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Sample records for lfi1238 shows extensive

  1. 22. FANTAIL DECK, SHOWING DETAIL OF DECK EXTENSION AND EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. FANTAIL DECK, SHOWING DETAIL OF DECK EXTENSION AND EXTERIOR LOCKING MECHANISM ON HATCH DOOR TO CREW'S BERTHING. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. 21. FANTAIL DECK, SHOWING DETAIL OF DECK EXTENSION AND EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. FANTAIL DECK, SHOWING DETAIL OF DECK EXTENSION AND EXTERIOR LOCKING MECHANISM ON HATCH DOOR TO CREW'S BERTHING. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  3. Polysome profiling shows extensive posttranscriptional regulation during human adipocyte stem cell differentiation into adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, Lucia; Shigunov, Patricia; Abud, Ana Paula R; Cofré, Axel R; Stimamiglio, Marco A; Kuligovski, Crisciele; Zych, Jaiesa; Schittini, Andressa V; Costa, Alexandre Dias Tavares; Rebelatto, Carmen K; Brofman, Paulo R S; Goldenberg, Samuel; Correa, Alejandro; Naya, Hugo; Dallagiovanna, Bruno

    2013-09-01

    Adipocyte stem cells (hASCs) can proliferate and self-renew and, due to their multipotent nature, they can differentiate into several tissue-specific lineages, making them ideal candidates for use in cell therapy. Most attempts to determine the mRNA profile of self-renewing or differentiating stem cells have made use of total RNA for gene expression analysis. Several lines of evidence suggest that self-renewal and differentiation are also dependent on the control of protein synthesis by posttranscriptional mechanisms. We used adipogenic differentiation as a model, to investigate the extent to which posttranscriptional regulation controlled gene expression in hASCs. We focused on the initial steps of differentiation and isolated both the total mRNA fraction and the subpopulation of mRNAs associated with translating ribosomes. We observed that adipogenesis is committed in the first days of induction and three days appears as the minimum time of induction necessary for efficient differentiation. RNA-seq analysis showed that a significant percentage of regulated mRNAs were posttranscriptionally controlled. Part of this regulation involves massive changes in transcript untranslated regions (UTR) length, with differential extension/reduction of the 3'UTR after induction. A slight correlation can be observed between the expression levels of differentially expressed genes and the 3'UTR length. When we considered association to polysomes, this correlation values increased. Changes in the half lives were related to the extension of the 3'UTR, with longer UTRs mainly stabilizing the transcripts. Thus, changes in the length of these extensions may be associated with changes in the ability to associate with polysomes or in half-life.

  4. The ARMC5 gene shows extensive genetic variance in primary macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Ricardo; Zilbermint, Mihail; Berthon, Annabel; Espiard, Stephanie; Batsis, Maria; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Lodish, Maya B.; Bertherat, Jerome; Faucz, Fabio R.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PMAH) is a rare type of Cushing’s syndrome (CS) that results in increased cortisol production and bilateral enlargement of the adrenal glands. Recent work showed that the disease may be caused by germline and somatic mutations in the ARMC5 gene, a likely tumor-suppressor gene (TSG). We investigated 20 different adrenal nodules from one patient with PMAH for ARMC5 somatic sequence changes. Design All of the nodules where obtained from a single patient who underwent bilateral adrenalectomy. DNA was extracted by standard protocols and the ARMC5 sequence was determined by the Sanger method. Results Sixteen of 20 adrenocortical nodules harbored, in addition to what appeared to be the germline mutation, a second somatic variant. The p.Trp476* sequence change was present in all 20 nodules, as well as in normal tissue from the adrenal capsule, identifying it as the germline defect; each of the 16 other variants were found in different nodules: 6 were frame shift, 4 were missense, 3 were nonsense, and 1 was a splice site variation. Allelic losses were confirmed in 2 of the nodules. Conclusion This is the most genetic variance of the ARMC5 gene ever described in a single patient with PMAH: each of 16 adrenocortical nodules had a second new, “private”, and -in most cases- completely inactivating ARMC5 defect, in addition to the germline mutation. The data support the notion that ARMC5 is a TSG that needs a second, somatic hit, to mediate tumorigenesis leading to polyclonal nodularity; however, the driver of this extensive genetic variance of the second ARMC5 allele in adrenocortical tissue in the context of a germline defect and PMAH remains a mystery. PMID:26162405

  5. The Layou Tuff, Dominica: an Example of an Ignimbrite Showing Extensive Vapor-Phase Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinnin, B.; Smith, A. L.; Fryxell, J. E.; Daly, G.

    2006-12-01

    The island of Dominica, located in the central part of the Lesser Antilles island arc, has witnessed, probably in the last 100,000 years, three large-volume Plinian eruptions. One of these from the Morne Trois Pitons center generated extensive ignimbrites (>62 km2) that extend as two tongues NE and NW from the Morne Trois Pitons caldera (now infilled by a dome complex). Preliminary studies on the NW fan, which filled the valley of the paleo-Layou River and reached the west coast near its mouth, shows that this ignimbrite sequence may be subdivided into an unlithified and a lithified facies. The former occurs in distal exposures along the edge of the ignimbrite, whereas the latter is dominant in the central valley-fill locations. The Layou ignimbrite in its most distal exposure overlies a thick sequence of fluviatile conglomerates. At this location the initial deposit is a pumiceous lapilli fall unit, 18 cm thick. Lithic clast sizes in this unit appear to be consistent with an eruption column height of 20-25 km. This deposit is followed by a thin ash-rich fall layer rich in accretionary lapilli (up to 8 mm in diameter), suggesting magma-water interaction. Overlying these fall deposits are at least 3 ignimbrite flow units. These unlithified units have a maximum thickness of over 20 m. Within the Layou valley the ignimbrites become thicker (reaching a maximum of 180 m in the upper Layou valley) and are lithified through out their exposed thickness. A 17 m section through these lithified deposits a few kilometers inland from the unlithified deposits described above suggest, based on density variations, that the maximum zone of lithification occurs 5 m above the lowest exposure of the section (i.e. approximately 15 m above the unlithified base of the deposit). Pumices in these lithified deposits do not appear to show any flattening or preferred orientation; rather the changes in density appear to be related to a decrease in the porosity of the matrix as a consequence of

  6. A Geographically Diverse Collection of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Isolates Shows Limited Phenotypic Variation but Extensive Karyotypic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, William R. A.; Liti, Gianni; Rosa, Carlos; James, Steve; Roberts, Ian; Robert, Vincent; Jolly, Neil; Tang, Wen; Baumann, Peter; Green, Carter; Schlegel, Kristina; Young, Jonathan; Hirchaud, Fabienne; Leek, Spencer; Thomas, Geraint; Blomberg, Anders; Warringer, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been widely used to study eukaryotic cell biology, but almost all of this work has used derivatives of a single strain. We have studied 81 independent natural isolates and 3 designated laboratory strains of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Schizosaccharomyces pombe varies significantly in size but shows only limited variation in proliferation in different environments compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleotide diversity, π, at a near neutral site, the central core of the centromere of chromosome II is approximately 0.7%. Approximately 20% of the isolates showed karyotypic rearrangements as detected by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and filter hybridization analysis. One translocation, found in 6 different isolates, including the type strain, has a geographically widespread distribution and a unique haplotype and may be a marker of an incipient speciation event. All of the other translocations are unique. Exploitation of this karyotypic diversity may cast new light on both the biology of telomeres and centromeres and on isolating mechanisms in single-celled eukaryotes. PMID:22384373

  7. Fifteen million years of evolution in the Oryza genus shows extensive gene family expansion.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Julie; Ammiraju, Jetty S S; Haberer, Georg; Billheimer, Dean D; Yu, Yeisoo; Liu, Liana C; Rivera, Luis F; Mayer, Klaus; Chen, Mingsheng; Wing, Rod A

    2014-04-01

    In analyzing gene families in the whole-genome sequences available for O. sativa (AA), O. glaberrima (AA), and O. brachyantha (FF), we observed large size expansions in the AA genomes compared to FF genomes for the super-families F-box and NB-ARC, and five additional families: the Aspartic proteases, BTB/POZ proteins (BTB), Glutaredoxins, Trypsin α-amylase inhibitor proteins, and Zf-Dof proteins. Their evolutionary dynamic was investigated to understand how and why such important size variations are observed between these closely related species. We show that expansions resulted from both amplification, largely by tandem duplications, and contraction by gene losses. For the F-box and NB-ARC gene families, the genes conserved in all species were under strong purifying selection while expanded orthologous genes were under more relaxed purifying selection. In F-box, NB-ARC, and BTB, the expanded groups were enriched in genes with little evidence of expression, in comparison with conserved groups. We also detected 87 loci under positive selection in the expanded groups. These results show that most of the duplicated copies in the expanded groups evolve neutrally after duplication because of functional redundancy but a fraction of these genes were preserved following neofunctionalization. Hence, the lineage-specific expansions observed between Oryza species were partly driven by directional selection.

  8. Usage of a Localised Microflow Device to Show that Mitochondrial Networks Are Not Extensive in Skeletal Muscle Fibres

    PubMed Central

    Bruton, Joseph; Jeffries, Gavin D. M.; Westerblad, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    In cells, such as neurones and immune cells, mitochondria can form dynamic and extensive networks that change over the minute timescale. In contrast, mitochondria in adult mammalian skeletal muscle fibres show little motility over several hours. Here, we use a novel three channelled microflow device, the multifunctional pipette, to test whether mitochondria in mouse skeletal muscle connect to each other. The central channel in the pipette delivers compounds to a restricted region of the sarcolemma, typically 30 µm in diameter. Two channels on either side of the central channel use suction to create a hydrodynamically confined flow zone and remove compounds completely from the bulk solution to internal waste compartments. Compounds were delivered locally to the end or side of single adult mouse skeletal muscle fibres to test whether changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were transmitted to more distant located mitochondria. Mitochondrial membrane potential was monitored with tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE). Cytosolic free [Ca2+] was monitored with fluo-3. A pulse of carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP, 100 µM) applied to a small area of the muscle fibre (30 µm in diameter) produced a rapid decrease in the mitochondrial TMRE signal (indicative of depolarization) to 38% of its initial value. After washout of FCCP, the TMRE signal partially recovered. At distances greater than 50 µm away from the site of FCCP application, the mitochondrial TMRE signal was unchanged. Similar results were observed when two sites along the fibre were pulsed sequentially with FCCP. After a pulse of FCCP, cytosolic [Ca2+] was unchanged and fibres contracted in response to electrical stimulation. In conclusion, our results indicate that extensive networks of interconnected mitochondria do not exist in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the limited and reversible effects of targeted FCCP application with the multifunctional pipette highlight its advantages

  9. Conditioned medium of dental pulp cells stimulated by Chinese propolis show neuroprotection and neurite extension in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Daichi; Inden, Masatoshi; Sekine, Shin-Ichiro; Tamaoki, Naritaka; Iida, Kazuki; Naito, Eiji; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kamishina, Hiroaki; Shibata, Toshiyuki; Hozumi, Isao

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of Chinese propolis on the expression level of neurotrophic factors in dental pulp cells (DPCs). We also investigated that the effects of the conditioned medium (CM) of DPCs stimulated by the propolis against oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, and on neurite extensions in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. To investigate the effect of the propolis on the levels of neurotrophic factors in DPCs, we performed a qRT-PCR experiment. As results, NGF, but not BDNF and NT-3, in DPCs was significantly elevated by the propolis in a concentration-dependent manner. H2O2-induced cell death was significantly inhibited by the treatment with the CM of DPCs. In addition, the treatment with the propolis-stimulated CM of DPCs had a more protective effect than that with the CM of DPCs. We also examine the effect of the propolis-stimulated CM of DPCs against a tunicamycin-induced ER stress. The treatment with the propolis-stimulated CM as well as the CM of DPCs significantly inhibited tunicamycin-induced cell death. Moreover, the treatment with the propolis-stimulated CM of DPCs significantly induced neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells than that with the CM of DPCs. These results suggest that the CM of DPCs as well as DPCs will be an efficient source of new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and that the propolis promote the advantage of the CM of DPCs via producing neurotrophic factors.

  10. An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    vom Saal, Frederick S.; Hughes, Claude

    2005-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is the monomer used to manufacture polycarbonate plastic, the resin lining of cans, and other products, with global capacity in excess of 6.4 billion lb/year. Because the ester bonds in these BPA-based polymers are subject to hydrolysis, leaching of BPA has led to widespread human exposure. A recent report prepared by the Harvard Center for Risk Analysis and funded by the American Plastics Council concluded that evidence for low-dose effects of BPA is weak on the basis of a review of only 19 studies; the report was issued after a delay of 2.5 years. A current comprehensive review of the literature reveals that the opposite is true. As of December 2004, there were 115 published in vivo studies concerning low-dose effects of BPA, and 94 of these report significant effects. In 31 publications with vertebrate and invertebrate animals, significant effects occurred below the predicted “safe” or reference dose of 50 μg/kg/day BPA. An estrogenic mode of action of BPA is confirmed by in vitro experiments, which describe disruption of cell function at 10−12 M or 0.23 ppt. Nonetheless, chemical manufacturers continue to discount these published findings because no industry-funded studies have reported significant effects of low doses of BPA, although > 90% of government-funded studies have reported significant effects. Some industry-funded studies have ignored the results of positive controls, and many studies reporting no significant effects used a strain of rat that is inappropriate for the study of estrogenic responses. We propose that a new risk assessment for BPA is needed based on a) the extensive new literature reporting adverse effects in animals at doses below the current reference dose; b) the high rate of leaching of BPA from food and beverage containers, leading to widespread human exposure; c) reports that the median BPA level in human blood and tissues, including in human fetal blood, is higher than the level that causes adverse effects

  11. An extensive new literature concerning low-dose effects of bisphenol A shows the need for a new risk assessment.

    PubMed

    vom Saal, Frederick S; Hughes, Claude

    2005-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is the monomer used to manufacture polycarbonate plastic, the resin lining of cans, and other products, with global capacity in excess of 6.4 billion lb/year. Because the ester bonds in these BPA-based polymers are subject to hydrolysis, leaching of BPA has led to widespread human exposure. A recent report prepared by the Harvard Center for Risk Analysis and funded by the American Plastics Council concluded that evidence for low-dose effects of BPA is weak on the basis of a review of only 19 studies; the report was issued after a delay of 2.5 years. A current comprehensive review of the literature reveals that the opposite is true. As of December 2004, there were 115 published in vivo studies concerning low-dose effects of BPA, and 94 of these report significant effects. In 31 publications with vertebrate and invertebrate animals, significant effects occurred below the predicted "safe" or reference dose of 50 microg/kg/day BPA. An estrogenic mode of action of BPA is confirmed by in vitro experiments, which describe disruption of cell function at 10(-12) M or 0.23 ppt. Nonetheless, chemical manufacturers continue to discount these published findings because no industry-funded studies have reported significant effects of low doses of BPA, although > 90% of government-funded studies have reported significant effects. Some industry-funded studies have ignored the results of positive controls, and many studies reporting no significant effects used a strain of rat that is inappropriate for the study of estrogenic responses. We propose that a new risk assessment for BPA is needed based on a) the extensive new literature reporting adverse effects in animals at doses below the current reference dose; b) the high rate of leaching of BPA from food and beverage containers, leading to widespread human exposure; c) reports that the median BPA level in human blood and tissues, including in human fetal blood, is higher than the level that causes adverse effects

  12. Porous titanium particles for acetabular reconstruction in total hip replacement show extensive bony armoring after 15 weeks

    PubMed Central

    Walschot, Lucas H B; Aquarius, René; Verdonschot, Nico; Buma, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose — The bone impaction grafting technique restores bone defects in total hip replacement. Porous titanium particles (TiPs) are deformable, like bone particles, and offer better primary stability. We addressed the following questions in this animal study: are impacted TiPs osteoconductive under loaded conditions; do released micro-particles accelerate wear; and are systemic titanium blood levels elevated after implantation of TiPs? Animals and methods — An AAOS type-III defect was created in the right acetabulum of 10 goats weighing 63 (SD 6) kg, and reconstructed with calcium phosphate-coated TiPs and a cemented polyethylene cup. A stem with a cobalt chrome head was cemented in the femur. The goats were killed after 15 weeks. Blood samples were taken pre- and postoperatively. Results — The TiP-graft layer measured 5.6 (SD 0.8) mm with a mean bone ingrowth distance of 2.8 (SD 0.8) mm. Cement penetrated 0.9 (0.3–1.9) mm into the TiPs. 1 reconstruction showed minimal cement penetration (0.3 mm) and failed at the cement-TiP interface. There were no signs of accelerated wear, metallic particle debris, or osteolysis. Median systemic titanium concentrations increased on a log-linear scale from 0.5 (0.3–1.1) parts per billion (ppb) to 0.9 (0.5–2.8) ppb (p = 0.01). Interpretation — Adequate cement pressurization is advocated for impaction grafting with TiPs. After implantation, calcium phosphate-coated TiPs were osteoconductive under loaded conditions and caused an increase in systemic titanium concentrations. However, absolute levels remained low. There were no signs of accelerated wear. A clinical pilot study should be performed to prove that application in humans is safe in the long term. PMID:25238431

  13. The structure of S. lividans acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase shows a novel interaction between the C-terminal extension and the N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Carter A; Tucker, Alex C; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C; Gulick, Andrew M

    2015-03-01

    The adenosine monoposphate-forming acyl-CoA synthetase enzymes catalyze a two-step reaction that involves the initial formation of an acyl adenylate that reacts in a second partial reaction to form a thioester between the acyl substrate and CoA. These enzymes utilize a Domain Alternation catalytic mechanism, whereby a ∼ 110 residue C-terminal domain rotates by 140° to form distinct catalytic conformations for the two partial reactions. The structure of an acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase (AacS) is presented that illustrates a novel aspect of this C-terminal domain. Specifically, several acetyl- and acetoacetyl-CoA synthetases contain a 30-residue extension on the C-terminus compared to other members of this family. Whereas residues from this extension are disordered in prior structures, the AacS structure shows that residues from this extension may interact with key catalytic residues from the N-terminal domain.

  14. A case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract showing extensive plasma cell differentiation with prominent Russell bodies

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Keita; Miyahara, Masaharu; Tokuda, Yasunori; Kido, Shinich; Masuda, Masanori; Takase, Yukari; Tokunaga, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    A 73-year-old Japanese woman was hospitalized for detailed examination of nausea, diarrhea and loss of appetite. Atypical erosion in the ileum was found on endoscopy. Biopsy of this erosion showed proliferation of cells containing numerous Russell bodies. Differential diagnoses considered were Russell body enteritis, crystal-storing histiocytosis, Mott cell tumor, immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (IPSID) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The cells containing prominent Russell bodies showed diffuse positivity for CD79a and CD138, but negative results for CD20, CD3, UCHL-1, CD38 and CD68. Russell bodies were diffusely positive for lambda light chain, but negative for kappa light chain, and immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA and IgM. Based on these findings, Russell body enteritis, crystal-storing histiocytosis and IPSID were ruled out. As the tumor formed no mass lesions and was restricted to the gastrointestinal tract, MALT lymphoma with extensive plasma cell differentiation was finally diagnosed. The patient showed an unexpectedly aggressive clinical course. The number of atypical lymphocytes in peripheral blood gradually increased and T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) emerged. The patient died of T-PLL 7 mo after admission. Autopsy was not permitted. PMID:24303496

  15. Climate Envelope Modeling and Dispersal Simulations Show Little Risk of Range Extension of the Shipworm, Teredo navalis (L.), in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Appelqvist, Christin; Al-Hamdani, Zyad K.; Jonsson, Per R.; Havenhand, Jon N.

    2015-01-01

    The shipworm, Teredo navalis, is absent from most of the Baltic Sea. In the last 20 years, increased frequency of T. navalis has been reported along the southern Baltic Sea coasts of Denmark, Germany, and Sweden, indicating possible range-extensions into previously unoccupied areas. We evaluated the effects of historical and projected near-future changes in salinity, temperature, and oxygen on the risk of spread of T. navalis in the Baltic. Specifically, we developed a simple, GIS-based, mechanistic climate envelope model to predict the spatial distribution of favourable conditions for adult reproduction and larval metamorphosis of T. navalis, based on published environmental tolerances to these factors. In addition, we used a high-resolution three-dimensional hydrographic model to simulate the probability of spread of T. navalis larvae within the study area. Climate envelope modeling showed that projected near-future climate change is not likely to change the overall distribution of T. navalis in the region, but will prolong the breeding season and increase the risk of shipworm establishment at the margins of the current range. Dispersal simulations indicated that the majority of larvae were philopatric, but those that spread over a wider area typically spread to areas unfavourable for their survival. Overall, therefore, we found no substantive evidence for climate-change related shifts in the distribution of T. navalis in the Baltic Sea, and no evidence for increased risk of spread in the near-future. PMID:25768305

  16. Gene expression analysis of two extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis isolates show that two-component response systems enhance drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guohua; Cui, Zhenling; Sun, Xian; Peng, Jinfu; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Wei; Huang, Wenhua; Chu, Kaili; Zhang, Lu; Ge, Baoxue; Li, Yao

    2015-05-01

    Global analysis of expression profiles using DNA microarrays was performed between a reference strain H37Rv and two clinical extensively drug-resistant isolates in response to three anti-tuberculosis drug exposures (isoniazid, capreomycin, and rifampicin). A deep analysis was then conducted using a combination of genome sequences of the resistant isolates, resistance information, and related public microarray data. Certain known resistance-associated gene sets were significantly overrepresented in upregulated genes in the resistant isolates relative to that observed in H37Rv, which suggested a link between resistance and expression levels of particular genes. In addition, isoniazid and capreomycin response genes, but not rifampicin, either obtained from published works or our data, were highly consistent with the differentially expressed genes of resistant isolates compared to those of H37Rv, indicating a strong association between drug resistance of the isolates and genes differentially regulated by isoniazid and capreomycin exposures. Based on these results, 92 genes of the studied isolates were identified as candidate resistance genes, 10 of which are known resistance-related genes. Regulatory network analysis of candidate resistance genes using published networks and literature mining showed that three two-component regulatory systems and regulator CRP play significant roles in the resistance of the isolates by mediating the production of essential envelope components. Finally, drug sensitivity testing indicated strong correlations between expression levels of these regulatory genes and sensitivity to multiple anti-tuberculosis drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings may provide novel insights into the mechanism underlying the emergence and development of drug resistance in resistant tuberculosis isolates and useful clues for further studies on this issue.

