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Sample records for lexical characteristics interact

  1. A Short Report: Word-Level Phonological and Lexical Characteristics Interact to Influence Phoneme Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically developing children, ages 61 to 78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., "chair-chain-ship") that varied orthogonally by a phonological…

  2. Lexical-Phonological Interactions in Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined lexical-phonological interactions in the first 50 words of a group of monolingual German- and Spanish-speaking children and bilingual German--Spanish children. The phonological characteristics of the earliest target word forms and output patterns of these children were analyzed to determine whether bilingual children select…

  3. Bilingual Lexical Interactions in an Unsupervised Neural Network Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Li, Ping

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an unsupervised neural network model of bilingual lexical development and interaction. We focus on how the representational structures of the bilingual lexicons can emerge, develop, and interact with each other as a function of the learning history. The results show that: (1) distinct representations for the two lexicons…

  4. Lexical Cues of Interaction Involvement in Dyadic Instant Messaging Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Duyen T.; Fussell, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    We explore how people express and interpret lexical cues of interaction involvement in dyadic conversations via instant messaging (IM) in two studies. In Study 1, an experiment with 60 participants, we manipulated level of involvement in a conversation with a distraction task. We examined how participants' uses of verbal cues such as pronouns…

  5. Lexical Characteristics of Expressive Vocabulary in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kover, Sara T.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Vocabulary is a domain of particular challenge for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has drawn attention to ways in which lexical characteristics relate to vocabulary acquisition. The current study tested the hypothesis that lexical characteristics account for variability in vocabulary size of young…

  6. Task dependent lexicality effects support interactive models of reading: a meta-analytic neuroimaging review.

    PubMed

    McNorgan, Chris; Chabal, Sarah; O'Young, Daniel; Lukic, Sladjana; Booth, James R

    2015-01-01

    Models of reading must explain how orthographic input activates a phonological representation, and elicits the retrieval of word meaning from semantic memory. Comparisons between tasks that theoretically differ with respect to the degree to which they rely on connections between orthographic, phonological and semantic systems during reading can thus provide valuable insight into models of reading, but such direct comparisons are not well-represented in the literature. An ALE meta-analysis explored lexicality effects directly contrasting words and pseudowords using the lexical decision task and overt or covert naming, which we assume rely most on the semantic and phonological systems, respectively. Interactions between task and lexicality effects demonstrate that different demands of the lexical decision and naming tasks lead to different manifestations of lexicality effects.

  7. Children's Syntactic-Priming Magnitude: Lexical Factors and Participant Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Anouschka; Thiele, Kristina; Kahsnitz, Dunja; Stenneken, Prisca

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether lexical repetition, syntactic skills, and working memory (WM) affect children's syntactic-priming behavior, i.e. their tendency to adopt previously encountered syntactic structures. Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children were primed with prenominal (e.g. "the yellow…

  8. The interaction of lexical and phrasal prosody in whispered speech.

    PubMed

    Heeren, W F L; van Heuven, V J

    2014-12-01

    The production and perception of Dutch whispered boundary tones, i.e., phrasal prosody, was investigated as a function of characteristics of the tone-bearing word, i.e., lexical prosody. More specifically, the disyllabic tone-bearing word also carried a pitch accent, either on the same syllable as the boundary tone (clash condition), or on the directly adjacent syllable (no clash condition). In a statement/question classification task listeners showed moderate, but above-chance performance for both conditions in whisper, which, however, was much worse as well as slower than in normal speech. The syllabic rhymes of speakers' productions were investigated for acoustic correlates of boundary tones. Results showed mainly secondary cues to intonation, that is, cues that are present in whisper as in normal speech, but minimal compensatory cues, which would reflect speakers' efforts to enhance their whispered speech signal in some way. This suggests that multiple prosodic events in close proximity are challenging to perceive and produce in whispered speech. A moderate increase in classification performance was found when that acoustic cue was enhanced that whispering speakers seemed to employ in a compensatory way: changing the spectral tilt of the utterance-final syllable improved perception of especially the poorer speakers and of intonation on stressed syllables. PMID:25480073

  9. Additive and Interactive Effects in Semantic Priming: Isolating Lexical and Decision Processes in the Lexical Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Tan, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study sheds light on the interplay between lexical and decision processes in the lexical decision task by exploring the effects of lexical decision difficulty on semantic priming effects. In 2 experiments, we increased lexical decision difficulty by either using transposed letter wordlike nonword distracters (e.g., JUGDE; Experiment 1)…

  10. Interaction between lexical and grammatical language systems in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2012-06-01

    This review concentrates on two different language dimensions: lexical/semantic and grammatical. This distinction between a lexical/semantic system and a grammatical system is well known in linguistics, but in cognitive neurosciences it has been obscured by the assumption that there are several forms of language disturbances associated with focal brain damage and hence language includes a diversity of functions (phoneme discrimination, lexical memory, grammar, repetition, language initiation ability, etc.), each one associated with the activity of a specific brain area. The clinical observation of patients with cerebral pathology shows that there are indeed only two different forms of language disturbances (disturbances in the lexical/semantic system and disturbances in the grammatical system); these two language dimensions are supported by different brain areas (temporal and frontal) in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, these two aspects of the language are developed at different ages during child's language acquisition, and they probably appeared at different historical moments during human evolution. Mechanisms of learning are different for both language systems: whereas the lexical/semantic knowledge is based in a declarative memory, grammatical knowledge corresponds to a procedural type of memory. Recognizing these two language dimensions can be crucial in understanding language evolution and human cognition.

  11. Lexical Characteristics of Expressive Vocabulary in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kover, Sara T.; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Vocabulary is a domain of particular challenge for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has drawn attention to ways in which lexical characteristics relate to vocabulary acquisition. The current study tested the hypothesis that lexical characteristics account for variability in vocabulary size of young children with ASD, applying the Extended Statistical Learning theory of vocabulary delay in late talkers (Stokes, Kern, & dos Santos, 2012) to toddlers with ASD. Method Parents reported the words produced by toddlers with ASD (n=57; ages 21–37 months) or toddlers without ASD (n=41; ages 22–26 months) on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories. The average phonological neighborhood density, word frequency, and word length of each toddler’s lexicon was calculated. These lexical characteristics served as predictors of vocabulary size. Results Findings differed for toddlers with and without ASD and according to subsamples. Vocabulary size was predicted by word length for toddlers with ASD and by phonological neighborhood density for toddlers without ASD. Conclusions Distinct relationships between lexical characteristics and vocabulary size were observed for toddlers with and without ASD. Experimental studies on distributional cues to vocabulary acquisition are needed to inform what is known about mechanisms of learning in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24687027

  12. Modeling Reader- and Text- Interactions During Narrative Comprehension: A Test of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Stephen T.; Freed, Erin M.; Long, Debra L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine predictions derived from the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002; Perfetti, 2007) regarding relations among word-decoding, working-memory capacity, and the ability to integrate new concepts into a developing discourse representation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to quantify the effects of two text properties (length and number of new concepts) on reading times of focal and spillover sentences, with variance in those effects estimated as a function of individual difference factors (decoding, vocabulary, print exposure, and working-memory capacity). The analysis revealed complex, cross-level interactions that complement the Lexical Quality Hypothesis. PMID:23526862

  13. Modeling Reader- and Text- Interactions During Narrative Comprehension: A Test of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Stephen T; Freed, Erin M; Long, Debra L

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine predictions derived from the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002; Perfetti, 2007) regarding relations among word-decoding, working-memory capacity, and the ability to integrate new concepts into a developing discourse representation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to quantify the effects of two text properties (length and number of new concepts) on reading times of focal and spillover sentences, with variance in those effects estimated as a function of individual difference factors (decoding, vocabulary, print exposure, and working-memory capacity). The analysis revealed complex, cross-level interactions that complement the Lexical Quality Hypothesis.

  14. Evidence for the Modulation of Sub-Lexical Processing in Go No-Go Naming: The Elimination of the Frequency x Regularity Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummine, Jacqueline; Amyotte, Josee; Pancheshen, Brent; Chouinard, Brea

    2011-01-01

    The Frequency (high vs. low) x Regularity (regular vs. exception) interaction found on naming response times is often taken as evidence for parallel processing of sub-lexical and lexical systems. Using a Go/No-go naming task, we investigated the effect of nonword versus pseudohomophone foils on sub-lexical processing and the subsequent Frequency x…

  15. Computer-Mediated Negotiated Interaction and Lexical Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports a paired-groups experimental study, which tests the Interaction Hypothesis in a computer-mediated communicative environment. Pairs of intermediate-level nonnative speakers of English (n = 24) interacted with one another in a synchronous mode over a local area network while attempting to jointly complete jigsaw and…

  16. Resolving 20 Years of Inconsistent Interactions Between Lexical Familiarity and Orthography, Concreteness, and Polysemy

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2015-01-01

    Numerous word recognition studies conducted over the past 2 decades are examined. These studies manipulated lexical familiarity by presenting words of high versus low printed frequency and most reported an interaction between printed frequency and one of several second variables, namely, orthographic regularity, semantic concreteness, or polysemy. However, the direction of these interactions was inconsistent from study to study. Six new experiments clarify these discordant results. The first two demonstrate that words of the same low printed frequency are not always equally familiar to subjects. Instead, subjects’ ratings of “experiential familiarity” suggest that many of the low-printed-frequency words used in prior studies varied along this dimension. Four lexical decision experiments reexamine the prior findings by orthogonally manipulating lexical familiarity, as assessed by experiential familiarity ratings, with bigram frequency, semantic concreteness, and number of meanings. The results suggest that of these variables, only experiential familiarity reliably affects word recognition latencies. This in turn suggests that previous inconsistent findings are due to confounding experiential familiarity with a second variable. PMID:6242753

  17. Word Recognition during Reading: The Interaction between Lexical Repetition and Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Lowder, Matthew W.; Choi, Wonil; Gordon, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Memory studies utilizing long-term repetition priming have generally demonstrated that priming is greater for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words and that this effect persists if words intervene between the prime and the target. In contrast, word-recognition studies utilizing masked short-term repetition priming typically show that the magnitude of repetition priming does not differ as a function of word frequency and does not persist across intervening words. We conducted an eye-tracking while reading experiment to determine which of these patterns more closely resembles the relationship between frequency and repetition during the natural reading of a text. Frequency was manipulated using proper names that were high-frequency (e.g., Stephen) or low-frequency (e.g., Dominic). The critical name was later repeated in the sentence, or a new name was introduced. First-pass reading times and skipping rates on the critical name revealed robust repetition-by-frequency interactions such that the magnitude of the repetition-priming effect was greater for low-frequency names than for high-frequency names. In contrast, measures of later processing showed effects of repetition that did not depend on lexical frequency. These results are interpreted within a framework that conceptualizes eye-movement control as being influenced in different ways by lexical- and discourse-level factors. PMID:23283808

  18. Using the Web as Input and Discourse Interactions for the Construction of Meaning and the Acquisition of Lexical Units in University Level English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora Piedra, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the impact of Web multimodality plus dialogical interactions in the acquisition and retention of novel lexical items among EFL students under a social constructionist framework. The lexical acquisition of 107 1st-year English majors at the University of Costa Rica was analyzed through…

  19. The interaction of lexical tone, intonation and semantic context in on-line spoken word recognition: an ERP study on Cantonese Chinese.

    PubMed

    Kung, Carmen; Chwilla, Dorothee J; Schriefers, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    In two ERP experiments, we investigate the on-line interplay of lexical tone, intonation and semantic context during spoken word recognition in Cantonese Chinese. Experiment 1 shows that lexical tone and intonation interact immediately. Words with a low lexical tone at the end of questions (with a rising question intonation) lead to a processing conflict. This is reflected in a low accuracy in lexical identification and in a P600 effect compared to the same words at the end of a statement. Experiment 2 shows that a strongly biasing semantic context leads to much better lexical-identification performance for words with a low tone at the end of questions and to a disappearance of the P600 effect. These results support the claim that semantic context plays a major role in disentangling the tonal information from the intonational information, and thus, in resolving the on-line conflict between intonation and tone. However, the ERP data indicate that the introduction of a semantic context does not entirely eliminate on-line processing problems for words at the end of questions. This is revealed by the presence of an N400 effect for words with a low lexical tone and for words with a high-mid lexical tone at the end of questions. The ERP data thus show that, while semantic context helps in the eventual lexical identification, it makes the deviation of the contextually expected lexical tone from the actual acoustic signal more salient.

  20. Load and distinctness interact in working memory for lexical manual gestures

    PubMed Central

    Rudner, Mary; Toscano, Elena; Holmer, Emil

    2015-01-01

    The Ease of Language Understanding model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) predicts that decreasing the distinctness of language stimuli increases working memory load; in the speech domain this notion is supported by empirical evidence. Our aim was to determine whether such an over-additive interaction can be generalized to sign processing in sign-naïve individuals and whether it is modulated by experience of computer gaming. Twenty young adults with no knowledge of sign language performed an n-back working memory task based on manual gestures lexicalized in sign language; the visual resolution of the signs and working memory load were manipulated. Performance was poorer when load was high and resolution was low. These two effects interacted over-additively, demonstrating that reducing the resolution of signed stimuli increases working memory load when there is no pre-existing semantic representation. This suggests that load and distinctness are handled by a shared amodal mechanism which can be revealed empirically when stimuli are degraded and load is high, even without pre-existing semantic representation. There was some evidence that the mechanism is influenced by computer gaming experience. Future work should explore how the shared mechanism is influenced by pre-existing semantic representation and sensory factors together with computer gaming experience. PMID:26321979

  1. Repeating with the right hemisphere: reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic systems in crossed aphasia?

    PubMed Central

    De-Torres, Irene; Dávila, Guadalupe; Berthier, Marcelo L.; Walsh, Seán Froudist; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on the patterns of repetition amongst individuals who develop language deficits in association with right hemisphere lesions (crossed aphasia) is very limited. Available data indicate that repetition in some crossed aphasics experiencing phonological processing deficits is not heavily influenced by lexical-semantic variables (lexicality, imageability, and frequency) as is regularly reported in phonologically-impaired cases with left hemisphere damage. Moreover, in view of the fact that crossed aphasia is rare, information on the role of right cortical areas and white matter tracts underpinning language repetition deficits is scarce. In this study, repetition performance was assessed in two patients with crossed conduction aphasia and striatal/capsular vascular lesions encompassing the right arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the temporal stem and the white matter underneath the supramarginal gyrus. Both patients showed lexicality effects repeating better words than non-words, but manipulation of other lexical-semantic variables exerted less influence on repetition performance. Imageability and frequency effects, production of meaning-based paraphrases during sentence repetition, or better performance on repeating novel sentences than overlearned clichés were hardly ever observed in these two patients. In one patient, diffusion tensor imaging disclosed damage to the right long direct segment of the AF and IFOF with relative sparing of the anterior indirect and posterior segments of the AF, together with fully developed left perisylvian white matter pathways. These findings suggest that striatal/capsular lesions extending into the right AF and IFOF in some individuals with right hemisphere language dominance are associated with atypical repetition patterns which might reflect reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic processes. PMID:24151460

  2. Richness of information about novel words influences how episodic and semantic memory networks interact during lexicalization.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Atsuko; Bakker, Iske; van Hell, Janet G; Janzen, Gabriele; McQueen, James M

    2014-01-01

    The complementary learning systems account of declarative memory suggests two distinct memory networks, a fast-mapping, episodic system involving the hippocampus, and a slower semantic memory system distributed across the neocortex in which new information is gradually integrated with existing representations. In this study, we investigated the extent to which these two networks are involved in the integration of novel words into the lexicon after extensive learning, and how the involvement of these networks changes after 24h. In particular, we explored whether having richer information at encoding influences the lexicalization trajectory. We trained participants with two sets of novel words, one where exposure was only to the words' phonological forms (the form-only condition), and one where pictures of unfamiliar objects were associated with the words' phonological forms (the picture-associated condition). A behavioral measure of lexical competition (indexing lexicalization) indicated stronger competition effects for the form-only words. Imaging (fMRI) results revealed greater involvement of phonological lexical processing areas immediately after training in the form-only condition, suggesting that tight connections were formed between novel words and existing lexical entries already at encoding. Retrieval of picture-associated novel words involved the episodic/hippocampal memory system more extensively. Although lexicalization was weaker in the picture-associated condition, overall memory strength was greater when tested after a 24hour delay, probably due to the availability of both episodic and lexical memory networks to aid retrieval. It appears that, during lexicalization of a novel word, the relative involvement of different memory networks differs according to the richness of the information about that word available at encoding.

  3. Lexical Configuration and Lexical Engagement: When Adults Learn New Words

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Laura; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2007-01-01

    People know thousands of words in their native language, and each of these words must be learned at some time in the person's lifetime. A large number of these words will be learned when the person is an adult, reflecting the fact that the mental lexicon is continuously changing. We explore how new words get added to the mental lexicon, and provide empirical support for a theoretical distinction between what we call lexical configuration and lexical engagement. Lexical configuration is the set of factual knowledge associated with a word (e.g., the word's sound, spelling, meaning, or syntactic role). Almost all previous research on word learning has focused on this aspect. However it is also critical to understand the process by which a word becomes capable of lexical engagement – the ways in which a lexical entry dynamically interacts with other lexical entries, and with sublexical representations. For example, lexical entries compete with each other during word recognition (inhibition within the lexical level), and they also support the activation of their constituents (top-down lexical-phonemic facilitation, and lexically-based perceptual learning). We systematically vary the learning conditions for new words, and use separate measures of lexical configuration and engagement. Several surprising dissociations in behavior demonstrate the importance of the theoretical distinction between configuration and engagement. PMID:17367775

  4. Modeling Reader and Text Interactions during Narrative Comprehension: A Test of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen T.; Freed, Erin M.; Long, Debra L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine predictions derived from the Lexical Quality Hypothesis regarding relations among word decoding, working-memory capacity, and the ability to integrate new concepts into a developing discourse representation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to quantify the effects of three text properties (length,…

  5. Observer bias: an interaction of temperament traits with biases in the semantic perception of lexical material.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Ira

    2014-01-01

    The lexical approach is a method in differential psychology that uses people's estimations of verbal descriptors of human behavior in order to derive the structure of human individuality. The validity of the assumptions of this method about the objectivity of people's estimations is rarely questioned. Meanwhile the social nature of language and the presence of emotionality biases in cognition are well-recognized in psychology. A question remains, however, as to whether such an emotionality-capacities bias is strong enough to affect semantic perception of verbal material. For the lexical approach to be valid as a method of scientific investigations, such biases should not exist in semantic perception of the verbal material that is used by this approach. This article reports on two studies investigating differences between groups contrasted by 12 temperament traits (i.e. by energetic and other capacities, as well as emotionality) in the semantic perception of very general verbal material. Both studies contrasted the groups by a variety of capacities: endurance, lability and emotionality separately in physical, social-verbal and mental aspects of activities. Hypotheses of "background emotionality" and a "projection through capacities" were supported. Non-evaluative criteria for categorization (related to complexity, organization, stability and probability of occurrence of objects) followed the polarity of evaluative criteria, and did not show independence from this polarity. Participants with stronger physical or social endurance gave significantly more positive ratings to a variety of concepts, and participants with faster physical tempo gave more positive ratings to timing-related concepts. The results suggest that people's estimations of lexical material related to human behavior have emotionality, language- and dynamical capacities-related biases and therefore are unreliable. This questions the validity of the lexical approach as a method for the objective study

  6. Observer Bias: An Interaction of Temperament Traits with Biases in the Semantic Perception of Lexical Material

    PubMed Central

    Trofimova, Ira

    2014-01-01

    The lexical approach is a method in differential psychology that uses people's estimations of verbal descriptors of human behavior in order to derive the structure of human individuality. The validity of the assumptions of this method about the objectivity of people's estimations is rarely questioned. Meanwhile the social nature of language and the presence of emotionality biases in cognition are well-recognized in psychology. A question remains, however, as to whether such an emotionality-capacities bias is strong enough to affect semantic perception of verbal material. For the lexical approach to be valid as a method of scientific investigations, such biases should not exist in semantic perception of the verbal material that is used by this approach. This article reports on two studies investigating differences between groups contrasted by 12 temperament traits (i.e. by energetic and other capacities, as well as emotionality) in the semantic perception of very general verbal material. Both studies contrasted the groups by a variety of capacities: endurance, lability and emotionality separately in physical, social-verbal and mental aspects of activities. Hypotheses of “background emotionality” and a “projection through capacities” were supported. Non-evaluative criteria for categorization (related to complexity, organization, stability and probability of occurrence of objects) followed the polarity of evaluative criteria, and did not show independence from this polarity. Participants with stronger physical or social endurance gave significantly more positive ratings to a variety of concepts, and participants with faster physical tempo gave more positive ratings to timing-related concepts. The results suggest that people's estimations of lexical material related to human behavior have emotionality, language- and dynamical capacities-related biases and therefore are unreliable. This questions the validity of the lexical approach as a method for the objective

  7. Lexical Characteristics of Spanish and English Words and the Development of Phonological Awareness Skills in Spanish-Speaking Language-Minority Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The lexical restructuring model (LRM) is a theory that attempts to explain the developmental origins of phonological awareness (PA). According to the LRM, various characteristics of words should be related to the extent to which words are segmentally represented in the lexicon. Segmental representations of words allow children to access the parts…

  8. Mothers' characteristics, interactions, and infants' characteristics.

    PubMed

    Stevenson-Hinde, J; Simpson, M J

    1981-01-01

    Stable characteristics of rhesus monkey mothers, in terms of Confident and Excitable scores, were significantly positively correlated with the respective scores of their daughters but not their sons. With sons, mothers' Excitable scores were significantly negatively correlated with sons' Confident scores. Correlations of the maternal scores with earlier mother/infant interactions suggest how mothers' characteristics could have influenced infant characteristics. Mothers' Confident scores were negatively correlated with both rejecting and leaving their daughters. When a year old the daughters, on the other hand, left mothers relatively frequently and played a relatively low role in maintaining proximity. For both sons and daughters, mothers' Excitable scores were positively correlated with approaching and leaving their infants, as well as restricting at the age of weaning. Infants approached Excitable mothers relatively frequently, and year-old sons played a relatively high role in maintaining proximity with mother. In terms of attachment theory, Confident mothers appear to provide a "secure base" for their daughters, but reject their sons when very young. Excitable mothers appear to behave inappropriately to both sons and daughters, producing infants who may be "insecurely attached." PMID:7198571

  9. Lexical recovery from extinction: Interactions between visual form and stored knowledge modulate visual selection.

    PubMed

    Kumada, T; Humphreys, G W

    2001-07-01

    The effects of lexical knowledge on extinction were examined in a patient with bilateral parietal lesions and left extinction under double simultaneous stimulation: GK. GK was bilaterally presented with two letters that could form either a word or a nonword. In Experiments 1-3, the task was to identify each letter. GK showed better identification of left-side letters in words than in nonwords, whilst the identification of left-side letters in nonwords was worse than that of single letters presented in the same spatial positions (i.e., there was a word superiority effect under conditions in which extinction occurred). This lexical effect on completely correct responses tended to be larger for words with lower-case letters (Experiments 2 and 3) than for words with upper-case letters (Experiment 1). Different results arose when detection was measured. When letters could group by proximity and common contrast polarity, no word superiority effect was apparent. However, a word superiority effect re-emerged when low-level grouping was reduced by using letters with opposite contrast polarity (one white and one black on a grey background). The results are discussed in terms of the impact of different factors on selection in detection and identification tasks, and in terms of the modulatory roles of familiar form and stored knowledge on visual selection. PMID:20945225

  10. A dual-route perspective on brain activation in response to visual words: evidence for a length by lexicality interaction in the visual word form area (VWFA).

    PubMed

    Schurz, Matthias; Sturm, Denise; Richlan, Fabio; Kronbichler, Martin; Ladurner, Gunther; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-02-01

    Based on our previous work, we expected the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) in the left ventral visual pathway to be engaged by both whole-word recognition and by serial sublexical coding of letter strings. To examine this double function, a phonological lexical decision task (i.e., "Does xxx sound like an existing word?") presented short and long letter strings of words, pseudohomophones, and pseudowords (e.g., Taxi, Taksi and Tazi). Main findings were that the length effect for words was limited to occipital regions and absent in the VWFA. In contrast, a marked length effect for pseudowords was found throughout the ventral visual pathway including the VWFA, as well as in regions presumably engaged by visual attention and silent-articulatory processes. The length by lexicality interaction on brain activation corresponds to well-established behavioral findings of a length by lexicality interaction on naming latencies and speaks for the engagement of the VWFA by both lexical and sublexical processes. PMID:19896538

  11. Mothers' Characteristics, Interactions, and Infants' Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Simpson, M. J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Stable characteristics of female rhesus monkeys with offspring, in terms of Confident and Excitable scores, were significantly positively correlated with the respective scores of their female offspring but not their male offspring. Female parents' Excitable scores were significantly negatively correlated with males' Confident scores. How this…

  12. Ambiguity and synonymy effects in lexical decision, naming, and semantic categorization tasks: interactions between orthography, phonology, and semantics.

    PubMed

    Hino, Yasushi; Lupker, Stephen J; Pexman, Penny M

    2002-07-01

    In this article, ambiguity and synonymy effects were examined in lexical decision, naming, and semantic categorization tasks. Whereas the typical ambiguity advantage was observed in lexical decision and naming, an ambiguity disadvantage was observed in semantic categorization. In addition, a synonymy effect (slower latencies for words with many synonyms than for words with few synonyms) was observed in lexical decision and naming but not in semantic categorization. These results suggest that (a) an ambiguity disadvantage arises only when a task requires semantic processing, (b) the ambiguity advantage and the synonymy disadvantage in lexical decision and naming are due to semantic feedback, and (c) these effects are determined by the nature of the feedback relationships from semantics to orthography and phonology.

  13. Lexical effects on speech production and intelligibility in Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Yi-Fang

    Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) often have speech deficits that lead to reduced speech intelligibility. Previous research provides a rich database regarding the articulatory deficits associated with PD including restricted vowel space (Skodda, Visser, & Schlegel, 2011) and flatter formant transitions (Tjaden & Wilding, 2004; Walsh & Smith, 2012). However, few studies consider the effect of higher level structural variables of word usage frequency and the number of similar sounding words (i.e. neighborhood density) on lower level articulation or on listeners' perception of dysarthric speech. The purpose of the study is to examine the interaction of lexical properties and speech articulation as measured acoustically in speakers with PD and healthy controls (HC) and the effect of lexical properties on the perception of their speech. Individuals diagnosed with PD and age-matched healthy controls read sentences with words that varied in word frequency and neighborhood density. Acoustic analysis was performed to compare second formant transitions in diphthongs, an indicator of the dynamics of tongue movement during speech production, across different lexical characteristics. Young listeners transcribed the spoken sentences and the transcription accuracy was compared across lexical conditions. The acoustic results indicate that both PD and HC speakers adjusted their articulation based on lexical properties but the PD group had significant reductions in second formant transitions compared to HC. Both groups of speakers increased second formant transitions for words with low frequency and low density, but the lexical effect is diphthong dependent. The change in second formant slope was limited in the PD group when the required formant movement for the diphthong is small. The data from listeners' perception of the speech by PD and HC show that listeners identified high frequency words with greater accuracy suggesting the use of lexical knowledge during the

  14. Modulation of Additive and Interactive Effects in Lexical Decision by Trial History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Michael E. J.; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    Additive and interactive effects of word frequency, stimulus quality, and semantic priming have been used to test theoretical claims about the cognitive architecture of word-reading processes. Additive effects among these factors have been taken as evidence for discrete-stage models of word reading. We present evidence from linear mixed-model…

  15. Interaction, Modality, and Word Engagement as Factors in Lexical Learning in a Chinese Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Ruiying; Helms-Park, Rena

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the roles of collaborative output, the modality of output, and word engagement in vocabulary learning and retention by Chinese-speaking undergraduate EFL learners. The two treatment groups reconstructed a passage that they had read in one of two ways: (1) dyadic oral interaction while producing a written report (Written…

  16. From concepts to lexical items.

    PubMed

    Bierwisch, M; Schreuder, R

    1992-03-01

    In this paper we address the question how in language production conceptual structures are mapped onto lexical items. First we describe the lexical system in a fairly abstract way. Such a system consists of, among other things, a fixed set of basic lexical entries characterized by four groups of information: phonetic form, grammatical features, argument structure, and semantic form. A crucial assumption of the paper is that the meaning in a lexical entry has a complex internal structure composed of more primitive elements (decomposition). Some aspects of argument structure and semantic form and their interaction are discussed with respect to the issue of synonymy. We propose two different mappings involved in lexical access. One maps conceptual structures to semantic forms, and the other maps semantic forms to conceptual structures. Both mappings are context dependent and are many-to-many mappings. We present an elaboration of Levelt's (1989) model in which these processes interact with the grammatical encoder and the mental lexicon. Then we address the consequences of decomposition for processing models, especially the nature of the input of lexical access and the time course. Processing models that use the activation metaphor may have difficulties accounting for certain phenomena where a certain lemma triggers not one, but two or more word forms that have to be produced with other word forms in between.

  17. The Interaction of Lexical Semantics and Cohort Competition in Spoken Word Recognition: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Jie; Randall, Billi; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2011-01-01

    Spoken word recognition involves the activation of multiple word candidates on the basis of the initial speech input--the "cohort"--and selection among these competitors. Selection may be driven primarily by bottom-up acoustic-phonetic inputs or it may be modulated by other aspects of lexical representation, such as a word's meaning…

  18. Lexical Morphology: Structure, Process, and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmulowicz, Linda; Taran, Valentina L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated the importance of derivational morphology to later language development and has led to a consensus that derivation is a lexical process. In this review, derivational morphology is discussed in terms of lexical representation models from both linguistic and psycholinguistic perspectives. Input characteristics, including…

  19. Lexical and Post-Lexical Complexity Effects on Eye Movements in Reading.

    PubMed

    Warren, Tessa; Reichle, Erik D; Patson, Nikole D

    2011-02-16

    The current study investigated how a post-lexical complexity manipulation followed by a lexical complexity manipulation affects eye movements during reading. Both manipulations caused disruption in all measures on the manipulated words, but the patterns of spill-over differed. Critically, the effects of the two kinds of manipulations did not interact, and there was no evidence that post-lexical processing difficulty delayed lexical processing on the next word (c.f. Henderson & Ferreira, 1990). This suggests that post-lexical processing of one word and lexical processing of the next can proceed independently and likely in parallel. This finding is consistent with the assumptions of the E-Z Reader model of eye movement control in reading (Reichle, Warren, & McConnell, 2009).

  20. Lexical is as lexical does: computational approaches to lexical representation

    PubMed Central

    Woollams, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    In much of neuroimaging and neuropsychology, regions of the brain have been associated with ‘lexical representation’, with little consideration as to what this cognitive construct actually denotes. Within current computational models of word recognition, there are a number of different approaches to the representation of lexical knowledge. Structural lexical representations, found in original theories of word recognition, have been instantiated in modern localist models. However, such a representational scheme lacks neural plausibility in terms of economy and flexibility. Connectionist models have therefore adopted distributed representations of form and meaning. Semantic representations in connectionist models necessarily encode lexical knowledge. Yet when equipped with recurrent connections, connectionist models can also develop attractors for familiar forms that function as lexical representations. Current behavioural, neuropsychological and neuroimaging evidence shows a clear role for semantic information, but also suggests some modality- and task-specific lexical representations. A variety of connectionist architectures could implement these distributed functional representations, and further experimental and simulation work is required to discriminate between these alternatives. Future conceptualisations of lexical representations will therefore emerge from a synergy between modelling and neuroscience. PMID:25893204

  1. Lexical effects on spoken word recognition in children with normal hearing a

    PubMed Central

    Krull, Vidya; Choi, Sangsook; Kirk, Karen Iler; Prusick, Lindsay; French, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Summary This paper outlines the development of a theoretically-motivated sentence recognition test for children. Previous sentence tests such as the Lexical Neighborhood Test and the Multisyllabic Lexical Neighborhood Test examined lexical effects on children's recognition of words. In previous studies related to their test development, lexical characteristics were confounded. This study examines independent effects of word frequency and lexical density on a new test of spoken word recognition in children. Results show that word frequency and lexical density influence word recognition both independently, and in combination. Lexical density appears to be more heavily weighted than word frequency in children. PMID:19701087

  2. Distal Prosodic Context Affects Word Segmentation and Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Laura C.; McAuley, J. Devin

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of distal (i.e., nonlocal) prosody in word segmentation and lexical processing. In Experiment 1, prosodic characteristics of the initial five syllables of eight-syllable sequences were manipulated; the final portions of these sequences were lexically ambiguous (e.g., "note bookworm", "notebook worm"). Distal…

  3. Masked Inhibitory Priming in English: Evidence for Lexical Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Colin J.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    Predictions derived from the interactive activation (IA) model were tested in 3 experiments using the masked priming technique in the lexical decision task. Experiment 1 showed a strong effect of prime lexicality: Classifications of target words were facilitated by orthographically related nonword primes (relative to unrelated nonword primes) but…

  4. Lexical Acquisition and Acquisition of Initial Voiceless Stops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Ann A.; Edwards, Mary Louise

    1993-01-01

    Interaction between lexical acquisition and acquisition of initial voiceless stops (VSs) was studied in two normally developing children by acoustically examining token-by-token accuracy of initial VS targets in different lexical items. Tokens representing the emergence of accurate VS production were restricted to certain words, largely old words…

  5. V and V of Lexical, Syntactic and Semantic Properties for Interactive Systems Through Model Checking of Formal Description of Dialog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brat, Guillaume P.; Martinie, Celia; Palanque, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    During early phases of the development of an interactive system, future system properties are identified (through interaction with end users in the brainstorming and prototyping phase of the application, or by other stakehold-ers) imposing requirements on the final system. They can be specific to the application under development or generic to all applications such as usability principles. Instances of specific properties include visibility of the aircraft altitude, speed… in the cockpit and the continuous possibility of disengaging the autopilot in whatever state the aircraft is. Instances of generic properties include availability of undo (for undoable functions) and availability of a progression bar for functions lasting more than four seconds. While behavioral models of interactive systems using formal description techniques provide complete and unambiguous descriptions of states and state changes, it does not provide explicit representation of the absence or presence of properties. Assessing that the system that has been built is the right system remains a challenge usually met through extensive use and acceptance tests. By the explicit representation of properties and the availability of tools to support checking these properties, it becomes possible to provide developers with means for systematic exploration of the behavioral models and assessment of the presence or absence of these properties. This paper proposes the synergistic use two tools for checking both generic and specific properties of interactive applications: Petshop and Java PathFinder. Petshop is dedicated to the description of interactive system behavior. Java PathFinder is dedicated to the runtime verification of Java applications and as an extension dedicated to User Interfaces. This approach is exemplified on a safety critical application in the area of interactive cockpits for large civil aircrafts.

  6. An integrated analysis of speech and gestural characteristics in conversational child-computer interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Serdar; Montanari, Simona; Andersen, Elaine; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

    2003-10-01

    Understanding the fine details of children's speech and gestural characteristics helps, among other things, in creating natural computer interfaces. We analyze the acoustic, lexical/non-lexical and spoken/gestural discourse characteristics of young children's speech using audio-video data gathered using a Wizard of Oz technique from 4 to 6 year old children engaged in resolving a series of age-appropriate cognitive challenges. Fundamental and formant frequencies exhibited greater variations between subjects consistent with previous results on read speech [Lee et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 1455-1468 (1999)]. Also, our analysis showed that, in a given bandwidth, phonemic information contained in the speech of young child is significantly less than that of older ones and adults. To enable an integrated analysis, a multi-track annotation board was constructed using the ANVIL tool kit [M. Kipp, Eurospeech 1367-1370 (2001)]. Along with speech transcriptions and acoustic analysis, non-lexical and discourse characteristics, and child's gesture (facial expressions, body movements, hand/head movements) were annotated in a synchronized multilayer system. Initial results showed that younger children rely more on gestures to emphasize their verbal assertions. Younger children use non-lexical speech (e.g., um, huh) associated with frustration and pondering/reflecting more frequently than older ones. Younger children also repair more with humans than with computer.

  7. Universals versus historical contingencies in lexical evolution.

    PubMed

    Bochkarev, V; Solovyev, V; Wichmann, S

    2014-12-01

    The frequency with which we use different words changes all the time, and every so often, a new lexical item is invented or another one ceases to be used. Beyond a small sample of lexical items whose properties are well studied, little is known about the dynamics of lexical evolution. How do the lexical inventories of languages, viewed as entire systems, evolve? Is the rate of evolution of the lexicon contingent upon historical factors or is it driven by regularities, perhaps to do with universals of cognition and social interaction? We address these questions using the Google Books N-Gram Corpus as a source of data and relative entropy as a measure of changes in the frequency distributions of words. It turns out that there are both universals and historical contingencies at work. Across several languages, we observe similar rates of change, but only at timescales of at least around five decades. At shorter timescales, the rate of change is highly variable and differs between languages. Major societal transformations as well as catastrophic events such as wars lead to increased change in frequency distributions, whereas stability in society has a dampening effect on lexical evolution.

  8. Meaningful Physical Changes Mediate Lexical-Semantic Integration: Top-Down and Form-Based Bottom-Up Information Sources Interact in the N400

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotze, Netaya; Tune, Sarah; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2011-01-01

    Models of how the human brain reconstructs an intended meaning from a linguistic input often draw upon the N400 event-related potential (ERP) component as evidence. Current accounts of the N400 emphasise either the role of contextually induced lexical preactivation of a critical word (Lau, Phillips, & Poeppel, 2008) or the ease of integration into…

  9. Star formation enhancement characteristics in interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaragoza-Cardiel, J.; Beckman, J. E.; Font, J.; Camps-Fariña, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Erroz-Ferrer, S.

    2015-02-01

    We have observed 12 interacting galaxies using the Fabry-Perot interferometer GHαFaS (Galaxy Hα Fabry-Perot system) on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (La Palma). We have extracted the physical properties (sizes, Hα luminosity and velocity dispersion) of 236 HII regions for the full sample of interacting galaxies. We have derived the physical properties of 664 HII regions for a sample of 28 isolated galaxies observed with the same instrument in order to compare both populations of HII regions, finding that there are brighter and denser star forming regions in the interacting galaxies compared with the isolated galaxies sample.

  10. Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…

  11. Lexical Semantics and Irregular Inflection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi Ting; Pinker, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Whether a word has an irregular inflection does not depend on its sound alone: compare lie-lay (recline) and lie-lied (prevaricate). Theories of morphology, particularly connectionist and symbolic models, disagree on which nonphonological factors are responsible. We test four possibilities: (1) Lexical effects, in which two lemmas differ in whether they specify an irregular form; (2) Semantic effects, in which the semantic features of a word become associated with regular or irregular forms; (3) Morphological structure effects, in which a word with a headless structure (e.g., a verb derived from a noun) blocks access to a stored irregular form; (4) Compositionality effects, in which the stored combination of an irregular word’s meaning (e.g., the verb’s inherent aspect) with the meaning of the inflection (e.g., pastness) doesn’t readily transfer to new senses with different combinations of such meanings. In four experiments, speakers were presented with existing and novel verbs and asked to rate their past-tense forms, semantic similarities, grammatical structure, and aspectual similarities. We found (1) an interaction between semantic and phonological similarity, coinciding with reported strategies of analogizing to known verbs and implicating lexical effects; (2) weak and inconsistent effects of semantic similarity; (3) robust effects of morphological structure, and (4) robust effects of aspectual compositionality. Results are consistent with theories of language that invoke lexical entries and morphological structure, and which differentiate the mode of storage of regular and irregular verbs. They also suggest how psycholinguistic processes have shaped vocabulary structure over history. PMID:21151703

  12. Lexical decision in children: sublexical processing or lexical search?

    PubMed

    van den Boer, Madelon; de Jong, Peter F; Haentjens-van Meeteren, Marleen M

    2012-01-01

    Length effects in the lexical decision latencies of children might indicate that children rely on sublexical processing and essentially approach the task as a naming task. We examined this possibility by means of the effects of neighbourhood size and articulatory suppression on lexical decision performance. Sixty-six beginning and 62 advanced readers performed a lexical decision task in a standard, articulatory suppression, or tapping condition. We found length effects on words and nonwords in the children's lexical decisions. However, the effects of neighbourhood size were similar to those reported for adult lexical decisions, rather than the effects previously found in children's naming. In addition, no effect was found of articulatory suppression. Both findings suggest that, despite clear length effects, children do not adopt a naming task approach but, like adults, base lexical decisions mainly on a lexical search. These results pose a challenge for several computational models of reading.

  13. Lexical and Metrical Stress in Word Recognition: Lexical or Pre-Lexical Influences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slowiaczek, Louisa M.; Soltano, Emily G.; Bernstein, Hilary L.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of lexical stress and/or metrical stress on spoken word recognition was examined. Two experiments were designed to determine whether response times in lexical decision or shadowing tasks are influenced when primes and targets share lexical stress patterns (JUVenile-BIBlical [Syllables printed in capital letters indicate those…

  14. Speech recognition: Acoustic, phonetic and lexical knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zue, V. W.

    1985-08-01

    During this reporting period we continued to make progress on the acquisition of acoustic-phonetic and lexical knowledge. We completed development of a continuous digit recognition system. The system was constructed to investigate the use of acoustic-phonetic knowledge in a speech recognition system. The significant achievements of this study include the development of a soft-failure procedure for lexical access and the discovery of a set of acoustic-phonetic features for verification. We completed a study of the constraints that lexical stress imposes on word recognition. We found that lexical stress information alone can, on the average, reduce the number of word candidates from a large dictionary by more than 80 percent. In conjunction with this study, we successfully developed a system that automatically determines the stress pattern of a word from the acoustic signal. We performed an acoustic study on the characteristics of nasal consonants and nasalized vowels. We have also developed recognition algorithms for nasal murmurs and nasalized vowels in continuous speech. We finished the preliminary development of a system that aligns a speech waveform with the corresponding phonetic transcription.

  15. Reading and Spelling in Adults: Are There Lexical and Sub-Lexical Subtypes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Jennifer S.; Heffernan, Maree E.

    2012-01-01

    The dual-route model of reading proposes distinct lexical and sub-lexical procedures for word reading and spelling. Lexically reliant and sub-lexically reliant reader subgroups were selected from 78 university students on the basis of their performance on lexical (orthographic) and sub-lexical (phonological) choice tests, and on irregular and…

  16. Phonological overlap affects lexical selection during sentence production.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, T Florian; Furth, Katrina; Hilliard, Caitlin

    2012-09-01

    Theories of lexical production differ in whether they allow phonological processes to affect lexical selection directly. Whereas some accounts, such as interactive activation accounts, predict (weak) early effects of phonological processes during lexical selection via feedback connections, strictly serial architectures do not make this prediction. We present evidence from lexical selection during unscripted sentence production that lexical selection is affected by the phonological form of recently produced words. In a video description experiment, participants described scenes that were compatible with several near-meaning-equivalent verbs. We found that speakers were less likely than expected by chance to select a verb form that would result in phonological onset overlap with the subject of the sentence. Additional evidence from the distribution of disfluencies immediately preceding the verb argues that this effect is due to early effects on lexical selection, rather than later corrective processes, such as self-monitoring. Taken together, these findings support accounts that allow early feedback from phonological processes to word-level nodes, even during lexical selection. PMID:22468803

  17. Participant Interaction in Asynchronous Learning Environments: Evaluating Interaction Analysis Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchette, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to determine the extent to which three different objective analytical methods--sequence analysis, surface cohesion analysis, and lexical cohesion analysis--can most accurately identify specific characteristics of online interaction. Statistically significant differences were found in all points of…

  18. Meaningful physical changes mediate lexical-semantic integration: top-down and form-based bottom-up information sources interact in the N400.

    PubMed

    Lotze, Netaya; Tune, Sarah; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2011-11-01

    Models of how the human brain reconstructs an intended meaning from a linguistic input often draw upon the N400 event-related potential (ERP) component as evidence. Current accounts of the N400 emphasise either the role of contextually induced lexical preactivation of a critical word (Lau, Phillips, & Poeppel, 2008) or the ease of integration into the overall discourse context including a wide variety of influencing factors (Hagoort & van Berkum, 2007). The present ERP study challenges both types of accounts by demonstrating a contextually independent and purely form-based bottom-up influence on the N400: the N400 effect for implausible sentence-endings was attenuated when the critical sentence-final word was capitalised (following a lowercase sentence context). By contrast, no N400 modulation occurred when the critical word involved a change from uppercase (sentence context) to lowercase. Thus, the N400 was only affected by a change to uppercase letters, as is often employed in computer-mediated communication as a sign of emphasis. This result indicates that N400 amplitude is reduced for unexpected words when a bottom-up (orthographic) cue signals that the word is likely to be highly informative. The lexical-semantic N400 thereby reflects the degree to which the semantic informativity of a critical word matches expectations, as determined by an interplay between top-down and bottom-up information sources, including purely form-based bottom-up information. PMID:21939678

  19. Novel Word Lexicalization and the Prime Lexicality Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how newly learned words are integrated into the first-language lexicon using masked priming. Two lexical decision experiments are reported, with the aim of establishing whether newly learned words behave like real words in a masked form priming experiment. If they do, they should show a prime lexicality effect (PLE), in…

  20. Lexical Frequency in Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Measures of lexical frequency presuppose the existence of corpora, but true machine-readable corpora of sign languages (SLs) are only now being created. Lexical frequency ratings for SLs are needed because there has been a heavy reliance on the interpretation of results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments in the SL research…

  1. Lexical Structure and Parsing Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Suzanne; Merlo, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the consequences that the structural configuration of lexical knowledge has for the timecourse of parsing. Discusses reduced relative clauses and proposes a new lexical-structural analysis for manner of motion verbs. The article examines consequences for frequency-based models and all models whose difficulty derives from the ambiguity…

  2. Lexical Resources and Their Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellerstam, Martin

    This paper discusses computer-based resources for lexical data and their uses. First, the kinds of lexical data available are described, including those related to form (spelling, pronunciation, inflection, word class), meaning (definition/equivalent, synonyms/antonyms/hyperonyms, thesaurus classification), context (grammatical collocations,…

  3. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R.

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  4. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: Local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103

  5. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class.

  6. Effects of local lexical competition and regional dialect on vowel production.

    PubMed

    Clopper, Cynthia G; Tamati, Terrin N

    2014-07-01

    Global measures of lexical competition, such as lexical neighborhood density, assume that all phonological contrasts contribute equally to competition. However, effects of local phonetic similarity have also been observed in speech production processes, suggesting that some contrasts may lead to greater competition than others. In the current study, the effect of local lexical competition on vowel production was examined across two dialects of American English that differ in the phonetic similarity of the low-front and low-back vowel pairs. Results revealed a significant interaction between regional dialect and local lexical competition on the acoustic distance within each vowel pair. Local lexical contrast led to greater acoustic distance between vowels, as expected, but this effect was significantly enhanced for acoustically similar dialect-specific variants. These results were independent of global neighborhood density, suggesting that local lexical competition may contribute to the realization of sociolinguistic variation and phonological change.

  7. Developing a Large Lexical Database for Information Retrieval, Parsing, and Text Generation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Sumali Pin-Ngern; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Important characteristics of lexical databases and their applications in information retrieval and natural language processing are explained. An ongoing project using various machine-readable sources to build a lexical database is described, and detailed designs of individual entries with examples are included. (Contains 66 references.) (EAM)

  8. Little Frog and Toad: Interaction of Orthography and Phonology in Polish Spelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminska, Zofia

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the interaction of lexical and non-lexical processes in spelling through lexical priming of non-lexical spelling in Polish. Explains that orthographic choice for nonwords was assessed under free and primed spelling conditions for both adults and children using direct and associative priming. Finds that lexical orthography influences…

  9. Lexical alignment in triadic communication.

    PubMed

    Foltz, Anouschka; Gaspers, Judith; Thiele, Kristina; Stenneken, Prisca; Cimiano, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Lexical alignment refers to the adoption of one's interlocutor's lexical items. Accounts of the mechanisms underlying such lexical alignment differ (among other aspects) in the role assigned to addressee-centered behavior. In this study, we used a triadic communicative situation to test which factors may modulate the extent to which participants' lexical alignment reflects addressee-centered behavior. Pairs of naïve participants played a picture matching game and received information about the order in which pictures were to be matched from a voice over headphones. On critical trials, participants did or did not hear a name for the picture to be matched next over headphones. Importantly, when the voice over headphones provided a name, it did not match the name that the interlocutor had previously used to describe the object. Participants overwhelmingly used the word that the voice over headphones provided. This result points to non-addressee-centered behavior and is discussed in terms of disrupting alignment with the interlocutor as well as in terms of establishing alignment with the voice over headphones. In addition, the type of picture (line drawing vs. tangram shape) independently modulated lexical alignment, such that participants showed more lexical alignment to their interlocutor for (more ambiguous) tangram shapes compared to line drawings. Overall, the results point to a rather large role for non-addressee-centered behavior during lexical alignment.

