TV) of the level set function. The proposed method can be easily incorporated with a recent Eulerian algorithm for efficient computation of flow maps to speed up our approach. We will also prove that the proposed VIALS is closely related to the computation of the finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) in the Lagrangian coherent structure (LCS) extraction. This connects our proposed Eulerian approach to widely used Lagrangian techniques for understanding complicated dynamical systems.

  17. Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy myoblasts efficiently repair moderate levels of oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Bou Saada, Yara; Dib, Carla; Dmitriev, Petr; Hamade, Aline; Carnac, Gilles; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila; Lipinski, Marc; Vassetzky, Yegor S

    2016-04-01

    Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is a progressive muscular dystrophy linked to a deletion of a subset of D4Z4 macrosatellite repeats accompanied by a chromatin relaxation of the D4Z4 array on chromosome 4q. In vitro, FSHD primary myoblasts show altered expression of oxidative-related genes and are more susceptible to oxidative stress. Double homeobox 4 (DUX4) gene, encoded within each D4Z4 unit, is normally transcriptionally silenced but is found aberrantly expressed in skeletal muscles of FSHD patients. Its expression leads to a deregulation of DUX4 target genes including those implicated in redox balance. Here, we assessed DNA repair efficiency of oxidative DNA damage in FSHD myoblasts and DUX4-transfected myoblasts. We have shown that the DNA repair activity is altered neither in FSHD myoblasts nor in immortalized human myoblasts transiently expressing DUX4. DNA damage caused by moderate doses of an oxidant is efficiently repaired while FSHD myoblasts exposed for 24 h to high levels of oxidative stress accumulated more DNA damage than normal myoblasts, suggesting that FSHD myoblasts remain more vulnerable to oxidative stress at high doses of oxidants. PMID:26860865

  18. A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Antarctic Krill Reduced Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Increased Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and Carnitine Levels in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Ramsvik, Marie S.; Lindquist, Carine; Nordrehaug, Jan E.; Bruheim, Inge; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf K.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is assumed to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, mainly based on plasma lipid lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, other plasma risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease are less studied. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC) from Antarctic krill on one-carbon metabolism and production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed isoenergetic control, 6%, or 11% PPC diets for four weeks. Rats fed PPC had reduced total homocysteine plasma level and increased levels of choline, dimethylglycine and cysteine, whereas the plasma level of methionine was unchanged compared to control. PPC feeding increased the plasma level of TMAO, carnitine, its precursors trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. There was a close correlation between plasma TMAO and carnitine, trimethyllysine, and γ-butyrobetaine, but not between TMAO and choline. The present data suggest that PPC has a homocysteine lowering effect and is associated with altered plasma concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats. Moreover, the present study reveals a non-obligatory role of gut microbiota in the increased plasma TMAO level as it can be explained by the PPC’s content of TMAO. The increased level of carnitine and carnitine precursors is interpreted to reflect increased carnitine biosynthesis. PMID:26371012

  19. The Level of Selenium and Oxidative Stress in Workers Chronically Exposed to Lead.

    PubMed

    Pawlas, Natalia; Dobrakowski, Michał; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Kozłowska, Agnieszka; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-03-01

    The possible beneficial role of selenium (Se) on the oxidative stress induced by lead (Pb) is still unclear in humans. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the associations among the Se levels, chronic Pb exposure, oxidative stress parameters, and parameters characterizing the function of the antioxidant defense system in men who are occupationally exposed to Pb. Based on the median serum Se concentrations, the 324 study subjects were divided into two subgroups: a subgroup with a low Se level (L-Se) and a subgroup with a high Se level (H-Se). The levels of lead (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) in the blood and the delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) level in the urine served as indices of Pb exposure. The PbB level was significantly lower in the H-Se group compared to that in the L-Se group by 6 %. The levels of 8-hydroxyguanosine and lipofuscin (LPS) and the activity of superoxide dismutase were significantly lower in the H-Se group compared to that in the L-Se group by 17, 19, and 11 %, respectively. However, the glutathione level (GSH) and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase were significantly higher by 9, 23, and 3 %. Spearman correlations showed positive associations between the Se level and GPx activity and GSH level. A lower serum Se level in chronically Pb-exposed subjects is associated with higher Pb blood levels and an elevated erythrocyte LPS level, which reflects the intensity of oxidative stress. Besides, in a group of Pb-exposed subjects with lower serum Se level, depleted GSH pool and decreased activity of GPx in erythrocytes were reported. However, the present results are inadequate to recommend Se supplementation for chronic lead exposure at higher doses than would be included in a normal diet except for selenium deficiency.

  20. Subjects with Low Plasma HDL Cholesterol Levels Are Characterized by an Inflammatory and Oxidative Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Holven, Kirsten B.; Retterstøl, Kjetil; Ueland, Thor; Ulven, Stine M.; Nenseter, Marit S.; Sandvik, Marit; Narverud, Ingunn; Berge, Knut E.; Ose, Leiv; Aukrust, Pål; Halvorsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have shown that low plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms for the possible atheroprotective effects of HDL cholesterol have still not been fully clarified, in particular in relation to clinical studies. Objective To examine the inflammatory, anti-oxidative and metabolic phenotype of subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol levels. Methods and Results Fifteen subjects with low HDL cholesterol levels (eleven males and four females) and 19 subjects with high HDL (three males and 16 females) were recruited. Low HDL cholesterol was defined as ≤10th age/sex specific percentile and high HDL-C was defined as ≥90 age/sex specific percentile. Inflammatory markers in circulation and PBMC gene expression of cholesterol efflux mediators were measured. Our main findings were: (i) subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol levels were characterized by increased plasma levels of CRP, MMP-9, neopterin, CXCL16 and ICAM-1 as well as low plasma levels of adiponectin, suggesting an inflammatory phenotype; (ii) these individuals also had reduced paraoxonase (PON)1 activity in plasma and PON2 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) accompanied by increased plasma levels of oxidized LDL suggesting decreased anti-oxidative capacity; and (iii) PBMC from low HDL subjects also had decreased mRNA levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1, suggesting impaired reverse cholesterol transport. Conclusion Subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol levels are characterized by an inflammatory and oxidative phenotype that could contribute to the increased risk of atherosclerotic disorders in these subjects with low HDL levels. PMID:24244297

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of inflammation, oxidative stress and NAD+ are linked to differences in plasma carotenoid concentrations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The consumption of foods rich in carotenoids that possess significant antioxidant and inflammatory modulating properties has been linked to reduced risk of neuropathology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between plasma carotenoid concentrations and plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) in an essentially healthy human cohort. Methods Thirty-eight matched CSF and plasma samples were collected from consenting participants who required a spinal tap for the administration of anaesthetic. Plasma concentrations of carotenoids and both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of NAD(H) and markers of inflammation (IL-6, TNF-α) and oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes, 8-OHdG and total antioxidant capacity) were quantified. Results The average age of participants was 53 years (SD = 20, interquartile range = 38). Both α-carotene (P = 0.01) and β-carotene (P < 0.001) correlated positively with plasma total antioxidant capacity. A positive correlation was observed between α-carotene and CSF TNF-α levels (P = 0.02). β-cryptoxanthin (P = 0.04) and lycopene (P = 0.02) inversely correlated with CSF and plasma IL-6 respectively. A positive correlation was also observed between lycopene and both plasma (P < 0.001) and CSF (P < 0.01) [NAD(H)]. Surprisingly no statistically significant associations were found between the most abundant carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin and either plasma or CSF markers of oxidative stress. Conclusion Together these findings suggest that consumption of carotenoids may modulate inflammation and enhance antioxidant defences within both the central nervous system (CNS) and systemic circulation. Increased levels of lycopene also appear to moderate decline in the essential pyridine nucleotide [NAD(H)] in both the plasma and the CSF. PMID:24985027

  2. Single or combined effects of mannan-oligosaccharides and probiotic supplements on the total oxidants, total antioxidants, enzymatic antioxidants, liver enzymes, and serum trace minerals in cyclic heat-stressed broilers.

    PubMed

    Sohail, M U; Rahman, Z U; Ijaz, A; Yousaf, M S; Ashraf, K; Yaqub, T; Zaneb, H; Anwar, H; Rehman, H

    2011-11-01

    This study was intended to explore the oxidative status of broilers under cyclic heat stress (HS) as modulated by supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and a probiotic mixture (PM). Two hundred fifty 1-d-old chicks were randomly divided into 5 groups. From d 22, birds were either kept in a thermoneutral zone (TN; 26.7°C for 24 h/d) or subjected to HS (35 ± 1.1°C and 75 ± 5% RH for 8 h/d from 1000 to 1800 h) to the conclusion of the study on d 42. Birds were fed either a corn-based diet (TN and HS groups) or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% MOS (HS-MOS group), 0.1% PM (HS-PM group), or their combination as a symbiotic (SYN; HS-SYN group). On d 42, birds were killed by cervical dislocation to collect serum for the determination of total oxidants, total antioxidants, paraoxonase, arylesterase, ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and trace minerals. Heat stress increased (P < 0.05) total oxidants and total antioxidants and decreased (P < 0.05) paraoxonase and arylesterase, with no change in ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities. Dietary supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) total oxidants and total antioxidants, with no effect on the activities of other enzymes. Heat stress did not influence serum copper, zinc, and manganese concentrations of birds when compared with those in the TN group. However, MOS increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of all the trace minerals, whereas SYN increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of only zinc and copper. It was concluded that MOS or PM supplementation, alone or as a SYN, may reduce some of the detrimental effects of HS, whereas MOS alone or as a SYN may improve the absorption of trace minerals.

  3. Changing blood lead levels and oxidative stress with duration of residence among Taiwan immigrants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Te; Wu, Chin-Ching; Lin, Yu-Jen; Shen, Chen-Yang; Liu, Tsung-Yun; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Wu, Trong-Neng

    2013-12-01

    Immigrants lack appropriate health care access and other resources needed to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental health risks. Little is known about the impact of lead exposure and oxidative stress among immigrants. Thus, this study was to examine the differences between the blood lead levels (BLLs) and oxidative stress levels of immigrants and non-immigrants, and to investigate the determinants of increased BLLs or oxidative stress levels among immigrants. We collected demographic data of 239 immigrant women and 189 non-immigrant women who resettled in the central area of Taiwan. Each study participant provided blood samples for genotyping and for measuring blood metal levels and oxidative stress. Recent immigrants were at risk for elevated BLLs. Decreased BLLs, malondialdehyde (MDA), and increased blood selenium levels were significantly associated with duration of residence in Taiwan. Elevated BLLs and MDA in recent immigrants may serve as a warning sign for the health care system. The nation's health will benefit from improved regulation of living environments, thereby improving the health of immigrants.

  4. “Transference Ratios” to Predict Total Oxidized Sulfur and Nitrogen Deposition – Part I, Monitoring Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of model-predicted “transference ratios” is currently under consideration by the US EPA in the formulation of a Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standard for oxidized nitrogen and oxidized sulfur. This term is an empirical parameter defined for oxidized sulfur (TS)as th...

  5. Molecular-Level Processes Governing the Interaction of Contaminants with Iron and Manganese Oxides - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown Jr., G. E.; Chambers, S. A.

    1999-10-31

    Many of the inorganic and organic contaminants present in sediments at DOE sites can be altered or destroyed by reduction and oxidation (redox) reactions occurring at mineral surfaces. A fundamental understanding of such redox processes provided by molecular-level studies on structurally and compositionally well-defined mineral surfaces will lead to: (i) improved models of contaminant fate and transport in geochemical systems, and (ii) optimized manipulation of these processes for remediation purposes. To contribute to this understanding, we will study, both experimentally and theoretically, redox processes involving three important contaminants - chromate ion, carbon tetrachloride, and trichloroethene TCE, on the following iron and manganese oxides - hematite, magnetite, maghemite, and pyrolusite. These oxides and their hydroxylated analogs commonly occur as coatings on minerals or as interfaces in the subsurface environment. Single-crystal surfaces of these oxides will be synthesized in carefully controlled fashion by molecular beam epitaxy. These surfaces, as well as high surface are powdered samples of these oxides, will be used in spectroscopic and kinetic experiments in both aqueous and gas phases. Our goal is to identify products and to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of surface-catalyzed redox reaction of Cr(VI) and CR(III), and the reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride and TCE. The combination of theory and experiment will provide the base information needed to scale from the molecular level to the microscopic grain level minerals.

  6. Low level laser therapy reduces oxidative stress in cortical neurons in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Tedford, Clark E.; McCarthy, Thomas; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-03-01

    It is accepted that the mechanisms of low level laser therapy (LLLT) involves photons that are absorbed in the mitochondria of cells and lead to increase of mitochondrial metabolism resulting in more electron transport, increase of mitochondrial membrane potential, and more ATP production. Intracellular calcium changes are seen that correlate with mitochondrial stimulation. The situation with two other intermediates is more complex however: reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Evidence exists that low levels of ROS are produced by LLLT in normal cells that can be beneficial by (for instance) activating NF-kB. However high fluences of light can produce large amounts of ROS that can damage the cells. In oxidatively stressed cells the situation may be different. We exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or cobalt chloride (CoCl2) oxidative insults in the presence or absence of LLLT (810-nm laser at 0.3 or 3 J/cm2). Cell viability of cortical neurons was determined by lactate dehydrogenase assay. ROS in neurons was detected using an ROS probe, MitoRox with confocal microscopy. Results showed that LLLT dose-dependently reversed ROS production and protected cortical neurons against H2O2 or CoCl2 induced oxidative injury in cultured cortical neurons. Conclusion: LLLT can protect cortical neurons against oxidative stress by reversing the levels of ROS.

  7. Comparison of the Salivary and the Serum Nitric Oxide Levels in Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis: A Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, N. Mani; Krishnan, V; Krishnaraj, S; Hemalatha, V.T.; Alam, Md Nazish

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous intercellular messenger molecule with important cardiovascular, neurological, and immune functions. In addition, it has been postulated that the pharmacological inhibition of NO or its actions may be therapeutically valuable in the disease management. The levels of nitric oxide may provide clues about the severity and the state of the underlying disease process. It could be an inflammatory biomarker that may enable clinicians to direct the environmentally based prevention or treatment programmes and to establish whether NO plays a role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis or not. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the salivary and the serum levels of NO in generalized chronic and aggressive periodontitis. The Study Design: Unstimulated whole saliva and serum samples were collected from a total of 60 subjects who were in the age group of 18-45 years, who participated in this study. They were divided into three equal groups with 20 subjects in each group; group A (healthy controls), group B (chronic periodontitis) and group C (aggressive periodontitis). The clinical parameters were assessed, based on the oral hygiene index simplified (OHI-S), the gingival index (GI), the probing pocket depth and the clinical attachment loss (CAL). A biochemical analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the salivary and the serum nitric oxide levels of the above groups. Statistical Analysis and Results: The statistical comparisons were done under the Griess Reaction. There were statistically significant salivary and serum levels of NO in the groups of periodontitis (group B and C) as compared to those in the healthy controls (group A). A significant positive correlation was found between the values of the salivary and the serum NO levels in chronic and aggressive periodontitis. Conclusion: Nitric oxide is a potent modulator of the inflammatory disease processes and under pathological conditions, NO has

  8. Organochlorine pesticide residue levels and oxidative stress in preterm delivery cases.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Rahul; Suke, Sanvidhan G; Ahmed, Tanzeel; Ahmed, Rafat S; Tripathi, A K; Guleria, Kiran; Sharma, C S; Makhijani, S D; Banerjee, B D

    2010-05-01

    A number of studies have focused attention on various biochemical abnormalities evoked due to exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The aim of the present study was to analyze the OCP residues in maternal and cord blood of women and assess the levels of different non-enzymatic oxidative stress markers as well as to establish correlation with OCP levels, if any. Thirty women in each group of full-term delivery (FTD; > or =37 weeks of gestation) and preterm delivery (PTD; <37 weeks of gestation) were enrolled in this study. Levels of OCPs like Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), endosulfan, p,p(') Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and p,p' Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed by gas chromatography. Non-enzymatic oxidative stress was measured by the quantification of malondialhyde (MDA), protein carbonyl, reduced glutathione (GSH) and ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). MDA and protein carbonyl levels were increased significantly, while the levels of GSH and FRAP were decreased in PTD in comparison to FTD cases. We have observed higher levels of beta-HCH and alpha-endosulfan and increased oxidative stress in PTD than FTD cases. In PTD cases, a significant positive correlation was observed between maternal blood levels of beta-HCH and MDA (r = .78), beta-HCH and GSH (r = -.65), gamma-HCH and MDA (r = .89), gamma-HCH and GSH (r = -.74) and alpha-endosulfan and MDA (r = .54) in PTD cases. We also found significant correlations between cord blood levels of beta-HCH and MDA (r = .59), beta-HCH and GSH (r = -.69), gamma-HCH and MDA (r = .62) and alpha-endosulfan and MDA (r = .54) in PTD cases. In conclusion, our results suggest that higher levels of some of the OCP residues may be associated with PTD and increased oxidative stress.

  9. Application of a Chemiluminescence Detector for the Measurement of Total Oxides of Nitrogen and Ammonia in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgeson, J. A.; Bell, J. P.; Rehme, K. A.; Krost, K. J.; Stevens, R. K.

    1971-01-01

    By means of the thermal conversion of nitrogen dioxide to the nitric oxide, the chemiluminescent nitric oxide monitor, based on the nitric oxide plus ozone reaction, may be used for monitoring nitrogen dioxide plus nitric oxide (NO(x)). Under conditions previously described, ammonia is also converted to nitric oxide and therefore interferes. A metal surface, gold wool or stainless steel, operated at two different temperatures has been used to convert only nitrogen dioxide or nitrogen dioxide plus ammonia. Quantitative conversion of nitrogen dioxide to nitric oxide has been obtained at temperatures as low as 200 C. Conversion of ammonia is effected at temperatures of 300 C or higher. By the addition of a converter the basic nitric oxide monitor may be used for measuring NO(x) or NO(x) plus ammonia. As an alternate mode, for a fixed high temperature, a specific scrubber is described for removing NH3 without affecting NO2 concentrations.

  10. TAP study of toluene total oxidation over a Co3O4/La-CeO2 catalyst with an application as a washcoat of cordierite honeycomb monoliths.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Diana M; Galvita, Vladimir V; Gatica, José M; Vidal, Hilario; Marin, Guy B

    2014-06-21

    The total oxidation of toluene was studied over a Co3O4/La-CeO2 catalyst in a Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP) set-up in the temperature range 713 K to 873 K in the presence and absence of dioxygen. It has been demonstrated that the reaction proceeds via a Mars-van Krevelen mechanism. The reaction rate increased 8.4 times if both toluene and dioxygen were present in the feed. The partial reaction order with respect to O2 diminished from 0.9 to 0.6 with an increase in temperature from 763 to 873 K. Adsorbed oxygen species with a lifetime of ∼8 s have been found on a catalyst fully oxidized by dioxygen. Catalysis of isotopically labeled (18)O2/(12)C6H5(13)CH3 results in the formation of products containing (18)O, which indicates that both lattice and adsorbed oxygen are involved in the total oxidation of toluene. The role of adsorbed oxygen is activation of the C-H bond in toluene. The reaction network of the catalytic total oxidation of toluene consists of the following sequence: adsorption of toluene on the catalyst surface; activation of toluene by dehydrogenation with adsorbed oxygen; oxidation of activated toluene mainly by the lattice oxygen and re-oxidation of the reduced catalyst by dioxygen.

  11. The organic contamination level based on the total soil mass is not a proper index of the soil contamination intensity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hung, H.-W.; Daniel, Sheng G.; Lin, T.-F.; Su, Y.; Chiou, C.T.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of organic contaminants in common productive soils based on the total soil mass give a misleading account of actual contamination effects. This is attributed to the fact that productive soils are essentially water-saturated, with the result that the soil uptake of organic compounds occurs principally by partition into the soil organic matter (SOM). This report illustrates that the soil contamination intensity of a compound is governed by the concentration in the SOM (Com) rather than by the concentration in whole soil (Cs). Supporting data consist of the measured levels and toxicities of many pesticides in soils of widely differing SOM contents and the related levels in in-situ crops that defy explanation by the Cs values. This SOM-based index is timely needed for evaluating the contamination effects of food crops grown in different soils and for establishing a dependable priority ranking for intended remediation of numerous contamination sites.

  12. Genome-wide Association Study and Admixture Mapping Reveal New Loci Associated with Total IgE Levels in Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Pino-Yanes, Maria; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Galanter, Joshua M.; Levin, Albert M.; Campbell, Catarina D.; Eng, Celeste; Huntsman, Scott; Nishimura, Katherine K.; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Mohajeri, Kiana; O'Roak, Brian J.; Hu, Donglei; Mathias, Rasika A.; Nguyen, Elizabeth A.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Sandoval, Karla; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Lurmann, Fred; Davis, Adam; Farber, Harold J.; Meade, Kelley; Avila, Pedro C.; Serebrisky, Denise; Chapela, Rocio; Ford, Jean G.; Lenoir, Michael A.; Thyne, Shannon M.; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Borrell, Luisa N.; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Sen, Saunak; Kumar, Rajesh; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Raby, Benjamin A.; Weiss, Scott T.; Nicolae, Dan L.; Ober, Carole; Meyers, Deborah A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Mack, Steven J.; Hernandez, Ryan D.; Eichler, Evan E.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Williams, L. Keoki; Torgerson, Dara G.; Burchard, Esteban G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a key mediator of allergic inflammation and is frequently elevated in allergic disorders. Objective To identify genetic variants associated with IgE levels in Latinos. Methods We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and admixture mapping of total IgE levels in 3,334 Latinos from the Genes-environments & Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) study. Replication was evaluated in 454 Latinos, 1,564 European Americans, and 3,187 African Americans from independent studies. Results We confirmed associations of six genes identified by previous GWAS and identified a novel genome-wide significant association of a polymorphism in ZNF365 with total IgE (rs200076616, p=2.3x10−8). We next identified four admixture mapping peaks (6p21.32-p22.1, 13p22-31, 14q23.2, and 22q13.1) where local African, European, and/or Native American ancestry was significantly associated with IgE levels. The most significant peak was 6p21.32-p22.1, where Native American ancestry was associated with lower levels of IgE (p=4.95x10−8). All but 22q13.1 were replicated in an independent sample of Latinos, and two of the peaks were replicated in African Americans (6p21.32-p22.1 and 14q23.2). Fine mapping of 6p21.32-p22.1 identified six genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms in Latinos, two of which replicated in European Americans. Another SNP was peak-wide significant within 14q23.2 in African Americans (rs1741099, p=3.7x10−6), and replicated in non-African American samples (p=0.011). Conclusion We confirmed genetic associations at six genes, and identified novel associations within ZNF365, HLA-DQA1, and 14q23.2. Our results highlight the importance of studying diverse, multi-ethnic populations to uncover novel loci associated with total IgE levels. PMID:25488688

  13. Level of oxidative stress markers among physicians in a medical residency program.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Ali; Boojar, Masoud Mashhadi Akbar; Adibi, Peyman; Changiz, Tahereh

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of engaging in a medical residency program, as a stressful situation, on blood and urine levels of oxidative stress markers. Newly admitted medical residents participated in the study, along with a control group of (nonmedical) students. The authors assessed superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, malondialdehyde, micronuclei test, sister chromatid exchange, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine level. All the biomarkers declined after entrance to the residency program, and the parameters were strongly higher in residents than in the control group. There was no significant relationship between demographic factors and levels of stress biomarkers. The greater extent of oxidative stress may be due to higher tension before entrance to a supposedly critical new position, and the declined levels of biomarkers seen after several months in the program could be attributed to an appropriate adjustment of the residents to the new situation. PMID:18980879

  14. Level of oxidative stress markers among physicians in a medical residency program.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Ali; Boojar, Masoud Mashhadi Akbar; Adibi, Peyman; Changiz, Tahereh

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of engaging in a medical residency program, as a stressful situation, on blood and urine levels of oxidative stress markers. Newly admitted medical residents participated in the study, along with a control group of (nonmedical) students. The authors assessed superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, malondialdehyde, micronuclei test, sister chromatid exchange, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine level. All the biomarkers declined after entrance to the residency program, and the parameters were strongly higher in residents than in the control group. There was no significant relationship between demographic factors and levels of stress biomarkers. The greater extent of oxidative stress may be due to higher tension before entrance to a supposedly critical new position, and the declined levels of biomarkers seen after several months in the program could be attributed to an appropriate adjustment of the residents to the new situation.

  15. Total and inorganic arsenic levels in some marine organisms from Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean Sea): a risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kucuksezgin, Filiz; Gonul, Lutfi Tolga; Tasel, Didem

    2014-10-01

    The arsenic compounds in marine biota were evaluated from Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean) and found that inorganic arsenic occurred as a minor fraction. No information is available on the annual variations of arsenic in important edible biota species from Izmir Bay. Fish and mussel samples were taken from different regions of Izmir Bay between 2009 and 2011 (n=854 individual specimens). The average percentages of inorganic arsenic to total arsenic for all biota samples were 3.43±3.38% with a range of 0.11-11.8%. The importance of speciation analysis for arsenic is supported by our work, because arsenic is ubiquitous in the ecosystem, and flexible toxicity of arsenic is based on chemical form. The average total As levels in Mullus barbatus were 6 times higher than Diplodus annularis and Mytilus galloprovincialis. This study also revealed that spatial variation influenced the arsenic levels in the fish samples and the highest concentrations of arsenic were found in Gediz site. Our study showed that estimated daily intakes of arsenic via consumption of flesh fish and shell fish were below the BMDL0.5 values established by FAO/WHO. PMID:25048921

  16. Screening method for selecting semiconductor substrates having defects below a predetermined level in an oxide layer

    DOEpatents

    Warren, W.L.; Vanheusden, K.J.R.; Schwank, J.R.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Devine, R.A.B.

    1998-07-28

    A method is disclosed for screening or qualifying semiconductor substrates for integrated circuit fabrication. The method comprises the steps of annealing at least one semiconductor substrate at a first temperature in a defect-activating ambient (e.g. hydrogen, forming gas, or ammonia) for sufficient time for activating any defects within on oxide layer of the substrate; measuring a defect-revealing electrical characteristic of at least a portion of the oxide layer for determining a quantity of activated defects therein; and selecting substrates for which the quantity of activated defects is below a predetermined level. The defect-revealing electrical characteristic may be a capacitance-versus voltage (C-V) characteristic or a current-versus-voltage (I-V) characteristic that is dependent on an electrical charge in the oxide layer generated by the activated defects. Embodiments of the present invention may be applied for screening any type of semiconductor substrate or wafer having an oxide layer formed thereon or therein. This includes silicon-on-insulator substrates formed by a separation by the implantation of oxygen (SIMOX) process or the bond and etch back silicon-on-insulator (BESOI) process, as well as silicon substrates having a thermal oxide layer or a deposited oxide layer. 5 figs.

  17. Screening method for selecting semiconductor substrates having defects below a predetermined level in an oxide layer

    DOEpatents

    Warren, William L.; Vanheusden, Karel J. R.; Schwank, James R.; Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Winokur, Peter S.; Devine, Roderick A. B.

    1998-01-01

    A method for screening or qualifying semiconductor substrates for integrated circuit fabrication. The method comprises the steps of annealing at least one semiconductor substrate at a first temperature in a defect-activating ambient (e.g. hydrogen, forming gas, or ammonia) for sufficient time for activating any defects within on oxide layer of the substrate; measuring a defect-revealing electrical characteristic of at least a portion of the oxide layer for determining a quantity of activated defects therein; and selecting substrates for which the quantity of activated defects is below a predetermined level. The defect-revealing electrical characteristic may be a capacitance-versus-voltage (C-V) characteristic or a current-versus-voltage (I-V) characteristic that is dependent on an electrical charge in the oxide layer generated by the activated defects. Embodiments of the present invention may be applied for screening any type of semiconductor substrate or wafer having an oxide layer formed thereon or therein. This includes silicon-on-insulator substrates formed by a separation by the implantation of oxygen (SIMOX) process or the bond and etch back silicon-on-insulator (BESOI) process, as well as silicon substrates having a thermal oxide layer or a deposited oxide layer.

  18. Effect of smoking reduction and cessation on the plasma levels of the oxidative stress biomarker glutathione--Post-hoc analysis of data from a smoking cessation trial.

    PubMed

    Mons, Ute; Muscat, Joshua E; Modesto, Jennifer; Richie, John P; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-02-01

    Cigarette smoke contains high concentrations of free radical components that induce oxidative stress. Smoking-induced oxidative stress is thought to contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease and lung cancer through degenerative processes in the lung and other tissues. It is uncertain however whether smoking cessation lowers the burden of oxidative stress. We used data from a randomized controlled cessation trial of 434 current smokers for a post-hoc examination of the effects of smoking cessation on blood plasma levels of total glutathione (tGSH), the most abundant endogenous antioxidant in cells, and total cysteine (tCys), an amino acid and constituent of glutathione. Smoking status was validated based on serum cotinine levels. Multivariate linear mixed models were fitted to examine the association of smoking cessation and change in cigarette consumption with tGSH and tCys. After 12 months follow-up, quitters (n=55) had significantly increased levels of tGSH compared to subjects who continued to smoke (P<0.01). No significant change in tGSH was found for subjects who continued to smoke but reduced their intensity of smoking. No significant effect of smoking cessation or reduction was observed on levels of tCys. These results suggest that smoking cessation but not smoking reduction reduces levels of oxidative stress. PMID:26708755

  19. Effect of low level microwave radiation exposure on cognitive function and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Pravin Suryakantrao; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Abegaonkar, Mahesh Pandurang; Megha, Kanu; Ahmed, Rafat Sultana; Tripathi, Ashok Kumar; Mediratta, Pramod Kumari

    2013-04-01

    Use of wireless communicating devices is increasing at an exponential rate in present time and is raising serious concerns about possible adverse effects of microwave (MW) radiation emitted from these devices on human health. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of 900 MHz MW radiation exposure on cognitive function and oxidative stress in blood of Fischer rats. Animals were divided into two groups (6 animals/group): Group I (MW-exposed) and Group II (Sham-exposed). Animals were subjected to MW exposure (Frequency 900 MHz; specific absorption rate 8.4738 x 10(-5) W/kg) in Gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell (GTEM) for 30 days (2 h/day, 5 days/week). Subsequently, cognitive function and oxidative stress parameters were examined for each group. Results showed significant impairment in cognitive function and increase in oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increase in levels of MDA (a marker of lipid peroxidation) and protein carbonyl (a marker of protein oxidation) and unaltered GSH content in blood. Thus, the study demonstrated that low level MW radiation had significant effect on cognitive function and was also capable of leading to oxidative stress.