  17. LitR Is a Repressor of syp Genes and Has a Temperature-Sensitive Regulatory Effect on Biofilm Formation and Colony Morphology in Vibrio (Aliivibrio) salmonicida

    PubMed Central

    Bjelland, Ane Mohn; Ronessen, Maria; Robertsen, Espen; Willassen, Nils Peder

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio (Aliivibrio) salmonicida is the etiological agent of cold water vibriosis, a disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that is kept under control due to an effective vaccine. A seawater temperature below 12°C is normally required for disease development. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell density-regulated communication system that bacteria use to coordinate activities involved in colonization and pathogenesis, and we have previously shown that inactivation of the QS master regulator LitR attenuates the V. salmonicida strain LFI1238 in a fish model. We show here that strain LFI1238 and a panel of naturally occurring V. salmonicida strains are poor biofilm producers. Inactivation of litR in the LFI1238 strain enhances medium- and temperature-dependent adhesion, rugose colony morphology, and biofilm formation. Chemical treatment and electron microscopy of the biofilm identified an extracellular matrix consisting mainly of a fibrous network, proteins, and polysaccharides. Further, by microarray analysis of planktonic and biofilm cells, we identified a number of genes regulated by LitR and, among these, were homologues of the Vibrio fischeri symbiosis polysaccharide (syp) genes. The syp genes were regulated by LitR in both planktonic and biofilm lifestyle analyses. Disruption of syp genes in the V. salmonicida ΔlitR mutant alleviated adhesion, rugose colony morphology, and biofilm formation. Hence, LitR is a repressor of syp transcription that is necessary for expression of the phenotypes examined. The regulatory effect of LitR on colony morphology and biofilm formation is temperature sensitive and weak or absent at temperatures above the bacterium's upper threshold for pathogenicity. PMID:24973072

  18. B chromosomes in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans are present in all body parts analyzed and show extensive variation for rDNA copy number.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Estévez, Mercedes; Cabrero, Josefa; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; López-León, María Dolores

    2014-01-01

    B chromosomes in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans are considered to be mitotically stable, because all meiotic (primary spermatocytes and oocytes) or mitotic (embryos, ovarioles, and gastric caecum) cells analyzed within the same individual show the same B chromosome number. Nothing is known, however, about body parts with somatic tissues with no mitotic activity in adult individuals, constituting the immense majority of their body. Therefore, we investigated whether B chromosomes are present in 8 non-mitotically active somatic body parts from both sexes in addition to ovarioles and testes by PCR analysis of 2 B-specific molecular markers. We also elucidated the number of B chromosomes that an individual carried through quantifying the B-located rDNA copy number by qPCR. Our results indicated the amplification of both B-specific markers in all analyzed body parts. However, we found high variation between males for the estimated number of rDNA units in the B chromosomes. These results demonstrate the presence of B chromosomes in all body parts from the same individual and suggest a high variation in the rDNA content of the B chromosomes carried by different individuals from the same population, presumably due to unequal crossovers during meiosis.

  19. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  20. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  1. Type Safe Extensible Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Wonseok

    2009-10-01

    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging because it is difficult to anticipate successive changes and to provide adequate abstraction mechanisms over potential changes. Such extensibility mechanisms, furthermore, should not compromise any existing functionality during extension. Software engineers would benefit from a tool that provides a way to add extensions in a reliable way. It is natural to expect programming languages to serve this role. Extensible programming is one effort to address these issues. In this thesis, we present type safe extensible programming using the MLPolyR language. MLPolyR is an ML-like functional language whose type system provides type-safe extensibility mechanisms at several levels. After presenting the language, we will show how these extensibility mechanisms can be put to good use in the context of product line engineering. Product line engineering is an emerging software engineering paradigm that aims to manage variations, which originate from successive changes in software.

  2. 8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically west side of arch and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  3. Some generalizations of the Hewitt extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajakas, Jaan

    2012-02-01

    We introduce two extensions of a Tychonoff space that generalize the notions of the Hewitt extension and the "generalized Hewitt extension" introduced by Bachman, Beckenstein, Narici and Warner. The extensions are determined by sets of continuous functions. In particular, we study the extensions determined by all continuous functions and the extension determined by all continuous bounded functions and show that these can be regarded as epireflective functors. Finally we discuss the possibility of using these extensions to describe the characters of function algebras.

  4. Ultraviolet Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Side-by-Side Comparison Click on image for larger view

    This ultraviolet image from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows the Southern Pinwheel galaxy, also know as Messier 83 or M83. It is located 15 million light-years away in the southern constellation Hydra.

    Ultraviolet light traces young populations of stars; in this image, young stars can be seen way beyond the main spiral disk of M83 up to 140,000 light-years from its center. Could life exist around one of these far-flung stars? Scientists say it's unlikely because the outlying regions of a galaxy are lacking in the metals required for planets to form.

    The image was taken at scheduled intervals between March 15 and May 20, 2007. It is one of the longest-exposure, or deepest, images ever taken of a nearby galaxy in ultraviolet light. Near-ultraviolet light (or longer-wavelength ultraviolet light) is colored yellow, and far-ultraviolet light is blue.

    What Lies Beyond the Edge of a Galaxy The side-by-side comparison shows the Southern Pinwheel galaxy, or M83, as seen in ultraviolet light (right) and at both ultraviolet and radio wavelengths (left). While the radio data highlight the galaxy's long, octopus-like arms stretching far beyond its main spiral disk (red), the ultraviolet data reveal clusters of baby stars (blue) within the extended arms.

    The ultraviolet image was taken by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer between March 15 and May 20, 2007, at scheduled intervals. Back in 2005, the telescope first photographed M83 over a shorter period of time. That picture was the first to reveal far-flung baby stars forming up to 63,000 light-years from the edge of the main spiral disk. This came as a surprise to astronomers because a galaxy's outer territory typically lacks high densities of star-forming materials.

    The newest picture of M83 from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer is shown at the right, and was taken over a longer period of

  5. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  6. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  7. Non-extensive radiobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.

    2011-03-14

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation and conditions. Here we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. A generalization of the exponential, the logarithm and the product to a non-extensive framework, provides a simple formula for the survival fraction corresponding to the application of several radiation doses on a living tissue. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature, also providing a new interpretation of some of the parameters introduced anew. It is also shown how the presented formalism may have direct application in radiotherapy treatment optimization through the definition of the potential effect difference, simply calculated between the tumour and the surrounding tissue.

  8. Non-extensive radiobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.

    2011-03-01

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation and conditions. Here we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. A generalization of the exponential, the logarithm and the product to a non-extensive framework, provides a simple formula for the survival fraction corresponding to the application of several radiation doses on a living tissue. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature, also providing a new interpretation of some of the parameters introduced anew. It is also shown how the presented formalism may have direct application in radiotherapy treatment optimization through the definition of the potential effect difference, simply calculated between the tumour and the surrounding tissue.

  9. University of Wisconsin - Extension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Academic Affairs From the Provost Scholarship Governance Advancing Innovation Reimagining UW-Extension Awards Provost Staff Jobs Available ... extension , business and entrepreneurship , and broadcast and media innovations . Content on this page requires a newer version ...

  10. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  11. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  12. Pseudo Algebraically Closed Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bary-Soroker, Lior

    2009-07-01

    This PhD deals with the notion of pseudo algebraically closed (PAC) extensions of fields. It develops a group-theoretic machinery, based on a generalization of embedding problems, to study these extensions. Perhaps the main result is that although there are many PAC extensions, the Galois closure of a proper PAC extension is separably closed. The dissertation also contains the following subjects. The group theoretical counterpart of pseudo algebraically closed extensions, the so-called projective pairs. Applications to seemingly unrelated subjects, e.g., an analog of Dirichlet's theorem about primes in arithmetic progression for polynomial rings in one variable over infinite fields.

  13. Overlap extension PCR cloning.

    PubMed

    Bryksin, Anton; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Rising demand for recombinant proteins has motivated the development of efficient and reliable cloning methods. Here we show how a beginner can clone virtually any DNA insert into a plasmid of choice without the use of restriction endonucleases or T4 DNA ligase. Chimeric primers encoding plasmid sequence at the 5' ends and insert sequence at the 3' ends are designed and synthesized. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is utilized to amplify the desired insert by PCR. The double-stranded product is subsequently employed as a pair of mega-primers in a PCR-like reaction with circular plasmids. The original plasmids are then destroyed in restriction digests with Dpn I. The product of the overlap extension PCR is used to transform competent Escherichia coli cells. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is used for both the amplification and fusion reactions, so both steps can be monitored and optimized in the same way. PMID:23996437

  14. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  15. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  16. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  17. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  18. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  19. Obesity in show cats.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  20. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  1. The Art Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scolarici, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    This article describes what once was thought to be impossible--a formal art show extravaganza at an elementary school with 1,000 students, a Department of Defense Dependent School (DODDS) located overseas, on RAF Lakenheath, England. The dream of this this event involved the transformation of the school cafeteria into an elegant art show…

  2. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  3. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  4. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments.

  5. Obesity in show dogs.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

  6. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  7. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  8. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  9. Rule Induction with Extension Matrices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xindong

    1998-01-01

    Presents a heuristic, attribute-based, noise-tolerant data mining program, HCV (Version 2.0) based on the newly-developed extension matrix approach. Outlines some techniques implemented in the HCV program for noise handling and discretization of continuous domains; an empirical comparison shows that rules generated by HCV are more compact than the…

  10. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  11. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    PubMed

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  12. Protective coatings on extensible biofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holten-Andersen, Niels; Fantner, Georg E.; Hohlbauch, Sophia; Waite, J. Herbert; Zok, Frank W.

    2007-09-01

    Formulating effective coatings for use in nano- and biotechnology poses considerable technical challenges. If they are to provide abrasion resistance, coatings must be hard and adhere well to the underlying substrate. High hardness, however, comes at the expense of extensibility. This property trade-off makes the design of coatings for even moderately compliant substrates problematic, because substrate deformation easily exceeds the strain limit of the coating. Although the highest strain capacity of synthetic fibre coatings is less than 10%, deformable coatings are ubiquitous in biological systems. With an eye to heeding the lessons of nature, the cuticular coatings of byssal threads from two species of marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Perna canaliculus, have been investigated. Consistent with their function to protect collagenous fibres in the byssal-thread core, these coatings show hardness and stiffness comparable to those of engineering plastics and yet are surprisingly extensible; the tensile failure strain of P. canaliculus cuticle is about 30% and that of M. galloprovincialis is a remarkable 70%. The difference in extensibility is attributable to the presence of deformable microphase-separated granules within the cuticle of M. galloprovincialis. The results have important implications in the design of bio-inspired extensible coatings.

  13. An Analysis of the Extension Worker's Knowledge of Extension Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonecipher, Charles Leroy

    Forty-four employees of the General Extension Division of the Nebraska Agricultural Extension Service and 119 Agricultural Extension employees of the University of Nebraska comprised the population of this study comparing personnel's knowledge of Agricultural Extension and General Extension programs and differences in knowledge of programs…

  14. Mobile Applications for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  15. Today's Youth: Extension's Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Russell D.

    1970-01-01

    The challenge to Extension youth work today is programing to deal with political and value issues in a way appealing to the small group who want to make things happen" without losing the majority, who let things happen" or wonder what happened. (EB)

  16. Vocabulary Extension through Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surajlal, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the notion that teaching vocabulary extension in isolation makes little impact on students, a three-part exercise, designed to develop students' vocabulary through poetry while providing meaningful enjoyment, uses the poem "The Hawk" by A. C. Benson. In the first class period, students are introduced to both the exercise and the poem and…

  17. Mechanical heterogeneities and lithospheric extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duretz, Thibault; Petri, Benoit; Mohn, Geoffroy; Schenker, Filippo L.; Schmalholz, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Detailed geological and geophysical studies of passive margins have highlighted the multi-stage and depth-dependent aspect of lithospheric thinning. Lithospheric thinning involves a variety of structures (normal faults, low angle detachments, extensional shear zones, extraction faults) and leads to a complex architecture of passive margins (with e.g. necking zone, mantle exhumation, continental allochthons). The processes controlling the generation and evolution of these structures as well as the impact of pre-rift inheritance are so far incompletely understood. In this study, we investigate the impact of pre-rift inheritance on the development of rifted margins using two-dimensional thermo-mechanical models of lithospheric thinning. To first order, we represent the pre-rift mechanical heterogeneities with lithological layering. The rheologies are kept simple (visco-plastic) and do not involve any strain softening mechanism. Our models show that mechanical layering causes multi-stage and depth-dependent extension. In the initial rifting phase, lithospheric extension is decoupled: as the crust undergoes thinning by brittle (frictional-plastic) faults, the lithospheric mantle accommodates extension by symmetric ductile necking. In a second rifting phase, deformation in the crust and lithospheric mantle is coupled and marks the beginning of an asymmetric extension stage. Low angle extensional shear zones develop across the lithosphere and exhume subcontinental mantle. Furthemore, crustal allochthons and adjacent basins develop coevally. We describe as well the thermal evolution predicted by the numerical models and discuss the first-order implications of our results in the context of the Alpine geological history.

  18. Agricultural Extension: Who Uses It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Michael; Lasley, Paul

    1979-01-01

    A Missouri study conducted to determine agricultural extension usage patterns found that heavy users of extension publications tended to be younger farmers, those with a relatively large amount of land, and pork producers. Extension meetings were a less frequent source of information than either publications or county extension office visits. (LRA)

  19. LIMB demonstration project extension

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-21

    The purpose of the DOE limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension is to extend the data base on LIMB technology and to expand DOE's list of Clean Coal Technologies by demonstrating the Coolside process as part of the project. The main objectives of this project are: to demonstrate the general applicability of LIMB technology by testing 3 coals and 4 sorbents (total of 12 coal/sorbent combinations) at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant; and to demonstrate that Coolside is a viable technology for improving precipitator performance and reducing sulfur dioxide emissions while acceptable operability is maintained. Progress is reported. 3 figs.

  20. Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section Showing End Framing, Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Lower Stringers, End Elevation - Covered Bridge, Spanning Contoocook River, Hopkinton, Merrimack County, NH

  1. Extensively remodeled, fractured cetacean tympanic bullae show that whales can survive traumatic injury to the ears.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Maya; Khidas, Kamal; Pyenson, Nicholas D; Fordyce, R Ewan; Mead, James G

    2016-01-01

    Underwater human activities and anthropogenic noise in our oceans may be a major source of habitat degradation for marine life. This issue was highlighted by the opening of the United States Eastern Seaboard for seismic oil and gas exploration in 2014, which generated massive media coverage and widespread concern that seismic surveys could kill or deafen whales. We discovered 11 new specimens of fractured and healed cetacean ear bones, out of a survey of 2127 specimens housed in museum collections. This rare condition has been previously reported only in two specimens of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) from the early 1900s, summarized by Fraser & Purves (1953). All of our new specimens are represented by species for which this condition had never been reported previously, including both baleen and toothed whales. The baleen whale specimens (Balaenoptera physalus, Balaenoptera borealis, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) were collected during Canadian commercial whaling operations in the Atlantic Ocean in the 1970s; the specimens include ear bones with well-healed fractures, demonstrating that baleen whales are capable of overcoming traumatic injury to the ears. The toothed whale specimens (Delphinus sp., Berardius bairdii) were found dead on beaches in 1972 and 2001, respectively, with less remodeled fractures. Thus, ear injuries may be more lethal to the echolocating toothed whales, which rely on hearing for navigation and foraging. We explore several hypotheses regarding how these injuries could have occurred, and conclude that the most parsimonious explanations appear to be both direct and indirect effects of lytic processes from disease or calcium depletion, or damage from external pressure waves. Although further research is required to confirm whether the fractures resulted from natural or human-induced events, this study underscores the importance of museum collections and the work of stranding networks in understanding the potential effects of modern human activities on marine mammal health.

  2. Extensively remodeled, fractured cetacean tympanic bullae show that whales can survive traumatic injury to the ears.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Maya; Khidas, Kamal; Pyenson, Nicholas D; Fordyce, R Ewan; Mead, James G

    2016-01-01

    Underwater human activities and anthropogenic noise in our oceans may be a major source of habitat degradation for marine life. This issue was highlighted by the opening of the United States Eastern Seaboard for seismic oil and gas exploration in 2014, which generated massive media coverage and widespread concern that seismic surveys could kill or deafen whales. We discovered 11 new specimens of fractured and healed cetacean ear bones, out of a survey of 2127 specimens housed in museum collections. This rare condition has been previously reported only in two specimens of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) from the early 1900s, summarized by Fraser & Purves (1953). All of our new specimens are represented by species for which this condition had never been reported previously, including both baleen and toothed whales. The baleen whale specimens (Balaenoptera physalus, Balaenoptera borealis, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) were collected during Canadian commercial whaling operations in the Atlantic Ocean in the 1970s; the specimens include ear bones with well-healed fractures, demonstrating that baleen whales are capable of overcoming traumatic injury to the ears. The toothed whale specimens (Delphinus sp., Berardius bairdii) were found dead on beaches in 1972 and 2001, respectively, with less remodeled fractures. Thus, ear injuries may be more lethal to the echolocating toothed whales, which rely on hearing for navigation and foraging. We explore several hypotheses regarding how these injuries could have occurred, and conclude that the most parsimonious explanations appear to be both direct and indirect effects of lytic processes from disease or calcium depletion, or damage from external pressure waves. Although further research is required to confirm whether the fractures resulted from natural or human-induced events, this study underscores the importance of museum collections and the work of stranding networks in understanding the potential effects of modern human activities on marine mammal health. PMID:26391309

  3. Extensive nonadditivity of privacy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A

    2009-09-18

    Quantum information theory establishes the ultimate limits on communication and cryptography in terms of channel capacities for various types of information. The private capacity is particularly important because it quantifies achievable rates of quantum key distribution. We study the power of quantum channels with limited private capacity, focusing on channels that dephase in random bases. These display extensive nonadditivity of private capacity: a channel with 2logd input qubits that has a private capacity less than 2, but when used together with a second channel with zero private capacity, the joint capacity jumps to (1/2)logd. In contrast to earlier work which found nonadditivity vanishing as a fraction of input size or conditional on unproven mathematical assumptions, this provides a natural setting manifesting nonadditivity of privacy of the strongest possible sort. PMID:19792417

  4. Neutrons in extensive air showers

    SciTech Connect

    Stenkin, Yu. V.; Djappuev, D. D.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.

    2007-06-15

    The main properties of the so-called neutron bursts produced by the passage of extensive air showers (EASs) through a detector array and the properties of these EASs are considered using the experiments that are being or have been carried out previously with the Carpet-2 array at Baksan Neutrino Observatory of the Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, and at Cosmic-Ray Station of UNAM in Mexico as examples. We show that no exotic processes are required to explain the nature of neutron bursts. Based on a working prototype of the previously proposed MULTICOM array, we also show that this phenomenon can be successfully used in studying the EAS hadronic component and that adding special thermal neutron detectors can improve significantly the capabilities of the array for EAS study.

  5. 13. Interior detail, Blacksmith Shop, showing a portion of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior detail, Blacksmith Shop, showing a portion of the original overhead belt drive system that powered machine tools in the adjacent Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to west, 135mm lens. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  6. Turning an Extension Aide into an Extension Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Brenda; Dormody, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    For any organization to remain sustainable, a renewable source of faculty and staff needs to be available. The Extension Internship Program for Juniors and Seniors in High School is a new tool for recruiting and developing new Extension agents. Students get "hands on" experience working in an Extension office and earn college credit while in high…

  7. The BGAN extension programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  8. Privatising Agricultural Extension: Caveat Emptor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, A. D.; Lamers, J. P. A.; Ficarelli, P. P.; Hoffmann, V.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses forces promoting privatization of agricultural extension. Discusses experiences of privatization and commercialization of extension and related problems in various countries, particularly developing countries. Suggests that the state will continue to play an important role in agricultural extension in many countries and that…

  9. 28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. 5. View from road surface looking southeast, showing approach and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View from road surface looking southeast, showing approach and across the bridge. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  11. 12. Detail showing concrete abutment on southwest side looking east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail showing concrete abutment on southwest side looking east, taken from below road surface. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  12. 12. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK CENTER AREA SHOWING ASPHALT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK CENTER AREA SHOWING ASPHALT AND NORTH SIDE GUARD WALL - Route 1 Extension, South Street Viaduct, Spanning Conrail & Wheeler Point Road at South Street, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  13. 29. VIEW NORTHEAST, TYPICAL UNDERSIDE FRAMING DETAIL SHOWING CENTER JOINT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW NORTHEAST, TYPICAL UNDERSIDE FRAMING DETAIL SHOWING CENTER JOINT OF CONCRETE PORTION OF SECTION 12 - Route 1 Extension, Southbound Viaduct, Spanning Conrail Yards, Wilson Avenue, Delancy Street, & South Street on Routes 1 & 9 Southbound, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  14. INTERIOR VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2, DRAWING ROOM, SHOWING A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2, DRAWING ROOM, SHOWING A FLOOR INDICATING FOURCAULT DRAWING MACHINE AND FURNACE. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  15. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER FURNACE NO. 2 SHOWING STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER FURNACE NO. 2 SHOWING STEEL AND REFRACTORY BRICK SUPPORT SYSTEM. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  16. 78. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTO SHOWING ORIGINAL BULLFROG MINE (LEFT BACKGROUND) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTO SHOWING ORIGINAL BULLFROG MINE (LEFT BACKGROUND) AND BULLFROG WEST EXTENSION MINE (RIGHT FOREGROUND). From Rhyolite, Nevada Herald (22 March 1907) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  17. 57. VIEW WEST, DETAIL OF CANTILEVER SPAN SHOWING OVERHANG FRAMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. VIEW WEST, DETAIL OF CANTILEVER SPAN SHOWING OVERHANG FRAMING AND UNDERSIDE FRAMING - Route 1 Extension, Southbound Viaduct, Spanning Conrail Yards, Wilson Avenue, Delancy Street, & South Street on Routes 1 & 9 Southbound, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  18. 4. Exterior, detail south elevation, showing jointing of logs on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Exterior, detail south elevation, showing jointing of logs on later extension. Sept. 12, 1940. Mixon. - Upper Swedish Log Cabin, Darby Creek vicinity, Clifton Heights (Upper Darby Township), Darby, Delaware County, PA

  19. 37. VIEW SOUTHWEST, CENTER SPAN OF THREE SPAN FRAME SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. VIEW SOUTHWEST, CENTER SPAN OF THREE SPAN FRAME SHOWING BRACING SYSTEM (SPAN 50) - Route 1 Extension, Southbound Viaduct, Spanning Conrail Yards, Wilson Avenue, Delancy Street, & South Street on Routes 1 & 9 Southbound, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  20. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING CREST AND DOWNSTREAM FACE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING CREST AND DOWNSTREAM FACE, WITH CONCRETE EXTENSION IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Fire Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  1. 9. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK AT EAST SIDE SHOWING GRANITE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK AT EAST SIDE SHOWING GRANITE BLOCK PAVING, EXPANSION JOINT AND NORTH SIDE PIPE RAILING - Route 1 Extension, South Street Viaduct, Spanning Conrail & Wheeler Point Road at South Street, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  2. 7 CFR 97.400 - Extensions of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extensions of time. 97.400 Section 97.400 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Extensions of time. Upon a showing of good cause, extensions of time not otherwise provided for may...