  10. Lexical alignment in triadic communication

    PubMed Central

    Foltz, Anouschka; Gaspers, Judith; Thiele, Kristina; Stenneken, Prisca; Cimiano, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Lexical alignment refers to the adoption of one’s interlocutor’s lexical items. Accounts of the mechanisms underlying such lexical alignment differ (among other aspects) in the role assigned to addressee-centered behavior. In this study, we used a triadic communicative situation to test which factors may modulate the extent to which participants’ lexical alignment reflects addressee-centered behavior. Pairs of naïve participants played a picture matching game and received information about the order in which pictures were to be matched from a voice over headphones. On critical trials, participants did or did not hear a name for the picture to be matched next over headphones. Importantly, when the voice over headphones provided a name, it did not match the name that the interlocutor had previously used to describe the object. Participants overwhelmingly used the word that the voice over headphones provided. This result points to non-addressee-centered behavior and is discussed in terms of disrupting alignment with the interlocutor as well as in terms of establishing alignment with the voice over headphones. In addition, the type of picture (line drawing vs. tangram shape) independently modulated lexical alignment, such that participants showed more lexical alignment to their interlocutor for (more ambiguous) tangram shapes compared to line drawings. Overall, the results point to a rather large role for non-addressee-centered behavior during lexical alignment. PMID:25762955

  11. Context effects on lexical choice and lexical activation.

    PubMed

    Jescheniak, Jörg D; Hantsch, Ansgar; Schriefers, Herbert

    2005-09-01

    Speakers are regularly confronted with the choice among lexical alternatives when referring to objects, including basic-level names (e.g., car) and subordinate-level names (e.g., Beetle). Which of these names is eventually selected often depends on contextual factors. The present article reports a series of picture-word interference experiments that explored how the designated target name (basic level vs. subordinate level) and contextual constraints rendering the name alternative either appropriate or inappropriate affect lexical activation and lexical choice. The experimental data demonstrate clear context effects on the eventual lexical choice. However, they also show that alternative nonselected object names are phonologically activated, even if a constraining context makes these alternative names currently inappropriate. PMID:16248741

  12. Lexical ambiguity resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Small, S.; Cottrell, G.; Tanenhaus, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book collects much of the best research currently available on the problem of lexical ambiguity resolution in the processing of human language. When taken out of context, sentences are usually ambiguous. When actually uttered in a dialogue or written in text, these same sentences often have unique interpretations. The inherent ambiguity of isolated sentences, becomes obvious in the attempt to write a computer program to understand them. Different views have emerged on the nature of context and the mechanisms by which it directs unambiguous understanding of words and sentences. These perspectives are represented and discussed. Eighteen original papers from a valuable source book for cognitive scientists in AI, psycholinguistics, neuropsychology, or theoretical linguistics.

  13. Effects of Attention on the Strength of Lexical Influences on Speech Perception: Behavioral Experiments and Computational Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; McClelland, James L.; Holt, Lori L.; Magnuson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of lexical context on phonological processing are pervasive and there have been indications that such effects may be modulated by attention. However, attentional modulation in speech processing is neither well-documented nor well-understood. Experiment 1 demonstrated attentional modulation of lexical facilitation of speech sound recognition when task and critical stimuli were identical across attention conditions. We propose modulation of lexical activation as a neurophysiologically-plausible computational mechanism that can account for this type of modulation. Contrary to the claims of critics, this mechanism can account for attentional modulation without violating the principle of interactive processing. Simulations of the interactive TRACE model extended to include two different ways of modulating lexical activation showed that each can account for attentional modulation of lexical feedback effects. Experiment 2 tested conflicting predictions from the two implementations and provided evidence that is consistent with bias input as the mechanism of attentional control of lexical activation. PMID:18509503

  14. Psychocentricity and participant profiles: implications for lexical processing among multilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Libben, Gary; Curtiss, Kaitlin; Weber, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Lexical processing among bilinguals is often affected by complex patterns of individual experience. In this paper we discuss the psychocentric perspective on language representation and processing, which highlights the centrality of individual experience in psycholinguistic experimentation. We discuss applications to the investigation of lexical processing among multilinguals and explore the advantages of using high-density experiments with multilinguals. High density experiments are designed to co-index measures of lexical perception and production, as well as participant profiles. We discuss the challenges associated with the characterization of participant profiles and present a new data visualization technique, that we term Facial Profiles. This technique is based on Chernoff faces developed over 40 years ago. The Facial Profile technique seeks to overcome some of the challenges associated with the use of Chernoff faces, while maintaining the core insight that recoding multivariate data as facial features can engage the human face recognition system and thus enhance our ability to detect and interpret patterns within multivariate datasets. We demonstrate that Facial Profiles can code participant characteristics in lexical processing studies by recoding variables such as reading ability, speaking ability, and listening ability into iconically-related relative sizes of eye, mouth, and ear, respectively. The balance of ability in bilinguals can be captured by creating composite facial profiles or Janus Facial Profiles. We demonstrate the use of Facial Profiles and Janus Facial Profiles in the characterization of participant effects in the study of lexical perception and production. PMID:25071614

  15. Comparing Nouns and Verbs in a Lexical Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordier, Francoise; Croizet, Jean-Claude; Rigalleau, Francois

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the differential processing of nouns and verbs in a lexical decision task. Moderate and high-frequency nouns and verbs were compared. The characteristics of our material were specified at the formal level (number of letters and syllables, number of homographs, orthographic neighbors, frequency and age of acquisition), and at the…

  16. Semantic richness effects in lexical decision: The role of feedback.

    PubMed

    Yap, Melvin J; Lim, Gail Y; Pexman, Penny M

    2015-11-01

    Across lexical processing tasks, it is well established that words with richer semantic representations are recognized faster. This suggests that the lexical system has access to meaning before a word is fully identified, and is consistent with a theoretical framework based on interactive and cascaded processing. Specifically, semantic richness effects are argued to be produced by feedback from semantic representations to lower-level representations. The present study explores the extent to which richness effects are mediated by feedback from lexical- to letter-level representations. In two lexical decision experiments, we examined the joint effects of stimulus quality and four semantic richness dimensions (imageability, number of features, semantic neighborhood density, semantic diversity). With the exception of semantic diversity, robust additive effects of stimulus quality and richness were observed for the targeted dimensions. Our results suggest that semantic feedback does not typically reach earlier levels of representation in lexical decision, and further reinforces the idea that task context modulates the processing dynamics of early word recognition processes. PMID:26155967

  17. Predicting Lexical Proficiency in Language Learner Texts Using Computational Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.; Jarvis, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a model of lexical proficiency based on lexical indices related to vocabulary size, depth of lexical knowledge, and accessibility to core lexical items. The lexical indices used in this study come from the computational tool Coh-Metrix and include word length scores, lexical diversity values, word frequency counts, hypernymy…

  18. Conflicting Strategies and Hemispheric Suppression in a Lexical Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Barbara J.; Lutz, Kevin T.

    2004-01-01

    The research tests the prediction of the inhibitory-interaction hypothesis (Wey, Cook, Landis, Regard, & Graves, 1993) that experience with a task accentuates the functional imbalance between the hemispheres. Right-handed males who were experienced readers were presented a letter string to the centre visual field for lexical decision. The string…

  19. Perception of Lexical Stress by Brain-Damaged Individuals: Effects on Lexical-Semantic Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Amee P.; Baum, Shari R.

    2006-01-01

    A semantic priming, lexical-decision study was conducted to examine the ability of left- and right-brain damaged individuals to perceive lexical-stress cues and map them onto lexical-semantic representations. Correctly and incorrectly stressed primes were paired with related and unrelated target words to tap implicit processing of lexical prosody.…

  20. Lexical Processing in Spanish Sign Language (LSE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreiras, Manuel; Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Baquero, Silvia; Corina, David

    2008-01-01

    Lexical access is concerned with how the spoken or visual input of language is projected onto the mental representations of lexical forms. To date, most theories of lexical access have been based almost exclusively on studies of spoken languages and/or orthographic representations of spoken languages. Relatively few studies have examined how…

  1. Lexical Integration of Novel Words without Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Shane; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Learning a new word involves integration with existing lexical knowledge. Previous work has shown that sleep-associated memory consolidation processes are important for the engagement of novel items in lexical competition. In 3 experiments we used spaced exposure regimes to investigate memory for novel words and whether lexical integration can…

  2. Lexical Entrainment and Lexical Differentiation in Reference Phrase Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Wege, Mija M.

    2009-01-01

    Speakers reuse prior references to objects when choosing reference phrases, a phenomenon known as lexical entrainment. One explanation is that speakers want to maintain a set of previously established referential precedents. Speakers may also contrast any new referents against this previously established set, thereby avoiding applying the same…

  3. Context Effects on Lexical Choice and Lexical Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jescheniak, Jorg D.; Hantsch, Ansgar; Schriefers, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Speakers are regularly confronted with the choice among lexical alternatives when referring to objects, including basic-level names (e.g., car) and subordinate-level names (e.g., Beetle). Which of these names is eventually selected often depends on contextual factors. The present article reports a series of picture-word interference experiments…

  4. Looking through phonological shape to lexical meaning: the bottleneck of non-native sign language processing.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, R I; Fischer, S D

    1989-11-01

    In two studies, we find that native and non-native acquisition show different effects on sign language processing. Subjects were all born deaf and used sign language for interpersonal communication, but first acquired it at ages ranging from birth to 18. In the first study, deaf signers shadowed (simultaneously watched and reproduced) sign language narratives given in two dialects, American Sign Language (ASL) and Pidgin Sign English (PSE), in both good and poor viewing conditions. In the second study, deaf signers recalled and shadowed grammatical and ungrammatical ASL sentences. In comparison with non-native signers, natives were more accurate, comprehended better, and made different kinds of lexical changes; natives primarily changed signs in relation to sign meaning independent of the phonological characteristics of the stimulus. In contrast, non-native signers primarily changed signs in relation to the phonological characteristics of the stimulus independent of lexical and sentential meaning. Semantic lexical changes were positively correlated to processing accuracy and comprehension, whereas phonological lexical changes were negatively correlated. The effects of non-native acquisition were similar across variations in the sign dialect, viewing condition, and processing task. The results suggest that native signers process lexical structural automatically, such that they can attend to and remember lexical and sentential meaning. In contrast, non-native signers appear to allocate more attention to the task of identifying phonological shape such that they have less attention available for retrieval and memory of lexical meaning.

  5. Evaluation of Polymer-Filler Interaction Characteristics by Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ratto, T; Saab, A

    2007-04-23

    Silicone polymers are frequently used as cushions and inserts between load bearing parts. In this capacity, they must act to position their associated parts and distribute mechanical force as appropriate. One type of failure is specific to silicones that are filled with high surface area particulates for purposes of tailoring the polymer compressive properties. Additives such as fumed silicon oxide are presumed to have a high degree of surface interaction with the polymer matrix, thus causing the polymer to stiffen and to display greater dimensional stability as a function of temperature. However, it has been observed that the compressive behavior of these materials is not always invariant over long times. There is evidence that suggests changes in humidity and temperature can irreversibly alter the silicone-filler interaction, thereby changing the overall characteristics of parts made from such materials. As before, changes in compressive or shear stability can have serious effects on the ability of these materials to effectively position precision parts or distribute high mechanical loads. We approach the analysis of the filled systems by creating controlled layers of silicone polymers attached to silicon oxide substrates. Straight chain vinyl-silicone polymers identical to those used in the formulation of pads for stockpile systems are chemically appended to a substrate surface, and cross-linked to form a three dimensional network. This type of structure serves as a model of silicone polymer coating a silicon oxide filler particle. We study these model systems first by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to image the samples with nanometer resolution, and then by measuring the forces of interactions between single model silica filler particles and polymer-coated surfaces. We use normal longitudinal force AFM to measure adhesion, and a relatively newly developed technique, lateral force AFM, to determine the frictional forces between the silica particles and the

  6. Traversing the Lexical Cohesion Minefield

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Iain

    2009-01-01

    When teachers hear the word "cohesion", they usually think of grammatical cohesion--an aspect of cohesion reasonably well covered in student books and teacher materials. However, occupying an area that straddles both lexis "proper" and cohesion lies "lexical cohesion". In what follows, it is argued that the teaching and learning of certain aspects…

  7. Retention in SLA Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

    2011-01-01

    Second language learners are faced with the challenging task of remembering many new words. Exactly how learners are supposed to accomplish that task is disputed. Research on lexical processing that has been carried out in cognitive psychology showed that rehearsing words in expanded patterns, that is, with a delay between each rehearsal, leads to…

  8. Lexical Changes in Modern Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, James

    1976-01-01

    This paper studies the lexical changes between pre-1949 Mandarin and the pu-tong-hua of today. The extent of change and the identification and description of a few cases of linguistic change are considered. The relative significance of these changes and remarks on pedagogy conclude the paper. (Author/CFM)

  9. Lexical ambiguity in sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Robert A.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2009-01-01

    An event-related fMRI paradigm was used to investigate brain activity during the reading of sentences containing either a lexically ambiguous word or an unambiguous control word. Higher levels of activation occurred during the reading of sentences containing a lexical ambiguity. Furthermore, the activated cortical network differed, depending on: (1) whether the sentence contained a balanced (i.e., both meanings equally likely) or a biased (i.e., one meaning more likely than other meanings) ambiguous word; and, (2) the working memory capacity of the individual as assessed by reading span. The findings suggest that encountering a lexical ambiguity is dealt with by activating multiple meanings utilizing processes involving both hemispheres. When an early interpretation of a biased ambiguous word is later disambiguated to the subordinate meaning, the superior frontal cortex activates in response to the coherence break and the right inferior frontal gyrus and the insula activate, possibly to suppress the incorrect interpretation. Negative correlations between reading span scores and activation in the right hemisphere for both types of ambiguous words suggest that readers with lower spans are more likely to involve show right hemisphere involvement in the processing of the ambiguity. A positive correlation between reading span scores and insula activation appearing only for biased sentences disambiguated to the subordinate meaning indicates that individuals with higher spans were more likely to initially maintain both meanings and as a result had to suppress the unintended dominant meaning. PMID:17433891

  10. Neural correlates of lexical access during visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Binder, J R; McKiernan, K A; Parsons, M E; Westbury, C F; Possing, E T; Kaufman, J N; Buchanan, L

    2003-04-01

    People can discriminate real words from nonwords even when the latter are orthographically and phonologically word-like, presumably because words activate specific lexical and/or semantic information. We investigated the neural correlates of this identification process using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants performed a visual lexical decision task under conditions that encouraged specific word identification: Nonwords were matched to words on orthographic and phonologic characteristics, and accuracy was emphasized over speed. To identify neural responses associated with activation of nonsemantic lexical information, processing of words and nonwords with many lexical neighbors was contrasted with processing of items with no neighbors. The fMRI data showed robust differences in activation by words and word-like nonwords, with stronger word activation occurring in a distributed, left hemisphere network previously associated with semantic processing, and stronger nonword activation occurring in a posterior inferior frontal area previously associated with grapheme-to-phoneme mapping. Contrary to lexicon-based models of word recognition, there were no brain areas in which activation increased with neighborhood size. For words, activation in the left prefrontal, angular gyrus, and ventrolateral temporal areas was stronger for items without neighbors, probably because accurate responses to these items were more dependent on activation of semantic information. The results show neural correlates of access to specific word information. The absence of facilitatory lexical neighborhood effects on activation in these brain regions argues for an interpretation in terms of semantic access. Because subjects performed the same task throughout, the results are unlikely to be due to task-specific attentional, strategic, or expectancy effects.

  11. Lexical Expertise and Reading Skill: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processing of Lexical Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Sally; Bond, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    The lexical quality hypothesis assumes that skilled readers rely on high quality lexical representations that afford autonomous lexical retrieval and reduce the need to rely on top-down context. This experiment investigated this hypothesis by comparing the performance of adults classified on reading comprehension and spelling performance. "Lexical…

  12. Lexical Stress and Linguistic Predictability Influence Proofreading Behavior.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lindsay N; Perfetti, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that the segmental (i.e., phonemic) layer of phonology is routinely activated during reading, but little is known about whether phonological activation extends beyond phonemes to subsegmental layers (which include articulatory information, such as voicing) and suprasegmental layers (which include prosodic information, such as lexical stress). In three proofreading experiments, we show that spelling errors are detected more reliably in syllables that are stressed than in syllables that are unstressed if comprehension is a goal of the reader, indicating that suprasegmental phonology is both active during silent reading and can influence orthographic processes. In Experiment 1, participants received instructions to read for both errors and comprehension, and we found that the effect of lexical stress interacted with linguistic predictability, such that detection of errors in more predictable words was aided by stress but detection of errors in less predictable words was not. This finding suggests that lexical stress patterns can be accessed prelexically if an upcoming word is sufficiently predictable from context. Participants with stronger vocabularies showed decreased effects of stress on task performance, which is consistent with previous findings that more skilled readers are less swayed by phonological information in decisions about orthographic form. In two subsequent experiments, participants were instructed to read only for errors (Experiment 2) or only for comprehension (Experiment 3); the effect of stress disappeared when participants read for errors and reappeared when participants read for comprehension, reconfirming our hypothesis that predictability is a driver of lexical stress effects. In all experiments, errors were detected more reliably in words that were difficult to predict from context than in words that were highly predictable. Taken together, this series of experiments contributes two important findings to the field

  13. Lexical Stress and Linguistic Predictability Influence Proofreading Behavior.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lindsay N; Perfetti, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that the segmental (i.e., phonemic) layer of phonology is routinely activated during reading, but little is known about whether phonological activation extends beyond phonemes to subsegmental layers (which include articulatory information, such as voicing) and suprasegmental layers (which include prosodic information, such as lexical stress). In three proofreading experiments, we show that spelling errors are detected more reliably in syllables that are stressed than in syllables that are unstressed if comprehension is a goal of the reader, indicating that suprasegmental phonology is both active during silent reading and can influence orthographic processes. In Experiment 1, participants received instructions to read for both errors and comprehension, and we found that the effect of lexical stress interacted with linguistic predictability, such that detection of errors in more predictable words was aided by stress but detection of errors in less predictable words was not. This finding suggests that lexical stress patterns can be accessed prelexically if an upcoming word is sufficiently predictable from context. Participants with stronger vocabularies showed decreased effects of stress on task performance, which is consistent with previous findings that more skilled readers are less swayed by phonological information in decisions about orthographic form. In two subsequent experiments, participants were instructed to read only for errors (Experiment 2) or only for comprehension (Experiment 3); the effect of stress disappeared when participants read for errors and reappeared when participants read for comprehension, reconfirming our hypothesis that predictability is a driver of lexical stress effects. In all experiments, errors were detected more reliably in words that were difficult to predict from context than in words that were highly predictable. Taken together, this series of experiments contributes two important findings to the field

  14. Lexical Stress and Linguistic Predictability Influence Proofreading Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Lindsay N.; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that the segmental (i.e., phonemic) layer of phonology is routinely activated during reading, but little is known about whether phonological activation extends beyond phonemes to subsegmental layers (which include articulatory information, such as voicing) and suprasegmental layers (which include prosodic information, such as lexical stress). In three proofreading experiments, we show that spelling errors are detected more reliably in syllables that are stressed than in syllables that are unstressed if comprehension is a goal of the reader, indicating that suprasegmental phonology is both active during silent reading and can influence orthographic processes. In Experiment 1, participants received instructions to read for both errors and comprehension, and we found that the effect of lexical stress interacted with linguistic predictability, such that detection of errors in more predictable words was aided by stress but detection of errors in less predictable words was not. This finding suggests that lexical stress patterns can be accessed prelexically if an upcoming word is sufficiently predictable from context. Participants with stronger vocabularies showed decreased effects of stress on task performance, which is consistent with previous findings that more skilled readers are less swayed by phonological information in decisions about orthographic form. In two subsequent experiments, participants were instructed to read only for errors (Experiment 2) or only for comprehension (Experiment 3); the effect of stress disappeared when participants read for errors and reappeared when participants read for comprehension, reconfirming our hypothesis that predictability is a driver of lexical stress effects. In all experiments, errors were detected more reliably in words that were difficult to predict from context than in words that were highly predictable. Taken together, this series of experiments contributes two important findings to the field

  15. Sensitivity to the acoustic correlates of lexical stress and their relationship to reading in skilled readers.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gareth J; Wood, Clare

    2012-01-01

    The role of suprasegmental information in reading processes is a growing area of interest, and sensitivity to lexical stress has been shown to explain unique variance in reading development. However, less is known about its role in skilled reading. This study aimed to investigate the acoustic features of suprasegmental information using a same/different cross-modal matching task. Sixty-four adult participants completed standardized measures of reading accuracy, reading speed, and comprehension and performed an experimental task. The experimental task required the participants to identify whether non-speech acoustic sequences matched the characteristics of written words. The findings indicated differences in responses depending on where the lexical stress was required for the word. Moreover, evidence was found to support the view that amplitude information is part of the word knowledge retrieval process in skilled reading. The findings are discussed relative to models of reading and the role of lexical stress in lexical access.

  16. Young Children's Sibling Relationship Interactional Types: Associations with Family Characteristics, Parenting, and Child Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Wendy C.; Yu, Jeong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examines patterns of sibling relationship qualities or interactional types and their association with family characteristics, parenting, and the characteristics of 1 of those children. Participants were 65 children (34 boys; Time 1 mean age = 51 months), their mothers, fathers, and Head Start teachers. Approximately…

  17. Cascading activation from lexical processing to letter-level processing in written word production.

    PubMed

    Buchwald, Adam; Falconer, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of language production have identified processes involved in producing language and the presence and type of interaction among those processes. In the case of spoken language production, consensus has emerged that there is interaction among lexical selection processes and phoneme-level processing. This issue has received less attention in written language production. In this paper, we present a novel analysis of the writing-to-dictation performance of an individual with acquired dysgraphia revealing cascading activation from lexical processing to letter-level processing. The individual produced frequent lexical-semantic errors (e.g., chipmunk → SQUIRREL) as well as letter errors (e.g., inhibit → INBHITI) and had a profile consistent with impairment affecting both lexical processing and letter-level processing. The presence of cascading activation is suggested by lower letter accuracy on words that are more weakly activated during lexical selection than on those that are more strongly activated. We operationalize weakly activated lexemes as those lexemes that are produced as lexical-semantic errors (e.g., lethal in deadly → LETAHL) compared to strongly activated lexemes where the intended target word (e.g., lethal) is the lexeme selected for production. PMID:25163539

  18. Disentangling early language development: modeling lexical and grammatical acquisition using an extension of case-study methodology.

    PubMed

    Robinson, B F; Mervis, C B

    1998-03-01

    The early lexical and grammatical development of 1 male child is examined with growth curves and dynamic-systems modeling procedures. Lexical-development described a pattern of logistic growth (R2 = .98). Lexical and plural development shared the following characteristics: Plural growth began only after a threshold was reached in vocabulary size; lexical growth slowed as plural growth increased. As plural use reached full mastery, lexical growth began again to increase. It was hypothesized that a precursor model (P. van Geert, 1991) would fit these data. Subsequent testing indicated that the precursor model, modified to incorporate brief yet intensive plural growth, provided a suitable fit. The value of the modified precursor model for the explication of processes implicated in language development is discussed.

  19. The roles of long-term phonotactic and lexical prosodic knowledge in phonological short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Tanida, Yuki; Ueno, Taiji; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Saito, Satoru

    2015-04-01

    Many previous studies have explored and confirmed the influence of long-term phonological representations on phonological short-term memory. In most investigations, phonological effects have been explored with respect to phonotactic constraints or frequency. If interaction between long-term memory and phonological short-term memory is a generalized principle, then other phonological characteristics-that is, suprasegmental aspects of phonology-should also exert similar effects on phonological short-term memory. We explored this hypothesis through three immediate serial-recall experiments that manipulated Japanese nonwords with respect to lexical prosody (pitch-accent type, reflecting suprasegmental characteristics) as well as phonotactic frequency (reflecting segmental characteristics). The results showed that phonotactic frequency affected the retention not only of the phonemic sequences, but also of pitch-accent patterns, when participants were instructed to recall both the phoneme sequence and accent pattern of nonwords. In addition, accent pattern typicality influenced the retention of the accent pattern: Typical accent patterns were recalled more accurately than atypical ones. These results indicate that both long-term phonotactic and lexical prosodic knowledge contribute to phonological short-term memory performance.

  20. Semantic Richness and Aging: The Effect of Number of Features in the Lexical Decision Task.

    PubMed

    Robert, Christelle; Rico Duarte, Liliana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the effect of semantic richness in visual word recognition (i.e., words with a rich semantic representation are faster to recognize than words with a poorer semantic representation), is changed with aging. Semantic richness was investigated by manipulating the number of features of words (NOF), i.e., the number of characteristics that describe the meaning of words. Half of the words had a high NOF and the other half had a low NOF. Young adults (19.6 years) and older adults (66.3 years) performed a lexical decision task. An interaction was found between age group and NOF on word latencies. More precisely, a facilitatory effect of NOF was observed for the young adults, but not for the older ones. These data are consistent with the assumption of an age-related decline in feedback activation from semantics to orthography.

  1. Semantic Richness and Aging: The Effect of Number of Features in the Lexical Decision Task.

    PubMed

    Robert, Christelle; Rico Duarte, Liliana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the effect of semantic richness in visual word recognition (i.e., words with a rich semantic representation are faster to recognize than words with a poorer semantic representation), is changed with aging. Semantic richness was investigated by manipulating the number of features of words (NOF), i.e., the number of characteristics that describe the meaning of words. Half of the words had a high NOF and the other half had a low NOF. Young adults (19.6 years) and older adults (66.3 years) performed a lexical decision task. An interaction was found between age group and NOF on word latencies. More precisely, a facilitatory effect of NOF was observed for the young adults, but not for the older ones. These data are consistent with the assumption of an age-related decline in feedback activation from semantics to orthography. PMID:25680348

  2. Effects of lexical prosody and word familiarity on lexical access of spoken Japanese words.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Takahiro

    2006-07-01

    Lexical prosody (e.g., stress and pitch accent) has been shown to constrain lexical activation of spoken words in various languages. In the present study, whether or not the constraint of lexical prosody is affected by word familiarity in lexical access of Japanese words was examined using a cross-modal priming task. The stimuli were pairs of prosodically different homophones (minimal accent pairs). When the targets were more familiar members of minimal accent pairs, the responses were facilitated by prior presentations of primes that were prosodically different homophones of the targets, suggesting that lexical prosody did not constrain lexical activation. In contrast, when less familiar members of minimal accent pairs were used as the targets, the prosodically different homophones did not facilitate the responses to the targets. These results suggest that the constraint of lexical prosody is not so strong but is affected by the factor of word relative familiarity.

  3. Neonatal Characteristics and Directional Effects in Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.

    This study of 134 mothers and their newborn infants evaluated the relationships between neonatal style and mother-infant interaction. The procedure included a newborn assessment with the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale and two mother-infant interaction observations, one carried out during feeding and the other during a semi-structured…

  4. Typical and Delayed Lexical Development in Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Frigerio, Alessandra; Sali, Maria Enrica; Spataro, Pietro; Longobardi, Emiddia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989) was used to compare Italian and English lexical development. The authors addressed the issue of universal versus language-specific aspects of lexical development by testing language, age, and gender effects on vocabulary scores and by comparing vocabulary composition across languages.…

  5. Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

  6. Dialectal Variation in the Lexical Tone System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remijsen, Bert

    2001-01-01

    Discusses dialectal variation in the lexical tone system of Ma'ya, an Austronesian language featuring three lexically contrastive tonemes. Representative acoustic data were collected from the Missol, Slawati, and Laganyan dialects, and on the basis of these data, an account is given of their tone systems and of how these tone systems compare to…

  7. Priming Lexical Stress in Reading Italian Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; Job, Remo; Burani, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments using a lexical priming paradigm investigated how stress information is processed in reading Italian words. In both experiments, prime and target words either shared the stress pattern or they had different stress patterns. We expected that lexical activation of the prime would favour the assignment of congruent stress to the…

  8. Metrical expectations from preceding prosody influence perception of lexical stress.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meredith; Salverda, Anne Pier; Dilley, Laura C; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2015-04-01

    Two visual-world experiments tested the hypothesis that expectations based on preceding prosody influence the perception of suprasegmental cues to lexical stress. The results demonstrate that listeners' consideration of competing alternatives with different stress patterns (e.g., 'jury/gi'raffe) can be influenced by the fundamental frequency and syllable timing patterns across material preceding a target word. When preceding stressed syllables distal to the target word shared pitch and timing characteristics with the first syllable of the target word, pictures of alternatives with primary lexical stress on the first syllable (e.g., jury) initially attracted more looks than alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe). This effect was modulated when preceding unstressed syllables had pitch and timing characteristics similar to the initial syllable of the target word, with more looks to alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe) than to those with stressed initial syllables (e.g., jury). These findings suggest that expectations about the acoustic realization of upcoming speech include information about metrical organization and lexical stress and that these expectations constrain the initial interpretation of suprasegmental stress cues. These distal prosody effects implicate online probabilistic inferences about the sources of acoustic-phonetic variation during spoken-word recognition.

  9. Metrical expectations from preceding prosody influence perception of lexical stress.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meredith; Salverda, Anne Pier; Dilley, Laura C; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2015-04-01

    Two visual-world experiments tested the hypothesis that expectations based on preceding prosody influence the perception of suprasegmental cues to lexical stress. The results demonstrate that listeners' consideration of competing alternatives with different stress patterns (e.g., 'jury/gi'raffe) can be influenced by the fundamental frequency and syllable timing patterns across material preceding a target word. When preceding stressed syllables distal to the target word shared pitch and timing characteristics with the first syllable of the target word, pictures of alternatives with primary lexical stress on the first syllable (e.g., jury) initially attracted more looks than alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe). This effect was modulated when preceding unstressed syllables had pitch and timing characteristics similar to the initial syllable of the target word, with more looks to alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe) than to those with stressed initial syllables (e.g., jury). These findings suggest that expectations about the acoustic realization of upcoming speech include information about metrical organization and lexical stress and that these expectations constrain the initial interpretation of suprasegmental stress cues. These distal prosody effects implicate online probabilistic inferences about the sources of acoustic-phonetic variation during spoken-word recognition. PMID:25621583

  10. Metrical expectations from preceding prosody influence perception of lexical stress

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meredith; Salverda, Anne Pier; Dilley, Laura C.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Two visual-world experiments tested the hypothesis that expectations based on preceding prosody influence the perception of suprasegmental cues to lexical stress. The results demonstrate that listeners’ consideration of competing alternatives with different stress patterns (e.g., ‘jury/gi’raffe) can be influenced by the fundamental frequency and syllable timing patterns across material preceding a target word. When preceding stressed syllables distal to the target word shared pitch and timing characteristics with the first syllable of the target word, pictures of alternatives with primary lexical stress on the first syllable (e.g., jury) initially attracted more looks than alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe). This effect was modulated when preceding unstressed syllables had pitch and timing characteristics similar to the initial syllable of the target word, with more looks to alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe) than to those with stressed initial syllables (e.g., jury). These findings suggest that expectations about the acoustic realization of upcoming speech include information about metrical organization and lexical stress, and that these expectations constrain the initial interpretation of suprasegmental stress cues. These distal prosody effects implicate on-line probabilistic inferences about the sources of acoustic-phonetic variation during spoken-word recognition. PMID:25621583

  11. Modeling the lexical morphology of Western handwritten signatures.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Cabrera, Moises; Ferrer, Miguel A; Morales, Aythami

    2015-01-01

    A handwritten signature is the final response to a complex cognitive and neuromuscular process which is the result of the learning process. Because of the many factors involved in signing, it is possible to study the signature from many points of view: graphologists, forensic experts, neurologists and computer vision experts have all examined them. Researchers study written signatures for psychiatric, penal, health and automatic verification purposes. As a potentially useful, multi-purpose study, this paper is focused on the lexical morphology of handwritten signatures. This we understand to mean the identification, analysis, and description of the signature structures of a given signer. In this work we analyze different public datasets involving 1533 signers from different Western geographical areas. Some relevant characteristics of signature lexical morphology have been selected, examined in terms of their probability distribution functions and modeled through a General Extreme Value distribution. This study suggests some useful models for multi-disciplinary sciences which depend on handwriting signatures.

  12. Modeling the Lexical Morphology of Western Handwritten Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Cabrera, Moises; Ferrer, Miguel A.; Morales, Aythami

    2015-01-01

    A handwritten signature is the final response to a complex cognitive and neuromuscular process which is the result of the learning process. Because of the many factors involved in signing, it is possible to study the signature from many points of view: graphologists, forensic experts, neurologists and computer vision experts have all examined them. Researchers study written signatures for psychiatric, penal, health and automatic verification purposes. As a potentially useful, multi-purpose study, this paper is focused on the lexical morphology of handwritten signatures. This we understand to mean the identification, analysis, and description of the signature structures of a given signer. In this work we analyze different public datasets involving 1533 signers from different Western geographical areas. Some relevant characteristics of signature lexical morphology have been selected, examined in terms of their probability distribution functions and modeled through a General Extreme Value distribution. This study suggests some useful models for multi-disciplinary sciences which depend on handwriting signatures. PMID:25860942

  13. Insights into failed lexical retrieval from network science

    PubMed Central

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Chan, Kit Ying; Goldstein, Rutherford

    2013-01-01

    Previous network analyses of the phonological lexicon (Vitevitch, 2008) observed a web-like structure that exhibited assortative mixing by degree: words with dense phonological neighborhoods tend to have as neighbors words that also have dense phonological neighborhoods, and words with sparse phonological neighborhoods tend to have as neighbors words that also have sparse phonological neighborhoods. Given the role that assortative mixing by degree plays in network resilience, we examined instances of real and simulated lexical retrieval failures in computer simulations, analysis of a slips-of-the-ear corpus, and three psycholinguistic experiments for evidence of this network characteristic in human behavior. The results of the various analyses support the hypothesis that the structure of words in the mental lexicon influences lexical processing. The implications of network science for current models of spoken word recognition, language processing, and cognitive psychology more generally are discussed. PMID:24269488

  14. How Noisy is Lexical Decision?

    PubMed

    Diependaele, Kevin; Brysbaert, Marc; Neri, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Lexical decision is one of the most frequently used tasks in word recognition research. Theoretical conclusions are typically derived from a linear model on the reaction times (RTs) of correct word trials only (e.g., linear regression and ANOVA). Although these models estimate random measurement error for RTs, considering only correct trials implicitly assumes that word/non-word categorizations are without noise: words receive a yes-response because they have been recognized, and they receive a no-response when they are not known. Hence, when participants are presented with the same stimuli on two separate occasions, they are expected to give the same response. We demonstrate that this not true and that responses in a lexical decision task suffer from inconsistency in participants' response choice, meaning that RTs of "correct" word responses include RTs of trials on which participants did not recognize the stimulus. We obtained estimates of this internal noise using established methods from sensory psychophysics (Burgess and Colborne, 1988). The results show similar noise values as in typical psychophysical signal detection experiments when sensitivity and response bias are taken into account (Neri, 2010). These estimates imply that, with an optimal choice model, only 83-91% of the response choices can be explained (i.e., can be used to derive theoretical conclusions). For word responses, word frequencies below 10 per million yield alarmingly low percentages of consistent responses (near 50%). The same analysis can be applied to RTs, yielding noise estimates about three times higher. Correspondingly, the estimated amount of consistent trial-level variance in RTs is only 8%. These figures are especially relevant given the recent popularity of trial-level lexical decision models using the linear mixed-effects approach (e.g., Baayen et al., 2008).

  15. Effect of grammatical gender and semantic context on lexical access in Italian.

    PubMed

    Bentrovato, S; Devescovi, A; D'Amico, S; Bates, E

    1999-11-01

    The interacting effects of sentence context and grammatical gender on lexical access were investigated in Italian using a timed picture-naming paradigm. Results showed large interacting effects of both sentence context and the gender of the article, with facilitation relative to two different control conditions. Repeat testing yielded an overall decrease in RT, but did not change the pattern of results. Results are interpreted in support of interactive activation models in which different sources of information are combined "on-line" to predict, anticipate or preactivate lexical targets.

  16. Processing Cantonese lexical tones: Evidence from oddball paradigms.

    PubMed

    Jia, S; Tsang, Y-K; Huang, J; Chen, H-C

    2015-10-01

    Two event-related potential (ERP) experiments were conducted to investigate whether Cantonese lexical tones are processed with general auditory perception mechanisms and/or a special speech module. Two tonal features (f0 direction and f0 height deviation) were manipulated to reflect acoustic processing, and the contrast between syllables and hums was used to reveal the involvement of a speech module. Experiment 1 adopted a passive oddball paradigm to study a relatively early stage of tonal processing. Mismatch negativity (MMN) and novelty P3 (P3a) were modulated by the interaction between tonal feature and stimulus type. Similar interactions were found for N2 and P3 in Experiment 2, where more in-depth tonal processing was examined with an active oddball paradigm. Moreover, detecting tonal deviants of syllables elicited N1 and P2 that were not found in hum detection. Together, these findings suggest that the processing of lexical tone relies on both acoustic and linguistic processes from the early stage. Another noteworthy finding is the absence of brain lateralization in both experiments, which challenges the use of a lateralization pattern as evidence for processing lexical tones through a special speech module.

  17. The effects of neighborhood frequency in reading and lexical decision.

    PubMed

    Perea, M; Pollatsek, A

    1998-06-01

    To test the effect of the frequency of orthographic "neighbors" on the identification of a printed word, two sets of words were constructed (equated on the number of neighbors, word frequency, and number of letters); in one set, the words had no higher frequency neighbors and in the other set, they had at least one higher frequency neighbor. Identification was slower for the latter set. In Experiment 1, this was indexed by longer response times in a lexical decision task. In Experiment 2, the target words were embedded in sentences, and slower identification was indexed by disruptions in reading: more regressions back to the words with higher frequency neighbors and longer fixations on the text immediately following these words. The latter results indicate that a higher frequency neighbor affects relatively late stages of lexical access, an interpretation consistent with both activation-verification and interactive activation models.

  18. Lexical mediation of phonotactic frequency effects on spoken word recognition: A Granger causality analysis of MRI-constrained MEG/EEG data

    PubMed Central

    Gow, David W.; Olson, Bruna B.

    2015-01-01

    Phonotactic frequency effects play a crucial role in a number of debates over language processing and representation. It is unclear however, whether these effects reflect prelexical sensitivity to phonotactic frequency, or lexical “gang effects” in speech perception. In this paper, we use Granger causality analysis of MR-constrained MEG/EEG data to understand how phonotactic frequency influences neural processing dynamics during auditory lexical decision. Effective connectivity analysis showed weaker feedforward influence from brain regions involved in acoustic-phonetic processing (superior temporal gyrus) to lexical areas (supramarginal gyrus) for high phonotactic frequency words, but stronger top-down lexical influence for the same items. Low entropy nonwords (nonwords judged to closely resemble real words) showed a similar pattern of interactions between brain regions involved in lexical and acoustic-phonetic processing. These results contradict the predictions of a feedforward model of phonotactic frequency facilitation, but support the predictions of a lexically mediated account. PMID:25883413

  19. Acoustic and Perceptual Effects of Dysarthria in Greek with a Focus on Lexical Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakyritsis, Ioannis

    The field of motor speech disorders in Greek is substantially underresearched. Additionally, acoustic studies on lexical stress in dysarthria are generally very rare (Kim et al. 2010). This dissertation examined the acoustic and perceptual effects of Greek dysarthria focusing on lexical stress. Additional possibly deviant speech characteristics were acoustically analyzed. Data from three dysarthric participants and matched controls was analyzed using a case study design. The analysis of lexical stress was based on data drawn from a single word repetition task that included pairs of disyllabic words differentiated by stress location. This data was acoustically analyzed in terms of the use of the acoustic cues for Greek stress. The ability of the dysarthric participants to signal stress in single words was further assessed in a stress identification task carried out by 14 naive Greek listeners. Overall, the acoustic and perceptual data indicated that, although all three dysarthric speakers presented with some difficulty in the patterning of stressed and unstressed syllables, each had different underlying problems that gave rise to quite distinct patterns of deviant speech characteristics. The atypical use of lexical stress cues in Anna's data obscured the prominence relations of stressed and unstressed syllables to the extent that the position of lexical stress was usually not perceptually transparent. Chris and Maria on the other hand, did not have marked difficulties signaling lexical stress location, although listeners were not 100% successful in the stress identification task. For the most part, Chris' atypical phonation patterns and Maria's very slow rate of speech did not interfere with lexical stress signaling. The acoustic analysis of the lexical stress cues was generally in agreement with the participants' performance in the stress identification task. Interestingly, in all three dysarthric participants, but more so in Anna, targets stressed on the 1st

  20. Effects of prosodic and lexical constraints on parsing in young children (and adults)

    PubMed Central

    Snedeker, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    Prior studies of ambiguity resolution in young children have found that children rely heavily on lexical information but persistently fail to use referential constraints in online parsing (Trueswell, Sekerina, Hill & Logrip, 1999; Snedeker & Trueswell, 2004). This pattern is consistent with either a modular parsing system driven by stored lexical information or an interactive system which has yet to acquire low-validity referential constraints. In two experiments we explored whether children could use a third constraint—prosody—to resolve globally ambiguous prepositional-phrase attachments (“You can feel the frog with the feather”). Four to six years olds and adults were tested using the visual world paradigm. In both groups the fixation patterns were influenced by lexical cues by around 200ms after the onset of the critical PP-object noun (“feather”). In adults the prosody manipulation had an effect in this early time window. In children the effect of prosody was delayed by approximately 500 ms. The effects of lexical and prosodic cues were roughly additive: prosody influenced the interpretation of utterances with strong lexical cues and lexical information had an effect on utterances with strong prosodic cues. We conclude that young children, like adults, can rapidly use both of these information sources to resolve structural ambiguities. PMID:19190721

  1. Lexical knowledge without a lexicon?

    PubMed Central

    Elman, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Although for many years a sharp distinction has been made in language research between rules and words — with primary interest on rules — this distinction is now blurred in many theories. If anything, the focus of attention has shifted in recent years in favor of words. Results from many different areas of language research suggest that the lexicon is representationally rich, that it is the source of much productive behavior, and that lexically specific information plays a critical and early role in the interpretation of grammatical structure. But how much information can or should be placed in the lexicon? This is the question I address here. I review a set of studies whose results indicate that event knowledge plays a significant role in early stages of sentence processing and structural analysis. This poses a conundrum for traditional views of the lexicon. Either the lexicon must be expanded to include factors that do not plausibly seem to belong there; or else virtually all information about word meaning is removed, leaving the lexicon impoverished. I suggest a third alternative, which provides a way to account for lexical knowledge without a mental lexicon. PMID:22069438

  2. The representation of lexical-syntactic information: evidence from syntactic and lexical retrieval impairments in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Biran, Michal; Friedmann, Naama

    2012-10-01

    This study explored lexical-syntactic information - syntactic information that is stored in the lexicon - and its relation to syntactic and lexical impairments in aphasia. We focused on two types of lexical-syntactic information: predicate argument structure (PAS) of verbs (the number and types of arguments the verb selects) and grammatical gender of nouns. The participants were 17 Hebrew-speaking individuals with aphasia who had a syntactic deficit (agrammatism) or a lexical retrieval deficit (anomia) located at the semantic lexicon, the phonological output lexicon, or the phonological output buffer. After testing the participants' syntactic and lexical retrieval abilities and establishing the functional loci of their deficits, we assessed their PAS and grammatical gender knowledge. This assessment included sentence completion, sentence production, sentence repetition, and grammaticality judgment tasks. The participants' performance on these tests yielded several important dissociations. Three agrammatic participants had impaired syntax but unimpaired PAS knowledge. Three agrammatic participants had impaired syntax but unimpaired grammatical gender knowledge. This indicates that lexical-syntactic information is represented separately from syntax, and can be spared even when syntax at the sentence level, such as embedding and movement are impaired. All 5 individuals with phonological output buffer impairment and all 3 individuals with phonological output lexicon impairment had preserved lexical-syntactic knowledge. These selective impairments indicate that lexical-syntactic information is represented at a lexical stage prior to the phonological lexicon and the phonological buffer. Three participants with impaired PAS (aPASia) and impaired grammatical gender who showed intact lexical-semantic knowledge indicate that the lexical-syntactic information is represented separately from the semantic lexicon. This led us to conclude that lexical-syntactic information is

  3. Automatically Assessing Lexical Sophistication: Indices, Tools, Findings, and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the construct of lexical sophistication and its applications for measuring second language lexical and speaking proficiency. In doing so, the study introduces the Tool for the Automatic Analysis of LExical Sophistication (TAALES), which calculates text scores for 135 classic and newly developed lexical indices related to word…

  4. Lexical Gap-Filling Mechanisms in Foreign Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llach, M[a]. Pilar Agustin

    2010-01-01

    The present paper intends to investigate the lexical gap-filling behaviour of primary and secondary Spanish learners of English. When there is a mismatch between the learners lexical knowledge and their communicative needs, then a lexical gap arises. Learners resort to different mechanisms to compensate for that lack of lexical knowledge.…

  5. Characteristics of Interactional Management Functions in Group Oral by Japanese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negishi, Junko

    2010-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the characteristics of interaction dynamics in a group oral interaction carried out by Japanese learners of English. The relationship between the participants' language development and interactional management functions (IMFs) was also explored. Oral performance tests in a paired or a small group have recently…

  6. Anorexia Nervosa: Family Characteristics and Family Interaction Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Susan Fellerman

    This literature review examines research issues in anorexia nervosa, including conceptual issues and methodological considerations. Research on the family's contribution to the disorder is reviewed. The demographic characteristics of social class, birth order, history of sexual abuse, and biological and genetic factors are examined. Individual…

  7. His Lips Are Moving: Pinocchio Effect and Other Lexical Indicators of Political Deceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Michael T.; Van Swol, Lyn M.; Vang, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Using the software program LIWC (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count), this study used political statements classified as truths and lies by website Politifact.com and examined lexical differences between statement type (lie or truth) and the setting (interactive or scripted) in which the statement was given. In interactive settings (where…

  8. Parent--Child Interactions in Autism: Characteristics of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Stephanny; Kasari, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature on parent-child interactions in young children with autism has examined dyadic style, synchrony, and sustained engagement, the examination of parental skill in sustaining and developing play skills themselves has not been targeted. This study examined the extent to which parents of young children with autism match and…

  9. Relationships Between Neonatal Characteristics and Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Danzger, Barbara

    A total of 51 mothers and their newborn infants were studied in order to evaluate the relationship between neonatal style and the early mother-infant relationship. The procedure included an infant assessment with the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale, a mother-infant interaction observation during feeding, and an interview concerning maternal…

  10. Unfolding visual lexical decision in time.

    PubMed

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Visual lexical decision is a classical paradigm in psycholinguistics, and numerous studies have assessed the so-called "lexicality effect" (i.e., better performance with lexical than non-lexical stimuli). Far less is known about the dynamics of choice, because many studies measured overall reaction times, which are not informative about underlying processes. To unfold visual lexical decision in (over) time, we measured participants' hand movements toward one of two item alternatives by recording the streaming x,y coordinates of the computer mouse. Participants categorized four kinds of stimuli as "lexical" or "non-lexical:" high and low frequency words, pseudowords, and letter strings. Spatial attraction toward the opposite category was present for low frequency words and pseudowords. Increasing the ambiguity of the stimuli led to greater movement complexity and trajectory attraction to competitors, whereas no such effect was present for high frequency words and letter strings. Results fit well with dynamic models of perceptual decision-making, which describe the process as a competition between alternatives guided by the continuous accumulation of evidence. More broadly, our results point to a key role of statistical decision theory in studying linguistic processing in terms of dynamic and non-modular mechanisms. PMID:22563419

  11. Unfolding Visual Lexical Decision in Time

    PubMed Central

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Visual lexical decision is a classical paradigm in psycholinguistics, and numerous studies have assessed the so-called “lexicality effect" (i.e., better performance with lexical than non-lexical stimuli). Far less is known about the dynamics of choice, because many studies measured overall reaction times, which are not informative about underlying processes. To unfold visual lexical decision in (over) time, we measured participants' hand movements toward one of two item alternatives by recording the streaming x,y coordinates of the computer mouse. Participants categorized four kinds of stimuli as “lexical" or “non-lexical:" high and low frequency words, pseudowords, and letter strings. Spatial attraction toward the opposite category was present for low frequency words and pseudowords. Increasing the ambiguity of the stimuli led to greater movement complexity and trajectory attraction to competitors, whereas no such effect was present for high frequency words and letter strings. Results fit well with dynamic models of perceptual decision-making, which describe the process as a competition between alternatives guided by the continuous accumulation of evidence. More broadly, our results point to a key role of statistical decision theory in studying linguistic processing in terms of dynamic and non-modular mechanisms. PMID:22563419

  12. Are there interactive processes in speech perception?

    PubMed

    McClelland, James L; Mirman, Daniel; Holt, Lori L

    2006-08-01

    Lexical information facilitates speech perception, especially when sounds are ambiguous or degraded. The interactive approach to understanding this effect posits that this facilitation is accomplished through bi-directional flow of information, allowing lexical knowledge to influence pre-lexical processes. Alternative autonomous theories posit feed-forward processing with lexical influence restricted to post-perceptual decision processes. We review evidence supporting the prediction of interactive models that lexical influences can affect pre-lexical mechanisms, triggering compensation, adaptation and retuning of phonological processes generally taken to be pre-lexical. We argue that these and other findings point to interactive processing as a fundamental principle for perception of speech and other modalities. PMID:16843037

  13. Lexical selectivity in danish toddlers with cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Willadsen, Elisabeth

    2013-07-01

    Objective : To study if Danish children with cleft palate display lexical selectivity in their early lexicon at 18 months of age. Design : A cross-sectional study. Participants : Thirty-four children with unilateral cleft lip and palate and 35 children without cleft palate, matched for gender and age. Methods : All participants were video recorded at 18 months of age during play interaction with a parent. The video recordings were transcribed according to the International Phonetic Alphabet and an individual consonant inventory was established for each participant. The video recordings were also analyzed with respect to word productions, establishing an observed productive vocabulary size for each participant. Results : At 18 months of age Danish children with cleft palate showed marked lexical selectivity in their early words. The distribution of consonant classes observed at 11 months of age in a previous study of the children with cleft palate was almost perfectly reflected in their early lexicon at 18 months. The early lexicon of children with cleft palate differed from the early lexicon of their noncleft peers. Conclusions and Implications : Danish toddlers with cleft palate display lexical selectivity in the early lexicon as it has been described for English-speaking toddlers with and without cleft palate, even though some qualitative differences were found.