  20. Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; Moschini, G.; Bernardini, D.; Testoni, S.; Torboli, A.; Valdes, M.

    2001-11-01

    The assessment of selenium status of livestock plays an important role in the production of medicine since low serum Se levels influence disease resistance in ruminants. It has been proved that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum level has been widely used to evaluate the Se short-term status in animals since there is a good association between serum Se level and the dietary intake of the element over a wide range. The purpose of this work was to determine the Se serum concentration in a population of 78 sucking 2-month-old calves, in order to corroborate a clinical diagnosis of severe deficiency status. The samples were analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) at the ITAL STRUCTURES Research Laboratory. The results obtained from the serum samples presented Se concentrations varying from 10 to 66 ng/ml. The comparison between the obtained values and the expected serum selenium values (60-80 ng/ml), confirmed a mild to severe deficiency status in the investigated population.

  1. Lake level change and total water discharge in East Africa Rift Valley from satellite-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ayman A.; Jin, Shuanggen

    2014-06-01

    The measurement of total basin water discharge is important for understanding the hydrological and climatologic issues related to the water and energy cycles. Climatic extreme events are normal climatic occurrences in Africa. For example, extensive droughts are regular features in the last few decades in parts of East Africa, which suffers from a lack of in situ observations as well as a lack of regional hydrological models. In this study, multi-disciplinary different types of space-borne observations and global hydrological models are used to study total water discharge in the Great Rift Valley of East Africa (i.e. Lakes Victoria, Tanganyika, and Malawi) from January 2003 to December 2012. The data include the following: (1) total water storage (TWS) variations from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), (2) the lake level variations from Satellite Alimetric data, (3) rainfall from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) products, (4) soil moisture from WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM), and (5) water fluxes from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Results show that a significant decline in the average lake level is found for all of the three lakes between 2003 and 2006. GRACE TWS variations of the whole basin area show the same pattern of variation as the average lake level variations estimated from Altimetric data. The TWS in the basin area of Lakes Victoria and Malawi is governed by the surface water stored in each lake itself, while for Lake Tanganyika, it is governed by both surface water and the soil moisture content in the basin area. Furthermore, the effect of rainfall on TWS is also studied. A phase lag of ~ 2 months is found between TRMM rainfall and GRACE TWS (generally, rainfall precedes the GRACE TWS) for the three lakes. In addition, the regional evapotranspiration ET is estimated from the water balance equation using GRACE land-water solutions, rainfall data from TRMM and runoff values obtained as a fraction of rainfall

  2. Can iron oxides remove Cr(VI) from drinking water at sub-ppb levels?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaprara, Efthymia; Simeonidis, Konstantinos; Samaras, Petros; Zouboulis, Anastasios; Mitrakas, Manassis

    2013-04-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] has long been recognized as a potential carcinogen via inhalation, in contrast to trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] which is 100 times less toxic and also a necessary nutrient, essential to human glucidic metabolism. Nowadays there is an increasing concern that Cr(VI) is also carcinogenic by the oral route of exposure, while an increased number of publications indicate that Cr(VI) is a common natural pollutant. Hexavalent chromium formation is attributed to natural oxidation of Cr(III) in ultramafic derived soils and ophiolithic rocks. To verify this theory, drinking water samples were collected from targeted areas of Greece e.g. areas in which the geological background is predominated by ultramafic minerals and the water supply depends mainly on groundwater resources. Valuable guide for the samples collection was the geological map of Greece and emphasis was given to regions where the natural occurrence of Cr(VI) is thought to be more possible. A wide range of Cr concentrations (2-100 μg/L) were detected in the areas studied, with most of them ranging below the current limit of 50 μg/L, and the Cr(VI) concentration being more than 90% of the total. Since the Cr(VI) affects significant part of population worldwide, a debate was established concerning the enforcement of stringent regulation, which also demands the drinking water treatment processes re-evaluation in view of Cr(VI) removal at sub-ppb level. In this regard, adsorption has evolved as the front line of defense for chromium removal. The motivation of this work was to investigate the efficiency of iron oxides for the adsorption of Cr(VI) from drinking water and its removal at sub-ppb levels. The adsorbents examined included iron oxy-hydroxides and magnetite prepared using common low cost iron salts. Their effectiveness as Cr(VI) adsorbents was evaluated through the decrease of a Cr(VI) concentration of 100μg/L prepared in NSF water at pH 7. Preliminary batch experiments did not

  3. Membrane of Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanoplates with Angstrom-Level Channels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeongho; Li, Kunzhou; Yoon, Hong Sik; Yoon, Jeyong; Mok, Yeongbong; Lee, Yan; Lee, Hong H; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2016-01-01

    Membranes with atomic level pores or constrictions are valuable for separation and catalysis. We report a graphene-based membrane with an interlayer spacing of 3.7 angstrom (Å). When graphene oxide nanoplates are functionalized and then reduced, the laminated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoplates or functionalized rGO membrane is little affected by an intercalated fluid, and the interlayer spacing of 3.7 Å increases only to 4.4 Å in wetted state, in contrast to the graphene oxide (GO) membrane whose interlayer spacing increases from 9 Å to 13 Å in wetted state. When applied to ion separation, this membrane reduced the permeation rate of small ions such as K(+) and Na(+) by three orders of magnitude compared to the GO membrane. PMID:27306853

  4. Membrane of Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanoplates with Angstrom-Level Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byeongho; Li, Kunzhou; Yoon, Hong Sik; Yoon, Jeyong; Mok, Yeongbong; Lee, Yan; Lee, Hong H.; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2016-01-01

    Membranes with atomic level pores or constrictions are valuable for separation and catalysis. We report a graphene-based membrane with an interlayer spacing of 3.7 angstrom (Å). When graphene oxide nanoplates are functionalized and then reduced, the laminated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoplates or functionalized rGO membrane is little affected by an intercalated fluid, and the interlayer spacing of 3.7 Å increases only to 4.4 Å in wetted state, in contrast to the graphene oxide (GO) membrane whose interlayer spacing increases from 9 Å to 13 Å in wetted state. When applied to ion separation, this membrane reduced the permeation rate of small ions such as K+ and Na+ by three orders of magnitude compared to the GO membrane. PMID:27306853

  5. Membrane of Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanoplates with Angstrom-Level Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeongho; Li, Kunzhou; Yoon, Hong Sik; Yoon, Jeyong; Mok, Yeongbong; Lee, Yan; Lee, Hong H.; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2016-06-01

    Membranes with atomic level pores or constrictions are valuable for separation and catalysis. We report a graphene-based membrane with an interlayer spacing of 3.7 angstrom (Å). When graphene oxide nanoplates are functionalized and then reduced, the laminated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoplates or functionalized rGO membrane is little affected by an intercalated fluid, and the interlayer spacing of 3.7 Å increases only to 4.4 Å in wetted state, in contrast to the graphene oxide (GO) membrane whose interlayer spacing increases from 9 Å to 13 Å in wetted state. When applied to ion separation, this membrane reduced the permeation rate of small ions such as K+ and Na+ by three orders of magnitude compared to the GO membrane.

  6. “Transference Ratios” to Predict Total Oxidized Sulfur and Nitrogen Deposition – Part II, Modeling Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current study examines predictions of transference ratios and related modeled parameters for oxidized sulfur and oxidized nitrogen using five years (2002-2006) of 12-km grid cell-specific annual estimates from EPA’s Community Air Quality Model (CMAQ) for five selected sub-re...

  7. Serum Oxidized LDL Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Retinopathy in Mthatha Region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a powerful natural prooxidant derived from native LDL by cell-mediated oxidation. Such oxidation occurs more easily in glycated LDL as observed in diabetes mellitus. We evaluated and compared selected biomarkers of oxidative stress and total antioxidant (TAO) levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with and without retinopathy in the Mthatha region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The participants totaled to 140 and this number comprised 98 diabetic patients on treatment, stratified by diabetes (54) and diabetes with retinopathy (44). Forty-two nondiabetic healthy controls made up the 140. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, serum ox-LDL, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and TAO levels were measured. A statistically significant increase in FPG, HbA1c, TBARS, and ox-LDL and a significant decrease in TAO levels were seen in T2DM patients with retinopathy as compared to controls. A significant negative correlation was observed between TAO and ox-LDL levels in the diabetic group. In multiple linear regression analyses, duration of diabetes, triglyceride, TAO, and LDL cholesterol were found to be significantly associated with ox-LDL. In multiple logistic regression analyses, ox-LDL [OR 1.02 (1.01–1.03), P = 0.005] was the only risk factor and was significantly associated with the presence of retinopathy. PMID:27433285

  8. Effects of radiation on the longitudinal trends of total serum cholesterol levels in the atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Wong, F L; Yamada, M; Sasaki, H; Kodama, K; Hosoda, Y

    1999-06-01

    The effects of radiation on the long-term trends of the total serum cholesterol levels of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors were examined using data collected in the Adult Health Study over a 28-year period (1958-1986). The growth-curve method was used to model the longitudinal age-dependent changes in cholesterol levels. For each sex, temporal trends of cholesterol levels were characterized with respect to age, body mass index, city and birth year. We then examined whether the temporal trends differed by radiation dose. We showed that the mean growth curve of cholesterol levels for the irradiated subjects were significantly higher than that for the unirradiated subjects, and that the increase was greater for women than for men. No difference in dose response was detected between Hiroshima and Nagasaki. An increased mean level of cholesterol was evident for irradiated women in general, but a notable increase was apparent in males only for the youngest birth cohort of 1935-1945. The difference in the mean cholesterol levels between the irradiated and unirradiated subjects diminished past 70 years of age. It is not known whether this is due to natural progression or is an artifact of nonrandom variation in the rate of participation in the examinations. The maximum predicted increase at 1 Gy for women occurred at age 52 years for the 1930 cohort: 2.5 mg/dl (95% CI 1.6-3.3 mg/dl) for Hiroshima and 2.3 mg/dl (95% CI 1.5-3.1 mg/dl) for Nagasaki. The corresponding increase for men occurred at age 29 years for the 1940 cohort: 1.6 mg/dl (95% CI 0.4-2.8) for Hiroshima and 1.4 mg/dl (95% CI 0.3-2.6) for Nagasaki. Controlling for cigarette smoking did not alter the dose-response relationship. Although the difference in the mean growth curves of the irradiated and unirradiated groups was statistically significant, there was a considerable overlap in the individual growth curves of the two groups. The significant sex difference and the greater magnitude of

  9. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene haplotypes and circulating nitric oxide levels significantly associate with risk of essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nejatizadeh, Azim; Kumar, Rahul; Stobdan, Tsering; Goyal, A K; Sikdar, Sunandan; Gupta, Mohit; Javed, Saleem; Pasha, M A Qadar

    2008-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator, plays a pivotal role in blood pressure regulation. Endothelial NO synthase gene (NOS3) polymorphisms influence NO levels. Here, we investigated the role of the -922A/G, -786T/C, 4b/4a, and 894G/T polymorphisms of the NOS3 and NO(x) levels in 800 consecutive unrelated subjects comprising 455 patients of essential hypertension and 345 controls. The polymorphisms were investigated independently and as haplotypes. Plasma NO(x) levels (nitrate and nitrite) were estimated by the Griess method. Genotype frequencies for the -786T/C, 4b/4a, and 894G/T polymorphisms differed significantly (P<0.001) between patients and controls and were associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR=2.0, OR=3.8, OR=1.6, respectively). The 4-locus haplotypes ATaG (H1), ATaT (H2), and GCaG (H3) were significantly associated with essential hypertension and served as susceptible haplotypes (Plevels were significantly lower in patients than controls (P<0.0001). The individual polymorphisms showed marginal association with NO(x) level; however, the susceptible haplotype H2 associated significantly with lower NO(x) levels in patients (P<0.001) and conversely the haplotype H4 with higher NO(x) levels in controls (P<0.001). In conclusion, the 4b/4a and likely -786T/C polymorphisms were identified as the determinants modifying the risk of hypertension. This study identifies the NOS3 variants and haplotypes as genetic risk factors and as useful markers of increased susceptibility to the risk of essential hypertension. PMID:18325347

  10. Significant correlations of dermal total carotenoids and dermal lycopene with their respective plasma levels in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Scarmo, Stephanie; Cartmel, Brenda; Lin, Haiqun; Leffell, David J.; Welch, Erin; Bhosale, Prakash; Bernstein, Paul S.; Mayne, Susan T.

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoids in skin have been known to play a role in photoprotection against UV radiation. We performed dermal biopsies of healthy humans (N=27) and collected blood samples for pair-wise correlation analyses of total and individual carotenoid content by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The hydrocarbon carotenoids (lycopene and beta-carotene) made up the majority of carotenoids in both skin and plasma, and skin was somewhat enriched in these carotenoids relative to plasma. Beta-cryptoxanthin, a monohydroxycarotenoid, was found in similar proportions in skin as in plasma. In contrast, the dihydroxycarotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, were relatively lacking in human skin in absolute and relative levels as compared to plasma. Total carotenoids were significantly correlated in skin and plasma (r = 0.53, p<0.01). Our findings suggest that human skin is relatively enriched in lycopene and beta-carotene, compared to lutein and zeaxanthin, possibly reflecting a specific function of hydrocarbon carotenoids in human skin photoprotection. PMID:20637178

  11. Influence of Mansonella perstans microfilaraemia on total IgE levels in Gabonese patients co-infected with Loa loa.

    PubMed

    Bouyou-Akotet, M K; Moussavou Boussougou, M N; Ovono-Abessolo, F; Owono-Medang, M; Kombila, M

    2014-03-01

    Mansonella (M.) perstans filariasis is widely found in Africa, including Gabon where Loa loa is also endemic. This study reports the total IgE titres according to different bioclinical forms of single or co-infection with L. loa and M. perstans in 138 patients and 20 healthy controls. The median parasite density was significantly higher in cases of loiasis. IgE titres were higher in patients with microscopic dual-infection and in the group of patients with occult loiasis plus M. perstans microfilaraemia (8425 [5292-20,679]KUI/L and 6304 [1045-10,326]KUI/L, respectively), compared to individuals with either microfilaraemic Loa loa (3368 [1414-7074]KUI/L) or Mansonella (4370 [1478-7334]KUI/L) single infections (p<0.01). IgE levels were positively correlated with M. perstans microfilaraemia (rho=0.27; p<0.01). Compared to single infections, dual M. perstans-L. loa infection induces very high total IgE titres. Studies correlating IgE titres and clinical symptoms are needed to confirm the involvement of this immunoglobulin in the pathological processes during filariasis. PMID:24280145

  12. Histone deacetylase 6 inhibition improves memory and reduces total tau levels in a mouse model of tau deposition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tau pathology is associated with a number of age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Few treatments have been demonstrated to diminish the impact of tau pathology in mouse models and none are yet effective in humans. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is an enzyme that removes acetyl groups from cytoplasmic proteins, rather than nuclear histones. Its substrates include tubulin, heat shock protein 90 and cortactin. Tubastatin A is a selective inhibitor of HDAC6. Modification of tau pathology by specific inhibition of HDAC6 presents a potential therapeutic approach in tauopathy. Methods We treated rTg4510 mouse models of tau deposition and non-transgenic mice with tubastatin (25 mg/kg) or saline (0.9%) from 5 to 7 months of age. Cognitive behavior analysis, histology and biochemical analysis were applied to access the effect of tubastatin on memory, tau pathology and neurodegeneration (hippocampal volume). Results We present data showing that tubastatin restored memory function in rTg4510 mice and reversed a hyperactivity phenotype. We further found that tubastatin reduced the levels of total tau, both histologically and by western analysis. Reduction in total tau levels was positively correlated with memory improvement in these mice. However, there was no impact on phosphorylated forms of tau, either by histology or western analysis, nor was there an impact on silver positive inclusions histologically. Conclusion Potential mechanisms by which HDAC6 inhibitors might benefit the rTg4510 mouse include stabilization of microtubules secondary to increased tubulin acetylation, increased degradation of tau secondary to increased acetylation of HSP90 or both. These data support the use of HDAC6 inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents against tau pathology. PMID:24576665

  13. Preoperative Determinants of Patient-reported Pain and Physical Function Levels Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lungu, E.; Vendittoli, P-A.; Desmeules, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A sound knowledge of the determinants of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) outcomes could help in patient selection, preparation and education. We aimed to assess the current status of the literature evaluating preoperative determinants of early and medium term patient-reported pain and disability following TKA. Method: A search in Medline, Pubmed, Embase and CINAHL until October 2014 was undertaken. Selection criteria included: 1- participants undergoing primary unilateral TKA with a follow-up from 6 months to 2 years, 2- validated disease-specific patient-reported outcome measures assessing pain and/or function used as outcome measure and 3- identification of preoperative determinants obtained via multivariate analyses. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the Methodology checklist for prognostic studies. Results: Thirty-three prognostic explanatory studies were included. Mean total score of the methodological quality was 80.7±12.2 %. Sociodemographic and psychosocial determinants included greater socioeconomic deprivation (both studies), greater levels of depression and/or anxiety (7 out of 10 studies) and greater preoperative pain catastrophizing (all 3 studies). Significant clinical determinants included worse pre-operative knee related pain or disability (20 out of 22 studies), presence or greater levels of comorbidity (12 out of 23 studies), back pain (4 out of 5 studies) and lower general health (all 11 studies). Conclusion: Several significant determinants of short to medium-term pain and functional outcomes following TKA have been summarized by studies with moderate-to-high methodological quality. No conclusions can be reached regarding the strength of the associations between significant determinants and TKA results because of heterogeneity of study methodologies and results. Further high-quality research is required. PMID:27398109

  14. Distinct genetic signatures for variability in total and free serum thyroxine levels in four sets of recombinant inbred mice.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Sandra M; Lu, Lu; Aliesky, Holly A; Williams, Robert W; Rapoport, Basil

    2011-03-01

    C3H/He and BALB/c mice have elevated serum thyroxine levels associated with low deiodinase type-1 activity whereas C57BL/6 (B6) mice have low thyroxine levels and elevated deiodinase type-1 activity. High-resolution genetic maps are available for four sets of recombinant inbred (RI) mice derived from B6 parents bred to C3H/He, BALB/c, DBA/2, or A strains. Total and free T4 (T-T4 and F-T4) levels in females from these RI sets (BXH, CXB, BXD, and AXBXA) were analyzed to test two hypotheses: first, serum T4 variability is linked to the deiodinase type-1 gene; second, because of their shared B6 parent, the RI sets will share linkages responsible for T-T4 or F-T4 variability. A number of chromosomes (Chr) and loci were linked to T-T4 (Chr 1, 4, 13, 11) or F-T4 (Chr 1, 6, 13, 18, 19). Linkage between T-T4 and Chr 4 was limited to CXB and BXH strains, but the locus was distinct from the deiodinase type-1 gene. Surprisingly, many linkages were unique providing "genetic signatures" for T-T4 or F-T4 in each set of RI mice. Indeed, the strongest linkage between T-T4 (or F-T4) and a Chr 2 locus (logarithm of the odds scores >4.4) was only observed in AXBXA strains. Some loci corresponded to genes/Chr associated in humans with variable TSH or T-T4 levels. Unlike inbred mice, human populations are extremely diverse. Consequently, our data suggest that the contributions of unique chromosomes/loci controlling T-T4 and F-T4 in distinct human subgroups are likely to be "buried" in genetic analyses of heterogeneous human populations.

  15. Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular telephone on the oxidant and antioxidant levels in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Irmak, M Kemal; Fadillioğlu, Ersin; Güleç, Mukaddes; Erdoğan, Hasan; Yağmurca, Murat; Akyol, Omer

    2002-12-01

    The number of reports on the effects induced by electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in various cellular systems is still increasing. Until now no satisfactory mechanism has been proposed to explain the biological effects of this radiation. Oxygen free radicals may play a role in mechanisms of adverse effects of EMR. This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of electromagnetic radiation of a digital GSM mobile telephone (900 MHz) on oxidant and antioxidant levels in rabbits. Adenosine deaminase, xanthine oxidase, catalase, myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde levels were measured in sera and brains of EMR-exposed and sham-exposed rabbits. Serum SOD activity increased, and serum NO levels decreased in EMR-exposed animals compared to the sham group. Other parameters were not changed in either group. This finding may indicate the possible role of increased oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of adverse effect of EMR. Decreased NO levels may also suggest a probable role of NO in the adverse effect.

  16. Quantifying the effects of sterilization and aging on the oxidative degradation and wear of crosslinked and conventional polyethylene used in total joint replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willie, Bettina Maria

    2005-07-01

    Nearly 500,000 total knee and hip replacements are performed annually in the United States. The generation of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (PE) particulate wear debris and associated osteolysis has increasingly become the predominant cause of revision operation. Research has shown that radiation sterilization in air results in increased oxidative degradation and accelerated wear of PE components. The overall goal of this work was to better understand the effect of sterilization, radiation crosslinking, and aging on the oxidative degradation and wear performance of PE components in order to improve clinical outcomes in total joint replacement. The data indicated that after four years of real-time shelf aging, PE that was radiation sterilized in air or nitrogen had significantly greater oxidative degradation compared to PE that was sterilized with either gas plasma or ethylene oxide. After two years of real-time shelf aging, negligible oxidation occurred with minimal changes in density and percent crystallinity, indicating that oxidative degradation was not an issue in the highly crosslinked and conventional polyethylene components examined. The differences measured between time zero and two years shelf aging may be likely explained by instrumentation error or variation within polyethylene manufacturing lots. Data suggest that current manufacturing and packaging technologies have successfully avoided oxidative degradation during shelf aging. Shelf aging may not be a concern in highly crosslinked or conventional polyethylene with current packaging technologies. Conventional PE tibial components had significantly greater percent area of premelt total surface damage compared to crosslinked PE tibial components. However, conventional PE tibial components did not have a significantly different percent area of postmelt total surface damage compared to crosslinked PE tibial components. Data indicated that in vivo duration was a significant predictor of premelt

  17. Nanoplasmonic Photoluminescence Spectroscopy at Single-Particle Level: Sensing for Ethanol Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaoke; Majima, Tetsuro

    2016-02-18

    Surface plasmon resonances of metal nanoparticles have shown significant promise for the use of solar energy to drive catalytic chemical reactions. More importantly, understanding and monitoring such catalytic reactions at single-nanoparticle level is crucial for the study of local reaction processes. Herein, using plasmonic photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, we describe a novel sensing method for catalytic ethanol oxidation reactions at the single-nanoparticle level. The Au nanorod monitors the interfacial interaction with ethanol during the catalytic reaction through the PL intensity changes in the single-particle PL spectra. The analysis of energy relaxation of excited electron-hole pairs indicates the relationship between the PL quenching and ethanol oxidation reaction on the single Au nanorod.

  18. African ancestry is a risk factor for asthma and high total IgE levels in African admixed populations.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Candelaria; Murray, Tanda; Rafaels, Nicholas; Lewis, Rachel; Campbell, Monica; Foster, Cassandra; Gao, Li; Faruque, Mezbah; Oliveira, Ricardo Riccio; Carvalho, Edgar; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Cruz, Alvaro A; Watson, Harold; Mercado, Dilia; Knight-Madden, Jennifer; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia; Ford, Jean; Caraballo, Luis; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2013-05-01

    Characterization of genetic admixture of populations in the Americas and the Caribbean is of interest for anthropological, epidemiological, and historical reasons. Asthma has a higher prevalence and is more severe in populations with a high African component. Association of African ancestry with asthma has been demonstrated. We estimated admixture proportions of samples from six trihybrid populations of African descent and determined the relationship between African ancestry and asthma and total serum IgE levels (tIgE). We genotyped 237 ancestry informative markers in asthmatics and nonasthmatic controls from Barbados (190/277), Jamaica (177/529), Brazil (40/220), Colombia (508/625), African Americans from New York (207/171), and African Americans from Baltimore/Washington, D.C. (625/757). We estimated individual ancestries and evaluated genetic stratification using Structure and principal component analysis. Association of African ancestry and asthma and tIgE was evaluated by regression analysis. Mean ± SD African ancestry ranged from 0.76 ± 0.10 among Barbadians to 0.33 ± 0.13 in Colombians. The European component varied from 0.14 ± 0.05 among Jamaicans and Barbadians to 0.26 ± 0.08 among Colombians. African ancestry was associated with risk for asthma in Colombians (odds ratio (OR) = 4.5, P = 0.001) Brazilians (OR = 136.5, P = 0.003), and African Americans of New York (OR: 4.7; P = 0.040). African ancestry was also associated with higher tIgE levels among Colombians (β = 1.3, P = 0.04), Barbadians (β = 3.8, P = 0.03), and Brazilians (β = 1.6, P = 0.03). Our findings indicate that African ancestry can account for, at least in part, the association between asthma and its associated trait, tIgE levels.

  19. African Ancestry is a Risk Factor for Asthma and High Total IgE Levels in African Admixed Populations

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Candelaria; Murray, Tanda; Rafaels, Nicholas; Lewis, Rachel; Campbell, Monica; Foster, Cassandra; Gao, Li; Faruque, Mezbah; Oliveira, Ricardo Riccio; Carvalho, Edgar; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Watson, Harold; Mercado, Dilia; Knight-Madden, Jennifer; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia; Ford, Jean; Caraballo, Luis; Beaty, Terri H.; Mathias, Rasika A.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of genetic admixture of populations in the Americas and the Caribbean is of interest for anthropological, epidemiological, and historical reasons. Asthma has a higher prevalence and is more severe in populations with a high African component. Association of African ancestry with asthma has been demonstrated. We estimated admixture proportions of samples from six trihybrid populations of African descent and determined the relationship between African ancestry and asthma and total serum IgE levels (tIgE). We genotyped 237 ancestry informative markers in asthmatics and nonasthmatic controls from Barbados (190/277), Jamaica (177/529), Brazil (40/220), Colombia (508/625), African Americans from New York (207/171), and African Americans from Baltimore/Washington, D.C. (625/757). We estimated individual ancestries and evaluated genetic stratification using Structure and principal component analysis. Association of African ancestry and asthma and tIgE was evaluated by regression analysis. Mean SD African ancestry ranged from 0.76 ± 0.10 among Barbadians to 0.33 ± 0.13 in Colombians. The European component varied from 0.14 ± 0.05 among Jamaicans and Barbadians to 0.26 ± 0.08 among Colombians. African ancestry was associated with risk for asthma in Colombians (odds ratio (OR) = 4.5, P = 0.001) Brazilians (OR = 136.5, P = 0.003), and African Americans of New York (OR: 4.7; P = 0.040). African ancestry was also associated with higher tIgE levels among Colombians (β = 1.3, P = 0.04), Barbadians (β = 3.8, P = 0.03), and Brazilians (β = 1.6, P = 0.03). Our findings indicate that African ancestry can account for, at least in part, the association between asthma and its associated trait, tIgE levels. PMID:23554133

  20. Total diet study on pesticide residues in France: levels in food as consumed and chronic dietary risk to consumers.

    PubMed

    Nougadère, Alexandre; Sirot, Véronique; Kadar, Ali; Fastier, Antony; Truchot, Eric; Vergnet, Claude; Hommet, Frédéric; Baylé, Joëlle; Gros, Philippe; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2012-09-15

    Chronic dietary exposure to pesticide residues was assessed for the French population using a total diet study (TDS) to take into account realistic levels in foods as consumed at home (table-ready). Three hundred and twenty-five pesticides and their transformation products, grouped into 283 pesticides according to their residue definition, were sought in 1235 composite samples corresponding to 194 individual food items that cover 90% of the adult and child diet. To make up the composite samples, about 19,000 food products were bought during different seasons from 2007 to 2009 in 36 French cities and prepared according to the food preparation practices recorded in the individual and national consumption survey (INCA2). The results showed that 37% of the samples contained one or more residues. Seventy-three pesticides were detected and 55 quantified at levels ranging from 0.003 to 8.7mg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides, identified as monitoring priorities in 2006, were the post-harvest insecticides pirimiphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl-particularly in wheat-based products-together with chlorpyrifos, iprodione, carbendazim and imazalil, mainly in fruit and fruit juices. Dietary intakes were estimated for each subject of INCA2 survey, under two contamination scenarios to handle left-censored data: lower-bound scenario (LB) where undetected results were set to zero, and upper-bound (UB) scenario where undetected results were set to the detection limit. For 90% of the pesticides, exposure levels were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) under the two scenarios. Under the LB scenario, which tends to underestimate exposure levels, only dimethoate intakes exceeded the ADI for high level consumers of cherry (0.6% of children and 0.4% of adults). This pesticide, authorised in Europe, and its metabolite were detected in both cherries and endives. Under the UB scenario, that overestimates exposure, a chronic risk could not be excluded for nine other pesticides

  1. Total diet study on pesticide residues in France: levels in food as consumed and chronic dietary risk to consumers.

    PubMed

    Nougadère, Alexandre; Sirot, Véronique; Kadar, Ali; Fastier, Antony; Truchot, Eric; Vergnet, Claude; Hommet, Frédéric; Baylé, Joëlle; Gros, Philippe; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2012-09-15

    Chronic dietary exposure to pesticide residues was assessed for the French population using a total diet study (TDS) to take into account realistic levels in foods as consumed at home (table-ready). Three hundred and twenty-five pesticides and their transformation products, grouped into 283 pesticides according to their residue definition, were sought in 1235 composite samples corresponding to 194 individual food items that cover 90% of the adult and child diet. To make up the composite samples, about 19,000 food products were bought during different seasons from 2007 to 2009 in 36 French cities and prepared according to the food preparation practices recorded in the individual and national consumption survey (INCA2). The results showed that 37% of the samples contained one or more residues. Seventy-three pesticides were detected and 55 quantified at levels ranging from 0.003 to 8.7mg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides, identified as monitoring priorities in 2006, were the post-harvest insecticides pirimiphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl-particularly in wheat-based products-together with chlorpyrifos, iprodione, carbendazim and imazalil, mainly in fruit and fruit juices. Dietary intakes were estimated for each subject of INCA2 survey, under two contamination scenarios to handle left-censored data: lower-bound scenario (LB) where undetected results were set to zero, and upper-bound (UB) scenario where undetected results were set to the detection limit. For 90% of the pesticides, exposure levels were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) under the two scenarios. Under the LB scenario, which tends to underestimate exposure levels, only dimethoate intakes exceeded the ADI for high level consumers of cherry (0.6% of children and 0.4% of adults). This pesticide, authorised in Europe, and its metabolite were detected in both cherries and endives. Under the UB scenario, that overestimates exposure, a chronic risk could not be excluded for nine other pesticides