  3. 7 CFR 97.400 - Extensions of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extensions of time. 97.400 Section 97.400 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Extensions of time. Upon a showing of good cause, extensions of time not otherwise provided for may...

  4. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePlus

    ... shows the ranges for blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours of fasting (not eating). It shows the normal range and the abnormal ranges that are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes. Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)* Diagnosis 70 to 99 ...

  5. Extension education and the role of university extension departments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, Michael B.

    1994-03-01

    The categorisation by Yesufu is important in delineating the several functions and orientations through which extension education can be effected. Extension education as a catalyst in the field of development education is an imperative for all universities and other allied institutions, whether technological, agricultural, liberal or conventionally oriented. Towards this end, appropriately trained extension education personnel are a necessity. Extension departments have peculiar and unique problems due to their dual orientation. The need, therefore, arises for special attention and consideration in the areas of funding, organisational scheduling, and human and infrastructural resources.

  6. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  7. 35. WEST END ELEVATION, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. WEST END ELEVATION, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE AND COAL HOUSES, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, JANUARY 1908, SHEET NO. 7. Aperture card 6498-7. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. 34. PLAN, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. PLAN, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE AND COAL HOUSES, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWARAGE WORKS, JANUARY 1909, SHEET NO. 11. Aperture card 6498-11. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. Welding torch gas cup extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to a gas shielded electric arc welding torch having a detachable gas cup extension which may be of any desired configuration or length. The gas cup extension assembly is mounted on a standard electric welding torch gas cup to enable welding in areas with limited access. The gas cup assembly has an upper tubular insert that fits within the gas cup such that its lower portion protrudes thereform and has a lower tubular extension that is screwed into the lower portion. The extension has a rim to define the outer perimeter of the seat edge about its entrance opening so a gasket may be placed to effect an airtight seal between the gas cup and extension. The tubular extension may be made of metal or cermaic material that can be machined. The novelty lies in the use of an extension assembly for a standard gas cup of an electric arc welding torch which extension assembly is detachable permitting the use of a number of extensions which may be of different configurations and materials and yet fit the standard gas cup.

  10. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  11. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  12. Arches showing UV flaring activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The UVSP data obtained in the previous maximum activity cycle show the frequent appearance of flaring events in the UV. In many cases these flaring events are characterized by at least two footpoints which show compact impulsive non-simultaneous brightenings and a fainter but clearly observed arch developes between the footpoints. These arches and footpoints are observed in line corresponding to different temperatures, as Lyman alpha, N V, and C IV, and when observed above the limb display large Doppler shifts at some stages. The size of the arches can be larger than 20 arcsec.

  13. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  14. Pembrolizumab Shows Promise for NSCLC.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    Data from the KEYNOTE-001 trial show that pembrolizumab improves clinical outcomes for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and is well tolerated. PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumor cells correlated with improved efficacy.

  15. Stress: Professional Development Needs of Extension Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Place, Nick T.; Jacob, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 314 of 422 extension faculty showed a variety of levels of job stress, primarily from time pressures and overcommitment. Those who used formal planning and time management techniques had lower stress scores. Time with family was a common coping mechanism. (Contains 19 references.) (SK)

  16. On Viviani's Theorem and Its Extensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abboud, Elias

    2010-01-01

    Viviani's theorem states that the sum of distances from any point inside an equilateral triangle to its sides is constant. Here, in an extension of this result, we show, using linear programming, that any convex polygon can be divided into parallel line segments on which the sum of the distances to the sides of the polygon is constant. Let us say…

  17. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  18. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  19. GNU Fortran Cray Pointer Extension

    2005-07-27

    The gfortran compiler is a Fortran front end to the GNU Compiler Collection. The Cray Pointer extension adds to this existing compiler support for Cray-style integer pointers. This non-standard but widely used extension adds the functionality of C-like pointers to the Fortran language.

  20. Cooperative Extension: A Historical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert A.

    1970-01-01

    The early goals of the Extension Service were to increase agricultural productivity and maintain a rural way of life. Extension has been unable to fulfill both goals; increasing agricultural production has led to the liquidation of the rural way of life and to the development of corporate farms. (DM)

  1. Energy Crisis vs. Extension Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liles, Harold R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses what steps were taken by the Cooperative Extension Service in Oklahoma, after the energy crisis began, to help landowners make better decisions regarding oil and gas leases. Oklahoma's Extension educational efforts in mineral rights management have been successful because they met the needs of the people. (EM)

  2. Extensive Reading Coursebooks in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renandya, Willy A.; Hu, Guangwei; Xiang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a principle-based evaluation of eight dedicated extensive reading coursebooks published in mainland China and used in many universities across the country. The aim is to determine the extent to which these coursebooks reflect a core set of nine second language acquisition and extensive reading principles. Our analysis shows…

  3. Extension and the Practicing Veterinarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerholz, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    In order for Extension programs of veterinary medicine to succeed, good relationships are needed among university veterinarians, practicing local veterinarians, county Extension agents and the clientele. This author attempts to define some roles and relationships and offer some suggestions for the improvement of relationships to increase…

  4. Solvable rational extensions of the isotonic oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Grandati, Yves

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > We obtain in a new way the solvable rational extensions of the isotonic oscillator. > The method is systematic without resorting to any ansatz. > We use a generalization of the SUSY quantum partnership to excited states. > They are regularized by specific discrete symmetries of the potential. > The proof of the shape invariance of the extensions is direct. - Abstract: Combining recent results on rational solutions of the Riccati-Schroedinger equations for shape invariant potentials to the finite difference Baecklund algorithm and specific symmetries of the isotonic potential, we show that it is possible to generate the three infinite sets (L1, L2 and L3 families) of regular rational solvable extensions of this potential in a very direct and transparent way.

  5. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  6. "Show me" bioethics and politics.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Myra J

    2007-10-01

    Missouri, the "Show Me State," has become the epicenter of several important national public policy debates, including abortion rights, the right to choose and refuse medical treatment, and, most recently, early stem cell research. In this environment, the Center for Practical Bioethics (formerly, Midwest Bioethics Center) emerged and grew. The Center's role in these "cultural wars" is not to advocate for a particular position but to provide well researched and objective information, perspective, and advocacy for the ethical justification of policy positions; and to serve as a neutral convener and provider of a public forum for discussion. In this article, the Center's work on early stem cell research is a case study through which to argue that not only the Center, but also the field of bioethics has a critical role in the politics of public health policy.

  7. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  8. Nozzle extension design status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Classen, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty possible concepts of a possible nozzle/nozzle extension interface were originated. Not all of the concepts were considered worthy of analysis time. Six of them were thermally analyzed and three were stress analyzed. These analyses were done to determine which of the concepts would have the best chance of succeeding, that is, they were a screening process which was to allow rating of one concept against another. This was done because adequate material properties to determine absolute stress levels were not available at the time of the analyses. Through all of the concepts still exhibit some areas of negative margin of safety, concept no. 1 shows good promise that, with slight modifications, it could have all positive margins of safety. Another significant question, regarding these designs, has to do with the Grafoil seals and insulators. Some additional data was just recently received on Grafoil properties, but it was too late to incorporate in the analyses. The new data were not significantly different from the properties which were used.

  9. Extensive Floods in United Kingdom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rain continues to fall in the United Kingdom, bringing more water to an already water-logged landscape. Some rivers there are experiencing their worst flooding in more than 50 years. Of particular note, Britain's River Ouse reached its highest levels on record since 1625. Thousands of people have been evacuated from their homes since October 30, when a large low-pressure system brought torrential rains and hurricane-force winds, placing regions around more than 40 rivers across the country on flood alert. Since then, the rains have persisted, keeping water levels high and causing additional rivers to overrun their banks. In all, at least 12 people have been killed and more than 5,000 properties flooded. Some officials estimate damages could reach 500 million pounds (roughly $715 million). These Landsat 7 scenes show a comparison of the region surrounding Exeter, England, before and after the floods. The top image was acquired September 28 and the bottom image was acquired October 30, 2000. Note the extensive flooding along the River Exe in the bottom image (blue pixels). The light bluish-white pixels in the top image are clouds, and the black splotches on the landscape are the clouds' shadows. The reddish-brown shapes are agricultural fields. Image by Robert Simmon and Brian Montgomery, NASA GSFC. Data provided by Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center.

  10. Extensive wetting due to roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, F.G.; Michael, J.R.; Eisenmann, E.T. . Center for Solder Science and Technology)

    1995-01-01

    Typically, a small mass of eutectic Sn-Pb solder wets a copper surface and flows radially outward to form a hemispherical shape with a contact angle of approx. 15--20 deg. When a similar mass of solder wets and thick electroless copper coated substrate, rapid radial flow commences and surprising new effects occur. Thick coats of electroless copper have a nodular surface structure and spreading on it does not subside until all solder is consumed. When the nodular structure is wetted by solder a coastline'' with many nearby islands'' are defined. Photos of regions at the wetting front were taken in the backscatter imaging mode of an SEM. These images show that solder wets the valleys between the surface nodules forming a delicate, lacy arrangement. The geometry of this coastal'' solder structure is described as fractal-like having a dimension D = 1.38 making it similar to drying fronts and cloud configurations. The importance of surface roughness in wetting phenomena is discussed in the light of an extensive history on the subject. It is shown that for spontaneous flow, assisted by roughness, the surface geometry must consist of local angles that are larger than the equilibrium contact angle. Kinetics of the wetting process are demonstrated by image analysis of wetted area taken from videotaped experiments. These experimental kinetics are shown to be similar in form to flow in open channel capillaries.

  11. Pea Plants Show Risk Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dener, Efrat; Kacelnik, Alex; Shemesh, Hagai

    2016-07-11

    Sensitivity to variability in resources has been documented in humans, primates, birds, and social insects, but the fit between empirical results and the predictions of risk sensitivity theory (RST), which aims to explain this sensitivity in adaptive terms, is weak [1]. RST predicts that agents should switch between risk proneness and risk aversion depending on state and circumstances, especially according to the richness of the least variable option [2]. Unrealistic assumptions about agents' information processing mechanisms and poor knowledge of the extent to which variability imposes specific selection in nature are strong candidates to explain the gap between theory and data. RST's rationale also applies to plants, where it has not hitherto been tested. Given the differences between animals' and plants' information processing mechanisms, such tests should help unravel the conflicts between theory and data. Measuring root growth allocation by split-root pea plants, we show that they favor variability when mean nutrient levels are low and the opposite when they are high, supporting the most widespread RST prediction. However, the combination of non-linear effects of nitrogen availability at local and systemic levels may explain some of these effects as a consequence of mechanisms not necessarily evolved to cope with variance [3, 4]. This resembles animal examples in which properties of perception and learning cause risk sensitivity even though they are not risk adaptations [5]. PMID:27374342

  12. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, Bo E.

    2009-10-15

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  13. Extension Russian: A Few Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Irene J.

    1974-01-01

    Presents observations on the teaching of Russian in an evening extension course and four teaching techniques which involve variety in lesson planning, flexibility in presentation, a relaxed atmosphere and encouragement. (LG)

  14. Video 6 of 6: Extensions

    NASA Video Gallery

    Find out ways to modify and enrich this challenge to make it more suitable for the ability level of your students. These customizations also could be used as extensions to the existing challenge. D...

  15. Boiler-turbine life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Natzkov, S.; Nikolov, M.

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  16. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  17. 75 FR 48921 - Administrative Guidance for Multistate Extension Activities and Integrated Research and Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ...: ``Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service's Implementation of the Agricultural Research... amount of agricultural extension formula funds be expended on multistate extension activities. Section... agricultural research and extension formula funds be expended on integrated research and extension...

  18. Extensive fitness and human cooperation.

    PubMed

    van Hateren, J H

    2015-12-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known as inclusive fitness. Here it is argued that a further elaboration of fitness has evolved, particularly in humans. It is called extensive fitness and it incorporates producing organisms that are merely similar in phenotype. The evolvability of this mechanism is illustrated by computations on a simple model combining heredity and behaviour. Phenotypes are driven into the direction of high fitness through a mechanism that involves an internal estimate of fitness, implicitly made within the organism itself. This mechanism has recently been conjectured to be responsible for producing agency and goals. In the model, inclusive and extensive fitness are both implemented by letting fitness increase nonlinearly with the size of subpopulations of similar heredity (for the indirect part of inclusive fitness) and of similar phenotype (for the phenotypic part of extensive fitness). Populations implementing extensive fitness outcompete populations implementing mere inclusive fitness. This occurs because groups with similar phenotype tend to be larger than groups with similar heredity, and fitness increases more when groups are larger. Extensive fitness has two components, a direct component where individuals compete in inducing others to become like them and an indirect component where individuals cooperate and help others who are already similar to them.

  19. Applications and extensions of degradation modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, F.; Subudhi, M.; Samanta, P.K. ); Vesely, W.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Component degradation modeling being developed to understand the aging process can have many applications with potential advantages. Previous work has focused on developing the basic concepts and mathematical development of a simple degradation model. Using this simple model, times of degradations and failures occurrences were analyzed for standby components to detect indications of aging and to infer the effectiveness of maintenance in preventing age-related degradations from transforming to failures. Degradation modeling approaches can have broader applications in aging studies and in this paper, we discuss some of the extensions and applications of degradation modeling. The application and extension of degradation modeling approaches, presented in this paper, cover two aspects: (1) application to a continuously operating component, and (2) extension of the approach to analyze degradation-failure rate relationship. The application of the modeling approach to a continuously operating component (namely, air compressors) shows the usefulness of this approach in studying aging effects and the role of maintenance in this type component. In this case, aging effects in air compressors are demonstrated by the increase in both the degradation and failure rate and the faster increase in the failure rate compared to the degradation rate shows the ineffectiveness of the existing maintenance practices. Degradation-failure rate relationship was analyzed using data from residual heat removal system pumps. A simple linear model with a time-lag between these two parameters was studied. The application in this case showed a time-lag of 2 years for degradations to affect failure occurrences. 2 refs.

  20. Applications and extensions of degradation modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, F.; Subudhi, M.; Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.

    1991-12-31

    Component degradation modeling being developed to understand the aging process can have many applications with potential advantages. Previous work has focused on developing the basic concepts and mathematical development of a simple degradation model. Using this simple model, times of degradations and failures occurrences were analyzed for standby components to detect indications of aging and to infer the effectiveness of maintenance in preventing age-related degradations from transforming to failures. Degradation modeling approaches can have broader applications in aging studies and in this paper, we discuss some of the extensions and applications of degradation modeling. The application and extension of degradation modeling approaches, presented in this paper, cover two aspects: (1) application to a continuously operating component, and (2) extension of the approach to analyze degradation-failure rate relationship. The application of the modeling approach to a continuously operating component (namely, air compressors) shows the usefulness of this approach in studying aging effects and the role of maintenance in this type component. In this case, aging effects in air compressors are demonstrated by the increase in both the degradation and failure rate and the faster increase in the failure rate compared to the degradation rate shows the ineffectiveness of the existing maintenance practices. Degradation-failure rate relationship was analyzed using data from residual heat removal system pumps. A simple linear model with a time-lag between these two parameters was studied. The application in this case showed a time-lag of 2 years for degradations to affect failure occurrences. 2 refs.

  1. Extension for prevention: margin placement.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thomas D

    2012-01-01

    This article will review the concept of extension for prevention popularized by G.V. Black around the early 1900s. Concepts of extension and prevention have changed over the years with a more informed knowledge of the caries process, improved materials, cutting instruments, and techniques. The reasons for placement of the outline form relative to the tooth morphology, gingival tissue, relationship to adjacent teeth, and the choice of material will be described for all of the materials used in restorative dentistry. Research will be cited to support the scientific basis for outline form placement. PMID:22662468

  2. 40 CFR 231.8 - Extension of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Extension of time. 231.8 Section 231.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(c) PROCEDURES § 231.8 Extension of time. The Administrator or the Regional Administrator may, upon a showing of...

  3. 40 CFR 231.8 - Extension of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extension of time. 231.8 Section 231.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(c) PROCEDURES § 231.8 Extension of time. The Administrator or the Regional Administrator may, upon a showing of...

  4. Information Search Behaviors of Indian Farmers: Implications for Extension Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glendenning, Claire J.; Babu, Suresh C.; Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In India, a national survey conducted in 2003 showed that only 40% of farmers accessed extension. But little is known of the characteristics of farmers who did not access extension. However, this understanding is needed in order to target approaches to farmers, who differ in their access and use of information, that is their information…

  5. [Culture and perspectives of university extension in Brazilian nursing schools].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, R A; de Oliveira, M H; Robazzi, M L

    1993-12-01

    The present study focused the development of activities or cultural proposals and university extension in 14 Brazilian Nursing Schools, utilizing an instrument with six open questions, that were analyzed in a descriptive way. Data showed that Nursing Schools develop several cultural and university extension activities. However, these activities are not considered priority in relation to teaching and research.

  6. A Case Study of Stakeholder Needs for Extension Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Mariger, S. Christian

    2002-01-01

    Data from 65 extension stakeholders engaged in forestry-related activities showed that communication barriers existed between university faculty and stakeholders. Stakeholders were not getting the information they needed, extension agents generally lacked appropriate content knowledge, and printed communications were ineffective or too technical.…

  7. An Extension of the Mean Value Theorem for Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalili, Parviz; Vasiliu, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    In this note we present an extension of the mean value theorem for integrals. The extension we consider is motivated by an older result (here referred as Corollary 2), which is quite classical for the literature of Mathematical Analysis or Calculus. We also show an interesting application for computing the sum of a harmonic series.

  8. Extension Resources for International Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  9. Removing the Tension from Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Lucy; Driscoll, Elizabeth; Bardon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Job burnout and stress begin with day-to-day frustrations, roadblocks, and unmet expectations. These can transform job satisfaction and, ultimately, career choices, affecting the quality of programs, expense to universities, and relationships with the community. A series of innovative statewide workshops involving 97 agents and Extension directors…

  10. Agricultural Extension. A Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunder, Addison, H.

    The basic philosophy of agricultural extension was established in the more highly developed countries over the past century. Newly formed nations, the rural population of which formerly maintained a subsistence agriculture with limited industry, found it essential to establish a better-balanced economy. This led to a variety of rural services and…

  11. Strategic Opportunities for Cooperative Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this new century, opportunities exist to help advance America's greatness in the midst of many challenges. Energy, water, food, environment, health, economic productivity, global competitiveness, and the quality of the living environments are all paramount to the future. Extension is, as a part of higher education, prepared to create new…

  12. Slope Extensions to ASL Library

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David

    2010-03-31

    Extensions to the AMPL/solver interface library (http://netlib.sandia.gov/ampl/solvers) to compute bounds on algebraic expressions, plus a test program. use in uncertainty quantification and global optimization algorithms. This software is not primarily for military applications.

  13. Mortality among agricultural extension agents.

    PubMed

    Alavanja, M C; Blair, A; Merkle, S; Teske, J; Eaton, B

    1988-01-01

    The mortality experience of agricultural extension agents in the Cooperative Extension Service (CES) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture who died during the period January 1, 1970-December 31, 1979 (n = 1,495 white males) was evaluated in proportionate-mortality and case-control studies. The proportionate-mortality analysis was used to identify cancers that might be elevated in this occupational group compared with the U.S. white male population. All cancers with a significantly elevated proportionate-mortality ratio were more thoroughly evaluated in the case-control study, where there is presumably less of a selection bias in the comparison. In the case-control study, leukemia demonstrated a statistically significant linear trend with duration of employment as an extension agent. Smaller, but nonsignificant, trends were seen for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and brain cancer. The odds ratio for Hodgkin's disease and cancers of the colon, prostate, and kidney did not vary with the number of years on the job. These patterns resemble cancer risks seen among farmers, suggesting that agricultural factors may also play a role in the origin of these tumors among extension agents.

  14. NACRE Update and Extension Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, Masayuki; Arai, Koji; Arnould, Marcel; Takahashi, Kohji; Utsunomiya, Hiroaki

    2006-04-01

    NACRE, the `nuclear astrophysics compilation of reaction rates', has been widely utilized in stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis studies since its publication in 1999. We describe here the current status of a Konan-Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) joint project that aims at its update and extension.

  15. Who Are Extension Council Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Wayne H.

    1970-01-01

    Many Extension Council members were recommended by associates or friends, a procedure that contributed to homogeneity in council membership. Such homogeneity may make it difficult for council members to perceive problems of clientele with characteristics or attitudes different from their own. (DM)

  16. Nuclear power plant life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.D.; Bustard, L.D.; Harrison, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear plant life extension represents an opportunity to achieve additional productive years of operation from existing nuclear power facilities. This is particularly important since operating licenses for over 50 GW of nuclear capacity will expire by the year 2010. By the year 2015, 85% of the total planned nuclear electric capacity will face retirement due to license expirations. Achieving additional productive years of operation from the nation's existing light water reactors is the goal of ongoing utility, vendor, US Department of Energy, and Electric Power Research Institute programs. Identifying potential technical issues associated with extending plant life and scoping realistic solutions represent first steps toward the development of a coordinated national plant life extension strategy. This is a substantial effort that must consider the breadth of issues associated with nuclear power plant design, operation, and licensing, and the numerous potential plant life extension strategies that may be appropriate to different utilities. Such an effort must enlist the expertise of the full spectrum of organizations in the nuclear industry including utilities, vendors, consultants, national laboratories, and professional organizations. A primary focus of these efforts is to identify operational changes and improvements in record-keeping, which, if implemented now, could enhance and preserve the life extension option.

  17. NACRE Update and Extension Project

    SciTech Connect

    Aikawa, Masayuki; Arnould, Marcel; Takahashi, Kohji; Arai, Koji; Utsunomiya, Hiroaki

    2006-04-26

    NACRE, the 'nuclear astrophysics compilation of reaction rates', has been widely utilized in stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis studies since its publication in 1999. We describe here the current status of a Konan-Universite Libre de Brussels (ULB) joint project that aims at its update and extension.