  14. Lexical learning and lexical processing in children with developmental language impairments

    PubMed Central

    Nation, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Lexical skills are a crucial component of language comprehension and production. This paper reviews evidence for lexical-level deficits in children and young people with developmental language impairment (LI). Across a range of tasks, LI is associated with reduced vocabulary knowledge in terms of both breadth and depth and difficulty with learning and retaining new words; evidence is emerging from on-line tasks to suggest that low levels of language skill are associated with differences in lexical competition in spoken word recognition. The role of lexical deficits in understanding the nature of LI is also discussed. PMID:24324231

  15. Phoneme-free prosodic representations are involved in pre-lexical and lexical neurobiological mechanisms underlying spoken word processing

    PubMed Central

    Schild, Ulrike; Becker, Angelika B.C.; Friedrich, Claudia K.

    2014-01-01

    Recently we reported that spoken stressed and unstressed primes differently modulate Event Related Potentials (ERPs) of spoken initially stressed targets. ERP stress priming was independent of prime–target phoneme overlap. Here we test whether phoneme-free ERP stress priming involves the lexicon. We used German target words with the same onset phonemes but different onset stress, such as MANdel (“almond”) and manDAT (“mandate”; capital letters indicate stress). First syllables of those words served as primes. We orthogonally varied prime–target overlap in stress and phonemes. ERP stress priming did neither interact with phoneme priming nor with the stress pattern of the targets. However, polarity of ERP stress priming was reversed to that previously obtained. The present results are evidence for phoneme-free prosodic processing at the lexical level. Together with the previous results they reveal that phoneme-free prosodic representations at the pre-lexical and lexical level are recruited by neurobiological spoken word recognition. PMID:25128904

  16. Anomia with and without lexical comprehension disorders.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, G; Silveri, M C; Villa, G; Miceli, G

    1986-09-01

    Anomic patients are usually described as free from language comprehension disorders, but the status of lexical comprehension in anomia is still controversial. Most anomic patients are impaired on tasks of semantic-lexical discrimination, but some of them do not present clear signs of semantic-lexical deficit at the receptive level. The aim of the present research was to elucidate the nature of word-finding disturbances by contrasting results obtained by anomic patients with and without lexical comprehension disorders on a number of variables, namely severity of anomia, implicit knowledge of words that patients failed to name, presence of verbal-semantic paraphasias, and scores obtained on a test of phoneme discrimination and on the "Token Test." The results of our investigation seem to suggest that there are two types of anomia, caused by the impairment of two different sets of mechanisms. In "purely expressive anomia" the locus of defect seems to be near to the stage in which the selected lexical item is specified into the appropriate phonological form. In "anomia with lexical comprehension disturbances" the locus of defect seems to be much deeper within the lexicon, so that the semantic disorder affects both the expressive and the receptive levels in a roughly comparable manner.

  17. The Interaction Between Learner Characteristics and Two Methods of College Instruction: Conventional and Mastery Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Jon R.; Gall, Meredith D.

    A study was conducted to determine whether conventional instruction and mastery-based auto-tutorial instruction interacted with learning characteristics that were found to be instruction-interactive in previous research. Conventional instruction consisted of lecture with discussion and laboratory periods. The mastery-based auto-tutorial…

  18. Exploring the role of lexical stress in lexical recognition.

    PubMed

    van Donselaar, Wilma; Koster, Mariëtte; Cutler, Anne

    2005-02-01

    Three cross-modal priming experiments examined the role of suprasegmental information in the processing of spoken words. All primes consisted of truncated spoken Dutch words. Recognition of visually presented word targets was facilitated by prior auditory presentation of the first two syllables of the same words as primes, but only if they were appropriately stressed (e.g., OKTOBER preceded by okTO-); inappropriate stress, compatible with another word (e.g., OKTOBER preceded by OCto-, the beginning of octopus), produced inhibition. Monosyllabic fragments (e.g., OC-) also produced facilitation when appropriately stressed; if inappropriately stressed, they produced neither facilitation nor inhibition. The bisyllabic fragments that were compatible with only one word produced facilitation to semantically associated words, but inappropriate stress caused no inhibition of associates. The results are explained within a model of spoken-word recognition involving competition between simultaneously activated phonological representations followed by activation of separate conceptual representations for strongly supported lexical candidates; at the level of the phonological representations, activation is modulated by both segmental and suprasegmental information.

  19. Lexical Threshold Revisited: Lexical Text Coverage, Learners' Vocabulary Size and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laufer, Batia; Ravenhorst-Kalovski, Geke C.

    2010-01-01

    We explore the relationship between second language (L2) learners' vocabulary size, lexical text coverage that their vocabulary provides and their reading comprehension. We also conceptualize "adequate reading comprehension" and look for the lexical threshold for such reading in terms of coverage and vocabulary size. Vocabulary size was measured…

  20. Probing Lexical Representations: Simultaneous Modeling of Word and Reader Contributions to Multidimensional Lexical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Kearns, Devin M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study models reader, item, and word contributions to the lexical representations of 39 morphologically complex words for 172 middle school students using a crossed random-effects item response model with multiple outcomes. We report 3 findings. First, results suggest that lexical representations can be characterized by separate but…

  1. Pseudohomophone Priming in Lexical Decision Is Not Fragile in a Sparse Lexical Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    In lexical decision, to date few studies in English have found a reliable pseudohomophone priming advantage with orthographically similar primes (the "klip-plip effect"; Frost, Ahissar, Gotesman, & Tayeb, 2003; see Rastle & Brysbaert, 2006, for a review). On the basis of the Bayseian reader model of lexical decision (Norris, 2006, 2009), we…

  2. Lexical and Sentential Priming in Competition: Implications for Two-Stage Theories of Lexical Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Arturo E.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Udell, Care; Bates, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Presents a new method that can compare lexical priming (word-word) and sentential priming (sentence-word) directly within a single paradigm. Shows that it can be used to address modular theories of word comprehension, which propose that the effects of sentence context occur after lexical access has taken place. (Author/VWL)

  3. A study of technical signs in science: implications for lexical database development.

    PubMed

    Lang, Harry G; Hupper, Mary Laporta; Monte, Denise A; Brown, Scott W; Babb, Ivar; Scheifele, Pete M

    2007-01-01

    Both classroom instruction and lexical database development stand to benefit from applied research on sign language, which takes into consideration American Sign Language rules, pedagogical issues, and teacher characteristics. In this study of technical science signs, teachers' experience with signing and, especially, knowledge of content, were found to be essential for the identification of signs appropriate for instruction. The results of this study also indicate a need for a systematic approach to examine both sign selection and its impact on learning by deaf students. Recommendations are made for the development of lexical databases and areas of research for optimizing the use of sign language in instruction.

  4. Lexical and Nonlexical Processes in the Skilled Reading and Spelling of Persian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbari, Noriyeh; Senechal, Monique

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of lexical and nonlexical processes to skilled reading and spelling in Persian. Persian is a mixed orthography that allows one to study within one language characteristics typically found in shallow orthographies as well as those found in deeper orthographies. 61 senior high-school…

  5. Acoustic Correlates of Lexical Stress in Native Speakers of Uyghur and L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakup, Mahire

    2013-01-01

    Some syllables are louder, longer and stronger than other syllables at the lexical level. These prominent prosodic characteristics of certain syllables are captured by suprasegmental features including fundamental frequency, duration and intensity. A language like English uses fundamental frequency, duration and intensity to distinguish stressed…

  6. Developmental Differences in the Effects of Phonological, Lexical and Semantic Variables on Word Learning by Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storkel, Holly L.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of phonological (i.e. individual sounds), lexical (i.e. whole-word forms) and semantic (i.e. meaning) characteristics on the words known by infants age 1;4 to 2;6 was examined, using an existing database (Dale & Fenson, 1996). For each noun, word frequency, two phonological (i.e. positional segment average, biphone average), two…

  7. Manipulation of Length and Lexicality Localizes the Functional Neuroanatomy of Phonological Processing in Adult Readers

    PubMed Central

    Church, Jessica A.; Balota, David A.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study of single word reading, regions in the left supramarginal gyrus and left angular gyrus showed positive BOLD activity in children but significantly less activity in adults for high-frequency words. This developmental decrease may reflect decreased reliance on phonological processing for familiar stimuli in adults. Therefore, in the present study, variables thought to influence phonological demand (string length and lexicality) were manipulated. Length and lexicality effects in the brain were explored using both ROI and whole-brain approaches. In the ROI analysis, the supramarginal and angular regions from the previous study were applied to this study. The supramarginal region showed a significant positive effect of length, consistent with a role in phonological processing, whereas the angular region showed only negative deflections from baseline with a strong effect of lexicality and other weaker effects. At the whole-brain level, varying effects of length and lexicality and their interactions were observed in 85 regions throughout the brain. The application of hierarchical clustering analysis to the BOLD time course data derived from these regions revealed seven clusters, with potentially revealing anatomical locations. Of note, a left angular gyrus region was the sole constituent of one cluster. Taken together, these findings in adult readers (1) provide support for a widespread set of brain regions affected by lexical variables, (2) corroborate a role for phonological processing in the left supramarginal gyrus, and (3) do not support a strong role for phonological processing in the left angular gyrus. PMID:20433237

  8. Consistency Effects of Lexical Decision and Naming of Two-Character Chinese Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan; Cheng, Pui-Wan

    2003-01-01

    Examines the notion inherent in the Interactive Constituency Model of Perfetti and colleagues that in reading 2-character Chinese words phonology is activated at the character level rather than at the word level. Notes that the two lexical decision experiments and the naming experiment uphold the generality of character-level consistency effect of…

  9. Event-related potentials show online influence of lexical biases on prosodic processing.

    PubMed

    Itzhak, Inbal; Pauker, Efrat; Drury, John E; Baum, Shari R; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    This event-related potential study examined how the human brain integrates (i) structural preferences, (ii) lexical biases, and (iii) prosodic information when listeners encounter ambiguous 'garden path' sentences. Data showed that in the absence of overt prosodic boundaries, verb-intrinsic transitivity biases influence parsing preferences (late closure) online, resulting in a larger P600 garden path effect for transitive than intransitive verbs. Surprisingly, this lexical effect was mediated by prosodic processing, a closure positive shift brain response was elicited in total absence of acoustic boundary markers for transitively biased sentences only. Our results suggest early interactive integration of hierarchically organized processes rather than purely independent effects of lexical and prosodic information. As a primacy of prosody would predict, overt speech boundaries overrode both structural preferences and transitivity biases.

  10. Lexical processes and eye movements in neglect dyslexia.

    PubMed

    di Pellegrino, G; Làdavas, E; Galletti, C

    Neglect dyslexia is a disturbance in the allocation of spatial attention over a letter string following unilateral brain damage. Patients with this condition may fail to read letters on the contralesional side of an orthographic string. In some of these cases, reading is better with words than with non-words. This word superiority effect has received a variety of explanations that differ, among other things, with regard to the spatial distribution of attention across the letter string during reading. The primary goal of the present study was to explore the interaction between attention and lexical processes by recording eye movements in a patient (F.C.) with severe left neglect dyslexia who was required to read isolated word and non-word stimuli of various length. F.C.'s ocular exploration of orthographic stimuli was highly sensitive to the lexical status of the letter string. We found that: (1) the location to which F.C. directed his initial saccade (obtained approximately 230 ms post-stimulus onset) differed between word and non-word stimuli; (2) the patient spent a greater amount of time fixating the contralesional side of word than non-word strings. Moreover, we also found that F.C. failed to identify the left letters of a string despite having fixated them, thus showing a clear dissociation between eye movement responses and conscious access to orthographic stimuli. Our data suggest the existence of multiple interactions between lexical, attentional and eye movement systems that occur from very initial stages of visual word recognition. PMID:12118151

  11. Lexical confusability and nasal coarticulation in French

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarborough, Rebecca

    2005-09-01

    Previous research has revealed a relationship between lexical confusability and degree of coarticulation [Brown (2001); Scarborough (2004)]. In particular, English speakers produce confusable, or ``hard'' words with more nasal and vowel-to-vowel coarticulation than less confusable, ``easy'' ones. Thus, it has been suggested that speakers produce additional coarticulation in order to increase the intelligibility of ``hard'' words. Here, the relation between nasal coarticulation and lexical confusability is investigated for French, a language in which vowel nasality is phonemically contrastive (at least for a subset of vowels) and might constrain such a lexical effect. Acoustic measures of nasality show that ``hard'' words (those with low usage frequencies and many frequent, phonologically similar neighbors) exhibit more nasal coarticulation than ``easy'' ones (those with high frequencies and few, low-frequency neighbors) in French as well. Interestingly, however, the effect emerges only for words containing vowels that can exhibit phonemic oral-nasal contrasts (oral vowels with nasal counterparts). Thus, where the use of nasality in phonological contrast is constrained, coarticulatory nasality is constrained, too. But the existence of phonological contrast does not itself constrain the lexical confusability effect: increased coarticulatory nasality contributes to lexically motivated phonetic enhancement in French, while even more nasality provides the basis for phonemic contrast.

  12. Neural signatures of lexical tone reading.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Veronica P Y; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping; Yakpo, Kofi; Zhu, Linlin; Fox, Peter T; Tan, Li Hai

    2015-01-01

    Research on how lexical tone is neuroanatomically represented in the human brain is central to our understanding of cortical regions subserving language. Past studies have exclusively focused on tone perception of the spoken language, and little is known as to the lexical tone processing in reading visual words and its associated brain mechanisms. In this study, we performed two experiments to identify neural substrates in Chinese tone reading. First, we used a tone judgment paradigm to investigate tone processing of visually presented Chinese characters. We found that, relative to baseline, tone perception of printed Chinese characters were mediated by strong brain activation in bilateral frontal regions, left inferior parietal lobule, left posterior middle/medial temporal gyrus, left inferior temporal region, bilateral visual systems, and cerebellum. Surprisingly, no activation was found in superior temporal regions, brain sites well known for speech tone processing. In activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to combine results of relevant published studies, we attempted to elucidate whether the left temporal cortex activities identified in Experiment one is consistent with those found in previous studies of auditory lexical tone perception. ALE results showed that only the left superior temporal gyrus and putamen were critical in auditory lexical tone processing. These findings suggest that activation in the superior temporal cortex associated with lexical tone perception is modality-dependent.

  13. Lexical Richness in the Spontaneous Speech of Bilinguals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daller, Helmut; van Hout, Roeland; Treffers-Daller, Jeanine

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the measurement of lexical richness. Lexical richness is often measured either by the traditional type-token ratio or by its square root variant, the index of Guiraud. Proposes two methods that have advantages over traditional methods. Computed indices for the lexical items used in an oral text by two groups of Turkish-German…

  14. Consequences of Lexical Stress on Learning an Artificial Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments examined effects of lexical stress on lexical access for recently learned words. Participants learned artificial lexicons (48 words) containing phonologically similar items and were tested on their knowledge in a 4-alternative forced-choice (4AFC) referent-selection task. Lexical stress differences did not reduce confusions…

  15. Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain Lexical Access I. Adult Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophe, A.; Peperkamp, S.; Pallier, C.; Block, E.; Mehler, J.

    2004-01-01

    We tested the effect of local lexical ambiguities while manipulating the type of prosodic boundary at which the ambiguity occurred, using French sentences and participants. We observed delayed lexical access when a local lexical ambiguity occurred within a phonological phrase (consistent with previous research; e.g., '[un chat grincheux],'…

  16. Lexical Access in Bilingual Speakers: What's the (Hard) Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkbeiner, Matthew; Gollan, Tamar H.; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    Models of bilingual speech production generally assume that translation equivalent lexical nodes share a common semantic representation. Though this type of architecture is highly desirable on both theoretical and empirical grounds, it could create difficulty at the point of lexical selection. If two translation equivalent lexical nodes are…

  17. Effects of Lexical Tone Contour on Mandarin Sentence Intelligibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fei; Wong, Lena L. N.; Hu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of lexical tone contour on the intelligibility of Mandarin sentences in quiet and in noise. Method: A text-to-speech synthesis engine was used to synthesize Mandarin sentences with each word carrying the original lexical tone, flat tone, or a tone randomly selected from the 4 Mandarin lexical tones. The…

  18. On the Use of Lexical Stress in Reading Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez-Palma, Nicolas; Palma-Reyes, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates whether or not lexical stress is used for lexical access in Spanish. A lexical decision task and a masking priming procedure were used to compare correctly-versus-incorrectly stressed words (e.g., "tecla-TECLA vs. tecla-TECLA"). SOA (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony) was manipulated at 33, 66, 100, and 143 ms. The results showed…

  19. Lexical Units and the Learning of a Foreign Language Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogaards, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the concept of lexical unit as proposed by Cruse (1986) in the context of second language vocabulary learning to replace the notion of "word." Defines the concept in terms of lexical semantics and applies it to the task of learning a second language. Describes studies in which the learning of different types of lexical units is…

  20. Lexical Attrition in Younger and Older Bilingual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goral, Mira; Libben, Gary; Obler, Loraine K.; Jarema, Gonia; Ohayon, Keren

    2008-01-01

    Healthy monolingual older adults experience changes in their lexical abilities. Bilingual individuals immersed in an environment in which their second language is dominant experience lexical changes, or attrition, in their first language. Changes in lexical skills in the first language of older individuals who are bilinguals, therefore, can be…

  1. Measuring L2 Lexical Growth Using Hypernymic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated second language (L2) lexical development in the spontaneous speech of six adult, L2 English learners in a 1-year longitudinal study. One important aspect of lexical development is lexical organization and depth of knowledge. Hypernymic relations, the hierarchical relationships among related words that vary in relation to…

  2. Do Statistical Segmentation Abilities Predict Lexical-Phonological and Lexical-Semantic Abilities in Children with and without SLI?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the predictions of the procedural deficit hypothesis by investigating the relationship between sequential statistical learning and two aspects of lexical ability, lexical-phonological and lexical-semantic, in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Participants included forty children (ages 8;5-12;3), twenty…

  3. Electrophysiological evidence for phonological priming in Spanish Sign Language lexical access.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Eva; Müller, Oliver; Baus, Cristina; Carreiras, Manuel

    2012-06-01

    Interactive activation models of lexical access assume that the presentation of a given word activates not only its lexical representation but also those corresponding to words similar in form. Current theories are based on data from oral and written languages, and therefore signed languages represent a special challenge for existing theories of word recognition and lexical access since they allow us to question what the genuine fundamentals of human language are and what might be modality-specific adaptation. The aim of the present study is to determine the electrophysiological correlates and time course of phonological processing of Spanish Sign Language (LSE). Ten deaf native LSE signers and ten deaf non-native but highly proficient LSE signers participated in the experiment. We used the ERP methodology and form-based priming in the context of a delayed lexical decision task, manipulating phonological overlap (i.e. related prime-target pairs shared either handshape or location parameters). Results showed that both parameters under study modulated brain responses to the stimuli in different time windows. Phonological priming of location resulted in a higher amplitude of the N400 component (300-500 ms window) for signs but not for non-signs. This effect may be explained in terms of initial competition among candidates. Moreover, the fact that a higher amplitude N400 for related pairs was found for signs but not for non-signs points to an effect at the lexical level. Handshape overlap produced a later effect (600-800 ms window). In this window, a more negative-going wave for the related condition than for the unrelated condition was found for non-signs in the native signers group. The findings are discussed in relation to current models of lexical access and word recognition. Finally, differences between native and non-native signers point to a less efficient use of phonological information among the non-native signers. PMID:22401990

  4. Lexical influences on competing speech perception in younger, middle-aged, and older adults.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Karen S; Jesse, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    The influence of lexical characteristics of words in to-be-attended and to-be-ignored speech streams was examined in a competing speech task. Older, middle-aged, and younger adults heard pairs of low-cloze probability sentences in which the frequency or neighborhood density of words was manipulated in either the target speech stream or the masking speech stream. All participants also completed a battery of cognitive measures. As expected, for all groups, target words that occur frequently or that are from sparse lexical neighborhoods were easier to recognize than words that are infrequent or from dense neighborhoods. Compared to other groups, these neighborhood density effects were largest for older adults; the frequency effect was largest for middle-aged adults. Lexical characteristics of words in the to-be-ignored speech stream also affected recognition of to-be-attended words, but only when overall performance was relatively good (that is, when younger participants listened to the speech streams at a more advantageous signal-to-noise ratio). For these listeners, to-be-ignored masker words from sparse neighborhoods interfered with recognition of target speech more than masker words from dense neighborhoods. Amount of hearing loss and cognitive abilities relating to attentional control modulated overall performance as well as the strength of lexical influences. PMID:26233036

  5. Lexical prosody beyond first-language boundary: Chinese lexical tone sensitivity predicts English reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Choi, William; Tong, Xiuli; Cain, Kate

    2016-08-01

    This 1-year longitudinal study examined the role of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity in predicting English reading comprehension and the pathways underlying their relation. Multiple measures of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity, English lexical stress sensitivity, Cantonese segmental phonological awareness, general auditory sensitivity, English word reading, and English reading comprehension were administered to 133 Cantonese-English unbalanced bilingual second graders. Structural equation modeling analysis identified transfer of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity to English reading comprehension. This transfer was realized through a direct pathway via English stress sensitivity and also an indirect pathway via English word reading. These results suggest that prosodic sensitivity is an important factor influencing English reading comprehension and that it needs to be incorporated into theoretical accounts of reading comprehension across languages.

  6. Lexical prosody beyond first-language boundary: Chinese lexical tone sensitivity predicts English reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Choi, William; Tong, Xiuli; Cain, Kate

    2016-08-01

    This 1-year longitudinal study examined the role of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity in predicting English reading comprehension and the pathways underlying their relation. Multiple measures of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity, English lexical stress sensitivity, Cantonese segmental phonological awareness, general auditory sensitivity, English word reading, and English reading comprehension were administered to 133 Cantonese-English unbalanced bilingual second graders. Structural equation modeling analysis identified transfer of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity to English reading comprehension. This transfer was realized through a direct pathway via English stress sensitivity and also an indirect pathway via English word reading. These results suggest that prosodic sensitivity is an important factor influencing English reading comprehension and that it needs to be incorporated into theoretical accounts of reading comprehension across languages. PMID:27135168

  7. Lexical Processing and Organization in Bilingual First Language Acquisition: Guiding Future Research

    PubMed Central

    DeAnda, Stephanie; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    A rich body of work in adult bilinguals documents an interconnected lexical network across languages, such that early word retrieval is language independent. This literature has yielded a number of influential models of bilingual semantic memory. However, extant models provide limited predictions about the emergence of lexical organization in bilingual first language acquisition (BFLA). Empirical evidence from monolingual infants suggests that lexical networks emerge early in development as children integrate phonological and semantic information. These findings tell us little about the interaction between two languages in the early bilingual memory. To date, an understanding of when and how languages interact in early bilingual development is lacking. In this literature review, we present research documenting lexical-semantic development across monolingual and bilingual infants. This is followed by a discussion of current models of bilingual language representation and organization and their ability to account for the available empirical evidence. Together, these theoretical and empirical accounts inform and highlight unexplored areas of research and guide future work on early bilingual memory. PMID:26866430

  8. Lexical processing and organization in bilingual first language acquisition: Guiding future research.

    PubMed

    DeAnda, Stephanie; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    A rich body of work in adult bilinguals documents an interconnected lexical network across languages, such that early word retrieval is language independent. This literature has yielded a number of influential models of bilingual semantic memory. However, extant models provide limited predictions about the emergence of lexical organization in bilingual first language acquisition (BFLA). Empirical evidence from monolingual infants suggests that lexical networks emerge early in development as children integrate phonological and semantic information. These findings tell us little about the interaction between 2 languages in early bilingual memory. To date, an understanding of when and how languages interact in early bilingual development is lacking. In this literature review, we present research documenting lexical-semantic development across monolingual and bilingual infants. This is followed by a discussion of current models of bilingual language representation and organization and their ability to account for the available empirical evidence. Together, these theoretical and empirical accounts inform and highlight unexplored areas of research and guide future work on early bilingual memory. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Child Characteristics, Home Social-Contextual Factors, and Children's Academic Peer Interaction Behaviors in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neitzel, Carin

    2009-01-01

    This study addressed questions about the relations between personal characteristics and aspects of home environments and young children's subsequent academically relevant peer interaction behaviors in kindergarten in a sample of 108 preschool-age children (57 males, 51 females) from 2 Midwest cities and neighboring communities. A year prior to the…

  10. Social Interaction and the Formation of Entrepreneurial Characteristics: A Case Study in Authentic Enterprise Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Christina W. M.; Man, Thomas W. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is an empirical study which aims to investigate the development of social interaction and their impacts on developing learners' entrepreneurial characteristics throughout their participation in an authentic enterprise activity. Design/methodology/approach: The sample of this study was drawn from the participants of an…

  11. The Influence of Learner Characteristics on Satisfaction with Interactive Televised Courses in Florida Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Beverly L.; Kamata, Akihito; Smith, Kathleen Shea

    This report describes a pilot project designed to explore the influence of particular personality and demographic characteristics on community college student satisfaction with distance learning, specifically interactive telecommunications (ITV) courses. The study used the Telecourse Evaluation Questionnaire (TEQ) and the Sixteen Personality…

  12. Neurobehaviors of Japanese Newborns in Relation to the Characteristics of Early Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Kek Khee; Ohgi, Shohei; Howard, Judy; Tyler, Rachelle; Hirose, Taiko

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between newborn neurobehavioral profiles and the characteristics of early mother-infant interaction in Nagasaki, Japan. The authors administered the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS; T. B. Brazelton & J. K. Nugent, 1995) in the newborn period and the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale…

  13. Stress Priming in Reading and the Selective Modulation of Lexical and Sub-Lexical Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Lucia; Zevin, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments employed a priming methodology to investigate different mechanisms of stress assignment and how they are modulated by lexical and sub-lexical mechanisms in reading aloud in Italian. Lexical stress is unpredictable in Italian, and requires lexical look-up. The most frequent stress pattern (Dominant) is on the penultimate syllable [laVOro (work)], while stress on the antepenultimate syllable [MAcchina (car)] is relatively less frequent (non-Dominant). Word and pseudoword naming responses primed by words with non-dominant stress – which require whole-word knowledge to be read correctly – were compared to those primed by nonwords. Percentage of errors to words and percentage of dominant stress responses to nonwords were measured. In Experiments 1 and 2 stress errors increased for non-dominant stress words primed by nonwords, as compared to when they were primed by words. The results could be attributed to greater activation of sub-lexical codes, and an associated tendency to assign the dominant stress pattern by default in the nonword prime condition. Alternatively, they may have been the consequence of prosodic priming, inducing more errors on trials in which the stress pattern of primes and targets was not congruent. The two interpretations were investigated in Experiments 3 and 4. The results overall suggested a limited role of the default metrical pattern in word pronunciation, and showed clear effect of prosodic priming, but only when the sub-lexical mechanism prevailed. PMID:19787062

  14. Interaction effects of treatment setting and client characteristics on retention and completion.

    PubMed

    Klein, Chris; di Menza, Salvatore; Arfken, Cynthia; Schuster, Charles R

    2002-01-01

    Client-treatment matching assumes treatment outcome will be improved if characteristics of clients are matched to specific elements of treatment. Few empirical studies, however, have examined matching across different types of treatment settings. The present research examined differences in demographics and substance-related problems in populations admitted to three substance abuse treatment settings--outpatient (n = 1132), intensive outpatient (n = 1190), and residential (n = 149)--and tested whether interactions between client characteristics and type of setting predicted rates of 30-day retention and treatment completion. In addition, three specific hypotheses based on prior theoretical and empirical investigations were tested. Client characteristics included demographic information (e.g., sex, age, race) and Addiction Severity Index (ASI) composite scores. Client-setting interactions were found for both retention and completion. All three hypotheses received at least partial support. Implications for client assignment and future research are discussed.

  15. The Dynamics of Bilingual Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Albert; Heij, Wido La; Navarrete, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    In this article we discuss different views about how information flows through the lexical system in bilingual speech production. In the first part, we focus on some of the experimental evidence often quoted in favor of the parallel activation of the bilinguals' two languages from the semantic system in the course of language production. We argue…

  16. Lexical Representation of Japanese Vowel Devoicing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogasawara, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Vowel devoicing happens in Japanese when the high vowel is between voiceless consonants. The aim of this study is to investigate the lexical representation of vowel devoicing. A long-term repetition-priming experiment was conducted. Participants shadowed words containing either a devoiced or a voiced vowel in three priming paradigms, and their…

  17. Semplates: A New Concept in Lexical Semantics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Stephen C.; Burenhult, Niclas

    2009-01-01

    This short report draws attention to an interesting kind of configuration in the lexicon that seems to have escaped theoretical or systematic descriptive attention. These configurations, which we dub SEMPLATES, consist of an abstract structure or template, which is recurrently instantiated in a number of lexical sets, typically of different form…

  18. Speech recognition: Acoustic, phonetic and lexical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zue, V. W.

    1985-10-01

    Our long-term research goal is the development and implementation of speaker-independent continuous speech recognition systems. It is our conviction that proper utilization of speech-specific knowledge is essential for advanced speech recognition systems. With this in mind, we have continued to make progress on the acquisition of acoustic-phonetic and lexical knowledge. We have completed the development of a continuous digit recognition system. The system was constructed to investigate the utilization of acoustic phonetic knowledge in a speech recognition system. Some of the significant development of this study includes a soft-failure procedure for lexical access, and the discovery of a set of acoustic-phonetic features for verification. We have completed a study of the constraints provided by lexical stress on word recognition. We found that lexical stress information alone can, on the average, reduce the number of word candidates from a large dictionary by more than 80%. In conjunction with this study, we successfully developed a system that automatically determines the stress pattern of a word from the acoustic signal.

  19. Capturing the Diversity in Lexical Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The range, variety, or diversity of words found in learners' language use is believed to reflect the complexity of their vocabulary knowledge as well as the level of their language proficiency. Many indices of lexical diversity have been proposed, most of which involve statistical relationships between types and tokens, and which ultimately…

  20. A Lexical Phrase Grammar for ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nattinger, James R.

    1980-01-01

    Lexical phrases such as deictic locutions, phrasal constraints, sentence builders, and situational utterances are examined using categories from artificial intelligence. It is argued that these and other types of patterned speech should be carefully organized and given a greater place in English as a Second Language curricula than at present. (PMJ)

  1. Literature-Based Discovery by Lexical Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Robert K.; Gordon, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    Reports the results of experiments with MEDLINE that used lexical statistics such as word-frequency counts to discover hidden connections in medical literature. Discusses problems with relying on bibliographic citations or standard indexing methods to establish a relationship between topics that might profitably be explored by scientific research.…

  2. Syllabic Effects in Italian Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagliapietra, Lara; Fanari, R.; Collina, S.; Tabossi, P.

    2009-01-01

    Two cross-modal priming experiments tested whether lexical access is constrained by syllabic structure in Italian. Results extend the available Italian data on the processing of stressed syllables showing that syllabic information restricts the set of candidates to those structurally consistent with the intended word (Experiment 1). Lexical…

  3. Outline of a Model for Lexical Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Nancy; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a project showing that relational data models, including unnormalized models that allow the nesting of relations, cannot fully capture the structural properties of lexical information. A feature-based model that allows for a full representation of some nesting and defines a factoring mechanism is described and demonstrated. (38…

  4. Pre-Attentive Auditory Processing of Lexicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Horvath, Janos; Schroger, Erich; Lattner, Sonja; Widmann, Andreas; Winkler, Istvan

    2004-01-01

    The effects of lexicality on auditory change detection based on auditory sensory memory representations were investigated by presenting oddball sequences of repeatedly presented stimuli, while participants ignored the auditory stimuli. In a cross-linguistic study of Hungarian and German participants, stimulus sequences were composed of words that…

  5. Lexical Frequency Profiles and Zipf's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Roderick; Collins, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Laufer and Nation (1995) proposed that the Lexical Frequency Profile (LFP) can estimate the size of a second-language writer's productive vocabulary. Meara (2005) questioned the sensitivity and the reliability of LFPs for estimating vocabulary sizes, based on the results obtained from probabilistic simulations of LFPs. However, the underlying…

  6. Lexical Aspects of Standard Dialect Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woutersen, Mirjam; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Uses Weinreich's (1953) partition of bilingualism to describe the effects of a small typological distance on the organization of the bilingual lexicon. Using standard Dutch and the dialect of Maastricht, subjects performed an auditory lexical decision task. (30 references) (Author/CK)

  7. Lexically Based Learning and Early Grammatical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieven, Elena V. M.

    1997-01-01

    Tests Pine & Lieven's (1993) suggestion that a lexically-based positional analysis can account for the structure of a considerable proportion of children's early multiword corpora. Results reveal that the positional analysis accounts for 60% of the children's multiword utterances and that most other utterances are defined as frozen. (33…

  8. Lexical Semantics and Its Philosophical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leben, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Lexical semantics is the field of cognitive science which attempts to explain how speakers learn to use and accept sentences like "She filled the glass with water" but avoid and reject sentences like "She poured the glass with water," often with poor or impoverished evidence. In order to explain why some verbs alternate in…

  9. Bilingual Lexical Activation in Sentence Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Ana I.; Kroll, Judith F.

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the cognitive nature of second language (L2) lexical processing in sentence context. We examined bilinguals' L2 word recognition performance for language-ambiguous words [cognates (e.g., "piano") and homographs (e.g., "pan")] in two sentence context experiments with highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals living…

  10. Spoken Word Processing Creates a Lexical Bottleneck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Alexandra A.; Tamminen, Jakke; Quinlan, Philip T.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    We report 3 experiments that examined whether presentation of a spoken word creates an attentional bottleneck associated with lexical processing in the absence of a response to that word. A spoken word and a visual stimulus were presented in quick succession, but only the visual stimulus demanded a response. Response times to the visual stimulus…

  11. Lexical competition in nonnative speech comprehension.

    PubMed

    FitzPatrick, Ian; Indefrey, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Electrophysiological studies consistently find N400 effects of semantic incongruity in nonnative (L2) language comprehension. These N400 effects are often delayed compared with native (L1) comprehension, suggesting that semantic integration in one's second language occurs later than in one's first language. In this study, we investigated whether such a delay could be attributed to (1) intralingual lexical competition and/or (2) interlingual lexical competition. We recorded EEG from Dutch-English bilinguals who listened to English (L2) sentences in which the sentence-final word was (a) semantically fitting and (b) semantically incongruent or semantically incongruent but initially congruent due to sharing initial phonemes with (c) the most probable sentence completion within the L2 or (d) the L1 translation equivalent of the most probable sentence completion. We found an N400 effect in each of the semantically incongruent conditions. This N400 effect was significantly delayed to L2 words but not to L1 translation equivalents that were initially congruent with the sentence context. Taken together, these findings firstly demonstrate that semantic integration in nonnative listening can start based on word initial phonemes (i.e., before a single lexical candidate could have been selected based on the input) and secondly suggest that spuriously elicited L1 lexical candidates are not available for semantic integration in L2 speech comprehension.

  12. Lexical Change in Present-Day English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Dennis E.

    The lexicon of present-day English is changing rapidly and regularly, and a description and explanation of this change is necessary for any comprehensive diachronic theory. An examination of a corpus of 500 new words collected during 1975 provides the basis for a typology of lexical change that both supports and suggests modifications for the…

  13. Lexical Inferencing in Reading L2 Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes how intermediate-level first language English readers of Russian as a second language deploy lexical inferencing and other strategies when reading informational texts. Fifth-semester students of Russian performed think-alouds while reading two texts; one written for the general adult reader, and the other meant for school-age…

  14. Overnight Lexical Consolidation Revealed by Speech Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumay, Nicolas; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments explored the consolidation of spoken words, and assessed whether post-sleep novel competitor effects truly reflect engagement of these novel words in competition for lexical segmentation. Two types of competitor relationships were contrasted: the onset-aligned case (such as "frenzylk"), where the novel word is a close variant of…

  15. Characteristics of the interaction of azulene with water and hydrogen sulfide: A computational study.

    PubMed

    Cabaleiro-Lago, Enrique M; Rodríguez-Otero, Jesús; Peña-Gallego, Angeles

    2008-08-28

    A computational study was carried out for studying the characteristics of the interaction between azulene and water or hydrogen sulfide. In azulene...water complex the water molecule is located with both hydrogen atoms pointing toward the aromatic cloud but displaced to the five-membered ring. Hydrogen sulfide adopts a similar arrangement but located roughly over the central C-C bond of azulene. Calculations show that hydrogen sulfide interacts with azulene more strongly (-4.19 kcal/mol) than water (-3.76 kcal/mol), although this is only revealed at the highest levels of calculation. The nature of the interaction is electrostatic and dispersive in the same percentage for water cluster, whereas for hydrogen sulfide dispersion is the dominant contribution. Clusters containing two water molecules are controlled by the possibility of establishing an O-H...O hydrogen bond. As a consequence, the most stable structure corresponds to the interaction between a water dimer and azulene, with an interaction energy amounting to -11.77 kcal/mol. Hydrogen sulfide interaction is stronger with azulene than with itself, so structures with S-H...S contact and others, where H(2)S only interacts with azulene, present similar interaction energies (-8.02 kcal/mol for the most stable one).

  16. Assessing Lexical Proficiency Using Analytic Ratings: A Case for Collocation Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; Mcnamara, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes lexical proficiency in oral and written texts produced by second language (L2) learners of English. The purpose of the study is to examine relationships between analytic scores of depth of lexical knowledge, breadth of lexical knowledge, and access to core lexical items and holistic scores of lexical proficiency. A corpus of…

  17. Individual differences in the joint effects of semantic priming and word frequency: The role of lexical integrity

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Melvin J.; Tse, Chi-Shing; Balota, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Word frequency and semantic priming effects are among the most robust effects in visual word recognition, and it has been generally assumed that these two variables produce interactive effects in lexical decision performance, with larger priming effects for low-frequency targets. The results from four lexical decision experiments indicate that the joint effects of semantic priming and word frequency are critically dependent upon differences in the vocabulary knowledge of the participants. Specifically, across two Universities, additive effects of the two variables were observed in participants with more vocabulary knowledge, while interactive effects were observed in participants with less vocabulary knowledge. These results are discussed with reference to Borowsky and Besner’s (1993) multistage account and Plaut and Booth’s (2000) single-mechanism model. In general, the findings are also consistent with a flexible lexical processing system that optimizes performance based on processing fluency and task demands. PMID:20161653

  18. Role of Pre-Course Student Characteristics on Student Learning in Interactive Teaching Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kelly Anne

    The goal of this dissertation is to broaden our understanding of interactive teaching strategies, in the context of the introductory physics classroom at the undergraduate level. The dissertation is divided into four main projects, each of which investigates a specific aspect of teaching physics interactively. All four projects look towards improving the effectiveness of interactive teaching by understanding how pre-course student characteristics affect the way students learn interactively. We first discuss lecture demonstrations in the context of an interactive classroom using Peer Instruction. We study the role of predictions in conceptual learning. We examine how students' predictions affect what they report having seen during a demonstration. We also examine how student predictions affect what they recall as the outcome of the demonstration at the end of the semester. We then analyze student response patterns to conceptual questions posed during Peer Instruction. We look at the relationship between a student's tendency to switch their answer and pre-course student characteristics like science self-efficacy. Next we elucidate response timing to conceptual questions posed over the course of the semester, in two introductory physics classes taught using Peer Instruction. We look at the relationship between student response times and student characteristics like pre-course physics knowledge, science self-efficacy and gender. We study response times as a way of gaining insight into students thinking in Peer Instruction environments as well as to improve the implementation of Peer Instruction. Finally, we present work on the role of NB, an online collaborative textbook annotation tool, in a flipped, project based, physics class. We analyze the relationship between students' level of online engagement and traditional learning metrics to understand the effectiveness of NB in the context of flipped classrooms. We also report the results of experiments conducted to

  19. Lexical support for phonetic perception during nonnative spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Arthur G; Frost, Ram

    2015-12-01

    Second language comprehension is generally not as efficient and effective as native language comprehension. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that lower-level processes such as lexical support for phonetic perception are a contributing factor to these differences. For native listeners, it has been shown that the perception of ambiguous acoustic–phonetic segments is driven by lexical factors (Samuel Psychological Science, 12, 348-351, 2001). Here, we tested whether nonnative listeners can use lexical context in the same way. Native Hebrew speakers living in Israel were tested with American English stimuli. When subtle acoustic cues in the stimuli worked against the lexical context, these nonnative speakers showed no evidence of lexical guidance of phonetic perception. This result conflicts with the performance of native speakers, who demonstrate lexical effects on phonetic perception even with conflicting acoustic cues. When stimuli without any conflicting cues were used, the native Hebrew subjects produced results similar to those of native English speakers, showing lexical support for phonetic perception in their second language. In contrast, native Arabic speakers, who were less proficient in English than the native Hebrew speakers, showed no ability to use lexical activation to support phonetic perception, even without any conflicting cues. These results reinforce previous demonstrations of lexical support of phonetic perception and demonstrate how proficiency modulates the use of lexical information in driving phonetic perception. PMID:26866066

  20. Effect of van der Waals interaction on the mode I fracture characteristics of graphene sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashar, Avinash; Mertiny, Pierre

    2013-11-01

    In this paper a study has been performed to investigate the effect of van der Waals interaction forces on the mode I (opening mode) fracture characteristics of a graphene sheet. Finite element based atomistic approach was employed to perform the investigation, where graphene structure was assumed to behave like a space frame structure. Few graphene sheets were modeled in finite element environment with different set of interlayer spacing. Modified virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) was employed to estimate the strain energy release rate (SERR) under mode I of fracture criteria. Significant effect of van der Waals forces was observed on the mode I fracture characteristics of graphene.

  1. Delay-correlation landscape reveals characteristic time delays of brain rhythms and heart interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Aijing; Liu, Kang K. L.; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2016-05-01

    Within the framework of `Network Physiology', we ask a fundamental question of how modulations in cardiac dynamics emerge from networked brain-heart interactions. We propose a generalized time-delay approach to identify and quantify dynamical interactions between physiologically relevant brain rhythms and the heart rate. We perform empirical analysis of synchronized continuous EEG and ECG recordings from 34 healthy subjects during night-time sleep. For each pair of brain rhythm and heart interaction, we construct a delay-correlation landscape (DCL) that characterizes how individual brain rhythms are coupled to the heart rate, and how modulations in brain and cardiac dynamics are coordinated in time. We uncover characteristic time delays and an ensemble of specific profiles for the probability distribution of time delays that underly brain-heart interactions. These profiles are consistently observed in all subjects, indicating a universal pattern. Tracking the evolution of DCL across different sleep stages, we find that the ensemble of time-delay profiles changes from one physiologic state to another, indicating a strong association with physiologic state and function. The reported observations provide new insights on neurophysiological regulation of cardiac dynamics, with potential for broad clinical applications. The presented approach allows one to simultaneously capture key elements of dynamic interactions, including characteristic time delays and their time evolution, and can be applied to a range of coupled dynamical systems.

  2. Delay-correlation landscape reveals characteristic time delays of brain rhythms and heart interactions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Aijing; Liu, Kang K L; Bartsch, Ronny P; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2016-05-13

    Within the framework of 'Network Physiology', we ask a fundamental question of how modulations in cardiac dynamics emerge from networked brain-heart interactions. We propose a generalized time-delay approach to identify and quantify dynamical interactions between physiologically relevant brain rhythms and the heart rate. We perform empirical analysis of synchronized continuous EEG and ECG recordings from 34 healthy subjects during night-time sleep. For each pair of brain rhythm and heart interaction, we construct a delay-correlation landscape (DCL) that characterizes how individual brain rhythms are coupled to the heart rate, and how modulations in brain and cardiac dynamics are coordinated in time. We uncover characteristic time delays and an ensemble of specific profiles for the probability distribution of time delays that underly brain-heart interactions. These profiles are consistently observed in all subjects, indicating a universal pattern. Tracking the evolution of DCL across different sleep stages, we find that the ensemble of time-delay profiles changes from one physiologic state to another, indicating a strong association with physiologic state and function. The reported observations provide new insights on neurophysiological regulation of cardiac dynamics, with potential for broad clinical applications. The presented approach allows one to simultaneously capture key elements of dynamic interactions, including characteristic time delays and their time evolution, and can be applied to a range of coupled dynamical systems. PMID:27044991

  3. Delay-correlation landscape reveals characteristic time delays of brain rhythms and heart interactions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Aijing; Liu, Kang K L; Bartsch, Ronny P; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2016-05-13

    Within the framework of 'Network Physiology', we ask a fundamental question of how modulations in cardiac dynamics emerge from networked brain-heart interactions. We propose a generalized time-delay approach to identify and quantify dynamical interactions between physiologically relevant brain rhythms and the heart rate. We perform empirical analysis of synchronized continuous EEG and ECG recordings from 34 healthy subjects during night-time sleep. For each pair of brain rhythm and heart interaction, we construct a delay-correlation landscape (DCL) that characterizes how individual brain rhythms are coupled to the heart rate, and how modulations in brain and cardiac dynamics are coordinated in time. We uncover characteristic time delays and an ensemble of specific profiles for the probability distribution of time delays that underly brain-heart interactions. These profiles are consistently observed in all subjects, indicating a universal pattern. Tracking the evolution of DCL across different sleep stages, we find that the ensemble of time-delay profiles changes from one physiologic state to another, indicating a strong association with physiologic state and function. The reported observations provide new insights on neurophysiological regulation of cardiac dynamics, with potential for broad clinical applications. The presented approach allows one to simultaneously capture key elements of dynamic interactions, including characteristic time delays and their time evolution, and can be applied to a range of coupled dynamical systems.

  4. Case-mixing effects on children's word recognition: lexical feedback and development.

    PubMed

    Mayall, Kate

    2002-04-01

    Presenting words in MiXeD cAsE has previously been shown to disrupt naming performance of adult readers. This effect is greater on nonwords than it is on real words. There have been two main accounts of this interaction. First, case mixing may disrupt naming via non-lexical spelling-to-sound correspondences to a greater extent than it disrupts lexical naming. Alternatively, stored lexical knowledge of words may feed back to a visual analysis level during processing of a visually presented word, helping known words to overcome the visual disruption caused by case mixing. In the present study, when young children (aged 6 and 8 years) were tested, case mixing did not disrupt nonword naming more than word naming. However, slightly older children (aged 9 years) demonstrated the same pattern of performance as adults. These results support the view that top-down lexical information can aid overcoming visual disruption to words, and that beginning readers have not developed the stored word knowledge necessary to allow this. In addition, a greater case-mixing effect on high-frequency words for the youngest age group (6-year-olds) suggests that their word recognition may be based more on wholistic visual features than is that of older children.