  2. Levels and temporal trend of bisphenol A in composite food samples from Canadian Total Diet Study 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Perez-Locas, Carolina; Robichaud, André; Clement, Genevieve; Popovic, Svetlana; Dufresne, Guy; Dabeka, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Food composite samples from the Canadian Total Diet Study which was conducted each year from 2008 to 2012 rotating between different cities were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA). The overall levels of BPA in the composite food samples from each of the five years from 2008 to 2012 were similar in general with averages (range) of 7.7 ng/g (0.20-106 ng/g), 7.8 ng/g (0.26-110 ng/g), 6.9 ng/g (0.20-84 ng/g), 7.7 ng/g (0.20-105 ng/g) and 9.0 ng/g (0.15-90 ng/g) for 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Levels of BPA in most of the non-canned food composite samples were low and no particular trends were observed. In contrast, the trend of BPA levels in canned food composite samples over the five years (2008-2012) varies. BPA levels in most of the canned food composite samples from 2008 to 2012 were consistent in general (e.g. canned luncheon meat: 10-18 ng/g, canned baked beans: 18-25 ng/g). While BPA levels over the five years were found to decrease for some canned food composite samples (e.g., canned fish: 109 ng/g in 2009 vs. 51 ng/g in 2012), they were also found to increase for some other canned food composite samples (e.g. canned meat soups: 90-104 ng/g in 2011-2012 vs. 29 ng/g in 2008). Thus, recent changes in can coating for food packaging to BPA-free alternatives may have not been fully reflected in all canned food products over the period from 2008 to 2012. Continued monitoring is necessary to more fully assess the potential impact on dietary exposure by the use of BPA alternatives in food contact materials. PMID:26372889

  3. Low-Level Laser Therapy (808 nm) Reduces Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in Rat Tibialis Anterior Muscle After Cryolesion

    PubMed Central

    Assis, Lívia; Moretti, Ana I.S.; Abrahão, Thalita B.; Cury, Vivian; Souza, Heraldo P.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Parizotto, Nivaldo A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective Muscle regeneration is a complex phenomenon, involving coordinated activation of several cellular responses. During this process, oxidative stress and consequent tissue damage occur with a severity that may depend on the intensity and duration of the inflammatory response. Among the therapeutic approaches to attenuate inflammation and increase tissue repair, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) may be a safe and effective clinical procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of LLLT on oxidative/nitrative stress and inflammatory mediators produced during a cryolesion of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in rats. Material and Methods Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 20): control (BC), injured TA muscle without LLLT (IC), injured TA muscle submitted to LLLT (IRI). The injured region was irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days, starting immediately after the lesion using a AlGaAs laser (continuous wave, 808 nm, tip area of 0.00785 cm2, power 30 mW, application time 47 seconds, fluence 180 J/cm2; 3.8 mW/cm2; and total energy 1.4 J). The animals were sacrificed on the fourth day after injury. Results LLLT reduced oxidative and nitrative stress in injured muscle, decreased lipid peroxidation, nitrotyrosine formation and NO production, probably due to reduction in iNOS protein expression. Moreover, LLLT increased SOD gene expression, and decreased the inflammatory response as measured by gene expression of NF-kβ and COX-2 and by TNF-α and IL-1β concentration. Conclusion These results suggest that LLLT could be an effective therapeutic approach to modulate oxidative and nitrative stress and to reduce inflammation in injured muscle. PMID:23001637

  4. Lymphocyte Oxidative Stress/Genotoxic Effects Are Related to Serum IgG and IgA Levels in Coke Oven Workers

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Meili; Li, Yongfei; Zheng, Aqun; Xue, Xiaochang; Chen, Lan; Kong, Yu

    2014-01-01

    We investigated oxidative stress/genotoxic effects levels, immunoglobulin levels, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels exposed in 126 coke oven workers and in 78 control subjects, and evaluated the association between oxidative stress/genotoxic effects levels and immunoglobulin levels. Significant differences were observed in biomarkers, including 1-hydroxypyrene levels, employment time, percentages of alcohol drinkers, MDA, 8-OHdG levels, CTL levels and CTM, MN, CA frequency, and IgG, IgA levels between the control and exposed groups. Slightly higher 1-OHP levels in smoking users were observed. For the dose-response relationship of IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE by 1-OHP, each one percentage increase in urinary 1-OHP generates a 0.109%, 0.472%, 0.051%, and 0.067% decrease in control group and generates a 0.312%, 0.538%, 0.062%, and 0.071% decrease in exposed group, respectively. Except for age, alcohol and smoking status, IgM, and IgE, a significant correlation in urinary 1-OHP and other biomarkers in the total population was observed. Additionally, a significant negative correlation in genotoxic/oxidative damage biomarkers of MDA, 8-OH-dG, CTL levels, and immunoglobins of IgG and IgA levels, especially in coke oven workers, was found. These data suggest that oxidative stress/DNA damage induced by PAHs may play a role in toxic responses for PAHs in immunological functions. PMID:25136686

  5. Increased levels of oxidative DNA damage in pesticide sprayers in Thessaly Region (Greece). Implications of pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Koureas, Michalis; Tsezou, Aspasia; Tsakalof, Andreas; Orfanidou, Timoklia; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-10-15

    The widespread use of pesticides substances nowadays largely guarantees the protection of crops and people from undesired pests. However, exposure to pesticides was related to a variety of human health effects. The present study was conducted in the region of Thessaly which is characterized by intensive agricultural activities and wide use of pesticides. The study aimed at estimating the oxidative damage to DNA in different subpopulations in Thessaly region (Greece) and investigating its correlation with exposure to pesticides and other potential risk factors. In total, the study involved 80 pesticide sprayers, 85 rural residents and 121 individuals, inhabitants of the city of Larissa. Demographic characteristics, habits, medical history and exposure history of the participants to pesticides were recorded by personal interviews. Blood and urine samples were collected from all participants. For the measurement of exposure to organophosphorus insecticides, dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites were quantified in urine, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and the oxidation by-product 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was determined by Enzyme Immuno-Assay. Urinary metabolite concentrations were not associated with 8-OHdG levels but it was found that pesticide sprayers had significantly higher levels of 8-OHdG (p=0.007) in comparison to the control group. Last season's exposure to insecticides and fungicides, expressed as total area treated multiplied by the number of applications, showed a statistically significant association with the risk of having high 8-OHdG levels [RR: 2.19 (95%CI:1.09-4.38) and RR: 2.32 (95% CI:1.16-4.64) respectively]. Additionally, from the subgroups of pesticides examined, seasonal exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides [RR: 2.22 (95% CI:1.07-4.63)] and glufosinate ammonium [RR: 3.26 (95% CI:1.38-7.69)] was found to have the greater impact on 8-OHdG levels. This study produced findings

  6. Increased chemerin and decreased omentin-1 levels in morbidly obese patients are correlated with insulin resistance, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    CĂTOI, ADRIANA FLORINELA; SUCIU, ŞOIMIŢA; PÂRVU, ALINA ELENA; COPĂESCU, CĂTĂLIN; GALEA, ROMEO FLORIN; BUZOIANU, ANCA DANA; VEREŞIU, IOAN ANDREI; CĂTOI, CORNEL; POP, IOANA DELIA

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim Morbid obesity represents a proinflammatory and pro-oxidative state associated with dysregulation of adipokines. We aimed to evaluate the circulating levels of chemerin and omentin-1 in morbidly obese (MO) patients and to investigate the relationship between these two adipokines and between each of them and anthropometric, metabolic, oxidative stress and chronic inflammatory parameters. Material and methods 32 MO patients and 20 controls were investigated in this study. Anthropometric, metabolism parameters, inflammatory markers, oxidative stress indicators as well as chemerin and omentin-1 were measured. Results Serum levels of chemerin were increased while omentin-1 levels were decreased in MO patients when compared with controls. Chemerin correlated positively with insulin, HOMA-IR, LDL cholesterol and negatively with total antioxidant response. Omentin-1 correlated negatively with tumor necrosis factor alpha and total cholesterol. In a multiple linear stepwise regression analysis we learnt that only HOMA-IR (β=0.70, p<0.001), total cholesterol (β=0.42, p<0.001) and triglycerides (β=0.31, p<0.05) remained significantly associated with chemerin changes. Using the same analysis we noticed that total cholesterol (β=−0.71, p<0.001), fasting glucose (β= −0.40, p<0.05) and body mass index (BMI) (β= −0.38, p<0.05) were considered to be significant predictors for omentin-1 changes. Conclusions Chemerin and omentin-1 synthesis was dysregulated in MO patients. Chemerin might play a role in insulin resistance and oxidative stress. Chemerin changes seemed to be predicted mainly by insulin resistance. Omentin-1 levels were inversely associated with chronic inflammation and dyslipidemia while the main modulating factors seemed to be dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and BMI. PMID:26527991

  7. Total flavonoid of Litsea coreana leve exerts anti-oxidative effects and alleviates focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shuying; Tong, Xuhui; Li, Jun; Huang, Cheng; Hu, Chengmu; Jiao, Hao; Gu, Yuchen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that total flavonoid of Litsea coreana leve (TFLC) protects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. TFLC (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) was administered orally to a rat model of focal ischemia/reperfusion injury, while the free radical scavenging agent, edaravone, was used as a positive control drug. Results of neurological deficit scoring, 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, hematoxylin-eosin staining and biochemical tests showed that TFLC at different doses significantly alleviated cerebral ischemia-induced neurological deficits and histopathological changes, and reduced infarct volume. Moreover, it suppressed the increase in the levels of nitrates plus nitrites, malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase, and it diminished the reduction in gluta-thione, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in-jury. Compared with edaravone, the protective effects of TFLC at low and medium doses (25, 50 mg/kg) against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury were weaker, while the protective effects at high dose (100 mg/kg) were similar. Our experimental findings suggest that TFLC exerts neuroprotective effects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats, and that the effects may be asso-ciated with its antioxidant activities. PMID:25206640

  8. Improved diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) measurement of total dissolved inorganic arsenic in waters and soils using a hydrous zirconium oxide binding layer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qin; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Ding, Shiming; Li, Zhu; Williams, Paul N; Cheng, Hao; Han, Chao; Wu, Longhua; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2014-03-18

    A high-capacity diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique has been developed for measurement of total dissolved inorganic arsenic (As) using a long shelf life binding gel layer containing hydrous zirconium oxide (Zr-oxide). Both As(III) and As(V) were rapidly accumulated in the Zr-oxide gel and could be quantitatively recovered by elution using 1.0 M NaOH for freshwater or a mixture of 1.0 M NaOH and 1.0 M H2O2 for seawater. DGT uptake of As(III) and As(V) increased linearly with deployment time and was independent of pH (2.0-9.1), ionic strength (0.01-750 mM), the coexistence of phosphate (0.25-10 mg P L(-1)), and the aging of the Zr-oxide gel up to 24 months after production. The capacities of the Zr-oxide DGT were 159 μg As(III) and 434 μg As(V) per device for freshwater and 94 μg As(III) and 152 μg As(V) per device for seawater. These values were 5-29 times and 3-19 times more than those reported for the commonly used ferrihydrite and Metsorb DGTs, respectively. Deployments of the Zr-oxide DGT in As-spiked synthetic seawater provided accurate measurements of total dissolved inorganic As over the 96 h deployment, whereas ferrihydrite and Metsorb DGTs only measured the concentrations accurately up to 24 and 48 h, respectively. Deployments in soils showed that the Zr-oxide DGT was a reliable and robust tool, even for soil samples heavily polluted with As. In contrast, As in these soils was underestimated by ferrihydrite and Metsorb DGTs due to insufficient effective capacities, which were likely suppressed by the competing effects of phosphate.

  9. The effects of prenatal oxidative stress levels on infant adiposity development during the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Loy, S L; Sirajudeen, K N S; Hamid Jan, J M

    2014-04-01

    Although numerous studies have been conducted to examine the causal factors of childhood obesity, the implications of intrauterine oxidative stress on early postnatal adiposity development remain to be elucidated. The Universiti Sains Malaysia Birth Cohort Study aimed to investigate the effects of prenatal oxidative stress levels on the development of infant adiposity during the first year of life. This study was conducted on the healthy pregnant women aged 19-40 years, from April 2010 to December 2012 in Kelantan, Malaysia. Maternal blood samples were drawn in the second trimester to analyse for oxidative stress markers. Infant anthropometric measurements were taken at birth, 2, 6 and 12 months of age. A total of 153 pregnant women and full-term infants were included in the analysis. Statistical test was conducted by using multiple linear regression. Through the infant first year of life, as maternal DNA damage level in the second trimester increased, infant weights at birth (β=-0.122, P<0.001), 2 months (β=-0.120, P=0013), 6 months (β=-0.209, P=0.003) and 12 months of age (β=-0.241, P=0.006) decreased after adjusting for confounders. Similar results were noted when infant body mass index-for-age Z-scores and triceps skinfold-for-age Z-scores were used as the adiposity indicators. In conclusion, the present study shows a consistent inverse association between maternal DNA damage and infant adiposity during the first year of life. These infants with reduced growth and adiposity in early postnatal life may have a high tendency to experience catch-up growth during childhood, which could be strongly associated with later obesity. PMID:24847700

  10. Area-level socioeconomic context, total mortality and cause-specific mortality in Spain: Heterogeneous findings depending on the level of geographic aggregation.

    PubMed

    Regidor, Enrique; Vallejo, Fernando; Reques, Laura; Cea, Lucía; Miqueleiz, Estrella; Barrio, Gregorio

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between area-level socioeconomic context and mortality in Spain, using two different geographic aggregations. Nation-wide prospective study covering all persons living in Spain in 2001. Mortality was analysed in Spanish citizens by province of residence and in citizens of Madrid by neighbourhood of residence. Provinces and neighbourhoods were grouped into quartiles according to two socioeconomic indicators: percentage of the population with university education and unemployment rate. The measure of association was the rate ratio for total mortality and cause-specific mortality, by each socioeconomic indicator in two age groups, 25-64 years (adult population) and 65 years and over (elderly population). After adjustment for all individual socioeconomic variables, the rate ratio for total mortality among residents in the provinces with the worst versus best socioeconomic context was 0.92 (95% CI 0.88-0.97) when the indicator was percentage of university population and 0.89 (0.85-0.93) when it was unemployment rate in the adult population, and 1.05 (1.00-1.11) and 1.08 (1.03-1.13), respectively, in the elderly population. No significant differences in mortality were observed between adults residing in neighbourhoods with the worst versus best socioeconomic context, but in the elderly population the mortality rate ratios for the two socioeconomic indicators were 1.04 (1.01-1.07) and 1.06 (1.03-1.09), respectively. Residents in provinces with the worst socioeconomic context had the lowest mortality from cancer and external causes and the highest mortality from cardiovascular diseases, while residents in neighbourhoods with the worst socioeconomic context had the highest mortality from respiratory and digestive diseases. Further research should find out the reasons for the lower total mortality in adult population residing in the Spanish provinces with the most adverse socioeconomic context and the reasons for

  11. Oxidative Alkaline leaching of Americium from simulated high-level nuclear waste sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Wendy A.; Garnov, Alexander Yu.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Bond, Andrew H.

    2004-01-23

    Oxidative alkaline leaching has been proposed to pre-treat the high-level nuclear waste sludges to remove some of the problematic (e.g., Cr) and/or non-radioactive (e.g., Na, Al) constituents before vitrification. It is critical to understand the behavior of actinides, americium and plutonium in particular, in oxidative alkaline leaching. We have studied the leaching behavior of americium from four different sludge simulants (BiPO{sub 4}, BiPO{sub 4 modified}, Redox, PUREX) using potassium permanganate and potassium persulfate in alkaline solutions. Up to 60% of americium sorbed onto the simulants is leached from the sludges by alkaline persulfate and permanganate. The percentage of americium leached increases with [NaOH] (between 1.0 and 5.0 M). The initial rate of americium leaching by potassium persulfate increases in the order BiPO{sub 4} sludge < Redox sludge < PUREX sludge. The data are most consistent with oxidation of Am{sup 3+} in the sludge to either AmO{sub 2}{sup +} or AmO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in solution. Though neither of these species is expected to exhibit long-term stability in solution, the potential for mobilization of americium from sludge samples would have to be accommodated in the design of any oxidative leaching process for real sludge samples.

  12. Oxidative stress induces age-dependent changes in lymphocyte protein synthesis and second messenger levels.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Hellin, J; Garcia-Arumi, E; Schwartz, S

    1998-01-01

    Cumulative damage in cells from aged people could lead to a greater fragility against acute oxidative stress. The effects of acute oxidative stress on cell viability, cAMP and cGMP concentrations, and protein synthesis rates were studied in lymphocytes from 25 young and 26 elderly subjects. Lymphocytes were exposed to stress by hydrogen peroxide 25 micromol/l and incubated for 18 hours. Cell viability after stress was lower (p<0.0001, Student's t test) in cells from the elderly (63.4%) than in cells from the young donors (73.2%). The protein synthesis rate was also lower after stress (p<0.04, Mann-Whitney U test) in cells from the elderly (47.3% vs. non-stressed cells), than in cells from the young (82.19% vs. non-stressed cells). After oxidative stress, cAMP and cGMP concentrations showed no significant changes in cells from young subjects; there were, however, significant decreases in these cyclic nucleotides in cells from the elderly (p<0.008 for both nucleotides, paired Student's t test). There were no differences in basal cAMP or cGMP levels between the two groups. These results show that mortality and metabolic changes due to oxidative stress are greater in lymphocytes proceeding from elderly subjects than in those from young subjects.

  13. Impact of admission serum total cholesterol level on in-hospital mortality in patients with acute aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xintian; Su, Xi; Zeng, Hesong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out the association between serum total cholesterol (TC) on admission and in-hospital mortality in patients with acute aortic dissection (AAD). Methods: From January 2007 to January 2014, we enrolled 1492 consecutive AAD patients with serum TC measured immediately on admission. Baseline characteristics and in-hospital mortality were compared between the patients with serum TC above and below the median (4.00 mmol/L). Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to account for known confounders in the study. Cox proportional hazard model was performed to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for admission serum TC levels. Results: With the use of PSM, 521 matched pairs of patients with AAD were yielded in this analysis due to their similar propensity scores. Patients with admission serum TC < 4.00 mmol/L, as compared with those with admission serum TC ≥ 4.00 mmol/L, had higher in-hospital mortality (11.7% vs. 5.8%; HR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.33-3.19, P = 0.001). Stratified analysis according to Stanford classification showed that the inverse association between admission serum TC and in-hospital mortality was observed in patients with Type-A AAD (24.0% vs. 11.3%; HR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.33 - 3.57, P = 0.002) but not in those with Type-B AAD (3.8% vs. 2.2%; HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 0.67 - 4.34, P = 0.261). Conclusions: Lower serum TC level on admission was strongly associated with higher in-hospital mortality in patients with Type-A AAD. PMID:27648044

  14. Relationship of Serum Trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO) Levels with early Atherosclerosis in Humans.

    PubMed

    Randrianarisoa, Elko; Lehn-Stefan, Angela; Wang, Xiaolin; Hoene, Miriam; Peter, Andreas; Heinzmann, Silke S; Zhao, Xinjie; Königsrainer, Ingmar; Königsrainer, Alfred; Balletshofer, Bernd; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Xu, Guowang; Lehmann, Rainer; Stefan, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Circulating trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO) levels predict cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly by impacting on cholesterol metabolism and oxidative stress. Because hepatic TMAO production is regulated by insulin signalling and it is unclear whether and to what extent circulating TMAO levels associate with CVD risk, independently of insulin resistance and its important determinants fatty liver and visceral obesity, we have now addressed this question in 220 subjects who participated in the Tübingen Lifestyle Intervention Program. Visceral fat mass (r = 0.40, p < 0.0001), liver fat content (r = 0.23, p = 0.0005) and TMAO levels (r = 0.26, p < 0.0001) associated positively, and insulin sensitivity associated negatively (r = -0.18, p = 0.009) with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Higher TMAO levels (std.-Beta 0.11, p = 0.03) predicted increased cIMT, independently of age, sex and visceral fat mass. While during the lifestyle intervention most cardiovascular risk parameters improved, mean TMAO levels did not change (p = 0.18). However, cIMT decreased significantly (p = 0.0056) only in subjects in the tertile with the largest decrease of TMAO levels (>20%). We provide novel information that increased serum TMAO levels associate with increased cIMT, independently of established cardiovascular risk markers, including insulin resistance, visceral obesity and fatty liver. Furthermore, the decrease of cIMT during a lifestyle intervention may be related to the decrease of TMAO levels.

  15. Relationship of Serum Trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO) Levels with early Atherosclerosis in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Randrianarisoa, Elko; Lehn-Stefan, Angela; Wang, Xiaolin; Hoene, Miriam; Peter, Andreas; Heinzmann, Silke S; Zhao, Xinjie; Königsrainer, Ingmar; Königsrainer, Alfred; Balletshofer, Bernd; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Xu, Guowang; Lehmann, Rainer; Stefan, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Circulating trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO) levels predict cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly by impacting on cholesterol metabolism and oxidative stress. Because hepatic TMAO production is regulated by insulin signalling and it is unclear whether and to what extent circulating TMAO levels associate with CVD risk, independently of insulin resistance and its important determinants fatty liver and visceral obesity, we have now addressed this question in 220 subjects who participated in the Tübingen Lifestyle Intervention Program. Visceral fat mass (r = 0.40, p < 0.0001), liver fat content (r = 0.23, p = 0.0005) and TMAO levels (r = 0.26, p < 0.0001) associated positively, and insulin sensitivity associated negatively (r = −0.18, p = 0.009) with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Higher TMAO levels (std.−Beta 0.11, p = 0.03) predicted increased cIMT, independently of age, sex and visceral fat mass. While during the lifestyle intervention most cardiovascular risk parameters improved, mean TMAO levels did not change (p = 0.18). However, cIMT decreased significantly (p = 0.0056) only in subjects in the tertile with the largest decrease of TMAO levels (>20%). We provide novel information that increased serum TMAO levels associate with increased cIMT, independently of established cardiovascular risk markers, including insulin resistance, visceral obesity and fatty liver. Furthermore, the decrease of cIMT during a lifestyle intervention may be related to the decrease of TMAO levels. PMID:27228955

  16. Binding of ethylene oxide in spermiogenic germ cell stages of the mouse after low-level inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Sega, G.A.; Owens, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Mice received inhalation exposures of /sup 3/H-labeled ethylene oxide (EtO) gas at levels from 0.65 to 3.2 parts per million-hours (ppm-hr), which are below the exposure limits currently allowed for humans. Subsequently, spermatozoa were recovered from the reproductive tracts of the animals over a two-week period and assayed for the amount of bound EtO. A strong increase in the level of EtO binding occurred in late spermatid stages; these stages are also genetically sensitive to the action of EtO. Alkylation of the DNA within the sperm accounted for a very small fraction of the total sperm head alkylation, averaging about 20 DNA alkylations per sperm per ppm-hr of exposure over the two-week period. However, alkylation of protamine, a protein unique to sperm cells, was found to be correlated with total sperm head alkylation and accounted for nearly all of the EtO binding. Protamine alkylation appears to be a significant cause of EtO-induced genetic damage in spermiogenic cells of the mammal.

  17. Serum levels of protein oxidation products in patients with nickel allergy.

    PubMed

    Gangemi, Sebastiano; Ricciardi, Luisa; Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Cristani, Mariateresa; Saitta, Salvatore; Chirafisi, Joselita; Spatari, Giovanna; Santoro, Giusy; Saija, Antonella

    2009-01-01

    Nickel sensitization can not only induce allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), but also can induce an overlapping disease referred to as "systemic nickel allergy syndrome" (SNAS), characterized by urticaria/angioedema and gastrointestinal symptoms correlated to the ingestion of nickel-containing foods. This study was designed to determine if oxidative stress occurs in patients with nickel allergy. Thirty-one female patients (mean age 31.26 + 13.04 years, range 16-64 years) with confirmed nickel CD underwent oral nickel challenge because of clinically suspected SNAS; serum concentrations of protein carbonyl groups (PCGs) and nitrosylated proteins (NPs; biomarkers of oxidative stress) were measured before and after oral nickel challenge as well as in healthy female controls. Twenty-three of these 31 patients were diagnosed with SNAS because they had a positive reaction to the oral nickel challenge, and 8 patients had no reaction and therefore were classified as patients with contact nickel allergy only. Although both nickel-allergic patients and controls presented similar serum levels of PCGs, NP values in nickel-allergic patients appeared higher than in controls and tended to decrease after the challenge; furthermore, serum levels of NPs in patients affected by SNAS were higher (although not significantly) than in patients with nickel ACD only. The involvement of specific biomarkers of oxidative stress such as NPs and the lack of involvement of other biomarkers such as PCGs may help to better understand the alteration of the redox homeostasis occurring in nickel ACD and particularly in SNAS.

  18. Bromide levels in natural waters: its relationship to levels of both chloride and total dissolved solids and the implications for water treatment.

    PubMed

    Magazinovic, Rodney S; Nicholson, Brenton C; Mulcahy, Dennis E; Davey, David E

    2004-10-01

    South Australian freshwaters from a wide variety of environments were analysed for bromide and the results correlated with both chloride and total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations. A linear relationship was obtained which allows chloride data to be successfully used to estimate bromide concentrations. Bromide displayed a slightly better correlation with TDS indicating that an improved estimate of bromide could be made by reference to TDS data which is more easily and commonly obtained, and generally available extensively as historical data. The bromide content in relation to its ratio with both chloride and TDS contents was around seventy percent of the corresponding ratios found in seawater, a finding reported in other published data. The ability to estimate bromide concentrations is a potentially useful tool in the drinking water industry as it enables the assessment of the extent of bromate formation (predicted through the use of mathematical models and other water quality data) which is an important factor when ozonation is being considered as a treatment option, particularly as many water industry regulatory bodies have imposed stringent limits on the levels of acceptable bromate.

  19. Oxidative stress at low levels can induce clustered DNA lesions leading to NHEJ mediated mutations

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vyom; Collins, Leonard B.; Chen, Ting-huei; Herr, Natalie; Takeda, Shunichi; Sun, Wei; Swenberg, James A.; Nakamura, Jun

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage and mutations induced by oxidative stress are associated with various different human pathologies including cancer. The facts that most human tumors are characterized by large genome rearrangements and glutathione depletion in mice results in deletions in DNA suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause gene and chromosome mutations through DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). However, the generation of DSBs at low levels of ROS is still controversial. In the present study, we show that H2O2 at biologically-relevant levels causes a marked increase in oxidative clustered DNA lesions (OCDLs) with a significant elevation of replication-independent DSBs. Although it is frequently reported that OCDLs are fingerprint of high-energy IR, our results indicate for the first time that H2O2, even at low levels, can also cause OCDLs leading to DSBs specifically in G1 cells. Furthermore, a reverse genetic approach revealed a significant contribution of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway in H2O2-induced DNA repair & mutagenesis. This genomic instability induced by low levels of ROS may be involved in spontaneous mutagenesis and the etiology of a wide variety of human diseases like chronic inflammation-related disorders, carcinogenesis, neuro-degeneration and aging. PMID:27015367

  20. Oxidative Damage in Lymphocytes of Copper Smelter Workers Correlated to Higher Levels of Excreted Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Jorge; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Coddou, Claudio; Nelson, Pablo; Maisey, Kevin; Valdés, Daniel; Aspee, Alexis; Espinosa, Victoria; Rozas, Carlos; Montoya, Margarita; Mandiola, Cristian; Rodríguez, Felipe E.; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Escobar, Alejandro; Fernández, Ricardo; Diaz, Hernán; Sandoval, Mario; Imarai, Mónica; Rios, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic has been associated with multiple harmful effects at the cellular level. Indirectly these defects could be related to impairment of the integrity of the immune system, in particular in lymphoid population. To characterize the effect of Arsenic on redox status on this population, copper smelter workers and arsenic unexposed donors were recruited for this study. We analyzed urine samples and lymphocyte enriched fractions from donors to determinate arsenic levels and lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, we studied the presence of oxidative markers MDA, vitamin E and SOD activity in donor plasma. Here we demonstrated that in human beings exposed to high arsenic concentrations, lymphocyte MDA and arsenic urinary levels showed a positive correlation with SOD activity, and a negative correlation with vitamin E serum levels. Strikingly, lymphocytes from the arsenic exposed population respond to a polyclonal stimulator, phytohemaglutinin, with higher rates of thymidine incorporation than lymphocytes of a control population. As well, similar in vitro responses to arsenic were observed using a T cell line. Our results suggest that chronic human exposure to arsenic induces oxidative damage in lymphocytes and could be considered more relevant than evaluation of T cell surveillance. PMID:21253489

  1. The determination of sulfite levels and its oxidation in plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Brychkova, Galina; Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Fluhr, Robert; Sagi, Moshe

    2012-07-01

    Sulfur is the sixth most abundant element in life and an important building block of proteins and cellular metabolites. Plants like bacteria can synthesize their sulfur-containing biomolecules from sulfate, where sulfite is an intermediate of the sulfur assimilation pathway. Above a certain threshold SO(2)/sulfite is cytotoxic and is rapidly metabolized to avoid damage. However, the existing data show considerable differences in basal sulfite levels both between species and apparent discrepancies in measured levels in the same species. In order to resolve this question we employed a sulfite detection method using chicken sulfite oxidase and developed an independent enzymatic assay, based on the specific detection of sulfite by sulfite reductase and compared those measurements to a modified colorimetric fuchsin-based method, specific for sulfite detection. We show here that when properly used the sulfite levels detected by the three methods can yield identical results. Furthermore, to examine the capacity of the plant to detoxify sulfite we injected sub-lethal sulfite solutions (yet, several folds higher than the basal levels) into Arabidopsis and tomato leaves and monitored the excess sulfite turnover. Within 3h of sulfite injection, more than 80% of the injected sulfite in Arabidopsis and 91% in tomato were oxidized to sulfate, demonstrating the high capacity of the sulfite oxidation mechanism/s in plants. PMID:22608526

  2. Plasma phthalate and bisphenol a levels and oxidant-antioxidant status in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kondolot, Meda; Ozmert, Elif N; Ascı, Ali; Erkekoglu, Pınar; Oztop, Didem B; Gumus, Hakan; Kocer-Gumusel, Belma; Yurdakok, Kadriye

    2016-04-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine disruting chemicals (EDCs) that are suggested to exert neurotoxic effects. This study aimed to determine plasma phthalates and BPA levels along with oxidant/antioxidant status in autistic children [n=51; including 12 children were diagnosed with "Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)]. Plasma levels of BPA, di (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and its main metabolite mono (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP); thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and carbonyl groups; erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) and selenium levels were measured. Plasma BPA levels of children with PDD-NOS were significantly higher than both classic autistic children and controls (n=50). Carbonyl, selenium concentrations and GPx1, SOD and GR activities were higher (p<0.05); CAT activity was markedly lower in study group. BPA exposure might be associated with PDD-NOS. Intracellular imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status might facilitate its neurotoxicity.