  18. 14. Looking slightly southeast, showing railing, some abutment and east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Looking slightly southeast, showing railing, some abutment and east side all the way across the bridge. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  19. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING PROTOTYPE BEGUN APRIL 1988 METHOD OF CUTTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING PROTOTYPE BEGUN APRIL 1988 METHOD OF CUTTING GLASS, "PERFECT TIN? MACHINE." MANUFACTURED IN DALLAS, TEXAS AND USED FOR CUTTING GLASS WITH A FINISHED EDGE. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Cutting House, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  20. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration. PMID:27698988

  1. 25. View is the side of pier #6 showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. View is the side of pier #6 - showing the junction of the last pony truss and the first through truss. Note the way the end posts are attached this pier extension. For a top view of this, see CA-22. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  2. 1. WESTERN VIEW OF BRIDGE PLAZA, SHOWING MEMORIAL BRIDGE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WESTERN VIEW OF BRIDGE PLAZA, SHOWING MEMORIAL BRIDGE AT LEFT AND THE ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY RAMP AT RIGHT. VIEW TAKEN FROM THE REAR OF THE LINCOLN MEMORIAL. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Boundary Channel Extension, Spanning Mount Vernon Memorial Highway & Boundary Channel, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING BATCH SCALES. SERIES OF FIVE SCALES WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING BATCH SCALES. SERIES OF FIVE SCALES WITH SIX DIFFERENT MATERIALS. MIX SIFTED DOWN FROM SILOS ABOVE. INGREDIENTS: SAND, SODA ASH, DOLOMITE LIMESTONE, NEPHELINE SYENITE, SALT CAKE. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Batch Plant, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  4. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.

  5. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS EVERY TWENTY MINUTES TO DETERMINE SIZE AND TEXTURE OF BATCH AND OTHER VARIABLES. FAN IN FRONT COOLS WORKERS AS THEY CONDUCT REPAIRS. FURNACE TEMPERATURE AT 1572 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  6. 41. Fixed Span, Floor Beam 1, showing the cantilever; looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Fixed Span, Floor Beam 1, showing the cantilever; looking N. (The splice between the original beam and the 1960 extension (widening) is between the two stringers to the left of the bottom chord tension members). - Pacific Shortline Bridge, U.S. Route 20,spanning Missouri River, Sioux City, Woodbury County, IA

  7. 6. Photocopy of old photo shows a general view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of old photo shows a general view of the building before 1918, when Idaho World occupied it. Note north extension and bricked openings on the south elevation. Original photograph at Boise Basin Museum, Idaho City, Idaho - Idaho World Building, Main & Commercial Streets, Idaho City, Boise County, ID

  8. 4. EXTERIOR NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING 102 SHOWING USHAPED SPACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING 102 SHOWING U-SHAPED SPACE BETWEEN KITCHEN NOS. 1 AND 2, SHED-ROOFED EXTENSION TO UTILITY ROOM CONTAINING HOT WATER HEATER, AND ASBESTOS SIDING. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  9. A Conceptual Framework for Determining Training Needs of Extension Agents Applied to Dairy Science. The Findings from Extension Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verma, Satish

    A summary of an Extension Education dissertation on a study to develop a framework of curriculum and learning theory features, to determine needs of Extension agents, and to show its application to dairy science is presented. Tyler's rationale for deriving educational objectives (curriculum theory) and Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive behavior…

  10. A giant frontoethmoid mucocele with intracranial extension.

    PubMed

    Işık, Abdülcemal Ümit; Arslan, Selçuk; Arslan, Erhan; Baykal, Süleyman

    2015-02-01

    Mucoceles are mucus-containing cysts lined by epithelium. Although benign, they may show expansive growth and remain undiagnosed until symptoms due to compression of surrounding structures arise. We report a rare case of frontoethmoid mucocele with intracranial extension in an 80-year-old woman with complaints of headache, right diplopia and proptosis. A right frontoorbital craniotomy was performed, and a mucocele in the frontal sinus extending into the frontal lobe and orbit was totally removed. The patient was successfully treated without any complication. The two-year follow-up results were satisfactory. Magnetic resonance imaging excluded any recurrence of the mucocele. Combined intranasal and transcranial approach is necessary to treat giant frontoetmoid mucoceles with intracranial extension.

  11. States On Orthocomplemented Difference Posets (Extensions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hroch, Michal; Pták, Pavel

    2016-08-01

    We continue the investigation of orthocomplemented posets that are endowed with a symmetric difference (ODPs). The ODPs are orthomodular and, therefore, can be viewed as "enriched" quantum logics. In this note, we introduced states on ODPs. We derive their basic properties and study the possibility of extending them over larger ODPs. We show that there are extensions of states from Boolean algebras over unital ODPs. Since unital ODPs do not, in general, have to be set-representable, this result can be applied to a rather large class of ODPs. We then ask the same question after replacing Boolean algebras with "nearly Boolean" ODPs (the pseudocomplemented ODPs). Making use of a few results on ODPs, some known and some new, we construct a pseudocomplemented ODP, P, and a state on P that does not allow for extensions over larger ODPs.

  12. Building an Extension Network in Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poussard, H.

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural extension in Vietnam is in transition as the economy moves to a market orientation. The national extension service created in 1993 is constrained by lack of funding, staff, and access to current extension knowledge. (SK)

  13. Sphenoethmoidal mucoceles with intracranial extension.

    PubMed

    Close, L G; O'Conner, W E

    1983-08-01

    Mucoceles of the paranasal sinuses are benign, expansile, locally destructive lesions that are thought to occur secondary to obstruction of the sinus ostia. Nasal and/or ocular signs and symptoms are the usual clinical manifestations of mucoceles arising in the ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses, and intracranial extension is rare. We describe three cases of widely destructive sphenoethmoidal mucoceles extending intracranially, with bone erosion and dural exposure in all cases and brain necrosis in one case.

  14. An Extension for ESO Headquarters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Robert; Walsh, Jeremy

    2009-03-01

    The ESO Headquarters was completed in 1980, but is now too small to house all the ESO staff and currently only about 50% reside in the original building. A decision was taken to seek an extension to the Headquarters building in close proximity to the current one and a competition was launched for architectural designs. Three designs were shortlisted and the process of selection for the final design is described. Construction will begin in 2010 and is due for completion in 2012.

  15. Multiple Neuropeptide-Coding Genes Involved in Planarian Pharynx Extension.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Seira; Inoue, Takeshi; Kashima, Makoto; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2016-06-01

    Planarian feeding behavior involves three steps: moving toward food, extending the pharynx from their planarian's ventral side after arriving at the food, and ingesting the food through the pharynx. Although pharynx extension is a remarkable behavior, it remains unknown what neuronal cell types are involved in its regulation. To identify neurons involved in regulating pharynx extension, we quantitatively analyzed pharynx extension and sought to identify these neurons by RNA interference (RNAi) and in situ hybridization. This assay, when performed using planarians with amputation of various body parts, clearly showed that the head portion is indispensable for inducing pharynx extension. We thus tested the effects of knockdown of brain neurons such as serotonergic, GABAergic, and dopaminergic neurons by RNAi, but did not observe any effects on pharynx extension behavior. However, animals with RNAi of the Prohormone Convertase 2 (PC2, a neuropeptide processing enzyme) gene did not perform the pharynx extension behavior, suggesting the possible involvement of neuropeptide(s in the regulation of pharynx extension. We screened 24 neuropeptide-coding genes, analyzed their functions by RNAi using the pharynx extension assay system, and identified at least five neuropeptide genes involved in pharynx extension. These was expressed in different cells or neurons, and some of them were expressed in the brain, suggesting complex regulation of planarian feeding behavior by the nervous system.

  16. Multiple Neuropeptide-Coding Genes Involved in Planarian Pharynx Extension.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Seira; Inoue, Takeshi; Kashima, Makoto; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2016-06-01

    Planarian feeding behavior involves three steps: moving toward food, extending the pharynx from their planarian's ventral side after arriving at the food, and ingesting the food through the pharynx. Although pharynx extension is a remarkable behavior, it remains unknown what neuronal cell types are involved in its regulation. To identify neurons involved in regulating pharynx extension, we quantitatively analyzed pharynx extension and sought to identify these neurons by RNA interference (RNAi) and in situ hybridization. This assay, when performed using planarians with amputation of various body parts, clearly showed that the head portion is indispensable for inducing pharynx extension. We thus tested the effects of knockdown of brain neurons such as serotonergic, GABAergic, and dopaminergic neurons by RNAi, but did not observe any effects on pharynx extension behavior. However, animals with RNAi of the Prohormone Convertase 2 (PC2, a neuropeptide processing enzyme) gene did not perform the pharynx extension behavior, suggesting the possible involvement of neuropeptide(s in the regulation of pharynx extension. We screened 24 neuropeptide-coding genes, analyzed their functions by RNAi using the pharynx extension assay system, and identified at least five neuropeptide genes involved in pharynx extension. These was expressed in different cells or neurons, and some of them were expressed in the brain, suggesting complex regulation of planarian feeding behavior by the nervous system. PMID:27268986

  17. COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS EXTENSION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2005-05-15

    The primary objective of the CCP Extension Program is to promote the responsible uses of Ohio CCPs that are technically sound, environmentally safe, and commercially competitive. A secondary objective is to assist other CCP generating states (particularly neighboring states) in establishing CCP use programs within their states. The goal of the CCP extension program at OSU is to work with CCP stakeholders to increase the overall CCP state utilization rate to more than 30% by the year 2005. The program aims to increase FGD utilization for Ohio to more than 20% by the year 2005. The increased utilization rates are expected to be achieved through increased use of CCPs for highway, mine reclamation, agricultural, manufacturing, and other civil engineering uses. In order to accomplish these objectives and goals, the highly successful CCP pilot extension program previously in place at the university has been expanded and adopted by the university as a part of its outreach and engagement mission. The extension program is an innovative technology transfer program with multiple sponsors. The program is a collaborative effort between The Ohio State University (College of Engineering and University Extension Service), United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Ohio Department of Development's Coal Development Office, and trade associations such as the American Coal Ash Association as well as the Midwest Coal Ash Association. Industry co-sponsors include American Electric Power, Dravo Lime Company, and ISG Resources. Implementation of the proposed project results in both direct and indirect as well as societal benefits. These benefits include (1) increased utilization of CCPs instead of landfilling, (2) development of proper construction and installation procedures, (3) education of regulators, specification-writers, designers, construction contractors, and the public, (4) emphasis on recycling and decrease in the need for landfill space, (5

  18. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2004-12-31

    The primary objective of the CCP Extension Program is to promote the responsible uses of Ohio CCPs that are technically sound, environmentally safe, and commercially competitive. A secondary objective is to assist other CCP generating states (particularly neighboring states) in establishing CCP use programs within their states. The goal of the CCP extension program at OSU is to work with CCP stakeholders to increase the overall CCP state utilization rate to more than 30% by the year 2005. The program aims to increase FGD utilization for Ohio to more than 20% by the year 2005. The increased utilization rates are expected to be achieved through increased use of CCPs for highway, mine reclamation, agricultural, manufacturing, and other civil engineering uses. In order to accomplish these objectives and goals, the highly successful CCP pilot extension program previously in place at the university has been expanded and adopted by the university as a part of its outreach and engagement mission. The extension program is an innovative technology transfer program with multiple sponsors. The program is a collaborative effort between The Ohio State University (College of Engineering and University Extension Service), United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Ohio Department of Development's Coal Development Office, and trade associations such as the American Coal Ash Association as well as the Midwest Coal Ash Association. Industry co-sponsors include American Electric Power, Dravo Lime Company, and ISG Resources. Implementation of the proposed project results in both direct and indirect as well as societal benefits. These benefits include (1) increased utilization of CCPs instead of landfilling, (2) development of proper construction and installation procedures, (3) education of regulators, specification-writers, designers, construction contractors, and the public, (4) emphasis on recycling and decrease in the need for landfill space, (5

  19. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2003-12-31

    The primary objective of the CCP Extension Program is to promote the responsible uses of Ohio CCPs that are technically sound, environmentally safe, and commercially competitive. A secondary objective is to assist other CCP generating states (particularly neighboring states) in establishing CCP use programs within their states. The goal of the CCP extension program at OSU is to work with CCP stakeholders to increase the overall CCP state utilization rate to more than 30% by the year 2005. The program aims to increase FGD utilization for Ohio to more than 20% by the year 2005. The increased utilization rates are expected to be achieved through increased use of CCPs for highway, mine reclamation, agricultural, manufacturing, and other civil engineering uses. In order to accomplish these objectives and goals, the highly successful CCP pilot extension program previously in place at the university has been expanded and adopted by the university as a part of its outreach and engagement mission. The extension program is an innovative technology transfer program with multiple sponsors. The program is a collaborative effort between The Ohio State University (College of Engineering and University Extension Service), United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Ohio Department of Development's Coal Development Office, and trade associations such as the American Coal Ash Association as well as the Midwest Coal Ash Association. Industry co-sponsors include American Electric Power, Dravo Lime Company, and ISG Resources. Implementation of the proposed project results in both direct and indirect as well as societal benefits. These benefits include (1) increased utilization of CCPs instead of landfilling, (2) development of proper construction and installation procedures, (3) education of regulators, specification-writers, designers, construction contractors, and the public, (4) emphasis on recycling and decrease in the need for landfill space, (5

  20. 48 CFR 570.405 - Lease extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lease extensions. 570.405... Requirements 570.405 Lease extensions. (a) This section applies to extension of the term of a lease to provide for continued occupancy on a short-term basis. (b) If the value of a lease extension will exceed...

  1. 14 CFR 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1260.23 Extensions. Extensions October 2000 (a) It is NASA policy to provide maximum possible continuity in funding grant-supported research and educational activities, therefore, grants may be extended.... NASA generally only approves such extensions within funds already made available. Any extension...

  2. 14 CFR 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1260.23 Extensions. Extensions October 2000 (a) It is NASA policy to provide maximum possible continuity in funding grant-supported research and educational activities, therefore, grants may be extended.... NASA generally only approves such extensions within funds already made available. Any extension...

  3. 14 CFR 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1260.23 Extensions. Extensions October 2000 (a) It is NASA policy to provide maximum possible continuity in funding grant-supported research and educational activities, therefore, grants may be extended.... NASA generally only approves such extensions within funds already made available. Any extension...

  4. 14 CFR § 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1260.23 Extensions. Extensions October 2000 (a) It is NASA policy to provide maximum possible continuity in funding grant-supported research and educational activities, therefore, grants may be extended.... NASA generally only approves such extensions within funds already made available. Any extension...

  5. 14 CFR 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1260.23 Extensions. Extensions October 2000 (a) It is NASA policy to provide maximum possible continuity in funding grant-supported research and educational activities, therefore, grants may be extended.... NASA generally only approves such extensions within funds already made available. Any extension...

  6. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2006-01-11

    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to 40% by 2010, the CCP Extension Program be

  7. Canonical ensemble in non-extensive statistical mechanics, q > 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruseckas, Julius

    2016-09-01

    The non-extensive statistical mechanics has been used to describe a variety of complex systems. The maximization of entropy, often used to introduce the non-extensive statistical mechanics, is a formal procedure and does not easily lead to physical insight. In this article we investigate the canonical ensemble in the non-extensive statistical mechanics by considering a small system interacting with a large reservoir via short-range forces and assuming equal probabilities for all available microstates. We concentrate on the situation when the reservoir is characterized by generalized entropy with non-extensivity parameter q > 1. We also investigate the problem of divergence in the non-extensive statistical mechanics occurring when q > 1 and show that there is a limit on the growth of the number of microstates of the system that is given by the same expression for all values of q.

  8. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima’D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future. PMID:27077652

  9. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  10. JESS: Java extensible snakes system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInerney, Tim; Akhavan Sharif, M. Reza; Pashotanizadeh, Nasrin

    2005-04-01

    Snakes (Active Contour Models) are powerful model-based image segmentation tools. Although researchers have proven them especially useful in medical image analysis over the past decade, Snakes have remained primarily in the academic world and they have not become widely used in clinical practice or widely available in commercial packages. A number of confusing and specialized variants exist and there has been no standard open-source implementation available. To address this problem, we present a Java Extensible Snakes System (JESS) that is general, portable, and extensible. The system uses Java Swing classes to allow for the rapid development of custom graphical user interfaces (GUI's). It also incorporates the Java Advanced Imaging(JAI) class library, which provide custom image preprocessing, image display and general image I/O. The Snakes algorithm itself is written in a hierarchical fashion, consisting of a general Snake class and several subclasses that span the main variants of Snakes including a new, powerful, robust subdivision-curve Snake. These subclasses can be easily and quickly extended and customized for any specific segmentation and analysis task. We demonstrate the utility of these classes for segmenting various anatomical structures from 2D medical images. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of JESS by using it to rapidly build a prototype semi-automatic sperm analysis system. The JESS software will be made publicly available in early 2005.

  11. Extensibility and limitations of FDDI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Game, David; Maly, Kurt J.

    1990-01-01

    Recently two standards for Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs), Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB), have emerged as the primary competitors for the MAN arena. Great interest exists in building higher speed networks which support large numbers of node and greater distance, and it is not clear what types of protocols are needed for this type of environment. There is some question as to whether or not these MAN standards can be extended to such environments. The extensibility of FDDI to the Gbps range and a long distance environment is investigated. Specification parameters which affect performance are shown and a measure is provided for predicting utilization of FDDI. A comparison of FDDI at 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps is presented. Some specific problems with FDDI are addressed and modifications which improve the viability of FDDI in such high speed networks are investigated.

  12. Industrial extension, the Oklahoma way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Edmund J.

    1994-03-01

    Oklahoma has established a customer-driven industrial extension system. A publicly-chartered, private non-profit corporation, the Oklahoma Alliance for Manufacturing Excellence, Inc. (`the Alliance') coordinates the system. The system incorporates principles that Oklahoma manufacturers value: (1) decentralization and local accessibility; (2) coordinated existing resources; (3) comprehensive help; (4) interfirm cooperation; (5) pro-active outreach; (6) self- help and commitment from firms; (7) customer governance; and (8) performance accountability. The Oklahoma system consists of: (1) a network of locally-based broker/agents who work directly with manufacturers to diagnose problems and find appropriate assistance; (2) a group of industry sector specialists who collect and disseminate sector specific technological and market intelligence to the broker/agents and their clients; (3) all the specialized public and private sector resources coordinated by the system; and (4) a customer- driven coordination and evaluation mechanism, the Alliance.

  13. Unusual ganglioglioma with extensive calcification and ossification.

    PubMed

    Kavishwar, Vikas Shashikant; Chadha, Kirti G; Barodawala, Shaikhali Moiz; Murthy, Anuradha Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Ganglioglioma is a slow-growing relatively low-grade mixed glioneuronal tumor with most cases corresponding to the WHO Grade I category. It frequently presents with seizures. The temporal lobe is the most common location followed by frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes. These generally behave in a benign fashion and have a favorable prognosis. We describe a case of a 24-year-old male presenting with convulsions and a calcified parieto-occipital mass. This mass removed from the parietal lobe showed neoplastic glial and dysplastic neuronal tissue amidst extensive areas of calcification and foci of ossification. On immunohistochemistry, the glial component expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein whereas the dysplastic neuronal component expressed synaptophysin and CD34. Epithelial membrane antigen was negative and Ki-67 showed a low proliferative index. After the surgery, the patient is free of neurological symptoms. Widespread calcification and ossification are very unusual in ganglioglioma, which prompted us to report this case. PMID:27510688

  14. 3. Oblique view of southwest end, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oblique view of southwest end, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north showing the curvature of the end wall that was the common wall with the Roundhouse, and the large metal-clad doors through which steam locomotives were moved into the Machine Shop (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  15. Modes of continental extension in a crustal wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guangliang; Lavier, Luc L.; Choi, Eunseo

    2015-07-01

    We ran numerical experiments of the extension of a crustal wedge as an approximation to extension in an orogenic belt or a continental margin. We study the effects of the strength of the lower crust and of a weak mid-crustal shear zone on the resulting extension styles. A weak mid-crustal shear zone effectively decouples upper crustal extension from lower crustal flow. Without the mid-crustal shear zone, the degree of coupling between the upper and the lower crust increases and extension of the whole crust tends to focus on the thickest part of the wedge. We identify three distinct modes of extension determined by the strength of the lower crust, which are characterized by 1) localized, asymmetric crustal exhumation in a single massif when the lower crust is weak, 2) the formation of rolling-hinge normal faults and the exhumation of lower crust in multiple core complexes with an intermediate strength lower crust, and 3) distributed domino faulting over the weak mid-crustal shear zone when the lower crust is strong. A frictionally stronger mid-crustal shear zone does not change the overall model behaviors but extension occurred over multiple rolling-hinges. The 3 modes of extension share characteristics similar to geological models proposed to explain the formation of metamorphic core complexes: 1) the crustal flow model for the weak lower crust, 2) the rolling-hinge and crustal flow models when the lower crust is intermediate and 3) the flexural uplift model when the lower crust is strong. Finally we show that the intensity of decoupling between the far field extension and lower crustal flow driven by the regional pressure gradient in the wedge control the overall style of extension in the models.

  16. Carbon sequestration potential of extensive green roofs.

    PubMed

    Getter, Kristin L; Rowe, D Bradley; Robertson, G Philip; Cregg, Bert M; Andresen, Jeffrey A

    2009-10-01

    Two studies were conducted with the objective of quantifying the carbon storage potential of extensive green roofs. The first was performed on eight roofs in Michigan and four roofs in Maryland, ranging from 1 to 6 years in age. All 12 green roofs were composed primarily of Sedum species, and substrate depths ranged from 2.5 to 12.7 cm. Aboveground plant material was harvested in the fall of 2006. On average, these roofs stored 162 g C x m(-2) in aboveground biomass. The second study was conducted on a roof in East Lansing, MI. Twenty plots were established on 21 April 2007 with a substrate depth of 6.0 cm. In addition to a substrate only control, the other plots were sown with a single species of Sedum (S. acre, S. album, S. kamtshaticum, or S. spurium). Species and substrate depth represent typical extensive green roofs in the United States. Plant material and substrate were harvested seven times across two growing seasons. Results at the end of the second year showed that aboveground plant material storage varied by species, ranging from 64 g C x m(-2) (S. acre) to 239 g C x m(-2) (S. album), with an average of 168 g C x m(-2). Belowground biomass ranged from 37 g C x m(-2) (S. acre) to 185 g C x m(-2) (S. kamtschaticum) and averaged 107 g C x m(-2). Substrate carbon content averaged 913 g C x m(-2), with no species effect, which represents a sequestration rate of 100 g C x m(-2) over the 2 years of this study. The entire extensive green roof system sequestered 375 g C x m(-2) in above- and belowground biomass and substrate organic matter.