  5. Behavioral evidence for inter-hemispheric cooperation during a lexical decision task: a divided visual field experiment

    PubMed Central

    Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Lemonnier, Sophie; Baciu, Monica

    2013-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS The redundant bilateral visual presentation of verbal stimuli decreases asymmetry and increases the cooperation between the two hemispheres.The increased cooperation between the hemispheres is related to semantic information during lexical processing.The inter-hemispheric interaction is represented by both inhibition and cooperation. This study explores inter-hemispheric interaction (IHI) during a lexical decision task by using a behavioral approach, the bilateral presentation of stimuli within a divided visual field experiment. Previous studies have shown that compared to unilateral presentation, the bilateral redundant (BR) presentation decreases the inter-hemispheric asymmetry and facilitates the cooperation between hemispheres. However, it is still poorly understood which type of information facilitates this cooperation. In the present study, verbal stimuli were presented unilaterally (left or right visual hemi-field successively) and bilaterally (left and right visual hemi-field simultaneously). Moreover, during the bilateral presentation of stimuli, we manipulated the relationship between target and distractors in order to specify the type of information which modulates the IHI. Thus, three types of information were manipulated: perceptual, semantic, and decisional, respectively named pre-lexical, lexical and post-lexical processing. Our results revealed left hemisphere (LH) lateralization during the lexical decision task. In terms of inter-hemisphere interaction, the perceptual and decision-making information increased the inter-hemispheric asymmetry, suggesting the inhibition of one hemisphere upon the other. In contrast, semantic information decreased the inter-hemispheric asymmetry, suggesting cooperation between the hemispheres. We discussed our results according to current models of IHI and concluded that cerebral hemispheres interact and communicate according to various excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms, all which depend on specific

  6. Comparing nouns and verbs in a lexical task.

    PubMed

    Cordier, Françoise; Croizet, Jean-Claude; Rigalleau, François

    2013-02-01

    We analyzed the differential processing of nouns and verbs in a lexical decision task. Moderate and high-frequency nouns and verbs were compared. The characteristics of our material were specified at the formal level (number of letters and syllables, number of homographs, orthographic neighbors, frequency and age of acquisition), and at the semantic level (imagery, number and strength of associations, number of meanings, context dependency). A regression analysis indicated a classical frequency effect and a word-type effect, with latencies for verbs being slower than for nouns. The regression analysis did not permit the conclusion that semantic effects were involved (particularly imageability). Nevertheless, the semantic opposition between nouns as prototypical representations of objects, and verbs as prototypical representation of actions was not tested in this experiment and remains a good candidate explanation of the response time discrepancies between verbs and nouns.

  7. Resonance, synchronization, and lexical redundancy in the expanding dynamics of brain stem neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandell, Arnold J.; Selz, Karen A.

    1993-11-01

    Interspike interval patterns of brain stem neurons that project directly or indirectly to much of the neocortex interactively influence electroencephalographically-defined states of consciousness and modulate patterns of temporal-spatial coherence, `binding,' in cortical field potential oscillations. Neurochemical classes of brain stem neurons manifest discriminable dynamical characteristics apart from the statistics of their firing rates. These sequences of interspike intervals are not well described by either harmonic functions or the Poisson statistics of renewal processes. We cast these patterns within the context of information bearing processes by using moment partitions and symbolic dynamics. We describe the expanding behavior of model and real brain stem neurons in relationship to states of resonance (the presence of complex singularities in the power spectrum with amplitudes related to the persistence of unstable fixed points in the nonexponential decay of correlations), synchronization (how closely the measure of maximal entropy comes to equaling the Sinai- Ruelle-Bowen area measure), and lexical redundancy (as repetitions of symbol subsequences).

  8. Effect of musical experience on learning lexical tone categories.

    PubMed

    Zhao, T Christina; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that musicians show an advantage in processing and encoding foreign-language lexical tones. The current experiments examined whether musical experience influences the perceptual learning of lexical tone categories. Experiment I examined whether musicians with no prior experience of tonal languages differed from nonmusicians in the perception of a lexical tone continuum. Experiment II examined whether short-term perceptual training on lexical tones altered the perception of the lexical tone continuum differentially in English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians. Results suggested that (a) musicians exhibited higher sensitivity overall to tonal changes, but perceived the lexical tone continuum in a manner similar to nonmusicians (continuously), in contrast to native Mandarin speakers (categorically); and (b) short-term perceptual training altered perception; however, there were no significant differences between the effects of training on musicians and nonmusicians.

  9. Coreference and Lexical Repetition: Mechanisms of Discourse Integration

    PubMed Central

    Ledoux, Kerry; Gordon, Peter C.; Camblin, C. Christine; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2006-01-01

    The use of repeated expressions to establish coreference allows an investigation of the relationship between basic processes of word recognition and higher-level language processes that involve the integration of information into a discourse model. In two experiments on reading, we used eye tracking and event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether repeated expressions that are coreferential within a local discourse context show the kind of repetition priming that is shown in lists of words. In both experiments, effects of lexical repetition were modulated by effects of local discourse context that arose from manipulations of the linguistic prominence of the antecedent of a coreferentially repeated name. These results are interpreted within the context of discourse prominence theory, which suggests that processes of coreferential interpretation interact with basic mechanisms of memory integration during the construction of a model of discourse. PMID:17848036

  10. Lexical competition in young children’s word learning

    PubMed Central

    Swingley, Daniel; Aslin, Richard N.

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, 1.5 year olds were taught novel words whose sound patterns were phonologically similar to familiar words (novel neighbors) or were not (novel nonneighbors). Learning was tested using a picture fixation task. In both experiments, children learned the novel nonneighbors but not the novel neighbors. In addition, exposure to the novel neighbors impaired recognition performance on familiar neighbors. Finally, children did not spontaneously use phonological differences to infer that a novel word referred to a novel object. Thus, lexical competition—inhibitory interaction among words in speech comprehension—can prevent children from using their full phonological sensitivity in judging words as novel. These results suggest that word learning in young children, as in adults, relies not only on the discrimination and identification of phonetic categories, but also on evaluating the likelihood that an utterance conveys a new word. PMID:17054932

  11. Calculating the radiation characteristics of accelerated electrons in laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.; Gu, Y. J.; Qu, J. F.; Ma, Y. Y.; Kong, Q.; Kawata, S.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we studied the characteristics of radiation emitted by electrons accelerated in a laser-plasma interaction by using the Lienard-Wiechert field. In the interaction of a laser pulse with a underdense plasma, electrons are accelerated by two mechanisms: direct laser acceleration (DLA) and laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). At the beginning of the process, the DLA electrons emit most of the radiation, and the DLA electrons emit a much higher peak photon energy than the LWFA electrons. As the laser-plasma interaction progresses, the LWFA electrons become the major radiation emitter; however, even at this stage, the contribution from DLA electrons is significant, especially to the peak photon energy.

  12. Interactions between donor Agreeableness and recipient characteristics in predicting charitable donation and positive social evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ashar, Yoni K.; Wager, Tor D.

    2015-01-01

    Agreeable people are more likely to display prosocial attitudes and helpful behavior in a broad range of situations. Here we show that this tendency interacts with the personal characteristics of interaction partners. In an online study (n = 284), participants were given the opportunity to report attitudes toward and make monetary donations to needy individuals who were described in dynamically generated biographies. Using a machine learning and multilevel modeling framework, we tested three potential explanations for the facilitatory influence of Agreeableness on charitable behavior. We find that Agreeableness preferentially increased donations and prosocial attitudes toward targets normatively rated as being more deserving. Our results advance understanding of person-by-situation interactions in the context of charitable behavior and prosocial attitudes. PMID:26312168

  13. General perceptual contributions to lexical tone normalization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingyuan; Holt, Lori L

    2009-06-01

    Within tone languages that use pitch variations to contrast meaning, large variability exists in the pitches produced by different speakers. Context-dependent perception may help to resolve this perceptual challenge. However, whether speakers rely on context in contour tone perception is unclear; previous studies have produced inconsistent results. The present study aimed to provide an unambiguous test of the effect of context on contour lexical tone perception and to explore its underlying mechanisms. In three experiments, Mandarin listeners' perception of Mandarin first and second (high-level and mid-rising) tones was investigated with preceding speech and non-speech contexts. Results indicate that the mean fundamental frequency (f0) of a preceding sentence affects perception of contour lexical tones and the effect is contrastive. Following a sentence with a higher-frequency mean f0, the following syllable is more likely to be perceived as a lower frequency lexical tone and vice versa. Moreover, non-speech precursors modeling the mean spectrum of f0 also elicit this effect, suggesting general perceptual processing rather than articulatory-based or speaker-identity-driven mechanisms. PMID:19507980

  14. Neural correlates of partial lexical activation

    PubMed Central

    Pirog Revill, Kathleen; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2008-01-01

    As a spoken word unfolds over time, it is temporarily consistent with the acoustic forms of multiple words. Previous behavioral research has shown that, in the face of temporary ambiguity about how a word will end, multiple candidate words are briefly activated. Here, we provide neural imaging evidence that lexical candidates only temporarily consistent with the input activate perceptually based semantic representations. An artificial lexicon and novel visual environment were used to target human MT/V5 and an area anterior to it which have been shown to be recruited during the reading of motion words. Participants learned words that referred to novel objects and to motion or color/texture changes that the objects underwent. The lexical items corresponding to the change events were organized into phonologically similar pairs differing only in the final syllable. Upon hearing spoken scene descriptions in a posttraining verification task, participants showed greater activation in the left hemisphere anterior extent of MT/V5 when motion words were heard than when nonmotion words were heard. Importantly, when a nonmotion word was heard, the level of activation in the anterior extent of MT/V5 was modulated by whether there was a phonologically related competitor that was a motion word rather than another nonmotion word. These results provide evidence of activation of a perceptual brain region in response to the semantics of a word while lexical competition is in process and before the word is fully recognized. PMID:18725635

  15. Lexical-semantic immaturities manifesting as grammatical disorders: evidence from a child language sample.

    PubMed

    Mok, Zaneta; Kipka, Peter F

    2009-11-01

    Given the growing evidence of the integral role that semantic development plays in normal child syntactic acquisition, it is very likely that lexical-semantic deficits can have ramifications for a child's grammar. This paper illustrates how semantics and syntax interact in a case study of a child, 5;3 years, with apparent grammatical deficits. Using concepts from Principles and Parameters Theory, a language sample analysis revealed that what appeared to be purely grammatical deficits arose via underlying lexical-semantic mechanisms. Language sample analyses to adequately guide intervention planning may thus need to move beyond superficial surface structures and utilize linguistic frameworks capable of addressing the interaction among language-internal components.

  16. Lexical familiarity and processing efficiency: individual differences in naming, lexical decision, and semantic categorization.

    PubMed

    Lewellen, M J; Goldinger, S D; Pisoni, D B; Greene, B G

    1993-09-01

    College students were separated into 2 groups (high and low) on the basis of 3 measures: subjective familiarity ratings of words, self-reported language experiences, and a test of vocabulary knowledge. Three experiments were conducted to determine if the groups also differed in visual word naming, lexical decision, and semantic categorization. High Ss were consistently faster than low Ss in naming visually presented words. They were also faster and more accurate in making difficult lexical decisions and in rejecting homophone foils in semantic categorization. Taken together, the results demonstrate that Ss who differ in lexical familiarity also differ in processing efficiency. The relationship between processing efficiency and working memory accounts of individual differences in language processing is also discussed. PMID:8371087

  17. Manipulation of length and lexicality localizes the functional neuroanatomy of phonological processing in adult readers.

    PubMed

    Church, Jessica A; Balota, David A; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2011-06-01

    In a previous study of single word reading, regions in the left supramarginal gyrus and left angular gyrus showed positive BOLD activity in children but significantly less activity in adults for high-frequency words [Church, J. A., Coalson, R. S., Lugar, H. M., Petersen, S. E., & Schlaggar, B. L. A developmental fMRI study of reading and repetition reveals changes in phonological and visual mechanisms over age. Cerebral Cortex, 18, 2054-2065, 2008]. This developmental decrease may reflect decreased reliance on phonological processing for familiar stimuli in adults. Therefore, in the present study, variables thought to influence phonological demand (string length and lexicality) were manipulated. Length and lexicality effects in the brain were explored using both ROI and whole-brain approaches. In the ROI analysis, the supramarginal and angular regions from the previous study were applied to this study. The supramarginal region showed a significant positive effect of length, consistent with a role in phonological processing, whereas the angular region showed only negative deflections from baseline with a strong effect of lexicality and other weaker effects. At the whole-brain level, varying effects of length and lexicality and their interactions were observed in 85 regions throughout the brain. The application of hierarchical clustering analysis to the BOLD time course data derived from these regions revealed seven clusters, with potentially revealing anatomical locations. Of note, a left angular gyrus region was the sole constituent of one cluster. Taken together, these findings in adult readers (1) provide support for a widespread set of brain regions affected by lexical variables, (2) corroborate a role for phonological processing in the left supramarginal gyrus, and (3) do not support a strong role for phonological processing in the left angular gyrus.

  18. Stepping Backwards in Development: Integrating Developmental Speech Perception with Lexical and Phonological Development--A Commentary on Stoel-Gammon's "Relationships between Lexical and Phonological Development in Young Children"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamuner, Tania S.

    2011-01-01

    Within the subfields of linguistics, traditional approaches tend to examine different phenomena in isolation. As Stoel-Gammon (this issue) correctly states, there is little interaction between the subfields. However, for a more comprehensive understanding of language acquisition in general and, more specifically, lexical and phonological…

  19. Revisiting Lexical Inferencing Strategies in L2 Reading: A Comparison of Successful and Less Successful EFL Inferencers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anvari, Sahar; Farvardin, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-01-01

    There are many questions about how EFL learners infer word meanings from context and what distinguishes successful from less successful inferencers. This study explored the lexical inferencing strategies used by EFL learners and the characteristics which distinguish successful from less successful inferencers. To this end, 15 EFL students in an…

  20. Semantic and Conceptual Factors in Spanish-English Bilinguals' Processing of Lexical Categories in Their Two Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gathercole, Virginia C. Mueller; Stadthagen-González, Hans; Pérez-Tattam, Rocío; Yava?, Feryal

    2016-01-01

    This study examines possible semantic interaction in fully fluent adult simultaneous and early second language (L2) bilinguals. Monolingual and bilingual speakers of Spanish and English (n = 144) were tested for their understanding of lexical categories that differed in their two languages. Simultaneous bilinguals came from homes in which Spanish…

  1. Many neighbors are not silent. fMRI evidence for global lexical activity in visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Braun, Mario; Jacobs, Arthur M; Richlan, Fabio; Hawelka, Stefan; Hutzler, Florian; Kronbichler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Many neurocognitive studies investigated the neural correlates of visual word recognition, some of which manipulated the orthographic neighborhood density of words and nonwords believed to influence the activation of orthographically similar representations in a hypothetical mental lexicon. Previous neuroimaging research failed to find evidence for such global lexical activity associated with neighborhood density. Rather, effects were interpreted to reflect semantic or domain general processing. The present fMRI study revealed effects of lexicality, orthographic neighborhood density and a lexicality by orthographic neighborhood density interaction in a silent reading task. For the first time we found greater activity for words and nonwords with a high number of neighbors. We propose that this activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex reflects activation of orthographically similar codes in verbal working memory thus providing evidence for global lexical activity as the basis of the neighborhood density effect. The interaction of lexicality by neighborhood density in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex showed lower activity in response to words with a high number compared to nonwords with a high number of neighbors. In the light of these results the facilitatory effect for words and inhibitory effect for nonwords with many neighbors observed in previous studies can be understood as being due to the operation of a fast-guess mechanism for words and a temporal deadline mechanism for nonwords as predicted by models of visual word recognition. Furthermore, we propose that the lexicality effect with higher activity for words compared to nonwords in inferior parietal and middle temporal cortex reflects the operation of an identification mechanism based on local lexico-semantic activity. PMID:26257634

  2. Many neighbors are not silent. fMRI evidence for global lexical activity in visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Braun, Mario; Jacobs, Arthur M; Richlan, Fabio; Hawelka, Stefan; Hutzler, Florian; Kronbichler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Many neurocognitive studies investigated the neural correlates of visual word recognition, some of which manipulated the orthographic neighborhood density of words and nonwords believed to influence the activation of orthographically similar representations in a hypothetical mental lexicon. Previous neuroimaging research failed to find evidence for such global lexical activity associated with neighborhood density. Rather, effects were interpreted to reflect semantic or domain general processing. The present fMRI study revealed effects of lexicality, orthographic neighborhood density and a lexicality by orthographic neighborhood density interaction in a silent reading task. For the first time we found greater activity for words and nonwords with a high number of neighbors. We propose that this activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex reflects activation of orthographically similar codes in verbal working memory thus providing evidence for global lexical activity as the basis of the neighborhood density effect. The interaction of lexicality by neighborhood density in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex showed lower activity in response to words with a high number compared to nonwords with a high number of neighbors. In the light of these results the facilitatory effect for words and inhibitory effect for nonwords with many neighbors observed in previous studies can be understood as being due to the operation of a fast-guess mechanism for words and a temporal deadline mechanism for nonwords as predicted by models of visual word recognition. Furthermore, we propose that the lexicality effect with higher activity for words compared to nonwords in inferior parietal and middle temporal cortex reflects the operation of an identification mechanism based on local lexico-semantic activity.

  3. Phonological perception by birds: budgerigars can perceive lexical stress.

    PubMed

    Hoeschele, Marisa; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-05-01

    Metrical phonology is the perceptual "strength" in language of some syllables relative to others. The ability to perceive lexical stress is important, as it can help a listener segment speech and distinguish the meaning of words and sentences. Despite this importance, there has been little comparative work on the perception of lexical stress across species. We used a go/no-go operant paradigm to train human participants and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) to distinguish trochaic (stress-initial) from iambic (stress-final) two-syllable nonsense words. Once participants learned the task, we presented both novel nonsense words, and familiar nonsense words that had certain cues removed (e.g., pitch, duration, loudness, or vowel quality) to determine which cues were most important in stress perception. Members of both species learned the task and were then able to generalize to novel exemplars, showing categorical learning rather than rote memorization. Tests using reduced stimuli showed that humans could identify stress patterns with amplitude and pitch alone, but not with only duration or vowel quality. Budgerigars required more than one cue to be present and had trouble if vowel quality or amplitude were missing as cues. The results suggest that stress patterns in human speech can be decoded by other species. Further comparative stress-perception research with more species could help to determine what species characteristics predict this ability. In addition, tests with a variety of stimuli could help to determine how much this ability depends on general pattern learning processes versus vocalization-specific cues. PMID:26914456

  4. Performance characteristics and optimal analysis of an interacting quantum dot thermoelectric refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanchao; He, Jizhou; He, Xian; Xiao, Yuling

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic performance of a quantum-dot refrigerator consisting of a single orbital interacting quantum dot embedded between two electron reservoirs at different temperatures and chemical potentials. Based on the quantum master equation the expressions for the cooling power and the coefficient of performance are derived. The characteristic curves between the cooling power and the coefficient of performance are plotted, and the optimal regions of the performance parameters are determined. Moreover, the optimal performance parameters are calculated numerically. Finally, the influence of the Coulomb interaction and the temperature ratio on optimal performance parameters are discussed in detail. The results obtained here can provide some theoretical guidelines for the design and operation of the practical quantum-dot refrigerator. Our work is not restricted to the linear-response regime.

  5. Changes of microstructure characteristics and intermolecular interactions of preserved egg white gel during pickling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Chen, Zhangyi; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Shao, Yaoyao; Tu, Yonggang

    2016-07-15

    Changes in gel microstructure characteristics and in intermolecular interactions of preserved egg whites during pickling were investigated. Spin-spin relaxation times of preserved egg whites significantly decreased in the first 8 days and remained unchanged after the 16th day. SEM images revealed a three-dimensional gel network, interwoven with a loose linear fibrous mesh structure. The protein gel mesh structure became more regular, smaller, and compacted with pickling time. Free sulfhydryl contents in the egg whites increased significantly, while total sulfhydryl contents dramatically decreased during pickling. The primary intermolecular forces in the preserved egg white gels were ionic and disulfide bonds. Secondary forces included hydrophobic interaction and relatively few hydrogen bonds. During the first 8 days, the proportion of ionic bonds sharply decreased, and that of disulfide bonds increased over the first 24 days.

  6. Changes of microstructure characteristics and intermolecular interactions of preserved egg white gel during pickling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Chen, Zhangyi; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Shao, Yaoyao; Tu, Yonggang

    2016-07-15

    Changes in gel microstructure characteristics and in intermolecular interactions of preserved egg whites during pickling were investigated. Spin-spin relaxation times of preserved egg whites significantly decreased in the first 8 days and remained unchanged after the 16th day. SEM images revealed a three-dimensional gel network, interwoven with a loose linear fibrous mesh structure. The protein gel mesh structure became more regular, smaller, and compacted with pickling time. Free sulfhydryl contents in the egg whites increased significantly, while total sulfhydryl contents dramatically decreased during pickling. The primary intermolecular forces in the preserved egg white gels were ionic and disulfide bonds. Secondary forces included hydrophobic interaction and relatively few hydrogen bonds. During the first 8 days, the proportion of ionic bonds sharply decreased, and that of disulfide bonds increased over the first 24 days. PMID:26948621

  7. Experimental blade vortex interaction noise characteristics of a utility helicopter at 1/4 scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. A.; Hoad, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Models of both the advanced main rotor system and the standard or "baseline" UH-1 main rotor system were tested at one-quarter scale in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter (V/STOL) Tunnel using the general rotor model system. Tests were conducted over a range of descent angles which bracketed the blade-vortex interaction phenomenon for a range of simulated forward speeds. The tunnel was operated in the open-throat configuration with acoustic treatment to improve the semi-anechoic characteristics of the test chamber. Acoustical data obtained for these two rotor systems operating at similar flight conditions are presented without analysis or discussion.

  8. Lexical Competition Effects in Aphasia: Deactivation of Lexical Candidates in Spoken Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janse, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that Broca's and Wernicke's aphasic patients show different impairments in auditory lexical processing. The results of an experiment with form-overlapping primes showed an inhibitory effect of form-overlap for control adults and a weak inhibition trend for Broca's aphasic patients, but a facilitatory effect of form-overlap was…

  9. Fully Transparent Orthography, yet Lexical Reading Aloud: The Lexicality Effect in Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagliuca, Giovanni; Arduino, Lisa S.; Barca, Laura; Burani, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    This is the first study that reports the lexicality effect (i.e., words read better than nonwords) in Italian with fully transparent and methodologically well-controlled stimuli. We investigated how words and nonwords are read aloud in the Italian transparent orthography, in which there is an almost strict one-to-one correspondence between…

  10. Hemispheric Sensitivities to Lexical and Contextual Information: Evidence from Lexical Ambiguity Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg, Orna; Eviatar, Zohar

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the manner in which both hemispheres utilize prior semantic context and relative meaning frequency during the processing of homographs. Participants read sentences biased toward the dominant or the subordinate meaning of their final homograph, or unbiased neutral sentences, and performed a lexical decision task on…

  11. The Role of Lexical-Semantic Neighborhood in Object Naming: Implications for Models of Lexical Access

    PubMed Central

    Bormann, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    The role of lexical-semantic neighborhood is relevant to models of lexical access. Recently it has been claimed that the size of the cohort of activated competitors affects ease of lexical selection in word production as well as the effect of semantically related distractors in picture–word interference tasks. Three experiments are reported in which subjects had to name pictures from large and small semantic categories (cf. “lion,” “hammer” versus “funnel,” “cage”). In Experiment 1, naming-impaired subjects exhibited semantic errors for targets from large categories. No semantic but many omission errors occurred for targets from small categories suggesting that few competitors were available for these “low competition targets.” In contrast in two experiments with unimpaired subjects, targets were named equally fast. These experiments were sensitive enough to yield a highly significant repetition effect in Experiment 2. Contrary to the explicit predictions of a recent proposal, semantically related distractors caused interference for both groups of words in Experiment 3. The results suggest no role of neighborhood size in the naming of unimpaired individuals. Implications for models of lexical selection are discussed. PMID:21713062

  12. Lexical Development in Korean: Vocabulary Size, Lexical Composition, and Late Talking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Lee, Youn Mi Cathy; Oh, Kyung Ja; Kim, Young Ah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to compare vocabulary size, lexical composition, and late talking in large samples of Korean and U.S. children ages 18-35 months. Method: Data for 2,191 Korean children (211 children recruited "offline" through preschools, and 1,980 recruited "online" via the Internet) and 274 U.S.…

  13. Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

    2012-01-01

    This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

  14. Children's Understanding of Speaker Reliability between Lexical and Syntactic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, David M.; Macris, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies suggest that preschoolers rely on individuals' histories of generating accurate lexical information when learning novel lexical information from them. The present study examined whether children used a speaker's accuracy about one kind of linguistic knowledge to make inferences about another kind of linguistic knowledge, focusing…

  15. Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures…

  16. Lexical Use in Interlanguage of Korean EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Mi Yang

    2009-01-01

    Lexical use seems to represent one of the major problems Korean learners face in learning English. One of the factors attributable to the learners' lexical problems may be in large part due to the use of the Korean language as a medium of instruction in teaching English. Fifty native Korean students took part in this research. They were of 20 male…

  17. Lexical Patterns in the Eyes of Intermediate EFL Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Kyoko

    2005-01-01

    Hoey (1991) claims that lexical patterns, which are a network of repetitious and synonymous words of a text, can be identified even by elementary foreign language readers. The present study investigates whether intermediate Japanese EFL readers can actually find elements of lexical patterns of a text Hoey uses in his book to demonstrate the…

  18. Pathways from Toddler Information Processing to Adolescent Lexical Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation of 3-year core information-processing abilities to lexical growth and development. The core abilities covered four domains--memory, representational competence (cross-modal transfer), processing speed, and attention. Lexical proficiency was assessed at 3 and 13 years with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)…

  19. On the Nature of Semantic Constraints on Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Andrea; Crocker, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    We present two eye-tracking experiments that investigate lexical frequency and semantic context constraints in spoken-word recognition in German. In both experiments, the pivotal words were pairs of nouns overlapping at onset but varying in lexical frequency. In Experiment 1, German listeners showed an expected frequency bias towards…

  20. Turkish and Native English Academic Writers' Use of Lexical Bundles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öztürk, Yusuf; Köse, Gül Durmusoglu

    2016-01-01

    Lexical bundles such as "on the other hand" and "as a result of" are extremely common and important in academic discourse. The appropriate use of lexical bundles typical of a specific academic discipline is important for writers and the absence of such bundles may not sound fluent and native-like. Recent studies (e.g. Adel…

  1. Speed of Lexical Access to Arabic and English Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alasali, Hesham H.; Aljomaa, Suliman S.

    2015-01-01

    To examining the role of cultural differences in speed of lexical access, we employed two types of Posner (1967) name matching task: Arabic and English types. We have conducted an experiment on 30 native Arabic speakers from King Saud University. The results showed that the lexical access to physically identical letters is faster than lexical…

  2. A Comprehensive Evaluation of Lexical Reading in Italian Developmental Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paizi, Despina; De Luca, Maria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Italian developmental dyslexic readers show a striking length effect and have been hypothesised to rely mostly on nonlexical reading. Our experiments tested this hypothesis by assessing whether or not the deficit underlying dyslexia is specific to lexical reading. The effects of lexicality, word frequency and length were investigated in the same…

  3. Integrative Priming Occurs Rapidly and Uncontrollably during Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Zachary; Jones, Lara L.

    2009-01-01

    Lexical priming, whereby a prime word facilitates recognition of a related target word (e.g., "nurse" [right arrrow] "doctor"), is typically attributed to association strength, semantic similarity, or compound familiarity. Here, the authors demonstrate a novel type of lexical priming that occurs among unassociated, dissimilar, and unfamiliar…

  4. Lexical Orthographic Knowledge Develops from the Beginning of Literacy Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinet, Catherine; Valdois, Sylviane; Fayol, Michel

    2004-01-01

    This study reports two experiments assessing the spelling performance of French first graders after 3 months and after 9 months of literacy instruction. The participants were asked to spell high and low frequency irregular words (Experiment 1) and pseudowords, some of which had lexical neighbours (Experiment 2). The lexical database which children…

  5. Word Length and Lexical Activation: Longer Is Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, Mark A.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2006-01-01

    Many models of spoken word recognition posit the existence of lexical and sublexical representations, with excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms used to affect the activation levels of such representations. Bottom-up evidence provides excitatory input, and inhibition from phonetically similar representations leads to lexical competition. In such a…

  6. Presenting Lexical Bundles for Explicit Noticing with Schematic Linguistic Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Haidee Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Lexical bundles are essential for fluency, but their incompleteness is a stumbling block for learners. In this study, two presentation methods to increase awareness of lexical bundles through explicit noticing are explored and compared with incidental exposure. The three conditions in this study were as follows: noticing with schematic linguistic…

  7. Communication Strategies and Psychological Processes Underlying Lexical Simplification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumaravadivelu, B.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes interlanguage written discourse produced by advanced Tamil-speaking learners of English as a second language. Eight communication strategies are discussed, including: 1) extended use of lexical items; 2) lexical paraphrase; 3) word coinage; 4) native language (L1) equivalence; 5) literal translation of L1 idiom; 6) L1 mode of emphasis; 7)…

  8. Spoonish Spanerisms: A Lexical Bias Effect in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Anton-Mendez, Ines; Roelstraete, Bjorn; Costa, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Lexical bias is the tendency for phonological errors to form existing words at a rate above chance. This effect has been observed in experiments and corpus analyses in Germanic languages, but S. del Viso, J. M. Igoa, and J. E. Garcia-Albea (1991) found no effect in a Spanish corpus study. Because lexical bias plays an important role in the debate…

  9. Individual Differences in Reading: The Case for Lexical Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, S. Jay; Naslund, Jan Carol

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research on lexical access (the process of getting information about a word from a mental dictionary). Discusses implications for comprehension development. Suggests that individual differences in comprehension depend on speed of lexical access as well as on speed of decoding. (SR)

  10. Lexical Effects on Children's Pseudoword Reading in a Transparent Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcolini, Stefania; Burani, Cristina; Colombo, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the involvement of lexical knowledge in pseudoword reading by Italian children aged 8-10. In both lexical decision and reading aloud tasks, inhibitory effects were found on pseudowords derived from high-frequency words in comparison to pseudowords derived from low-frequency words. A group of adult readers showed…

  11. Lexical Borrowings in the ESL Classrooms in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thirusanku, Jantmary; Yunus, Melor Md

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to show the use of lexical borrowings in ten teaching materials used by the English as Second Language (ESL) teachers in the ESL classrooms in the National Secondary Schools in the Klang district in Selangor, Malaysia. It also discusses the general and pedagogical implications involved in using lexical borrowings. This paper…

  12. Non-Selective Lexical Access in Different-Script Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Jihye; Jiang, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Lexical access in bilinguals is known to be largely non-selective. However, most studies in this area have involved bilinguals whose two languages share the same script. This study aimed to examine bilingual lexical access among bilinguals whose two languages have distinct scripts. Korean-English bilinguals were tested in a phoneme monitoring task…

  13. Lexical Inferencing in First and Second Language Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zeeland, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    Lexical inferencing is an important vocabulary learning strategy. Unfortunately, almost all research on this issue has been carried out in the reading context. This study is the first to directly measure lexical inferencing success in listening, by both native (N?=?47) and nonnative (N?=?30) speakers of English. It analysed the effects of…

  14. Neural Correlates of Lexical and Sublexical Processes in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joubert, Sven; Beauregard, Mario; Walter, Nathalie; Bourgouin, Pierre; Beaudoin, Gilles; Leroux, Jean-Maxime; Karama, Sherif; Lecours, Andre Roch

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the brain regions and systems that subserve lexical and sublexical processes in reading. In order to do so, three types of tasks were used: (i) silent reading of very high frequency regular words (lexical task); (ii) silent reading of nonwords (sublexical task); and, (iii) silent reading of very low…

  15. Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  16. What Lexical Decision and Naming Tell Us about Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Leonard; Brancazio, Larry; Irwin, Julia; Katz, Stephen; Magnuson, James; Whalen, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    The lexical decision (LD) and naming (NAM) tasks are ubiquitous paradigms that employ printed word identification. They are major tools for investigating how factors like morphology, semantic information, lexical neighborhood and others affect identification. Although use of the tasks is widespread, there has been little research into how…

  17. Predicting the Proficiency Level of Language Learners Using Lexical Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how second language (L2) texts written by learners at various proficiency levels can be classified using computational indices that characterize lexical competence. For this study, 100 writing samples taken from 100 L2 learners were analyzed using lexical indices reported by the computational tool Coh-Metrix. The L2 writing…

  18. Regularity revisited: evidence from lexical access of verbs and nouns in Greek.

    PubMed

    Tsapkini, Kyrana; Jarema, Gonia; Kehayia, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between morphological regularity and form during lexical processing using a visual priming paradigm varying the prime duration. We addressed the effect of regularity on morphological facilitation in nouns and verbs by exploiting particular characteristics of a highly inflected language, Greek, in which it is possible to manipulate morphological regularity while controlling the degree of orthographic overlap between morphological relatives. The effects of morphological regularity were found to crucially depend on the time course of lexical access. Moreover, morphological regularity was found to affect nouns and verbs differentially. We interpret these findings with respect to the distinction between affix processing and allomorph retrieval and discuss the issues of form overlap and orthographic boundaries in morphological processing.

  19. Segregation of lexical and sub-lexical reading processes in the left perisylvian cortex.

    PubMed

    Roux, Franck-Emmanuel; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Jucla, Mélanie; Réhault, Emilie; Reddy, Marion; Démonet, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental issue in cognitive neuroscience is the existence of two major, sub-lexical and lexical, reading processes and their possible segregation in the left posterior perisylvian cortex. Using cortical electrostimulation mapping, we identified the cortical areas involved on reading either orthographically irregular words (lexical, "direct" process) or pronounceable pseudowords (sublexical, "indirect" process) in 14 right-handed neurosurgical patients while video-recording behavioral effects. Intraoperative neuronavigation system and Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) stereotactic coordinates were used to identify the localization of stimulation sites. Fifty-one reading interference areas were found that affected either words (14 areas), or pseudo-words (11 areas), or both (26 areas). Forty-one (80%) corresponded to the impairment of the phonological level of reading processes. Reading processes involved discrete, highly localized perisylvian cortical areas with individual variability. MNI coordinates throughout the group exhibited a clear segregation according to the tested reading route; specific pseudo-word reading interferences were concentrated in a restricted inferior and anterior subpart of the left supramarginal gyrus (barycentre x = -68.1; y = -25.9; z = 30.2; Brodmann's area 40) while specific word reading areas were located almost exclusively alongside the left superior temporal gyrus. Although half of the reading interferences found were nonspecific, the finding of specific lexical or sublexical interferences is new evidence that lexical and sublexical processes of reading could be partially supported by distinct cortical sub-regions despite their anatomical proximity. These data are in line with many brain activation studies that showed that left superior temporal and inferior parietal regions had a crucial role respectively in word and pseudoword reading and were core regions for dyslexia.

  20. Interaction and Representational Integration: Evidence from Speech Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldrick, Matthew; Baker, H. Ross; Murphy, Amanda; Baese-Berk, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    We examine the mechanisms that support interaction between lexical, phonological and phonetic processes during language production. Studies of the phonetics of speech errors have provided evidence that partially activated lexical and phonological representations influence phonetic processing. We examine how these interactive effects are modulated…

  1. Neurophysiological correlates of mismatch in lexical access

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Claudia K

    2005-01-01

    Background In the present study neurophysiological correlates related to mismatching information in lexical access were investigated with a fragment priming paradigm. Event-related brain potentials were recorded for written words following spoken word onsets that either matched (e.g., kan – Kante [Engl. edge]), partially mismatched (e.g., kan – Konto [Engl. account]), or were unrelated (e.g., kan – Zunge [Engl. tongue]). Previous psycholinguistic research postulated the activation of multiple words in the listeners' mental lexicon which compete for recognition. Accordingly, matching words were assumed to be strongly activated competitors, which inhibit less strongly activated partially mismatching words. Results ERPs for matching and unrelated control words differed between 300 and 400 ms. Difference waves (unrelated control words – matching words) replicate a left-hemispheric P350 effect in this time window. Although smaller than for matching words, a P350 effect and behavioural facilitation was also found for partially mismatching words. Minimum norm solutions point to a left hemispheric centro-temporal source of the P350 effect in both conditions. The P350 is interpreted as a neurophysiological index for the activation of matching words in the listeners' mental lexicon. In contrast to the P350 and the behavioural responses, a brain potential ranging between 350 and 500 ms (N400) was found to be equally reduced for matching and partially mismatching words as compared to unrelated control words. This latter effect might be related to strategic mechanisms in the priming situation. Conclusion A left-hemispheric neuronal network engaged in lexical access appears to be gradually activated by matching and partially mismatching words. Results suggest that neural processing of matching words does not inhibit processing of partially mismatching words during early stages of lexical identification. Furthermore, the present results indicate that neurophysiological

  2. The influence of native-language tones on lexical access in the second language.

    PubMed

    Shook, Anthony; Marian, Viorica

    2016-06-01

    When listening to speech in a second language, bilinguals' perception of acoustic-phonetic properties is often influenced by the features that are important in the native language of the bilingual. Furthermore, changes in the perception of segmental contrasts due to L1 experience can influence L2 lexical access during comprehension. The present study investigates whether the effect of L1 experience on L2 processing seen at the segmental level extends to suprasegmental processing. In an eye-tracking task, Mandarin-English bilinguals heard an auditorily presented English word and selected which of two visually presented Chinese characters represented the correct Mandarin translation. The pitch contour of the spoken word was manipulated to either match or mismatch the lexical tone of the Mandarin translation. Results revealed that bilinguals were significantly faster to correctly identify the target and made earlier eye movements to targets when the suprasegmental information of the word spoken in English matched that of its Mandarin translation. The findings provide compelling evidence for bilinguals' sensitivity to suprasegmental tone information, even when listening to a non-tonal language. These results have important implications for the effect of L1 experience on L2 lexical access and language interaction in bilinguals, and are consistent with a highly interactive account of language processing. PMID:27369132

  3. Predicting Lexical Relations between Biomedical Terms: towards a Multilingual Morphosemantics-based System.

    PubMed

    Namer, Fiammetta; Baud, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how semantic information can be automatically assigned to compound terms, i.e. both a definition and a set of semantic relations. This issue is particularly crucial when elaborating multilingual databases and when developing cross-language information retrieval systems. The paper shows how morpho-semantics can contribute in the constitution of multilingual lexical networks in biomedical corpora. It presents a system capable of labelling terms with morphologically related words, i.e. providing them with a definition, and grouping them according to synonymy, hyponymy and proximity relations. The approach requires the interaction of three techniques: (1) a la morphosemantic parser, (2) a multilingual table defining basic relations between word roots, and (3) a set of language-independant rules to draw up the list of related terms. This approach has been fully implemented for French, on an about 29,000 terms biomedical lexicon, resulting to more than 3,000 lexical families.

  4. RDBMS Based Lexical Resource for Indian Heritage: The Case of Mahābhārata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Diwakar

    The paper describes a lexical resource in the form of a relational database based indexing system for Sanskrit documents - Mahābhārata (MBh) as an example. The system is available online on http://sanskrit.jnu.ac.in/mb with input and output in Devanāgarī Unicode, using technologies such as RDBMS and Java Servlet. The system works as an interactive and multi-dimensional indexing system with search facility for MBh and has potentials for use as a generic system for all Sanskrit texts of similar structure. Currently, the system allows three types of searching facilities- 'Direct Search', 'Alphabetical Search' and 'Search by Classes'. The input triggers an indexing process by which a temporary index is created for the search string, and then clicking on any indexed word displays the details for that word and also a facility to search that word in some other online lexical resources.

  5. Electrophysical characteristics of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 during interaction with antibodies to various cell surface epitopes.

    PubMed

    Guliy, Olga I; Matora, Larisa Y; Burygin, Gennady L; Dykman, Lev A; Ostudin, Nikolai A; Bunin, Viktor D; Ignatov, Vladimir V; Ignatov, Oleg V

    2007-11-15

    This work was undertaken to examine the electrooptical characteristics of cells of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 during their interaction with antibodies developed to various cell surface epitopes. We used the dependences of the cell suspension optical density changes induced by electroorientation on the orienting field frequency (740, 1000, 1450, 2000, and 2800kHz). Cell interactions with homologous strain-specific antibodies to the A. brasilense Sp245 O antigen and with homologous antibodies to whole bacterial cells brought about considerable changes in the electrooptical properties of the bacterial suspension. When genus-specific antibodies to the flagellin of the Azospirillum sheathed flagellum and antibodies to the serologically distinct O antigen of A. brasilense Sp7 were included in the A. brasilense Sp245 suspension, the changes caused in the electrooptical signal were slight and had values close to those for the above changes. These findings agree well with the immunochemical characteristics of the Azospirillum O antigens and with the data on the topographical distribution of the Azospirillum major cell surface antigens. The obtained results can serve as a basis for the development of a rapid test for the intraspecies detection of microorganisms.

  6. Interactions Between Channel Topography and Hydrokinetic Turbines: Sediment Transport, Turbine Performance, and Wake Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Craig Steven

    Accelerating marine hydrokinetic (MHK) renewable energy development towards commercial viability requires investigating interactions between the engineered environment and its surrounding physical and biological environments. Complex and energetic hydrodynamic and morphodynamic environments desired for such energy conversion installations present difficulties for designing efficient yet robust sustainable devices, while permitting agency uncertainties regarding MHK device environmental interactions result in lengthy and costly processes prior to installing and demonstrating emerging technologies. A research program at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), University of Minnesota, utilized multi-scale physical experiments to study the interactions between axial-flow hydrokinetic turbines, turbulent open channel flow, sediment transport, turbulent turbine wakes, and complex hydro-morphodynamic processes in channels. Model axial-flow current-driven three-bladed turbines (rotor diameters, dT = 0.15m and 0.5m) were installed in open channel flumes with both erodible and non-erodible substrates. Device-induced local scour was monitored over several hydraulic conditions and material sizes. Synchronous velocity, bed elevation and turbine performance measurements provide an indication into the effect channel topography has on device performance. Complimentary experiments were performed in a realistic meandering outdoor research channel with active sediment transport to investigate device interactions with bedform migration and secondary turbulent flow patterns in asymmetric channel environments. The suite of experiments undertaken during this research program at SAFL in multiple channels with stationary and mobile substrates under a variety of turbine configurations provides an in-depth investigation into how axial-flow hydrokinetic devices respond to turbulent channel flow and topographic complexity, and how they impact local and far-field sediment transport characteristics

  7. The Role of Lexical Competition and Acoustic-Phonetic Structure in Lexical Processing: Evidence from Normal Subjects and Aphasic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misiurski, Cara; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Rissman, Jesse; Berman, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects that the acoustic-phonetic structure of a stimulus exerts on the processes by which lexical candidates compete for activation. An auditory lexical decision paradigm was used to investigate whether shortening the VOT of an initial voiceless stop consonant in a real word results in the activation of the…

  8. The Role of Amplitude Envelope in Lexical Tone Perception: Evidence from Cantonese Lexical Tone Discrimination in Adults with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Yining Victor

    2012-01-01

    Previously published studies on the role of amplitude envelope in lexical tone perception focused on Mandarin only. Amplitude envelope was found to co-vary with fundamental frequency in Mandarin lexical tones, and amplitude envelope alone could cue tone perception in Mandarin which uses primarily tone contour for phonemic tonal contrasts. The…

  9. Explaining Lexical-Semantic Deficits in Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Phonological Similarity, Phonological Working Memory, and Lexical Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Coady, Jeffry A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated potential explanations for sparse lexical-semantic representations in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers. The role of auditory perception, phonological working memory, and lexical competition were investigated. Method: Participants included 32 children…

  10. Influence of affective words on lexical decision task in major depression.

    PubMed Central

    Stip, E; Lecours, A R; Chertkow, H; Elie, R; O'Connor, K

    1994-01-01

    In cognitive science, lexical decision task is used to investigate visual word recognition and lexical access. The issue of whether or not individuals who are depressed differ in their access to affectively laden words and specifically to words that have negative affect was examined. Based on some aspects of the Resource Allocation Model (Ellis), it was postulated that patients suffering from depression take more time to recognize items from an affective-loaded list. In order to compare their behavior in a lexical decision task, patients suffering from depression and healthy controls were studied. We hoped to find an interaction between the mood state of subjects and the categories (affective or neutral) of words. Two groups of right-handed adults served as subjects in our experiment. The first group consisted of 11 patients suffering from depression (mean age: 40.2; sd: 6.8). All of this group met the DSM-III-R and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for major depressive disorder. Severity of their disease was rated using the 24-item Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale. All patients suffering from depression were without psychotropic medication. The control group was composed of 24 subjects (mean age: 32.7; sd: 7.9). A depressive word-list and a neutral word-list were built and a computer was used for the lexical-decision task. A longer reaction time to detect the non-word stimuli (F1,33 = 11.19, p < 0.01) was observed with the patients by comparison to the normal subjects. In the analysis of the word stimuli, a group by list interaction (F1,33 = 7.18, p < 0.01) was found.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8031744

  11. Examining dog-human play: the characteristics, affect, and vocalizations of a unique interspecific interaction.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Alexandra; Hecht, Julie

    2016-07-01

    Despite the growing interest in research on the interaction between humans and dogs, only a very few research projects focus on the routines between dogs and their owners. In this study, we investigated one such routine: dog-human play. Dyadic interspecific play is known to be a common interaction between owner and charge, but the details of what counts as play have not been thoroughly researched. Similarly, though people represent that "play" is pleasurable, no study has yet undertaken to determine whether different forms of play are associated with different affective states. Thus, we aimed to generate an inventory of the forms of dyadic play, the vocalizations within play, and to investigate the relationship of affect to elements of play. Via a global citizen science project, we solicited videotapes of dog-human play sessions from dog owners. We coded 187 play bouts via frame-by-frame video playback. We then assessed the relationship between various intra-bout variables and owner affect (positive or neutral) during play (dog affect was overwhelmingly positive). Amount of physical contact ("touch"), level of activity of owner ("movement"), and physical closeness of dog-owner dyad ("proximity") were highly correlated with positive affect. Owner vocalizations were found to contain different elements in positive- and neutral-affect play. One novel category of play, "tease", was found. We conclude that not all play is created equal: the experience of play to the owner participant is strongly related to a few identifiable characteristics of the interaction.

  12. Radiological characteristics of charged particle interactions in the first clay-nanoparticle dichromate gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. L.; Maeyama, T.; Fukunishi, N.; Ishikawa, K. L.; Fukasaku, K.; Furuta, T.; Takagi, S.; Noda, S.; Himeno, R.; Fukuda, S.

    2013-06-01

    The incorporation of clay nanoparticles into gel dosimeters shows promise for significant diffusion reduction - but to what extent does the presence of the nano-clay influence charged particle interactions and, in particular, what is the impact on water equivalence? In this work, we quantify the radiological characteristics of electron, proton and carbon ion interactions in the RIKEN dichromate nanoclay gel and specifically evaluate the water equivalence over a broad energy range. Results indicate that the radiological properties are sufficiently representative of tissues that this low-diffusion gel could readily be used for validation of complex dose distributions. Electron and proton ranges are within 1 % of those in water. Mean effective atomic numbers for electron interactions in the range 10 keV - 10 GeV are within 1 % of those of water which, coupled with the similar mass density, ultimately means the overall impact on dose distributions is not great. The range of C6+ ions in the nanoclay gel is closer to that of water (< 4 %) than a common polymer gel dosimeter (< 7 %), though experimentally measured R1 values indicate an over-response at low doses.

  13. The Relationship between Neonatal Characteristics and Three-Month Mother-Infant Interaction in High-Risk Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jamie G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) To what extent do risk factors of prematurity and illness affect neonatal characteristics? (2) Do these risk factors continue to account for differences in mother and infant social interactive behavior at three months? and (three) To what degree are neonatal characteristics predictive of mother and infant behavior at…

  14. Language nonselective lexical access in bilingual toddlers.

    PubMed

    Von Holzen, Katie; Mani, Nivedita

    2012-12-01

    We examined how words from bilingual toddlers' second language (L2) primed recognition of related target words in their first language (L1). On critical trials, prime-target word pairs were either (a) phonologically related, with L2 primes overlapped phonologically with L1 target words [e.g., slide (L2 prime)-Kleid (L1 target, "dress")], or (b) phonologically related through translation, with L1 translations of L2 primes rhymed with the L1 target words [e.g., leg (L2 prime, L1 translation, "Bein")-Stein (L1 target, "stone"). Evidence of facilitated target recognition in the phonological priming condition suggests language nonselective access but not necessarily lexical access. However, a late interference effect on target recognition in the phonological priming through translation condition provides evidence for language nonselective lexical access: The L2 prime (leg) could influence L1 target recognition (Stein) in this condition only if both the L2 prime (leg) and its L1 translation ("Bein") were concurrently activated. In addition, age- and gender-matched monolingual toddler controls showed no difference between conditions, providing further evidence that the results with bilingual toddlers were driven by cross-language activation. The current study, therefore, presents the first-ever evidence of cross-talk between the two languages of bilinguals even as they begin to acquire fluency in their second language.