  3. Plasma phthalate and bisphenol a levels and oxidant-antioxidant status in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kondolot, Meda; Ozmert, Elif N; Ascı, Ali; Erkekoglu, Pınar; Oztop, Didem B; Gumus, Hakan; Kocer-Gumusel, Belma; Yurdakok, Kadriye

    2016-04-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine disruting chemicals (EDCs) that are suggested to exert neurotoxic effects. This study aimed to determine plasma phthalates and BPA levels along with oxidant/antioxidant status in autistic children [n=51; including 12 children were diagnosed with "Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)]. Plasma levels of BPA, di (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and its main metabolite mono (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP); thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and carbonyl groups; erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) and selenium levels were measured. Plasma BPA levels of children with PDD-NOS were significantly higher than both classic autistic children and controls (n=50). Carbonyl, selenium concentrations and GPx1, SOD and GR activities were higher (p<0.05); CAT activity was markedly lower in study group. BPA exposure might be associated with PDD-NOS. Intracellular imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status might facilitate its neurotoxicity. PMID:26991849

  4. Oxidative stress at low levels can induce clustered DNA lesions leading to NHEJ mediated mutations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vyom; Collins, Leonard B; Chen, Ting-Huei; Herr, Natalie; Takeda, Shunichi; Sun, Wei; Swenberg, James A; Nakamura, Jun

    2016-05-01

    DNA damage and mutations induced by oxidative stress are associated with various different human pathologies including cancer. The facts that most human tumors are characterized by large genome rearrangements and glutathione depletion in mice results in deletions in DNA suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause gene and chromosome mutations through DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). However, the generation of DSBs at low levels of ROS is still controversial. In the present study, we show that H2O2 at biologically-relevant levels causes a marked increase in oxidative clustered DNA lesions (OCDLs) with a significant elevation of replication-independent DSBs. Although it is frequently reported that OCDLs are fingerprint of high-energy IR, our results indicate for the first time that H2O2, even at low levels, can also cause OCDLs leading to DSBs specifically in G1 cells. Furthermore, a reverse genetic approach revealed a significant contribution of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway in H2O2-induced DNA repair & mutagenesis. This genomic instability induced by low levels of ROS may be involved in spontaneous mutagenesis and the etiology of a wide variety of human diseases like chronic inflammation-related disorders, carcinogenesis, neuro-degeneration and aging. PMID:27015367

  5. Phobic Anxiety and Plasma Levels of Global Oxidative Stress in Women

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Kaitlin A.; Wu, Tianying; Rimm, Eric B.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Okereke, Olivia I.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Psychological distress has been hypothesized to be associated with adverse biologic states such as higher oxidative stress and inflammation. Yet, little is known about associations between a common form of distress – phobic anxiety – and global oxidative stress. Thus, we related phobic anxiety to plasma fluorescent oxidation products (FlOPs), a global oxidative stress marker. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 1,325 women (aged 43-70 years) from the Nurses’ Health Study. Phobic anxiety was measured using the Crown-Crisp Index (CCI). Adjusted least-squares mean log-transformed FlOPs were calculated across phobic categories. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) comparing the highest CCI category (≥6 points) vs. lower scores, across FlOPs quartiles. Results No association was found between phobic anxiety categories and mean FlOP levels in multivariable adjusted linear models. Similarly, in multivariable logistic regression models there were no associations between FlOPs quartiles and likelihood of being in the highest phobic category. Comparing women in the highest vs. lowest FlOPs quartiles: FlOP_360: OR=0.68 (95% CI: 0.40-1.15); FlOP_320: OR=0.99 (95% CI: 0.61-1.61); FlOP_400: OR=0.92 (95% CI: 0.52, 1.63). Conclusions No cross-sectional association was found between phobic anxiety and a plasma measure of global oxidative stress in this sample of middle-aged and older women. PMID:26635425

  6. Total inhibition of (1)O2-induced oxidative damage to guanine bases of DNA/RNA by turmeric extracts.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Prakash C; Li, Hsin H; Merchant, Monique; Keane, Thomas C

    2014-09-26

    The guanine base of nucleic acids is known to be very reactive towards degradation by (1)O2-induced oxidative stress. Oxidative reactions of DNA are linked to many human diseases including cancer. Among the various forms of reactive O2 species (OH, (1)O2 or O2(-)), the oxidative stress caused by (1)O2 is of particular physiologic importance because of its selectively long life in aqueous medium and its ability to diffuse through a cell membrane. In this study we investigated the degradation of a model compound guanosine (Guo) by (1)O2, which was generated by riboflavin-induced photosensitization and by molybdate ion catalyzed disproportionation of H2O2. We observed the remarkable ability of an aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) as an extraordinary scavenger of (1)O2 to completely inhibit the degradation of Guo. The alcoholic extracts were more effective in their antioxidant activity than the corresponding water extract. This naturally occurring antioxidant offers a most economical supplement to protect biologically significant molecules from the oxidative stress induced by (1)O2. PMID:25181345

  7. Microwave Limb Sounder Measurements Depicting the Relationship Between Nitrous Oxide Levels and

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Aura's Microwave Limb Sounder measures nitrous oxide, which is unaffected by stratospheric chemical processes. By studying changes in its levels, scientists can better understand how air is moving around and how ozone is affected by that air motion, allowing them to differentiate those changes from the ones caused by chemical ozone destruction. In these cross-sections of nitrous oxide (top) and ozone (bottom) data from Aura, changes in the levels of these two chemicals at various temperatures and latitudes are depicted over time. The white contour shows the approximate location of the polar vortex boundary.

    The left panel data were collected on January 23, 2005, near the beginning of chemical ozone destruction this winter. Virtually all chemical loss occurred before March 10 (center panel). Ozone destruction extended throughout the polar vortex from about 15-20 kilometers (9-13 miles), but occurred only in the outer part of the vortex from 20-25 kilometers (13-16 miles). The differences between the two days are depicted in the right panel. The largest observed difference is about a 1.2 parts per million by volume decrease in ozone. Plots of nitrous oxide show a decrease in the region in the outer part of the vortex where most ozone loss occurs, indicating that air from above (where nitrous oxide is lower) has moved into this region. This downward motion brings higher ozone into the region where chemical loss is occurring, thus partially masking the effects of chemical loss. Calculations using Microwave Limb Sounder data to separate dynamical and chemical effects indicate maximum chemical ozone loss of approximately 2 parts per million by volume (approximately 60 percent) in the outer part of the vortex near 18-21 kilometers (11-13 miles), and approximately 1.5 parts per million by volume when averaged throughout the whole vortex region.

  8. Effect of Genistein on reproductive parameter and serum nitric oxide levels in morphine-treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, Cyrus; Ahmadi, Sharareh; Roshankhah, Shiva; Salahshoor, MohammadReza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The predominant phytoestrogen in soy and derived products is the isoflavone Genistein. Genistein has antioxidant properties. Morphine is a main psychoactive chemical in opium that can increase the generation of free radicals and therefore it could adversely affects the spermatogenesis. Objective: The main goal was to investigate whether the Genistein could protect morphine adverse effects on sperm cells viability, count, motility, and testis histology and testosterone hormone and nitric oxide in blood serum. Materials and Methods: In this study, various doses of Genistein (0, 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg) and Genistein plus morphine (0, 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg) were administered interaperitoneally to 48 male mice for 30 consequent days. These mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n=6) and sperm parameters (sperm cells viability, count, motility and morphology), testis weight and histology, testosterone hormone (ELISA method), FSH and LH hormones (immunoradiometry) and serum nitric oxide (griess assay) were analyzed and compared. Results: The results indicated that morphine administration significantly decreased testosterone (0.03 ng/mg) LH and FSH level, histological parameters, count, viability (55.3%), morphology and motility of sperm cells (1%), testis weight (0.08 gr) and increase nitric oxide compared to saline group (p=0.00). However, administration of Genistein and Genistein plus morphine significantly boosted motility, morphology, count, viability of sperm cells, seminiferous tubules diameter, germinal thickness, testosterone, LH and FSH while decrease nitric oxide level in all groups compared to morphine group (p<0.025). Conclusion: It seems that Genistein administration could increase the quality of spermatozoa and prevent morphine- induced adverse effects on sperm parameters. PMID:27200423

  9. Esterase activity (EA), total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in gills of Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to pollutants: Analytical validation and effects evaluation by single and mixed heavy metal exposure.

    PubMed

    Franco, Lorena; Romero, Diego; García-Navarro, José A; Teles, Mariana; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta

    2016-01-15

    The aims of the present study were to optimize and validate methods for esterase activity (EA), total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) determination in mussel' gills, and to establish the relationships between these biomarkers and Pb, Cd and Cu pollution, in single form and ternary mixture. Two different buffers for sample homogenization, the need of ultracentrifugation, and analytical validation were evaluated. Coefficients of variation, when buffer without additives and ultracentrifugation were used, were <15%, and recovery were 97%-109% in all cases. The EA response tends to decrease with treatments, TOS decreased significantly in Cd and ternary groups, while TAC tended to increase in treatments with Pb, Cd and ternary groups. In conclusion, the methods for EA, TOS and TAC measurements in gills of mussel were precise and accurate and could be interesting resources in biomonitoring programmes.

  10. Copper uptake is required for pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-mediated oxidation and protein level increase of p53 in cells.

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Saori; Ortiz, Fausto; Zhu Sun, Xiu; Wu, Hsiao-Huei; Mason, Andrew; Momand, Jamil

    2002-01-01

    The p53 tumour-suppressor protein is a transcription factor that activates the expression of genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA repair. The p53 protein is vulnerable to oxidation at cysteine thiol groups. The metal-chelating dithiocarbamates, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), diethyldithiocarbamate, ethylene(bis)dithiocarbamate and H(2)O(2) were tested for their oxidative effects on p53 in cultured human breast cancer cells. Only PDTC oxidized p53, although all oxidants tested increased the p53 level. Inductively coupled plasma MS analysis indicated that the addition of 60 microM PDTC increased the cellular copper concentration by 4-fold, which was the highest level of copper accumulated amongst all the oxidants tested. Bathocuproinedisulphonic acid, a membrane-impermeable Cu(I) chelator inhibited the PDTC-mediated copper accumulation. Bathocuproinedisulphonic acid as well as the hydroxyl radical scavenger d-mannitol inhibited the PDTC-dependent increase in p53 protein and oxidation. Our results show that a low level of copper accumulation in the range of 25-40 microg/g of cellular protein increases the steady-state levels of p53. At copper accumulation levels higher than 60 microg/g of cellular protein, p53 is oxidized. These results suggest that p53 is vulnerable to free radical-mediated oxidation at cysteine residues. PMID:11964141

  11. Evaluation of Flow Rate, pH, Buffering Capacity, Calcium, Total Proteins and Total Antioxidant Capacity Levels of Saliva in Caries Free and Caries Active Children: An In Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Preethi, B P; Reshma, Dodawad; Anand, Pyati

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the physicochemical properties of saliva such as flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium level, total protein and total antioxidant levels in caries free and caries active children. The present study included one hundred and twenty healthy children who were divided into two groups; group I and group II comprising of age groups 7-10 and 11-14 years, respectively. Both the groups were then sub-divided equally according to gender. They were further divided into caries free and caries active with 15 children in each group. Unstimulated saliva was collected by suction method and flow rates were determined. The samples were then analyzed for pH, buffering capacity, total protein, calcium and total antioxidant capacity. The data was statistically analyzed using student t test (unpaired). The results revealed that when all these parameters were compared among the caries free and caries active children, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity were slightly reduced in caries active children, but total protein and total antioxidant capacity of saliva increased significantly in caries active children and the total calcium decreased significantly in caries active children. Within the limitation of this study, we conclude that, the physicochemical properties of saliva play a major role in the development of caries. PMID:21966118

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study for Levels of Total Serum IgE Identifies HLA-C in a Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yatagai, Yohei; Sakamoto, Tohru; Masuko, Hironori; Kaneko, Yoshiko; Yamada, Hideyasu; Iijima, Hiroaki; Naito, Takashi; Noguchi, Emiko; Hirota, Tomomitsu; Tamari, Mayumi; Imoto, Yoshimasa; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Konno, Satoshi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Most of the previously reported loci for total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels are related to Th2 cell-dependent pathways. We undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic loci responsible for IgE regulation. A total of 479,940 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with total serum IgE levels in 1180 Japanese adults. Fine-mapping with SNP imputation demonstrated 6 candidate regions: the PYHIN1/IFI16, MHC classes I and II, LEMD2, GRAMD1B, and chr13∶60576338 regions. Replication of these candidate loci in each region was assessed in 2 independent Japanese cohorts (n = 1110 and 1364, respectively). SNP rs3130941 in the HLA-C region was consistently associated with total IgE levels in 3 independent populations, and the meta-analysis yielded genome-wide significance (P = 1.07×10−10). Using our GWAS results, we also assessed the reproducibility of previously reported gene associations with total IgE levels. Nine of 32 candidate genes identified by a literature search were associated with total IgE levels after correction for multiple testing. Our findings demonstrate that SNPs in the HLA-C region are strongly associated with total serum IgE levels in the Japanese population and that some of the previously reported genetic associations are replicated across ethnic groups. PMID:24324648

  13. Atomic-Level Sculpting of Crystalline Oxides: Toward Bulk Nanofabrication with Single Atomic Plane Precision.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Stephen; He, Qian; Lupini, Andrew R; Leonard, Donovan N; Oxley, Mark P; Ovchinnikov, Oleg; Unocic, Raymond R; Tselev, Alexander; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel; Sumpter, Bobby G; Pennycook, Stephen J; Kalinin, Sergei V; Borisevich, Albina Y

    2015-11-25

    The atomic-level sculpting of 3D crystalline oxide nanostructures from metastable amorphous films in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is demonstrated. Strontium titanate nanostructures grow epitaxially from the crystalline substrate following the beam path. This method can be used for fabricating crystalline structures as small as 1-2 nm and the process can be observed in situ with atomic resolution. The fabrication of arbitrary shape structures via control of the position and scan speed of the electron beam is further demonstrated. Combined with broad availability of the atomic resolved electron microscopy platforms, these observations suggest the feasibility of large scale implementation of bulk atomic-level fabrication as a new enabling tool of nanoscience and technology, providing a bottom-up, atomic-level complement to 3D printing.

  14. Atomic-Level Sculpting of Crystalline Oxides: Toward Bulk Nanofabrication with Single Atomic Plane Precision

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jesse, Stephen; He, Qian; Lupini, Andrew R.; Leonard, Donovan N.; Oxley, Mark P.; Ovchinnikov, Oleg; Unocic, Raymond R.; Tselev, Alexander; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel; Sumpter, Bobby G.; et al

    2015-10-19

    We demonstrate atomic-level sculpting of 3D crystalline oxide nanostructures from metastable amorphous layer in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Strontium titanate nanostructures grow epitaxially from the crystalline substrate following the beam path. This method can be used for fabricating crystalline structures as small as 1-2 nm and the process can be observed in situ with atomic resolution. We further demonstrate fabrication of arbitrary shape structures via control of the position and scan speed of the electron beam. Combined with broad availability of the atomic resolved electron microscopy platforms, these observations suggest the feasibility of large scale implementation of bulkmore » atomic-level fabrication as a new enabling tool of nanoscience and technology, providing a bottom-up, atomic-level complement to 3D printing.« less

  15. Atomic-Level Sculpting of Crystalline Oxides: Toward Bulk Nanofabrication with Single Atomic Plane Precision

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, Stephen; He, Qian; Lupini, Andrew R.; Leonard, Donovan N.; Oxley, Mark P.; Ovchinnikov, Oleg; Unocic, Raymond R.; Tselev, Alexander; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Borisevich, Albina Y.

    2015-10-19

    We demonstrate atomic-level sculpting of 3D crystalline oxide nanostructures from metastable amorphous layer in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Strontium titanate nanostructures grow epitaxially from the crystalline substrate following the beam path. This method can be used for fabricating crystalline structures as small as 1-2 nm and the process can be observed in situ with atomic resolution. We further demonstrate fabrication of arbitrary shape structures via control of the position and scan speed of the electron beam. Combined with broad availability of the atomic resolved electron microscopy platforms, these observations suggest the feasibility of large scale implementation of bulk atomic-level fabrication as a new enabling tool of nanoscience and technology, providing a bottom-up, atomic-level complement to 3D printing.

  16. Usefulness of oxidative stress biomarkers evaluated in the snout scraping, serum and Peripheral Blood Cells of Crocodylus moreletii from Southeast Campeche for assessment of the toxic impact of PAHs, metals and total phenols.

    PubMed

    Dzul-Caamal, Ricardo; Hernández-López, Abigail; Gonzalez-Jáuregui, Mauricio; Padilla, Sergio E; Girón-Pérez, Manuel Ivan; Vega-López, Armando

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we assessed the effects of inorganic and organic pollutants [As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, PAHs (11 compounds) and total phenols] from a panel of biomarkers [O2, H2O2, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), carbonyl proteins (RCO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total cytochrome P450 activities] evaluated in the Snout Scraping (SS), Serum (S) and Peripheral Blood Cells (PBC) of the Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) inhabiting the reference locality (Lake Mocu) and polluted locality (Champoton River) using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). In male crocodiles from the reference site, only H2O2 in PBC was related to levels of fluoranthene on the Keel of Caudal Scales (KCS), but, in females, no association was detected. In contrast, a sex-linked response was detected in specimens from the polluted locality. Levels of benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, pyrene, phenanthrene, acenaphthene, Zn, Cu, and Pb in KCS of the female crocodil were related to the oxidative stress biomarkers on PBC, incluing the total CYP450 activity and levels of O2, H2O2 in serum. However, in male crocodiles, the oxidative stress in SS and in the serum (TBARS, RCO, CAT, GPx), and SOD in PBC was related to As, Pb, Cu, Fe, and benzo[a]pyrene water concentrations and to the burdens of As, Fe, Mn, indeno[1,2,3cd]pyrene in KCS. These results confirm the usefulness of minimal or non-invasive methods of evaluating the oxidative stress response for the environmental monitoring program on the wild Morelet's crocodile that is subject to special protection in Mexican guidelines.

  17. Usefulness of oxidative stress biomarkers evaluated in the snout scraping, serum and Peripheral Blood Cells of Crocodylus moreletii from Southeast Campeche for assessment of the toxic impact of PAHs, metals and total phenols.

    PubMed

    Dzul-Caamal, Ricardo; Hernández-López, Abigail; Gonzalez-Jáuregui, Mauricio; Padilla, Sergio E; Girón-Pérez, Manuel Ivan; Vega-López, Armando

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we assessed the effects of inorganic and organic pollutants [As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, PAHs (11 compounds) and total phenols] from a panel of biomarkers [O2, H2O2, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), carbonyl proteins (RCO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total cytochrome P450 activities] evaluated in the Snout Scraping (SS), Serum (S) and Peripheral Blood Cells (PBC) of the Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) inhabiting the reference locality (Lake Mocu) and polluted locality (Champoton River) using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). In male crocodiles from the reference site, only H2O2 in PBC was related to levels of fluoranthene on the Keel of Caudal Scales (KCS), but, in females, no association was detected. In contrast, a sex-linked response was detected in specimens from the polluted locality. Levels of benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, pyrene, phenanthrene, acenaphthene, Zn, Cu, and Pb in KCS of the female crocodil were related to the oxidative stress biomarkers on PBC, incluing the total CYP450 activity and levels of O2, H2O2 in serum. However, in male crocodiles, the oxidative stress in SS and in the serum (TBARS, RCO, CAT, GPx), and SOD in PBC was related to As, Pb, Cu, Fe, and benzo[a]pyrene water concentrations and to the burdens of As, Fe, Mn, indeno[1,2,3cd]pyrene in KCS. These results confirm the usefulness of minimal or non-invasive methods of evaluating the oxidative stress response for the environmental monitoring program on the wild Morelet's crocodile that is subject to special protection in Mexican guidelines. PMID:27164489

  18. Evaluation of antioxidant status, oxidative stress and serum trace mineral levels associated with Babesia ovis parasitemia in sheep.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilnejad, Bijan; Tavassoli, Mousa; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Malekinejad, Hassan; Jalilzadeh-Amin, Ghader; Arjmand, Jafar; Golabi, Mostafa; Hajipour, Naser

    2014-09-15

    Ovine babesiosis is a fatal disease characterized by severe progressive hemolytic anemia. In order to clarify the causal mechanisms implicated in anemia, this study was aimed to assess the antioxidant status and erythrocyte oxidative stress in sheep suffering from ovine babesiosis. Babesia infection was confirmed both with Giemsa's staining blood smears and semi-nested PCR amplified region of 18S rRNA gene. Thirty-eight Iranian sheep, naturally infected with Babesia spp., were considered as the infected group and divided into four subgroups according to parasitemia rates (<1%, 1-2%, 2-3% and >3%), and the same number non-infected animals were selected as the control group. Blood samples were taken and hematological parameters, activities of antioxidant enzymes including erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), median corpuscular fragility (MCF), and serum concentrations of some trace minerals (copper, iron, zinc, manganese, and selenium) were measured. In addition, as an index of lipid peroxidation, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured. The results revealed a significant decrease (P<0.01) in RBC count, packed cell volume (PCV) and Hb concentration as well as the activities of erythrocyte GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, G6PD, TAC, MCF and serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn and Se in the infected sheep. In contrast, significantly increased (P<0.01) levels of MDA and erythrocyte osmotic fragility as well as serum concentration of iron were recorded in the infected animals. Overall, the observed remarkable decrease in the antioxidant enzyme activities, median corpuscular fragility and substantial elevated levels of lipid peroxidation associated with the notable increase in parasitemia indicate high exposure of RBCs to oxidative damage in Babesia infected sheep. These results indicate that the disturbed antioxidant defense mechanisms in ovine

  19. Short chemoenzymatic total synthesis of ent-hydromorphone: an oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular [4+2] cycloaddition/amination sequence.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Vimal; Hudlicky, Tomas

    2014-04-22

    A short synthesis of ent-hydromorphone has been achieved in twelve steps from β-bromoethylbenzene. The key transformations involved the enzymatic dihydroxylation of the arene to the corresponding cis-dihydrodiol, Mitsunobu coupling with the ring A fragment, oxidative dearomatization of the C3 phenol, and the subsequent [4+2] cycloaddition to form ring B of the morphinan. The synthesis was completed by intramolecular amination at C9.

  20. Total synthesis of resveratrol-based natural products using a palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative arylation and an oxidative Heck reaction.

    PubMed

    Klotter, Felix; Studer, Armido

    2014-02-24

    Controlled access to resveratrol-based natural products is offered by a novel, modular concept. A common building block readily available on a large scale serves as the starting material for the introduction of structurally important aryl groups by a Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative arylation and an oxidative Heck reaction with good yields and high stereoselectivity. The modular approach is convincingly documented by the successful synthesis of three racemic resveratrol-based natural products (quadrangularin A, ampelopsin D, and pallidol).

  1. Oxidative Modification in Human Hair: The Effect of the Levels of Cu (II) Ions, UV Exposure and Hair Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Grosvenor, Anita J; Marsh, Jennifer; Thomas, Ancy; Vernon, James A; Harland, Duane P; Clerens, Stefan; Dyer, Jolon M

    2016-01-01

    Protein oxidative degradation is implicated in a wide range of deleterious effects. For human hair, this oxidative damage can lead to significant observable changes in fiber physical and visual properties. A redox proteomic approach was applied to map molecular modification in human hair proteins and correlate this modification with the abundance of copper (II) ions, the levels of UV exposure and the general level of hair pigmentation. An increase in oxidative modification was observed with increasing copper (II) ion levels, regardless of the pigmentation level. Significantly, increased protein oxidative modification was also observed to occur in both lightly and darkly pigmented hair tresses even in the absence of irradiation, albeit at lower relative levels. Modification levels increased with increased copper (II) ion concentration. This new finding indicates that the level of copper (II) ions in human hair plays a key role in mediating protein oxidation, with or without exposure to UV light. Overall, these results strongly suggest that minimization of the level of copper (II) ions in human hair will mitigate and/or slow protein oxidative modification and therefore lower overall hair damage.

  2. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kippler, Maria; Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad; Lindh, Christian; Moore, Sophie E.; Kabir, Iqbal; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2012-01-15

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11-17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 {mu}g/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 {mu}g/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  3. Plasma arginine levels and the response to inhaled nitric oxide in neonates.

    PubMed

    Kavvadia, V; Greenough, A; Lilley, J; Laubscher, B; Dimitriou, G; Boa, F; Poyser, K

    1999-12-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) can be an effective vasodilator in pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PHN). The aim of this study was to determine whether differences in arginine levels, from which endogenous NO is produced, explain the variability in response to NO and whether the arginine levels were lower in term and preterm infants with PHN than in infants without PHN (controls). We prospectively studied 30 infants (17 born preterm) with clinically diagnosed PHN and treated with iNO and 22 controls (14 born preterm). Three NO levels (10, 20, 40 ppm) were administered to the PHN infants to identify that associated with maximum oxygenation. Twenty-seven infants with PHN improved following iNO and had lower arginine levels than those infants who did not respond to iNO (p < 0. 05). No significant relationship, however, was noted between the arginine levels and either the magnitude of change in the oxygenation index in response to iNO or the NO level associated with maximum oxygenation. The median plasma arginine level prior to iNO of the PHN infants was 12.5 (range 2-53) mu mol/l, but not significantly lower than that of the controls (median 24, range 3-82 mu mol/l). We conclude that differences in plasma arginine levels are unlikely to explain the variation in response to iNO and that, although arginine levels tended to be lower in infants with PHN, this is not a consistent finding in either the term or preterm infants.

  4. Long-term treatment of N-3 PUFAS on plasma lipoprotein levels and fatty acid composition of total serum and erythrocyte lipids in hypertriglyceridemic patients.

    PubMed

    Putadechakum, Supanee; Tanphaichitr, Vichai; Leelahagul, Preeya; Pakpeankitvatana, Varapat; Surapisitchart, Thitima; Komindr, Surat

    2005-02-01

    The low incidence of coronary heart disease in Greenland Eskimos and Japanese fishermen who have high consumption of fish and seafood has called the attention in the role of eicosapentaenoic (EPA = 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA = 22: 6n-3) acids, the major n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish oils, in reducing cardiovascular risk. N-3 PUFAs may reduce serum lipids by promoting fatty acid oxidation and decrease VLDL producing from the liver, depress tissue arachidonate synthesis and alter the composition and tissue PUFAs. Plasma lipoprotein and fatty acid composition of total serum and erythrocyte lipids in 9 hypertriglyceridemic patients consisting of 4 males and 5 females aged 39-72 yr who attended the Nutrition Clinic, Ramathibodi Hospital were investigated. The study period consisted of 4 wks of dietary advice only followed by 48 wks of dietary advice with a daily intake of 6 g of fish oil capsules (FOC). Six grams of FOC provided 1080 mg of 2:5n-3 and 720 mg of 22:6n-3. Their plasma triglyceride (TG) levels at wk 0, 12, 24, 36, 48 were 356.7, 230.1, 209.7, 192.9, 22 7.4 mg/dL and M-particle (equivalent to very low density lipoprotein, VLDL) were 484.4, 354.8, 383.1, 349.7, 453.2 mg/dL respectively that decreased significantly, whereas their plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels at the same periods were 139.4, 164.9, 171.0, 157.1, 158.3 mg/dL that increased significantly. Serum and erythrocyte 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in these subjects were significantly higher than those at wk 0 throughout the study. These findings indicate the bioavailability of 20: 5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in TG lowering effect of FOC. Fatty acids from fish oil have a remarkable effect on the synthesis and clearance of TG-rich lipoproteins, especially VLDL and chylomicrons. Though daily treatment with 6 g of FOC has a striking effect in increasing plasma LDL-C levels. PMID:15962668

  5. Does Dietary Iodine Regulate Oxidative Stress and Adiponectin Levels in Human Breast Milk?

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Repiso, Carolina; Velasco, Inés; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Rodríguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Linares, Francisca; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rubio-Martin, Elehazara; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Cobos-Bravo, Juan Francisco; Priego-Puga, Tatiana; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the association between iodine and human milk composition. In this study, we investigated the association between iodine and different markers of oxidative stress and obesity-related hormones in human breast milk. This work is composed of two cross-sectional studies (in lactating women and in the general population), one prospective and one in vitro. In the cross-sectional study in lactating women, the breast milk iodine correlated negatively with superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and with adiponectin levels. An in vitro culture of human adipocytes with 1 μM potassium iodide (KI, dose similar to the human breast milk iodine concentration) produced a significant decrease in adiponectin, GSH-Px, SOD1, and SOD2 mRNA expression. However, after 2 months of treatment with KI in the prospective study, a positive correlation was found between 24-h urinary iodine and serum adiponectin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that iodine may be a factor directly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 847–853. PMID:24001137

  6. Evaluation of the Serum Levels of Nitric Oxide among Diabetic Patients and its Correlation with Lipid Profile as well as Oxidative Stress in North Indian Setting

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Arvind; Verma, Neetu; Panwar, Ajay; Kumar, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a disease with a rapidly increasing prevalence, needs continue research for novel methods to both prevent and treat this disorder. Obesity and decreased physical activity are the major risk factor for the development of diabetes. Recently the emphasis is focused on oxidative stress in pathogenesis of this disease. Aim To assess the serum levels of Nitric Oxide (NO) among diabetic patients and its correlation with lipid profile as well as oxidative stress in north Indian setting. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Subjects suffering from type 2 diabetes for more than 1 year and age between 30 to 50 years with hyperuricaemia were included in the study. The patients were divided into three groups: Group I- Type 2 diabetics with dyslipidemia and hyperuricaemia, Group II- Type 2 diabetics with dyslipidemia and normouricaemia and Group III- Type 2 diabetics with normolipidemia and normouricaemia. Results The nitric oxide level was significantly lower in Group I and Group II than Group III. The oxidative stress parameters had poor correlation with NO level in all the groups. Conclusion Our data suggests that there is definite role of Nitric Oxide (NO) in pathogenesis of type -2 diabetes mellitus with dyslipidemia and hyperuricaemia. PMID:27437271

  7. Uncoupling protein 3 expression levels influence insulin sensitivity, fatty acid oxidation, and related signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Senese, Rosalba; Valli, Vivien; Moreno, Maria; Lombardi, Assunta; Busiello, Rosa Anna; Cioffi, Federica; Silvestri, Elena; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia; de Lange, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Controversy exists on whether uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) positively or negatively influences insulin sensitivity in vivo, and the underlying signaling pathways have been scarcely studied. We studied how a progressive reduction in UCP3 expression (using UCP3 +/+, UCP3 +/-, and UCP3 -/- mice) modulates insulin sensitivity and related metabolic parameters. In order to further validate our observations, we also studied animals in which insulin resistance was induced by administration of a high-fat diet (HFD). In UCP3 +/- and UCP3 -/- mice, gastrocnemius muscle Akt/protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) (serine 473) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (threonine 171) phosphorylation, and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) membrane levels were reduced compared to UCP3 +/+ mice. The HOMA-IR index (insulin resistance parameter) was increased both in the UCP3 +/- and UCP3 -/- mice. In these mice, insulin administration normalized Akt/PKB phosphorylation between genotypes while AMPK phosphorylation was further reduced, and sarcolemmal GLUT4 levels were induced but did not reach control levels. Furthermore, non-insulin-stimulated muscle fatty acid oxidation and the expression of several involved genes both in muscle and in liver were reduced. HFD administration induced insulin resistance in UCP3 +/+ mice and the aforementioned parameters resulted similar to those of chow-fed UCP3 +/- and UCP3 -/- mice. In conclusion, high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance in wild-type mice mimics that of chow-fed UCP3 +/- and UCP3 -/- mice showing that progressive reduction of UCP3 levels results in insulin resistance. This is accompanied by decreased fatty acid oxidation and a less intense Akt/PKB and AMPK signaling.