  17. Competency Modeling in Extension Education: Integrating an Academic Extension Education Model with an Extension Human Resource Management Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Scott D.; Cochran, Graham R.; Harder, Amy; Place, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast an academic extension education model with an Extension human resource management model. The academic model of 19 competencies was similar across the 22 competencies of the Extension human resource management model. There were seven unique competencies for the human resource management model.…

  18. Gate crashing arbuscular mycorrhizas: in vivo imaging shows the extensive colonization of both symbionts by Trichoderma atroviride.

    PubMed

    Lace, Beatrice; Genre, Andrea; Woo, Sheridan; Faccio, Antonella; Lorito, Matteo; Bonfante, Paola

    2015-02-01

    Plant growth-promoting fungi include strains of Trichoderma species that are used in biocontrol, and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, that enhance plant nutrition and stress resistance. The concurrent interaction of plants with these two groups of fungi affects crop performance but has only been occasionally studied so far. Using in vivo imaging of green fluorescent protein-tagged lines, we investigated the cellular interactions occurring between Trichoderma atroviride PKI1, Medicago truncatula and two Gigaspora species under in vitro culture conditions. Trichoderma atroviride did not activate symbiotic-like responses in the plant cells, such as nuclear calcium spiking or cytoplasmic aggregations at hyphal contact sites. Furthermore, T. atroviride parasitized G. gigantea and G. margarita hyphae through localized wall breaking and degradation - although this was not associated with significant chitin lysis nor the upregulation of two major chitinase genes. Trichoderma atroviride colonized broad areas of the root epidermis, in association with localized cell death. The infection of both symbionts was also observed when T. atroviride was applied to a pre-established AM symbiosis. We conclude that - although this triple interaction is known to improve plant growth in agricultural environments - in vitro culture demonstrate a particularly aggressive mycoparasitic and plant-colonizing behaviour of a biocontrol strain of Trichoderma.

  19. Extensions of theories from soft limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachazo, Freddy; Cha, Peter; Mizera, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    We study a variety of field theories with vanishing single soft limits. In all cases, the structure of the soft limit is controlled by a larger theory, which provides an extension of the original one by adding more fields and interactions. Our main example is the U( N ) non-linear sigma model in its CHY representation. Its extension is a theory in which the NLSM Goldstone bosons interact with a cubic biadjoint scalar. Other theories we study and extend are the special Galileon and Born-Infeld theory, including its maximally supersymmetric version in four dimensions, the DBI-Volkov-Akulov theory. In all the cases, we propose the CHY representation of the complete tree-level S-matrix of the extended theories. In fact, CHY formulas are the key technique for studying the single soft limit behavior of the original theories. As a byproduct, we show that the tree-level S-matrix of the extended NLSM theory can be constructed using a very compact BCFW-like recursion relation, where physical poles are at most linear in the deformation parameter.

  20. Nozzle Extension for Safety Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumbrun, H. N.; Croom, Delwin R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    New nozzle-extension design overcomes problems and incorporates original commercial nozzle, retaining intrinsic safety features. Components include extension tube, length of which made to suit application; adaptor fitting, and nozzle adaptor repinned to maintain original safety features. Design moves conical airstream to end of extension to blow machine chips away from operator. Nozzle-extension modification allows safe and efficient operation of machine tools while maintaining integrity of orginial safety-air-gun design.

  1. Presentation Extensions of the SOAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2009-01-01

    A set of extensions of the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) enables simultaneous and/or sequential presentation of information from multiple sources. SOAP is used in the aerospace community as a means of collaborative visualization and analysis of data on planned spacecraft missions. The following definitions of terms also describe the display modalities of SOAP as now extended: In SOAP terminology, View signifies an animated three-dimensional (3D) scene, two-dimensional still image, plot of numerical data, or any other visible display derived from a computational simulation or other data source; a) "Viewport" signifies a rectangular portion of a computer-display window containing a view; b) "Palette" signifies a collection of one or more viewports configured for simultaneous (split-screen) display in the same window; c) "Slide" signifies a palette with a beginning and ending time and an animation time step; and d) "Presentation" signifies a prescribed sequence of slides. For example, multiple 3D views from different locations can be crafted for simultaneous display and combined with numerical plots and other representations of data for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The resulting sets of views can be temporally sequenced to convey visual impressions of a sequence of events for a planned mission.

  2. 75 FR 4055 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Human Reliability Program...

  3. 77 FR 23469 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Security, OMB Control...

  4. 77 FR 51791 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    .... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information... EIA has submitted an information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of...

  5. 77 FR 44602 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Labor Relations collection....

  6. 78 FR 38305 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Exchange/Sale Report,...

  7. 76 FR 53887 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Legal Collection, OMB...

  8. 78 FR 9901 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Human Reliability Program...

  9. 75 FR 54859 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Contractor Legal...

  10. 20 CFR 655.60 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Extensions. 655.60 Section 655.60 Employees...) Post Certification Activities § 655.60 Extensions. An employer may apply for extensions of the period... needed and that the need could not have been reasonably foreseen by the employer. The CO will notify...

  11. 76 FR 44580 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Procurement Collection,...

  12. 78 FR 66909 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... published its Agency Information Collection Extension request in the Federal Register on Thursday, August 29, 2013 (78 FR 53436) and submitted an information collection request to the OMB for extension under the... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office...

  13. 24 CFR 968.235 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time extensions. 968.235 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.235 Time extensions. A PHA shall not obligate or expend funds after the... time extension, as follows: (a) Certification. A PHA may extend an obligation or expenditure...

  14. 24 CFR 968.235 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time extensions. 968.235 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.235 Time extensions. A PHA shall not obligate or expend funds after the... time extension, as follows: (a) Certification. A PHA may extend an obligation or expenditure...

  15. 24 CFR 968.235 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time extensions. 968.235 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.235 Time extensions. A PHA shall not obligate or expend funds after the... time extension, as follows: (a) Certification. A PHA may extend an obligation or expenditure...

  16. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  17. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  18. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  19. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  20. Improving Disability Awareness among Extension Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Peterson, Rick L.; Grenwelge, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Increasing prevalence rates and legislative mandates imply that educators, parents, and Extension agents will need better tools and resources to meet the needs of special populations. The Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service addresses this issue by using e-learning tools. Extension agents can take advantage of these courses to gain critical…

  1. 24 CFR 968.235 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time extensions. 968.235 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.235 Time extensions. A PHA shall not obligate or expend funds after the... time extension, as follows: (a) Certification. A PHA may extend an obligation or expenditure...

  2. 77 FR 35366 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Office of... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Historic Preservation...

  3. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  4. Improving the Extension Facilities in C+

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, P F; Scott, B A

    1999-09-24

    CXX is a facility for extending Python using C++. Recently, the authors have substantially revised and improved the way in which you create extension objects and extension modules in C++. The method is now much more natural and has much less overhead, both in the code generated and in the effort needed to create the objects and extensions.

  5. 12 CFR 1102.6 - Waiver extension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Waiver extension. 1102.6 Section 1102.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL APPRAISER REGULATION Temporary Waiver Requests § 1102.6 Waiver extension. The ASC may initiate an extension of temporary waiver relief and...

  6. Map showing fluorspar deposits in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Bruce T.

    1975-01-01

    Increased fluorine consumption (U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1946-1971) coupled with limited proved reserves has stimulated extensive exploration for fluorine and intensive research into developing new sources of fluorine or substitutes. A summary of the distribution, geochemical and geologic environments, and production history of selected fluorspar occurrences, deposits, and districts is provided here with the hope that this information will help to stimulate exploration and discovery of additional fluorspar resources in Colorado to augment our dwindling domestic supply.

  7. Fungal outbreak in a show cave.

    PubMed

    Jurado, V; Porca, E; Cuezva, S; Fernandez-Cortes, A; Sanchez-Moral, S; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    2010-08-01

    Castañar de Ibor Cave (Spain) was discovered in 1967 and declared a Natural Monument in 1997. In 2003 the cave was opened to public visits. Despite of extensive control, on 26 August 2008 the cave walls and sediments appeared colonized by long, white fungal mycelia. This event was the result of an accidental input of detritus on the afternoon of 24 August 2008. We report here a fungal outbreak initiated by Mucor circinelloides and Fusarium solani and the methods used to control it.

  8. How are pharmaceutical patent term extensions justified? Australia's evolving scheme.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Charles

    2013-12-01

    This article examines the evolving patent term extension schemes under the Patents Act 1903 (Cth), the Patents Act 1952 (Cth) and the Patents Act 1990 (Cth). The analysis traces the change from "inadequate remuneration" to a scheme directed specifically at certain pharmaceuticals. An examination of the policy justification shows there are legitimate questions about the desirability of any extension. The article concludes that key information provisions in the Patents Act 1990 (Cth) that might assist a better policy analysis are presently not working and that any justification needs evidence demonstrating that the benefits of patent term extensions to the community as a whole outweigh the costs and that the objectives of extensions can only be achieved by restricting competition.

  9. How are pharmaceutical patent term extensions justified? Australia's evolving scheme.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Charles

    2013-12-01

    This article examines the evolving patent term extension schemes under the Patents Act 1903 (Cth), the Patents Act 1952 (Cth) and the Patents Act 1990 (Cth). The analysis traces the change from "inadequate remuneration" to a scheme directed specifically at certain pharmaceuticals. An examination of the policy justification shows there are legitimate questions about the desirability of any extension. The article concludes that key information provisions in the Patents Act 1990 (Cth) that might assist a better policy analysis are presently not working and that any justification needs evidence demonstrating that the benefits of patent term extensions to the community as a whole outweigh the costs and that the objectives of extensions can only be achieved by restricting competition. PMID:24597388

  10. Extensive genetic variation in somatic human tissues.

    PubMed

    O'Huallachain, Maeve; Karczewski, Konrad J; Weissman, Sherman M; Urban, Alexander Eckehart; Snyder, Michael P

    2012-10-30

    Genetic variation between individuals has been extensively investigated, but differences between tissues within individuals are far less understood. It is commonly assumed that all healthy cells that arise from the same zygote possess the same genomic content, with a few known exceptions in the immune system and germ line. However, a growing body of evidence shows that genomic variation exists between differentiated tissues. We investigated the scope of somatic genomic variation between tissues within humans. Analysis of copy number variation by high-resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization in diverse tissues from six unrelated subjects reveals a significant number of intraindividual genomic changes between tissues. Many (79%) of these events affect genes. Our results have important consequences for understanding normal genetic and phenotypic variation within individuals, and they have significant implications for both the etiology of genetic diseases such as cancer and for immortalized cell lines that might be used in research and therapeutics.

  11. Analyzing the Natural Resource Extension Needs of Spanish-Speakers: A Perspective from Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Miriam; Escobedo, Francisco; Varela, Sebastian; Asuaje, Cesar; Mayer, Henry; Swisher, Mickie; Hermansen-Baez, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Hispanics are the country's fastest growing minority group. The study reported here surveyed and assessed Extension agents from two demographically different regions in Florida on perceptions and attitudes about the need, quality, and dissemination of Spanish Extension materials. Results showed Extension programs are important sources of…

  12. D -oscillons in the standard model extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, R. A. C.; da Rocha, Roldão; de Souza Dutra, A.

    2015-06-01

    In this work we investigate the consequences of the Lorentz symmetry violation on extremely long-lived, time-dependent, and spatially localized field configurations, named oscillons. This is accomplished for two interacting scalar field theories in (D +1 ) dimensions in the context of the so-called standard model extension. We show that D -dimensional scalar field lumps can present a typical size Rmin≪RKK , where RKK is the extent of extra dimensions in Kaluza-Klein theories. The size Rmin is shown to strongly depend upon the terms that control the LV of the theory. This implies either contraction or dilation of the average radius Rmin, and a new rule for its composition, likewise. Moreover, we show that the spatial dimensions for existence of oscillating lumps have an upper limit, opening new possibilities to probe the existence of D -dimensional oscillons at TeV energy scale. In addition, in a cosmological scenario with Lorentz symmetry breaking, we show that in the early Universe with an extremely high energy density and a strong LV, the typical size Rmin was highly dilated. As the Universe had expanded and cooled down, it then passed through a phase transition toward a Lorentz symmetry, wherein Rmin tends to be compact.

  13. "No-Shows": A Vexing Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, John; And Others

    1980-01-01

    What can we learn about the applicants who do not show up on campus to register? This study suggests both a method for learning more about "no-shows" and the reasons why they change their mind. (Author)

  14. Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159854.html Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood Brain scans ... 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A gene related to Alzheimer's disease may start to show effects on brain ...

  15. An influence of extremal edges on boundary extension.

    PubMed

    Hale, Ralph G; Brown, James M; McDunn, Benjamin A; Siddiqui, Aisha P

    2015-08-01

    Studies have shown that people consistently remember seeing more of a studied scene than was physically present (e.g., Intraub & Richardson Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15, 179-187, 1989). This scene memory error, known as boundary extension, has been suggested to occur due to an observer's failure to differentiate between the contributing sources of information, including the sensory input, amodal continuation beyond the view boundaries, and contextual associations with the main objects and depicted scene locations (Intraub, 2010). Here, "scenes" made of abstract shapes on random-dot backgrounds, previously shown to elicit boundary extension (McDunn, Siddiqui, & Brown Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 370-375, 2014), were compared with versions made with extremal edges (Palmer & Ghose Psychological Science, 19, 77-84, 2008) added to their borders, in order to examine how boundary extension is influenced when amodal continuation at the borders' view boundaries is manipulated in this way. Extremal edges were expected to reduce boundary extension as compared to the same scenes without them, because extremal edge boundaries explicitly indicate an image's end (i.e., they do not continue past the view boundary). A large and a small difference (16 % and 40 %) between the close and wide-angle views shown during the experiment were tested to examine the effects of both boundary extension and normalization with and without extremal edges. Images without extremal edges elicited typical boundary extension for the 16 % size change condition, whereas the 40 % condition showed signs of normalization. With extremal edges, a reduced amount of boundary extension occurred for the 16 % condition, and only normalization was found for the 40 % condition. Our findings support and highlight the importance of amodal continuation at the view boundaries as a component of boundary extension.

  16. Extensive Mandibular Ameloblastic Fibro-Odontoma.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Cínthia Magalhães; Santos, Tatiana Tavares Marcelino Dos; de Castro, Sérgio Roberto; de Carli, Marina Lara; Sperandio, Felipe Fornias; Hanemann, João Adolfo Costa; Pereira, Alessandro Antônio Costa

    2016-09-01

    Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) is a mixed odontogenic tumor that presents epithelial and mesenchymal components. Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma is generally diagnosed between the first and second decades of life and normally shows a slow clinical growth in the posterior portion of the maxilla or mandible, being mostly associated with 1 or more impacted teeth. Radiographic features of AFO show a radiolucent well-defined, uni, or multilocular defect due to containing variable amounts of calcified material. The enucleation of the tumor is the usual conduct and should be followed up for a long period of time. Here, the authors report the case of 17-year-old male patient who presented an extensive AFO on the right posterior side of the mandible. The panoramic radiograph and the tomographic examination revealed a multilocular radiolucent lesion with impacted teeth. Histological examination revealed connective tissue resembling the dental papilla along with epithelial strands or islands, as well as dental hard tissue such enamel and dentin. Enucleation and curettage was performed and led to good outcome. There was no recurrence after an 8-year follow-up, and oral rehabilitation was performed with dental implants.

  17. Design of a composite wing extension for a general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adney, P. S.; Horn, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    A composite wing extension was designed for a typical general aviation aircraft to improve lift curve slope, dihedral effect, and lift to drag ratio. Advanced composite materials were used in the design to evaluate their use as primary structural components in general aviation aircraft. Extensive wind tunnel tests were used to evaluate six extension shapes. The extension shape chosen as the best choice was 28 inches long with a total area of 17 square feet. Subsequent flight tests showed the wing extension's predicted aerodynamic improvements to be correct. The structural design of the wing extension consisted of a hybrid laminate carbon core with outer layers of Kevlar - layed up over a foam interior which acted as an internal support. The laminate skin of the wing extension was designed from strength requirements, and the foam core was included to prevent buckling. A joint lap was recommended to attach the wing extension to the main wing structure.

  18. Parkinson's disease showing progressive conduction aphasia.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenji; Ono, Kenjiro; Harada, Hiromi; Shima, Keisuke; Notoya, Masako; Yamada, Masahito

    2012-04-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may develop progressive dementia late in their clinical course. Dementia in PD is mostly related to neuropathological findings of extensive Lewy bodies (LBs), with or without the coexistence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Aphasia has been reported in patients with LB diseases with AD pathology; however, there have been no reports of typical PD patients developing progressive aphasia during their clinical course. We describe a female PD patient who later developed progressive conduction aphasia characterized by phonemic paraphasia and disturbance in repetition of short sentences without disturbance in writing or auditory comprehension. No episodes of fluctuations of attention, memory complaints, or planning errors were observed. She experienced episodes of visual hallucination. Her low scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination suggested impairment of orientation and attention, and her scores on Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices test indicated impaired visuospatial functions. However, her cognitive deficits were not sufficiently severe to impair her daily life. Brain magnetic resonance images revealed atrophy of the left superior temporal gyrus and widening of the left sylvian fissure. [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed glucose hypometabolism in the left cerebral hemisphere. These findings may be related to conduction aphasia. During the progression of PD lesions, the brainstem LB is assumed to take an upward course, extend to the limbic system, and then extend to the neocortex. Conduction aphasia observed in our patient may be associated with an unusual progression of the LB pathology from the brainstem to the left temporoparietal lobe. PMID:21879327

  19. The Language of Show Biz: A Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergel, Sherman Louis, Ed.

    This dictionary of the language of show biz provides the layman with definitions and essays on terms and expressions often used in show business. The overall pattern of selection was intended to be more rather than less inclusive, though radio, television, and film terms were deliberately omitted. Lengthy explanations are sometimes used to express…

  20. Serving Up Activities for TV Cooking Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    This paper documents a presentation given on the use of English-language television cooking shows in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classrooms in Taiwan. Such shows can be ideal for classroom use, since they have a predictable structure consisting of short segments, are of interest to most students,…

  1. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this…

  2. Using a Blog to Facilitate Extensive Reading: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Magdalene Meow Khee; Lee, Catherine Cheng Kiat

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that extensive reading (ER) has many benefits for language acquisition. The challenge today is making ER appealing to the digital generation. For a possible solution, it is pertinent to look to the social media embraced by today's youths. This study was conducted to explore the use of the blog as a space for sharing peer-selected…

  3. Bringing the DuPont Profitability Model to Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roucan-Kane, Maud; Wolfskill, L. A.; Boehlje, Michael D.; Gray, Allan W.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses a financial training program used by Deere and Company for almost 10 years. The objective is to describe the program and to discuss a pre-test/post-test methodology to test the effectiveness of a program for possible duplication by Extension. Results show that participants significantly improved from the pre-test to the…

  4. 32. VIEW TO EAST ALONG GENERAL ALIGNMENT OF PROPOSED EXTENSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW TO EAST ALONG GENERAL ALIGNMENT OF PROPOSED EXTENSION OF EL MONTE BUSWAY FROM THIRD FLOOR OF MBE BUILDING SHOWING ROOF OF REA LOADING DOCK (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. Delivering Extension to the Living Room Using Internet TV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Grant G., III

    2014-01-01

    Television is a widely adopted source for viewing educational information. Unfortunately, producing a television show on network television can be costly and time consuming. Internet TV offers Extension video content producers the opportunity to create a niche topic channel quickly and at low cost. Internet TV offers viewers a low-cost and…

  6. 26. Photocopy of 1921 architectural drawing titled: BUILDING 59, EXTENSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of 1921 architectural drawing titled: BUILDING 59, EXTENSION NORTH, ELEVATIONS showing east and west elevations of the 1922 north section of Building 59. Drawing No. 6270, File No. 651-23. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Pattern Shop, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  7. Examining Extension's Capacity in Community Resource and Economic Development: Viewpoints of Extension Administrators on the Role of Community Resource and Economic Development in the Extension Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbanowitz, Seth C.; Wilcox, Michael D., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The survey-based research reported here offers insights on community, resource, and economic development (CRED) Extension programming at the national and regional level. The results present a national picture of CRED programming, research, and potential future programming opportunities that Extension could capitalize on. The research shows that…

  8. 75 FR 77663 - Information Collection Extension Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... of the Secretary Information Collection Extension Request ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of... comment on information collection extension request in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995... Information Report--29 CFR part 31 (Title VI of the Civil Rights Act), Nondiscrimination--Disability--29...

  9. Australian National University Science Extension Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The first Australian National University (ANU) Science Extension Day was held on September 8, 2015. The ANU Science Extension Day is a project that was initiated by Theodore Primary School (ACT) and developed by Theodore Primary, Calwell High School, Science Educators Association of the ACT (SEA*ACT), and the ANU. The project was developed with a…

  10. 78 FR 57790 - Extension of Time Limits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... Regulation Regarding the Extension of Time Limits, 78 FR 3367 (January 16, 2013) (Proposed Rule). The... Information and Time Limits for Submission of Factual Information, 78 FR 21246 (April 10, 2013). As to the... International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 351 RIN 0625-AA94 Extension of Time Limits AGENCY:...

  11. 36 CFR 251.89 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Time extensions. 251.89... Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.89 Time extensions. (a) Filing of notice of appeal. Time for filing a notice of appeal is not extendable. (b)...

  12. Kentucky's Urban Extension Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffery; Vavrina, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Defining the success of Urban Extension units is sometimes challenging. For those Extension agents, specialists, administrators, and others who have worked to bring solid, research-based programming to urban communities, it is no surprise that working in these communities brings its own unique and sometimes difficult challenges. Kentucky's…

  13. Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Michelle S.; Hillaker, Barbara D.; Haas, Bruce E.; Peters, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of public service programming is becoming increasingly important with current funding realities. The taxonomy of evaluation competencies compiled by Ghere et al. (2006) provided the starting place for Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension. The Michigan State University Extension case study described here presents a…

  14. Extension System Reform and the Challenges Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.; Alex, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Public agricultural extension services around the world are being pressured to adapt to new funding constraints and a changing agricultural sector. The global perspective on extension is no longer that of a unified public sector service, but of a multi-institutional network of knowledge and information support for rural people. This reality and…

  15. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  16. A New Funding Model for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Paul W.; Otto, Daniel M.; Ouart, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    The traditional funding model of the Cooperative Extension System has been stretched to its limits by increasing demand for information and programs without concurrent increases in funding by the public sector. As the social, economic, and political environments have evolved and become more complex, extension is often asked to apply the expertise…

  17. Extension - A Risk Taken in the Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Donald R.

    1970-01-01

    Extension institutions should take a risk and pool their resources with those of vocational-technical institutes, high schools, private schools, outside industries or government to advise the best possible educational programs for all the people. Extension needs money, support, commitment, and the will to take risks now. (DM)

  18. Creating Teams Increases Extension Educator Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker-Scott, Linda; Daniels, Catherine H.; Martini, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The Garden Team at Washington State University is a transdisciplinary group of faculty, staff, and students with expertise in applied plant and soil sciences and an interest in Extension education. The team's primary mission is to create current, relevant, and peer-reviewed materials as Extension publications for home gardeners. The average yearly…

  19. Extension Sustainability Camp: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brain, Roslynn; Upton, Sally; Tingey, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Camps provide an opportunity for Extension educators to be in the forefront of sustainability outreach and to meet the growing demand for sustainability education. This article shares development, implementation, and evaluation of an Extension Sustainability Camp for youth, grades 4-6. Camp impact was measured via daily pre-and…

  20. Extensive Reading Quizzes and Reading Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeckel, Tim; Reagan, Nevitt; Hann, Fergus

    2012-01-01

    Extensive reading (ER) has become a common feature of many English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) programs. There is evidence that reading large amounts of easy, interesting material may improve foreign language skills, most notably in vocabulary, reading rates, and overall proficiency. However, teacher evaluation of extensive reading…

  1. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension formula. (a) The amount of power to be extended to an existing customer shall be determined according...