  15. Language nonselective lexical access in bilingual toddlers.

    PubMed

    Von Holzen, Katie; Mani, Nivedita

    2012-12-01

    We examined how words from bilingual toddlers' second language (L2) primed recognition of related target words in their first language (L1). On critical trials, prime-target word pairs were either (a) phonologically related, with L2 primes overlapped phonologically with L1 target words [e.g., slide (L2 prime)-Kleid (L1 target, "dress")], or (b) phonologically related through translation, with L1 translations of L2 primes rhymed with the L1 target words [e.g., leg (L2 prime, L1 translation, "Bein")-Stein (L1 target, "stone"). Evidence of facilitated target recognition in the phonological priming condition suggests language nonselective access but not necessarily lexical access. However, a late interference effect on target recognition in the phonological priming through translation condition provides evidence for language nonselective lexical access: The L2 prime (leg) could influence L1 target recognition (Stein) in this condition only if both the L2 prime (leg) and its L1 translation ("Bein") were concurrently activated. In addition, age- and gender-matched monolingual toddler controls showed no difference between conditions, providing further evidence that the results with bilingual toddlers were driven by cross-language activation. The current study, therefore, presents the first-ever evidence of cross-talk between the two languages of bilinguals even as they begin to acquire fluency in their second language. PMID:22980955

  16. Lexical representation of novel L2 contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Masuda, Kyoko

    2005-04-01

    There is much interest among psychologists and linguists in the influence of the native language sound system on the acquisition of second languages (Best, 1995; Flege, 1995). Most studies of second language (L2) speech focus on how learners perceive and produce L2 sounds, but we know of only two that have considered how novel sound contrasts are encoded in learners' lexical representations of L2 words (Pallier et al., 2001; Ota et al., 2002). In this study we investigated how native speakers of English encode Japanese consonant quantity contrasts in their developing Japanese lexicons at different stages of acquisition (Japanese contrasts singleton versus geminate consonants but English does not). Monolingual English speakers, native English speakers learning Japanese for one year, and native speakers of Japanese were taught a set of Japanese nonwords containing singleton and geminate consonants. Subjects then performed memory tasks eliciting perception and production data to determine whether they encoded the Japanese consonant quantity contrast lexically. Overall accuracy in these tasks was a function of Japanese language experience, and acoustic analysis of the production data revealed non-native-like patterns of differentiation of singleton and geminate consonants among the L2 learners of Japanese. Implications for theories of L2 speech are discussed.

  17. Verb-noun double dissociation in aphasic lexical impairments: the role of word frequency and imageability.

    PubMed

    Luzzatti, Claudio; Raggi, Rossella; Zonca, Giusy; Pistarini, Caterina; Contardi, Antonella; Pinna, Gian-Domenico

    2002-01-01

    selectively in fluent aphasic patients. The results lend support to the hypothesis of an independent mental organization of nouns and verbs, but a substantial effect of imageability and word frequency suggests an interaction of the naming impairment with underlying lexical and semantic aspects. PMID:12081411

  18. Well-being in the workplace through interaction between individual characteristics and organizational context

    PubMed Central

    Biggio, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Well-being in the workplace is considered by many authors to be the outcome of the interaction between individual characteristics and those of the working and organizational environment. This study aims to understand the significance attributed to the concept of well-being in the workplace by employees, its influencing factors, and, among those, the role of individual psychological characteristics. The research was conducted on a sample of 72 employees using a qualitative approach based on focus groups and individual interviews. Data analysis was performed by a paper and pencil technique. The focus groups and interviews collected 628 statements, which were divided into three main areas: meaning of well-being in the workplace (248), any kind factors that affect well-being in the workplace (158), and individual characteristics that affect well-being in the workplace (222). The individual characteristics identified by the participants as capable of influencing well-being in the workplace include being positive, communication, management of difficulties and conflicts, socio-emotional skills, and values. The research was limited by the participants involved and by the sole use of the paper and pencil technique of data analysis. Results highlight that well-being in the workplace does not depend exclusively on external conditions in terms of the working and organizational environment within which the individual operates: so, it could be promoted not only from above, through actions by management, but also from below, influencing individual traits and behaviours. Results would be useful for developing training, workplace counselling, and organizational development activities aimed to support small groups, leaders, and other strategic players in the construction of the subsystems of well-being in the workplace. PMID:23422265

  19. Impact of Visual, Vocal, and Lexical Cues on Judgments of Counselor Qualities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strahan, Carole; Zytowski, Donald G.

    1976-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N=130) rated Carl Rogers via visual, lexical, vocal, or vocal-lexical communication channels. Lexical cues were more important in creating favorable impressions among females. Subsequent exposure to combined visual-vocal-lexical cues resulted in warmer and less distant ratings, but not on a consistent basis. (Author)

  20. What Is Lexical Proficiency? Some Answers from Computational Models of Speech Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.; Jarvis, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Lexical proficiency, as a cognitive construct, is poorly understood. However, lexical proficiency is an important element of language proficiency and fluency, especially for second language (L2) learners. Lexical proficiency is also an important attribute of L2 academic achievement. Generally speaking, lexical proficiency comprises breadth of…

  1. Inference of cell-cell interactions from population density characteristics and cell trajectories on static and growing domains.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert J H; Yates, C A; Baker, R E

    2015-06-01

    A key feature of cell migration is how cell movement is affected by cell-cell interactions. Furthermore, many cell migratory processes such as neural crest stem cell migration [Thomas and Erickson, 2008; McLennan et al., 2012] occur on growing domains or in the presence of a chemoattractant. Therefore, it is important to study interactions between migrating cells in the context of domain growth and directed motility. Here we compare discrete and continuum models describing the spatial and temporal evolution of a cell population for different types of cell-cell interactions on static and growing domains. We suggest that cell-cell interactions can be inferred from population density characteristics in the presence of motility bias, and these population density characteristics for different cell-cell interactions are conserved on both static and growing domains. We also study the expected displacement of a tagged cell, and show that different types of cell-cell interactions can give rise to cell trajectories with different characteristics. These characteristics are conserved in the presence of domain growth, however, they are diminished in the presence of motility bias. Our results are relevant for researchers who study the existence and role of cell-cell interactions in biological systems, so far as we suggest that different types of cell-cell interactions could be identified from cell density and trajectory data.

  2. Evaluating the Impact of Guessing and Its Interactions with Other Test Characteristics on Confidence Interval Procedures for Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Insu

    2016-01-01

    The effect of guessing on the point estimate of coefficient alpha has been studied in the literature, but the impact of guessing and its interactions with other test characteristics on the interval estimators for coefficient alpha has not been fully investigated. This study examined the impact of guessing and its interactions with other test…

  3. Interaction of characteristic structural elements of persimmon tannin with Chinese cobra PLA2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhong, Li; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Jin-yu; Li, Chun-mei

    2013-11-01

    To more fully understand the mechanism by which persimmon tannin (PT) inhibited phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the structural requirements of PT for the inhibition, the interactions between PLA2 and seven characteristic structural elements of PT including epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), myricetin, epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), epicatechin-3-gallate-(4β → 8, 2β → O → 7)-epicatechin-3-gallate (A-type ECG dimer), epigallocatechin-3-gallate-(4β → 8, 2β → O → 7)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (A-type EGCG dimer), epicatechin-(4β → 8, 2β → O → 7)-epicatechin (A-type EC dimer) and epicatechin-(4β → 8)-epicatechin (B-type EC dimer) were studied by enzymatic and spectroscopic methods. Molecular docking was also used to explore the possible residues involved in the interactions. The results revealed that A-type EGCG dimer and A-type ECG dimer showed higher inhibitory effects on the catalytic activity of PLA2 than monomers and B-type dimer. They induced greater conformational changes in PLA2 than other structural elements. In addition, molecular docking studies revealed that expect for lysine residues, other residues such as Trp18, Try27, Gly29, His47 and Tyr63 were involved in the interactions. We propose that A-type EGCG and ECG dimer units may be structural requirements for the interaction between PT and PLA2. Our data provide an additional structural basis for anti-PLA2 activity of persimmon tannin.

  4. Interaction of silver nanoparticles with proteins: a characteristic protein concentration dependent profile of SPR signal.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Victor; Das, K P

    2013-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles are finding increasing applications in biological systems, for example as antimicrobial agents and potential candidates for control drug release systems. In all such applications, silver nanoparticles interact with proteins and other biomolecules. Hence, the study of such interactions is of considerable importance. While BSA has been extensively used as a model protein for the study of interaction with the silver nanoparticles, studies using other proteins are rather limited. The interaction of silver nanoparticles with light leads to collective oscillation of the conducting electrons giving rise to surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Here, we have studied the protein concentration dependence of the SPR band profiles for a number of proteins. We found that for all the proteins, with increase in concentration, the SPR band intensity initially decreased, reaching minima and then increased again leading to a characteristic "dip and rise" pattern. Minimum point of the pattern appeared to be related to the isoelectric point of the proteins. Detailed dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the consistency of SPR profile was dependent on the average particle size and state of association of the silver nanoparticles with the change in the protein concentration. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies showed the binding constants of the proteins with the silver nanoparticles were in the nano molar range with more than one nanoparticle binding to protein molecule. Structural studies demonstrate that protein retains its native-like structure on the nanoparticle surface unless the molar ratio of silver nanoparticles to protein exceeds 10. Our study reveals that nature of the protein concentration dependent profile of SPR signal is a general phenomena and mostly independent of the size and structure of the proteins.

  5. The speed of lexical activation is altered in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Angwin, Anthony J; Chenery, Helen J; Copland, David A; Murdoch, Bruce E; Silburn, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    Disturbed comprehension of complex noncanonical sentences in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been linked to dopamine depletion and delayed lexical retrieval. The aim of the present study was to replicate findings of delayed lexical activation in PD patients with noncanonical sentence processing difficulties, and investigate the influence of dopamine depletion on these changes to lexical access. In the first experiment, 20 patients with PD (tested whilst 'on' dopaminergic medication) and 23 controls participated in a list priming experiment. In this paradigm, stimuli are presented as a continuous list of words/nonwords, and semantic priming effects were measured across inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 500 ms, 1000 ms and 1500 ms, with data analyzed using multivariate analyses of variance. The results revealed longer delays in lexical activation for PD patients with poor comprehension of noncanonical sentences, suggesting that the speed of lexical access may be compromised in PD, and that this feature may contribute to certain sentencecomprehension difficulties. In the second experiment, 7 patients with PD who participated in the first experiment, performed the same lexical decision task while 'off' their dopaminergic medication. Semantic priming effects were measured across ISIs of 500 ms and 1500 ms. Within group comparisons revealed a different pattern of semantic priming for the PD patients when 'on' compared to 'off' medication, providing further support for a dopaminergic influence on the speed of information processing and lexical activation.

  6. Understanding interactive characteristics of bioelectricity generation and reductive decolorization using Proteus hauseri.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bor-Yann; Wang, Yu-Min; Ng, I-Son

    2011-01-01

    This first-attempt study quantitatively explored interactive characteristics of bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization in air-cathode single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using indigenous Proteus hauseri ZMd44. After approx. 15 cycles (30 days) acclimatization in dye-bearing cultures, P. hauseri could express its stable capability of simultaneous bioelectricity generation and color removal (SBP&CR) in MFCs. Evidently, appropriate acclimation strategy for formation of the electrochemically active anodic biofilm played a crucial role to enhance the performance of SBP&CR in MFCs. Gradually increased supplementations of C.I. reactive blue 160 resulted in progressively decreased decay rate of bioelectricity generation. That is, a dye decolorized in a faster rate would result in a lower capability for bioelectricity generation and vice versa. In addition, a reduced dye with less toxicity potency (e.g., 2-aminophenol) might work as a redox mediator of electron transport to anodic biofilm for bioelectricity generation in MFCs.

  7. Micromotors with Step-Motor Characteristics by Controlled Magnetic Interactions among Assembled Components

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the control of the rotation dynamics of an innovative type of rotary micromotors with desired performances by tuning the magnetic interactions among the assembled micro/nanoscale components. The micromotors are made of metallic nanowires as rotors, patterned magnetic nanodisks as bearings and actuated by external electric fields. The magnetic forces for anchoring the rotors on the bearings play an essential role in the rotation dynamics of the micromotors. By varying the moment, orientation, and dimension of the magnetic components, distinct rotation behaviors can be observed, including repeatable wobbling and rolling in addition to rotation. We understood the rotation behaviors by analytical modeling, designed and realized micromotors with step-motor characteristics. The outcome of this research could inspire the development of high-performance nanomachines assembled from synthetic nanoentities, relevant to nanorobotics, microfluidics, and biomedical research. PMID:25536023

  8. Characteristics of laser ultrasound interaction with multi-layered dissimilar metals adhesive interface by numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kuanshuang; Zhou, Zhenggan; Zhou, Jianghua; Sun, Guangkai

    2015-10-01

    The characteristics of laser-generated ultrasonic wave interaction with multi-layered dissimilar metals adhesive interface are investigated by finite element method (FEM). The physical model of laser-generated ultrasonic wave in the multi-layered dissimilar metals adhesive structure is built. The surface temperature evolution with different laser power densities is analyzed to obtain the parameters of pulsed laser with thermoelastic regime. The differences of laser ultrasonic waves with different center frequencies measured at the center of laser irradiation would verify the interfacial features of adhesive structures. The optimum frequency range and probe point would be beneficial for the detection of the small void defect. The numerical results indicate that the different frequency range and probe points would evidently influence the identification and quantitative characterization of the small void defect. The research findings would lay a foundation for testing interfacial integrity.

  9. Determination of major phlorotannins in Eisenia bicyclis using hydrophilic interaction chromatography: seasonal variation and extraction characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Min; Kang, Suk Woo; Jeon, Je-Seung; Jung, Yu-Jin; Kim, Woo-Ri; Kim, Chul Young; Um, Byung-Hun

    2013-06-15

    In this study, a hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) condition was developed for the simultaneous determination of five major phlorotannins from an extract of Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell with good linearity (r(2)>0.999). Based on this method, the seasonal variations and extraction characteristics, in terms of total extraction yield and the content of the phlorotannins, were investigated under various extraction conditions. In results, the yields and phlorotannins were increased two-to-four times in summer (June-October) and then, were decreased to normal levels in winter (November-March). In the extraction of E. bicyclis, ethanol percentage in water, extraction time and washing time significantly affected the yield of the extract and the phlorotannins, whereas the temperature and the sample/solvent ratio impacted the extraction to a lesser degree. These results will be useful information in the application of this macroalga in the commercial areas related to nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmeceuticals. PMID:23497901

  10. Lexical conflation and edible iconicity: two sources of ambiguity in American vernacular health terminology.

    PubMed

    Stvan, Laurel Smith

    2007-01-01

    Examination of lexical items in naturally occurring vernacular prose shows patterns of ambiguities in how Americans discuss health issues. Samples from the Freiburg-Brown corpus of American English and varied registers of popular health writing found online reveal two principles of naming beliefs that crosscut the uses of many ambiguous terms: the semantic principle of 'lexical conflation' and the semiotic principle of 'edible iconicity'. Both are shown to reflect sources of nutritional conceptualizations. Lexical conflation is illustrated by uses of fat, cholesterol, sugar, oil, and germ, with modifiers shown to help disambiguate terms. Edible iconicity, where meaning is attached to the visible form of what is ingested and characteristics of a food are believed to transfer to the person who eats it, is illustrated through aspects of hard, white, and hot. Applications are suggested that take into account the influence on nutritional choices that can occur when lay people misinterpret specialized information as signifying a nonspecialist sense. Recognition of these two principles has the potential to affect public health policy by helping practitioners to identify and modify ambiguous words, and to take into account tendencies to interpret metaphors literally, especially regarding iconic ingredients and their presumed effect upon the body.

  11. The effects of familiarization on intelligibility and lexical segmentation in hypokinetic and ataxic dysarthria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liss, Julie M.; Spitzer, Stephanie M.; Caviness, John N.; Adler, Charles

    2002-12-01

    This study is the third in a series that has explored the source of intelligibility decrement in dysarthria by jointly considering signal characteristics and the cognitive-perceptual processes employed by listeners. A paradigm of lexical boundary error analysis was used to examine this interface by manipulating listener constraints with a brief familiarization procedure. If familiarization allows listeners to extract relevant segmental and suprasegmental information from dysarthric speech, they should obtain higher intelligibility scores than nonfamiliarized listeners, and their lexical boundary error patterns should approximate those obtained in misperceptions of normal speech. Listeners transcribed phrases produced by speakers with either hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria after being familiarized with other phrases produced by these speakers. Data were compared to those of nonfamiliarized listeners [Liss et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 3415-3424 (2000)]. The familiarized groups obtained higher intelligibility scores than nonfamiliarized groups, and the effects were greater when the dysarthria type of the familiarization procedure matched the dysarthria type of the transcription task. Remarkably, no differences in lexical boundary error patterns were discovered between the familiarized and nonfamiliarized groups. Transcribers of the ataxic speech appeared to have difficulty distinguishing strong and weak syllables in spite of the familiarization. Results suggest that intelligibility decrements arise from the perceptual challenges posed by the degraded segmental and suprasegmental aspects of the signal, but that this type of familiarization process may differentially facilitate mapping segmental information onto existing phonological categories.

  12. Visual, orthographic, phonological, and lexical influences in reading.

    PubMed

    Massaro, D W; Cohen, M M

    1994-12-01

    The fuzzy logical model of perception (FLMP), used as a framework to analyze phenomena in reading, asserts that there are multiple influences on reading performance. Experiments on the dynamic interaction of letter information and orthographic context are presented. Previous results have supported the FLMP over a variety of interactive activation models. These findings indicated that lateral masking and the time course of processing must be accounted for in the theoretical prediction of letter and word recognition. A new finding is that the word superiority effect is not influenced by the nature of the backward masking stimulus, nor is it diminished with letter and word masks, contrary to the predictions of several extant explanations. The FLMP is extended to account for reaction time in reading. Perceptual recognition, naming, and lexical decision tasks reflect the influence of multiple sources of information. These include orthographic structure, spelling-to-speech correspondences, and word frequency. Reading can be productively analyzed as a prototypical pattern recognition situation in which the reader exploits multiple sources of information in perception and action. PMID:7844509

  13. Comparing the Frequency Effect Between the Lexical Decision and Naming Tasks in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin-Yu; Li, Meng-Feng; Chou, Tai-Li; Wu, Jei-Tun

    2016-01-01

    In psycholinguistic research, the frequency effect can be one of the indicators for eligible experimental tasks that examine the nature of lexical access. Usually, only one of those tasks is chosen to examine lexical access in a study. Using two exemplar experiments, this paper introduces an approach to include both the lexical decision task and the naming task in a study. In the first experiment, the stimuli were Chinese characters with frequency and regularity manipulated. In the second experiment, the stimuli were switched to Chinese two-character words, in which the word frequency and the regularity of the leading character were manipulated. The logic of these two exemplar experiments was to explore some important issues such as the role of phonology on recognition by comparing the frequency effect between both the tasks. The results revealed different patterns of lexical access from those reported in the alphabetic systems. The results of Experiment 1 manifested a larger frequency effect in the naming task as compared to the LDT, when the stimuli were Chinese characters. And it is noteworthy that, in Experiment 1, when the stimuli were regular Chinese characters, the frequency effect observed in the naming task was roughly equivalent to that in the LDT. However, a smaller frequency effect was shown in the naming task as compared to the LDT, when the stimuli were switched to Chinese two-character words in Experiment 2. Taking advantage of the respective demands and characteristics in both tasks, researchers can obtain a more complete and precise picture of character/word recognition. PMID:27077703

  14. Learning to read shapes the activation of neural lexical representations in the speech recognition pathway.

    PubMed

    Schild, Ulrike; Röder, Brigitte; Friedrich, Claudia K

    2011-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that written and spoken language processing are tightly linked. Here we focus on the development of this relationship at the time children start reading and writing. We hypothesize that the newly acquired knowledge about graphemes shapes lexical access in neural spoken word recognition. A group of preliterate children (six years old) and two groups of beginning readers (six and eight years old) were tested in a spoken word identification task. Using word onset priming we compared behavioural and neural facilitation for target words in identical prime-target pairs (e.g., mon-monster) and in prime target pairs that varied in the first speech sound (e.g., non-monster, Variation condition). In both groups of beginning readers priming was less effective in the Variation condition than in the Identity condition. This was indexed by less behavioural facilitation and enhanced P350 amplitudes in the event related potentials (ERPs). In the group of preliterate children, by contrast, both conditions did not differ. Together these results reveal that lexical access in beginning readers is based on more acoustic detail than lexical access in preliterate children. The results are discussed in the light of bidirectional speech and print interactions in readers. PMID:22436438

  15. Frequency Drives Lexical Access in Reading but not in Speaking: The Frequency-Lag Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Slattery, Timothy J.; Goldenberg, Diane; van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Rayner, Keith

    2010-01-01

    To contrast mechanisms of lexical access in production versus comprehension we compared the effects of word-frequency (high, low), context (none, low-constraining, high-constraining), and level of English proficiency (monolinguals, Spanish-English bilinguals, Dutch-English bilinguals), on picture naming, lexical decision, and eye fixation times. Semantic constraint effects were larger in production than in reading. Frequency effects were larger in production than in reading without constraining context, but larger in reading than in production with constraining context. Bilingual disadvantages were modulated by frequency in production but not in eye fixation times, were not smaller in low-constraining context, and were reduced by high-constraining context only in production and only at the lowest level of English proficiency. These results challenge existing accounts of bilingual disadvantages, and reveal fundamentally different processes during lexical access across modalities, entailing a primarily semantically driven search in production, but a frequency driven search in comprehension. The apparently more interactive process in production than comprehension could simply reflect a greater number of frequency-sensitive processing stages in production. PMID:21219080

  16. Hemispheric lateralization for early auditory processing of lexical tones: dependence on pitch level and pitch contour.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Ming; Chen, Lin

    2013-09-01

    In Mandarin Chinese, a tonal language, pitch level and pitch contour are two dimensions of lexical tones according to their acoustic features (i.e., pitch patterns). A change in pitch level features a step change whereas that in pitch contour features a continuous variation in voice pitch. Currently, relatively little is known about the hemispheric lateralization for the processing of each dimension. To address this issue, we made whole-head electrical recordings of mismatch negativity in native Chinese speakers in response to the contrast of Chinese lexical tones in each dimension. We found that pre-attentive auditory processing of pitch level was obviously lateralized to the right hemisphere whereas there is a tendency for that of pitch contour to be lateralized to the left. We also found that the brain responded faster to pitch level than to pitch contour at a pre-attentive stage. These results indicate that the hemispheric lateralization for early auditory processing of lexical tones depends on the pitch level and pitch contour, and suggest an underlying inter-hemispheric interactive mechanism for the processing.

  17. The spectral characteristics of rotor blade-vortex interaction noise - Experimental and mathematical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ruth M.; Hardin, Jay C.

    1987-01-01

    The BVI impulsive content of a rotor acoustic signal is shown to appear in the mid-frequency range of the power spectrum, between the fifth and thirtieth harmonics of the blade passage frequency, concentrated at the harmonics of the blade passage frequency. These harmonics exhibit a humped or scalloped shape in this mid-frequency spectral region. Increased energy at the harmonics of the shaft frequency appears when the BVI impulsive content demonstrates unsteadiness and blade-to-blade differences in the time domain. A mathematical model of a generalized BVI acoustic signal and its power spectrum shows that the power spectrum is scalloped and filtered by a comb function. The spectrum amplitude is defined by the impulse amplitude and emission time. The scalloping of the spectrum is related to the emission time of the impulse itself, and the spacing of the comb function is related to the repetition time (period) of the impulse. The decay rate of the spectral humps is governed by the inverse of frequency squared. The mathematical model validates the characteristics observed in the data and verify that these characteristics are due to blade-vortex interaction activity.

  18. Co-pyrolysis characteristics of microalgae Isochrysis and Chlorella: Kinetics, biocrude yield and interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bingwei; Wang, Xin; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2015-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of Isochrysis (high lipid) and Chlorella (high protein) were investigated qualitatively and quantitatively based on DTG curves, biocrude yield and composition by individual pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis. DTG curves in co-pyrolysis have been compared accurately with those in individual pyrolysis. An interaction has been detected at 475-500°C in co-pyrolysis based on biocrude yields, and co-pyrolysis reaction mechanism appear three-dimensional diffusion in comparison with random nucleation followed by growth in individual pyrolysis based on kinetic analysis. There is no obvious difference in the maximum biocrude yields for individual pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis, but carboxylic acids (IC21) decreased and N-heterocyclic compounds (IC12) increased in co-pyrolysis. Simulation results of biocrude yield by Components Biofuel Model and Kinetics Biofuel Model indicate that the processes of co-pyrolysis comply with those of individual pyrolysis in solid phase by and large. Variation of percentage content in co-pyrolysis and individual pyrolysis biocrude indicated interaction in gas phase.

  19. An Interactive Method of Characteristics Java Applet to Design and Analyze Supersonic Aircraft Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The Method of Characteristics (MOC) is a classic technique for designing supersonic nozzles. An interactive computer program using MOC has been developed to allow engineers to design and analyze supersonic nozzle flow fields. The program calculates the internal flow for many classic designs, such as a supersonic wind tunnel nozzle, an ideal 2D or axisymmetric nozzle, or a variety of plug nozzles. The program also calculates the plume flow produced by the nozzle and the external flow leading to the nozzle exit. The program can be used to assess the interactions between the internal, external and plume flows. By proper design and operation of the nozzle, it may be possible to lessen the strength of the sonic boom produced at the rear of supersonic aircraft. The program can also calculate non-ideal nozzles, such as simple cone flows, to determine flow divergence and nonuniformities at the exit, and its effect on the plume shape. The computer program is written in Java and is provided as free-ware from the NASA Glenn central software server.

  20. Multiple neuroendocrine responses to chronic social stress: interaction between individual characteristics and situational factors.

    PubMed

    Mormède, P; Lemaire, V; Castanon, N; Dulluc, J; Laval, M; Le Moal, M

    1990-06-01

    After four weeks of individual housing, male Wistar rats (selected for high or low spontaneous aggressiveness by multiple round-robin encounters) were housed three per cage and submitted to four weeks of chronic social stress consisting of changing membership in the social groups by daily rotation of the animals among cages every day according to a random permutation procedure. In addition, half the males in each condition were housed with three females. Each environmental condition triggered different neuroendocrine changes. Cohabitation with females increased the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity, including enlargement of adrenals and increased circulating corticosterone levels. On the other hand, daily rotation of the rats between different social groups activated part of the sympathetic nervous system, such as increased phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase (PNMT) activity in the adrenals. The level of aggressiveness, however, had no direct influence but interacted with environmental factors on such neuroendocrine measures as circulating testosterone or plasma renin activity. These results indicate that during chronic stress, there is no single, unique response by the animal, but a highly complex set of neuroendocrine changes, dependent on the interaction between individual characteristics (the level of aggressiveness is an example) and situational factors. PMID:1975698

  1. When Language Switching has No Apparent Cost: Lexical Access in Sentence Context

    PubMed Central

    Gullifer, Jason W.; Kroll, Judith F.; Dussias, Paola E.

    2013-01-01

    We report two experiments that investigate the effects of sentence context on bilingual lexical access in Spanish and English. Highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals read sentences in Spanish and English that included a marked word to be named. The word was either a cognate with similar orthography and/or phonology in the two languages, or a matched non-cognate control. Sentences appeared in one language alone (i.e., Spanish or English) and target words were not predictable on the basis of the preceding semantic context. In Experiment 1, we mixed the language of the sentence within a block such that sentences appeared in an alternating run in Spanish or in English. These conditions partly resemble normally occurring inter-sentential code-switching. In these mixed-language sequences, cognates were named faster than non-cognates in both languages. There were no effects of switching the language of the sentence. In Experiment 2, with Spanish-English bilinguals matched closely to those who participated in the first experiment, we blocked the language of the sentences to encourage language-specific processes. The results were virtually identical to those of the mixed-language experiment. In both cases, target cognates were named faster than non-cognates, and the magnitude of the effect did not change according to the broader context. Taken together, the results support the predictions of the Bilingual Interactive Activation + Model (Dijkstra and van Heuven, 2002) in demonstrating that bilingual lexical access is language non-selective even under conditions in which language-specific cues should enable selective processing. They also demonstrate that, in contrast to lexical switching from one language to the other, inter-sentential code-switching of the sort in which bilinguals frequently engage, imposes no significant costs to lexical processing. PMID:23750141

  2. Phonological influences on lexical (mis)selection.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Victor S; Griffin, Zenzi M

    2003-01-01

    Speakers produce words to convey meaning, but does meaning alone determine which words they say? We report three experiments that show independent semantic and phonological influences converging to determine word selection. Speakers named pictures (e.g., of a priest) following visually presented cloze sentences that primed either semantic competitors of the target object name ("The woman went to the convent to become a..."), homophones of the competitors ("I thought that there would still be some cookies left, but there were..."), or matched unrelated control object names. Primed semantic competitors (nun) were produced instead of picture names more often than primed unrelated control object names, showing the well-documented influence of semantic similarity on lexical selection. Surprisingly, primed homophone competitors (none) also substituted for picture names more often than control object names even though they only sounded like competitors. Thus, independent semantic and phonological influences can converge to affect word selection. PMID:12564760

  3. Limits on lexical prediction during reading.

    PubMed

    Luke, Steven G; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-08-01

    Efficient language processing may involve generating expectations about upcoming input. To investigate the extent to which prediction might facilitate reading, a large-scale survey provided cloze scores for all 2689 words in 55 different text passages. Highly predictable words were quite rare (5% of content words), and most words had a more-expected competitor. An eye-tracking study showed sensitivity to cloze probability but no mis-prediction cost. Instead, the presence of a more-expected competitor was found to be facilitative in several measures. Further, semantic and morphosyntactic information was highly predictable even when word identity was not, and this information facilitated reading above and beyond the predictability of the full word form. The results are consistent with graded prediction but inconsistent with full lexical prediction. Implications for theories of prediction in language comprehension are discussed. PMID:27376659

  4. Selection mechanisms in reading lexically ambiguous words.

    PubMed

    Rayner, K; Frazier, L

    1989-09-01

    Readers' eye movements were monitored as they read sentences containing lexically ambiguous words. The ambiguous words were either biased (one strongly dominant interpretation) or nonbiased. Readers' gaze durations were longer on nonbiased than biased words when the disambiguating information followed the target word. In Experiment 1, reading times on the disambiguating word did not differ whether the disambiguation followed the target word immediately or occurred several words later. In Experiment 2, prior disambiguation eliminated the long gaze durations on nonbiased target words but resulted in long gaze durations on biased target words if the context demanded the subordinate meaning. The results indicate that successful integration of one meaning with prior context terminates the search for alternative meanings of that word. This results in selective (single meaning) access when integration of a dominant meaning is fast (due to a biasing context) and identification of a subordinate meaning is slow (a strongly biased ambiguity with a low-frequency meaning).

  5. Lexical concept distribution reflects clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Breydo, Eugene; Shubina, Maria; Shalaby, James W; Einbinder, Jonathan S; Turchin, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    It is not known whether narrative medical text directly reflects clinical reality. We have tested the hypothesis that the pattern of distribution of lexical concept of medication intensification in narrative provider notes correlates with clinical practice as reflected in electronic medication records. Over 29,000 medication intensifications identified in narrative provider notes and 444,000 electronic medication records for 82 anti-hypertensive, anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-hyperglycemic medications were analyzed. Pearson correlation coefficient between the fraction of dose increases among all medication intensifications and therapeutic range calculated from EMR medication records was 0.39 (p = 0.0003). Correlations with therapeutic ranges obtained from two medication dictionaries, used as a negative control, were not significant. These findings provide evidence that narrative medical documents directly reflect clinical practice and constitute a valid source of medical data.

  6. Orthographic Consistency and Word-Frequency Effects in Auditory Word Recognition: New Evidence from Lexical Decision and Rime Detection

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Ana; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Ferrand, Ludovic

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have repeatedly shown an orthographic consistency effect in the auditory lexical decision task. Words with phonological rimes that could be spelled in multiple ways (i.e., inconsistent words) typically produce longer auditory lexical decision latencies and more errors than do words with rimes that could be spelled in only one way (i.e., consistent words). These results have been extended to different languages and tasks, suggesting that the effect is quite general and robust. Despite this growing body of evidence, some psycholinguists believe that orthographic effects on spoken language are exclusively strategic, post-lexical, or restricted to peculiar (low-frequency) words. In the present study, we manipulated consistency and word-frequency orthogonally in order to explore whether the orthographic consistency effect extends to high-frequency words. Two different tasks were used: lexical decision and rime detection. Both tasks produced reliable consistency effects for both low- and high-frequency words. Furthermore, in Experiment 1 (lexical decision), an interaction revealed a stronger consistency effect for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words, as initially predicted by Ziegler and Ferrand (1998), whereas no interaction was found in Experiment 2 (rime detection). Our results extend previous findings by showing that the orthographic consistency effect is obtained not only for low-frequency words but also for high-frequency words. Furthermore, these effects were also obtained in a rime detection task, which does not require the explicit processing of orthographic structure. Globally, our results suggest that literacy changes the way people process spoken words, even for frequent words. PMID:22025916

  7. In search of competition between lexical and grammatical growth.

    PubMed

    Boelens, Harrie; Mollers, Jeroen

    2009-04-01

    Relations between lexical and grammatical growth were examined in a Dutch boy from age 1:0 to 2:6. The overall shape of lexical growth was a pronounced increase in rate until age 2:2 approximately and a slight decrease in rate thereafter. Two measures of early grammatical growth (the percentage of obligatory plural contexts in which plurals were used and mean length of utterances) reached high levels well before the age of 2:2. Further, there was no evidence for a relation between the change from one week to the next in the number of new words and the change from one week to the next on the two grammatical measures. Thus, no evidence for competition between lexical and grammatical growth was found on both a larger and a smaller time scale. Patterns of lexical and grammatical growth suggestive of competition may be especially likely when the productive lexicon grows very fast initially.

  8. Evidence accumulation as a model for lexical selection.

    PubMed

    Anders, R; Riès, S; van Maanen, L; Alario, F X

    2015-11-01

    We propose and demonstrate evidence accumulation as a plausible theoretical and/or empirical model for the lexical selection process of lexical retrieval. A number of current psycholinguistic theories consider lexical selection as a process related to selecting a lexical target from a number of alternatives, which each have varying activations (or signal supports), that are largely resultant of an initial stimulus recognition. We thoroughly present a case for how such a process may be theoretically explained by the evidence accumulation paradigm, and we demonstrate how this paradigm can be directly related or combined with conventional psycholinguistic theory and their simulatory instantiations (generally, neural network models). Then with a demonstrative application on a large new real data set, we establish how the empirical evidence accumulation approach is able to provide parameter results that are informative to leading psycholinguistic theory, and that motivate future theoretical development. PMID:26375509

  9. Repetition reduction: Lexical repetition in the absence of referent repetition

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tuan Q.; Watson, Duane G.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated words are produced with reduced acoustic prominence compared to words that are new to a discourse. Although these effects are often attributed to priming in the production system, the locus of the effect within the production system remains unresolved because in natural speech, repetition often involves repetition of referents and lexical items simultaneously. Therefore, repetition reduction could be due to repeated mention of a referent, or repetition of a word or referring expression. In our study, we test whether repetition reduction is due to repetition of lexical items or repeated mention of referents using an event description task. The results show that repeated lexical items lead to reduced duration and intensity even in the absence of referent repetition whereas repeated referents lead to reduced intensity alone. The general pattern suggests that repetition reduction is due most strongly to repetition of the lexical item, rather than repeated mention of the referent. PMID:24548320

  10. Syntactic Priming During Sentence Comprehension: Evidence for the Lexical Boost

    PubMed Central

    Traxler, Matthew J.; Tooley, Kristen M.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Syntactic priming occurs when structural information from one sentence influences processing of a subsequently encountered sentence (Bock, 1986; Ledoux et al., 2007). This article reports two eye-tracking experiments investigating the effects of a prime sentence on the processing of a target sentence that shared aspects of syntactic form. The experiments were designed to determine the degree to which lexical overlap between prime and target sentences produced larger effects, comparable to the widely observed ‘lexical boost’ in production experiments (Pickering & Branigan, 1998; Pickering & Ferreira, 2008). The current experiments showed that priming effects during on-line comprehension were in fact larger when a verb was repeated across the prime and target sentences (see also Tooley et al., 2009). The finding of larger priming effects with lexical repetition supports accounts under which syntactic form representations are connected to individual lexical items (e.g., Vosse & Kempen, 2000, 2009; Tomasello, 2003). PMID:24707789

  11. Syntactic priming during sentence comprehension: evidence for the lexical boost.

    PubMed

    Traxler, Matthew J; Tooley, Kristen M; Pickering, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    Syntactic priming occurs when structural information from one sentence influences processing of a subsequently encountered sentence (Bock, 1986; Ledoux et al., 2007). This article reports 2 eye-tracking experiments investigating the effects of a prime sentence on the processing of a target sentence that shared aspects of syntactic form. The experiments were designed to determine the degree to which lexical overlap between prime and target sentences produced larger effects, comparable to the widely observed "lexical boost" in production experiments (Pickering & Branigan, 1998; Pickering & Ferreira, 2008). The current experiments showed that priming effects during online comprehension were in fact larger when a verb was repeated across the prime and target sentences (see also Tooley et al., 2009). The finding of larger priming effects with lexical repetition supports accounts under which syntactic form representations are connected to individual lexical items (e.g., Tomasello, 2003; Vosse & Kempen, 2000, 2009).

  12. Influence of lexical status and orthographic similarity on the multi-voxel response of the Visual Word Form Area

    PubMed Central

    Baeck, Annelies; Kravitz, Dwight

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that a region in the left fusiform gyrus, often referred to as the “visual word form area” (VWFA), is responsive to written words, but the precise functional role of VWFA remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the influence of orthographic similarity, and lexical factors on the multivoxel response patterns to written stimuli. Using high-resolution fMRI at 7 Tesla, we compared the organization of visual word representations in VWFA to the organization in early visual cortex and a language region in the superior temporal gyrus. Sets of four letter words and pseudowords were presented, in which orthographic similarity was parametrically manipulated. We found that during a lexical decision task VWFA is responsive to the lexical status of a stimulus, but both real words and pseudowords were further processed in terms of orthographic similarity. In contrast, early visual cortex was only responsive to the visual aspects of the stimuli and in the left superior temporal gyrus there was an interaction between lexical status and orthography such that only real words were processed in terms of orthographic similarity. These findings indicate that VWFA represents the word/non-word status of letter strings as well as their orthographic similarity. PMID:25665965

  13. Interaction Layer Characteristics in U-xMo Dispersion/Monolithic Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Porter

    2010-11-01

    Published data concerning the interaction layer (IL) formed between U-xMo fuel alloy and aluminum (Al)-based matrix or cladding materials was reviewed, including the effects of silicon (Si) content in the matrix/cladding, molybdenum (Mo) content in the fuel, pre irradiation thermal treatments, irradiation, and test temperature. The review revealed that tests conducted in the laboratory produce results different from those conducted in an irradiation environment. However, the laboratory testing relates well to thermal treatments performed prior to irradiation and helps in understanding the effects that these pre irradiation treatments have on in reactor performance. A pre-formed, Si-enriched IL seems to be important in delaying the onset of rapid growth of fission gas bubbles at low irradaiiation temperatures. Several other conclusions can be drawn: 1. An IL with phases akin to UAl3 is desired for optimum fuel performance, but at low temperatures, and especially in an irradiation atmosphere, the desired (Al+Si)/(U+Mo) ratio of three is difficult to produce. When the fuel operating temperature is low, it is important to create a pre-irradiation IL, enriched in Si. This pre-formed IL is relatively stable, performs well in terms of swelling resistance, and prevents rapid IL growth during irradiation. 2. At higher operating temperatures (>150–170°C), IL formation in reactor may not be so dependent on pre-irradiation IL formation, especially at high burnup; a pre-fabricated IL seems to be less stable at high burnup and high operating temperature. Moreover, the (Al+SI)/(U+Mo) ratio of three occurs more often at higher temperature. For these two reasons, it is important at high operating temperature to also have a matrix with significant Si content to create an IL in reactor with the right characteristics. 3. Out-of-reactor testing seems to indicate that Si in the matrix material is required in some concentration (2%, 5%, ?) to provide for a thin, Si-enriched IL formed

  14. Lexical factors in the word-superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, N; Caplan, D; Sokol, S; Torreano, L

    1995-01-01

    In the Reicher-Wheeler paradigm, fluent readers can identify letters better when they appear in a word than when they appear in either a pronounceable pseudoword (a lexicality effect) or a single letter (a word-letter effect). It was predicted that if both of these effects involve a lexical factor, then adult acquired dyslexic subjects whose deficit prevents access to visual word form should show disruptions of the normal effects on the Reicher-Wheeler task. The results were that dyslexic subjects as well as matched control subjects showed a lexicality effect; however, while the control subjects showed a normal word-letter effect, the dyslexic subjects showed a reverse letter-superiority effect. Both effects, however, showed a systematic variation: As performance on lexical decision improved, the subjects' performance on words in the Reicher-Wheeler task was better than that for all the other conditions. These subject correlations were replicated by using data from a second lexical decision experiment, which utilized the same words and pseudowords that were used in the Reicher-Wheeler task. In addition, an item analysis showed that the words that the subjects had discriminated correctly in lexical decision showed a significant advantage over those that they had not, as well as an improvement relative to the other conditions. These results suggest that there is a lexical factor underlying the lexicality and word-letter effects, and it is proposed that the abnormal letter-superiority effect can be accounted for as the manifestation of other competing factors. PMID:7885263

  15. Competitive dynamics of lexical innovations in multi-layer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2014-04-01

    We study the introduction of lexical innovations into a community of language users. Lexical innovations, i.e. new term added to people's vocabulary, plays an important role in the process of language evolution. Nowadays, information is spread through a variety of networks, including, among others, online and offline social networks and the World Wide Web. The entire system, comprising networks of different nature, can be represented as a multi-layer network. In this context, lexical innovations diffusion occurs in a peculiar fashion. In particular, a lexical innovation can undergo three different processes: its original meaning is accepted; its meaning can be changed or misunderstood (e.g. when not properly explained), hence more than one meaning can emerge in the population. Lastly, in the case of a loan word, it can be translated into the population language (i.e. defining a new lexical innovation or using a synonym) or into a dialect spoken by part of the population. Therefore, lexical innovations cannot be considered simply as information. We develop a model for analyzing this scenario using a multi-layer network comprising a social network and a media network. The latter represents the set of all information systems of a society, e.g. television, the World Wide Web and radio. Furthermore, we identify temporal directed edges between the nodes of these two networks. In particular, at each time-step, nodes of the media network can be connected to randomly chosen nodes of the social network and vice versa. In doing so, information spreads through the whole system and people can share a lexical innovation with their neighbors or, in the event they work as reporters, by using media nodes. Lastly, we use the concept of "linguistic sign" to model lexical innovations, showing its fundamental role in the study of these dynamics. Many numerical simulations have been performed to analyze the proposed model and its outcomes.

  16. Early lexical development in Spanish-speaking infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Jackson-Maldonado, D; Thal, D; Marchman, V; Bates, E; Gutierrez-Clellen, V

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the early lexical development of a group of 328 normal Spanish-speaking children aged 0;8 to 2;7. First the development and structure of a new parent report instrument, Inventario del Desarollo de Habilidades Communicativas is described. Then five studies carried out with the instrument are presented. In the first study vocabulary development of Spanish-speaking infants and toddlers is compared to that of English-speaking infants and toddlers. The English data were gathered using a comparable parental report, the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories. In the second study the general characteristics of Spanish language acquisition, and the effects of various demographic factors on that process, are examined. Study 3 examines the differential effects of three methods of collecting the data (mail-in, personal interview, and clinic waiting room administration). Studies 4 and 5 document the reliability and validity of the instrument. Results show that the trajectories of development are very similar for Spanish- and English-speaking children in this age range, that children from varying social groups develop similarly, and that mail-in and personal interview administration techniques produce comparable results. Inventories administered in a medical clinic waiting room, on the other hand, produced lower estimates of toddler vocabulary than the other two models.

  17. The frequency effect for pseudowords in the lexical decision task.

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Rosa, Eva; Gómez, Consolación

    2005-02-01

    Four experiments were designed to investigate whether the frequency of words used to create pseudowords plays an important role in lexical decision. Computational models of the lexical decision task (e.g., the dual route cascaded model and the multiple read-out model) predict that latencies to low-frequency pseudowords should be faster than latencies to high-frequency pseudowords. Consistent with this prediction, results showed that when the pseudowords were created by replacing one internal letter of the base word (Experiments 1 and 3), high-frequency pseudowords yielded slower latencies than low-frequency pseudowords. However, this effect occurred only in the leading edge of the response time (RT) distributions. When the pseudowords were created by transposing two adjacent internal letters (Experiment 2), high-frequency pseudowords produced slower latencies in the leading edge and in the bulk of the RT distributions. These results suggest that transposed-letter pseudowords may be more similar to their base words than replacement-letter pseudowords. Finally, when participants performed a go/no-go lexical decision task with one-letter different pseudowords (Experiment 4), high-frequency pseudowords yielded substantially faster latencies than low-frequency pseudowords, which suggests that the lexical entries of high-frequency words can be verified earlier than the lexical entries of low-frequency words. The implications of these results for models of word recognition and lexical decision are discussed. PMID:15971693

  18. Emotion words and categories: evidence from lexical decision.

    PubMed

    Scott, Graham G; O'Donnell, Patrick J; Sereno, Sara C

    2014-05-01

    We examined the categorical nature of emotion word recognition. Positive, negative, and neutral words were presented in lexical decision tasks. Word frequency was additionally manipulated. In Experiment 1, "positive" and "negative" categories of words were implicitly indicated by the blocked design employed. A significant emotion-frequency interaction was obtained, replicating past research. While positive words consistently elicited faster responses than neutral words, only low frequency negative words demonstrated a similar advantage. In Experiments 2a and 2b, explicit categories ("positive," "negative," and "household" items) were specified to participants. Positive words again elicited faster responses than did neutral words. Responses to negative words, however, were no different than those to neutral words, regardless of their frequency. The overall pattern of effects indicates that positive words are always facilitated, frequency plays a greater role in the recognition of negative words, and a "negative" category represents a somewhat disparate set of emotions. These results support the notion that emotion word processing may be moderated by distinct systems.

  19. Protein interactions with HER-family receptors can have different characteristics depending on the hosting cell line.

    PubMed

    Barta, Pavel; Malmberg, Jennie; Melicharova, Ludmila; Strandgård, John; Orlova, Anna; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Laznicek, Milan; Andersson, Karl

    2012-05-01

    Cell lines are common model systems in the development of therapeutic proteins and in the research on cellular functions and dysfunctions. In this field, the protein interaction assay is a frequently used tool for assessing the adequacy of a protein for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In this study, we investigated the extent to which the interaction characteristics depend on the choice of cell line for HER-family receptors. The interaction characteristics of two therapeutic antibodies (trastuzumab and cetuximab) and one Affibody molecule (ZHER2:342), interacting with the intended receptor were characterized with high precision using an automated real-time interaction method, in different cell lines (HaCaT, A431, HEP-G2, SKOV3, PC3, DU-145). Clear differences in binding affinity and kinetics, up to one order of magnitude, were found for the interaction of the same protein binding to the same receptor on different cells for all three proteins. For HER-family receptors, it is therefore important to refer to the measured affinity for a protein-receptor interaction together with the hosting cell line. The ability to accurately measure affinity and kinetics of a protein-receptor interaction on cell lines of different origins may increase the understanding of underlying receptor biology, and impact the selection of candidates in the development of therapeutic or diagnostic agents. PMID:22200885

  20. Influence of Acoustic Field Structure on Polarization Characteristics of Acousto-optic Interaction in Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muromets, A. V.; Trushin, A. S.