  8. Endogenous ROS levels in C. elegans under exogenous stress support revision of oxidative stress theory of life-history tradeoffs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The oxidative stress theory of life-history tradeoffs states that oxidative stress caused by damaging free radicals directly underpins tradeoffs between reproduction and longevity by altering the allocation of energetic resources between these tasks. We test this theory by characterizing the effects of exogenous oxidative insult and its interaction with thermal stress and diet quality on a suite of life-history traits and correlations in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. We also quantify demographic aging rates and endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in live animals. Results Our findings indicate a tradeoff between investment in reproduction and antioxidant defense (somatic maintenance) consistent with theoretical predictions, but correlations between standard life-history traits yield little evidence that oxidative stress generates strict tradeoffs. Increasing oxidative insult, however, shows a strong tendency to uncouple positive phenotypic correlations and, in particular, to reduce the correlation between reproduction and lifespan. We also found that mild oxidative insult results in lower levels of endogenous ROS accompanied by hormetic changes in lifespan, demographic aging, and reproduction that disappear in combined-stress treatments--consistent with the oxidative stress theory of aging. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that oxidative stress is a direct contributor to life-history trait variation and that traditional tradeoffs are not necessary to invoke oxidative stress as a mediator of relationships between life-history traits, supporting previous calls for revisions to theory. PMID:25056725

  9. Total branched-chain amino acids requirement in patients with maple syrup urine disease by use of indicator amino acid oxidation with L-[1-13C]phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Riazi, Roya; Rafii, Mahroukh; Clarke, Joe T R; Wykes, Linda J; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

    2004-07-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defects in the mitochondrial multienzyme complex branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD; EC 1.2.4.4), responsible for the oxidative decarboxylation of the branched-chain ketoacids (BCKA) derived from the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, valine, and isoleucine. Deficiency of the enzyme results in increased concentrations of the BCAA and BCKA in body cells and fluids. The treatment of the disease is aimed at keeping the concentration of BCAA below the toxic concentrations, primarily by dietary restriction of BCAA intake. The objective of this study was to determine the total BCAA requirements of patients with classical MSUD caused by marked deficiency of BCKD by use of the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique. Five MSUD patients from the MSUD clinic of The Hospital for Sick Children participated in the study. Each was randomly assigned to different intakes of BCAA mixture (0, 20, 30, 50, 60, 70, 90, 110, and 130 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)), in which the relative proportion of BCAA was the same as that in egg protein. Total BCAA requirement was determined by measuring the oxidation of l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine to (13)CO(2). The mean total BCAA requirement was estimated using a two-phase linear regression crossover analysis, which showed that the mean total BCAA requirement was 45 mg.kg(-1).day(-1), with the safe level of intake (upper 95% confidence interval) at 62 mg.kg(-1).day(-1). This is the first time BCAA requirements in patients with MSUD have been determined directly.

  10. Estimation of total phenolic content and other oxidation substrates in plant tissues using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-structural phenolic compounds provide a variety of functions to plants, including acting as antioxidants. We describe a microplate-adapted colorimetric total phenolics assay, which utilizes Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) reagent. The F-C assay relies on the transfer of electrons in alkaline medium from p...

  11. An overview on therapeutics attenuating amyloid β level in Alzheimer's disease: targeting neurotransmission, inflammation, oxidative stress and enhanced cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoling; Li, Yifei; Shi, Xiaozhe; Ma, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common underlying cause of dementia, and novel drugs for its treatment are needed. Of the different theories explaining the development and progression of AD, "amyloid hypothesis" is the most supported by experimental data. This hypothesis states that the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) leads to the formation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides that congregate with formation and deposition of Aβ plaques in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Risk factors including neurotransmitter modulation, chronic inflammation, metal-induced oxidative stress and elevated cholesterol levels are key contributors to the disease progress. Current therapeutic strategies abating AD progression are primarily based on anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors as cognitive enhancers. The AChE inhibitor, donepezil, is proven to strengthen cognitive functions and appears effective in treating moderate to severe AD patients. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, memantine, is also useful, and its combination with donepezil demonstrated a strong stabilizing effect in clinical studies on AD. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs delayed the onset and progression of AD and attenuated cognitive dysfunction. Based upon epidemiological evidence and animal studies, antioxidants emerged as potential AD preventive agents; however, clinical trials revealed inconsistencies. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiling demonstrated pleiotropic functions of the hypolipidemic class of drugs, statins, potentially contributing towards the prevention of AD. In addition, targeting the APP processing pathways, stimulating neuroprotective signaling mechanisms, using the amyloid anti-aggregants and Aβ immunotherapy surfaced as well-tested strategies in reducing the AD-like pathology. Overall, this review covers mechanism of inducing the Aβ formation, key risk factors and major therapeutics prevalent in the AD treatment nowadays. It also delineates the need

  12. Microchamber Device Equipped with Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Optical Polarization Analyzer Chip for Micro Total Analysis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakawa, Kyosuke; Yamada, Hirofumi; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2009-04-01

    We fabricated a device equipped with a microchannel on a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor to observe the optical polarization rotation angle during in situ monitoring. The sensor is based on the integrated wire-grid polarization detection method. The microchannel is fabricated on a Si layer by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). Using this device, we measured the optical rotation of chiral molecules in a microfluid. This showed that the device is applicable to in situ chiral measurement. Optical rotation angles of the linearly polarized light corresponded to different concentrations of sucrose solution. Sensor output reflecting the temporal concentration change of chiral molecules was also observed. These results clearly demonstrate that the CMOS sensor has the capability of measuring chiral molecules in situ.

  13. Hip dislocation increases roughness of oxidized zirconium femoral heads in total hip arthroplasty: an analysis of 59 retrievals.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Mohamed E; Esposito, Christina I; Elpers, Marcella E; Wright, Timothy M; Padgett, Douglas E

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess damage on the surface of retrieved oxidized zirconium (OxZr) metal femoral heads, to measure surface roughness of scratches, and to evaluate the extent of surface effacement using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ceramic zirconia-toughened alumina heads were analyzed for comparison. OxZr femoral heads explanted for recurrent dislocation had the most severe damage (P<0.001). The median surface roughness of damaged OxZr femoral heads was 1.49μm, compared to 0.084μm for damaged ceramic heads and 0.052μm for undamaged OxZr (P<0.001). This may be of clinical concern because increased surface roughness has the potential to increase the wear of polyethylene liners articulating against these OxZr heads in THA.

  14. Comparing Single species Toxicity Tests to Mesocosm Community-Level Responses to Total Dissolved Solids Comprised of Different Major Ions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) dosing studies representing different sources of ions were conducted from 2011-2015. Emergence responses in stream mesocosms were compared to single-species exposures using a whole effluent testing (WET) format and an ex-situ method (single species te...

  15. Assessment of total and organic mercury levels in blue sharks (Prionace glauca) from the south and southeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Gabriel Gustinelli Arantes; Degaspari, Iracema Alves Manoel; Branco, Vasco; Canário, João; de Amorim, Alberto Ferreira; Kennedy, Valerie Helen; Ferreira, José Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Mercury occurrence was evaluated in samples of edible muscle tissue of 27 blue sharks (Prionace glauca) caught in the Atlantic Ocean, adjacent to the south and southeastern Brazilian coast, indicating a slight increase in comparison with previous data obtained for the same studied area and being higher than those fish caught at different sites of the Atlantic Ocean. Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.46 to 2.40 mg kg(-1) with the organic Hg fraction ranging between 0.44 and 2.37 mg kg(-1). A negative correlation between total Hg concentration in muscle tissue and blue shark size was obtained, and 40% of samples analyzed had Hg concentrations higher than 1.0 mg kg(-1) Hg, the maximum concentration permitted in Brazilian predator fish. Data obtained showed that total Hg can be used as a reliable predictor of organic Hg in blue shark muscle because 95 to 98% of the total Hg measured was found to be organic mercury. The wide range of Hg concentrations obtained for our set of samples can be explained by the heterogeneity of sampled population and the large size of the studied area. Given the adverse toxicological effects of Hg on animals and humans, a regular monitoring program of Hg contamination in Brazilian marine ecosystem can be recommended.

  16. Phenolic compounds protect HepG2 cells from oxidative damage: relevance of glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Lima, Cristovao F; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2006-10-19

    In the present work, the potential hepatoprotective effects of five phenolic compounds against oxidative damages induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) were evaluated in HepG2 cells in order to relate in vitro antioxidant activity with cytoprotective effects. t-BHP induced considerable cell damage in HepG2 cells as shown by significant LDH leakage, increased lipid peroxidation, DNA damage as well as decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH). All tested phenolic compounds significantly decreased cell death induced by t-BHP (when in co-incubation). If the effects of quercetin are given the reference value 1, the compounds rank in the following order according to inhibition of cell death: luteolin (4.0) > quercetin (1.0) > rosmarinic acid (0.34) > luteolin-7-glucoside (0.30) > caffeic acid (0.21). The results underscore the importance of the compound's lipophilicity in addition to its antioxidant potential for its biological activity. All tested phenolic compounds were found to significantly decrease lipid peroxidation and prevent GSH depletion induced by t-BHP, but only luteolin and quercetin significantly decreased DNA damage. Therefore, the lipophilicity of the natural antioxidants tested appeared to be of even greater importance for DNA protection than for cell survival. The protective potential against cell death was probably achieved mainly by preventing intracellular GSH depletion. The phenolic compounds studied here showed protective potential against oxidative damage induced in HepG2 cells. This could be beneficial against liver diseases where it is known that oxidative stress plays a crucial role. PMID:16857214

  17. At what levels of total low- or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol should diet/drug therapy be initiated? United States guidelines.

    PubMed

    LaRosa, J C

    1990-03-20

    Guidelines for the detection, evaluation and treatment of hypercholesterolemia in adults have been established in the United States. These guidelines recommend that total cholesterol levels be used for screening purposes. Total cholesterol levels greater than 240 mg/dl are considered "high," those from 200 to 239 mg/dl "borderline," and those less than 200 mg/dl "normal," regardless of the person's age or gender. All persons in the high category, as well as those in the borderline category who have other risk factors or established vascular disease, require measurements of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. LDL cholesterol levels are used to guide the selection of treatment. Patients with LDL cholesterol levels greater than 130 mg/dl are candidates for active diet therapy. Those whose LDL cholesterol levels are 160 to 190 mg/dl after 3 to 6 months of diet therapy are candidates for drug therapy. A high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level less than 35 mg/dl is considered a risk factor and may influence the level of LDL at which drug therapy is initiated. Some observers have expressed concern that these guidelines overemphasize LDL cholesterol at the expense of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Nevertheless, the guidelines have been broadly accepted and currently serve as the basis for a widespread public-health education program.

  18. Brain BDNF levels are dependent on cerebrovascular endothelium-derived nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Banoujaafar, Hayat; Monnier, Alice; Pernet, Nicolas; Quirié, Aurore; Garnier, Philippe; Prigent-Tessier, Anne; Marie, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Scientific evidence continues to demonstrate a link between endothelial function and cognition. Besides, several studies have identified a complex interplay between nitric oxide (NO) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin largely involved in cognition. Therefore, this study investigated the link between cerebral endothelium-derived NO and BDNF signaling. For this purpose, levels of BDNF and the phosphorylated form of endothelial NO synthase at serine 1177 (p-eNOS) were simultaneously measured in the cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to either bilateral common carotid occlusion (n = 6), physical exercise (n = 6) or a combination of both (n = 6) as experimental approaches to modulate flow-induced NO production by the cerebrovasculature. Tropomyosin-related kinase type B (TrkB) receptors and its phosphorylated form at tyrosine 816 (p-TrkB) were also measured. Moreover, we investigated BDNF synthesis in brain slices exposed to the NO donor glyceryl trinitrate. Our results showed increased p-eNOS and BDNF levels after exercise and decreased levels after vascular occlusion as compared to corresponding controls, with a positive correlation between changes in p-eNOS and BDNF (r = 0.679). Exercise after vascular occlusion did not change levels of these proteins. Gyceryl trinitrate increased proBDNF and BDNF levels in brain slices, thus suggesting a possible causal relationship between NO and BDNF. Moreover, vascular occlusion, like exercise, resulted in increased TrkB and p-TrkB levels, whereas no change was observed with the combination of both. These results suggest that brain BDNF signaling may be dependent on cerebral endothelium-derived NO production. PMID:27306299

  19. The effects of shockwave on systemic concentrations of nitric oxide level, angiogenesis and osteogenesis factors in hip necrosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Jen; Yang, Ya-Ju; Huang, Chung-Cheng

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of shockwave on systemic concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) level, angiogenic and osteogenic and anti-inflammatory factors in hips with osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Thirty-five patients (47 hips) with ONFH were enrolled in this study. Each hip was treated with 6,000 impulses of shockwave at 28 kV in a single session. Ten milliliters of peripheral blood was obtained for the measurements of serum NO level, angiogenic factors (VEGF, vWF, FGF basic and TGF-β1); osteogenic factors (BMP-2, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, DKK-1 and IGF); and anti-inflammation markers (sICAM and sVCAM) before treatment and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment. The hips were evaluated with clinical assessment, serial radiograph and MRI. At 12 months, the overall results showed 83% improved and 17% un-improved. Total hip was performed in 4 cases (8.5%). Serum NO3 level showed significant elevation at 1 month after treatment, but the changes at 3, 6 and 12 months were not significant. For angiogenesis, significant elevations of VEGF, vWF and FGF basic and a decrease in TGF-β1 were observed at 1 month, but the changes at 3, 6 and 12 months were non-significant. For osteogenesis, BMP-2, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase and IGF were significantly elevated, while DKK-1 was decreased at 1 month, but the changes at 3, 6 and 12 months were not significant. For anti-inflammation markers, significant decreases in sICAM and sVCAM were noted at 1 month after treatment, but the changes at 3, 6 and 12 months were non-significant. Local ESWT application results in significant elevations of serum NO level, angiogenic and osteogenic and anti-inflammatory factors in ONFH.

  20. Levels of biological markers of nitric oxide in serum of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Ratajczak-Wrona, Wioletta; Jablonska, Ewa; Antonowicz, Bozena; Dziemianczyk, Dorota; Grabowska, Stanislawa Zyta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was a determination of the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and its biological markers such as malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and nitrotyrosine in the serum of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and identification of the relationships between NO and those markers. These studies were performed on patients with SCC of the oral cavity before and after treatment. Griess reaction was used for the estimation of the total concentration of NO in serum. The nitrotyrosine level in serum was assessed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and MDA level using a spectrophotometric assay. Higher concentrations of NO in blood serum were determined in patients with stage IV of the disease before treatment in comparison to the control group and patients with stages II and III of the disease. Moreover, higher concentrations of MDA and nitrotyrosine were determined in the serum of patients in all stages of the disease in comparison to healthy people. After treatment, lower concentrations of NO in the serum of patients with stage IV of the disease were observed in comparison to the amounts obtained prior to treatment. In addition, lower levels of nitrotyrosine in the serum of patients with all stages of the disease were recorded, whereas higher concentrations of MDA were determined in these patients in comparison to results obtained before treatment. The compounds formed with the contribution of NO, such as MDA and nitrotyrosine, may lead to cancer progression in patients with SCC of the oral cavity, and contribute to formation of resistance to therapy in these patients as well. Moreover, the lack of a relationship between concentrations of NO and MDA, and between NO and nitrotyrosine in serum suggests that the process of lipid peroxidation and nitration in patients with SCC does not just depend on NO. PMID:23970140

  1. Influence of intravascular low level He-Ne laser irradiation on iNOS, total-NOS, and ET-1 in acute spinal cord-injured rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhenchun; Dong, Yinghai; Zhu, Jing

    2005-07-01

    Objective To research the influence of intravascular low level Laser irradiation (ILLLI) on total NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord following acute spinal cord injury (ASCI), and discuss the protective effects of ILLLI on neurons .Methods 72 rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: treatment group, injury group and control group. In treatment group and injury group, after laminectomy at the level of T-13, ASCI was performed by using Allen"s method with slight modification (6g×10cm) on rabbits. After injury, rabbits were treated immediately with He-Ne laser (power 5 mW, 1 hour per day for 10 days). At the day of 10th after treatment, total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord tissues were measured. Results The expression level of total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord in injury group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05), while after ILLLI the level of these index in treatment group decreased statistically significantly compared with those in injury group (P<0.05). Conclusion ILLLI can significantly decrease the expression level of total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord. It indicates that ILLLI can relieve the overexpression of total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 ,and thus can perform protective effects on neurons in the course of secondary spinal cord injury (SSCI) following ASCI

  2. Association of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Polymorphisms with Total Plasma IgE Levels in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung soo; Choi, Jinyoung; Hahn, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Young-Bok; Yu, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jin-Wou

    2016-01-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene is located on human chromosome 22q11.2 and is linked to atopic phenotypes. Plasma MIF and log [total IgE] levels are significantly elevated in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between two MIF polymorphisms, −173 G to C and −794 CATT5–8, and total plasma IgE levels in AD patients in Korea. We performed PCR-RFLP analysis in 178 AD patients and 80 control subjects to determine whether MIF SNPs are associated with susceptibility to AD. Plasma total IgE and MIF levels were determined, and then logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between a SNP or haplotype and plasma total IgE or MIF levels. The −173 G/C polymorphism, located in the MIF promoter, was significantly associated with AD; the odds ratios (ORs) for the CC homozygotes and GC heterozygotes were 9.3 and 2.5, respectively. The MIF C/5-CATT and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with AD; the ORs for the MIF C/5-CATT and MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were 9.7 and 4.5, respectively. Log [total IgE] levels were highly associated with the MIF −794 7-CATT polymorphism. Notably, the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype was associated with a decrease in plasma log [total IgE] levels in a gene dose-dependent manner. Although log [MIF] levels were not associated with the MIF polymorphisms, the frequencies of the MIF C/5-CATT haplotype-containing genotypes decreased in order of MIF levels. Our results demonstrate that MIF promoter polymorphisms in the −173 C allele and the MIF C/5-CATT and C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk for AD. In particular, the −794 7-CATT locus and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype were significantly associated with decreased total IgE levels in the plasma, suggesting that these polymorphisms might be a marker for intrinsic AD rather than extrinsic AD that shows high total IgE levels and presence of allergen

  3. Association of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Polymorphisms with Total Plasma IgE Levels in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Soo; Choi, Jinyoung; Hahn, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Young-Bok; Yu, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jin-Wou

    2016-01-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene is located on human chromosome 22q11.2 and is linked to atopic phenotypes. Plasma MIF and log [total IgE] levels are significantly elevated in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between two MIF polymorphisms, -173 G to C and -794 CATT5-8, and total plasma IgE levels in AD patients in Korea. We performed PCR-RFLP analysis in 178 AD patients and 80 control subjects to determine whether MIF SNPs are associated with susceptibility to AD. Plasma total IgE and MIF levels were determined, and then logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between a SNP or haplotype and plasma total IgE or MIF levels. The -173 G/C polymorphism, located in the MIF promoter, was significantly associated with AD; the odds ratios (ORs) for the CC homozygotes and GC heterozygotes were 9.3 and 2.5, respectively. The MIF C/5-CATT and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with AD; the ORs for the MIF C/5-CATT and MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were 9.7 and 4.5, respectively. Log [total IgE] levels were highly associated with the MIF -794 7-CATT polymorphism. Notably, the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype was associated with a decrease in plasma log [total IgE] levels in a gene dose-dependent manner. Although log [MIF] levels were not associated with the MIF polymorphisms, the frequencies of the MIF C/5-CATT haplotype-containing genotypes decreased in order of MIF levels. Our results demonstrate that MIF promoter polymorphisms in the -173 C allele and the MIF C/5-CATT and C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk for AD. In particular, the -794 7-CATT locus and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype were significantly associated with decreased total IgE levels in the plasma, suggesting that these polymorphisms might be a marker for intrinsic AD rather than extrinsic AD that shows high total IgE levels and presence of allergen-specific Ig

  4. Massive Intracellular Biodegradation of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Evidenced Magnetically at Single-Endosome and Tissue Levels.

    PubMed

    Mazuel, François; Espinosa, Ana; Luciani, Nathalie; Reffay, Myriam; Le Borgne, Rémi; Motte, Laurence; Desboeufs, Karine; Michel, Aude; Pellegrino, Teresa; Lalatonne, Yoann; Wilhelm, Claire

    2016-08-23

    Quantitative studies of the long-term fate of iron oxide nanoparticles inside cells, a prerequisite for regenerative medicine applications, are hampered by the lack of suitable biological tissue models and analytical methods. Here, we propose stem-cell spheroids as a tissue model to track intracellular magnetic nanoparticle transformations during long-term tissue maturation. We show that global spheroid magnetism can serve as a fingerprint of the degradation process, and we evidence a near-complete nanoparticle degradation over a month of tissue maturation, as confirmed by electron microscopy. Remarkably, the same massive degradation was measured at the endosome level by single-endosome nanomagnetophoretic tracking in cell-free endosomal extract. Interestingly, this spectacular nanoparticle breakdown barely affected iron homeostasis: only the genes coding for ferritin light chain (iron loading) and ferroportin (iron export) were up-regulated 2-fold by the degradation process. Besides, the magnetic and tissular tools developed here allow screening of the biostability of magnetic nanomaterials, as demonstrated with iron oxide nanocubes and nanodimers. Hence, stem-cell spheroids and purified endosomes are suitable models needed to monitor nanoparticle degradation in conjunction with magnetic, chemical, and biological characterizations at the cellular scale, quantitatively, in the long term, in situ, and in real time. PMID:27419260

  5. Parasite-induced changes in nitric oxide levels in Drosophila paramelanica.

    PubMed

    Carton, Y; Frey, F; Nappi, A J

    2009-10-01

    In larvae of Drosophila paramelanica, eggs and larvae of the endoparasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma succumb to an effective host reaction that does not involve blood cell-mediated melanotic encapsulation, a response that characterizes cellular immunity in various species of Drosophila and in many insects and other arthropods. A significant increase occurs, however, in the number of lamellocytes, a type of blood cell that functions in encapsulation reactions. The appearance of activated lamellocytes in D. paramelanica is viewed as an early response to infection, one most likely initiated by non-self-recognition processes that similarly function in other wasp-infected Drosophila. However, ensuing cytotoxic responses, about which little is presently known, are not accompanied by melanotic encapsulation in D. paramelanica. Concurrent analyses of the cell-signaling molecule nitric oxide (*NO) revealed significant alterations in the levels of this free radical during the early stages of infection, most notably a dramatic increase immediately upon infection, and precipitous decreases occurring at times when parasites were killed. Injections of a specific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) into the host's body cavity prior to infection significantly increased parasite survival. These observations suggest some involvement of *NO in the host immune response, either in recruiting hemocytes to sites of infection or as a component of the insect's cytotoxic arsenal, given the capacity of the radical to generate toxic molecules through interactions with various intermediates of oxygen and nitrogen. PMID:19388790

  6. Differential vulnerability of substantia nigra and corpus striatum to oxidative insult induced by reduced dietary levels of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Henriqueta D.; Passos, Priscila P.; Lagranha, Claudia J.; Ferraz, Anete C.; Santos Júnior, Eraldo F.; Oliveira, Rafael S.; Oliveira, Pablo E. L.; Santos, Rita de C. F.; Santana, David F.; Borba, Juliana M. C.; Rocha-de-Melo, Ana P.; Guedes, Rubem C. A.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Santos, Geanne K. N.; Borner, Roseane; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam W.; Beltrão, Eduardo I.; Silva, Janilson F.; Rodrigues, Marcelo C. A.; Andrade da Costa, Belmira L. S.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated in the etiology of certain neurodegenerative disorders. Some of these disorders have been associated with unbalanced levels of essential fatty acids (EFA). The response of certain brain regions to OS, however, is not uniform and a selective vulnerability or resilience can occur. In our previous study on rat brains, we observed that a two-generation EFA dietary restriction reduced the number and size of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) rostro-dorso-medial. To understand whether OS contributes to this effect, we assessed the status of lipid peroxidation (LP) and anti-oxidant markers in both SN and corpus striatum (CS) of rats submitted to this dietary treatment for one (F1) or two (F2) generations. Wistar rats were raised from conception on control or experimental diets containing adequate or reduced levels of linoleic and α-linolenic fatty acids, respectively. LP was measured using the thiobarbituric acid reaction method (TBARS) and the total superoxide dismutase (t-SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymatic activities were assessed. The experimental diet significantly reduced the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels of SN phospholipids in the F1 (~28%) and F2 (~50%) groups. In F1 adult animals of the experimental group there was no LP in both SN and CS. Consistently, there was a significant increase in the t-SOD activity (p < 0.01) in both regions. In EF2 young animals, degeneration in dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neurons and a significant increase in LP (p < 0.01) and decrease in the CAT activity (p < 0.001) were detected in the SN, while no inter-group difference was found for these parameters in the CS. Conversely, a significant increase in t-SOD activity (p < 0.05) was detected in the CS of the experimental group compared to the control. The results show that unbalanced EFA dietary levels reduce the redox balance in the SN and reveal mechanisms of resilience in the CS under this stressful condition. PMID

  7. Decreased training volume and increased carbohydrate intake increases oxidized LDL levels.

    PubMed

    Välimäki, I A; Vuorimaa, T; Ahotupa, M; Kekkonen, R; Korpela, R; Vasankari, T

    2012-04-01

    We studied effects of probiotics and training volume on oxidized LDL lipids (ox-LDL), serum antioxidant potential (s-TRAP) and serum antioxidants (s-α-tocopherol, s-γ-tocopherol, s-retinol, s-β-carotene and s-ubiquinone-10) in marathon runners during 3-months training period, 6-days preparation period and marathon run. Runners (n=127) were recruited for a randomized, double-blind intervention during which they received either Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG, probiotic group) or placebo drink (placebo group) during whole study. During the preparation period, subjects decreased training and increased carbohydrate intake. Blood samples were taken at baseline, before 6-days preparation, before and immediately after the marathon. Probiotics did not have any effect on ox-LDL, s-TRAP or serum antioxidants levels during the study. Interestingly, ox-LDL increased by 28% and 33% during the preparation period and decreased by 16% and 19% during the marathon run in the placebo and probiotic groups, respectively (in all, P<0.001). No changes were seen in s-TRAP before marathon, but during run s-TRAP raised by 16% in both groups (both, P<0.001). The increase of ox-LDL level during the preparative period after several months' training suggests that aerobic training may reduce the concentration of ox-LDL and that decrease of training together with increased energy intake, mainly carbohydrate, before marathon is capable of increasing the level of ox-LDL.

  8. Levels of Oxidized LDL, Estrogens, and Progesterone in Placenta Tissues and Serum Paraoxonase Activity in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Açıkgöz, Şerefden; Özmen Bayar, Ülkü; Can, Murat; Güven, Berrak; Mungan, Görkem; Doğan, Suat; Sümbüloğlu, Vildan

    2013-01-01

    In vitro literature studies have suggested that atherosclerotic oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) inhibits trophoblast invasion. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of OxLDL and to examine the relationship between antioxidative estradiol, estriol, and prooxidative progestin in normal and preeclamptic placental tissues and measure the serum activity of antioxidative paraoxonase (PON1). The study included 30 preeclamptic and 32 normal pregnant women. OxLDL was determined with ELISA, estradiol, unconjugated estriol, and progesterone that were determined with chemiluminescence method in placental tissues. Serum PON1 activity was determined with spectrophotometric method. Levels of OxLDL (P = 0.027), estriol (P < 0.001), estradiol (P = 0.008), and progesterone (P = 0.009) were lower in the placental tissues of preeclamptic group compared to the normal pregnant women. Serum PON1 activity was higher in preeclamptic group (P = 0.040) and preeclamptic group without intrauterine growth restriction (P = 0.008) compared to normal pregnant women. Tissue estriol of preeclamptic group without/with IUGR (P < 0.001, P = 0.002) was lower than the normal group. Results of our study suggest that the events leading to fetoplacental insufficiency lead to a reduction in the levels of estriol limit deposition of OxLDL in placental tissues. The serum PON1 activity is probably important in the inhibition of OxLDL in preeclampsia. PMID:23606795

  9. Fasting substrate oxidation at rest assessed by indirect calorimetry: is prior dietary macronutrient level and composition a confounder?

    PubMed

    Miles-Chan, J L; Dulloo, A G; Schutz, Y

    2015-07-01

    Indirect calorimetry, the measurement of O₂ consumption and CO₂ production, constitutes an invaluable tool as the most common method for analyzing whole-body energy expenditure, and also provides an index of the nature of macronutrient substrate oxidation--namely, carbohydrate (CHO) versus fat oxidation. The latter constitutes a key etiological factor in obesity as this condition can only develop when total fat oxidation is chronically lower than total exogenous fat intake. The standardization of indirect calorimetry measurements is essential for accurately tracking the relative proportion of energy expenditure derived from CHO and fat oxidation. Here we analyze literature data to show that the average fasting respiratory quotient typically shifts from approximately 0.80 to 0.90 (indicating a doubling of resting CHO oxidation) in response to a switch in dietary CHO intake (as % energy) from 30 to 60%. This underscores the importance of taking into account dietary macronutrient composition prior to indirect calorimetry studies in the interpretation of data on substrate utilization and oxidation.