  2. Small Businessmen's Perceptions of University Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglah, Mohammad A.; Dopp, Arvid D.

    A survey was made in Clark County, Wisconsin, of small businessmen's knowledge and perception of university extension. The businessmen appeared most knowledgeable about Extension programs offered through mass media, but less knowledgeable about local staff affiliation and relationship to the University of Wisconsin. They participated in Extension…

  3. Effective Use of Facebook for Extension Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mains, Mark; Jenkins-Howard, Brooke; Stephenson, Laura

    2013-01-01

    As the use of social media increases, Extension is challenged to stay relevant with cliental by using digital tools. This article illustrates how Facebook can be part of Extension's repertoire of methods for communication, program implementation, education, and marketing. This allows professionals to build social networking capacity with…

  4. Community Leadership Development: Implications for Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development, University Park, PA.

    Designed for extension personnel who are involved in community leadership (CL) programs, this publication summarizes recent national efforts that could be useful in developing and conducting CL programs, and current leadership theory and literature. Part 1 reports the results of the national survey, initiated in April 1985, of extension staff…

  5. Extensive Reading: Students' Performance and Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez de Morgado, Nelly

    2009-01-01

    Reading is thought to be a crucial skill in the EFL learning process, and Extensive Reading a very useful strategy. However, very few teachers implement it on a regular basis. The process of introducing Extensive Reading (ER) is considered far too expensive, complicated, and time-consuming. One way to encourage its use would be to more deeply…

  6. Developing a Roadmap for Excellence in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Kristine S.; Reese, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Trying to figure out the promotion and tenure system is one of the major stressors for new Extension faculty. To help new county-based Extension faculty, their supervisors, committee chairs, and other mentors evaluate progress in the probationary years, a Roadmap with specific guideposts delineating expectations for pre-tenure years was developed.…

  7. 1890 Institutions' Extension Program and Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Adell, Jr.

    The extension role of Tuskegee Institute and the 16 black land grant colleges established by the Morrill Act of 1890 has been to diffuse among the non-university citizens of America useful and practical information on agriculture, home economics, and related areas. Tuskegee's extension efforts began in 1880 and flourished under the leadership of…

  8. Graduate Students Serve Extension as Evaluation Consultants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Megan; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to provide graduate students at a distance with field-based learning experiences and evaluation resources to statewide Extension programs, 24 Master's students participating in a distance-delivered program evaluation course served as evaluation consultants for Extension programs. State evaluation specialists unable to conduct…

  9. Extension Learners' Use of Electronic Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenthner, Joseph F.; Swan, Benjamin G.

    2011-01-01

    Extension clientele use electronic technology for entertainment, communication, and business. Educational programs that use electronic technology can enhance learning. To learn more about use of electronic technology among Extension clientele, we surveyed 80 university students and 135 potato farmers. We found that the farmers were likely to use…

  10. 40 CFR 52.1078 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1078 Extensions. (a) (b) The Administrator hereby extends by six-months the deadline by which Maryland must incorporate mandatory testing of second.../M) program. As a result of this deadline extension, Maryland must now incorporate mandatory...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1078 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1078 Extensions. (a) (b) The Administrator hereby extends by six-months the deadline by which Maryland must incorporate mandatory testing of second.../M) program. As a result of this deadline extension, Maryland must now incorporate mandatory...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1078 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1078 Extensions. (a) (b) The Administrator hereby extends by six-months the deadline by which Maryland must incorporate mandatory testing of second.../M) program. As a result of this deadline extension, Maryland must now incorporate mandatory...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1078 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1078 Extensions. (a) (b) The Administrator hereby extends by six-months the deadline by which Maryland must incorporate mandatory testing of second.../M) program. As a result of this deadline extension, Maryland must now incorporate mandatory...

  14. Colour octet extension of 2HDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, German

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we consider some aspects of the Manohar-Wise extension of the SM with a colour-octet electroweak-doublet scalar applied to 2HDM. We present theoretical constraints on the parameters of this extension to both the SM and the 2HDM and discuss related phenomenology at LHC.

  15. Plagiarism within Extension: Origin and Current Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Dora

    2011-01-01

    Extension publication editors from around the United States are finding cases of plagiarism within manuscripts that Extension educators submit as new public education materials. When editors confront such educators with the problem, some don't understand it as such, rationalizing that reproducing published information for a new purpose qualifies…

  16. CR extension from hypersurfaces of higher type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baracco, Luca

    2007-07-01

    We prove extension of CR functions from a hypersurface M of in presence of the so-called sector property. If M has finite type in the Bloom-Graham sense, then our result is already contained in [C. Rea, Prolongement holomorphe des fonctions CR, conditions suffisantes, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 297 (1983) 163-166] by Rea. We think however, that the argument of our proof carries an expressive geometric meaning and deserves interest on its own right. Also, our method applies in some case to hypersurfaces of infinite type; note that for these, the classical methods fail. CR extension is treated by many authors mainly in two frames: extension in directions of iterated of commutators of CR vector fields (cf., for instance, [A. Boggess, J. Pitts, CR extension near a point of higher type, Duke Math. J. 52 (1) (1985) 67-102; A. Boggess, J.C. Polking, Holomorphic extension of CR functions, Duke Math. J. 49 (1982) 757-784. ; M.S. Baouendi, L. Rothschild, Normal forms for generic manifolds and holomorphic extension of CR functions, J. Differential Geom. 25 (1987) 431-467. ]); extension through minimality towards unprecised directions [A.E. Tumanov, Extension of CR-functions into a wedge, Mat. Sb. 181 (7) (1990) 951-964. ; A.E. Tumanov, Analytic discs and the extendibility of CR functions, in: Integral Geometry, Radon Transforms and Complex Analysis, Venice, 1996, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 1684, Springer, Berlin, 1998, pp. 123-141].

  17. Desktop Publishing: Probable Effects on University Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misanchuk, Earl R.

    Desktop publishing (DTP) could potentially become a powerful, relatively inexpensive tool for use in university extension activities. This paper describes and explains the characteristics of DTP and examines its effects on university extension. In addition, it outlines the kind of hardware, software, and skills needed and costs; describes new…

  18. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension... × project-specific percentage × marketable resource determined to be available at the time future...

  19. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension... × project-specific percentage × marketable resource determined to be available at the time future...

  20. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension... × project-specific percentage × marketable resource determined to be available at the time future...

  1. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension... × project-specific percentage × marketable resource determined to be available at the time future...

  2. PERCEPTIONS OF EXTENSION WORK IN MEXICO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHENA-GONZALEZ, RODOLFO

    THE STUDY EXPLORED BASIC PATTERNS OF PERCEPTIONS AMONG PROFESSIONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN MEXICO ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF POSSIBLE NEW OBJECTIVES, KINDS OF FUNCTIONS, AND TYPES OF TRAINING FOR ITS EXTENSION AGENTS. DATA WERE COLLECTED FROM 147 EXTENSION AGENTS AND SUPERVISORS, EXPERIMENTALISTS, RESEARCH LEADERS, AND PROFESSORS, BY A MAILED…

  3. Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, M.

    2009-09-01

    Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe Television weather shows in Eastern Europe have in most cases in the high graphical standard. There is though a wast difference in duration and information content in the weather shows. There are few signs and regularities by which we can see the character of the weather show. The main differences are mainly caused by the income structure of the TV station. Either it is a fully privately funded TV relying on the TV commercials income. Or it is a public service TV station funded mainly by the national budget or fixed fee structure/tax. There are wast differences in duration and even a graphical presentation of the weather. Next important aspect is a supplier of the weather information and /or the processor. Shortly we can say, that when the TV show is produced by the national met office, the TV show consists of more scientific terms, synoptic maps, satellite imagery, etc. If the supplier is the private meteorological company, the weather show is more user-friendly, laical with less scientific terms. We are experiencing a massive shift in public weather knowledge and demand for information. In the past, weather shows consisted only of maps with weather icons. In todaýs world, even the laic weather shows consist partly of numerical weather model outputs - they are of course designed to be understandable and graphically attractive. Outputs of the numerical weather models used to be only a part of daily life of a professional meteorologist, today they are common part of life of regular people. Video samples are a part of this presentation.

  4. Cambrian stalked echinoderms show unexpected plasticity of arm construction.

    PubMed

    Zamora, S; Smith, A B

    2012-01-22

    Feeding arms carrying coelomic extensions of the theca are thought to be unique to crinoids among stemmed echinoderms. However, a new two-armed echinoderm from the earliest Middle Cambrian of Spain displays a highly unexpected morphology. X-ray microtomographic analysis of its arms shows they are polyplated in their proximal part with a dorsal series of uniserial elements enclosing a large coelomic lumen. Distally, the arm transforms into the more standard biserial structure of a blastozoan brachiole. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that this taxon lies basal to rhombiferans as sister-group to pleurocystitid and glyptocystitid blastozoans, drawing those clades deep into the Cambrian. We demonstrate that Cambrian echinoderms show surprising variability in the way their appendages are constructed, and that the appendages of at least some blastozoans arose as direct outgrowths of the body in much the same way as the arms of crinoids.

  5. GOES Satellite Data Shows Tornado Development

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite data shows the development and movement of the weather system that spawned tornadoes affecting the southern and eastern U.S. states on April 27-29, 2014...

  6. TRMM Satellite Shows Heavy Rainfall in Cristina

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite rainfall data was overlaid on an enhanced visible/infrared image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite showing cloud and rainfall extent. Green areas indicate rainfall at over 20 mm...

  7. Spacecraft Image Mashup Shows Galactic Collision

    NASA Video Gallery

    This new composite image from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Spitzer Space Telescope shows two colliding galaxies more than a 100 million years after they first ...

  8. Career development at London Vet Show.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Are you considering a career change? Perhaps you want help to develop within your current role? Either way, you will find a relevant session in the BVA Career Development stream at the London Vet Show in November. PMID:27585901

  9. Preservation of cochlear function after extensive labyrinthine destruction.

    PubMed

    Bumsted, R M; Dolan, K D; Sadé, J; McCabe, B F

    1977-01-01

    Four ears are presented with extensive destruction of the bony and membranous labyrinth with the loss of caloric function but with retention of hearing. Fourteen similar cases described previously in the literature are reviewed. Our cases are unique in that hearing was preserved after surgical removal of the disease in the inner ear itself. We are unaware of any previous well-documented reports showing such extensive destruction of the pars superior portion of the labyrinth with the preservation of hearing. Possible explanations and theoretical implications are discussed.

  10. Separation of crack extension modes in orthotropic delamination models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuth, Jack L.

    1995-01-01

    In the analysis of an interface crack between dissimilar elastic materials, the mode of crack extension is typically not unique, due to oscillatory behavior of near-tip stresses and displacements. This behavior currently limits the applicability of interfacial fracture mechanics as a means to predict composite delamination. The Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) is a method used to extract mode 1 and mode 2 energy release rates from numerical fracture solutions. The mode of crack extension extracted from an oscillatory solution using the VCCT is not unique due to the dependence of mode on the virtual crack extension length, Delta. In this work, a method is presented for using the VCCT to extract Delta-independent crack extension modes for the case of an interface crack between two in-plane orthotropic materials. The method does not involve altering the analysis to eliminate its oscillatory behavior. Instead, it is argued that physically reasonable, Delta-independent modes of crack extension can be extracted from oscillatory solutions. Knowledge of near-tip fields is used to determine the explicit Delta dependence of energy release rate parameters. Energy release rates are then defined that are separated from the oscillatory dependence on Delta. A modified VCCT using these energy release rate definitions is applied to results from finite element analyses, showing that Delta-independent modes of crack extension result. The modified technique has potential as a consistent method for extracting crack extension modes from numerical solutions. The Delta-independent modes extracted using this technique can also serve as guides for testing the convergence of finite element models. Direct applications of this work include the analysis of planar composite delamination problems, where plies or debonded laminates are modeled as in-plane orthotropic materials.

  11. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  12. 5-dimensional indecomposable contact Lie algebras as double extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Vallarte, M. C.; Salgado, G.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we shall show that a suitable double extension of a finite dimensional indecomposable contact Lie algebra is a contact Lie algebra again. In particular, with exception of the family of 5-dimensional indecomposable contact solvable Lie algebras A5,35, any 5-dimensional indecomposable contact solvable Lie algebra can be obtained as a double extension of a 3-dimensional Lie algebra. The family A5,35 can be generalized to a family of (4 n + 1) -dimensional indecomposable contact solvable Lie algebras that cannot be obtained neither as a suspension of a symplectic Lie algebra of codimension 1 or as a double extension of a contact Lie subalgebra of codimension 2.

  13. Oxidatively Responsive Chain Extension to Topologically Entangle Engineered Protein Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Bradley; Tang, Shengchang; Glassman, Matthew; Li, Shuaili; Socrate, Simona

    2014-03-01

    Hydrogels with increased toughness and extensibility have attracted a great deal of interest as mimics for natural tissues in biomedical applications. Artificial protein polymers provide particularly attractive systems for these applications due to their similarity to the chemistry of the natural extracellular matrix. Here, we show that entanglements can be incorporated into physically associating protein gels using simple oxidative chain extension chemistries, producing hydrogels with multiple time and length scales of relaxation. These oxidative chemistries follow the Jacobson-Stockmayer theory and are fully reversible, enabling responsive formation of entanglements within a material. The entangled protein gels demonstrate extensibility up to engineering strains of greater than 3,000%, a toughness of 65,000 J/m⌃3, and significant reductions in creep compliance and increases in elastic recovery. The rheology of the materials is compared to sticky reptation theory as a function of gel concentration, providing insights into the effect of network structure on different modes of molecular relaxation.

  14. On the construction of general cubature formula by flat extensions

    PubMed Central

    Bucero, Marta Abril; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new method to compute general cubature formulae. The problem is initially transformed into the computation of truncated Hankel operators with flat extensions. We then analyze the algebraic properties associated to flat extensions and show how to recover the cubature points and weights from the truncated Hankel operator. We next present an algorithm to test the flat extension property and to additionally compute the decomposition. To generate cubature formulae with a minimal number of points, we propose a new relaxation hierarchy of convex optimization problems minimizing the nuclear norm of the Hankel operators. For a suitably high order of convex relaxation, the minimizer of the optimization problem corresponds to a cubature formula. Furthermore cubature formulae with a minimal number of points are associated to faces of the convex sets. We illustrate our method on some examples, and for each we obtain a new minimal cubature formula. PMID:27563154

  15. Extensive Burn Scars in Russia's Amur Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Vast areas of southeastern Russia have been scorched by fires over the last few weeks. All across Siberia fires have been raging, and this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 15, 2002, shows extensive, dark burn scars along with actively burning fires (red dots) on the north side of the Amur River, which separates Russia (north) and China (south). The southern Amur region is largely devoted to farming and other agriculture, and these fires may have been set intentionally to prepare the land for the growing season. Fire is often used to clear land of unwanted vegetation, and to return the nutrients stored in vegetation back to the soil. However, fires that are too frequent or severe can devastate the soil, eventually making it unsuitable for farming or grazing. Fires can also escape control and spread into protected areas. In this image, fires are mostly concentrated in a lowland area within the drainage basin of the Zeya River, which drains from the frozen lake at the top of the image. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  16. CH in stellar atmospheres: an extensive linelist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masseron, T.; Plez, B.; Van Eck, S.; Colin, R.; Daoutidis, I.; Godefroid, M.; Coheur, P.-F.; Bernath, P.; Jorissen, A.; Christlieb, N.

    2014-11-01

    The advent of high-resolution spectrographs and detailed stellar atmosphere modelling has strengthened the need for accurate molecular data. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars spectra are interesting objects with which to study transitions from the CH molecule. We combine programs for spectral analysis of molecules and stellar-radiative transfer codes to build an extensive CH linelist, including predissociation broadening as well as newly identified levels. We show examples of strong predissociation CH lines in CEMP stars, and we stress the important role played by the CH features in the Bond-Neff feature depressing the spectra of barium stars by as much as 0.2 mag in the λ = 3000-5500 Å range. Because of the extreme thermodynamic conditions prevailing in stellar atmospheres (compared to the laboratory), molecular transitions with high energy levels can be observed. Stellar spectra can thus be used to constrain and improve molecular data. Full Table 14 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/571/A47

  17. Improved Crystallographic Structures using Extensive Combinatorial Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Nwachukwu, Jerome C.; Southern, Mark R.; Kiefer, James R.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Adams, Paul D.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Nettles, Kendall W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Identifying errors and alternate conformers, and modeling multiple main-chain conformers in poorly ordered regions are overarching problems in crystallographic structure determination that have limited automation efforts and structure quality. Here, we show that implementation of a full factorial designed set of standard refinement approaches, which we call ExCoR (Extensive Combinatorial Refinement), significantly improves structural models compared to the traditional linear tree approach, in which individual algorithms are tested linearly, and only incorporated if the model improves. ExCoR markedly improved maps and models, and reveals building errors and alternate conformations that were masked by traditional refinement approaches. Surprisingly, an individual algorithm that renders a model worse in isolation could still be necessary to produce the best overall model, suggesting that model distortion allows escape from local minima of optimization target function, here shown to be a hallmark limitation of the traditional approach. ExCoR thus provides a simple approach to improving structure determination. PMID:24076406

  18. A new size extensive multireference perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feiwu; Fan, Zhihui

    2014-01-15

    A new multireference perturbation series is derived based on the Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. It is orbitally invariant. Its computational cost is comparable to the single reference Møller-Plesset perturbation theory. It is demonstrated numerically that the present multireference second- and third-order energies are size extensive by two types of supermolecules composed of H2 and BH monomers. Spectroscopic constants of F2(X1Σg+),Cl2(X1Σg+),C2-(X2Σg+),B2(X3Σg-),and C2+(X4Σg-) as well as the ground state energies of H2O, NH2, and CH2 at three bond lengths have been calculated with the second multireference perturbation theory. The dissociation behaviors of CH4 and HF have also been investigated. Comparisons with other approximate theoretical models as well as the experimental data have been carried out to show their relative performances.

  19. Two endogenous proteins that induce cell wall extension in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQueen-Mason, S.; Durachko, D. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Plant cell enlargement is regulated by wall relaxation and yielding, which is thought to be catalyzed by elusive "wall-loosening" enzymes. By employing a reconstitution approach, we found that a crude protein extract from the cell walls of growing cucumber seedlings possessed the ability to induce the extension of isolated cell walls. This activity was restricted to the growing region of the stem and could induce the extension of isolated cell walls from various dicot stems and the leaves of amaryllidaceous monocots, but was less effective on grass coleoptile walls. Endogenous and reconstituted wall extension activities showed similar sensitivities to pH, metal ions, thiol reducing agents, proteases, and boiling in methanol or water. Sequential HPLC fractionation of the active wall extract revealed two proteins with molecular masses of 29 and 30 kD associated with the activity. Each protein, by itself, could induce wall extension without detectable hydrolytic breakdown of the wall. These proteins appear to mediate "acid growth" responses of isolated walls and may catalyze plant cell wall extension by a novel biochemical mechanism.

  20. Basement extension and salt mobility, southern Grand Banks, Newfoundland

    SciTech Connect

    Balkwill, H.R.; Legall, F.

    1986-05-01

    The Grand Banks, an especially wide cratonic segment of the North American Atlantic continental shelf, extended vigorously during Late Triassic-Aptian rift-phase episodes, accompanied by syntectonic basin filling and large-scale structural disruption. Thereafter, the rift-disrupted domain underwent drift-phase subsidence and was buried by a seaward-prograding continental terrace wedge, in which progressively feeble extension is evident. Rift-faulted cratonic basement is perceptible on industry-acquired reflection seismic profiles from the southern Grand Banks. The profiles also show that Carboniferous and Lower Jurassic salt were the main levels of supracrustal detachment during Jurassic and Early Cretaceous extension. Large salt-mobilized structures within the rift-phase succession include fault-zone sheaths, elongate pillows, aligned piercement spires, and immense walls. These elements parallel large extension faults in basement and, in many places, are superposed on the faults. In striking contrast, upper Aptian and younger drift-phase strata are regionally subhorizontal, and are broken to middle and late Tertiary stratigraphic levels by only a few small extension faults and aligned diapirs. The authors interpret the structural/stratigraphic relationships in the southern Grand Banks to indicate that episodic Mesozoic and Cenozoic basement extension was the principal dynamic agent in determining the timing of salt structures, their orientations, and styles of disruption on enclosing strata. This genetic association may be applicable to other parts of the Grand Banks tectonic province, and possibly to other extensional cratonic margin basins.