    Influence of acoustic field structure on polarization characteristics of acousto-optic interaction is investigated. It is shown that inhomogeneity of acoustic field and mechanism of ultrasound excitation causes changes in values of acousto-optic figure of merit for ordinary and extraordinary light beams in comparison with theoretic values. The theoretic values were derived under assumption that acoustic wave is homogeneous. Experimental analysis was carried out in acousto-optic cell based on lithium niobate crystal where the acoustic wave propagates at the angle 13 degrees to Z axis of the crystal. We used three different methods of ultrasound generation in the crystal: by means of external piezotransducer, by interdigital transducer and by two sets of electrodes placed on top of the crystal surface. In the latter case, the first pair of the electrodes was directed along X crystal axis, while the second pair of the electrodes was directed orthogonally to X crystal axis and the direction of ultrasound. Obtained values for diffraction efficiencies for ordinary and extraordinary polarized optical beams were qualitatively different which may be caused by spatial inhomogeneity of the generated acoustic waves in the crystal. Structure of acoustic field generated by these sets of electrodes was examined by laser probing. We performed the analysis of the acoustic field intensity using acousto-optic method. A relation of diffraction efficiencies for ordinary and extraordinary light waves was measured during each iteration of the laser probing.

  1. [Occurrence Characteristics of Pyrene and Arsenate and Their Interaction in Pteris vittata L].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-xiu; Ma, Xu; Liao, Xiao-yong; Yan, Xiu-lan; Ma, Dong; Gong, Xue-gang

    2015-12-01

    Pteris vittata L. can absorb and accumulate high arsenic levels in soil. To clarify the occurrence characteristics of pyrene (PYR) and arsenate (As) as well as their interaction in P. vittata L., the hosting and distribution rules of PYR were determined via two-photon laser scanning confocal microscopy (TPLSCM). The results showed that PYR addition resulted in obviously lower concentrations of total As in various parts of P. vittata, with a largest decrease of about 35% in the leaves and stem, and 20. 5% in the roots. PYR addition could also decrease the proportion of trivalent arsenic and increased that of pentavalent arsenate in different parts of P. vittata. The concentrations of trivalent and pentavalent arsenic in the leaves of P. vittata showed the largest decrement, which were 42.2% and 32.49%, respectively. Arsenate addition increased the accumulation of PYR in the root and stem of P. vittata by 9.8 µg and 139 ng per plant, respectively, while no obvious influence was found on the PYR in the leaves. Pyrene mainly attached to the cell membrane and other membrane structure such as nuclear membrane and organelle membrane, and there was less pyrene in the cytoplasm. There was little PYR in the phloem and cortex in the stem as well as palisade tissue and spongy tissue in leaves. PMID:27012002

  2. Analysis of some aerodynamic characteristics due to wing-jet interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillman, G. L.; Lan, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    The results of two separate theoretical investigations are presented. A program was used which is capable of predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of both upper-surface blowing (USB) and over-wing blowing (OWB) configurations. A theoretical analysis of the effects of over-wing blowing jets on the induced drag of a 50 deg sweep back wing was developed. Experiments showed net drag reductions associated with the well known lift enhancement due to over-wing blowing. The mechanisms through which this drag reduction is brought about are presented. Both jet entrainment and the so called wing-jet interaction play important roles in this process. The effects of a rectangular upper-surface blowing jet were examined for a wide variety of planforms. The isolated effects of wing taper, sweep, and aspect ratio variations on the incremental lift due to blowing are presented. The effects of wing taper ratio and sweep angle were found to be especially important parameters when considering the relative levels of incremental lift produced by an upper-surface blowing configuration.

  3. Hemispheric specialization for word classes with visual presentations and lexical decision task.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, S; Nieto, A; Barroso, J

    1992-11-01

    In the present paper we study the possible RH capabilities for the processing of adjectives and verbs of high frequency and medium imagery using a lexical decision task and a horizontal display. In the analysis of both RTs and mean errors, a RVF advantage is obtained. The interaction VF x Word Class did not reach significance. Therefore, we did not find evidence of differences in the visual-field effect for any syntactic class. These results support a LH superiority for the processing of both adjectives and verbs. For the nonword conditions (pseudoverbs and pseudoadjectives), no visual field differences were observed in either group. Methodological aspects are also discussed. PMID:1449766

  4. Distinct Effects of Lexical and Semantic Competition during Picture Naming in Younger Adults, Older Adults, and People with Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Britt, Allison E.; Ferrara, Casey; Mirman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Producing a word requires selecting among a set of similar alternatives. When many semantically related items become activated, the difficulty of the selection process is increased. Experiment 1 tested naming of items with either multiple synonymous labels (“Alternate Names,” e.g., gift/present) or closely semantically related but non-equivalent responses (“Near Semantic Neighbors,” e.g., jam/jelly). Picture naming was fastest and most accurate for pictures with only one label (“High Name Agreement”), slower and less accurate in the Alternate Names condition, and slowest and least accurate in the Near Semantic Neighbors condition. These results suggest that selection mechanisms in picture naming operate at two distinct levels of processing: selecting between similar but non-equivalent names requires two selection processes (semantic and lexical), whereas selecting among equivalent names only requires one selection at the lexical level. Experiment 2 examined how these selection mechanisms are affected by normal aging and found that older adults had significantly more difficulty in the Near Semantic Neighbors condition, but not in the Alternate Names condition. This suggests that aging affects semantic processing and selection more strongly than it affects lexical selection. Experiment 3 examined the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in these selection processes by testing individuals with aphasia secondary to stroke lesions that either affected the LIFG or spared it. Surprisingly, there was no interaction between condition and lesion group: the presence of LIFG damage was not associated with substantively worse naming performance for pictures with multiple acceptable labels. These results are not consistent with a simple view of LIFG as the locus of lexical selection and suggest a more nuanced view of the neural basis of lexical and semantic selection. PMID:27458393

  5. Cognitive processing and motor execution in the lexical decision task: a developmental study.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Sascha; Verrel, Julius

    2014-04-01

    We investigated lexical decision making in children and adults by analyzing spatiotemporal characteristics of responses involving a hand movement. Children's and adults' movement trajectories were assessed in three tasks: a lexical decision task (LDT), a pointing task that involved minimal cognitive processing, and a symbol task requiring a simple binary decision. Cognitive interference on motor performance was quantified by analyzing movement characteristics in the LDT and symbol task relative to the pointing task. Across age groups, movements in the LDT were less smooth, slower, and more strongly curved to the opposite response option, and these interference effects decreased steadily with age. Older children showed stronger interference effects than did adults, even though their reaction times were similar to adults' performance. No comparable effects were found in the symbol task, indicating that task characteristics such as response mapping and decision selection alone are not able to explain the developmental differences observed in the LDT. Our results indicate substantial overlap between cognitive processing and motor execution in the LDT in children that is not captured by computational models of visual word recognition and cognitive development.

  6. Academic Self-Efficacy, Faculty-Student Interactions, and Student Characteristics as Predictors of Grade Point Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosnell, Joan C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore student characteristics, academic self-efficacy, and faculty-student interactions as predictors of grade point average for upper-division (college level third and fourth year) education students at a public 4-year degree-granting community college. The study examined the effects of student characteristics…

  7. Effective Classroom Instruction: Implications of Child Characteristics by Reading Instruction Interactions on First Graders' Word Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Toste, Jessica R.; Lundblom, Erin; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Fishman, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long-term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are Child Characteristic x Instruction (CXI) interactions. Here we…

  8. Testing the Impact of Child Characteristics x Instruction Interactions on Third Graders' Reading Comprehension by Differentiating Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Fredrick J.; Fishman, Barry; Giuliani, Sarah; Luck, Melissa; Underwood, Phyllis S.; Bayraktar, Aysegul; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    There is accumulating correlational evidence that the effect of specific types of reading instruction depends on children's initial language and literacy skills, called child characteristics x instruction (CxI) interactions. There is, however, no experimental evidence beyond first grade. This randomized control study examined whether CxI…

  9. Lexical-perceptual integration influences sensorimotor adaptation in speech

    PubMed Central

    Bourguignon, Nicolas J.; Baum, Shari R.; Shiller, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    A combination of lexical bias and altered auditory feedback was used to investigate the influence of higher-order linguistic knowledge on the perceptual aspects of speech motor control. Subjects produced monosyllabic real words or pseudo-words containing the vowel [ε] (as in “head”) under conditions of altered auditory feedback involving a decrease in vowel first formant (F1) frequency. This manipulation had the effect of making the vowel sound more similar to [I] (as in “hid”), affecting the lexical status of produced words in two Lexical-Change (LC) groups (either changing them from real words to pseudo-words: e.g., less—liss, or pseudo-words to real words: e.g., kess—kiss). Two Non-Lexical-Change (NLC) control groups underwent the same auditory feedback manipulation during the production of [ε] real- or pseudo-words, only without any resulting change in lexical status (real words to real words: e.g., mess—miss, or pseudo-words to pseudo-words: e.g., ness—niss). The results from the LC groups indicate that auditory-feedback-based speech motor learning is sensitive to the lexical status of the stimuli being produced, in that speakers tend to keep their acoustic speech outcomes within the auditory-perceptual space corresponding to the task-related side of the word/non-word boundary (real words or pseudo-words). For the NLC groups, however, no such effect of lexical status is observed. PMID:24860460

  10. Are phonological influences on lexical (mis)selection the result of a monitoring bias?

    PubMed Central

    Ratinckx, Elie; Ferreira, Victor S.; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    A monitoring bias account is often used to explain speech error patterns that seem to be the result of an interactive language production system, like phonological influences on lexical selection errors. A biased monitor is suggested to detect and covertly correct certain errors more often than others. For instance, this account predicts that errors which are phonologically similar to intended words are harder to detect than ones that are phonologically dissimilar. To test this, we tried to elicit phonological errors under the same conditions that show other kinds of lexical selection errors. In five experiments, we presented participants with high cloze probability sentence fragments followed by a picture that was either semantically related, a homophone of a semantically related word, or phonologically related to the (implicit) last word of the sentence. All experiments elicited semantic completions or homophones of semantic completions, but none elicited phonological completions. This finding is hard to reconcile with a monitoring bias account and is better explained with an interactive production system. Additionally, this finding constrains the amount of bottom-up information flow in interactive models. PMID:18942035

  11. Highly Accurate Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions via Incorporating Evolutionary Information and Physicochemical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng-Wei; You, Zhu-Hong; Chen, Xing; Gui, Jie; Nie, Ru

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) occur at almost all levels of cell functions and play crucial roles in various cellular processes. Thus, identification of PPIs is critical for deciphering the molecular mechanisms and further providing insight into biological processes. Although a variety of high-throughput experimental techniques have been developed to identify PPIs, existing PPI pairs by experimental approaches only cover a small fraction of the whole PPI networks, and further, those approaches hold inherent disadvantages, such as being time-consuming, expensive, and having high false positive rate. Therefore, it is urgent and imperative to develop automatic in silico approaches to predict PPIs efficiently and accurately. In this article, we propose a novel mixture of physicochemical and evolutionary-based feature extraction method for predicting PPIs using our newly developed discriminative vector machine (DVM) classifier. The improvements of the proposed method mainly consist in introducing an effective feature extraction method that can capture discriminative features from the evolutionary-based information and physicochemical characteristics, and then a powerful and robust DVM classifier is employed. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that DVM model is applied to the field of bioinformatics. When applying the proposed method to the Yeast and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) datasets, we obtain excellent prediction accuracies of 94.35% and 90.61%, respectively. The computational results indicate that our method is effective and robust for predicting PPIs, and can be taken as a useful supplementary tool to the traditional experimental methods for future proteomics research. PMID:27571061

  12. Highly Accurate Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions via Incorporating Evolutionary Information and Physicochemical Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng-Wei; You, Zhu-Hong; Chen, Xing; Gui, Jie; Nie, Ru

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) occur at almost all levels of cell functions and play crucial roles in various cellular processes. Thus, identification of PPIs is critical for deciphering the molecular mechanisms and further providing insight into biological processes. Although a variety of high-throughput experimental techniques have been developed to identify PPIs, existing PPI pairs by experimental approaches only cover a small fraction of the whole PPI networks, and further, those approaches hold inherent disadvantages, such as being time-consuming, expensive, and having high false positive rate. Therefore, it is urgent and imperative to develop automatic in silico approaches to predict PPIs efficiently and accurately. In this article, we propose a novel mixture of physicochemical and evolutionary-based feature extraction method for predicting PPIs using our newly developed discriminative vector machine (DVM) classifier. The improvements of the proposed method mainly consist in introducing an effective feature extraction method that can capture discriminative features from the evolutionary-based information and physicochemical characteristics, and then a powerful and robust DVM classifier is employed. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that DVM model is applied to the field of bioinformatics. When applying the proposed method to the Yeast and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) datasets, we obtain excellent prediction accuracies of 94.35% and 90.61%, respectively. The computational results indicate that our method is effective and robust for predicting PPIs, and can be taken as a useful supplementary tool to the traditional experimental methods for future proteomics research. PMID:27571061

  13. Highly Accurate Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions via Incorporating Evolutionary Information and Physicochemical Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng-Wei; You, Zhu-Hong; Chen, Xing; Gui, Jie; Nie, Ru

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) occur at almost all levels of cell functions and play crucial roles in various cellular processes. Thus, identification of PPIs is critical for deciphering the molecular mechanisms and further providing insight into biological processes. Although a variety of high-throughput experimental techniques have been developed to identify PPIs, existing PPI pairs by experimental approaches only cover a small fraction of the whole PPI networks, and further, those approaches hold inherent disadvantages, such as being time-consuming, expensive, and having high false positive rate. Therefore, it is urgent and imperative to develop automatic in silico approaches to predict PPIs efficiently and accurately. In this article, we propose a novel mixture of physicochemical and evolutionary-based feature extraction method for predicting PPIs using our newly developed discriminative vector machine (DVM) classifier. The improvements of the proposed method mainly consist in introducing an effective feature extraction method that can capture discriminative features from the evolutionary-based information and physicochemical characteristics, and then a powerful and robust DVM classifier is employed. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that DVM model is applied to the field of bioinformatics. When applying the proposed method to the Yeast and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) datasets, we obtain excellent prediction accuracies of 94.35% and 90.61%, respectively. The computational results indicate that our method is effective and robust for predicting PPIs, and can be taken as a useful supplementary tool to the traditional experimental methods for future proteomics research.

  14. Overnight lexical consolidation revealed by speech segmentation.

    PubMed

    Dumay, Nicolas; Gareth Gaskell, M

    2012-04-01

    Two experiments explored the consolidation of spoken words, and assessed whether post-sleep novel competitor effects truly reflect engagement of these novel words in competition for lexical segmentation. Two types of competitor relationships were contrasted: the onset-aligned case (such as "frenzylk"), where the novel word is a close variant of the existing word: they start at the same time point and overlap on most of their segments; and the fully embedding case (such as "lirmucktoze"), where the existing word corresponds to a smaller embedded portion of its novel competitor and is thus less noticeable. Experiment 1 (pause detection) revealed a similar performance for both cases, with no competitor effect immediately after exposure, but significant inhibition after 24 h and seven days. Experiment 2 (word spotting) produced exactly the same pattern; however, as is the case with existing word carriers (cf. McQueen, Norris, & Cutler, 1994), the inhibition was much stronger for fully embedded than for onset-aligned targets (e.g., "lirmuckt" vs. "frenzyl"). Meanwhile, explicit measures of learning, i.e., free recall and recognition, improved over time. These results cannot be explained by either consolidation of episodic traces or acquisition of new phonological/dialectal variants. We argue instead that they reflect a general trait of vocabulary learning and consolidation. PMID:22261419

  15. Reading aloud: the cumulative lexical interference effect.

    PubMed

    Mulatti, Claudio; Peressotti, Francesca; Job, Remo; Saunders, Steven; Coltheart, Max

    2012-08-01

    Picture naming shows a cumulative semantic interference effect: Latency for naming a target picture increases as a function of the number of pictures semantically similar to the target that have previously been named (Howard, Nickels, Coltheart, & Cole-Virtue, Cognition 100:464-482, 2006). Howard and colleagues, and also Oppenheim, Dell, and Schwartz (Cognition 114:227-252, 2010), argued that this occurs because of the joint presence in the picture-naming system of three critical properties: shared activation, priming, and competition. They also discussed the possibility that whenever any cognitive system possesses these three properties, a cumulative similarity-based interference effect from repeated use of that cognitive system will occur. We investigated this possibility by looking for a cumulative lexical interference effect when the task is reading aloud: Will the latency of reading a target word aloud increase as a function of the number of words orthographically/phonologically similar to the target that have previously been read aloud? We found that this was so. This supports the general idea that cumulative similarity-based interference effects will arise whenever any cognitive system that possesses the three key properties of shared activation, priming, and competition is repeatedly used. PMID:22623265

  16. Conceptual perspective and lexical choice in acquisition.

    PubMed

    Clark, E V

    1997-07-01

    Adult speakers choose among perspectives when they talk, with different words picking out different perspectives (e.g., the dog, our pet, that animal). The many-perspectives account of lexical acquisition proposes that children learn to take alternative perspectives along with the words they acquire, and, therefore, from the first, readily apply multiple terms to the same objects or events. And adults offer children pragmatic directions about the meanings of new words and hence about new perspectives. In contrast, the one-perspective account proposes that children are able, at first, to use only one term to talk about an object or event. Evidence for the many-perspectives account comes from a range of sources: children spontaneously use more than one term for the same object (horse and chair for a toy horse); they construct novel words to mark alternate perspectives (Dalmation-dog vs. dog); they shift perspective when asked (from cat to animal, or sailor to bear for anthropomorphic characters); and they readily learn new terms for talking about already-labelled kinds. Children sometimes fail to learn new words or fail to relate them to words already known, but only in situations that lack adequate pragmatic directions.

  17. Effects of Emotional Experience in Lexical Decision.

    PubMed

    Siakaluk, Paul D; Newcombe, P Ian; Duffels, Brian; Li, Eliza; Sidhu, David M; Yap, Melvin J; Pexman, Penny M

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has examined the effects of emotional experience (i.e., the ease with which words evoke emotion information) in semantic categorization (SCT), word naming, and Stroop tasks (Newcombe et al., 2012; Siakaluk et al., 2014; Moffat et al., 2015). However, to date there are no published reports on whether emotional experience influences performance in the lexical decision task (LDT). In the present study, we examined the influence of emotional experience in LDT using three different stimulus sets. In Experiment 1 we used a stimulus set used by both Kousta et al. (2009; Experiment 1) and Yap and Seow (2014) that is comprised of 40 negative, 40 positive, and 40 neutral words; in Experiment 2 we used a stimulus set comprised of 150 abstract nouns; and in Experiment 3 we used a stimulus set comprised of 373 verbs. We observed facilitatory effects of emotional experience in each of the three experiments, such that words with higher emotional experience ratings were associated with faster response latencies. These results are important because the influence of emotional experience: (a) is observed in stimulus sets comprised of different types of words, demonstrating the generalizability of the effect in LDT; (b) accounts for LDT response latency variability above and beyond the influences of valence and arousal, and is thus a robust dimension of conceptual knowledge;

  18. Effects of Emotional Experience in Lexical Decision.

    PubMed

    Siakaluk, Paul D; Newcombe, P Ian; Duffels, Brian; Li, Eliza; Sidhu, David M; Yap, Melvin J; Pexman, Penny M

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has examined the effects of emotional experience (i.e., the ease with which words evoke emotion information) in semantic categorization (SCT), word naming, and Stroop tasks (Newcombe et al., 2012; Siakaluk et al., 2014; Moffat et al., 2015). However, to date there are no published reports on whether emotional experience influences performance in the lexical decision task (LDT). In the present study, we examined the influence of emotional experience in LDT using three different stimulus sets. In Experiment 1 we used a stimulus set used by both Kousta et al. (2009; Experiment 1) and Yap and Seow (2014) that is comprised of 40 negative, 40 positive, and 40 neutral words; in Experiment 2 we used a stimulus set comprised of 150 abstract nouns; and in Experiment 3 we used a stimulus set comprised of 373 verbs. We observed facilitatory effects of emotional experience in each of the three experiments, such that words with higher emotional experience ratings were associated with faster response latencies. These results are important because the influence of emotional experience: (a) is observed in stimulus sets comprised of different types of words, demonstrating the generalizability of the effect in LDT; (b) accounts for LDT response latency variability above and beyond the influences of valence and arousal, and is thus a robust dimension of conceptual knowledge; PMID:27555827

  19. Both lexical and non-lexical characters are processed during saccadic eye movements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Yan, Hong-Mei; Kendrick, Keith M; Li, Chao-Yi

    2012-01-01

    On average our eyes make 3-5 saccadic movements per second when we read, although their neural mechanism is still unclear. It is generally thought that saccades help redirect the retinal fovea to specific characters and words but that actual discrimination of information only occurs during periods of fixation. Indeed, it has been proposed that there is active and selective suppression of information processing during saccades to avoid experience of blurring due to the high-speed movement. Here, using a paradigm where a string of either lexical (Chinese) or non-lexical (alphabetic) characters are triggered by saccadic eye movements, we show that subjects can discriminate both while making saccadic eye movement. Moreover, discrimination accuracy is significantly better for characters scanned during the saccadic movement to a fixation point than those not scanned beyond it. Our results showed that character information can be processed during the saccade, therefore saccades during reading not only function to redirect the fovea to fixate the next character or word but allow pre-processing of information from the ones adjacent to the fixation locations to help target the next most salient one. In this way saccades can not only promote continuity in reading words but also actively facilitate reading comprehension.

  20. Both lexical and non-lexical characters are processed during saccadic eye movements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Yan, Hong-Mei; Kendrick, Keith M; Li, Chao-Yi

    2012-01-01

    On average our eyes make 3-5 saccadic movements per second when we read, although their neural mechanism is still unclear. It is generally thought that saccades help redirect the retinal fovea to specific characters and words but that actual discrimination of information only occurs during periods of fixation. Indeed, it has been proposed that there is active and selective suppression of information processing during saccades to avoid experience of blurring due to the high-speed movement. Here, using a paradigm where a string of either lexical (Chinese) or non-lexical (alphabetic) characters are triggered by saccadic eye movements, we show that subjects can discriminate both while making saccadic eye movement. Moreover, discrimination accuracy is significantly better for characters scanned during the saccadic movement to a fixation point than those not scanned beyond it. Our results showed that character information can be processed during the saccade, therefore saccades during reading not only function to redirect the fovea to fixate the next character or word but allow pre-processing of information from the ones adjacent to the fixation locations to help target the next most salient one. In this way saccades can not only promote continuity in reading words but also actively facilitate reading comprehension. PMID:23029504

  1. Lexical and context effects in children's audiovisual speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Rachael; Kirk, Karen; Pisoni, David; Burckhartzmeyer, Lisa; Lin, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The Audiovisual Lexical Neighborhood Sentence Test (AVLNST), a new, recorded speech recognition test for children with sensory aids, was administered in multiple presentation modalities to children with normal hearing and vision. Each sentence consists of three key words whose lexical difficulty is controlled according to the Neighborhood Activation Model (NAM) of spoken word recognition. According to NAM, the recognition of spoken words is influenced by two lexical factors: the frequency of occurrence of individual words in a language, and how phonemically similar the target word is to other words in the listeners lexicon. These predictions are based on auditory similarity only, and thus do not take into account how visual information can influence the perception of speech. Data from the AVLNST, together with those from recorded audiovisual versions of isolated word recognition measures, the Lexical Neighborhood, and the Multisyllabic Lexical Neighborhood Tests, were used to examine the influence of visual information on speech perception in children. Further, the influence of top-down processing on speech recognition was examined by evaluating performance on the recognition of words in isolation versus words in sentences. [Work supported by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Foundation, the American Hearing Research Foundation, and the NIDCD, T32 DC00012 to Indiana University.

  2. Bilingual Picture–Word Studies Constrain Theories of Lexical Selection

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew L.

    2011-01-01

    Whether lexical selection is by competition is the subject of current debate in studies of monolingual language production. Here, I consider whether extant data from bilinguals can inform this debate. In bilinguals, theories that accept the notion of lexical selection by competition are divided between those positing competition among all lexical nodes vs. those that restrict competition to nodes in the target language only. An alternative view rejects selection by competition altogether, putting the locus of selection in a phonological output buffer, where some potential responses are easier to exclude than others. These theories make contrasting predictions about how quickly bilinguals should name pictures when non-target responses are activated. In Part 1, I establish the empirical facts for which any successful theory must account. In Part 2, I evaluate how well each theory accounts for the data. I argue that the data do not support theories that reject lexical selection by competition, and that although theories where competition for selection is restricted to the target language can be altered to fit the data, doing so would fundamentally undermine the distinctness of their position. Theories where selection is by competition throughout both target and non-target language lexicons must also be modified to account for the data, but these modifications are relatively peripheral to the theoretical impetus of the model. Throughout, I identify areas where our empirical facts are sparse, weak, or absent, and propose additional experiments that should help to further establish how lexical selection works, in both monolinguals and bilinguals. PMID:22232610

  3. Lexical and Prosodic Effects on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    DeDe, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when individuals with aphasia and healthy controls use lexical and prosodic information during on-line sentence comprehension. Individuals with aphasia and controls (n = 12 per group) participated in a self-paced listening experiment. The stimuli were early closure sentences, such as “While the parents watched(,) the child sang a song.” Both lexical and prosodic cues were manipulated. The cues were biased toward the subject- or object- of the ambiguous noun phrase (the child). Thus, there were two congruous conditions (in which both lexical cues and prosodic cues were consistent) and two incongruous conditions (in which lexical and prosodic cues conflicted). The results showed that the people with aphasia had longer listening times for the ambiguous noun phrase (the child) when the cues were conflicting, rather than consistent. The controls showed effects earlier in the sentence, at the subordinate verb (watched or danced). Both groups showed evidence of reanalysis at the main verb (sang). These effects demonstrate that the aphasic group was sensitive to the lexical and prosodic cues, but used them on a delayed time course relative to the control group. PMID:22143353

  4. Word Effects in Dual-Task Studies Using Lexical Decision and Naming as Task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; McCann, Robert S.; VanSelst, Mark; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Word frequency effects in dual-task, lexical decision are variously reported to be additive or under-additive across SOA. We replicate and extend earlier lexical decision studies and find word frequency to be additive across SOA. To more directly capture lexical processing, we examine dual-task naming. Once again we find word frequency to be additive across SOA. Lexical processing appears to be constrained by central processing limitations.

  5. Word Frequency Effects in Dual-Task Studies Using Lexical Decision and Naming as Task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger W.; McCann, Robert S.; VanSelst, Mark; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Word frequency effects in dual-task lexical decision are variously reported to be additive or underadditive across SOA. We replicate and extend earlier lexical decision studies and find word frequency to be additive across SOA. To more directly capture lexical processing, we examine dual-task naming. Once again, we find word frequency to be additive across SOA. Lexical processing appears to be constrained by central processing limitations.

  6. Interacting linear and nonlinear characteristics produce population coding asymmetries between ON and OFF cells in the retina.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Zachary; Nirenberg, Sheila; Victor, Jonathan

    2013-09-11

    The early visual system is a model for understanding the roles of cell populations in parallel processing. Cells in this system can be classified according to their responsiveness to different stimuli; a prominent example is the division between cells that respond to stimuli of opposite contrasts (ON vs OFF cells). These two cell classes display many asymmetries in their physiological characteristics (including temporal characteristics, spatial characteristics, and nonlinear characteristics) that, individually, are known to have important roles in population coding. Here we describe a novel distinction between the information that ON and OFF ganglion cell populations carry in mouse--that OFF cells are able to signal motion information about both light and dark objects, while ON cells have a selective deficit at signaling the motion of dark objects. We found that none of the previously reported asymmetries in physiological characteristics could account for this distinction. We therefore analyzed its basis via a recently developed linear-nonlinear-Poisson model that faithfully captures input/output relationships for a broad range of stimuli (Bomash et al., 2013). While the coding differences between ON and OFF cell populations could not be ascribed to the linear or nonlinear components of the model individually, they had a simple explanation in the way that these components interact. Sensory transformations in other systems can likewise be described by these models, and thus our findings suggest that similar interactions between component properties may help account for the roles of cell classes in population coding more generally.

  7. Effects of Emotional Experience in Lexical Decision

    PubMed Central

    Siakaluk, Paul D.; Newcombe, P. Ian; Duffels, Brian; Li, Eliza; Sidhu, David M.; Yap, Melvin J.; Pexman, Penny M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has examined the effects of emotional experience (i.e., the ease with which words evoke emotion information) in semantic categorization (SCT), word naming, and Stroop tasks (Newcombe et al., 2012; Siakaluk et al., 2014; Moffat et al., 2015). However, to date there are no published reports on whether emotional experience influences performance in the lexical decision task (LDT). In the present study, we examined the influence of emotional experience in LDT using three different stimulus sets. In Experiment 1 we used a stimulus set used by both Kousta et al. (2009; Experiment 1) and Yap and Seow (2014) that is comprised of 40 negative, 40 positive, and 40 neutral words; in Experiment 2 we used a stimulus set comprised of 150 abstract nouns; and in Experiment 3 we used a stimulus set comprised of 373 verbs. We observed facilitatory effects of emotional experience in each of the three experiments, such that words with higher emotional experience ratings were associated with faster response latencies. These results are important because the influence of emotional experience: (a) is observed in stimulus sets comprised of different types of words, demonstrating the generalizability of the effect in LDT; (b) accounts for LDT response latency variability above and beyond the influences of valence and arousal, and is thus a robust dimension of conceptual knowledge; (c) suggests that a richer representation of emotional experience provides more reliable evidence that a stimulus is a word, which facilitates responding in LDT; and (d) is consistent with grounded cognition frameworks that propose that emotion information may be grounded in bodily experience with the world (Barsalou, 2003, 2009; Vigliocco et al., 2009). PMID:27555827

  8. Rebounding Activation Caused by Lexical Homophony in the Processing of Japanese Two-Kanji Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamaoka, Katsuo

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of lexical homophony on the processing of Japanese two-kanji compound words. Experiment 1 showed that participants took longer to perform lexical decisions for words with a high degree of lexical homophony than those with no homophony. Interestingly, the same inhibitory trend was found in the naming task…

  9. Effects of Nonlinguistic Auditory Variations on Lexical Processing in Broca's Aphasics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittredge, Audrey; Davis, Lissa; Blumstein, Sheila E.

    2006-01-01

    In a series of experiments, the effect of white noise distortion and talker variation on lexical access in normal and Broca's aphasic participants was examined using an auditory lexical decision paradigm. Masking the prime stimulus in white noise resulted in reduced semantic priming for both groups, indicating that lexical access is degraded by…

  10. Word Recognition in Individuals with Left and Right Hemisphere Damage: The Role of Lexical Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Shari R.

    2002-01-01

    Employed a lexical decision task to asses whether left hemisphere damaged (LHD) and right hemisphere damaged (RHD) patients are similarly sensitive to stress patterns in lexical access. Results confirmed that individuals without brain damage are influenced by stress patterns, as indicated by increased lexical decision latencies to incorrectly…

  11. Effects of Lexicality and Word Frequency on Brain Activation in Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, Stefan; Wehnelt, Anke; Grande, Marion; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the neural basis of lexical access to written stimuli in adult dyslexics and normal readers via the Lexicality effect (pseudowords greater than words) and the Frequency effect (low greater than high frequent words). The participants read aloud German words (with low or high lexical frequency) or pseudowords while being scanned. In…

  12. The Relationship of Lexical Richness to the Quality of ESL Learners' Oral Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Xiaofei

    2012-01-01

    This study was an examination of the relationship of lexical richness to the quality of English as a second language (ESL) learners' oral narratives. A computational system was designed to automate the measurement of 3 dimensions of lexical richness, that is, lexical density, sophistication, and variation, using 25 different metrics proposed in…

  13. Online Lexical Competition during Spoken Word Recognition and Word Learning in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Lisa; Weighall, Anna; Brown, Helen; Gaskell, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Lexical competition that occurs as speech unfolds is a hallmark of adult oral language comprehension crucial to rapid incremental speech processing. This study used pause detection to examine whether lexical competition operates similarly at 7-8 years and tested variables that influence "online" lexical activity in adults. Children…

  14. With or without Semantic Mediation: Retrieval of Lexical Representations in Sign Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarrete, Eduardo; Caccaro, Arianna; Pavani, Francesco; Mahon, Bradford Z.; Peressotti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    How are lexical representations retrieved during sign production? Similar to spoken languages, lexical representation in sign language must be accessed through semantics when naming pictures. However, it remains an open issue whether lexical representations in sign language can be accessed via routes that bypass semantics when retrieval is…

  15. Carpet or Carcel: The Effect of Age of Acquisition and Language Mode on Bilingual Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta; Brehm, Laurel; Brick, Cameron A.; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Fischer, Kara; Wagner, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Lexical access was examined in English-Spanish bilinguals by monitoring eye fixations on target and lexical competitors as participants followed spoken instructions in English to click on one of the objects presented on a computer (e.g., "Click on the beans"). Within-language lexical competitors had a phoneme onset in English that was shared with…

  16. Lexical and Affective Prosody in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Bemis, Rhyannon H.; Skwerer, Daniela Plesa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the perception and production of lexical stress and processing of affective prosody in adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA). We hypothesized preserved processing of lexical and affective prosody but atypical lexical prosody production. Method: Sixteen children with HFA and 15 typically developing (TD) peers…

  17. The Social Correlates of Lexical Borrowing in Spanish in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varra, Rachel Marie

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates lexical borrowing in Spanish in New York. English-origin lexical material was extracted from a stratified sample of 146 Spanish-speaking informants of different ages, national origins, classes, etc., living in New York City. ANOVAs and Pearson correlations determined whether lexical borrowing frequency and the type…

  18. Lexical Transfer in the Written Production of a CLIL Group and a Non-CLIL Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzano Vázquez, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on the difference in terms of lexical transfer between CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) and non-CLIL students has revealed that CLIL students produce fewer lexical transfer errors than non-CLIL students. This study aimed at comparing the lexical transfer production of two groups of students (CLIL and non-CLIL) and…

  19. Heeding the Voice of Experience: The Role of Talker Variation in Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments used the head-mounted eye-tracking methodology to examine the time course of lexical activation in the face of a non-phonemic cue, talker variation. We found that lexical competition was attenuated by consistent talker differences between words that would otherwise be lexical competitors. In Experiment 1, some English cohort…

  20. Lexical tone awareness among Chinese children with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Li, Wing-Sze; Suk-Han Ho, Connie

    2011-09-01

    This study examined the extent and nature of lexical tone deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Twenty Cantonese-speaking Chinese dyslexic children (mean age 8;11) were compared to twenty average readers of the same age (CA control group, mean age 8;11), and another twenty younger average readers of the same word reading level (RL control group, mean age 7;4) on different measures of lexical tone awareness, rhyme awareness and visual-verbal paired-associate learning. Results showed that the Chinese dyslexic children performed significantly worse than the CA but not the RL control groups in nearly all the lexical tone and rhyme awareness measures. Analyses of individual performance demonstrated that over one-third of the dyslexic children showed a deficit in some aspects of tone awareness. Tone discrimination and tone production were found to correlate significantly with Chinese word reading. These findings confirm that Chinese dyslexic children show weaknesses in tone awareness.

  1. Pathways From Toddler Information Processing to Adolescent Lexical Proficiency.

    PubMed

    Rose, Susan A; Feldman, Judith F; Jankowski, Jeffery J

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation of 3-year core information-processing abilities to lexical growth and development. The core abilities covered four domains-memory, representational competence (cross-modal transfer), processing speed, and attention. Lexical proficiency was assessed at 3 and 13 years with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and verbal fluency. The sample (N = 128) consisted of 43 preterms (< 1750 g) and 85 full-terms. Structural equation modeling indicated concurrent relations of toddler information processing and language proficiency and, independent of stability in language, direct predictive links between (a) 3-year cross-modal ability and 13-year PPVT and (b) 3-year processing speed and both 13-year measures, PPVT and verbal fluency. Thus, toddler information processing was related to growth in lexical proficiency from 3 to 13 years.

  2. Lexical retrieval in discourse: An early indicator of Alzheimer's dementia

    PubMed Central

    Pekkala, Seija; Wiener, Debra; Himali, Jayandra J.J.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Obler, Loraine K.; Liu, Yulin; McKee, Ann; Auerbach, Sanford; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Au, Rhoda

    2014-01-01

    We examined the progression of lexical-retrieval deficits in individuals with neuropathologically determined Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 23) and a comparison group without criteria for AD (n = 24) to determine whether linguistic changes were a significant marker of the disease. Our participants underwent multiple administrations of a neuropsychological battery, with initial administration occurring on average 16 years prior to death. The battery included the Boston Naming Test (BNT), a letter fluency task (FAS), and written description of the Cookie Theft Picture (CTP). Repeated measures analysis revealed that the AD-group showed progressively greater decline in FAS and CTP lexical performance than the comparison group. Cross-sectional time-specific group comparisons indicated that the CTP differentiated performance between the two groups at 7–9 years prior to death and FAS and BNT only at 2–4 years. These results suggest that lexical-retrieval deficits in written discourse serve as an early indicator of AD. PMID:23985011

  3. Lexical Variation and Change in British Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Fenlon, Jordan; Rentelis, Ramas; Woll, Bencie; Cormier, Kearsy

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a corpus-based study investigating lexical variation in BSL. An earlier study investigating variation in BSL numeral signs found that younger signers were using a decreasing variety of regionally distinct variants, suggesting that levelling may be taking place. Here, we report findings from a larger investigation looking at regional lexical variants for colours, countries, numbers and UK placenames elicited as part of the BSL Corpus Project. Age, school location and language background were significant predictors of lexical variation, with younger signers using a more levelled variety. This change appears to be happening faster in particular sub-groups of the deaf community (e.g., signers from hearing families). Also, we find that for the names of some UK cities, signers from outside the region use a different sign than those who live in the region. PMID:24759673

  4. A Diffusion Model Account of the Lexical Decision Task

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Roger; Gomez, Pablo; McKoon, Gail

    2005-01-01

    The diffusion model for 2-choice decisions (R. Ratcliff, 1978) was applied to data from lexical decision experiments in which word frequency, proportion of high- versus low-frequency words, and type of nonword were manipulated. The model gave a good account of all of the dependent variables—accuracy, correct and error response times, and their distributions—and provided a description of how the component processes involved in the lexical decision task were affected by experimental variables. All of the variables investigated affected the rate at which information was accumulated from the stimuli—called drift rate in the model. The different drift rates observed for the various classes of stimuli can all be explained by a 2-dimensional signal-detection representation of stimulus information. The authors discuss how this representation and the diffusion model’s decision process might be integrated with current models of lexical access. PMID:14756592

  5. Nonword repetition in lexical decision: support for two opposing processes.

    PubMed

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Zeelenberg, René; Steyvers, Mark; Shiffrin, Richard; Raaijmakers, Jeroen

    2004-10-01

    We tested and confirmed the hypothesis that the prior presentation of nonwords in lexical decision is the net result of two opposing processes: (1) a relatively fast inhibitory process based on global familiarity; and (2) a relatively slow facilitatory process based on the retrieval of specific episodic information. In three studies, we manipulated speed-stress to influence the balance between the two processes. Experiment 1 showed item-specific improvement for repeated nonwords in a standard "respond-when-ready" lexical decision task. Experiment 2 used a 400-ms deadline procedure and showed performance for nonwords to be unaffected by up to four prior presentations. In Experiment 3 we used a signal-to-respond procedure with variable time intervals and found negative repetition priming for repeated nonwords. These results can be accounted for by dual-process models of lexical decision.

  6. Does word frequency affect lexical selection in speech production?

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Eduardo; Basagni, Benedetta; Alario, F-Xavier; Costa, Albert

    2006-10-01

    We evaluated whether lexical selection in speech production is affected by word frequency by means of two experiments. In Experiment 1 participants named pictures using utterances with the structure "pronoun + verb + adjective". In Experiment 2 participants had to perform a gender decision task on the same pictures. Access to the noun's grammatical gender is needed in both tasks, and therefore lexical selection (lemma retrieval) is required. However, retrieval of the phonological properties (lexeme retrieval) of the referent noun is not needed to perform the tasks. In both experiments we observed faster latencies for high-frequency pictures than for low-frequency pictures. This frequency effect was stable over four repetitions of the stimuli. Our results suggest that lexical selection (lemma retrieval) is sensitive to word frequency. This interpretation runs against the hypothesis that a word's frequency exerts its effects only at the level at which the phonological properties of words are retrieved.

  7. The Determinants of Negative Maternal Parenting Behaviours: Maternal, Child, and Paternal Characteristics and Their Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Zuroff, David C.; Koestner, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study tested Belsky's determinants of parenting, namely maternal characteristics, child characteristics, and contextual issues, namely the mother's perception of the husband as a father, husband, and person. Three hundred and seventy-nine mothers first investigated by Sears, Maccoby, and Levin completed a standardised interview to assess…

  8. A Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood: An Event-Related Potential Study of Lexical Relationships and Prediction in Context

    PubMed Central

    Laszlo, Sarah; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2009-01-01

    Two related questions critical to understanding the predictive processes that come online during sentence comprehension are 1) what information is included in the representation created through prediction and 2) at what functional stage does top-down, predicted information begin to affect bottom-up word processing? We investigated these questions by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) as participants read sentences that ended with expected words or with unexpected items (words, pseudowords, or illegal strings) that were either orthographically unrelated to the expected word or were one of its orthographic neighbors. The data show that, regardless of lexical status, attempts at semantic access (N400) for orthographic neighbors of expected words is facilitated relative to the processing of orthographically unrelated items. Our findings support a view of sentence processing wherein orthographically organized information is brought online by prediction and interacts with input prior to any filter on lexical status. PMID:20161064

  9. Peer-Related Social Interactions of Developmentally Delayed Young Children: Development and Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Weinhouse, Ellen

    1984-01-01

    A short-term longitudinal study of the peer-related social interactions of 111 developmentally delayed toddlers and preschool children was carried out. Results suggested the existence of unusually marked deficits in peer interactions. Possible contributing factors were discussed. (Author/RH)

  10. Lexical orthographic knowledge develops from the beginning of literacy acquisition.

    PubMed

    Martinet, Catherine; Valdois, Sylviane; Fayol, Michel

    2004-03-01

    This study reports two experiments assessing the spelling performance of French first graders after 3 months and after 9 months of literacy instruction. The participants were asked to spell high and low frequency irregular words (Experiment 1) and pseudowords, some of which had lexical neighbours (Experiment 2). The lexical database which children had been exposed to was strictly controlled. Both a frequency effect in word spelling accuracy and an analogy effect in pseudoword spelling were obtained after only 3 months of reading instruction. The results suggest that children establish specific orthographic knowledge from the very beginning of literacy acquisition. PMID:14738774

  11. Effects of emotional state on lexical decision performance.

    PubMed

    Olafson, K M; Ferraro, F R

    2001-02-01

    The effect of emotional state on lexical processing was investigated. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a happy or sad mood condition. Emotional state was then induced by listening to 8 min of classical music previously rated to induce happy or sad moods. Response times and error rates were analyzed in a lexical decision task involving sad words, happy words, and pseudowords. Results suggest that emotion aided the participants in responding to emotion-congruent stimuli. The sad group responded faster than the happy group to sad words and the happy group responded faster than the sad group to happy words. Results are discussed with regard to information processing and emotion.

  12. Riding the Lexical Speedway: A Critical Review on the Time Course of Lexical Selection in Speech Production

    PubMed Central

    Strijkers, Kristof; Costa, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Speech requires time. How much time often depends on the amount of labor the brain has to perform in order to retrieve the linguistic information related to the ideas we want to express. Although most psycholinguistic research in the field of language production has focused on the net result of time required to utter words in various experimental conditions, over the last years more and more researchers pursued the objective to flesh out the time course of particular stages implicated in language production. Here we critically review these studies, with particular interest for the time course of lexical selection. First, we evaluate the data underlying the estimates of an influential temporal meta-analysis on language production (Indefrey and Levelt, 2004). We conclude that those data alone are not sufficient to provide a reliable time frame of lexical selection. Next, we discuss recent neurophysiological evidence which we argue to offer more explicit insights into the time course of lexical selection. Based on this evidence we suggest that, despite the absence of a clear time frame of how long lexical selection takes, there is sufficient direct evidence to conclude that the brain initiates lexical access within 200 ms after stimulus presentation, hereby confirming Indefrey and Levelt’s estimate. In a final section, we briefly review the proposed mechanisms which could lead to this rapid onset of lexical access, namely automatic spreading activation versus specific concept selection, and discuss novel data which support the notion of spreading activation, but indicate that the speed with which this principle takes effect is driven by a top-down signal in function of the intention to engage in a speech act. PMID:22144973

  13. Analysis of Performance of Jet Engine from Characteristics of Components II : Interaction of Components as Determined from Engine Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Arthur W; Alpert, Sumner; Beede, William; Kovach, Karl

    1949-01-01

    In order to understand the operation and the interaction of jet-engine components during engine operation and to determine how component characteristics may be used to compute engine performance, a method to analyze and to estimate performance of such engines was devised and applied to the study of the characteristics of a research turbojet engine built for this investigation. An attempt was made to correlate turbine performance obtained from engine experiments with that obtained by the simpler procedure of separately calibrating the turbine with cold air as a driving fluid in order to investigate the applicability of component calibration. The system of analysis was also applied to prediction of the engine and component performance with assumed modifications of the burner and bearing characteristics, to prediction of component and engine operation during engine acceleration, and to estimates of the performance of the engine and the components when the exhaust gas was used to drive a power turbine.

  14. Personality Characteristics, Job Stressors, and Job Satisfaction: Main and Interaction Effects on Psychological and Physical Health Conditions of Italian Schoolteachers.

    PubMed

    Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Pes, Daniela; Capasso, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The study proposed an application of the transactional model of stress in teaching elaborated by Travers and Cooper in 1996, and aimed to investigate the influence of personality characteristics (coping strategies, type A behaviors), situational characteristics (sources of pressure), and perceived job satisfaction in the prediction of teachers' psychophysical health conditions. The Italian version of the Teacher Stress Questionnaire was administered to 621 teachers. Logistic regression was used to evaluate significant main and interaction effects of personality characteristics, situational characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction on teachers' self-reported psychophysical health conditions. The findings highlighted specific coping strategies (focused on the problem, on innovation, and on hobbies and pastimes) and dimensions of job satisfaction (related to intrinsic aspects of job and to employee relations) buffering the negative effects of several job stressors. Type A behaviors and coping strategies focused on mobilized social support, suppression of stress, and not confronting the situation had main and interactions with negative effects on psychophysical health. Findings confirmed the necessity to run multi-factor research to analyze the different combinations of individual and situational variables implicated in negative health outcomes and to highlight the most significant buffering or increasing associations. PMID:27381410

  15. Personality Characteristics, Job Stressors, and Job Satisfaction: Main and Interaction Effects on Psychological and Physical Health Conditions of Italian Schoolteachers.

    PubMed

    Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Pes, Daniela; Capasso, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The study proposed an application of the transactional model of stress in teaching elaborated by Travers and Cooper in 1996, and aimed to investigate the influence of personality characteristics (coping strategies, type A behaviors), situational characteristics (sources of pressure), and perceived job satisfaction in the prediction of teachers' psychophysical health conditions. The Italian version of the Teacher Stress Questionnaire was administered to 621 teachers. Logistic regression was used to evaluate significant main and interaction effects of personality characteristics, situational characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction on teachers' self-reported psychophysical health conditions. The findings highlighted specific coping strategies (focused on the problem, on innovation, and on hobbies and pastimes) and dimensions of job satisfaction (related to intrinsic aspects of job and to employee relations) buffering the negative effects of several job stressors. Type A behaviors and coping strategies focused on mobilized social support, suppression of stress, and not confronting the situation had main and interactions with negative effects on psychophysical health. Findings confirmed the necessity to run multi-factor research to analyze the different combinations of individual and situational variables implicated in negative health outcomes and to highlight the most significant buffering or increasing associations.

  16. Interaction between carbon dioxide and coal: atomic-scale characteristics and electronic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingdi; Wang, Sanwu

    2015-03-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 in unmineable coal seams has been suggested to mitigate the effect of the increasing of the atmospheric CO2 concentration on global warming. Extensive experimental studies have been performed for the injection of CO2 into coalbeds. However, the atomic-level mechanism for the interaction between CO2 and coal has not been fully explored. We report first-principles density-functional calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for the interaction between CO2 and the coal network. In particular, we report results about atomic-scale and electronic properties of the interaction. We also report a comparison with the interaction between CH4 and coal. This research used the supercomputer resources at NERSC, of XSEDE, at TACC, and at the Tandy Supercomputing Center.