  10. Nitric Oxide Mitigates Salt Stress by Regulating Levels of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Abdel Latef, Arafat A.; Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Gucel, Salih; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. SNAP (50 μM) was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt stress-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosyntheses of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system. PMID:27066020

  11. Nitric Oxide Mitigates Salt Stress by Regulating Levels of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Chickpea.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Abdel Latef, Arafat A; Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, Elsayed F; Gucel, Salih; Tran, Lam-Son P

    2016-01-01

    This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. SNAP (50 μM) was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt stress-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosyntheses of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system. PMID:27066020

  12. (−)-EPICATECHIN IMPROVES MITOCHONDRIAL RELATED PROTEIN LEVELS AND AMELIORATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN DYSTROPHIC DELTA SARCOGLYCAN NULL MOUSE STRIATED MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; De los Santos, Sergio; Gonzalez-Basurto, Silvia; Canto, Patricia; Mendoza-Lorenzo, Patricia; Palma-Flores, Carlos; Ceballos-Reyes, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Coral-Vazquez, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MD) are a group of heterogeneous genetic disorders characterized by progressive striated muscle wasting and degeneration. Although the genetic basis for many of these disorders has been identified, the exact mechanism for disease pathogenesis remains unclear. The presence of oxidative stress (OS) is known to contribute to the pathophysiology and severity of the MD. Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in MD and likely represents an important determinant of increased OS. Experimental antioxidant therapies have been implemented with the aim of protecting against disease progression, but results from clinical trials have been disappointing. In this study, we explored the capacity of the cacao flavonoid (−)-epicatechin (Epi) to mitigate OS by acting as a positive regulator of mitochondrial structure/function endpoints and redox balance control systems in skeletal and cardiac muscles of dystrophic, δ-sarcoglycan (δ-SG) null mice. Wild type or δ-SG null 2.5 month old male mice were treated via oral gavage with either water (control animals) or Epi (1 mg/kg, twice/day) for 2 weeks. Results evidence a significant normalization of total protein carbonylation, recovery of reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio) and enhanced superoxide dismutase 2, catalase and citrate synthase activities with Epi treatment. These effects were accompanied by increases in protein levels for thiolredoxin, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase 2, catalase and mitochondrial endpoints. Furthermore, we evidence decreases in heart and skeletal muscle fibrosis, accompanied with an improvement in skeletal muscle function with treatment. These results warrant the further investigation of Epi as a potential therapeutic agent to mitigate MD associated muscle degeneration. PMID:25284161

  13. (-)-Epicatechin improves mitochondrial-related protein levels and ameliorates oxidative stress in dystrophic δ-sarcoglycan null mouse striated muscle.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; De los Santos, Sergio; Gonzalez-Basurto, Silvia; Canto, Patricia; Mendoza-Lorenzo, Patricia; Palma-Flores, Carlos; Ceballos-Reyes, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Coral-Vazquez, Ramon

    2014-12-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a group of heterogeneous genetic disorders characterized by progressive striated muscle wasting and degeneration. Although the genetic basis for many of these disorders has been identified, the exact mechanism of disease pathogenesis remains unclear. The presence of oxidative stress (OS) is known to contribute to the pathophysiology and severity of the MD. Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in MD, and probably represents an important determinant of increased OS. Experimental antioxidant therapies have been implemented with the aim of protecting against disease progression, but results from clinical trials have been disappointing. In this study, we explored the capacity of the cacao flavonoid (-)-epicatechin (Epi) to mitigate OS by acting as a positive regulator of mitochondrial structure/function endpoints and redox balance control systems in skeletal and cardiac muscles of dystrophic, δ-sarcoglycan (δ-SG) null mice. Wild-type or δ-SG null 2.5-month-old male mice were treated via oral gavage with either water (controls) or Epi (1 mg·kg(-1) , twice daily) for 2 weeks. The results showed significant normalization of total protein carbonylation, recovery of the glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio and enhanced superoxide dismutase 2, catalase and citrate synthase activities with Epi treatment. These effects were accompanied by increases in the protein levels of thioredoxin, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase 2, catalase, and mitochondrial endpoints. Furthermore, we found decreases in heart and skeletal muscle fibrosis, accompanied by an improvement in skeletal muscle function, with treatment. These results warrant further investigation of Epi as a potential therapeutic agent to mitigate MD-associated muscle degeneration. PMID:25284161

  14. Extra-intestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: related to high total IgE levels and atopic sensitization?

    PubMed

    Vara, Ellen Johanne; Valeur, Jørgen; Hausken, Trygve; Lied, Gülen Arslan

    2016-08-01

    Objective We have previously found that high levels of total IgE, but not atopic sensitization, was a significant predictor for functional gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of extra-intestinal symptoms in IBS patients, and explore their relation to total IgE levels and atopic sensitization. Materials and methods Seventy-one patients with functional GI complaints were included. Severity of GI symptoms, fatigue and musculoskeletal pain was evaluated using the following questionnaires: IBS-Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS), Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS), FibroFatigue Scale (FFS), and Visual Analog Scales (VAS) for musculoskeletal pain. Levels of total IgE and specific IgE-antibodies were analyzed. Results Fatigue and musculoskeletal pain were demonstrated in 78.9 and 43.7% of the patients, respectively. IBS-SSS scores were significantly correlated with fatigue scores and musculoskeletal pain. Patients with fatigue and musculoskeletal pain had significantly higher IBS-SSS scores than patients without fatigue and musculoskeletal pain. Total IgE levels were significantly higher in IBS patients compared to a healthy control group from a previous study. However, neither total IgE nor atopic sensitization was significantly associated with extra-intestinal symptoms. Conclusions IBS, fatigue, and musculoskeletal pain were significantly associated. Total IgE levels were higher in IBS patients than healthy controls, but not related to intestinal or extra-intestinal symptom severity. Atopy was not associated with any of the co-morbidities. Thus, the clinical significance of high IgE levels in IBS remains unclear and further studies are warranted to explore a common underlying mechanism for the co-morbid triad of IBS, fatigue, and musculoskeletal pain.

  15. Level of anxiety versus self-care in the preoperative and postoperative periods of total laryngectomy patients 1

    PubMed Central

    Almonacid, Clara Inés Flórez; Ramos, Alfredo Jurado; Rodríguez-Borrego, María-Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: estimate the prevalence of anxiety in laryngectomy patients in the pre and postoperative periods and its relation with the self-care level. Method: observational research of 40 patients with stage IV laryngeal cancer. Three observations took place: in the preoperative phase, at seven and at 14 days after the surgery; between June 2010 and December 2012. Two self-care levels were defined: self-sufficient and needing help for activities of daily living and treatment-related activities. To assess the anxiety levels, Zigmond's hospital anxiety scale (1983) was used. Results: in the preoperative and postoperative phases, the patients presented high levels of anxiety. Concerning self-care, on average, self-sufficient patients presented lower levels of anxiety than patients who needed help to accomplish activities of daily living and activities deriving from the surgery, without significant differences. Conclusion: anxiety is present at all times in laryngectomy patients and the reduction of the self-care deficit seems to decrease it, without putting a permanent end to it. PMID:27305181

  16. Effect of oxygen level on the oxidative stability of two different retail pork products stored using modified atmosphere packaging (MAP).

    PubMed

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Tørngren, Mari Ann; Christensen, Mette; Baron, Caroline P

    2016-03-01

    The characteristics and the oxidative stability of pork steaks and of pork mince were investigated during 2, 5 and 7days of refrigerated storage using oxygen (O2) levels of 0%, 20%, 50% and 80% in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Steaks stored during 7days were not affected by an increase in O2 concentration, as revealed by lipid and protein oxidation markers. In contrast, the mince was characterised by an altered protein profile, loss of free thiol groups and increased protein oxidation, early during storage. The oxidative stability of pork mince was improved by using intermediate (50%) O2 MAP. The results show that fresh pork products are affected differently by the MAP O2 concentration and strongly indicate that optimisation of MAP based on the retail product type would be of considerable benefit to their oxidative stability.

  17. Effect of oxygen level on the oxidative stability of two different retail pork products stored using modified atmosphere packaging (MAP).

    PubMed

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Tørngren, Mari Ann; Christensen, Mette; Baron, Caroline P

    2016-03-01

    The characteristics and the oxidative stability of pork steaks and of pork mince were investigated during 2, 5 and 7days of refrigerated storage using oxygen (O2) levels of 0%, 20%, 50% and 80% in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Steaks stored during 7days were not affected by an increase in O2 concentration, as revealed by lipid and protein oxidation markers. In contrast, the mince was characterised by an altered protein profile, loss of free thiol groups and increased protein oxidation, early during storage. The oxidative stability of pork mince was improved by using intermediate (50%) O2 MAP. The results show that fresh pork products are affected differently by the MAP O2 concentration and strongly indicate that optimisation of MAP based on the retail product type would be of considerable benefit to their oxidative stability. PMID:26658011

  18. Levels of total mercury in different fish species and sediments from the Upper Volta Basin at Yeji in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kwaansa-Ansah, E E; Agorku, S E; Nriagu, J O

    2011-04-01

    In this study, total mercury concentrations were determined in sediments and seven different fish species from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji in Ghana. Mercury concentrations found ranged from 44.17 to 85.88 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis gambiesis, from 11.25 to 79.73 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis membranaceus, from 13.11 to 38.64 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis ocellifer, from 16.39 to 25.82 ng/g wet weight for Distishodus rotratus, from 40.80 to 90.30 ng/g wet weight for Bagrus docmac, from 10.48 to 61.90 ng/g wet weight for Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and from 12.33 to 24.18 ng/g wet weight for Gnathoneus senegalensis. These values are below the 500 ng/g guideline recommended by the WHO/FAO, implying that fish from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji are safe for human consumption. Good correlation was observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight (R(2) = 0.6067) and total length (R(2) = 0.8754) for Gnathonemus senegalensis. However, poor correlations were observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight and total length for the other six species. Mercury in sediments ranged from 11.87 to 70.25 ng/g dry weights with a mean of 41.60 ng/g dry weight being below the IAEA threshold of 810 ng/g.. These values show that sections of the Upper Volta River remain relatively clean in spite of substantial loadings of mercury into the river's basin from gold mining activities. PMID:21318735

  19. Levels of total mercury in different fish species and sediments from the Upper Volta Basin at Yeji in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kwaansa-Ansah, E E; Agorku, S E; Nriagu, J O

    2011-04-01

    In this study, total mercury concentrations were determined in sediments and seven different fish species from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji in Ghana. Mercury concentrations found ranged from 44.17 to 85.88 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis gambiesis, from 11.25 to 79.73 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis membranaceus, from 13.11 to 38.64 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis ocellifer, from 16.39 to 25.82 ng/g wet weight for Distishodus rotratus, from 40.80 to 90.30 ng/g wet weight for Bagrus docmac, from 10.48 to 61.90 ng/g wet weight for Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and from 12.33 to 24.18 ng/g wet weight for Gnathoneus senegalensis. These values are below the 500 ng/g guideline recommended by the WHO/FAO, implying that fish from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji are safe for human consumption. Good correlation was observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight (R(2) = 0.6067) and total length (R(2) = 0.8754) for Gnathonemus senegalensis. However, poor correlations were observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight and total length for the other six species. Mercury in sediments ranged from 11.87 to 70.25 ng/g dry weights with a mean of 41.60 ng/g dry weight being below the IAEA threshold of 810 ng/g.. These values show that sections of the Upper Volta River remain relatively clean in spite of substantial loadings of mercury into the river's basin from gold mining activities.

  20. Plasma nitric oxide level in familial Mediterranean fever and its modulations by Immuno-Guard.

    PubMed

    Panossian, A; Hambartsumyan, M; Panosyan, L; Abrahamyan, H; Mamikonyan, G; Gabrielyan, E; Amaryan, G; Astvatsatryan, V; Wikman, G

    2003-09-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a recessively inherited inflammatory disorder, characterised by recurrent attacks of fever and serositis. Since nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator of inflammation, the production of NO (assessed as the accumulation of nitrate and nitrite and measured by capillary electrophoresis) in blood plasma of FMF patients during acute attacks (active) and attack-free periods (inactive) of the disease has been determined and compared with NO levels found in healthy volunteers (control group C). Thirty-six FMF patients were involved in a placebo-controlled double-blind study (group A received the drug, group B the placebo) of the effects of Immuno-Guard, a novel herbal preparation which relieves the severity and longevity of FMF attacks on NO blood levels. Thirty-two FMF patients (group D) being permanently treated with colchicine were also examined with respect to their NO blood level. No significant differences were found between the NO levels in blood of inactive FMF patients and those of control group C, or between inactive colchicine-treated group D patients and inactive patients of groups A and B, a finding which is atypical for chronic inflammatory disorders. Significantly lower plasma NO levels were found in active FMF patients in groups A and B compared with inactive patients in those groups (p=0.031 and 0.036, respectively) and with patients of group D and the control group C (p=0.0235 and 0.0453, respectively). The decrease of NO in blood of FMF patients may trigger the generation of fever by initiating the production of pro-inflammatory IL-6. Plasma NO levels in inactive FMF patients were significantly increased during attack-free periods following treatment with Immuno-Guard. The preparation has a normalising effect both on NO and IL-6 blood levels in FMF patients during attacks, demonstrating a relationship between the beneficial effect of Immuno-Guard in reducing the severity of inflammatory attacks in FMF patients

  1. Portal pressure and blood nitric oxide levels as predictors of outcome in biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Vikram; Bhatnagar, Veereshwar; Agarwala, Sandeep; Srinivas, Maddur; Das, Nibhriti; Singh, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the incidence of portal hypertension (PHT) in biliary atresia (BA) patients and to monitor its progress after Kasai portoenterostomy (KP) by measuring nitric oxide (NO) levels in peripheral blood. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study conducted over a period of 2 years. Intraoperative portal pressure (PP) and blood NO levels at presentation, 1-month, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up, were correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters in BA patients. The mean NO level in age-matched control group was 4.64 ± 2.32 μmol/L. Results: Thirty-four BA patients underwent KP over a period of 2 years. The mean age of presentation was 2.7 months (range 1-4 months). The mean intraoperative PP was 21.3 ± 5.4 mmHg. The mean PP in patients aged <60 days, 61–90 days, and >90 days was 18.53 ± 4.45 mmHg, 20.33 ± 3.07 mmHg, and 26.5 ± 5.01 mmHg, respectively. The mean PP in the patients who underwent successful KP was 16.75 ± 3.54 mmHg while for those who continued to have jaundice it was 23.94 ± 4.63 mmHg (P < 0.001). NO levels closely followed the PP as shown by the regression equation NO = 4.79 + 0.64 PP mmHg, R2 = 0.69. The mean NO level at presentation was 18.48 ± 4.17 μmol/L and at 1-month, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up was 11.94 ± 5.62 μmol/L, 10.79 ± 6.02 μmol/L, and 9.93 ± 6.53 μmol/L, respectively (P < 0.001). The difference in NO levels was also statistically significant between the patients who cleared jaundice and those with persisting jaundice. Conclusion: All BA patients had PHT at presentation. PHT worsens with age and has an adverse effect on outcome of KP. NO levels in blood closely follow PP and higher levels are associated with poor outcome. PMID:27046973

  2. [Examination of the oral cavities of patients with cancer: clinical evaluation and indirect measurement of the nitric oxide level].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Emilia Campos; Cárnio, Evelin Capellari; Khouri, Vivian Youssef; Guilherme, Caroline; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita; Pace, Mariangela Aparecida

    2013-02-01

    This observational study aimed to verify the association between the clinical state of the oral cavity (based on the Index of Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index) and the indirectly determined nitric oxide level in patients with oncologic and hematologic diseases. This study included 20 hospitalized patients who were in the evaluation phase prior to starting chemotherapy and who had been diagnosed with leukemia (35%), lymphoma (50%) or myeloma (15%). Fifty percent of these patients had normal oral health (no injury or trauma), and most had satisfactory (35%) or typical (35%) hygiene, but 30% had poor or very poor hygiene. The indirectly measured levels of nitric oxide ranged from 13.34 to 257. The nitric oxide level was not associated with other parameters, and there was great variability in its level. Further studies are necessary given the potential of using this indicator in the early detection of oral diseases.

  3. Oleic acid-dependent modulation of Nitric oxide associated 1 protein levels regulates nitric oxide-mediated defense signaling in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conserved cellular metabolites nitric oxide (NO) and oleic acid (18:1) are well-known regulators of disease physiologies in diverse organism. We show that NO production in plants is regulated via 18:1. Reduction in 18:1 levels, via a genetic mutation in the 18:1-synthesizing gene SUPPRESSOR OF S...

  4. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved.

  5. Serum levels of BMP-2, 4, 7 and AHSG in patients with degenerative joint disease requiring total arthroplasty of the hip and temporomandibular joints.

    PubMed

    Albilia, Jonathan B; Tenenbaum, Howard C; Clokie, Cameron M L; Walt, David R; Baker, Gerald I; Psutka, David J; Backstein, David; Peel, Sean A F

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no objective or reliable means of assessing the severity of degenerative joint disease (DJD) and need for joint replacement surgery. Hence, it is difficult to know when an individual with DJD has reached a point where total arthroplasty is indicated. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether serum levels of Alpha-2 HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) as well as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2, 4, 7) can be used to predict the presence of severe DJD of the hip and/or temporomandibular joint (TMJ) (specifically: joints that require replacement). A total of 30 patients scheduled for arthroplasty (diseased) (15 HIP, 15 TMJ) and 120 age-matched controls (healthy/non-diseased) were included. Blood samples were collected from all patients ≥8 weeks after the last arthroplasty. Concentrations of serum analytes were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and these were compared between the Diseased and Healthy groups, utilizing the Mann-Whitney U-test. Patients with disease had significantly higher levels of BMP-2 and BMP-4 and lower levels of AHSG in serum compared to non-diseased humans (p < 0.01). Higher levels of BMP-2, 4 and reduced levels of AHSG appear to characterize patients who have DJD that is severe enough to require total joint replacement. Perhaps measurements of these proteins can be used to make objective decisions regarding the need for total arthroplasty as opposed to the current subjective approaches.

  6. Effect of different curcuminoid supplement dosages on total in vivo antioxidant capacity and cholesterol levels of healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Pungcharoenkul, Kanit; Thongnopnua, Phensri

    2011-11-01

    The impact of consuming curcuminoids containing curcumin at 500 mg/day and 6 g/day for 7 days on plasma antioxidant capacity and serum cholesterol level were determined by using vitamin E 200 IU/day consumption as a comparison. Group A and group B subjects consumed 500 mg and 6 g curcumin, respectively, but group C subjects consumed vitamin E 200 IU. By using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, it was found that plasma antioxidant capacity of group A rose from a baseline of 13% to 24% on day 1 and day 7, as against a 19-20% increase for group B. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased after curcumin treatment at 500 mg/day. By consuming vitamin E, both ORAC values and plasma α-tocopherol concentrations were significantly increased, but only very slight responses on serum cholesterol or triglyceride levels were observed. It is therefore suggested that curcumin supplement would not be appropriate for healthy people except for reducing serum cholesterol or triglyceride levels. The dosage of a daily curcumin supplement at 500 mg is more effective than 6 g, although vitamin E is also considered to be an effective antioxidant supplement.

  7. Evaluation of salivary nitric oxide level in children with early childhood caries

    PubMed Central

    Senthil Eagappan, AR; Rao, V. Arun Prasad; Sujatha, S.; Senthil, D.; Sathiyajeeva, J.; Rajaraman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nitric oxide (NO), a highly reactive radical, participates in the nonspecific natural defense mechanism of the oral cavity. The present study was attempted to evaluate the salivary NO levels in 4–5 year-old children with early childhood caries (ECC). The objective of the present study was to assess the salivary NO concentration in children with different caries activity. Materials and Methods: The study included 120 healthy 4.5 year-old children and they were equally divided into three groups based on decayed, missing, filled surfaces (dmfs) score; forty caries-free children (control group), forty children with dmfs 1.5 (ECC group), and forty with dmfs ⩾6 (severe ECC group). Saliva collected was measured for NO concentration by Griess reaction method. The obtained data were analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The mean level of NO in the saliva of the control group was 51.2 ± 8.3457 and that of ECC and severe ECC were 47.1 ± 5.2614 and 33.625 ± 4.6942, respectively. The mean salivary NO concentration was significantly higher in healthy controls when compared to children with ECC and severe ECC. Moreover, a negative correlation (r = −0.6658) was observed between the salivary NO level and the mean dmfs, suggesting that as the salivary NO level decreases, the caries incidence increases. Conclusion: The obtained results support the antimicrobial activity of salivary NO and also suggest that an increase in NO production might contribute to lower the caries occurrence in children. PMID:27605992

  8. Evaluation of salivary nitric oxide level in children with early childhood caries

    PubMed Central

    Senthil Eagappan, AR; Rao, V. Arun Prasad; Sujatha, S.; Senthil, D.; Sathiyajeeva, J.; Rajaraman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nitric oxide (NO), a highly reactive radical, participates in the nonspecific natural defense mechanism of the oral cavity. The present study was attempted to evaluate the salivary NO levels in 4–5 year-old children with early childhood caries (ECC). The objective of the present study was to assess the salivary NO concentration in children with different caries activity. Materials and Methods: The study included 120 healthy 4.5 year-old children and they were equally divided into three groups based on decayed, missing, filled surfaces (dmfs) score; forty caries-free children (control group), forty children with dmfs 1.5 (ECC group), and forty with dmfs ⩾6 (severe ECC group). Saliva collected was measured for NO concentration by Griess reaction method. The obtained data were analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The mean level of NO in the saliva of the control group was 51.2 ± 8.3457 and that of ECC and severe ECC were 47.1 ± 5.2614 and 33.625 ± 4.6942, respectively. The mean salivary NO concentration was significantly higher in healthy controls when compared to children with ECC and severe ECC. Moreover, a negative correlation (r = −0.6658) was observed between the salivary NO level and the mean dmfs, suggesting that as the salivary NO level decreases, the caries incidence increases. Conclusion: The obtained results support the antimicrobial activity of salivary NO and also suggest that an increase in NO production might contribute to lower the caries occurrence in children.

  9. Telomere protein RAP1 levels are affected by cellular aging and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Mark J.; Baribault, Michelle E.; Israel, Joanna N.; Bae, Nancy S.

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are important for maintaining the integrity of the genome through the action of the shelterin complex. Previous studies indicted that the length of the telomere did not have an effect on the amount of the shelterin subunits; however, those experiments were performed using immortalized cells with stable telomere lengths. The interest of the present study was to observe how decreasing telomere lengths over successive generations would affect the shelterin subunits. As neonatal human dermal fibroblasts aged and their telomeres became shorter, the levels of the telomere-binding protein telomeric repeat factor 2 (TRF2) decreased significantly. By contrast, the levels of one of its binding partners, repressor/activator protein 1 (RAP1), decreased to a lesser extent than would be expected from the decrease in TRF2. Other subunits, TERF1-interacting nuclear factor 2 and protection of telomeres protein 1, remained stable. The decrease in RAP1 in the older cells occurred in the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stress was used as an artificial means of aging in the cells, and this resulted in RAP1 levels decreasing, but the effect was only observed in the nuclear portion. Similar results were obtained using U251 glioblastoma cells treated with H2O2 or grown in serum-depleted medium. The present findings indicate that TRF2 and RAP1 levels decrease as fibroblasts naturally age. RAP1 remains more stable compared to TRF2. RAP1 also responds to oxidative stress, but the response is different to that observed in aging. PMID:27446538

  10. Total joint replacement: A multiple risk factor analysis of physical activity level 1–2 years postoperatively

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Andy; Love, Rebecca M; Barber, Thomas C; Sheth, Dhiren S; Inacio, Maria C S

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — The effect of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) on physical activity is not fully understood. We investigated the change in physical activity after TJA and patient factors associated with change. Patients and methods — Using a total joint replacement registry, primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients (n = 5,678) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients (n = 11,084) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012 were identified. Median age at THA was 68 and median age at TKA was 67. Change in self-reported physical activity (minutes per week) from before TJA (within 1 year of surgery) to after TJA (1–2 years) was the outcome of interest. Patient demographics and comorbidities were evaluated as risk factors. Multiple linear regression was used. Results — Median physical activity before surgery was 50 min/week (IQR: 0–140) for THA patients and 58 (IQR: 3–143) for TKA patients. Median physical activity after surgery was 150 min/week (IQR: 60–280) for both THA patients and TKA patients. Following TJA, 50% of patients met CDC/WHO physical activity guideline criteria. Higher body mass index was associated with lower change in physical activity (THA: −7.1 min/week; TKA: −5.9 min/week). Females had lower change than males (THA: −11 min/week; TKA: −9.1 min/week). In TKA patients, renal failure was associated with lower change (−17 min/week), as were neurological disorders (−30 min/week). Interpretation — Self-reported minutes of physical activity increased from before to after TJA, but 50% of TJA patients did not meet recommended physical activity guideline criteria. Higher body mass index, female sex, and specific comorbidities were found to be associated with low change in physical activity. Patient education on the benefits of physical activity should concentrate on these subgroups of patients. PMID:27299567

  11. Sustained delivery of exogenous melatonin influences biomarkers of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in summer-stressed anestrous water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Mehrotra, S; Singh, G; Narayanan, K; Das, G K; Soni, Y K; Singh, Mahak; Mahla, A S; Srivastava, N; Verma, M R

    2015-06-01

    High ambient temperature during summer in tropical and subtropical countries predisposes water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) to develop oxidative stress having antigonadotropic and antisteroidogenic actions. Melatonin is a regulator of seasonal reproduction in photoperiodic species and highly effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, a study was designed to evaluate the effect of sustained-release melatonin on biomarkers of oxidative stress i.e., the serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). For the study, postpartum buffaloes diagnosed as summer anestrus (absence of overt signs of estrus, concurrent rectal examination, and RIA for serum progesterone) were grouped as treated (single subcutaneous injection of melatonin at 18 mg/50 kg body weight dissolved in sterilized corn oil as vehicle, n = 20) and untreated (subcutaneous sterilized corn oil, n = 8). Blood sampling for estimation of serum TAC and MDA (mmol/L) and NO (μmol/L) was carried out at 4 days of interval from 8 days before treatment till 28 days after treatment or for the ensuing entire cycle length. Results showed serum TAC concentration was higher in the treatment group with a significant (P < 0.05) increasing trend, whereas MDA and NO revealed a significant (P < 0.05) decline. Serum MDA and NO were higher in control compared with those of treatment group. Moreover, buffaloes in the treatment group showed 90% estrus induction with 18.06 ± 1.57 days mean interval from treatment to the onset of estrus. These results report that melatonin has a protective effect by elevating antioxidant status and reducing oxidative stress resulting in the induction of cyclicity in summer-stressed anestrous buffaloes.

  12. Headspace-liquid phase microextraction for attenuated total reflection infrared determination of volatile organic compounds at trace levels.

    PubMed

    Gonzálvez, Ana; Garrigues, Salvador; Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2010-04-01

    A combination of headspace (HS) sampling and liquid phase microextraction (LPME) has been successfully developed to solve sensitivity problems in attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The HS sampling facilitates the selective extraction of the target volatile analytes from the sample matrix, while the liquid phase microextraction allows their preconcentration prior to infrared analysis. The direct determination of extracted analytes in the acceptor solvent provides high preconcentration factors of the order of 200 with a reduced consumption of organic solvents and a minimum generation of wastes, being thus the developed methodology a green alternative method. The qualitative and quantitative capability of the proposed approach has been evaluated on the basis of two different examples: (i) screening of benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) compounds in soil samples and (ii) quantitative determination of toluene in cosmetic nail products.

  13. Low Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Levels Associate with Prediabetes in Chinese Men Independent of Total Testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Zhu, Chunfang; Chen, Yingchao; Xia, Fangzhen; Cang, Zhen; Lu, Meng; Chen, Chi; Lin, Dongping; Lu, Yingli

    2016-01-01

    Objective The association ns between prediabetes and androgens have been rarely reported, especially in Chinese men. We aimed to investigate whether androgens were associated with the prevalence of prediabetes diagnosed with new American Diabetes Association criteria in Chinese men and then to assess which androgen value was the most relevant factor. Methods A total of 2654 men (52.6±13.4 years old) were selected. Serum total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and free testosterone (FT) were measured. Covariance analysis of different androgen values were performed in age subgroups. Multinomial logistic regression was used for the association of TT, SHBG and FT with prediabetes and diabetes, as well as prediabetes in age subgroups. Results According to ADA new criteria, normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes were diagnosed in 1405, 907 and 342 men, respectively. In covariance analysis, SHBG of prediabetes were found lower than that of normoglycemia but higher than that of diabetes (P <0.05). In multinomial logistic regression, serum TT and SHBG were inversely associated with prediabetes and diabetes. While, after full adjustment for age, residence area, economic status, waist circumference, metabolic factors, other two androgen values and HOMA-IR, only the associations of SHBG with prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes persisted statistically significant, especially in the elderly with prediabetes (all P for trend <0.05). Conclusions Serum androgen was inversely associated with prediabetes and diabetes in Chinese men. Low serum SHBG was the most relevant factor for prediabetes and diabetes. Whether it is an independent predictor for incident prediabetes in Chinese men needs further explorations. PMID:27583401

  14. Stoichiometry of mitochondrial H+ translocation coupled to succinate oxidation at level flow.

    PubMed

    Costa, L E; Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L

    1984-04-25

    The mechanistic stoichiometry of vectorial H+ translocation coupled to succinate oxidation by rat liver mitochondria in the presence of a permeant cation has been determined under level flow conditions with a membraneless fast responding O2 electrode kinetically matched with a glass pH electrode. The reactions were initiated by rapid injection of O2 into the anaerobically preincubated test system under conditions in which interfering H+ backflow was minimized. The rates of O2 uptake and H+ ejection, obtained from computer-fitted regression lines, were monotonic and first order over 75% of the course of O2 consumption. Extrapolation of the observed rates to zero time, at which zero delta mu H+ and thus level flow prevails, yielded vectorial H+/O flow ratios above 7 and closely approaching 8. The mitochondria undergo no irreversible change and give identical H+/O ratios on repeated tests. In a further refinement, the lower and upper limits of the mechanistic H+/O ratio were determined to be 7.55 and 8.56, respectively, from plots of the rates of O2 uptake versus H+ ejection at increasing malonate and increasing valinomycin concentrations, respectively. It is therefore concluded that the mechanistic H+/O ratio for energy-conserving sites 2 + 3 is 8, in confirmation of earlier measurements. KCl concentration is critical for maximal observed H+/O ratios. Optimum conditions and possible errors in determination of mechanistic H+/O translocation ratios are discussed.