  1. Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

  2. A New Extension Model: The Memorial Middle School Agricultural Extension and Education Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Peter; Seevers, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The Memorial Middle School Agricultural Extension and Education Center is a new model for Extension. The center applies the Cooperative Extension Service System philosophy and mission to developing public education-based programs. Programming primarily serves middle school students and teachers through agricultural and natural resource science…

  3. Broadening Extension's Capacity--Comparing Extension Agents' and Environmental Educators' Perceptions of Needs and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaldone, Dave; Boone, Deborah A.; Selin, Steve; See, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Conservation and environmental education share similar goals with Extension and thus holds partnership potential for Extension. The study reported here compared the needs and barriers faced by environmental educators and Extension agents in West Virginia using a mail survey. Results indicated there were both similarities and differences in the…

  4. Extension Approach for an Effective Fisheries and Aquaculture Extension Service in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumaran, M.; Vimala, D. Deboral; Chandrasekaran, V. S.; Alagappan, M.; Raja, S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Public-funded fisheries extension services have been blamed as poor and responsible for the slow pace of aquaculture development in India. The present investigation aimed to find concrete interventions to streamline the extension service by understanding the research-extension-farmer linkage indirectly in terms of information sources of…

  5. Extension through Partnerships: Research and Education Center Teams with County Extension to Deliver Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullahey, J. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Budget reductions have severely affected resources available to deliver agriculture and natural resource Extension programs in Florida. University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences delivers Extension programming through a unique partnership between research and education centers and county Extension. Science-based information…

  6. Children's Art Show: An Educational Family Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakerlis, Julienne

    2007-01-01

    In a time of seemingly rampant budget cuts in the arts in school systems throughout the country, a children's art show reaps many rewards. It can strengthen family-school relationships and community ties and stimulate questions and comments about the benefits of art and its significance in the development of young children. In this photo essay of…

  7. Showing R-Rated Videos in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1990, there have been at least six published court decisions concerning teachers' use of controversial videos in public schools. A relevant district policy led the Colorado Supreme Court to uphold a teacher's termination for showing 12th graders an R-rated 1900 Bertolucci film on fascism. Implications are discussed. (MLH)

  8. State Data Show Gains in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    Schools taking part in the federal Reading First program are showing significant progress in boosting students' reading fluency and comprehension, according to state-reported data compiled and released by the U.S. Department of Education last week. In releasing for the first time detailed, multiyear data on how Reading First schools are performing…

  9. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  10. Showing Enantiomorphous Crystals of Tartaric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade-Gamboa, Julio

    2007-01-01

    Most of the articles and textbooks that show drawings of enantiomorphous crystals use an inadequate view to appreciate the fact that they are non-superimposable mirror images of one another. If a graphical presentation of crystal chirality is not evident, the main attribute of crystal enantiomorphism can not be recognized by students. The classic…

  11. A Talk Show from the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony,…

  12. Tilapia show immunization response against Ich

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares the immune response of Nile tilapia and red tilapia against parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) using a cohabitation challenge model. Both Nile and red tilapia showed strong immune response post immunization with live Ich theronts by IP injection or immersion. Blood serum...

  13. Extensor digiti minimi transfer for thumb extension.

    PubMed

    Iyer, S

    2013-09-01

    Extensor indicis (EI) transfer is the commonest tendon transfer to restore thumb extension after loss of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) function. Rarely are there clinical situations when EI is not available as a donor motor and alternative techniques have to be employed. I report a successful reconstruction of thumb extension using Extensor digiti minimi (EDM) in an adult male patient in whom EI and Abductor pollicis longus (APL) were not available as donor motors. A literature review reveals that this is the first report of such a transfer in an adult; only one previous EDM transfer has been reported for thumb extension on a child in 2011.

  14. Firefox Extension Framework for News Article Tagging

    2006-08-08

    FEFNAT is a Firefox extension that is used to collect information about user interests when viewing new articles. When a user is reading a news article on a web-page, he can vote whether the article was interesting or not interesting by clicking the appropriate button on the extension's tool-bar. The purpose of this extension is to collet user interests and behavior while viewing new articles so that it can be used in my research formore » predicting how interesting future news article may be for the user.« less

  15. Idaho State University Physics Road Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shropshire, Steve

    2009-05-01

    The ISU Physics Road Show services over 40 schools and 12,000 students each year. Exciting and informative demonstration shows are conducted during assemblies at elementary, middle, and junior high schools. Discussion will focus on efforts taken to maximize the educational impact to students and teachers. These efforts include supplemental information and materials provided to teachers, teacher workshops, and careful catering of subject material to state and national education standards. A few sample demonstrations will be performed, including the boiling green water sucker, a magnet strongly repelled from a cooled copper disc, an artificial geyser that shoots water 6 meters, and a few liquid nitrogen tricks. This program is supported in part by a grant from the Idaho Community Foundation.

  16. Research shows targeted HIV prevention succeeds.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    Systematic reviews of HIV prevention intervention literature for the target populations of African-Americans, Latinos, youths, and men who have sex with men in the United States shows that targeted interventions work in reducing HIV risk behaviors. Interventions that succeeded were culturally sensitive, of longer duration, and included skills training, according to a project supported by the Surgeon General's Leadership Campaign on AIDS and teh California HealthCare Foundation in Oakland. PMID:12206092

  17. Separation of crack extension modes in composite delamination problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuth, Jack L.

    1994-01-01

    , delta-independent modes of crack extension could be defined. Knowledge of the near-tip fields in a planar orthotropic material interfacial fracture analysis is used to determine the explicit delta dependence of VCCT parameters. Once this delta dependence is determined, energy release rates are defined with this delta dependence factored out. This modified VCCT method is applied to results from two finite element test cases. It is shown that, as predicted, delta-independent modes of crack extension result. The modified VCCT approach shows potential as a consistent method of extracting crack extension modes. It uses the same information from a finite element analysis (i.e., nodal forces and displacements) as the traditional VCCT method does. The A-independent modes extracted using the modified VCCT approach can also be used as guides to test the convergence of finite element solutions.

  18. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinner, Art

    2014-04-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this one, but when I searched the Internet for information and looked at YouTube presentations, I could only find simplistic references to Newton's laws and the conservation of mechanical energy principle. Nowhere could I find detailed calculations. On the other hand, there were several biomechanical articles with empirical reports of the results of kinetic and dynamic investigations of show jumping using high-speed digital cameras and force plates. They summarize their results in tables that give information about the motion of a horse jumping over high fences (1.40 m) and the magnitudes of the forces encountered when landing. However, they do not describe the physics of these results.

  19. 77 FR 17464 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    .... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities: Information...) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions...

  20. 78 FR 13333 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    .... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities: Information... of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency,...

  1. 77 FR 16022 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... Program. The information to be collected from Partner plants includes: background data, including contact...: background data, including contact information, information on primary energy consumption and energy saving... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Office...

  2. 77 FR 20616 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities: Information... Price Survey;'' Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed collection of information is...

  3. Partial ASL extensions for stochastic programming.

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David

    2010-03-31

    partially completed extensions for stochastic programming to the AMPL/solver interface library (ASL).modeling and experimenting with stochastic recourse problems. This software is not primarily for military applications

  4. Evaluating Internet for Extension in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelb, E. M.; Bonati, G.

    1998-01-01

    Participants in an international agriculture extension workshop rated the following as critical subjects to study regarding farmers' use of the Internet: technical problems, user benefits, drawbacks, and accessibility. Ways to improve effective use in agriculture were identified. (SK)

  5. Two-Way Radio for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swoboda, Donald W.

    1970-01-01

    Nebraska has been developing a two-way radio communication system for the Cooperative Extension Service, using the master microwave towers of the statewide emergency communication network. It has increased the efficiency of their limited human and economic resources. (NL)

  6. 40 CFR 52.1672 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1672 Extensions. Pursuant to section 186(a)(4... (until December 31, 1996) the attainment date for the New York-Northern New Jersey-Long...

  7. Extension Education and Agricultural Education--Partners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etling, Arlen

    1977-01-01

    Efforts of the Agricultural Education Department at the University of Arizona in developing a program to prepare cooperative extension agents are described, and the program's principles and components are outlined. (HD)

  8. Communication for extension: developing country experience.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A J

    1985-01-01

    This paper characterizes several major approaches to the use of communication in support of agricultural extension and suggests directions for change. The approaches discussed include: direct farmer contact, farmer forums, open broadcasting, advertising and social marketing, print media, multiple channel systems (campaigns and distance teaching), and comprehensive communication systems. Although all programs should be able to use media in interaction with training and the coordination of other inputs, this approach has not been comprehensively implemented in extension programs. There are few examples of cases where multiple methods have been brought together under a comprehensive communications strategy and institutionalized as part of an ongoing extension system. Lessons from social marketing in other sectors have not been exploited, while lessons from distance teaching have been underutilized. In addition, the networking and feedback functions of communication in extenson have not been given adequate attention. There is substantial potential for increasing the coverage and impact of agricultural extension through the more systematic and comprehensive use of communication.

  9. Life extension research at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.; DuCharme, A.R. Jr.; DeBey, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) plant life extension (PLEX) effort, the DOE Technology Management Center at Sandia is actively participating in life extension research efforts. In the areas of reliability and surveillance, systems modelling techniques are being explored to identify those components which, if their reliability changes, could most impact safety. Results of an application of these techniques to the Surry nuclear plant were compared to an industry life extension categorization also performed at Surry. For selected types of components identified during this study, the degradation and failure mechanisms are being explored and state-of-the-art monitoring techniques are being evaluated. Initial results are presented. In the area of cable life extension, a definition study is under way to define utility-specific as well as collective industry actions that would facilitate extending cable life. Some recommendations of this study are also provided.

  10. 20 CFR 655.170 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... seeking extensions of more than 2 weeks may apply to the CO. Such requests must be related to weather conditions or other factors beyond the control of the employer (which may include unforeseen changes...

  11. 20 CFR 655.170 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... seeking extensions of more than 2 weeks may apply to the CO. Such requests must be related to weather conditions or other factors beyond the control of the employer (which may include unforeseen changes...

  12. 20 CFR 655.170 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... seeking extensions of more than 2 weeks may apply to the CO. Such requests must be related to weather conditions or other factors beyond the control of the employer (which may include unforeseen changes...

  13. 20 CFR 655.60 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of employment in the following circumstances. A request for extension must be related to weather conditions or other factors beyond the control of the employer (which may include unforeseeable changes...

  14. Extension's Role in a Global World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, J.

    1998-01-01

    Trends in farming and farm household incomes in Ireland are presented in the context of global competitiveness. Addresses the issue of extension's dilemma in providing fee-based service while relying on public monies. (SK)

  15. Mesozoic extension in the southern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Heck, F.R. )

    1989-08-01

    Geophysical data from the southern Appalachians are generally interpreted in terms of Paleozoic collisional tectonics; the later effects of Mesozoic extension are often overlooked or downplayed. This paper reinterprets seismic reflection data from Georgia with the view that Mesozoic extension is responsible for most of the seismic reflection patterns one sees today. The interpretation suggests that geophysical data from a particular area reflect the most recent tectonic event rather than earlier and perhaps more geologically obvious events.

  16. Bex1 knock out mice show altered skeletal muscle regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Jae Hyung Smiley, Mark A.; Lovering, Richard M.; Margolis, Frank L.

    2007-11-16

    Bex1 and Calmodulin (CaM) are upregulated during skeletal muscle regeneration. We confirm this finding and demonstrate the novel finding that they interact in a calcium-dependent manner. To study the role of Bex1 and its interaction with CaM in skeletal muscle regeneration, we generated Bex1 knock out (Bex1-KO) mice. These mice appeared to develop normally and are fertile, but displayed a functional deficit in exercise performance compared to wild type (WT) mice. After intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin, which causes extensive and reproducible myotrauma followed by recovery, regenerating muscles of Bex1-KO mice exhibited elevated and prolonged cell proliferation, as well as delayed cell differentiation, compared to WT mice. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that Bex1-KO mice show altered muscle regeneration, and allow us to propose that the interaction of Bex1 with Ca{sup 2+}/CaM may be involved in skeletal muscle regeneration.

  17. Modifiers of epigenetic reprogramming show paternal effects in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Suyinn; Vickaryous, Nicola; Ashe, Alyson; Zamudio, Natasha; Youngson, Neil; Hemley, Sarah; Stopka, Tomas; Skoultchi, Arthur; Matthews, Jacqui; Scott, Hamish S; de Kretser, David; O’Bryan, Moira; Blewitt, Marnie; Whitelaw, Emma

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that epigenetic information can be inherited across generations in mammals, despite extensive reprogramming both in the gametes and in the early developing embryo. One corollary to this is that disrupting the establishment of epigenetic state in the gametes of a parent, as a result of heterozygosity for mutations in genes involved in reprogramming, could affect the phenotype of offspring that do not inherit the mutant allele. Here we show that such effects do occur following paternal inheritance in the mouse. We detected changes to transcription and chromosome ploidy in adult animals. Paternal effects of this type have not been reported previously in mammals and suggest that the untransmitted genotype of male parents can influence the phenotype of their offspring. PMID:17450140

  18. Software for portable laser light show system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buruchin, Dmitrey J.; Leonov, Alexander F.

    1995-04-01

    Portable laser light show system LS-3500-10M is connected to the parallel port of IBM PC/AT compatible computer. Computer performs output of digital control data describing images. Specially designed control device is used to convert digital data coming from parallel port to the analog signal driving scanner. Capabilities of even cost nothing 286 computer are quite enough for laser graphics control. Technology of scanning used in laser graphics system LS-3500-10M essentially differs from widely spread systems based on galvanometers with mobile core or with mobile magnet. Such devices are based on the same principle of work as electrically driven servo-mechanism. As scanner we use elastic system with hydraulic dampen oscillations and opened loop. For most of applications of laser graphics such system provides satisfactory precision and speed of scanning. LS-3500-10M software gives user ability to create on PC and play his own laser graphics demonstrations. It is possible to render recognizable text and pictures using different styles, 3D and abstract animation. All types of demonstrations can be mixed in slide-show. Time synchronization is supported. Software has the following features: (1) Different types of text output. Built-in text editor for typing and editing of textural information. Different fonts can be used to display text. User can create his own fonts using specially developed font editor. (2) Editor of 3D animation with library of predefined shapes. (3) Abstract animation provided by software routines. (4) Support of different graphics files formats (PCX or DXF). Original algorithm of raster image tracing was implemented. (5) Built-in slide-show editor.

  19. Latest European coelacanth shows Gondwanan affinities.

    PubMed

    Cavin, Lionel; Forey, Peter L; Buffetaut, Eric; Tong, Haiyan

    2005-06-22

    The last European fossil occurrence of a coelacanth is from the Mid-Cretaceous of the English Chalk (Turonian, 90 million years ago). Here, we report the discovery of a coelacanth from Late Cretaceous non-marine rocks in southern France. It consists of a left angular bone showing structures that imply close phylogenetic affinities with some extinct Mawsoniidae. The closest relatives are otherwise known from Cretaceous continental deposits of southern continents and suggest that the dispersal of freshwater organisms from Africa to Europe occurred in the Late Cretaceous.

  20. Asteroid Ida - 6 Views Showing Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This composite image shows the asteroid 243 Ida as seen from the Galileo spacecraft during its approach on August 28, 1993. The six views were shuttered through the camera's green filter and show Ida's rotation over a period of about 3 hours 18 minutes. The asteroid makes a complete rotation every 4 hours 38 minutes; therefore, this set of images spans about 3/4 of Ida's rotation period and shows most of Ida's surface. By combining the information in these views with that from the highest resolution images returned from the spacecraft in September 1993, the size and shape of this irregular body can now be determined accurately The asteroid appears to be about 58 kilometers (36 miles) long and about 23 kilometers wide, with a very irregular shape and volume of some 16,000 cubic kilometers. The images are arranged in chronological order from a time 3 hours 51 minutes before closest approach (upper left), through upper right, middle left, middle right lower left and lower right (33 minutes before closest approach). The six images show Ida at the same scale throughout. Ida's rotation axis is roughly vertical in these images, and the rotation causes the right-hand end of Ida to move toward the viewer as time progresses. The first image was taken from a range of about 171,000 km (106,000 miles) and provides an image resolution of about 1,700 meters per pixel (the highest resolution achieved for Ida is about 25 meters per pixel). The second, taken 70 minutes later, is from 119,000 kilometers, followed by 102,000 kilometers, 85,000 kilometers, 50,000 kilometers, and 25,000 kilometers. The features on Ida are less sharp in the earlier views because of the greater distances. Prominent in the middle three views is a deep depression across the short axis of the Asteroid. This feature tends to support the idea that Ida may have originally been formed from two or more separate large objects that collided softly and stuck together. Also visible in the lower left view is an

  1. Trematode hemoglobins show exceptionally high oxygen affinity.

    PubMed

    Kiger, L; Rashid, A K; Griffon, N; Haque, M; Moens, L; Gibson, Q H; Poyart, C; Marden, M C

    1998-08-01

    Ligand binding studies were made with hemoglobin (Hb) isolated from trematode species Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc), Paramphistomum epiclitum (Pe), Explanatum explanatum (Ee), parasitic worms of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, and Isoparorchis hypselobagri (Ih) parasitic in the catfish Wallago attu. The kinetics of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding show very fast association rates. Whereas oxygen can be displaced on a millisecond time scale from human Hb at 25 degrees C, the dissociation of oxygen from trematode Hb may require a few seconds to over 20 s (for Hb Pe). Carbon monoxide dissociation is faster, however, than for other monomeric hemoglobins or myoglobins. Trematode hemoglobins also show a reduced rate of autoxidation; the oxy form is not readily oxidized by potassium ferricyanide, indicating that only the deoxy form reacts rapidly with this oxidizing agent. Unlike most vertebrate Hbs, the trematodes have a tyrosine residue at position E7 instead of the usual distal histidine. As for Hb Ascaris, which also displays a high oxygen affinity, the trematodes have a tyrosine in position B10; two H-bonds to the oxygen molecule are thought to be responsible for the very high oxygen affinity. The trematode hemoglobins display a combination of high association rates and very low dissociation rates, resulting in some of the highest oxygen affinities ever observed.

  2. Show Me the Invisible: Visualizing Hidden Content.

    PubMed

    Geymayer, Thomas; Steinberger, Markus; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Content on computer screens is often inaccessible to users because it is hidden, e.g., occluded by other windows, outside the viewport, or overlooked. In search tasks, the efficient retrieval of sought content is important. Current software, however, only provides limited support to visualize hidden occurrences and rarely supports search synchronization crossing application boundaries. To remedy this situation, we introduce two novel visualization methods to guide users to hidden content. Our first method generates awareness for occluded or out-of-viewport content using see-through visualization. For content that is either outside the screen's viewport or for data sources not opened at all, our second method shows off-screen indicators and an on-demand smart preview. To reduce the chances of overlooking content, we use visual links, i.e., visible edges, to connect the visible content or the visible representations of the hidden content. We show the validity of our methods in a user study, which demonstrates that our technique enables a faster localization of hidden content compared to traditional search functionality and thereby assists users in information retrieval tasks. PMID:25325078

  3. Color Voyager 2 Image Showing Crescent Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image shows a crescent Uranus, a view that Earthlings never witnessed until Voyager 2 flew near and then beyond Uranus on January 24, 1986. This planet's natural blue-green color is due to the absorption of redder wavelengths in the atmosphere by traces of methane gas. Uranus' diameter is 32,500 miles, a little over four times that of Earth. The hazy blue-green atmosphere probably extends to a depth of around 5,400 miles, where it rests above what is believed to be an icy or liquid mixture (an 'ocean') of water, ammonia, methane, and other volatiles, which in turn surrounds a rocky core perhaps a little smaller than Earth.

  4. Star Shows It Has The Right Stuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have used an observation by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to make the best case yet that a star can be engulfed by its companion star and survive. This discovery will help astronomers better understand how closely coupled stars, and perhaps even stars and planets, evolve when one of the stars expands enormously in its red giant phase. The binary star system known as V471 Tauri comprises a white dwarf star (the primary) in a close orbit -- one thirtieth of the distance between Mercury and the Sun -- with a normal Sun-like star (the secondary). Chandra's data showed that the hot upper atmosphere of the secondary star has a deficit of carbon atoms relative to nitrogen atoms. "This deficit of carbon atoms is the first clear observational evidence that the normal star was engulfed by its companion in the past," according to Jeremy Drake of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, MA, who coauthored an article on V471 in The Astrophysical Journal Letters with Marek Sarna of the N. Copernicus Astronomical Center in Poland. The white dwarf star was once a star several times as massive as the Sun. Nuclear fusion reactions in the core of such a star convert carbon into nitrogen over a period of about a billion years. When the fuel in the core of the star is exhausted, the core collapses, triggering more energetic nuclear reactions that cause the star to expand and transform into a red giant before eventually collapsing to become a white dwarf. The carbon-poor material in the core of the red giant is mixed with outer part of the star, so its atmosphere shows a deficit of carbon, as compared with Sun-like stars. The X-ray spectra of a red giant star (top panel) and a Sun-like star (bottom panel) show the large difference in the peaks due to carbon atoms in the two stars. Theoretical calculations indicate that a red giant in a binary system can completely envelop its companion star and dramatically affect its evolution. During this common envelope

  5. New AIDS estimates show demographic changes.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the HIV epidemic's rate of increase has slowed to about three percent per year, with the incidence of AIDS cases estimated to have decreased in the West. The latest epidemic figures, reported through 1994 in the CDC's HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, puts the total of reported AIDS cases in the United States at 441,528. The implementation of the new AIDS definition in 1993 has distorted surveillance trends--six out of ten AIDS cases are now reported using the new CD4 criterion instead of the pre-1993 case definitions. An unpublished analysis of the epidemic shows a shift toward fewer gay men, more injection drug users, and more women becoming infected. However, the CDC contends that more heterosexuals are being infected and more racial and ethnic minorities are being infected. PMID:11362433

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells show radioresistance in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarvpreet; Kloss, Frank R; Brunauer, Regina; Schimke, Magdalena; Jamnig, Angelika; Greiderer-Kleinlercher, Brigitte; Klima, Günter; Rentenberger, Julia; Auberger, Thomas; Hächl, Oliver; Rasse, Michael; Gassner, Robert; Lepperdinger, Günter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Irradiation impacts on the viability and differentiation capacity of tissue-borne mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), which play a pivotal role in bone regeneration. As a consequence of radiotherapy, bones may develop osteoradionecrosis. When irradiating human bone-derived MSC in vitro with increasing doses, the cells’ self-renewal capabilities were greatly reduced. Mitotically stalled cells were still capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and pre-adipocytes. As a large animal model comparable to the clinical situation, pig mandibles were subjected to fractionized radiation of 2 χ 9 Gy within 1 week. This treatment mimics that of a standardized clinical treatment regimen of head and neck cancer patients irradiated 30 χ 2 Gy. In the pig model, fractures which had been irradiated, showed delayed osseous healing. When isolating MSC at different time points post-irradiation, no significant changes regarding proliferation capacity and osteogenic differentiation potential became apparent. Therefore, pig mandibles were irradiated with a single dose of either 9 or 18 Gy in vivo, and MSC were isolated immediately afterwards. No significant differences between the untreated and 9 Gy irradiated bone with respect to proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were unveiled. Yet, cells isolated from 18 Gy irradiated specimens exhibited a reduced osteogenic differentiation capacity, and during the first 2 weeks proliferation rates were greatly diminished. Thereafter, cells recovered and showed normal proliferation behaviour. These findings imply that MSC can effectively cope with irradiation up to high doses in vivo. This finding should thus be implemented in future therapeutic concepts to protect regenerating tissue from radiation consequences. PMID:21762375

  7. Symmetric extensions of normal discrete velocity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobylev, A. V.; Vinerean, M. C.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we discuss a general problem related to spurious conservation laws for discrete velocity models (DVMs) of the classical (elastic) Boltzmann equation. Models with spurious conservation laws appeared already at the early stage of the development of discrete kinetic theory. The well-known theorem of uniqueness of collision invariants for the continuous velocity space very often does not hold for a set of discrete velocities. In our previous works we considered the general problem of the construction of normal DVMs, we found a general algorithm for the construction of all such models and presented a complete classification of normal DVMs with small number n of velocities (n<11). Even if we have a general method to classify all normal discrete kinetic models (and in particular DVMs), the existing method is relatively slow and the amount of possible cases to check increases rapidly with n. We remarked that many of our normal DVMs appear to be axially symmetric. In this paper we consider a connection between symmetric transformations and normal DVMs. We first develop a new inductive method that, starting with a given normal DVM, leads by symmetric extensions to a new normal DVM. This method can produce very fast many new normal DVMs with larger number of velocities, showing that the class of normal DVMs contains a large subclass of symmetric models. We finally apply the method to several normal DVMs and construct new models that are not only normal, but also symmetric relatively to more and more axes. We hope that such symmetric velocity sets can be used for DSMC methods of solving Boltzmann equation.