  17. [Characteristics of the interaction of image and conditioned reflex memory during the ontogeny of chimpanzees].

    PubMed

    Firsov, L A; Bogacheva, I N; Kuz'min, S K

    1984-01-01

    Interaction of a stable conditioned reflex and trace visual image of a natural alimentary stimulus was studied in two groups of chimpanzee youngs. A. higher stability of visual imaginative memory was observed in animals of the elder group.

  18. Some characteristics of social interactions among adolescents in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Klarin, Mira; Pororoković, Ana; Šašić, Slavica Šimić; Arnaudova, Violeta

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The bioecological model refers to the basic social needs that a person has satisfied through social interactions. In individualist cultures, the need for independence is emphasized with the aim of self-realization and personal achievement. In collectivist cultures, togetherness is encouraged and it prevails over individuality. Aim The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences in adolescents (n = 1033) from three different cultural environments (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia) with regard to the various aspects of the social interactions and behaviors these adolescents exercise with their parents and friends. Methods Three groups of questionnaires were used: those that measure family interactions (the quality of family interactions, loneliness in the family, and family influence); those that assess peer interactions (quality of friendships, social loneliness, and influence of friendships); and those that examined behavioral variables (self-esteem, aggression, and prosocialness). Results Discriminant analysis has shown that there are two significant functions that differentiate subjects from the three different cultural environments. The first discriminant function that adequately discriminates between subjects in all three cultural environments is related to social and family loneliness and the influence of friends. Loneliness in the family, social loneliness, and influence of friends are most prevalent among adolescents in Macedonia and least among adolescents in Croatia. The second function that distinguished adolescents in Croatia from those in the other two cultural environments was primarily connected with the quality of family interactions, aggressiveness, parent influence, and self-esteem. Finally, it was found that adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina were more likely to engage in family interactions, have greater levels of parental influence, and appeared to be less aggressive and had lower self

  19. Application of atomic force microscopy for characteristics of single intermolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Safenkova, I V; Zherdev, A V; Dzantievf, B B

    2012-12-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used to make measurements in vacuum, air, and water. The method is able to gather information about intermolecular interaction forces at the level of single molecules. This review encompasses experimental and theoretical data on the characterization of ligand-receptor interactions by AFM. The advantage of AFM in comparison with other methods developed for the characterization of single molecular interactions is its ability to estimate not only rupture forces, but also thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of the rupture of a complex. The specific features of force spectroscopy applied to ligand-receptor interactions are examined in this review from the stage of the modification of the substrate and the cantilever up to the processing and interpretation of the data. We show the specificities of the statistical analysis of the array of data based on the results of AFM measurements, and we discuss transformation of data into thermodynamic and kinetic parameters (kinetic dissociation constant, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy). Particular attention is paid to the study of polyvalent interactions, where the definition of the constants is hampered due to the complex stoichiometry of the reactions.

  20. Lexical Cohesion: An Issue Only in the Foreign Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafes, Hüseyin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Turkish EFL learners' ability in composing cohesive texts in their first language and in English as their foreign language, and to examine whether there are similarities between lexical reiteration cohesive devices they employ in composing cohesive texts both in Turkish and in English. The study was…

  1. Kindergarten Children Can Be Taught to Detect Lexical Ambiguities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamowski-Shakibai, Margaret T.; Cairns, Helen Smith

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the development of metalinguistic skills, particularly ambiguity detection, and whether training accelerates this development for prereaders in kindergarten (5;5-6;6). It is the first to compare homophone detection with lexically ambiguous sentence detection in which the same homophones appear. The experimental group…

  2. Children's Abstraction and Generalization of English Lexical Stress Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redford, Melissa A.; Oh, Grace E.

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated school-aged children's internalization of the distributional patterns of English lexical stress as a function of vocabulary size. Sixty children (5;3 to 8;3) participated in the study. The children were asked to blend two individually presented, equally stressed syllables to produce disyllabic nonwords with different…

  3. Lexical Tone Awareness among Chinese Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wing-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent and nature of lexical tone deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Twenty Cantonese-speaking Chinese dyslexic children (mean age 8 ; 11) were compared to twenty average readers of the same age (CA control group, mean age 8 ; 11), and another twenty younger average readers of the same word reading level (RL control…

  4. Stress Matters: Effects of Anticipated Lexical Stress on Silent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Mara; Clifton, Charles, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from two eye-tracking studies designed to investigate the role of metrical prosody in silent reading. In Experiment 1, participants read stress-alternating noun-verb or noun-adjective homographs (e.g. "PREsent", "preSENT") embedded in limericks, such that the lexical stress of the homograph, as determined by context,…

  5. Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain Lexical Access II. Infant Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gout, A.; Christophe, A.; Morgan, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    The location of phonological phrase boundaries was shown to affect lexical access by English-learning infants of 10 and 13 months of age. Experiments 1 and 2 used the head-turn preference procedure: infants were familiarized with two bisyllabic words, then presented with sentences that either contained the familiarized words or contained both…

  6. Appraising Lexical Bundles in Mathematics Classroom Discourse: Obligation and Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth; Wagner, David

    2010-01-01

    Working from a large corpus of transcripts from secondary mathematics classrooms, we identify patterns of speech that encode interpersonal positioning. We extend our analysis from a previous article (Herbel-Eisenmann, Wagner & Cortes, Educ Stud Math, 2010, in press), in which we introduced a concept from corpus linguistics--a "lexical bundle,"…

  7. Chicano Spanish: Cross Hispanic Language Attitudes toward Specific Lexical Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giron, Robert LeRoy

    A study was undertaken to gather attitudes of Spanish-speakers toward specific types of Chicano Spanish dialect lexical items. Reactions were randomly taken from 11 Latin American students who attended Southern Illinois University at Carbondale during the 1975 spring semester; 20 Mexican residents of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, who attended English as…

  8. Virtual Vocabulary: Research and Learning in Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the concept development, research programming, and learning design of a lexical processing web application, Virtual Vocabulary, which was developed using theories in both cognitive psychology and second language acquisition (SLA). It is being tested with first-year students of German at the University of Victoria in Canada,…

  9. Musical Looping of Lexical Chunks: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockell, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the experimental use of a recently developed musical looping app with a class of Japanese university students of English during 2014. Working in groups using shared hand-held devices, students created compositions based on lexical chunks or formulaic sequences selected freely from a fixed text. A scored example of one such…

  10. Cognitive Control and Lexical Access in Younger and Older Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus; Luk, Gigi

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-six participants, who were younger (20 years) or older (68 years) adults and either monolingual or bilingual, completed tasks assessing working memory, lexical retrieval, and executive control. Younger participants performed most of the tasks better than older participants, confirming the effect of aging on these processes. The effect of…

  11. Children's Use of Gesture to Resolve Lexical Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan; Holler, Judith

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study investigating 3-5-year-old children's use of gesture to resolve lexical ambiguity. Children were told three short stories that contained two homonym senses; for example, "bat" (flying mammal) and "bat" (sports equipment). They were then asked to re-tell these stories to a second experimenter. The data were coded for the means…

  12. Lexical Choice and Language Selection in Bilingual Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kai J.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined single-word code-mixing produced by bilingual preschoolers in order to better understand lexical choice patterns in each language. Analysis included item-level code-mixed responses of 606 five-year-old children. Per parent report, children were separated by language dominance based on language exposure and use. Children were…

  13. Lexical, Functional Grammar Analysis of Korean Complex Predicates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hee-Seob

    The structure of complementation in complex predicates in Korean has attracted configurational analysis. Using a lexical functional grammar (LFG) framework, this paper examines the structure of complementation in complex predicates. The term "predicate" in this context is used to describe both verbs and adjectives that are assumed to consist of…

  14. Relationships between Lexical and Phonological Development in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the relationships between lexical and phonological development has been enhanced in recent years by increased interest in this area from language scientists, psychologists and phonologists. This review article provides a summary of research, highlighting similarities and differences across studies. It is suggested that the…

  15. Enhancing Lexical Knowledge through L2 Medium Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosoughi, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the L2 use rate in EFL classrooms through introducing three task conditions in learning lexical items. Data were collected from a group of freshman university students (male and female) studying in Islamic Azad university of Sabzevar, Iran (N = 73). Based on their performance on a Michigan TOEFL…

  16. Lexical Access during the Production of Idiomatic Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprenger, Simone A.; Levelt, Willem J. M.; Kempen, Gerard

    2006-01-01

    In three experiments we test the assumption that idioms have their own lexical entry, which is linked to its constituent lemmas (Cutting & Bock, 1997). Speakers produced idioms or literal phrases (Experiment 1), completed idioms (Experiment 2), or switched between idiom completion and naming (Experiment 3). The results of Experiment 1 show that…

  17. Psychometric Evaluation of Lexical Diversity Indices: Assessing Length Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather Harris; Green, Samuel B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Several novel techniques have been developed recently to assess the breadth of a speaker's vocabulary exhibited in a language sample. The specific aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the validity of the scores generated by different lexical diversity (LD) estimation techniques. Four techniques were explored: D, Maas,…

  18. The Role of Lexical Heads in Parsing: Evidence from German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konieczny, Lars

    1997-01-01

    Presents a fully incremental model that accounts for attachment preferences by the linear order of lexical heads in the surface structure and their thematic properties. Discusses the principle of "parameterised head attachment" and a serial variant on the basis of three online experiments on noun phrase and prepositional phrase attachment in…

  19. Parafoveal Lexical Activation Depends on Skilled Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2015-01-01

    The boundary paradigm was used to investigate individual differences in the extraction of lexical information from the parafovea in sentence reading. The preview of a target word was manipulated so that it was identical (e.g., "sped"), a higher frequency orthographic neighbor ("seed"), a nonword neighbor ("sted"), or…

  20. Recognition of Spoken Words: Semantic Effects in Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurm, Lee H.; Vakoch, Douglas A.; Seaman, Sean R.

    2004-01-01

    Until recently most models of word recognition have assumed that semantic effects come into play only after the identification of the word in question. What little evidence exists for early semantic effects in word recognition has relied primarily on priming manipulations using the lexical decision task, and has used visual stimulus presentation.…

  1. Syntactic and Lexical Deviations in Children's Written Sentences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Lester S.

    Compositions based on a picture as stimulus and written by fourth and sixth graders were studied for syntactic and lexical deviations. From the corpus of data, eight interpretations were made: (1) comma fault, sentence sense, and coordinating conjunctions were the most frequent syntactic problems encountered--all could be eliminated by oral…

  2. Lexical Quality and Reading Comprehension in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Isberner, Maj-Britt; Naumann, Johannes; Neeb, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between the quality of lexical representations and text comprehension skill in German primary school children (Grades 1-4). We measured the efficiency and accuracy of orthographical, phonological, and meaning representations by means of computerized tests. Text comprehension skill was…

  3. Lexical and Default Stress Assignment in Reading Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Gerakaki, Svetlana; Alexandri, Stella

    2006-01-01

    Greek is a language with lexical stress that marks stress orthographically with a special diacritic. Thus, the orthography and the lexicon constitute potential sources of stress assignment information in addition to any possible general default metrical pattern. Here, we report two experiments with secondary education children reading aloud…

  4. Dissociating Visual Form from Lexical Frequency Using Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Tae; Duncan, Keith J. Kawabata; Hogan, John S.; Morita, Kenji; Umeda, Kazumasa; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Devlin, Joseph T.

    2013-01-01

    In Japanese, the same word can be written in either morphographic Kanji or syllabographic Hiragana and this provides a unique opportunity to disentangle a word's lexical frequency from the frequency of its visual form--an important distinction for understanding the neural information processing in regions engaged by reading. Behaviorally,…

  5. Effects of Vocabulary Size on Online Lexical Processing by Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Franzo, II; Edwards, Jan R.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between vocabulary size and the speed and accuracy of lexical processing in preschoolers between the ages of 30 and 46 months using an automatic eye tracking task based on the looking-while-listening paradigm (Fernald, Zangl, Portillo, & Marchman, 2008) and mispronunciation paradigm…

  6. Lexical Aspects of Very Advanced L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundell, Fanny Forsberg; Lindqvist, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the possibilities for adult learners to attain nativelikeness in the domain of lexis. Aspects investigated are general lexical knowledge (C-test), receptive deep knowledge, productive collocation knowledge, and productive lexico-pragmatic knowledge in a group of long-residency Swedish French second language (L2)…

  7. Lexical Specificity Training Effects in Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Caressa; Segers, Eliane; McQueen, James M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Children who start formal education in a second language may experience slower vocabulary growth in that language and subsequently experience disadvantages in literacy acquisition. The current study asked whether lexical specificity training can stimulate bilingual children's phonological awareness, which is considered to be a precursor to…

  8. Lexical and Semantic Binding in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Frankish, Clive R.; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon

    2006-01-01

    Semantic dementia patients make numerous phoneme migration errors in their immediate serial recall of poorly comprehended words. In this study, similar errors were induced in the word recall of healthy participants by presenting unpredictable mixed lists of words and nonwords. This technique revealed that lexicality, word frequency, imageability,…

  9. Perception and Production of English Lexical Stress by Thai Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jangjamras, Jirapat

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of first language prosodic transfer on the perception and production of English lexical stress and the relation between stress perception and production by second language learners. To test the effect of Thai tonal distribution rules and stress patterns on native Thai speakers' perception and production of…

  10. Lexical and Sublexical Semantic Preview Benefits in Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Ming; Zhou, Wei; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    Semantic processing from parafoveal words is an elusive phenomenon in alphabetic languages, but it has been demonstrated only for a restricted set of noncompound Chinese characters. Using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm, this experiment examined whether parafoveal lexical and sublexical semantic information was extracted from compound…

  11. Perceptual similarity co-existing with lexical dissimilarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

    2003-10-01

    The extreme case of perceptual similarity is indiscriminability, as when two second-language phonemes map to a single native category. An example is the English had-head vowel contrast for Dutch listeners; Dutch has just one such central vowel, transcribed [E]. We examine whether the failure to discriminate in phonetic categorization implies indiscriminability in other-e.g., lexical-processing. Eyetracking experiments show that Dutch-native listeners instructed in English to ``click on the panda'' look (significantly more than native listeners) at a pictured pencil, suggesting that pan- activates their lexical representation of pencil. The reverse, however, is not the case: ``click on the pencil'' does not induce looks to a panda, suggesting that pen- does not activate panda in the lexicon. Thus prelexically undiscriminated second-language distinctions can nevertheless be maintained in stored lexical representations. The problem of mapping a resulting unitary input to two distinct categories in lexical representations is solved by allowing input to activate only one second-language category. For Dutch listeners to English, this is English [E], as a result of which no vowels in the signal ever map to words containing [ae]. We suggest that the choice of category is here motivated by a more abstract, phonemic, metric of similarity.

  12. The Role of Grammar in Second Language Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paribakht, T. Sima

    2004-01-01

    The role of grammatical knowledge in second language (L2) lexical processing is far from clear. Providing evidence from a recent introspective study, this paper seeks to demonstrate the significant contribution that such knowledge can make to inferring the meanings of unfamiliar words while reading, and to possible consequent acquisition of L2…

  13. The Lexical Breadth of Undergraduate Novice Level Writing Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Scott Roy

    2013-01-01

    This study builds on previous work exploring reading and listening lexical thresholds (Nation, 2006; Laufer & Ravenhorst-Kalovski, 2010; Schmitt, Jiang, & Grabe, 2011) in order to investigate productive vocabulary targets that mark successful entry-level undergraduate writing. Papers that passed the Effective Writing Test (EWT) were chosen…

  14. Phonological and Lexical Reading in Italian Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsolini, Margherita; Fanari, Rachele; Cerracchio, Sara; Famiglietti, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    In this study we explore the development of phonological and lexical reading in dyslexic children. We tested a group of 14 Italian children who have been diagnosed with dyslexia and whose reading age is end of grade 1. We compared this group with a group of 70 typically developing children who have been tested for reading at the end of grade 1.…

  15. Porting a lexicalized-grammar parser to the biomedical domain.

    PubMed

    Rimell, Laura; Clark, Stephen

    2009-10-01

    This paper introduces a state-of-the-art, linguistically motivated statistical parser to the biomedical text mining community, and proposes a method of adapting it to the biomedical domain requiring only limited resources for data annotation. The parser was originally developed using the Penn Treebank and is therefore tuned to newspaper text. Our approach takes advantage of a lexicalized grammar formalism, Combinatory Categorial Grammar (ccg), to train the parser at a lower level of representation than full syntactic derivations. The ccg parser uses three levels of representation: a first level consisting of part-of-speech (pos) tags; a second level consisting of more fine-grained ccg lexical categories; and a third, hierarchical level consisting of ccg derivations. We find that simply retraining the pos tagger on biomedical data leads to a large improvement in parsing performance, and that using annotated data at the intermediate lexical category level of representation improves parsing accuracy further. We describe the procedure involved in evaluating the parser, and obtain accuracies for biomedical data in the same range as those reported for newspaper text, and higher than those previously reported for the biomedical resource on which we evaluate. Our conclusion is that porting newspaper parsers to the biomedical domain, at least for parsers which use lexicalized grammars, may not be as difficult as first thought. PMID:19141332

  16. The Development of Taxonomic Structure in Lexical Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blewitt, Pamela; Toppino, Thomas C.

    1991-01-01

    Recall of "to-be-remembered items" benefited from schematically related, superordinate, and slot filler cues, but not coordinate cues. The relative strength of different relationships does not appear to change with age. Findings are consistent with the view that lexical memory is schematically and taxonomically organized from early childhood.…

  17. Early Phonetic and Lexical Development: A Productivity Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Lorraine; Vihman, Marilyn M.

    2001-01-01

    This study used longitudinal productivity criteria to establish the phonetic skill of 20 children (followed from 9 to 16 months). The number of specific consonants produced consistently across the months predicted referential lexical use at 16 months. Prior use of at least two supraglottal consonants characterized the children achieving…

  18. A Corpus-Based Assessment of French CEFR Lexical Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusseling, Françoise; Lonsdale, Deryle

    2013-01-01

    The French CEFR vocabulary profiles as presented in the "Référentiels"--while a valuable resource for a wide range of applications focused on lexical content--result from introspection, intuition-based judgements, and unquantifiable experience. The result is a specification of vocabulary that has been largely untested from a…

  19. The Nature of Lexical-Semantic Access in Bilingual Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Swathi; Balachandran, Isabel; Lucas, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background. Despite a growing clinical need, there are no clear guidelines on assessment of lexical access in the two languages in individuals with bilingual aphasia. Objective. In this study, we examined the influence of language proficiency on three tasks requiring lexical access in English and Spanish bilingual normal controls and in bilingual individuals with aphasia. Methods. 12 neurologically healthy Spanish-English bilinguals and 10 Spanish-English bilinguals with aphasia participated in the study. All participants completed three lexical retrieval tasks: two picture-naming tasks (BNT, BPNT) and a category generation (CG) task. Results. This study found that across all tasks, the greatest predictors for performance were the effect of group and language ability rating (LAR). Bilingual controls had a greater score or produced more correct responses than participants with bilingual aphasia across all tasks. The results of our study also indicate that normal controls and bilinguals with aphasia make similar types of errors in both English and Spanish and develop similar clustering strategies despite significant performance differences between the groups. Conclusions. Differences between bilingual patients and controls demonstrate a fundamental lexical retrieval deficit in bilingual individuals with aphasia, but one that is further influenced by language proficiency in the two languages. PMID:24825956

  20. Determiner Primes as Facilitators of Lexical Retrieval in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Emma; Varley, Rosemary; Herbert, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Gender priming studies have demonstrated facilitation of noun production following pre-activation of a target noun's grammatical gender. Findings provide support for models in which syntactic information relating to words is stored within the lexicon and activated during lexical retrieval. Priming effects are observed in the context of determiner…

  1. Lexical Errors in Second Language Scientific Writing: Some Conceptual Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrió Pastor, María Luisa; Mestre-Mestre, Eva María

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, scientific writers are required not only a thorough knowledge of their subject field, but also a sound command of English as a lingua franca. In this paper, the lexical errors produced in scientific texts written in English by non-native researchers are identified to propose a classification of the categories they contain. This study…

  2. Syllable Frequency in Lexical Decision and Naming of English Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macizo, Pedro; Van Petten, Cyma

    2007-01-01

    The importance of phonological syllables in recognition and pronunciation of visual words has been demonstrated in languages with a high degree of spelling-sound correspondence. In Spanish, multisyllabic words with frequent first syllables are named more quickly than those with less frequent first syllables, but receive slower lexical decisions.…

  3. Speech Perception and Lexical Effects in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Richard G.; Scheffler, Frances L. V.; Lopez, Karece

    2013-01-01

    Using an identification task, we examined lexical effects on the perception of vowel duration as a cue to final consonant voicing in 12 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 13 age-matched (6;6-9;6) peers with typical language development (TLD). Naturally recorded CVtsets [word-word (WW), nonword-nonword (NN), word-nonword (WN) and…

  4. A Diffusion Model Account of the Lexical Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Roger; Gomez, Pablo; McKoon, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The diffusion model for 2-choice decisions (R. Ratcliff, 1978) was applied to data from lexical decision experiments in which word frequency, proportion of high- versus low-frequency words, and type of nonword were manipulated. The model gave a good account of all of the dependent variables--accuracy, correct and error response times, and their…

  5. The Effects of Prohibiting Gestures on Children's Lexical Retrieval Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Karen J.; Bird, Hannah; Kirk, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Two alternative accounts have been proposed to explain the role of gestures in thinking and speaking. The Information Packaging Hypothesis (Kita, 2000) claims that gestures are important for the conceptual packaging of information before it is coded into a linguistic form for speech. The Lexical Retrieval Hypothesis (Rauscher, Krauss & Chen, 1996)…

  6. Linguistic, Cognitive, and Social Constraints on Lexical Entrenchment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesley, Paula

    2011-01-01

    How do new words become established in a speech community? This dissertation documents linguistic, cognitive, and social factors that are hypothesized to affect "lexical entrenchment," the extent to which a new word becomes part of the lexicon of a speech community. First, in a longitudinal corpus study, I find that linguistic properties such as…

  7. Lexical-Semantic Organization in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; McGregor, Karla K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) show deficits in lexical-semantic organization and, if so, whether these deficits are commensurate with their delay in vocabulary size and whether the deficits affect all children with SLI. Method: Fourteen children with SLI, 14 age matches (AM), and 14 expressive…

  8. Lexical Competition in Non-Native Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Four eye-tracking experiments examined lexical competition in non-native spoken-word recognition. Dutch listeners hearing English fixated longer on distractor pictures with names containing vowels that Dutch listeners are likely to confuse with vowels in a target picture name ("pencil," given target "panda") than on less confusable distractors…

  9. Bilinguals Show Weaker Lexical Access during Spoken Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shook, Anthony; Goldrick, Matthew; Engstler, Caroline; Marian, Viorica

    2015-01-01

    When bilinguals process written language, they show delays in accessing lexical items relative to monolinguals. The present study investigated whether this effect extended to spoken language comprehension, examining the processing of sentences with either low or high semantic constraint in both first and second languages. English-German…

  10. The Relation between Teacher Input and Lexical Growth of Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Edmond P.; Vasilyeva, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the growth of receptive lexical skills in preschoolers over an academic year in relation to teacher speech. The participating students were English language learners and their monolingual English-speaking peers from the same classrooms. The measures of teacher input included indicators of the amount of speech (total…

  11. Characteristic correlations between the Δm* interaction curves and the Preisach diagram in particulate media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottoni, G.; Candolfo, D.; Cecchetti, A.

    2002-05-01

    Magnetic interparticle interactions are analyzed by Δm* curves calculated from the initial magnetization curve and the hysteresis loop, instead of the usual deviation Δm based on remanence curves. This study is made on tapes of acicular CrO2 particles and on tapes of CoTi-doped Ba ferrite platelet-shaped particles. The standard Preisach map of the samples is experimentally constructed and the Δm* values, computed from this map, and the values agree fairly well with the Δm* curves measured for the ac demagnetized state and various dc demagnetized states. We describe a procedure for remagnetizing the dc demagnetized samples. For the acicular particles, the peak of the remagnetized curves is lower than that computed from the Preisach map. The opposite occurs for the platelet-shaped particles. This different behavior is ascribed to the different influence of the statistical interaction field and the mean interaction field.

  12. Review Article: The weak interactive characteristic of resonance cells and broadband effect of metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiaopeng Song, Kun

    2014-10-15

    Metamaterials are artificial media designed to control electromagnetic wave propagation. Due to resonance, most present-day metamaterials inevitably suffer from narrow bandwidth, extremely limiting their practical applications. On the basis of tailored properties, a metamaterial within which each distinct unit cell resonates at its inherent frequency and has almost no coupling effect with the other ones, termed as weak interaction system, can be formulated. The total response of a weak interaction system can be treated as an overlap of the single resonance spectrum of each type of different unit cells. This intriguing feature therefore makes it possible to accomplish multiband or broadband metamaterials in a simple way. By introducing defects into metamaterials to form a weak interaction system, multiband and broadband electromagnetic metamaterials have first been experimentally demonstrated by our group. The similar concept can also be readily extended to acoustic and seismic metamaterials.

  13. Review Article: The weak interactive characteristic of resonance cells and broadband effect of metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaopeng; Song, Kun

    2014-10-01

    Metamaterials are artificial media designed to control electromagnetic wave propagation. Due to resonance, most present-day metamaterials inevitably suffer from narrow bandwidth, extremely limiting their practical applications. On the basis of tailored properties, a metamaterial within which each distinct unit cell resonates at its inherent frequency and has almost no coupling effect with the other ones, termed as weak interaction system, can be formulated. The total response of a weak interaction system can be treated as an overlap of the single resonance spectrum of each type of different unit cells. This intriguing feature therefore makes it possible to accomplish multiband or broadband metamaterials in a simple way. By introducing defects into metamaterials to form a weak interaction system, multiband and broadband electromagnetic metamaterials have first been experimentally demonstrated by our group. The similar concept can also be readily extended to acoustic and seismic metamaterials.

  14. Left middle temporal and inferior frontal regions contribute to speed of lexical decision: a TMS study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zude; Gold, Brian T; Chang, Chi-Fu; Wang, Suiping; Juan, Chi-Hung

    2015-02-01

    Activation of left anterior inferior frontal gyrus (aLIFG) and left middle temporal gyrus (LMTG) has been observed in some functional neuroimaging studies of lexical decision but not others. It is thus unclear whether these two regions are necessary for word recognition. By applying continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which temporally suppresses local brain function, we examined whether aLIFG and LMTG play causal roles in word recognition in a visual lexical decision task (LDT). Furthermore, we manipulated stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between prime and target to test whether these regions contribute to word recognition differently. In the LDT task, target words were preceded by semantically related primes (Related Condition; RC) or semantically unrelated words (Unrelated Condition; UC), under both short (150 ms) and long (600 ms) SOA conditions. TMS of aLIFG and LMTG significantly affected the word recognition speed compared to TMS of Vertex. Our results provide evidence that both aLIFG and LMTG contribute to word recognition speed. Furthermore, at short SOA, TMS of aLIFG or LMTG prolonged reaction time (RT). In contrast, at long SOA, there was a significant region by SOA by TMS interaction such that TMS of aLIFG prolonged RT, whereas TMS of LMTG speeded RT. These results suggest that aLIFG and LMTG may play different roles in word recognition.

  15. Stress "Deafness" Reveals Absence of Lexical Marking of Stress or Tone in the Adult Grammar.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Hamed; Rietveld, Toni; Gussenhoven, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    A Sequence Recall Task with disyllabic stimuli contrasting either for the location of prosodic prominence or for the medial consonant was administered to 150 subjects equally divided over five language groups. Scores showed a significant interaction between type of contrast and language group, such that groups did not differ on their performance on the consonant contrast, while two language groups, Dutch and Japanese, significantly outperformed the three other language groups (French, Indonesian and Persian) on the prosodic contrast. Since only Dutch and Japanese words have unpredictable stress or accent locations, the results are interpreted to mean that stress "deafness" is a property of speakers of languages without lexical stress or tone markings, as opposed to the presence of stress or accent contrasts in phrasal (post-lexical) constructions. Moreover, the degree of transparency between the locations of stress/tone and word boundaries did not appear to affect our results, despite earlier claims that this should have an effect. This finding is of significance for speech processing, language acquisition and phonological theory. PMID:26642328

  16. On the joint effects of stimulus quality, regularity, and lexicality when reading aloud: new challenges.

    PubMed

    Besner, Derek; O'Malley, Shannon; Robidoux, Serje

    2010-05-01

    A number of computational models have been developed over the last 2 decades that are remarkably successful at explaining the process of translating print into sound. Nevertheless, 2 of the most successful computational accounts on the table fail to simulate the results from factorial experiments reported in this article in which university students read aloud letter strings that varied in terms of spelling-sound regularity and lexicality (regular words vs. exception words vs. nonwords) and stimulus quality (bright vs. dim). Skilled readers yielded additive effects of regularity and stimulus quality and additive effects of lexicality and stimulus quality on both RT and errors when nonwords were mixed with words. When only words appeared in the list, there was an interaction in which exception words were less affected by low stimulus quality than regular words were; no existing account anticipates or explains these results. We advance a hypothesis that assumes a novel module that accommodates these data and provide an existence proof in the form of a simulation. PMID:20438270

  17. Stress "Deafness" Reveals Absence of Lexical Marking of Stress or Tone in the Adult Grammar.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Hamed; Rietveld, Toni; Gussenhoven, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    A Sequence Recall Task with disyllabic stimuli contrasting either for the location of prosodic prominence or for the medial consonant was administered to 150 subjects equally divided over five language groups. Scores showed a significant interaction between type of contrast and language group, such that groups did not differ on their performance on the consonant contrast, while two language groups, Dutch and Japanese, significantly outperformed the three other language groups (French, Indonesian and Persian) on the prosodic contrast. Since only Dutch and Japanese words have unpredictable stress or accent locations, the results are interpreted to mean that stress "deafness" is a property of speakers of languages without lexical stress or tone markings, as opposed to the presence of stress or accent contrasts in phrasal (post-lexical) constructions. Moreover, the degree of transparency between the locations of stress/tone and word boundaries did not appear to affect our results, despite earlier claims that this should have an effect. This finding is of significance for speech processing, language acquisition and phonological theory.

  18. Acoustic and perceptual effects of overall F0 range in a lexical pitch accent distinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Travis

    2002-05-01

    A speaker's overall fundamental frequency range is generally considered a variable, nonlinguistic element of intonation. This study examined the precision with which overall F0 is predictable based on previous intonational context and the extent to which it may be perceptually significant. Speakers of Tokyo Japanese produced pairs of sentences differing lexically only in the presence or absence of a single pitch accent as responses to visual and prerecorded speech cues presented in an interactive manner. F0 placement of high tones (previously observed to be relatively variable in pitch contours) was found to be consistent across speakers and uniformly dependent on the intonation of the different sentences used as cues. In a subsequent perception experiment, continuous manipulation of these same sentences between typical accented and typical non-accent-containing versions were presented to Japanese listeners for lexical identification. Results showed that listeners' perception was not significantly altered in compensation for artificial manipulation of preceding intonation. Implications are discussed within an autosegmental analysis of tone. The current results are consistent with the notion that pitch range (i.e., specific vertical locations of tonal peaks) does not simply vary gradiently across speakers and situations but constitutes a predictable part of the phonetic specification of tones.

  19. The characteristics of particles emitted in energetic nucleus-nucleus interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, H. B.; Freier, P. S.; Waddington, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    The analysis of the interactions of heavy cosmic ray nuclei in nuclear emulsion exposed over Texas is continued, with 500 interactions of nuclei of E greater than 1.5 GeV/nucleon added. In this paper the experimental data correlating meson production with fragmentation of the projectile and target nuclei are given. These data, combined with earlier results, are also used to reexamine the problem of the mean free path of secondary fragments. Using the same techniques of analysis used for the accelerator ions, evidence is found for anomalously short mean free paths of secondary fragments in the first centimeter after production.

  20. The Relationship between Marital Characteristics, Marital Interaction Processes, and Marital Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen-Grandon, Jane R.; Myers, Jane E.; Hattie, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Structural Equation Modeling techniques were used to clarify the relationship between marital characteristics, marital processes, and the dependent variable--marital satisfaction--in a sample of 201 participants who were in 1st marriages. The Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS; G. B. Spanier, 1976) and the Enriching and Nurturing Relationship Issues,…

  1. Interaction of Participant Characteristics and Type of AAC with Individuals with ASD: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Mason, Rose A.; Goodwyn, Fara D.; Boles, Margot B.; Heath, Amy K.; Davis, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and complex communication needs often rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) as a means of functional communication. This meta-analysis investigated how individual characteristics moderate effectiveness of three types of aided AAC: the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS),…

  2. The Utility of Interaction Analysis for Generalizing Characteristics of Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent J.; Sangueza, Cheryl R.

    2013-01-01

    Validating and generalizing from holistic observation protocols of classroom practice have proven difficult. These tools miss crucial classroom characteristics, like the type of instruction, the organization of learners, and the level of cognitive engagement that occur differentially in the time span of a lesson. As a result, this study examined…

  3. Studies I: Characteristics of Successful Student/Teacher Interaction in Marine Science Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheatley, Jack; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes initial steps to determine characteristics of students and teachers with award-winning marine science projects selected by the National Marine Education Association. Thirteen student/sponsor pairs (1 zoo employee, 1 marine research employee, 11 high school teachers) completed instruments assessing learning/teaching styles, attitudes, and…

  4. Do semantic sentence constraint and L2 proficiency influence language selectivity of lexical access in native language listening?

    PubMed

    Lagrou, Evelyne; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-12-01

    We investigated whether language nonselective lexical access in bilingual auditory word recognition when listening in the native language (L1) is modulated by (a) the semantic constraint of the sentence and (b) the second language (L2) proficiency level. We report 2 experiments in which Dutch-English bilinguals with different proficiency levels completed an L1 auditory lexical-decision task on the last word of low- and high-constraining sentences. The critical stimuli were interlingual homophones (e.g., lief [sweet] - leaf /li:f/). Participants recognized homophones significantly slower than matched control words. Importantly, neither the semantic constraint of the sentence, nor the proficiency level of the bilinguals interacted with this interlingual homophone effect. However, when we compared the slow and fast reaction times (RTs), we observed a reduction in the homophone interference effect when listening to high-constraining sentences in L1 for the slow RTs, but not for the fast RTs. Taken together, this provides strong evidence for a language-nonselective account of lexical access when listening in L1, and suggests that even when low-proficient bilinguals are listening to high-constraint sentences in L1, both languages of a bilingual are still activated.

  5. The Impact of E-Book Interactivity Design on Children's Chinese Character Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Pei-Yu; Yang, Hui-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of e-book interactivity design on the learning of Chinese characters by fourth graders (10-year-old children). This study was guided by two main questions: (1) Are there any differences in achievements (Chinese character writing, lexical comprehension, and lexical usage) between groups of young learners who read…

  6. ERP Characterization of Sustained Attention Effects in Visual Lexical Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Clara D.; Thierry, Guillaume; Démonet, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    As our understanding of the basic processes underlying reading is growing, the key role played by attention in this process becomes evident. Two research topics are of particular interest in this domain: (1) it is still undetermined whether sustained attention affects lexical decision tasks; (2) the influence of attention on early visual processing (i.e., before orthographic or lexico-semantic processing stages) remains largely under-specified. Here we investigated early perceptual modulations by sustained attention using an ERP paradigm adapted from Thierry et al. [1]. Participants had to decide whether visual stimuli presented in pairs pertained to a pre-specified category (lexical categorization focus on word or pseudoword pairs). Depending on the lexical category of the first item of a pair, participants either needed to fully process the second item (hold condition) or could release their attention and make a decision without full processing of the second item (release condition). The P1 peak was unaffected by sustained attention. The N1 was delayed and reduced after the second item of a pair when participants released their attention. Release of sustained attention also reduced a P3 wave elicited by the first item of a pair and abolished the P3 wave elicited by the second. Our results are consistent with differential effects of sustained attention on early processing stages and working memory. Sustained attention modulated early processing stages during a lexical decision task without inhibiting the process of stimulus integration. On the contrary, working memory involvement/updating was highly dependent upon the allocation of sustained attention. Moreover, the influence of sustained attention on both early and late cognitive processes was independent of lexical categorization focus. PMID:20361039

  7. An Examination of the Characteristics of Student Interaction in Computer-Based Communication Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan A.; Vician, Chelley

    Student interaction and computer-based communication tool appropriation patterns were examined in two different communication assignments requiring active use of computer-based communication tools. University students completed either: a set of communication assignments and activities with the instructor as sole audience; or a set of communication…

  8. Framing effects reveal discrete lexical-semantic and sublexical procedures in reading: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Danelli, Laura; Marelli, Marco; Berlingeri, Manuela; Tettamanti, Marco; Sberna, Maurizio; Paulesu, Eraldo; Luzzatti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    According to the dual-route model, a printed string of letters can be processed by either a grapheme-to-phoneme conversion (GPC) route or a lexical-semantic route. Although meta-analyses of the imaging literature support the existence of distinct but interacting reading procedures, individual neuroimaging studies that explored neural correlates of reading yielded inconclusive results. We used a list-manipulation paradigm to provide a fresh empirical look at this issue and to isolate specific areas that underlie the two reading procedures. In a lexical condition, we embedded disyllabic Italian words (target stimuli) in lists of either loanwords or trisyllabic Italian words with unpredictable stress position. In a GPC condition, similar target stimuli were included within lists of pseudowords. The procedure was designed to induce participants to emphasize either the lexical-semantic or the GPC reading procedure, while controlling for possible linguistic confounds and keeping the reading task requirements stable across the two conditions. Thirty-three adults participated in the behavioral study, and 20 further adult participants were included in the fMRI study. At the behavioral level, we found sizeable effects of the framing manipulations that included slower voice onset times for stimuli in the pseudoword frames. At the functional anatomical level, the occipital and temporal regions, and the intraparietal sulcus were specifically activated when subjects were reading target words in a lexical frame. The inferior parietal and anterior fusiform cortex were specifically activated in the GPC condition. These patterns of activation represented a valid classifying model of fMRI images associated with target reading in both frames in the multi-voxel pattern analyses. Further activations were shared by the two procedures in the occipital and inferior parietal areas, in the premotor cortex, in the frontal regions and the left supplementary motor area. These regions are most

  9. Framing effects reveal discrete lexical-semantic and sublexical procedures in reading: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Danelli, Laura; Marelli, Marco; Berlingeri, Manuela; Tettamanti, Marco; Sberna, Maurizio; Paulesu, Eraldo; Luzzatti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    According to the dual-route model, a printed string of letters can be processed by either a grapheme-to-phoneme conversion (GPC) route or a lexical-semantic route. Although meta-analyses of the imaging literature support the existence of distinct but interacting reading procedures, individual neuroimaging studies that explored neural correlates of reading yielded inconclusive results. We used a list-manipulation paradigm to provide a fresh empirical look at this issue and to isolate specific areas that underlie the two reading procedures. In a lexical condition, we embedded disyllabic Italian words (target stimuli) in lists of either loanwords or trisyllabic Italian words with unpredictable stress position. In a GPC condition, similar target stimuli were included within lists of pseudowords. The procedure was designed to induce participants to emphasize either the lexical-semantic or the GPC reading procedure, while controlling for possible linguistic confounds and keeping the reading task requirements stable across the two conditions. Thirty-three adults participated in the behavioral study, and 20 further adult participants were included in the fMRI study. At the behavioral level, we found sizeable effects of the framing manipulations that included slower voice onset times for stimuli in the pseudoword frames. At the functional anatomical level, the occipital and temporal regions, and the intraparietal sulcus were specifically activated when subjects were reading target words in a lexical frame. The inferior parietal and anterior fusiform cortex were specifically activated in the GPC condition. These patterns of activation represented a valid classifying model of fMRI images associated with target reading in both frames in the multi-voxel pattern analyses. Further activations were shared by the two procedures in the occipital and inferior parietal areas, in the premotor cortex, in the frontal regions and the left supplementary motor area. These regions are most

  10. Maternal characteristics, ratings of child behavior, and mother-child interactions in families of children with externalizing disorders.

    PubMed

    Johnston, C; Pelham, W E

    1990-08-01

    Relationships among maternal characteristics, ratings of child behavior, and observed mother-child interactions were examined in a sample of 40 4- to 12-year-old children with externalizing disorders. Mothers and children were observed in a task interaction and mothers provided self-reports of depressed mood, parenting self-esteem, marital satisfaction, social support, and life stress. Child behavior was rated by both mothers and teachers. Several significant correlations were found among observed mother and child behaviors and among maternal self-report measures. However, few significant relationships were found between maternal characteristics and observed mother or child behavior. Although life stress predicted increased child negativity, maternal depressed mood was related to more appropriate child behavior. Mother and teacher ratings of child behavior demonstrated few significant relationships with other measures. These results suggest that, in samples comprised primarily of children with attention deficit disorder from socially advantaged families, few relationships exist between maternal characteristics, parenting behavior, and child behavior. PMID:2246432

  11. A first-principles study on interaction of Mg/Ni interface and its hydrogen absorption characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuying; Dai, Jianhong; Xie, Ruiwen; Song, Yan

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the interaction of Mg/Ni interface and its hydrogen adsorption characteristics using first-principles calculations to obtain a better understanding of the Mg/Ni interface as a hydrogen storage material. The smallest work of adhesion of Mg/Ni interface is 4.28 J/m2 with AB stacking sequence in the studied systems. Hydrogen adsorption energy and electronic structures were evaluated to study the interaction characteristics between hydrogen and Mg/Ni interface. The hydrogen adsorption is energetically favored on all considered sites. The hydrogen atom prefers to adsorb on the tetrahedral site of the Ni side of the interface owning the lowest adsorption energy. The plane-averaged charge density and the density of states analysis indicate that the absorption of hydrogen could stabilize the Mg/Ni interface owing to the strongly bonding interactions between hydrogen atom and the host Mg and Ni atoms. Therefore, Mg/Ni interface provides a promising medium for hydrogen storage.

  12. Lexical and sub-lexical reading skills and their correlation to clinical symptoms in young Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiuju; Wang, Pengfei; Xia, Zhichao; Liu, Jin; Quan, Wenxiang; Tian, Ju; Wydell, Taeko N; Dong, Wentian

    2015-12-30

    Patients with schizophrenia often experience severe reading deficits such as oral reading and reading comprehension deficits. However, it is not known whether different types of lexical or sub-lexical components in reading are also impaired. In order to address this issue, the present study had 22 young Chinese patients with schizophrenia and 22 young Chinese normal controls undergo a battery of reading tests, which specifically measures lexical and sub-lexical components of reading in Chinese. The schizophrenic group further underwent Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) in order to ascertain the severity of patients' clinical symptoms. The results showed that compared to the controls, (1) the schizophrenic patients performed significantly poorly in orthographic processing, orthography-phonology mapping, and orthography-semantic mapping tests and further that (2) their performances in orthographic processing, and orthography-semantic mapping skill tests negatively correlated with the BPRS score. Note however that their ability to access their mental lexicon was intact. There is thus a clear need for studies with a larger sample-size and neurobiological measures which would lead to our better understanding of the behavioral as well as the neural relationships between schizophrenic patients, and their reading processing impairments, thus developing effective reading intervention programs for the schizophrenic patients.

  13. Lexical and sub-lexical reading skills and their correlation to clinical symptoms in young Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiuju; Wang, Pengfei; Xia, Zhichao; Liu, Jin; Quan, Wenxiang; Tian, Ju; Wydell, Taeko N; Dong, Wentian

    2015-12-30

    Patients with schizophrenia often experience severe reading deficits such as oral reading and reading comprehension deficits. However, it is not known whether different types of lexical or sub-lexical components in reading are also impaired. In order to address this issue, the present study had 22 young Chinese patients with schizophrenia and 22 young Chinese normal controls undergo a battery of reading tests, which specifically measures lexical and sub-lexical components of reading in Chinese. The schizophrenic group further underwent Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) in order to ascertain the severity of patients' clinical symptoms. The results showed that compared to the controls, (1) the schizophrenic patients performed significantly poorly in orthographic processing, orthography-phonology mapping, and orthography-semantic mapping tests and further that (2) their performances in orthographic processing, and orthography-semantic mapping skill tests negatively correlated with the BPRS score. Note however that their ability to access their mental lexicon was intact. There is thus a clear need for studies with a larger sample-size and neurobiological measures which would lead to our better understanding of the behavioral as well as the neural relationships between schizophrenic patients, and their reading processing impairments, thus developing effective reading intervention programs for the schizophrenic patients. PMID:26611156

  14. The Precise Time Course of Lexical Activation: MEG Measurements of the Effects of Frequency, Probability, and Density in Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockall, Linnaea; Stringfellow, Andrew; Marantz, Alec

    2004-01-01

    Visually presented letter strings consistently yield three MEG response components: the M170, associated with letter-string processing (Tarkiainen, Helenius, Hansen, Cornelissen, & Salmelin, 1999); the M250, affected by phonotactic probability, (Pylkkanen, Stringfellow, & Marantz, 2002); and the M350, responsive to lexical frequency (Embick,…

  15. Biological interactions in vitro of zinc oxide nanoparticles of different characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aula, Sangeetha; Lakkireddy, Samyuktha; AVN, Swamy; Kapley, Atya; Jamil, Kaiser; Rao Tata, Narasinga; Hembram, Kaliyan

    2014-09-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have recently received growing attention for various biomedical applications, including use as therapeutic or carrier for drug delivery and/or imaging. For the above applications, the NPs necessitate administration into the body leading to their systemic exposure. To better anticipate the safety, make risk assessment, and be able to interpret the future preclinical and clinical safety data, it is important to systematically understand the biological interaction of the NPs, the consequences of such interaction, and the mechanisms associated with the toxicity induction, with the important components with which the NPs are expected to be in contact after systemic exposure. In this context, we report here a detailed study on the biological interactions in vitro of the ZnO NPs with healthy human primary lymphocytes as these are the important immune components and the first systemic immune contact, and with the whole human blood. Additionally, the influence, if any, of the NPs shape (spheres and rods) on the biological interaction has been evaluated. The ZnO NPs caused toxicity (30% at 12.5 μg ml-1 spheres and 10.5 μg ml-1 rods; 50% at 22 μg ml-1 spheres and 19.5 μg ml-1 rods) to the lymphocytes at molecular and genetic level in a dose-dependent and shape-dependent manner, while the interaction consequences with the blood and blood components such as RBC, platelets was only dose-dependent and not shape-dependent. This is evident from the decreased RBC count due to increased %Hemolysis (5.3% in both the spheres- and rods-treated blood) and decreased platelet count due to increased %platelet aggregation (28% in spheres-treated and 33% in rods-treated platelet-rich plasma). Such in-depth understanding of the biological interaction of the NPs, the consequences, and the associated mechanisms in vitro could be expected to allow anticipating the NP safety for risk assessment and for interpretation of the preclinical and clinical safety

  16. Comparative analysis of seismic response characteristics of pile-soil-structure interaction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Desen; Luan, Maotian; Wang, Weiming

    2006-01-01

    The study on the earthquake-resistant performance of a pile-soil-structure interaction system is a relatively complicated and primarily important issue in civil engineering practice. In this paper, a computational model and computation procedures for pile-supported structures, which can duly consider the pile-soil interaction effect, are established by the finite element method. Numerical implementation is made in the time domain. A simplified approximation for the seismic response analysis of pile-soil-structure systems is briefly presented. Then a comparative study is performed for an engineering example with numerical results computed respectively by the finite element method and the simplified method. Through comparative analysis, it is shown that the results obtained by the simplified method well agree with those achieved by the finite element method. The numerical results and findings will offer instructive guidelines for earthquake-resistant analysis and design of pile-supported structures.

  17. Suckling behavior in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) cubs: characteristics and correlation with competitive interactions.

    PubMed

    Glukhova, Alla; Naidenko, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial evidence in the literature that the offspring of many mammal species prefer a particular pair of nipples. There is also a definite "nipple order" in individual litters in which each young predominantly uses one or two particular nipples. In combination with early competitive interactions, such "constancy" can play an important role in the social development of the young. In this study, we reveal an unequal use of different pairs of mothers' nipples by 42 Eurasian lynx cubs in 16 litters and investigate the relationship of this phenomenon with the early competitive interactions of the cubs and their physical development. For the lynx cubs, the most often used pair of nipples is the middle pair. There is also definite "nipple order" in each litter. We found a negative correlation between nipples use by the offspring and their competitive activity. No influence of "nipple order" on the cubs' growth rate was detected.