  15. Effect of Betula pendula Leaf Extract on α-Glucosidase and Glutathione Level in Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bljajić, Kristina; Šoštarić, Nina; Petlevski, Roberta; Vujić, Lovorka; Brajković, Andrea; Fumić, Barbara; de Carvalho, Isabel Saraiva

    2016-01-01

    B. pendula leaf is a common ingredient in traditional herbal combinations for treatment of diabetes in southeastern Europe. Present study investigated B. pendula ethanolic and aqueous extract as inhibitors of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, as well as their ability to restore glutathione concentration in Hep G2 cells subjected to glucose-induced oxidative stress. Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of rutin and other quercetin derivatives, as well as chlorogenic acid. In general, ethanolic extract was richer in phenolic substances than the aqueous extract. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of antioxidant activity of two extracts (determined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, and chelating activity as well as ferric-reducing antioxidant power) has shown that ethanolic extract was better radical scavenger and metal ion reductant. In addition, ethanolic extract effectively increased cellular glutathione levels caused by hyperglycemia and inhibited α-glucosidase with the activity comparable to that of acarbose. Therefore, in vitro research using B. pendula plant extracts has confirmed their antidiabetic properties.

  16. Effect of Betula pendula Leaf Extract on α-Glucosidase and Glutathione Level in Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bljajić, Kristina; Šoštarić, Nina; Petlevski, Roberta; Vujić, Lovorka; Brajković, Andrea; Fumić, Barbara; de Carvalho, Isabel Saraiva

    2016-01-01

    B. pendula leaf is a common ingredient in traditional herbal combinations for treatment of diabetes in southeastern Europe. Present study investigated B. pendula ethanolic and aqueous extract as inhibitors of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, as well as their ability to restore glutathione concentration in Hep G2 cells subjected to glucose-induced oxidative stress. Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of rutin and other quercetin derivatives, as well as chlorogenic acid. In general, ethanolic extract was richer in phenolic substances than the aqueous extract. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of antioxidant activity of two extracts (determined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, and chelating activity as well as ferric-reducing antioxidant power) has shown that ethanolic extract was better radical scavenger and metal ion reductant. In addition, ethanolic extract effectively increased cellular glutathione levels caused by hyperglycemia and inhibited α-glucosidase with the activity comparable to that of acarbose. Therefore, in vitro research using B. pendula plant extracts has confirmed their antidiabetic properties. PMID:27668005

  17. Carbon Monoxide, Nitric Oxide, and Nitrogen Dioxide Levels in Gas Ovens Related to Surface Pinking of Cooked Beef and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cornforth; Rabovitser; Ahuja; Wagner; Hanson; Cummings; Chudnovsky

    1998-01-19

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and total nitrogen oxide (NO(x)()) levels were monitored during meat cookery with a standard Ovenpak and a new ultralow-NO(x)() (ULN) cyclonic gas burner. With the standard burner, CO varied from 103 to 152 ppm, NO(x)() was 1.3-10.7 ppm, and surface pinking was observed on both beef and turkey. The ULN burner at optimal efficiency produced only 6.7 ppm of CO and 1 ppm of NO(x)(), insufficient to cause surface pinking. To determine the relative contribution of CO and NO(x)() to pinking, trials were also conducted in an electric oven with various pure gases. Pinking was not observed with up to 149 ppm of CO or 5 ppm of NO. However, as little as 0.4 ppm of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) caused pinking of turkey rolls. Beef roasts were pink at >2.5 ppm of NO(2). Thus, pinking previously attributed to CO and NO in gas ovens is instead due to NO(2), which has much greater reactivity than NO with moisture at meat surfaces. PMID:10554228

  18. Effect of Betula pendula Leaf Extract on α-Glucosidase and Glutathione Level in Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Bljajić, Kristina; Šoštarić, Nina; Petlevski, Roberta; Vujić, Lovorka; Brajković, Andrea; Fumić, Barbara; de Carvalho, Isabel Saraiva; Končić, Marijana Zovko

    2016-01-01

    B. pendula leaf is a common ingredient in traditional herbal combinations for treatment of diabetes in southeastern Europe. Present study investigated B. pendula ethanolic and aqueous extract as inhibitors of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, as well as their ability to restore glutathione concentration in Hep G2 cells subjected to glucose-induced oxidative stress. Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of rutin and other quercetin derivatives, as well as chlorogenic acid. In general, ethanolic extract was richer in phenolic substances than the aqueous extract. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of antioxidant activity of two extracts (determined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, and chelating activity as well as ferric-reducing antioxidant power) has shown that ethanolic extract was better radical scavenger and metal ion reductant. In addition, ethanolic extract effectively increased cellular glutathione levels caused by hyperglycemia and inhibited α-glucosidase with the activity comparable to that of acarbose. Therefore, in vitro research using B. pendula plant extracts has confirmed their antidiabetic properties. PMID:27668005

  19. Effect of Betula pendula Leaf Extract on α-Glucosidase and Glutathione Level in Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Bljajić, Kristina; Šoštarić, Nina; Petlevski, Roberta; Vujić, Lovorka; Brajković, Andrea; Fumić, Barbara; de Carvalho, Isabel Saraiva; Končić, Marijana Zovko

    2016-01-01

    B. pendula leaf is a common ingredient in traditional herbal combinations for treatment of diabetes in southeastern Europe. Present study investigated B. pendula ethanolic and aqueous extract as inhibitors of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, as well as their ability to restore glutathione concentration in Hep G2 cells subjected to glucose-induced oxidative stress. Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of rutin and other quercetin derivatives, as well as chlorogenic acid. In general, ethanolic extract was richer in phenolic substances than the aqueous extract. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of antioxidant activity of two extracts (determined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, and chelating activity as well as ferric-reducing antioxidant power) has shown that ethanolic extract was better radical scavenger and metal ion reductant. In addition, ethanolic extract effectively increased cellular glutathione levels caused by hyperglycemia and inhibited α-glucosidase with the activity comparable to that of acarbose. Therefore, in vitro research using B. pendula plant extracts has confirmed their antidiabetic properties.

  20. Antioxidant activities of cold-nature Tibetan herbs are signifcantly greater than hot-nature ones and are associated with their levels of total phenolic components.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yan-Fang; Li, Ji-Yu; Zheng, Li-Fang; Li, Hong-Yu

    2015-08-01

    Tibetan medicinal plants have been used for more than 2 000 years. In order to find their differences in antioxidant activity, total phenolics and total flavonoids between "hot-nature" and "cold-nature" herbs, we investigated the antioxidant activities of 40 Tibetan herbs from Qinghai plateau, with 20 herbs in cold-nature and 20 herbs in hot-nature. Antioxidant capacities were evaluated by the following methods: scavenging ABTS•(+) (2, 2'azinobis-(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), scavenging O2•(-), and Ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The effects on inhibition of mitochondrion lipid peroxidation were determined by measuring the formation of TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substrates). Total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and NaNO2-Al(NO3)3-NaOH colorimetric methods. Interestingly, the cold-nature herbs displayed higher antioxidant activities than the hot-nature ones, corresponding to nearly three-fold higher total phenolic contents in the cold-nature herbs. Moreover, the antioxidant activities correlated linearly with the levels of total phenolics for both cold-nature and hot-nature herbs, but only with the levels of total flavonoids for the hot-nature herbs. The results suggested that the phenolic compounds, but not the flavonoids, play the major role in antioxidant capacities of the cold-nature herbs. These findings could shed new lights on the study the theory of Tibetan medicine.

  1. Possible Relationship between Chronic Telogen Effluvium and Changes in Lead, Cadmium, Zinc, and Iron Total Blood Levels in Females: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Aziz, Abeer M; Sh Hamed, Sameera; Gaballah, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Hair loss is a common and distressing problem that can affect both males and females of all ages. Chronic telogen effluvium (CTE) is idiopathic diffuse scalp hair shedding of at least 6 months duration. Hair loss can be one of the symptoms of metal toxicity. Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are highly toxic metals that can cause acute and chronic health problems in human. The aim of the present study is to determine if there is a relationship between these metals and CTE in women and if CTE is also associated with changes in zinc (Zn) or iron (Fe) blood levels. Materials and Methods: Pb, Cd, Fe and Zn total blood levels were determined in 40 female patients fulfilling the criteria of CTH and compared with total blood levels of same elements in 30 well-matched healthy women. Results: Quantitative analysis of total blood Fe, Zn, Pb and Cd revealed that there were no significant differences between patients and controls regarding Fe, Zn, and Pb. Yet, Cd level was significantly higher in patients than controls. In addition, Cd level showed significant positive correlation with the patient's body weight. Conclusion: Estimation of blood Pb and Cd levels can be important in cases of CTE as Cd toxicity can be the underlying hidden cause of such idiopathic condition. PMID:26622152

  2. Atorvastatin enhanced nitric oxide release and reduced blood pressure, nitroxidative stress and rantes levels in hypertensive rats with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mason, R P; Corbalan, J J; Jacob, R F; Dawoud, H; Malinski, T

    2015-02-01

    Clinical trials have shown that atorvastatin benefits patients with diabetes even with normal baseline LDL levels. We hypothesized that atorvastatin improves endothelial cell (EC) function and reduces inflammation in hypertensive rats with diabetes. Non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated with atorvastatin at 20 mg/kg/day. After five weeks, nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) were measured in aortic and glomerular endothelial cells. A tandem of nanosensors was used to simultaneously measure NO and ONOO(-) concentration and their ratio [NO]/[ONOO(-)] was monitored with a time resolution better than 10 μs and detection limit 1 nM. [NO]/[ONOO(-)] was applied as a marker of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) uncoupling, endothelial dysfunction and nitroxidative stress. Glucose, cholesterol, blood pressure (BP), and the cytokine RANTES were also measured. Diabetic SHR rats had elevated glucose (355 ± 38 mg/dL), mean BP (172 ± 15 mmHg), and plasma RANTES (38.4 ± 2.7 ng/mL), low endothelial NO bioavailability and high ONOO(-). Maximal NO release measured 267 ± 29 nM in aortic endothelium of SHR rats and 214 ± 20 nM for diabetic SHR rats; [NO]/[ONOO(-)] was 0.88 ± 12 and 0.61 ± 0.08, respectively. [NO]/[ONOO(-)] ratios below one indicate a high uncoupling of eNOS, endothelial dysfunction and high nitroxidative stress. Atorvastatin treatment partially restored endothelial function by increasing NO level by 98%, reducing ONOO(-) by 40% and favorably elevating [NO]/[ONOO(-)] to 1.1 ± 0.2 for diabetic SHR rats and 1.6 ± 0.3 for SHR rats. The effects of atorvastatin were similar in glomerular endothelial cells and were partially reproduced by modulators of eNOS or NADPH oxidase. Atorvastatin had no significant effect on fasting glucose or total cholesterol levels but reduced mean BP by 21% and 11% in diabetic and non-diabetic animals, respectively. Atorvastatin also reduced RANTES levels by

  3. Bioaugmentation of Syntrophic Acetate-Oxidizing Culture in Biogas Reactors Exposed to Increasing Levels of Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Westerholm, Maria; Levén, Lotta

    2012-01-01

    The importance of syntrophic acetate oxidation for process stability in methanogenic systems operating at high ammonia concentrations has previously been emphasized. In this study we investigated bioaugmentation of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing (SAO) cultures as a possible method for decreasing the adaptation period of biogas reactors operating at gradually increased ammonia concentrations (1.5 to 11 g NH4+-N/liter). Whole stillage and cattle manure were codigested semicontinuously for about 460 days in four mesophilic anaerobic laboratory-scale reactors, and a fixed volume of SAO culture was added daily to two of the reactors. Reactor performance was evaluated in terms of biogas productivity, methane content, pH, alkalinity, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) content. The decomposition pathway of acetate was analyzed by isotopic tracer experiments, and population dynamics were monitored by quantitative PCR analyses. A shift in dominance from aceticlastic methanogenesis to SAO occurred simultaneously in all reactors, indicating no influence by bioaugmentation on the prevailing pathway. Higher abundances of Clostridium ultunense and Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans were associated with bioaugmentation, but no influence on Syntrophaceticus schinkii or the methanogenic population was distinguished. Overloading or accumulation of VFA did not cause notable dynamic effects on the population. Instead, the ammonia concentration had a substantial impact on the abundance level of the microorganisms surveyed. The addition of SAO culture did not affect process performance or stability against ammonia inhibition, and all four reactors deteriorated at high ammonia concentrations. Consequently, these findings further demonstrate the strong influence of ammonia on the methane-producing consortia and on the representative methanization pathway in mesophilic biogas reactors. PMID:22923397

  4. Combined effect of blood pressure and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks of subtypes of cardiovascular death: Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Michihiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Asayama, Kei; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Imai, Yutaka; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-03-01

    No large-scale, longitudinal studies have examined the combined effects of blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks for subtypes of cardiovascular death in an Asian population. To investigate these relationships, a meta-analysis of individual participant data, which included 73 916 Japanese subjects (age, 57.7 years; men, 41.1%) from 11 cohorts, was conducted. During a mean follow-up of 15.0 years, deaths from coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and intraparenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 770, 724, and 345 cases, respectively. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used. After stratifying the participants by 4 systolic BP ×4 total cholesterol categories, the group with systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L had the greatest risk for coronary heart disease death (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.39; P<0.0001 versus group with systolic BP <120 mm Hg and total cholesterol <4.7 mmol/L). The adjusted hazard ratios of systolic BP (per 20 mm Hg) increased with increases in total cholesterol categories (hazard ratio, 1.52; P<0.0001 in group with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L). Similarly, the adjusted hazard ratios of total cholesterol increased with increases in systolic BP categories (P for interaction ≤0.04). Systolic BP was positively associated with ischemic stroke and intraparenchymal hemorrhage death, and total cholesterol was inversely associated with intraparenchymal hemorrhage, but no significant interactions between BP and total cholesterol were observed for stroke. High BP and high total cholesterol can synergistically increase the risk for coronary heart disease death but not for stroke in the Asian population.

  5. Increase of exhaled nitric oxide in children exposed to low levels of ambient ozone.

    PubMed

    Nickmilder, Marc; de Burbure, Claire; Carbonnelle, Sylviane; Sylviane, Carbonnelle; Dumont, Xavier; Xavier, Dumont; Bernard, Alfred; Alfred, Bernard; Derouane, Alain; Alain, Derouane

    2007-02-01

    Ozone (O3) is known to induce lung function impairment and airways inflammation during episodes of photochemical smog. The aim of the present study was to assess the inflammatory effect of ambient O3 in healthy children using nitric oxide in exhaled air (eNO) as a noninvasive test. The study was performed on 6 groups of children (n = 11-15), aged 6.5 to 15 yr, who attended summer camps in rural areas of the south of Belgium in 2002. Ambient O3 concentrations continuously monitored in the camps ranged from 48 to 221 microg/m3 (1-h maximal concentration). Children remained outdoors during the experimental days, doing various recreational activities but no sports. Lung function tests (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1] and forced vital capacity [FVC]) and eNO were measured twice in each child in the morning and in the evening. While lung function tests did not show any consistent pattern of decrease at these O3 levels, a highly significant increase in eNO was found in all subjects from an ambient 1-h O3 level of 167 microg/m3. A multivariate analysis did not reveal any influence of age, gender, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) of the children. The threshold for this O3-induced increase in eNO estimated benchmark dose analysis was 135 microg/m3 for 1-h exposure and 110 microg/m3 for 8-h exposure. These observations suggest that ambient ozone produces early inflammatory changes in the airways of children at levels slightly below current air quality standards. PMID:17365589

  6. Influence of nutrients on oxidation of low level methane by mixed methanotrophic consortia.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba; Chidambarampadmavathy, Karthigeyan; Nadarajan, Saravanan; Heimann, Kirsten

    2016-03-01

    Low-level methane emissions from coal mine ventilation air (CMV-CH4; i.e., 1 % CH4) can significantly contribute to global climate change, and therefore, treatment is important to reduce impacts. To investigate CMV-CH4 abatement potential, five different mixed methanotrohic consortia (MMCs) were established from soil/sediment sources, i.e., landfill top cover soil, bio-solid compost, vegetated humus soil, estuarine and marine sediments. Enrichment conditions for MMCs were as follows: nitrate mineral salt (NMS) medium, pH ~ 6.8; 25 °C; 20-25 % CH4; agitation 200 rpm; and culture period 20 days, in mini-bench-top bioreactors. The enriched cultures were supplemented with extra carbon (methanol 0.5-1.5 %, formate 5-15 mM, and acetate 5-15 mM), nitrogen (nitrate 0.5-1.5 g L(-1), ammonium 0.1-0.5 g L(-1), or urea: 0.1-0.5 g L(-1)), and trace elements (copper 1-5 μM, iron 1-5 μM, and zinc 1-5 μM) in different batch experiments to improve low-level CH4 abatement. Average CH4 oxidation capacities (MOCs) of MMCs varied between 1.712 ± 0.032 and 1.963 ± 0.057 mg g(-1)DWbiomass h(-1). Addition of formate improved the MOCs of MMCs, but the dose-response varied for different MMCs. Acetate, nitrate and copper had no significant effect on MOCs, while addition of methanol, ammonium, urea, iron and zinc impacted negatively. Overall, MMCs enriched from marine sediments and landfill top cover soil showed high MOCs which were largely resilient to nutrient supplementation, suggesting a strong potential for biofilter development for industrial low-level CH4 abatement, such as those present in CMV.

  7. A role for oxidative stress in suppressing serum immunoglobulin levels in lead-exposed Fisher 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Ercal, N; Neal, R; Treeratphan, P; Lutz, P M; Hammond, T C; Dennery, P A; Spitz, D R

    2000-08-01

    Evidence implicating oxidative stress in toxicity during lead intoxication in vivo has opened new avenues for investigation of the mechanisms of lead-induced immunosuppression. The current study explores the possibility that lead-induced oxidative stress contributes to the immunosuppression observed during lead poisoning. Fisher 344 rats were exposed to 2,000 ppm lead acetate in their drinking water for 5 weeks. One week following removal of lead from the drinking water, significant reductions in serum levels of IgA, IgM, and IgG were detected. Significant increases in oxidative damage, based on malondialdehyde (MDA) content, were observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMCs) collected during the same experiments. In addition, MDA content increased in livers from lead-exposed rats. Following 5 weeks of lead exposure, administration of either 5.5 mmol/kg N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or 1 mmol/kg meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in the drinking water for 1 week significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of lead on serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels. Also, all parameters indicative of oxidative stress returned to control levels. These results suggest that oxidative stress contributes to suppressed serum Ig levels during lead intoxication in vivo, and that intervention with either a thiol antioxidant (NAC) or a metal chelator (DMSA) will alleviate this lead-induced suppression by correcting the prooxidant/antioxidant imbalance caused by lead exposure.

  8. Total Glutamine Synthetase Activity during Soybean Nodule Development Is Controlled at the Level of Transcription and Holoprotein Turnover.

    PubMed Central

    Temple, S. J.; Kunjibettu, S.; Roche, D.; Sengupta-Gopalan, C.

    1996-01-01

    Gln synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia with glutamate to yield Gln. In higher plants GS is an octameric enzyme and the subunits are encoded by members of a small multigene family. In soybeans (Glycine max), following the onset of N2 fixation there is a dramatic increase in GS activity in the root nodules. GS activity staining of native polyacrylamide gels containing nodule and root extracts showed a common band of activity (GSrs). The nodules also contained a slower-migrating, broad band of enzyme activity (GSns). The GSns activity band is a complex of many isozymes made up of different proportions of two kinds of GS subunits: GSr and GSn. Root nodules formed following inoculation with an Nif- strain of Bradyrhizobium japonicum showed the presence of GS isoenzymes (GSns1) with low enzyme activity, which migrated more slowly than GSns. Gsns1 is most likely made up predominantly of GSn subunits. Our data suggest that, whereas the class I GS genes encoding the GSr subunits are regulated by the availability of NH3, the class II GS genes coding for the GSn subunits are developmentally regulated. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the GSns1 isozymes in the Nif- nodules are relatively more labile. Our overall conclusion is that GSns activity in soybean nodules is regulated by N2 fixation both at the level of transcription and at the level of holoprotein stability. PMID:12226474

  9. Mercury levels assessment and its relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Méndez, Jorge A; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor E; Fargher, Lane F; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2016-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is released into the environment from geologic and anthropogenic sources. Once it enters an organism, it generates several toxicity mechanisms and oxidative stress has been proposed as the main one. Metal susceptibility is greater in children, which is a result of their physiology and behavior. In Yucatan, Mexico, burning of unregulated garbage dumps and household trash, ingestion of top marine predators, and pottery manufacturing are among the conditions that could promote Hg exposure. However, for Yucatan, there are no published studies that report Hg levels and associated oxidative stress status in children. Therefore, this study aimed to assess Hg levels in blood and urine and oxidative stress biomarkers levels in a sample of 107 healthy children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as investigate the relationship between these parameters. Hg was detected in 11 (10.28%) of blood samples and 38 (35.51%) of urine samples collected from the participating children. Fourteen subjects showed Hg above recommended levels. The oxidative stress biomarkers were slightly elevated in comparison with other studies and were statistically different between the sampling sites. No linear correlation between Hg levels and oxidative stress biomarkers was found. Nevertheless, exploratory univariate and multivariate analysis showed non-linear relations among the measured variables. Globally, the study provides, for the first time, information regarding Hg levels and their relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in a juvenile population from Mexico's southeast (Yucatan) region. In agreement with worldwide concern about Hg, this study should stimulate studies on metal monitoring in humans (especially children) among scientists working in Mexico, the establishment of polices for its regulation, and the reduction of human health risks.

  10. Mercury levels assessment and its relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Méndez, Jorge A; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor E; Fargher, Lane F; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2016-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is released into the environment from geologic and anthropogenic sources. Once it enters an organism, it generates several toxicity mechanisms and oxidative stress has been proposed as the main one. Metal susceptibility is greater in children, which is a result of their physiology and behavior. In Yucatan, Mexico, burning of unregulated garbage dumps and household trash, ingestion of top marine predators, and pottery manufacturing are among the conditions that could promote Hg exposure. However, for Yucatan, there are no published studies that report Hg levels and associated oxidative stress status in children. Therefore, this study aimed to assess Hg levels in blood and urine and oxidative stress biomarkers levels in a sample of 107 healthy children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as investigate the relationship between these parameters. Hg was detected in 11 (10.28%) of blood samples and 38 (35.51%) of urine samples collected from the participating children. Fourteen subjects showed Hg above recommended levels. The oxidative stress biomarkers were slightly elevated in comparison with other studies and were statistically different between the sampling sites. No linear correlation between Hg levels and oxidative stress biomarkers was found. Nevertheless, exploratory univariate and multivariate analysis showed non-linear relations among the measured variables. Globally, the study provides, for the first time, information regarding Hg levels and their relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in a juvenile population from Mexico's southeast (Yucatan) region. In agreement with worldwide concern about Hg, this study should stimulate studies on metal monitoring in humans (especially children) among scientists working in Mexico, the establishment of polices for its regulation, and the reduction of human health risks. PMID:26580741

  11. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Levels in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa after Oral Re-alimentation: A Systematic Review and Exploratory Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Solmi, Marco; Veronese, Nicola; Luchini, Claudio; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe; Favaro, Angela; Santonastaso, Paolo; Correll, Christoph U

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress markers seem to be higher in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) than healthy controls, but the potentially beneficial effects of weight gain is not known. We calculated random effects standardised mean differences (SMDs) as effect size measures of oxidative stress marker changes after re-alimentation reported in two or more studies, summarising others descriptively. Seven longitudinal studies (n = 104) were included. After a median follow-up period of 8 weeks, AN patients significantly increased their body mass index (15.1 ± 2.1 to 17.1 ± 2.2, p < 0.0001). This weight gain was followed by a significant increase in serum levels of the antioxidant albumin (studies = 6, SMD = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.18; 0.82, p = 0.002; I(2) = 16%) and a significant decrease in the oxidative stress marker Apolipoprotein B (studies = 2, n = 19, SMD = -0.85, 95%CI = -1.53; -0.17, p = 0.01; I(2) = 0). In one study, catalase and total antioxidant capacity increased, whilst superoxide dismutase significantly decreased. In conclusion, oral re-alimentation, even without full-weight normalisation, seems to improve oxidative stress in people with AN.

  12. Airborne Measurements of Nitric Oxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, Ozone, and Total Reactive Nitrogen During the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Mary Anne

    2000-01-01

    Fabrication of the University of Michigan Multichannel Chemiluminescence Instrument (UMMCI) was completed in early 1996 and the instrument participated in test flights on the NASA P3B at Wallops Island prior to integration and deployment for the PEM- Tropics A Mission. The UMMCI consists of 4 channels for simultaneous measurements of ozone and NO with the option for measurements of NO2 and NOy (total reactive nitrogen) when converters are placed upstream of the NO channels. Each NO channel consists of a zeroing volume and reaction vessel, while the ozone channel consists of an ozone catalyst (or scrubber) trap that is not in line with the reaction vessel. The detectors in all for channels are Hamamatsu photomultiplier tubes, which are followed by pulse amplifier discriminators on the NO channels and an electrometer on the ozone channel. Schematics of the Detector Module and NOx/03 Probe Insert and Diagrams of the Control and Data System, the Power and Ground System, the Gas Flow System, and the Calibration System Flow are attached. Intercomparisons were conducted with G. Gregory, NASA/Langley, during the test flights (following prior calibration of the ozone generator/calibrators at the Wallops Long-Path Absorption facility). Initial test results appeared to be reasonable, and instrument characterization studies proceeded for the ozone channel and the 3 NO channels until deployment for integration for the PEM-Tropics Mission. Ozone data was obtained for Flights #4, and 6-2 1, and finalized data was submitted to the PEM-Tropics Data Archive and to the Science Team during the April 1997 Data Workshop. Although it initially appeared that the instrument sensitivity varied, subsequent tests showed that this was the fault of a leak in the ozone calibrator. In fact; the instrument sensitivity has not been observed to vary in a large number of tests over the years since the PEM-Tropics mission. We have, therefore, a very high degree of confidence in the O3 data that we

  13. Interactive effects of elevated temperature and CO(2) levels on metabolism and oxidative stress in two common marine bivalves (Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria mercenaria).

    PubMed

    Matoo, Omera B; Ivanina, Anna V; Ullstad, Claus; Beniash, Elia; Sokolova, Inna M

    2013-04-01

    Marine bivalves such as the hard shell clams Mercenaria mercenaria and eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica are affected by multiple stressors, including fluctuations in temperature and CO2 levels in estuaries, and these stresses are expected to be exacerbated by ongoing global climate change. Hypercapnia (elevated CO2 levels) and temperature stress can affect survival, growth and development of marine bivalves, but the cellular mechanisms of these effects are not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether oxidative stress is implicated in cellular responses to elevated temperature and CO2 levels in marine bivalves. We measured the whole-organism standard metabolic rate (SMR), total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in the muscle tissues of clams and oysters exposed to different temperatures (22 and 27°C) and CO2 levels (the present day conditions of ~400ppm CO2 and 800ppm CO2 predicted by a consensus business-as-usual IPCC emission scenario for the year 2100). SMR was significantly higher and the antioxidant capacity was lower in oysters than in clams. Aerobic metabolism was largely temperature-independent in these two species in the studied temperature range (22-27°C). However, the combined exposure to elevated temperature and hypercapnia led to elevated SMR in clams indicating elevated costs of basal maintenance. No persistent oxidative stress signal (measured by the levels of protein carbonyls, and protein conjugates with malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal) was observed during the long-term exposure to moderate warming (+5°C) and hypercapnia (~800ppm CO2). This indicates that long-term exposure to moderately elevated CO2 and temperature minimally affects the cellular redox status in these bivalve species and that the earlier observed negative physiological effects of elevated CO2 and temperature must be explained by other cellular mechanisms.

  14. Association of the Ala16Val MnSOD gene polymorphism with plasma leptin levels and oxidative stress biomarkers in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Becer, Eda; Çırakoğlu, Ayşe

    2015-08-15

    Chronic oxidative stress is a major characteristic of obesity. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is an antioxidant enzyme known to be present within mitochondria and is considered a main defense against oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the MnSOD gene Ala16Val polymorphism in obesity in terms of body mass index (BMI), lipid parameters, plasma leptin levels, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and oxidative stress biomarkers. The study included 150 obese and 120 non-obese subjects. The MnSOD Ala16Val polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Plasma leptin levels, serum lipid, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and anthropometric parameters were measured. No association was found between the MnSOD gene Ala16Val polymorphism and BMI in the study or control group. Strikingly, in the study group, obese subjects with the VV genotype had significantly higher plasma leptin levels (p<0.001) than those with the AA and AV genotypes. Serum total cholesterol (p<0.01) and MDA (p<0.001) levels were significantly higher in subjects with the VV genotype for MnSOD in the obese and non-obese groups. In the obese group, subjects with the VV genotype had significantly lower SOD (p<0.001) activity than the AA and AV genotypes. Our results suggest that the MnSOD gene polymorphism was associated with leptin levels and superoxide dismutase activity in the obese group but had no direct association with obesity. Moreover, the Ala16Val polymorphism has a significant effect on lipid profiles and MDA levels in both obese and non-obese subjects.

  15. Critical role of the transient activation of p38 MAPK in the etiology of skeletal muscle insulin resistance induced by low-level in vitro oxidant stress

    PubMed Central

    Diamond-Stanic, Maggie K.; Marchionne, Elizabeth M.; Teachey, Mary K.; Durazo, David E.; Kim, John S.; Henriksen, Erik J.

    2011-01-01

    Increased cellular exposure to oxidants may contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle is the primary site of insulin-dependent glucose disposal in the body; however, the effects of oxidative stress on insulin signaling and glucose transport activity in mammalian skeletal muscle are not well understood. We therefore studied the effects of a low-level in vitro oxidant stress (30–40 μM H2O2) on basal and insulin-stimulated (5 mU/ml) glucose transport activity and insulin signaling at 2, 4, and 6 hr in isolated rat soleus muscle. H2O2 increased basal glucose transport activity at 2 and 4 hr, but not at 6 hr. This lowlevel oxidant stress significantly impaired insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity at all time points, and was associated with inhibition of insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt Ser473 and GSK-3β Ser9. In the presence of insulin, H2O2 decreased total protein expression of IRS-1 at 6 hr and IRS-2 at 4 and 6 hr. Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK Thr180/Tyr182 was transiently increased by H2O2 in the presence and absence of insulin at 2 and 4 hr, but not at 6 hr. Selective inhibition of p38 MAPK with A304000 partially rescued the H2O2-induced reduction in insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity. These results indicate that direct in vitro exposure of isolated mammalian skeletal muscle to a low-level oxidant stress impairs distal insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity, at least in part, due to a p38 MAPK-dependent mechanism. PMID:21241662

  16. Preliminary total-system analysis of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, P.W.; Doremus, L.A.; Engel, D.W.; Miley, T.B.; Murphy, M.T.; Nichols, W.E.; White, M.D.; Langford, D.W.; Ouderkirk, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    The placement of high-level radioactive wastes in mined repositories deep underground is considered a disposal method that would effectively isolate these wastes from the environment for long periods of time. This report describes modeling performed at PNL for Yucca Mountain between May and November 1991 addressing the performance of the entire repository system related to regulatory criteria established by the EPA in 40 CFR Part 191. The geologic stratigraphy and material properties used in this study were chosen in cooperation with performance assessment modelers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Sandia modeled a similar problem using different computer codes and a different modeling philosophy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a few model runs with very complex models, and SNL performed many runs with much simpler (abstracted) models.

  17. Oxidative stress, glutathione level and antioxidant response to heavy metals in multi-resistant pathogen, Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Sidra; Rehman, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explored the multiple heavy metal-resistant yeast isolated from heavy metal-polluted environment. The isolated yeast showed maximum growth at 30 °C, pH 7.0, and the strain was identified as Candida tropicalis through 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence analysis. Yeast cells grew well in medium containing different concentrations of heavy metal ions [CdCl₂, Pb(NO₃)₂, NaAsO₂, CuSO₄ and K₂Cr₂O₇]. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against different metal ions was ranged from 5 to 19 mM, and the metal resistance value against each metal observed by yeast cells was 5 mM (Cr), 10 mM (Cd), 15 mM (As), 14 mM (Cu) and 19 mM (Pb) and increased in the following order: Pb > Cu > As ≥ Cd > Cr. The total cellular glutathione, GSH/GSSG redox couple and metallothioneins like protein (MT) were assayed by growing cultures for 24 h and exposed to 100 mg/L of each heavy metal ion. Remarkable increase in γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine (GSH) level was determined in arsenic and cadmium treatment followed by chromium, lead and copper. Stressed cells had much more oxidized GSH than unstressed cells. GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly increased in cadmium and copper treatment in contrast to chromium, arsenic and lead. Statistical analysis revealed significantly higher cysteine level in all metal-treated samples as compared to control. Antioxidant glutathione transferase activity was not detected in metal-treated and untreated yeast samples. One-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins revealed marked differences in banding pattern of heavy metal-exposed yeast samples. A prominent 20 kDa band was observed in all treated samples suggesting that some differential proteins could be over-expressed during heavy metal treatment and might be involved in cell resistance mechanisms.

  18. Correlation between total vitamin D levels and psychotic psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia: therapeutic implications for add-on vitamin D augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Altunsoy, Neslihan; Tikir, Baise; Cingi Külük, Merve; Unal, Kubranur; Goka, Sema; Aydemir, Cigdem; Goka, Erol

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Vitamin D deficiency is one of the implicated factors in ethio-pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Low serum vitamin D levels have been reported in many schizophrenia studies. However, the question is still not answered: Is there a correlation between disease activity and serum vitamin D levels? This is the first study evaluating the relationship between serum total vitamin D levels and disease activity, by comparing total vitamin D levels in two schizophrenia groups abruptly different in terms of disease activity. Methods: 41 patients with schizophrenia in remission, 40 patients with schizophrenia those in an acute episode and 40 age- and sex -matched controls with no major psychopatology were recruited in this study. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Clinical Global Impression – Severety scale (CGI-S) were used to evaluate disease activity. A demographic data form that included entries on age, gender, ethnicity, weight, skin color, daily duration of sun exposure and nutritional assessment were used. Blood samples were taken from all patients and controls. Total vitamin D (D2+D3), calcium, phosphor, parathyroid hormone values were measured. Results: Patients in an acute episode had significantly lower vitamin D levels compared to patients in remission and to healthy controls (in terms of median values respectively, 7.18, 15.03, 15.02, p < 0.001). We observed negative and moderate correlations between vitamin D levels and CGI scores (r = −0.624, p < 0.001), vitamin D levels and PANNS scores (r = −0.508, p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between groups in terms of serum P, Ca and PTH levels (p = 0.099, p = 0.943, p = 0.762). We could not detect any significant impact of weekly duration of sun exposure, skin color, ethnicity or nutrition on total vitamin D levels. Conclusions: Even though important factors for vitamin D synthesis were similar, there was severe vitamin D deficiency in patients presenting with an acute

  19. Novel probiotic Enterococcus faecium IS-27526 supplementation increased total salivary sIgA level and bodyweight of pre-school children: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Surono, Ingrid S; Koestomo, Fiona P; Novitasari, Nuni; Zakaria, Fransiska R; Yulianasari; Koesnandar

    2011-12-01

    Enterococcus faecium IS-27526 is a novel probiotic isolated from dadih, an Indonesian traditional fermented buffalo milk. A 90 days randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study of pre-post trial was conducted in pre-school children with two groups, placebo and probiotic group. Ultra High Temperature low fat milk was used as a carrier in each group. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of E. faecium IS-27526 in milk on humoral immune response and on bodyweight of pre-school children. Total serum IgA and total salivary sIgA were measured by sandwich ELISA. The bodyweight of young children was measured. The results showed that total serum IgA did not significantly increase in the probiotic group compared with the placebo group. Total salivary sIgA level and the bodyweight significantly increased (p < 0.05) in probiotic groups compared to the placebo. Changes of total salivary sIgA level were significantly higher in underweight children supplemented with probiotic. Weight gain was observed significantly in children with normal bodyweight supplemented with probiotic. Neither mortality nor weight loss was recorded throughout the study. Taken together, novel probiotic E. faecium IS-27526 has significant positive effects on humoral immune response, salivary sIgA, in underweight pre-school children, and on weight gain of pre-school children.

  20. Detection of total microcystin in fish tissues based on lemieux oxidation, and recovery of 2-methyl-3-methoxy-4-phenylbutanoic acid (MMPB) by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS)

    PubMed Central

    Suchy, Patricia; Berry, John

    2012-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are widespread cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater systems, and have been linked to both acute and chronic health effects. A growing number of studies suggest that MC can bioaccumulate in food webs. Although, several methods (i.e. ELISA, LC-MS) have been developed for analysis of MC in water, extraction (for subsequent analysis) of the toxin from biological matrices (i.e. animal tissues) is impeded owing to covalent binding of toxins and active sites of their cellular targets, i.e. protein phosphatases. As an alternative approach, chromatographic methods for analysis of a unique marker, 2-methyl-3-methoxy-4-phenylbutanoic acid (MMPB), the product of the Lemieux oxidation of MCs, have been previously developed, and shown to measure total (bound and unbound) MC. Application, however, has been limited by poor recovery of the analyte. An improved recovery method is proposed – specifically the use of solidphase microextraction (SPME). The MMPB analogue, 4-phenylbutanoic acid (4PB), and oxidized MC, were used to develop methods, and we specifically investigated several SPME fibres, and post-oxidation steps. Specifically, a method employing post-oxidation methyl esterification, followed by headspace SPME recovery of MMPB, was developed, and subsequently applied to analysis of environmental samples (i.e. fish tissues) previously shown to contain MCs. The method shows high linearity for both water and tissues spiked with MC, and an improved limit of quantitation of approximately 140 ng g−1. Evaluation of field samples by SPME-GC/MS detected considerably higher levels of MC, than detected by conventional methods (i.e. ELISA), and it is proposed that this technique reveals MC (particularly in the bound form) that is not detected by these methods. These results indicate that the developed method provides improved detection capability for MC in biological matrices, and will enhance our ability to understand bioaccumulation in freshwater food webs, as well

  1. Characterization of total plasma glycosaminoglycan levels in healthy volunteers following oral administration of a novel antithrombotic odiparcil with aspirin or enoxaparin.

    PubMed

    Myers, Alan L; Upreti, Vijay V; Khurana, Manoj; Eddington, Natalie D

    2008-10-01

    Odiparcil is a novel, orally active beta-d-thioxyloside analog with antithrombotic activity associated with a reduced risk of adverse bleeding events. Its unique mechanism of action is postulated by means of an elevation in circulating endogenous chondroitin sulfate-related glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) levels. The purpose of these 2 separate clinical studies was to evaluate plasma GAG levels in healthy subjects administered odiparcil with either aspirin (ASA) or enoxaparin. Clinical plasma samples were processed and analyzed using validated HPLC bioassays that indirectly estimate GAG levels based on the simultaneous detection of the chondroitin disaccharide derivatives. The concomitant administration of odiparcil with or without ASA resulted in a significant elevation in GAG levels over baseline for both treatment groups. In the other clinical study, the concomitant administration of odiparcil with or without enoxaparin displayed significant increases in plasma DeltaDi-OS, DeltaDi-4S, and total disaccharide levels versus control group. Neither plasma GAG levels nor odiparcil plasma levels were correlated with a rise in hepatic transaminases, an adverse drug event observed in several subjects; and plasma odiparcil levels were indirectly correlated with plasma GAG levels. These clinical studies were proof of concept of preclinical rat studies indicating that chronic odiparcil treatment elevates endogenous GAG levels in human subjects. PMID:18757783

  2. Correlations between the Memory-Related Behavior and the Level of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in the Mice Brain, Provoked by an Acute Administration of CB Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Kruk-Slomka, Marta; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Slomka, Tomasz; Budzynska, Barbara; Biala, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system, through cannabinoid (CB) receptors, is involved in memory-related responses, as well as in processes that may affect cognition, like oxidative stress processes. The purpose of the experiments was to investigate the impact of CB1 and CB2 receptor ligands on the long-term memory stages in male Swiss mice, using the passive avoidance (PA) test, as well as the influence of these compounds on the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in the mice brain. A single injection of a selective CB1 receptor antagonist, AM 251, improved long-term memory acquisition and consolidation in the PA test in mice, while a mixed CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 impaired both stages of cognition. Additionally, JWH 133, a selective CB2 receptor agonist, and AM 630, a competitive CB2 receptor antagonist, significantly improved memory. Additionally, an acute administration of the highest used doses of JWH 133, WIN 55,212-2, and AM 630, but not AM 251, increased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the brain. In turn, the processes of lipids peroxidation, expressed as the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), were more advanced in case of AM 251. Thus, some changes in the PA performance may be connected with the level of oxidative stress in the brain. PMID:26839719

  3. The effects of uranium oxide high-level waste on the structure of iron phosphate glasses.

    SciTech Connect

    Badyal, Y.

    1998-12-23

    Because of their unusually good chemical durability, iron phosphate glasses are a natural candidate for a nuclear waste disposal glass. We have studied the effects of UO{sub 2} high-level waste on the structure of iron phosphate glasses with both neutron and high-energy x-ray diffraction using the GLAD instrument of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source and the 1-BM bending magnet beamline of the Advanced Photon Source, respectively. The results of neutron scattering, which is mostly sensitive to correlations involving light atoms i.e. O-O, Fe-O and P-O, suggest the main structural features of the base glass are largely unaffected by the addition of UO{sub 2}. The nearest-neighbor P-O, Fe-O and O-O peaks remain at the same position in real space and their intensities scale approximately with concentration. These findings are consistent with the earlier results of Raman scattering and EXAFS on the Fe-K edge wherein both cases the spectra remain similar to the base glass. High-energy x-ray scattering which is sensitive to correlations involving the heavier atoms and thus complements the neutron measurements, is also consistent with uranium occupying interstitial sites in the relatively undisturbed base glass structure. However, important questions remain as to the precise local structure and oxidation state of uranium in these glasses.

  4. Quantification of modifiers in advanced materials based on zinc oxide by total reflection X-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatova, Daria G.; Alov, Nikolai V.; Vorobyeva, Natalia A.; Rumyantseva, Marina N.; Sharanov, Pavel Yu.; Seregina, Irina F.; Gaskov, Alexander M.

    2016-04-01

    A novel approach to quantification of Ga and Zn modifiers in advanced materials based on zinc oxide is presented. The approach includes a combination of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for determination and validation of the results. It is suggested to use aqueous standards for the direct determination of elements in powder samples by TXRF with a relative standard deviation no more than sr = 0.11. The accuracy of these results was proved by ICP-MS after the sample decomposition, sr(In) = 0.05, sr(Ga) = 0.06 and sr(Zn) = 0.06. It was established that there is a possibility to determine indium above 300 ppb on the background of K-M3 line of argon.

  5. Measurements of Total Hemispherical Emissivity of Several Stably Oxidized Nickel-Titanium Carbide Cemented Hard Metals from 600 F to 1,600 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, William R.; Casey, F. W., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    The total hemispherical emissivity of several nickel-titanium carbide cemented hard metals have been measured over a temperature range from 600 F to l,600 F. A variety of cemented hard metals were obtained from the Kennametal Corporation. A brief discussion of the apparatus employed and the procedures used for this investigation is included. The results of the tests of specimens in the as-received and polished states indicate a nearly constant emissivity for each material tested over the temperature range considered and only slight differences in emissivity values for the different materials. Values obtained on the stably oxidized specimens range from 0.90 to 0.94 at 6000 F and o.88 to 0.92 at 1,600 F for the as-received specimens and from 0.82 to 0.89 at 600 F and 0.85 to 0.87 at 1,600 F for the polished specimens. The surface analysis of the oxidized materials as obtained by X-ray diffraction methods and metallographic techniques are presented as an aid to reproducing the surface on which these measurements were made.

  6. An analysis of the impact of native oxide, surface contamination and material density on total electron yield in the absence of surface charging effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Susumu; Ohya, Kaoru; Hirano, Ryoichi; Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2016-10-01

    The effects of the presence of a native oxide film or surface contamination as well as variations in material density on the total electron yield (TEY) of Ru and B4C were assessed in the absence of any surface charging effect. The experimental results were analyzed using semi-empirical Monte Carlo simulations and demonstrated that a native oxide film increased the TEY, and that this effect varied with film thickness. These phenomena were explained based on the effect of the backscattered electrons (BSEs) at the interface between Ru and RuO2, as well as the lower potential barrier of RuO2. Deviations in the material density from the theoretical values were attributed to the film deposition procedure based on fitting simulated TEY curves to experimental results. In the case of B4C, the TEY was enhanced by the presence of a 0.8-nm-thick surface contamination film consisting of oxygenated hydrocarbons. The effect of the low potential barrier of the contamination film was found to be significant, as the density of the B4C was much lower than that of the Ru. Comparing the simulation parameters generated in the present work with Joy's database, it was found that the model and the input parameters used in the simulations were sufficiently accurate.

  7. A supersulfated low-molecular-weight heparin (IK-SSH) increases plasma levels of free and total tissue factor pathway inhibitor after intravenous and subcutaneous administration in humans.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, B; Glusa, E; Hoppensteadt, D A; Breddin, H K; Amiral, J; Fareed, J

    1998-09-01

    Unfractionated as well as low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) are known to cause an increase in blood levels of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). To study the effect of a newly developed supersulfated LMWH (IK-SSH, Iketon Farmaceutici) on TFPI concentrations in human plasma, the compound was injected into volunteers at doses of 0.14, 0.33 and 0.66 mg/kg intravenously or 0.33, 0.66 and 1.0 mg/kg subcutaneously. At certain known times blood was drawn and plasma levels of both total and free TFPI were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodology. Baseline plasma concentrations of TFPI were 72.2+/-3.1 ng/ml for total and 10.8+/-0.8 ng/ml for free TFPI. Intravenous or subcutaneous injection of IK-SSH led to a strong and long-lasting rise in TFPI levels which were increased more than 5-fold for total TFPI and more than 30-fold for free TFPI. Maximum TFPI levels were reached 5-10 min after intravenous and 60 min after subcutaneous administration. IK-SSH caused prolongation of ex-vivo clotting times in the APTT and Heptest assay, whereas thrombin time was not affected. Anticoagulant actions of IK-SSH showed a significant correlation to plasma concentrations of TFPI and they are thought to be based at least partially on the release of TFPI from vascular sites.

  8. Total Body Irradiation, Toward Optimal Individual Delivery: Dose Evaluation With Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistors, Thermoluminescence Detectors, and a Treatment Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    Bloemen-van Gurp, Esther J. Mijnheer, Ben J.; Verschueren, Tom A.M.; Lambin, Philippe

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To predict the three-dimensional dose distribution of our total body irradiation technique, using a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). In vivo dosimetry, using metal oxide field effect transistors (MOSFETs) and thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs), was used to verify the calculated dose distributions. Methods and Materials: A total body computed tomography scan was performed and loaded into our TPS, and a three-dimensional-dose distribution was generated. In vivo dosimetry was performed at five locations on the patient. Entrance and exit dose values were converted to midline doses using conversion factors, previously determined with phantom measurements. The TPS-predicted dose values were compared with the MOSFET and TLD in vivo dose values. Results: The MOSFET and TLD dose values agreed within 3.0% and the MOSFET and TPS data within 0.5%. The convolution algorithm of the TPS, which is routinely applied in the clinic, overestimated the dose in the lung region. Using a superposition algorithm reduced the calculated lung dose by approximately 3%. The dose inhomogeneity, as predicted by the TPS, can be reduced using a simple intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique. Conclusions: The use of a TPS to calculate the dose distributions in individual patients during total body irradiation is strongly recommended. Using a TPS gives good insight of the over- and underdosage in a patient and the influence of patient positioning on dose homogeneity. MOSFETs are suitable for in vivo dosimetry purposes during total body irradiation, when using appropriate conversion factors. The MOSFET, TLD, and TPS results agreed within acceptable margins.

  9. Significance analysis of the leachate level in a solid waste landfill in a coastal zone using total water balance and slope stability alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Ja-Kong; Do, Nam-Young

    1996-12-31

    The K site near Seoul began landfilling in 1992. The landfilled wastes include municipal solid waste (66.4%), construction residues (20.4%), water and wastewater sludges (trace levels), and hazardous waste (trace levels). The water content of the municipal solid waste is very high (47.3%); as a result, the leachate level (average E.L.) of the landfill, the design value of which is 7.0 m, was measured at 10.3 m in January 1995 and is increasing. The increase of leachate level in the landfill site causes a problem with slope stability. The leachate level at each disposal stage divided by the intermediate cover layer was calculated with the HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) model and calibrated with the data measured from February 1993 to June 1995. Also, the hydraulic conductivities of the waste layer and the intermediate cover layer in each stage were calibrated continuously with HELP model analysis. To verify these results, the total water balance in the landfill site was calculated using the infiltration rate calculated from HELP modeling. The leachate level was E.L. 10.0 m, which was close to the measured leachate level. To estimate the change of the leachate level in the future, the total water balances with different leachate discharge rates of 3,000, 3,500, and 5,000 m{sup 3}/day were analyzed. When the leachate discharge rate was 5,000 ton/day and the initial water content was decreased below 25%, the average leachate level was 10.8 m. This result satisfies the safety factor requirements (=1.3) for landfill slope stability. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Jujube promotes learning and memory in a rat model by increasing estrogen levels in the blood and nitric oxide and acetylcholine levels in the brain

    PubMed Central

    LI, BAOLI; WANG, LU; LIU, YONGXIAN; CHEN, YAHUI; ZHANG, ZHENGXIANG; ZHANG, JING

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effects of jujube on learning and memory in ovariectomized rats. The effects of jujube on learning and memory in ovariectomized rats were observed using the Morris water maze method. The serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogen and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, and the brain nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels of the rats were determined. The results indicated that jujube reduced the latency period and increased the number of crossings made by the ovariectomized rats in the Morris water maze test. Jujube also increased the serum estrogen level, reduced the serum FSH and corpus luteum LH levels, increased brain NOS activity and reduced AChE activity. The results indicate that jujube promoted the learning and memory of the ovariectomized rats. This effect may be correlated with the increase in the estrogen level in the blood, and the changes in the nitric oxide and acetylcholine levels in the brain. PMID:23837068

  11. Tomato QM-Like Protein Protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells against Oxidative Stress by Regulating Intracellular Proline Levels

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Changbin; Wanduragala, Srimevan; Becker, Donald F.; Dickman, Martin B.

    2006-01-01

    Exogenous proline can protect cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from oxidative stress. We altered intracellular proline levels by overexpressing the proline dehydrogenase gene (PUT1) of S. cerevisiae. Put1p performs the first enzymatic step of proline degradation in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of Put1p results in low proline levels and hypersensitivity to oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide and paraquat. A put1-disrupted yeast mutant deficient in Put1p activity has increased protection from oxidative stress and increased proline levels. Following a conditional life/death screen in yeast, we identified a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) gene encoding a QM-like protein (tQM) and found that stable expression of tQM in the Put1p-overexpressing strain conferred protection against oxidative damage from H2O2, paraquat, and heat. This protection was correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduction and increased proline accumulation. A yeast two-hybrid system assay was used to show that tQM physically interacts with Put1p in yeast, suggesting that tQM is directly involved in modulating proline levels. tQM also can rescue yeast from the lethality mediated by the mammalian proapoptotic protein Bax, through the inhibition of ROS generation. Our results suggest that tQM is a component of various stress response pathways and may function in proline-mediated stress tolerance in plants. PMID:16751508

  12. Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Tomoko; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Kurosawa, Tomoko; Dakeishi, Miwako; Iwata, Toyoto; Murata, Katsuyuki . E-mail: winestem@med.akita-u.ac.jp

    2007-02-15

    To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-{beta}-d-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels (mean+/-SD) in the women were 1.51+/-0.91{mu}g/g in hair, 0.59+/-0.32{mu}g/g in toenail, and 0.86+/-0.66{mu}g/g creatinine in urine; and, there were positive correlations among them (P<0.001). The daily mercury intake of 9.15+/-7.84{mu}g/day was significantly correlated with total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (r=0.551, 0.537, and 0.604, P<0.001). Among the women, the NAG and AMG were positively correlated with both the daily mercury intake and mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (P<0.01); and, these relations were almost similar when using multiple regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders such as urinary cadmium (0.47+/-0.28{mu}g/g creatinine) and smoking status. In conclusion, mercury resulting from fish consumption can explain total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine to some degree (about 30%), partly through the degradation into the inorganic form, and it may confound the renal tubular effect of other nephrotoxic agents. Also, the following equation may be applicable to the population neither with dental amalgam fillings nor with occupational exposures: [hair mercury ({mu}g/g)]=2.44x[toenail mercury ({mu}g/g)].

  13. Effect of N-acetylcysteine administration on homocysteine level, oxidative damage to proteins, and levels of iron (Fe) and Fe-related proteins in lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Dobrakowski, Michał; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Romuk, Ewa; Rykaczewska-Czerwińska, Monika; Pawlas, Natalia; Birkner, Ewa

    2016-09-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) could be included in protocols designed for the treatment of lead toxicity. Therefore, in this study, we decided to investigate the influence of NAC administration on homocysteine (Hcy) levels, oxidative damage to proteins, and the levels of iron (Fe), transferrin (TRF), and haptoglobin (HPG) in lead (Pb)-exposed workers. The examined population (n = 171) was composed of male employees who worked with Pb. They were randomized into four groups. Workers who were not administered any antioxidants, drugs, vitamins, or dietary supplements were classified as the reference group (n = 49). The remaining three groups consisted of workers who were treated orally with NAC at three different doses (1 × 200, 2 × 200, or 2 × 400 mg) for 12 weeks. After the treatment, blood Pb levels significantly decreased in the groups receiving NAC compared with the reference group. The protein concentration was not affected by NAC administration. In contrast, Hcy levels significantly decreased or showed a strong tendency toward lower values depending on the NAC dose. Levels of the protein carbonyl groups were significantly decreased in all of the groups receiving NAC. Conversely, glutamate dehydrogenase activity was significantly elevated in all of the groups receiving NAC, while the level of protein thiol groups was significantly elevated only in the group receiving 200 mg of NAC. Treatment with NAC did not significantly affect Fe and TRF levels, whereas HPG levels showed a tendency toward lower values. Treatment with NAC normalized the level of Hcy and decreased oxidative stress as measured by the protein carbonyl content; this effect occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, small doses of NAC elevated the levels of protein thiol groups. Therefore, NAC could be introduced as an alternative therapy for chronic Pb toxicity in humans. PMID:25731901

  14. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mahima; Kumar, Vinod; Tomar, S. K.; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Muneendra

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein) containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05) effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP), TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g) was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05) as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein. PMID:27047133

  15. Long-term perturbation of muscle iron homeostasis following hindlimb suspension in old rats is associated with high levels of oxidative stress and impaired recovery from atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinze; Hwang, Judy C.Y.; Lees, Hazel A.; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie E.; Knutson, Mitchell D.; Judge, Andrew R.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; Marzetti, Emanuele; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of 7 and 14 days of re-loading following 14-day muscle unweighting (hindlimb suspension, HS) on iron transport, non-heme iron levels and oxidative damage in the gastrocnemius muscle of young (6 months) and old (32 months) male Fischer 344×Brown Norway rats. Our results demonstrated that old rats had lower muscle mass, higher levels of total non-heme iron and oxidative damage in skeletal muscle in comparison with young rats. Non-heme iron concentrations and total non-heme iron amounts were 3.4- and 2.3-fold higher in aged rats as compared with their young counterparts, respectively. Seven and 14 days of re-loading was associated with higher muscle weights in young animals as compared with age-matched HS rats, but there was no difference in muscle weights among aged HS, 7 and 14 days of re-loading rats, indicating that aged rats may have a lower adaptability to muscle disuse and a lower capacity to recover from muscle atrophy. Protein levels of cellular iron transporters, such as divalent metal transport-1 (DMT1), transferrin receptor-1 (TfR1), Zip14, and ferroportin (FPN), and their mRNA abundance were determined. TfR1 protein and mRNA levels were significantly lower in aged muscle. Seven and 14 days of re-loading were associated with higher TfR1 mRNA and protein levels in young animals in comparison with their age-matched HS counterparts, but there was no difference between cohorts in aged animals, suggesting adaptive responses in the old to cope with iron deregulation. The extremely low expression of FPN in skeletal muscle might lead to inefficient iron export in the presence of iron overload and play a critical role in age-related iron accumulation in skeletal muscle. Moreover, oxidative stress was much greater in the muscles of the older animals measured as 4-hydroxy-2-nonhenal (HNE)-modified proteins and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine levels. These markers remained fairly constant with either HS or re-loading in

  16. Wet Chemical Oxidation and Stabilization of Mixed and Low Level Organic Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.; Livingston, R.R.; Burge, D.A.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1998-03-01

    Mixed acid oxidation is a non-incineration process capable of destroying organic compounds, including papers, plastics, resins, and oils, at moderate temperatures and pressures. The technology, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a holding medium which allows appreciable amounts of the oxidant to be retained in solution at atmospheric pressure and at the temperatures needed for oxidation. The phosphoric acid also provides the raw materials for making a final waste which contains the metal contaminants from the waste stream. Savannah River has designed, built, and started up a 40-liter pilot reaction vessel to demonstrate the process and its sub-systems on a larger scale than earlier testing. The unit has been demonstrated and has provided important data on the operation of the oxidation and acid recovery systems. Specific results will be presented on oxidation conditions, acid recovery efficiency, chloride removal, metal retention, and process monitoring. Additional studies have been conducted with a smaller vessel in a radioactive hood. Testing with plutonium-bearing waste simulants was performed to make preliminary predictions about the behavior of plutonium in the process. Samples of the remaining phosphoric acid from these tests has been converted to two separate final forms for analysis. Results will be presented on plutonium fractionation during the oxidation process and waste form stability.

  17. Total antioxidant status in lung cancer is associated with levels of endogenous antioxidants and disease stage rather than lifestyle factors – preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Porębska, Irena; Gołecki, Marcin; Kosacka, Monika; Pawełczyk, Konrad; Pawlik-Sobecka, Lilla; Zarębska, Katarzyna; Grajeta, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been reported in different neoplasms, including lung cancer. However, no study concerning the relationship between endogenous antioxidants, lifestyle factors, and TAC has been conducted among lung cancer patients. The purpose of the study was to investigate the associations between endogenous antioxidants, severity of disease, lifestyle factors, and TAC in lung cancer patients. Material and methods The study was conducted among 59 lung cancer patients. The levels of total antioxidant status (ATBS method), endogenous antioxidants, and C-reactive protein were measured in patients’ sera automatically. Dietary habits of the subjects were evaluated based on the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) on the day of admission to hospital. Results We found a positive correlation between serum albumin, uric acid (UA), and TAC and a negative correlation between CRP and TAC. Moreover, TAC was significantly positively associated with disease stage. We did not find any significant relationship between the frequency of selected food consumption and TAC in lung cancer patients, except for a positive correlation between the frequency of refined cereal products consumption and TAC level. Smoking status did not correlate with TAC. Conclusions Total antioxidant status of lung cancer patients results from their disease stage and levels of endogenous antioxidants rather than from lifestyle factors. The lack of influence of diet and smoking on the TAC presumably result from disturbed homeostasis in which cancer, while developing, could determine the redox state to a greater extent than lifestyle factors. PMID:27688727

  18. Low Serum Albumin Level, Male Sex, and Total Gastrectomy Are Risk Factors of Severe Postoperative Complications in Elderly Gastric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung Chan; Kim, Hyun Il

    2016-01-01

    Purpose It is well known that old age is a risk factor for postoperative complications. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the risk factors for poor postoperative surgical outcomes in elderly gastric cancer patients. Materials and Methods Between January 2006 and December 2015, 247 elderly gastric cancer patients who underwent curative gastrectomy were reviewed. In this study, an elderly patient was defined as a patient aged ≥65 years. All possible variables were used to explore the risk factors for poor early surgical outcomes in elderly gastric cancer patients. Results Based on multivariate analyses of preoperative risk factors, preoperative low serum albumin level (<3.5 g/dl) and male sex showed statistical significance in predicting severe postoperative complications. Additionally, in an analysis of surgery-related risk factors, total gastrectomy was a risk factor for severe postoperative complications. Conclusions Our study findings suggest that low serum albumin level, male sex, and total gastrectomy could be risk factors of severe postoperative complications in elderly gastric cancer patients. Therefore, surgeons should work carefully in cases of elderly gastric cancer patients with low preoperative serum albumin level and male sex. We believe that efforts should be made to avoid total gastrectomy in elderly gastric cancer patients. PMID:27104026