  18. Major diet-drug interactions affecting the kinetic characteristics and hypolipidaemic properties of statins.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, M P; Sánchez Muniz, F J; Jiménez Redondo, S; Prats Oliván, P; Higueras, F J; Bastida, S

    2010-01-01

    Concomitant administration of statins with food may alter statin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics, increasing the risk of adverse reactions such as myopathy or rhabdomyolysis or reducing their pharmacological action. This paper reviews major interactions between statins and dietary compounds. Consumption of pectin or oat bran together with Lovastatin reduces absorption of the drug, while alcohol intake does not appear to affect the efficacy and safety of Fluvastatin treatment. Grapefruit juice components inhibit cytochrome P-4503A4, reducing the presystemic metabolism of drugs such as Simvastatin, Lovastatin and Atorvastatin. Follow-up studies on the therapeutic effect of statins in patients consuming a Mediterranean-style diet are necessary to assure the correct prescription because the oil-statin and minor oil compound-statin possible interactions have been only briefly studied. Preliminary study suggests that olive oil can increase the hypolipaemiant effect of Simvastatin with respect sunflower oil. The consumption of polyunsaturated rich oils, throughout the cytochrome P- 450 activation could decrease the half-life of some statins and therefore their hypolipaemic effects. The statins and n-3 fatty acids combined therapy gives rise to pharmacodinamic interaction that improves the lipid profile and leads greater cardioprotection. Although statins are more effective in high endogenous cholesterol production subjects and plant sterols are more effective in high cholesterol absorption efficacy subjects, plant esterols-statins combined therapy generates very positive complementary effects. This review ends suggesting possible diet-stain interactions that require further investigations (e.g. types of olive oils, fruit juices other than grapefruit, fibre or consumption of alcoholic beverages rich in polyphenols or ethanol).

  19. Major diet-drug interactions affecting the kinetic characteristics and hypolipidaemic properties of statins.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, M P; Sánchez Muniz, F J; Jiménez Redondo, S; Prats Oliván, P; Higueras, F J; Bastida, S

    2010-01-01

    Concomitant administration of statins with food may alter statin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics, increasing the risk of adverse reactions such as myopathy or rhabdomyolysis or reducing their pharmacological action. This paper reviews major interactions between statins and dietary compounds. Consumption of pectin or oat bran together with Lovastatin reduces absorption of the drug, while alcohol intake does not appear to affect the efficacy and safety of Fluvastatin treatment. Grapefruit juice components inhibit cytochrome P-4503A4, reducing the presystemic metabolism of drugs such as Simvastatin, Lovastatin and Atorvastatin. Follow-up studies on the therapeutic effect of statins in patients consuming a Mediterranean-style diet are necessary to assure the correct prescription because the oil-statin and minor oil compound-statin possible interactions have been only briefly studied. Preliminary study suggests that olive oil can increase the hypolipaemiant effect of Simvastatin with respect sunflower oil. The consumption of polyunsaturated rich oils, throughout the cytochrome P- 450 activation could decrease the half-life of some statins and therefore their hypolipaemic effects. The statins and n-3 fatty acids combined therapy gives rise to pharmacodinamic interaction that improves the lipid profile and leads greater cardioprotection. Although statins are more effective in high endogenous cholesterol production subjects and plant sterols are more effective in high cholesterol absorption efficacy subjects, plant esterols-statins combined therapy generates very positive complementary effects. This review ends suggesting possible diet-stain interactions that require further investigations (e.g. types of olive oils, fruit juices other than grapefruit, fibre or consumption of alcoholic beverages rich in polyphenols or ethanol). PMID:20449528

  20. Interaction of triprolidine hydrochloride with serum albumins: thermodynamic and binding characteristics, and influence of site probes.

    PubMed

    Sandhya, B; Hegde, Ashwini H; Kalanur, Shankara S; Katrahalli, Umesha; Seetharamappa, J

    2011-04-01

    The interaction between triprolidine hydrochloride (TRP) to serum albumins viz. bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) has been studied by spectroscopic methods. The experimental results revealed the static quenching mechanism in the interaction of TRP with protein. The number of binding sites close to unity for both TRP-BSA and TRP-HSA indicated the presence of single class of binding site for the drug in protein. The binding constant values of TRP-BSA and TRP-HSA were observed to be 4.75 ± 0.018 × 10(3) and 2.42 ± 0.024 × 10(4)M(-1) at 294 K, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the hydrogen bond and van der Waals forces played the major role in the binding of TRP to proteins. The distance of separation between the serum albumin and TRP was obtained from the Förster's theory of non-radioactive energy transfer. The metal ions viz., K(+), Ca(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+) and Zn(2+) were found to influence the binding of the drug to protein. Displacement experiments indicated the binding of TRP to Sudlow's site I on both BSA and HSA. The CD, 3D fluorescence spectra and FT-IR spectral results revealed the changes in the secondary structure of protein upon interaction with TRP.

  1. Radiation characteristics and turbulence-radiation interactions in sooting turbulent jet flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HASH(0x3416010), R. S.; HASH(0x33f0c38), M. F.; Haworth, D. C.

    2010-03-01

    A comprehensive modeling strategy including detailed chemistry, soot and radiation models coupled with state-of-the-art closures for turbulence-chemistry interactions and turbulence-radiation interactions is applied to various luminous turbulent jet flames. Six turbulent jet flames are simulated with Reynolds numbers varying from 6700 to 15,000, two fuel types (pure ethylene, 90% methane-10% ethylene blend) and different oxygen concentrations in the oxidizer stream (from 21% O2 to 55% O2). All simulations are carried out with a single set of physical and numerical parameters (model constants). A Lagrangian particle Monte Carlo method is used to solve a modeled joint probability density function (PDF) transport equation, which allows accurate closure for turbulence-chemistry interactions including nonlinear soot subprocesses. Radiation is calculated using a particle-based photon Monte Carlo method that is coupled with the PDF method to accurately account for both emission and absorption turbulence-radiation interactions (TRI). Line-by-line databases are used for accurate spectral radiative properties of CO2 and H2O; soot radiative properties also are modeled as nongray. For the flames that have been investigated, soot emission can be almost 45% of the total emission, even when the peak soot volume fraction is of the order of a few parts-per-million (ppm) and up to 99% of soot emission can escape the domain without re-absorption. Turbulence-radiation interactions have a strong effect on the net radiative heat loss from these sooting flames. For a given temperature, species and soot distribution, TRI increases emission from the flames by 30-60%, and the net heat loss from the flame increases by 45-90% when accounting for TRI. This is higher than the corresponding increase in radiative heat loss due to TRI in nonsooting flames. Absorption TRI was found to be negligible in these laboratory-scale sooting flames with soot levels on the order of a few ppm, but may be

  2. A Spatially-Explicit Modeling Approach to Examine the Interaction of Reproductive Traits and Landscape Characteristics on Arctic Shrub Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, A. T.; Cairns, D. M.; Feldman, R. M.; Grant, W. E.

    2014-12-01

    Shrub expansion is one of the most recognized components of terrestrial Arctic change. While experimental work has provided valuable insights into its fine-scale drivers and implications, the contribution of shrub reproductive characteristics to their spatial patterns is poorly understood at broader scales. Building upon our previous work in river valleys in northern Alaska, we developed a C#-based spatially-explicit model that simulates historic landscape-scale shrub establishment between the 1970s and the late 2000s on a yearly time-step while accounting for parameters relating to different reproduction modes (clonal development with and without the "mass effect" and short-distance dispersal), as well as the presence and absence of the interaction of hydrologic constraints using the topographic wetness index. We examined these treatments on floodplains, valley slopes, and interfluves in the Ayiyak, Colville, and Kurupa River valleys. After simulating 30 landscape realizations using each parameter combination, we quantified the spatial characteristics (patch density, edge density, patch size variability, area-weighted shape index, area-weighted fractal dimension index, and mean distance between patches) of the resulting shrub patches on the simulation end date using FRAGSTATS. We used Principal Components Analysis to determine which treatments produced spatial characteristics most similar to those observed in the late 2000s. Based upon our results, we hypothesize that historic shrub expansion in northern Alaska has been driven in part by clonal reproduction with the "mass effect" or short-distance dispersal (< 5 m). The interactive effect of hydrologic characteristics, however, is less clear. These hypotheses may then be tested in future work involving field observations. Given the potential that climate change may facilitate a shift from a clonal to a sexual reproductive strategy, this model may facilitate predictions regarding future Arctic vegetation patterns.

  3. Interaction of Gram-negative bacteria with cationic proteins: Dependence on the surface characteristics of the bacterial cell

    PubMed Central

    Prokhorenko, Isabella R; Zubova, Svetlana V; Ivanov, Alexandr Yu; Grachev, Sergey V

    2009-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria can enter the bloodstream and interact with serum cationic proteins. The character of interaction will depend on the surface characteristics of bacterial cells, which are determined by bacterial chemotype and density of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) packing in the cell wall. It was shown that the lysozyme treatment resulted in the increase sensitivity to hypotonic shock. Significant differences to this effect were found between Escherichia coli strain D21 and D21f2 under treatment with physiological protein concentration. On the basis of electrokinetic measurements and studies of the interaction of cells with lysozyme, the hypothesis was formed that the cell wall of the E. coli strain D21f2 contains more LPS and has a higher density of their packing than the cell wall of the E. coli D21 cells. The effect of lysozyme and lactoferrin on the viability of E. coli cells of two different strains was examined. Lysozyme was found to more effectively inhibit the growth of the E. coli D21 bacteria, and lactoferrin suppressed mainly the growth of the E. coli D21f2 bacteria. These results indicate that the differences in LPS core structure of bacterial R-chemotype, which determines surface charge and density of LPS packing, plays an essential role in the mechanisms of interaction of the cationic proteins with the cell wall. PMID:20360884

  4. ATM traffic experiments: A laboratory study of service interaction, loss fairness and loss characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helvik, B. E.; Stol, N.

    1995-04-01

    A reference measurement scenario is defined, where an ATM switch (OCTOPUS) is offered traffic from three source types representing the traffic resulting from typical services to be carried by an ATM network. These are high quality video (HQTV), high speed data (HSD) and constant bitrate transfer (CBR). In addition to be typical, these have widely different characteristics. Detailed definitions for these, and other actual source types, are made and entered into the Synthetic Traffic Generator (STG) database. Recommended traffic mixes of these sources are also made. Based on the above, laboratory measurements are carried out to study how the various kinds of traffic influence each other, how fairly the loss is distributed over services and connections, and what are the loss characteristics experienced. (Due to a software error detected in the measurement equipment after the work was concluded, the measurements are carried out with a HSD source with a load less 'aggressive' than intended.) The main findings are: Cell loss is very unfairly distributed among the various connections. During a loss burst, which occurs less frequently than the duration of a typical connection, affects mainly one or a few connections; Cell loss is unfairly distributed among the services. The ratios in the range from HSD: HQTV: CBR = 5 : 1 : 0.85 are observed, and unfairness increases with decreasing load burstiness; The loss characteristics vary during a loss burst, from one burst to the next and between services. Hence, it does not seem feasible to use 'typical-loss-statistics' to study the impairments on various services. In addition some supplementing work is reported.

  5. Investigation of acoustic beam reflection influence on the collinear acousto-optic interaction characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mantsevich, S N

    2016-08-01

    Significant part of acousto-optic devices apply the acoustic beam reflection to arouse the desired type of acoustic mode propagating along the required direction in crystal. The influence of acoustic beam reflection process on the ultrasound field structure in the acousto-optic cell and the collinear acousto-optic diffraction characteristics is examined in this paper. The investigation is carried on the example of the collinear acousto-optic filter fabricated on the base of calcium molybdate crystal. It is shown that the reflection process changes the acoustic field structure and affects the acousto-optic filter transmission function shape and diffraction efficiency.

  6. Investigation of acoustic beam reflection influence on the collinear acousto-optic interaction characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mantsevich, S N

    2016-08-01

    Significant part of acousto-optic devices apply the acoustic beam reflection to arouse the desired type of acoustic mode propagating along the required direction in crystal. The influence of acoustic beam reflection process on the ultrasound field structure in the acousto-optic cell and the collinear acousto-optic diffraction characteristics is examined in this paper. The investigation is carried on the example of the collinear acousto-optic filter fabricated on the base of calcium molybdate crystal. It is shown that the reflection process changes the acoustic field structure and affects the acousto-optic filter transmission function shape and diffraction efficiency. PMID:27153373

  7. The cognitive chronometric architecture of reading aloud: semantic and lexical effects on naming onset and duration

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Layla; Cummine, Jacqueline; Borowsky, Ron

    2012-01-01

    We examined onset reaction time (RT) in a word naming task using an additive factors method (AFM). The pattern of additive and over-additive joint effects on RT among Instructions (INST: name all, name words), Word Frequency (WF: log10 HAL), Semantic Neighborhood Density (SND: Inverse Ncount), and Word Type (WT: regular, exception) supported a cognitive chronometric architecture consisting of at least two cascaded stages of processing, with the orthographic lexical system as the locus of the INST × WF and the INST × SND interactions, and the phonological output system as the locus of the WF × WT and the SND × WT interactions. Additivity between INST and WT supports the notion that these variables affect separable systems, and a WF × SND interaction supports a common locus of their effects. These results support stage-like/cascaded processing models over parallel processing models of basic reading. We also examined response duration (RD) in these data by recording and hand-marking vocal responses, which provides evidence that basic reading processes are ongoing even after the initiation of a vocal response, and supports the notion that the more lexically a word is read, the shorter the RD. As such, the effects of WT and INST on RD were opposite to their effects on RT however the effects of WF and SND on RD were in the same direction as their effects on RT. Given the combination of consistent and dissociating effects between RT and RD, these results provide new challenges to all models of basic reading processes. PMID:23125825

  8. Antiviral agents: characteristic activity spectrum depending on the molecular target with which they interact.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, E

    1993-01-01

    The target protein (enzyme) with which antiviral agents interact determines their antiviral activity spectrum. Based on their activity spectrum, antiviral compounds could be divided into the following classes: (1) sulfated polysaccharides (i.e., dextran sulfate), which interact with the viral envelope glycoproteins and are inhibitory to a broad variety of enveloped viruses (i.e., retro-, herpes-, rhabdo-, and arenaviruses): (2) SAH hydrolase inhibitors (i.e., neplanocin A derivatives), which are particularly effective against poxvirus, (-)RNA viruses (paramyxovirus, rhabdovirus), and (+/-)RNA virus (reovirus); (3) OMP decarboxylase inhibitors (i.e., pyrazofurin) and CTP synthetase inhibitors (i.e., cyclopentenylcytosine), which are active against a broad range of DNA, (+)RNA, (-)RNA, and (+/-)RNA viruses; (4) IMP dehydrogenase inhibitors (i.e., ribavirin), which are also active against various (+)RNA and (-)RNA viruses and, in particular, ortho- and paramyxoviruses; (5) acyclic guanosine analogs (i.e., ganciclovir) and carbocyclic guanosine analogs (i.e., cyclobut-G), which are particularly active against herpesviruses (i.e., HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, CMV); (6) thymidine analogs (i.e., BVDU, BVaraU), which are specifically active against HSV-1 and VZV because of their preferential phosphorylation by the virus-encoded thymidine kinase; (7) acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (i.e., HPMPA, HPMPC, PMEA, FPMPA), which, depending on the structure of the acyclic side chain, span an activity spectrum from DNA viruses (papova-, adeno-, herpes-, hepadna-, and poxvirus) to retroviruses (HIV); (8) dideoxynucleoside analogs (i.e., AZT, DDC), which act as chain terminators in the reverse transcriptase reaction and thus block the replication of retroviruses as well as hepadnaviruses; and (9) the TIBO, HEPT, and other TIBO-like compounds, which interact specifically with the reverse transcriptase of HIV-1 and thus block the replication of HIV-1, but not of HIV-2 or any other retrovirus

  9. Characteristics of Nucleus-Nucleus Interaction with Relativistic Heavy-Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Gourisankar

    A systematic study of relativistic heavy-ion collisions in nuclear emulsion, initiated by ('40)Ar, ('56)Fe at E = 1.8 GeV/N, ('56)Fe at 0.8 GeV/N, and ('12)C at 400 MeV/N, has been made. Projectile fragmentation reactions, where there is no visual indication of target excitation, are studied in terms of multiplicity and projected angular distributions. The standard deviation widths of the projected angular distributions are compared with the first order theory of Lepore and Riddell. In quasi-central collisions, where a part of both the projectile and target nuclei participate, we have undertaken a study of the space angle distributions of the relativistic alpha particles, emitted in ('40)Ar -emulsion interactions at E = 1.8 GeV/N and ('56)Fe-emulsion interactions at E = 0.8 GeV/N. The large angle alpha particle distributions are fitted with moving relativistic Boltzmann distributions, and compared with distributions obtained by Monte Carlo simulation of (alpha)-p hard scattering process. Mean free path of secondary relativistic projectile fragments, emitted in such collisions, are carefully studied to verify the presence of 'anomalous' mfp component among these fragments. This is followed by a study of the mean free path of secondary alpha particles. Finally, in central collisions, the angular distributions of singly charged particles with (beta) > 0.7 are studied with a view to observe collective phenomena, such as nuclear shock wave in nuclear matter.

  10. The word frequency effect in first- and second-language word recognition: a lexical entrenchment account.

    PubMed

    Diependaele, Kevin; Lemhöfer, Kristin; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the origin of differences in the word frequency effect between native speakers and second-language speakers. In a large-scale analysis of English word identification times we find that group-level differences are fully accounted for by the individual language proficiency scores. Furthermore, exactly the same quantitative relation between word frequency and proficiency is found for monolinguals and three different bilingual populations (Dutch-English, French-English, and German-English). We conclude that the larger frequency effects for second-language processing than for native-language processing can be explained by within-language characteristics and thus need not be the consequence of "being bilingual" (i.e., a qualitative difference). More specifically, we argue that language proficiency increases lexical entrenchment, which leads to a reduced frequency effect, irrespective of bilingualism, language dominance, and language similarity.

  11. [Characteristics of Natural Selection in Populations of Nodule Bacteria (Rhizobium leguminosarum) Interacting With Different Host Plants].

    PubMed

    Andronov, E E; Igolkina, A A; Kimeklis, A K; Vorobyov, N I; Provorov, N A

    2015-10-01

    Using high throughput sequencing of the nodA gene, we studied the population dynamics of Rhizobium leguminosarum (bv. viciae, bv. trifolii) in rhizospheric and nodular subpopulations associated with the leguminous plants representing different cross-inoculation groups (Vicia sativa, Lathyrus pratensis of the vetch/vetchling/pea group and Trifolium hybridum of the clover group). The "rhizosphere-nodules" transitions result in either an increase or decrease in the frequencies of 10 of the 23 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (which were identified with 95% similarity) depending on the symbiotic specificity and phylogenetic positions of OTUs. Statistical and bioinformatical analysis of the population structures suggest that the type of natural selection responsible for these changes may be diversifying at the whole-population level and frequency-dependent at the OTU-specific level, ensuring the divergent evolution of rhizobia interacting with different host species. PMID:27169225

  12. Characteristics of the Jet Impact during the Interaction Between a Bubble and a Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Shi-Ping; Zhang, A.-Man

    2016-06-01

    The dynamics of a toroidal bubble splitting near a rigid wall in an inviscid incompressible fluid is studied in this paper. The boundary integral method is adopted to simulate the bubble motion. After the jet impact, the vortex ring model is used to handle the discontinued potential of the toroidal bubble. When the toroidal bubble is splitting, topology changes are made tear the bubble apart. Then, the vortex ring model is extended to multiple vortex rings to simulate the interaction between two toroidal bubbles. A typical case is discussed in this study. Besides, the velocity fields and pressure contours surrounding the bubble are used to illustrate the numerical results. An annular high pressure region is generated at the splitting location, and the maximum pressure may be much higher than the jet impact. More splits may happen after the first split.

  13. Morphological characteristics of interactions between deserts and rivers in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ping; Li, XiaoMei; Ma, YuFeng; Wu, Wei; Qian, Yao

    2015-12-01

    Arid regions are affected by long-term interactions between various factors including water and wind. Recent research has concentrated on aeolian-fluvial interactions in dryland environments, including the important role of rivers in providing sand and spaces for deserts development, as well as the influences of aeolian activity upon river landforms. However, there is still a lack of comprehensive data at the large watershed scale to support such research. In this study, we analyzed statistically the morphological parameters related to twelve deserts and ten watersheds in dryland regions of northern China using remote sensing data, maps of desert and watershed distributions, and classification of aeolian landforms. Results indicate that, in view of the relationship between deserts and rivers, the geomorphic structures of drainage basins in northern China can be overall divided into five large drainage zones: northwestern drainage (ND), western drainage (WD), drainage of northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (PD), middle drainage (MD) and eastern drainage (ED). In the terms of percent area of desert in drainages, it can be sequenced as WD > MD > ND > ED > PD. For percent area of shifting dunes in deserts, WD > PD > MD > ED > ND. Considering the classification of aeolian dunes, transverse dune dominates in all drainages, and its proportion can be sorted as PD > ED > MD > WD > ND. There is a significant difference in their morphological parameters between interior and exterior watersheds. In exterior watersheds, desert area, shifting dune or transverse dune areas are not significantly associated with drainage area respectively, but interior watersheds have good correlations between them. And in three rivers of Tarim Basin, along with increasing distance from the river bank, the types of aeolian dune (complexity) increased step-wisely, implying that sand dune extends along the river terrace. Those data and preliminary findings confirm that the rivers are indispensable to the

  14. Characteristics of nucleus-nucleus interaction with relativistic heavy-ions

    SciTech Connect

    Das, G.

    1981-01-01

    A systematic study of relativistic heavy-ion collisions in nuclear emulsion, initiated by /sup 40/Ar, /sup 56/Fe at E = 1.8 GeV/N, /sup 56/Fe at 0.8 GeV/N, and /sup 12/C at 400 MeV/N, has been made. Projectile fragmentation reactions, where there is no visual indication of target excitation, are studied in terms of multiplicity and projected angular distributions. The standard deviation widths of the projected angular distributions are compared with the first order theory of Lepore and Riddell. In quasi-central collisions, where a part of both the projectile and target nuclei participate, we have undertaken a study of the space angle distributions of the relativistic alpha particles, emitted in /sup 40/Ar-emulsion interactions at E = 1.8 GeV/N and /sup 56/Fe-emulsion interactions at E = 0.8 GeV/N. The large angle alpha particle distributions are fitted with moving relativistic Boltzmann distributions, and compared with distributions obtained by Monte Carlo simulation of ..cap alpha..-p hard scattering process. Mean free path of secondary relativistic projectile fragments, emitted in such collisions, are carefully studied to verify the presence of anomalous mfp component among these fragments. This is followed by a study of the mean free path of secondary alpha particles. Finally, in central collisions, the angular distributions of singly charged particles with ..beta.. > 0.7 are studied with a view to observe collective phenomena, such as nuclear shock wave in nuclear matter.

  15. Norwegian words: A lexical database for clinicians and researchers.

    PubMed

    Lind, Marianne; Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Hansen, Pernille; Holm, Elisabeth; Mevik, Bjørn-Helge

    2015-04-01

    All words have properties linked to form, meaning and usage patterns which influence how easily they are accessed from the mental lexicon in language production, perception and comprehension. Examples of such properties are imageability, phonological and morphological complexity, word class, argument structure, frequency of use and age of acquisition. Due to linguistic and cultural variation the properties and the values associated with them differ across languages. Hence, for research as well as clinical purposes, language specific information on lexical properties is needed. To meet this need, an electronically searchable lexical database with more than 1600 Norwegian words coded for more than 12 different properties has been established. This article presents the content and structure of the database as well as the search options available in the interface. Finally, it briefly describes some of the ways in which the database can be used in research, clinical practice and teaching.

  16. Perceived foreign accentedness: acoustic distances and lexical properties.

    PubMed

    Porretta, Vincent; Kyröläinen, Aki-Juhani; Tucker, Benjamin V

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we examined speaker-dependent (acoustic) and speaker-independent (lexical) linguistic influences on perceived foreign accentedness. Accentedness ratings assigned to Chinese-accented English words were analyzed, taking accentedness as a continuum. The speaker-dependent variables were included as acoustic distances, measured in relation to typical native-speaker values. The speaker-independent variable measures were related to the properties of individual words, not influenced by the speech signal. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this represents the first attempt to examine speaker-dependent and speaker-independent variables simultaneously. The model indicated that the perception of accentedness is affected by both acoustic goodness of fit and lexical properties. The results are discussed in terms of matching variability in the input to multidimensional representations.

  17. Lexical stress assignment as a problem of probabilistic inference.

    PubMed

    Jouravlev, Olessia; Lupker, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    A new conceptualization of the process of stress assignment, couched in the principles of (Bayesian) probabilistic inference, is introduced in this paper. According to this approach, in deciding where to place stress in a polysyllabic word, a reader estimates the posterior probabilities of alternative stress patterns. This estimation is accomplished by adjusting a prior belief about the likelihoods of alternative stress patterns (derived from experience with the distribution of stress patterns in the language) by using lexical and non-lexical sources of evidence for stress derived from the orthographic input. The proposed theoretical framework was used to compute probabilities of stress patterns for Russian disyllabic words and nonwords which were then compared with the performance of readers. The results showed that the estimated probabilities of stress patterns were reflective of actual stress assignment performance and of naming latencies, suggesting that the mechanisms that are involved in the process of stress assignment might indeed be inferentially-based.

  18. Concreteness and context availability in lexical decision tasks.

    PubMed

    Levy-Drori, Shelly; Henik, Avishai

    2006-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to elucidate the origins of the concreteness (C) effect in a lexical decision task. The first experiment was a replication of the work of Schwanenflugel et al. (1988) and Van Hell and De Groot (1998), who presented the context availability (CA) hypothesis. In this experiment CA seemed to be a dominant factor. Familiarity (FAM) was not incorporated in the ANOVA, but a regression analysis and negative correlation between C and FAM in the groups matched on CA showed that FAM could explain the disappearance of the C effect. Experiment 2 controlled FAM and revealed a C effect, although concrete and abstract words were matched on CA. Experiment 3 controlled C and FAM and revealed a CA effect. The current data emphasize the importance of controlling FAM and CA in examining the C effect in a lexical decision task and support a revised version of the dual-coding theory.

  19. "M" to "Moonless": Lexical Databases in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Paul; Huntley, Frank

    This paper describes the characteristics of lexicographic software programs used in a module on Alexander Pope's "The Rape of the Lock," a major component of a course on computer-assisted learning (CAL) at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. Two of the databases are specific to that school and are small, individualized, and frequently…

  20. Lexical access changes in patients with multiple sclerosis: a two-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sepulcre, Jorge; Peraita, Herminia; Goni, Joaquin; Arrondo, Gonzalo; Martincorena, Inigo; Duque, Beatriz; Velez de Mendizabal, Nieves; Masdeu, Joseph C; Villoslada, Pablo

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze lexical access strategies in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their changes over time. We studied lexical access strategies during semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tests and also confrontation naming in a 2-year prospective cohort of 45 MS patients and 20 healthy controls. At baseline, switching lexical access strategy (both in semantic and in phonemic verbal fluency tests) and confrontation naming were significantly impaired in MS patients compared with controls. After 2 years follow-up, switching score decreased, and cluster size increased over time in semantic verbal fluency tasks, suggesting a failure in the retrieval of lexical information rather than an impairment of the lexical pool. In conclusion, these findings underline the significant presence of lexical access problems in patients with MS and could point out their key role in the alterations of high-level communications abilities in MS. PMID:20835944

  1. The role of visual representations during the lexical access of spoken words

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Gwyneth; Poeppel, David

    2015-01-01

    Do visual representations contribute to spoken word recognition? We examine, using MEG, the effects of sublexical and lexical variables at superior temporal (ST) areas and the posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) compared with that of word imageability at visual cortices. Embodied accounts predict early modulation of visual areas by imageability - concurrently with or prior to modulation of pMTG by lexical variables. Participants responded to speech stimuli varying continuously in imageability during lexical decision with simultaneous MEG recording. We employed the linguistic variables in a new type of correlational time course analysis to assess trial-by-trial activation in occipital, ST, and pMTG regions of interest (ROIs). The linguistic variables modulated the ROIs during different time windows. Critically, visual regions reflected an imageability effect prior to effects of lexicality on pMTG. This surprising effect supports a view on which sensory aspects of a lexical item are not a consequence of lexical activation. PMID:24814579

  2. Development of Embodied Word Meanings: Sensorimotor Effects in Children's Lexical Processing.

    PubMed

    Inkster, Michelle; Wellsby, Michele; Lloyd, Ellen; Pexman, Penny M

    2016-01-01

    Previous research showed an effect of words' rated body-object interaction (BOI) in children's visual word naming performance, but only in children 8 years of age or older (Wellsby and Pexman, 2014a). In that study, however, BOI was established using adult ratings. Here we collected ratings from a group of parents for children's BOI experience (child-BOI). We examined effects of words' child-BOI and also words' imageability on children's responses in an auditory word naming task, which is suited to the lexical processing skills of younger children. We tested a group of 54 children aged 6-7 years and a comparison group of 25 adults. Results showed significant effects of both imageability and child-BOI on children's auditory naming latencies. These results provide evidence that children younger than 8 years of age have richer semantic representations for high imageability and high child-BOI words, consistent with an embodied account of word meaning. PMID:27014129

  3. Age of acquisition effects in picture naming: evidence for a lexical-semantic competition hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Belke, Eva; Brysbaert, Marc; Meyer, Antje S; Ghyselinck, Mandy

    2005-06-01

    In many tasks the effects of frequency and age of acquisition (AoA) on reaction latencies are similar in size. However, in picture naming the AoA-effect is often significantly larger than expected on the basis of the frequency-effect. Previous explanations of this frequency-independent AoA-effect have attributed it to the organisation of the semantic system or to the way phonological word forms are stored in the mental lexicon. Using a semantic blocking paradigm, we show that semantic context effects on naming latencies are more pronounced for late-acquired than for early-acquired words. This interaction between AoA and naming context is likely to arise during lexical-semantic encoding, which we put forward as the locus for the frequency-independent AoA-effect.

  4. Dynamic Self-Organization and Early Lexical Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei; Whinney, Brian Mac

    2007-01-01

    In this study we present a self-organizing connectionist model of early lexical development. We call this model DevLex-II, based on the earlier DevLex model. DevLex-II can simulate a variety of empirical patterns in children's acquisition of words. These include a clear vocabulary spurt, effects of word frequency and length on age of acquisition,…

  5. Wind tunnel investigation of the interaction and breakdown characteristics of slender wing vortices at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    1991-01-01

    The vortex dominated aerodynamic characteristics of a generic 65 degree cropped delta wing model were studied in a wind tunnel at subsonic through supersonic speeds. The lee-side flow fields over the wing-alone configuration and the wing with leading edge extension (LEX) added were observed at M (infinity) equals 0.40 to 1.60 using a laser vapor screen technique. These results were correlated with surface streamline patterns, upper surface static pressure distributions, and six-component forces and moments. The wing-alone exhibited vortex breakdown and asymmetry of the breakdown location at the subsonic and transonic speeds. An earlier onset of vortex breakdown over the wing occurred at transonic speeds due to the interaction of the leading edge vortex with the normal shock wave. The development of a shock wave between the vortex and wing surface caused an early separation of the secondary boundary layer. With the LEX installed, wing vortex breakdown asymmetry did not occur up to the maximum angle of attack in the present test of 24 degrees. The favorable interaction of the LEX vortex with the wing flow field reduced the effects of shock waves on the wing primary and secondary vortical flows. The direct interaction of the wing and LEX vortex cores diminished with increasing Mach number. The maximum attainable vortex-induced pressure signatures were constrained by the vacuum pressure limit at the transonic and supersonic speeds.

  6. In-vivo disposition characteristics of PEG niosome and its interaction with serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Tamer; Kimura, Toshikiro; Higaki, Kazutaka; Ogawara, Ken-Ichi

    2016-10-15

    Three different nonionic surfactants (Brij 72, Span 20 and Tween 60) were used to prepare various naked and PEG niosomes. In-vivo study demonstrated that PEGylation dramatically increased the AUC and decreased the affinity to the liver of Brij 72 and Span 20 niosomes in rats. Liver perfusion experiments suggested that the hepatic uptake of naked Brij 72 and Span 20 niosomes could mainly be ascribed to the receptor-mediated uptake, while PEGylation of these niosomes could diminish the receptor-mediated hepatic disposition. Evaluation of serum proteins associated with niosomes revealed that PEGylation of these niosomes significantly reduced the association of serum proteins with them, including typical opsonins such as IgG and C3. On the other hand, in the case of Tween 60 niosomes, naked Tween 60 niosome showed large AUC and its PEGylation did not show any additional effect on the in-vivo pharmacokinetics. Furthermore, PEGylation of Tween 60 niosome did not significantly affect the hepatic disposition or the association of serum proteins with Tween 60 niosome. These results demonstrated that niosomes would exhibit distinct in-vivo disposition characteristics depending on the physicochemical properties of surfactants used and that PEGylation of niosomes with adequate compositions would be a powerful tool to improve their in-vivo behavior. PMID:27586409

  7. Improving the electrical characteristics of graphene field effect transistors by hexamethyldisilazane interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Sk.; Rahimi, Somayyeh; Sonde, Sushant; Tao, Li; Banerjee, Sanjay; Akinwande, Deji

    2014-03-01

    We report the improvement of the electrical characteristics of graphene field effect transistors (FET) by hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) passivation. Sample is left in liquid HMDS after complete back gated FET fabrication. Both electron and hole field effect mobilities are improved by 1.5X - 2X, accompanied by effective residual carrier concentration reduction. Dirac voltage also moves closer to zero. Various techniques for HMDS application are investigated. Time evolution of mobility data shows that mobility improvement saturates after a few hours of HMDS dosing. Temperature-dependent transport measurements show small mobility variation between 77K and room temperature (295K) before HMDS application. But mobility at 77K is almost 2 times higher than mobility at 295K after HMDS application. The best CVD devices achieve a mobility of ~ 20,000 cm2/V-s at 77K. Performance improvement is observed for FETs made with exfoliated graphene and for FETs made on hydrophobic substrate- an HMDS-graphene-HMDS sandwich structure. Raman spectroscopic analysis shows that G peak width is increased, G peak position is down shifted and intensity ratios between 2D and G peak is increased after HMDS application. AFM data shows increased RMS roughness after HMDS application.

  8. Psychometric Evaluation of Lexical Diversity Indices: Assessing Length Effects

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Heather Harris; Green, Samuel B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Several novel techniques have been developed recently to assess the breadth of a speaker's vocabulary exhibited in a language sample. The specific aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the validity of the scores generated by different lexical diversity (LD) estimation techniques. Four techniques were explored: D, Maas, measure of textual lexical diversity, and moving-average type–token ratio. Method Four LD indices were estimated for language samples on 4 discourse tasks (procedures, eventcasts, story retell, and recounts) from 442 adults who are neurologically intact. The resulting data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results The scores for measure of textual lexical diversity and moving-average type–token ratio were stronger indicators of the LD of the language samples. The results for the other 2 techniques were consistent with the presence of method factors representing construct-irrelevant sources. Conclusion These findings offer a deeper understanding of the relative validity of the 4 estimation techniques and should assist clinicians and researchers in the selection of LD measures of language samples that minimize construct-irrelevant sources. PMID:25766139

  9. Can Chunk Size Differences Explain Developmental Changes in Lexical Learning?

    PubMed Central

    Smalle, Eleonore H. M.; Bogaerts, Louisa; Simonis, Morgane; Duyck, Wouter; Page, Michael P. A.; Edwards, Martin G.; Szmalec, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated Hebb repetition learning (HRL) differences between children and adults, as a function of the type of item (lexical vs. sub-lexical) and the level of item-overlap between sequences. In a first experiment, it was shown that when non-repeating and repeating (Hebb) sequences of words were all permutations of the same words, HRL was slower than when the sequences shared no words. This item-overlap effect was observed in both children and adults. In a second experiment, we used syllable sequences and we observed reduced HRL due to item-overlap only in children. The findings are explained within a chunking account of the HRL effect on the basis of which we hypothesize that children, compared with adults, chunk syllable sequences in smaller units. By hypothesis, small chunks are more prone to interference from anagram representations included in the filler sequences, potentially explaining the item-overlap effect in children. This hypothesis was tested in a third experiment with adults where we experimentally manipulated the chunk size by embedding pauses in the syllable sequences. Interestingly, we showed that imposing a small chunk size caused adults to show the same behavioral effects as those observed in children. Departing from the analogy between verbal HRL and lexical development, the results are discussed in light of the less-is-more hypothesis of age-related differences in language acquisition. PMID:26779065

  10. Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People With Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures of LD to determine how effective they were at measuring LD in PWA. Method Four measures of LD were applied to short discourse samples produced by 101 PWA: (a) the Measure of Textual Lexical Diversity (MTLD; McCarthy, 2005), (b) the Moving-Average Type-Token Ratio (MATTR; Covington, 2007), (c) D (McKee, Malvern, & Richards, 2000), and (d) the Hypergeometric Distribution (HD-D; McCarthy & Jarvis, 2007). LD was estimated using each method, and the scores were subjected to a series of analyses (e.g., curve-fitting, analysis of variance, confirmatory factor analysis). Results Results from the confirmatory factor analysis suggested that MTLD and MATTR reflect LD and little of anything else. Further, two indices (HD-D and D) were found to be equivalent, suggesting that either one can be used when samples are >50 tokens. Conclusion MTLD and MATTR yielded the strongest evidence for producing unbiased LD scores, suggesting that they may be the best measures for capturing LD in PWA. PMID:23695912

  11. Lexical conflict resolution in children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Ladányi, Enikő; Lukács, Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study is to examine the effect of conflict on naming latencies in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children and to explore whether deficits in conflict resolution contribute to lexical problems in SLI. In light of previous results showing difficulties with inhibitory functions in SLI, we expected higher semantic conflict effect in the SLI than in the TD group. To investigate this question 13 children with SLI and 13 age- and gender-matched TD children performed a picture naming task in which the level of conflict was manipulated and naming latencies were measured. Children took longer to name pictures in high conflict conditions than in low conflict conditions. This effect was equally present in the SLI and TD groups. Our results suggest that word production is more effortful for children when conflict resolution is required but children with SLI manage competing lexical representations as efficiently as TD children. This result contradicts studies, which found difficulties with inhibitory functions and is in line with findings of intact inhibitory abilities in children with SLI. Further studies should rule out the possibility that in SLI lower level of conflict resulting from weaker lexical representations masks impairments in inhibition, and investigate the effect of linguistic conflict in other areas. PMID:27135369

  12. Input and word learning: caregivers' sensitivity to lexical category distinctions.

    PubMed

    Hall, D Geoffrey; Burns, Tracey C; Pawluski, Jodi L

    2003-08-01

    Twenty-four caregivers and their two- to four-year-old children took part in a storybook reading task in which caregivers taught children novel labels ('DAXY') for familiar objects. One group (N = 12) received labels modelled syntactically as proper names ('This is named DAXY'), and another group (N = 12) received the same labels for the same objects modelled syntactically as adjectives ('This is very DAXY'). Caregivers took strikingly different approaches to teaching words from the two lexical categories. In teaching proper names, but not adjectives, caregivers flagged cases in which one word was paired with two objects; two words were paired with one object; and one word was paired with an inanimate object. In teaching adjectives, but not proper names, caregivers discussed meaning and offered translations. Caregivers' distinctive strategies for teaching proper names and adjectives are congruent with recent findings about children's word meaning assumptions, and with analyses of the semantics of these lexical categories. The findings indicate that parental speech could provide a rich source of information to children in learning how different lexical categories are expressed in their native language.

  13. Perceptual learning of a talker resolves lexical ambiguity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piorkowski, Rebecca L.; Badecker, William

    2005-09-01

    Recent evidence [Allen and Miller, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 3171 (2004)] suggests that listeners are sensitive to talker-specific acoustic-phonetic properties. The present study examines whether experience with a particular talker's realization of place of articulation can eliminate the ambiguity that arises when a word like ``hen'' assimilates in place of articulation to ``hem'' in a labial context (hen best). Using a cross-modal priming paradigm, the priming effect of words that assimilate to other words was measured in two conditions. In the first condition, listeners heard examples of the talker's assimilation style in the form of words that assimilate to nonwords in a labial context (green beer) before the critical trials were heard. In the second condition, listeners did not hear any examples of the talker's assimilation style before the critical trials were heard. Evidence will be presented showing that, without previous experience with the talker's assimilation style, words that assimilate to other words create a lexical ambiguity for the listener. Additionally, evidence will be presented showing that experience with the talker's assimilation style eliminates this lexical ambiguity and allows the listener to perceive the talker's intended lexical form.

  14. [Psychometric properties and diagnostic value of 'lexical screening for aphasias'].

    PubMed

    Pena-Chavez, R; Martinez-Jimenez, L; Lopez-Espinoza, M

    2014-09-16

    INTRODUCTION. Language assessment in persons with brain injury makes it possible to know whether they require language rehabilitation or not. Given the importance of a precise evaluation, assessment instruments must be valid and reliable, so as to avoid mistaken and subjective diagnoses. AIM. To validate 'lexical screening for aphasias' in a sample of 58 Chilean individuals. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. A screening-type language test, lasting 20 minutes and based on the lexical processing model devised by Patterson and Shewell (1987), was constructed. The sample was made up of two groups containing 29 aphasic subjects and 29 control subjects from different health centres in the regions of Biobio and Maule, Chile. Their ages ranged between 24 and 79 years and had between 0 and 17 years' schooling. Tests were carried out to determine discriminating validity, concurrent validity with the aphasia disorder assessment battery, reliability, sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS. The statistical analysis showed a high discriminating validity (p < 0.001), an acceptable mean concurrent validity with aphasia disorder assessment battery (rs = 0.65), high mean reliability (alpha = 0.87), moderate mean sensitivity (69%) and high mean specificity (86%). CONCLUSION. 'Lexical screening for aphasias' is valid and reliable for assessing language in persons with aphasias; it is sensitive for detecting aphasic subjects and is specific for precluding language disorders in persons with normal language abilities.

  15. Early phonetic and lexical development: a productivity approach.

    PubMed

    McCune, L; Vihman, M M

    2001-06-01

    Researchers frequently examine the development of the single-word lexicon in the absence of phonetic data. Yet a large body of literature demonstrates relationships between the phonetics of babble and early speech, and it is clear that production skill is essential for establishing a lexicon. This study uses longitudinal productivity criteria to establish children's phonetic skill. Twenty children were followed from age 9 to 16 months, and their level of consistency of vocal patterns was examined in relation to their lexical production, providing a relatively large-sample demonstration of phonetic/lexical relationships at the transition to language. Number of specific consonants produced consistently across the months of observation predicted referential lexical use at 16 months, whereas the transition to reference itself signaled the onset of a sharp increase in numbers of different words produced in a session. The earliest referential speakers exhibited prior consistency in the production of [p/b], which also predominated in their words. Prior use of at least two supraglottal consonants characterized the referential group. Children varied in the specific consonants they produced consistently, and these same consonants, varying according to individual child repertoire, characterized nearly all consonant-based words produced by each child in both of the final 2 months of observation. These findings are interpreted in relation to the children's contemporaneous development of representational ability and pragmatic skill.

  16. Can Chunk Size Differences Explain Developmental Changes in Lexical Learning?

    PubMed

    Smalle, Eleonore H M; Bogaerts, Louisa; Simonis, Morgane; Duyck, Wouter; Page, Michael P A; Edwards, Martin G; Szmalec, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated Hebb repetition learning (HRL) differences between children and adults, as a function of the type of item (lexical vs. sub-lexical) and the level of item-overlap between sequences. In a first experiment, it was shown that when non-repeating and repeating (Hebb) sequences of words were all permutations of the same words, HRL was slower than when the sequences shared no words. This item-overlap effect was observed in both children and adults. In a second experiment, we used syllable sequences and we observed reduced HRL due to item-overlap only in children. The findings are explained within a chunking account of the HRL effect on the basis of which we hypothesize that children, compared with adults, chunk syllable sequences in smaller units. By hypothesis, small chunks are more prone to interference from anagram representations included in the filler sequences, potentially explaining the item-overlap effect in children. This hypothesis was tested in a third experiment with adults where we experimentally manipulated the chunk size by embedding pauses in the syllable sequences. Interestingly, we showed that imposing a small chunk size caused adults to show the same behavioral effects as those observed in children. Departing from the analogy between verbal HRL and lexical development, the results are discussed in light of the less-is-more hypothesis of age-related differences in language acquisition. PMID:26779065

  17. Speech perception and lexical effects in specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Richard G.; Scheffler, Frances L. V.; Lopez, Karece

    2014-01-01

    Using an identification task, we examined lexical effects on the perception of vowel duration as a cue to final consonant voicing in 12 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 13 age-matched (6;6–9;6) peers with typical language development (TLD). Naturally recorded CV/t/sets [word–word (WW), nonword–nonword (NN), word–nonword (WN) and nonword–word (NW)] were edited to create four 12-step continua. Both groups used duration as an identification cue but it was a weaker cue for children with SLI. For NN, WN and NW continua, children with SLI demonstrated certainty at shorter vowel durations than their TLD peers. Except for the WN continuum, children with SLI demonstrated category boundaries at shorter vowel durations. Both groups exhibited lexical effects, but they were stronger in the SLI group. Performance on the WW continuum indicated adequate perception of fine-grained duration differences. Strong lexical effects indicated reliance on familiar words in speech perception. PMID:23635335

  18. Bilinguals Show Weaker Lexical Access During Spoken Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Shook, Anthony; Goldrick, Matthew; Engstler, Caroline; Marian, Viorica

    2015-12-01

    When bilinguals process written language, they show delays in accessing lexical items relative to monolinguals. The present study investigated whether this effect extended to spoken language comprehension, examining the processing of sentences with either low or high semantic constraint in both first and second languages. English-German bilinguals, German-English bilinguals and English monolinguals listened for target words in spoken English sentences while their eye-movements were recorded. Bilinguals' eye-movements reflected weaker lexical access relative to monolinguals; furthermore, the effect of semantic constraint differed across first versus second language processing. Specifically, English-native bilinguals showed fewer overall looks to target items, regardless of sentence constraint; German-native bilinguals activated target items more slowly and maintained target activation over a longer period of time in the low-constraint condition compared with monolinguals. No eye movements to cross-linguistic competitors were observed, suggesting that these lexical access disadvantages were present during bilingual spoken sentence comprehension even in the absence of overt interlingual competition.

  19. Transfer of lexical information in adults with reading disorders.

    PubMed

    Walker, M M

    2001-08-01

    This study was designed to test whether adults with reading disorders differ from adults with normal reading abilities in their interhemispheric transfer rates during a lexical decision task. Correlations of performance were completed between lexical decision vocal reaction times (msec.), interhemispheric reaction rates (RVF vocal reaction times-LVF vocal reaction times) and measures of decoding skills, including sight word decoding and phonological decoding for 20 adults with reading disorders and 20 with normal reading abilities. Following a series of Pearson product-moment correlations, the correlation between interhemispheric transfer time and sightword recognition was significant and negative for the adults with reading disorders. This value indicates a significant association between the direction of the interhemispheric transfer time times and sight-word recognition for reading-disordered adults. When correlations were negative (LVF) reaction times < RVF reaction times), stronger sight-word recognition scores were found. The correlation between interhemispheric transfer time and sight-word recognition was not significant for the normal reading adults. For both groups, the correlations between interhemispheric transfer time and phonological decoding were not significant so an association between phonological decoding and interhemispheric transfer time was not evident, The current findings suggest a strong relationship between reading proficiency and reaction times in completing the lexical decision task for the reading-disordered adults.

  20. Interaction of learner characteristics with learning from three models of the periodic table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Jeffrey R.; Koran, John J., Jr.; Koran, Mary Lou

    This study was designed to explore the effects on learning of: (1) structural modifications to the periodic table, (2) the location of a periodic table within instructional materials, and (3) the presence of a two-page schema showing relationships between the topics explained in the written materials and the periodic table. One hundred and sixty high school students were randomly assigned to one of eight treatments. A 28-item posttest (KR -; 21 = 0.72), consisting of multiple choice and constructed answer items, was designed to measure subjects' ability to use their periodic tables to obtain factual information and to solve qualitative chemistry problems. Regression analyses using the multiple choice portion of the posttest as a dependent variable and table type as an independent variable revealed that for subjects with minimal experience with the periodic table, those who received the table with added visual data performed significantly better than subjects who received either of the other two tables (df 3,93; F = 2.72; p < 0.05). For subjects familiar with the periodic table, significant vocabulary X table (df 3,49; F = 3.22; p < 0.05) and vocabulary X location (df 1,49; F = 4.46; p < 0.05) interactions were detected. Subjects high in verbal comprehension tended to take advantage of the modified tables, while those low in verbal comprehension processed the traditional table with less information most effectively. These latter students also benefited more from having the periodic table alongside their written materials.