  8. VLA Shows "Boiling" in Atmosphere of Betelgeuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-04-01

    A team of astronomers says that observations with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope show that a neighboring bloated star has giant convective plumes propelling gas from its surface (photosphere) up into the star's atmosphere. This new information contradicts long-held ideas that such stellar atmospheres are more uniform, and may resolve questions about how the star's atmosphere attains its enormous size as well as how dust and gas is driven away from the star. Jeremy Lim of the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics in Taiwan; Chris Carilli, Anthony Beasley, and Ralph Marson of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM; and Stephen White of the University of Maryland studied the red-supergiant star Betelgeuse, about 430 light-years away in the constellation Orion. They reported their findings in the April 9 issue of the scientific journal Nature. "These radio-telescope images confirm that Betelgeuse -- already more than 600 times larger than our Sun -- has a dense atmosphere that extends to many times larger still than the star itself," said Lim. "The highest-resolution image shows the star's atmosphere to have a remarkably complex structure." "To our surprise," added White, "the images also show that most of the gas in the atmosphere is only about as hot as that on the surface. Previously, all of it was thought to be very much hotter." The astronomers used the VLA to make images of Betelgeuse at a variety of radio frequencies. The series of radio observations measured the temperature of the star's atmosphere at different heights. Previous observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) at ultraviolet wavelengths showed that the star's atmosphere contains very hot gas at about twice the surface temperature. The VLA images showed that there also is lower-temperature gas throughout the atmosphere. This gas is near the surface temperature at low heights and decreases in temperature

  9. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  10. Temperature Data Shows Warming in 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    TThe figure above depicts how much air temperatures near the Earth's surface changed relative to the global mean temperature from 1951 to 1980. NASA researchers used maps of urban areas derived from city lights data to account for the 'heat island' effect of cities. The red and orange colors show that temperatures are warmer in most regions of the world when compared to the 1951 to 1980 'normal' temperatures. Warming around the world has been widespread, but it is not present everywhere. The largest warming is in Northern Canada, Alaska and Siberia, as indicated by the deeper red colors. The lower 48 United States have become warmer recently, but only enough to make the temperatures comparable to what they were in the 1930s. The scale on the bottom of these temperature anomaly images represent degrees in Celsius. The negative numbers represent cooling and the positive numbers depict warming. Overall, the air temperature near the Earth's surface has warmed by 1oF (0.6oC) globally, on average, over the last century. For more information and additional images, read Satellites Shed Light on a Warmer World. Image courtesy Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS).

  11. Hemispatial Neglect Shows That "Before" Is "Left".

    PubMed

    Bonato, Mario; Saj, Arnaud; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has led to the hypothesis that events which unfold in time might be spatially represented in a left-to-right fashion, resembling writing direction. Here we studied fourteen right-hemisphere damaged patients, with or without neglect, a disorder of spatial awareness affecting contralesional (here left) space processing and representation. We reasoned that if the processing of time-ordered events is spatial in nature, it should be impaired in the presence of neglect and spared in its absence. Patients categorized events of a story as occurring before or after a central event, which acted as a temporal reference. An asymmetric distance effect emerged in neglect patients, with slower responses to events that took place before the temporal reference. The event occurring immediately before the reference elicited particularly slow responses, closely mirroring the pattern found in neglect patients performing numerical comparison tasks. Moreover, the first item elicited significantly slower responses than the last one, suggesting a preference for a left-to-right scanning/representation of events in time. Patients without neglect showed a regular and symmetric distance effect. These findings further suggest that the representation of events order is spatial in nature and provide compelling evidence that ordinality is similarly represented within temporal and numerical domains. PMID:27313902

  12. NTZIP antisense plants show reduced chlorophyll levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Yang, Yu-Tao; Liu, Han-Hua; Yang, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Nai-Hua; Zheng, Cheng Chao

    2004-04-01

    We have isolated and characterized a new photosynthetic tissue-specific gene NTZIP (Nicotiana tabacum leucine zipper) from tobacco (N. tabacum). Its deduced amino acid sequence has two highly conserved regions, leucine zipper and [EX(n)DEXRH](2) motifs, which are related to the gene's biochemical functions. NTZIP was expressed in leaves and stems, but was not detected in roots or flowers, suggesting that its physiological functions might be associated with photosynthesis. Northern blot analysis showed that NTZIP mRNA accumulation was induced by light signals, increased greatly under low temperatures and was repressed by strong light illumination. Furthermore, a number of homologs of NTZIP were isolated from cucumber (Cucumis sativus), rape (Brassica napus), clover (Trifolium repens), willow (Salix babylonica), rosebush (Rusa dovurica), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea), proving the ubiquitous existence of the NTZIP-like genes in higher plants. Transgenic tobaccos constitutively expressing antisense RNA to NTZIP displayed chlorosis and a lack of ability to turn green even under normal growth conditions. The chlorophyll deficiency was further confirmed by chlorophyll content determination and gas exchange analysis. Based on these observations, we propose that NTZIP may be involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis, and might define a novel family of evolutionarily conserved proteins with its homologs in other plant species.

  13. Controlled Pseudopod Extension of Human Neutrophils Stimulated with Different Chemoattractants

    PubMed Central

    Zhelev, Doncho V.; Alteraifi, Abdullatif M.; Chodniewicz, David

    2004-01-01

    inhibition of the activity of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) with wortmannin showed that 72%–80% of the rate of pseudopod extension induced with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, platelet activating factor, and leukotriene B4 was phosphoinositide-3 kinase-dependent, in contrast to 55% of the rate of pseudopod extension induced with interleukin-8. The dependence of the rate of pseudopod extension on the concentration of individual chemoattractants and their equimolar mixture suggests that there is a common rate-limiting mechanism for the polymerization of cytoskeletal F-actin in the pseudopod region induced by G-protein coupled chemoattractant receptors. PMID:15240502

  14. Upper Stage Engine Composite Nozzle Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandra E.; Sullivan, Brian J.; Weller, Leslie J.; Koenig, John R.; Cuneo, Jacques C.; Thompson, James; Brown, Aaron; Shigley, John K.; Dovey, Henry N.; Roberts, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-carbon (C-C) composite nozzle extensions are of interest for use on a variety of launch vehicle upper stage engines and in-space propulsion systems. The C-C nozzle extension technology and test capabilities being developed are intended to support National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and United States Air Force (USAF) requirements, as well as broader industry needs. Recent and on-going efforts at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are aimed at both (a) further developing the technology and databases for nozzle extensions fabricated from specific CC materials, and (b) developing and demonstrating low-cost capabilities for testing composite nozzle extensions. At present, materials development work is concentrating on developing a database for lyocell-based C-C that can be used for upper stage engine nozzle extension design, modeling, and analysis efforts. Lyocell-based C-C behaves in a manner similar to rayon-based CC, but does not have the environmental issues associated with the use of rayon. Future work will also further investigate technology and database gaps and needs for more-established polyacrylonitrile- (PAN-) based C-C's. As a low-cost means of being able to rapidly test and screen nozzle extension materials and structures, MSFC has recently established and demonstrated a test rig at MSFC's Test Stand (TS) 115 for testing subscale nozzle extensions with 3.5-inch inside diameters at the attachment plane. Test durations of up to 120 seconds have been demonstrated using oxygen/hydrogen propellants. Other propellant combinations, including the use of hydrocarbon fuels, can be used if desired. Another test capability being developed will allow the testing of larger nozzle extensions (13.5- inch inside diameters at the attachment plane) in environments more similar to those of actual oxygen/hydrogen upper stage engines. Two C-C nozzle extensions (one lyocell-based, one PAN-based) have been fabricated for testing with the larger

  15. An Educational Extension Service in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krichevsky, M. I.

    2001-12-01

    A strength of US education is interaction with the public under the Land Grant University program. The public benefits from outreach through extension services which evolved for communication with end users, e.g., farmers, homemakers, public health providers, schoolchildren and entrepreneurs i.e., the public with problems and the extension agents who advise on solutions. Further, the agents can seek specialized advice from university faculty. No such system exists in India. The University of Pune (UP), Bionomics International (BI), and WorldSpace Foundation (WSF) will use digital radio broadcasts to facilitate educational extension services. The UP (350,000 students, 250 campuses, among dispersed communities) is a useful institutional setting to demonstrate the value of an outreach system in India. The UP will coordinate development of the broadcast content and the teaching faculty. The campuses will be focal points for outreach. BI will consult on development of the extension structure. WSF will provide the facilities and technical expertise for use of the digital system under the terms of an agreement with Bionomics International. Digital radios (&$slash75-150 each) and PCs will be at each campus and community. The major components of the Extension Service are broadcast of 1) University lecture and examination material in many disciplines; 2) outreach to the general population with of "canned" presentations and talks, skits, songs, games. The steps are: 1) Enhance communication among the campuses by use of satellite digital audio and multimedia broadcasts with feedback by telephone, mail, fax, etc. 2) Develop course material for training of extension personnel. 3) Train extension personnel to interface between the faculty of the University and the local population. 4) Extend digital radio services to population centers for communication of locally useful information. 5) Utilize extension personnel for system maintenance, motivating use of the broadcast

  16. Extension in the Rio Grande rift.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordell, L.

    1982-01-01

    A positive gravity anomaly along the axis of the Rio Grande rift reflects a volume of anomalous mass added at the base of the crust and intruded into the crust. Part of this volume can be associated with vertical uplift of the crust. The remainder of this anomalous volume, plus the volume of surficial graben fill, can be associated with horizontal crustal extension. The volume of crustal uplift in the Rio Grande rift is unknown, but this term can be eliminated by means of an independent equation provided by assumption of generalized isostatic equilibrium. The volume and mass equations combined provide a solution for extension of the crust in terms of the following parameters: total anomalous mass deficiency in the mantle lithosphere, total anomalous mass excess in the crust and its density contrast, total anomalous mass deficiency of surficial graben fill and its density contrast, and the volume of material eroded from the uplift. Using standard density estimates and masses determined by equivalent-source modeling of gravity profiles, I obtained 1-km extension at 37oN (Colorado-New Mexico border), 13- km extension at 35oN (Albuquerque, New Mexico), and 24-km extension at 33oN in S New Mexico.-Author

  17. Cenozoic extension and magmatism in Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, S. J.; Spencer, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Basin and Range Province of Arizona was the site of two episodes of Cenozoic extension that can be distinguished on the basis of timing, direction and style of extension, and associated magmatism. The first episode of extension occurred during Oligocene to mid-Miocene time and resulted in the formation of low-angle detachment faults, ductile shear zones (metamorphic core complexes), and regional domains of tilted fault blocks. Evidence for extreme middle Tertiary crustal extension in a NE to SW to SW to ENE to WSW direction has been recognized in various parts of the Basin and Range of Arizona, especially in the Lake Mead area and along the belf of metamorphic core complexes that crosses southern Arizona from Parker to Tucson. New geologic mapping and scrutiny of published geologic maps indicates that significant middle Tertiary extension is more widely distributed than previously thought. The state can be subdivided into regional tilt-block domains in which middle Tertiary rocks dip consistently in one direction. The dip direction in any tilt-block domain is generally toward the breakaway of a low-angle detachment fault that underlies the tilt-block domain; we interpret this an indicating that normal faults in the upper plate of a detechment fault are generally synthetic, rather than antithetic, with respect to the detachment fault.

  18. On the supersymmetric extension of Gauss-Bonnet like gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concha, P. K.; Ipinza, M. C.; Ravera, L.; Rodríguez, E. K.

    2016-09-01

    We explore the supersymmetry invariance of a supergravity theory in the presence of a non-trivial boundary. The explicit construction of a bulk Lagrangian based on an enlarged superalgebra, known as AdS-Lorentz, is presented. Using a geometric approach we show that the supersymmetric extension of a Gauss-Bonnet like gravity is required in order to restore the supersymmetry invariance of the theory.

  19. The Hartogs extension theorem for holomorphic vector bundles and sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrist, Rafael B.; Shcherbina, Nikolay; Wold, Erlend F.

    2016-10-01

    We give a detailed proof of Siu's theorem on extendibility of holomorphic vector bundles of rank larger than one, and prove a corresponding extension theorem for holomorphic sprays. We apply this result to study ellipticity properties of complements of compact subsets in Stein manifolds. In particular we show that the complement of a closed ball in {C}n, n ≥3, is not subelliptic.

  20. Tsallis non-extensive statistics and solar wind plasma complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlos, G. P.; Iliopoulos, A. C.; Zastenker, G. N.; Zelenyi, L. M.; Karakatsanis, L. P.; Riazantseva, M. O.; Xenakis, M. N.; Pavlos, E. G.

    2015-03-01

    This article presents novel results revealing non-equilibrium phase transition processes in the solar wind plasma during a strong shock event, which took place on 26th September 2011. Solar wind plasma is a typical case of stochastic spatiotemporal distribution of physical state variables such as force fields (B → , E →) and matter fields (particle and current densities or bulk plasma distributions). This study shows clearly the non-extensive and non-Gaussian character of the solar wind plasma and the existence of multi-scale strong correlations from the microscopic to the macroscopic level. It also underlines the inefficiency of classical magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) or plasma statistical theories, based on the classical central limit theorem (CLT), to explain the complexity of the solar wind dynamics, since these theories include smooth and differentiable spatial-temporal functions (MHD theory) or Gaussian statistics (Boltzmann-Maxwell statistical mechanics). On the contrary, the results of this study indicate the presence of non-Gaussian non-extensive statistics with heavy tails probability distribution functions, which are related to the q-extension of CLT. Finally, the results of this study can be understood in the framework of modern theoretical concepts such as non-extensive statistical mechanics (Tsallis, 2009), fractal topology (Zelenyi and Milovanov, 2004), turbulence theory (Frisch, 1996), strange dynamics (Zaslavsky, 2002), percolation theory (Milovanov, 1997), anomalous diffusion theory and anomalous transport theory (Milovanov, 2001), fractional dynamics (Tarasov, 2013) and non-equilibrium phase transition theory (Chang, 1992).

  1. New polymer systems: Chain extension by dianhydrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhein, R. A.; Ingham, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented for a systematic investigation on the use of anhydrides to prepare stable elastomeric materials for space use, under mild reaction conditions. The three anhydrides investigated were found to provide effective chain extension of hydroxy-terminated poly(alkylene oxides) and poly(butadienes). These were tetrahydrofuran tetracarboxylic dianhydride, pyromellitic dianhydride, and benzophenone tetracarboxylic diahydride. The most effective catalyst investigated was ferric acetylacetonate, which resulted in chain extension at 333 K (60 C). One feature of these anhydride reactants is that they are difunctional as anhydrides, but tetrafunctional if conditions are selected that lead to reaction of all carboxyl groups. Therefore, chain extension can be effected and then followed by crosslinking via the residual carboxyl groups.

  2. Introduction to Special Section: Magmatism and Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Rodney V.; Smith, Eugene I.

    1995-06-01

    The relationship between magmatism and the formation of continental rift zones is the subject of much controversy. In particular, the cause and effect relationships between magmatism and extension and the mode of generation of magma during the process of extension are still hotly debated. This controversy served as the theme of a symposium on "Cenozoic Magmatism in the Colorado River Extensional Corridor and Adjacent Areas" and a field trip held as part of the Geological Society of America Cordilleran/Rocky Mountain Section meeting in Reno, Nevada [Metcalf et al., 1993]. It was clear from data presented at the symposium that a considerable amount of new information has become available regarding magmatism and extension since the last special section on this topic published by the Journal of Geophysical Research (June 1989).

  3. Cutoff for extensions of massive gravity and bi-gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matas, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Recently there has been interest in extending ghost-free massive gravity, bi-gravity, and multi-gravity by including non-standard kinetic terms and matter couplings. We first review recent proposals for this class of extensions, emphasizing how modifications of the kinetic and potential structure of the graviton and modifications of the coupling to matter are related. We then generalize existing no-go arguments in the metric language to the vielbein language in second-order form. We give an ADM argument to show that the most promising extensions to the kinetic term and matter coupling contain a Boulware-Deser ghost. However, as recently emphasized, we may still be able to view these extensions as effective field theories below some cutoff scale. To address this possibility, we show that there is a decoupling limit where a ghost appears for a wide class of matter couplings and kinetic terms. In particular, we show that there is a decoupling limit where the linear effective vielbein matter coupling contains a ghost. Using the insight we gain from this decoupling limit analysis, we place an upper bound on the cutoff for the linear effective vielbein coupling. This result can be generalized to new kinetic interactions in the vielbein language in second-order form. Combined with recent results, this provides a strong uniqueness argument on the form of ghost-free massive gravity, bi-gravity, and multi-gravity.

  4. Graded junction termination extensions for electronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrett, J. Neil (Inventor); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara (Inventor); Sheridan, David C. (Inventor); Williams, John R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A graded junction termination extension in a silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device and method of its fabrication using ion implementation techniques is provided for high power devices. The properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this wide band gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc. These devices require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power handling capabilities. The graded junction termination extension disclosed is effective, self-aligned, and simplifies the implementation process.

  5. Graded junction termination extensions for electronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrett, J. Neil (Inventor); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara (Inventor); Sheridan, David C. (Inventor); Williams, John R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A graded junction termination extension in a silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device and method of its fabrication using ion implementation techniques is provided for high power devices. The properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this wide band gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc. These devices require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power handling capabilities. The graded junction termination extension disclosed is effective, self-aligned, and simplifies the implementation process.

  6. EXTENSION EDUCATION SYMPOSIUM: reinventing extension as a resource--what does the future hold?

    PubMed

    Mirando, M A; Bewley, J M; Blue, J; Amaral-Phillips, D M; Corriher, V A; Whittet, K M; Arthur, N; Patterson, D J

    2012-10-01

    The mission of the Cooperative Extension Service, as a component of the land-grant university system, is to disseminate new knowledge and to foster its application and use. Opportunities and challenges facing animal agriculture in the United States have changed dramatically over the past few decades and require the use of new approaches and emerging technologies that are available to extension professionals. Increased federal competitive grant funding for extension, the creation of eXtension, the development of smartphone and related electronic technologies, and the rapidly increasing popularity of social media created new opportunities for extension educators to disseminate knowledge to a variety of audiences and engage these audiences in electronic discussions. Competitive grant funding opportunities for extension efforts to advance animal agriculture became available from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) and have increased dramatically in recent years. The majority of NIFA funding opportunities require extension efforts to be integrated with research, and NIFA encourages the use of eXtension and other cutting-edge approaches to extend research to traditional clientele and nontraditional audiences. A case study is presented to illustrate how research and extension were integrated to improve the adoption of AI by beef producers. Those in agriculture are increasingly resorting to the use of social media venues such as Facebook, YouTube, LinkedIn, and Twitter to access information required to support their enterprises. Use of these various approaches by extension educators requires appreciation of the technology and an understanding of how the target audiences access information available on social media. Technology to deliver information is changing rapidly, and Cooperative Extension Service professionals will need to continuously evaluate digital technology and social media tools to appropriately integrate them into learning and

  7. EXTENSION EDUCATION SYMPOSIUM: reinventing extension as a resource--what does the future hold?

    PubMed

    Mirando, M A; Bewley, J M; Blue, J; Amaral-Phillips, D M; Corriher, V A; Whittet, K M; Arthur, N; Patterson, D J

    2012-10-01

    The mission of the Cooperative Extension Service, as a component of the land-grant university system, is to disseminate new knowledge and to foster its application and use. Opportunities and challenges facing animal agriculture in the United States have changed dramatically over the past few decades and require the use of new approaches and emerging technologies that are available to extension professionals. Increased federal competitive grant funding for extension, the creation of eXtension, the development of smartphone and related electronic technologies, and the rapidly increasing popularity of social media created new opportunities for extension educators to disseminate knowledge to a variety of audiences and engage these audiences in electronic discussions. Competitive grant funding opportunities for extension efforts to advance animal agriculture became available from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) and have increased dramatically in recent years. The majority of NIFA funding opportunities require extension efforts to be integrated with research, and NIFA encourages the use of eXtension and other cutting-edge approaches to extend research to traditional clientele and nontraditional audiences. A case study is presented to illustrate how research and extension were integrated to improve the adoption of AI by beef producers. Those in agriculture are increasingly resorting to the use of social media venues such as Facebook, YouTube, LinkedIn, and Twitter to access information required to support their enterprises. Use of these various approaches by extension educators requires appreciation of the technology and an understanding of how the target audiences access information available on social media. Technology to deliver information is changing rapidly, and Cooperative Extension Service professionals will need to continuously evaluate digital technology and social media tools to appropriately integrate them into learning and

  8. Multipartitioning Møller-Plesset perturbation theory: Size-extensivity at third order and symmetry conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolik, Zoltán; Szabados, Ágnes

    Multipartitioning multireference many-body perturbation theory (Zaitevskii and Malrieu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 1995, 233, 597) is investigated with regard to symmetry and size-extensivity. We show that the spin-adapted formulation suffers from spatial symmetry breaking and propose a general symmetry-conserving zero-order Hamiltonian. We analyze size-extensivity of various partitionings at the third order and find that extensivity holds if one-particle quantities in the zero-order Hamiltonian are properly chosen. In particular, third order of the spin-adapted and general symmetry-adapted theory prove to be extensive.

  9. Program Evaluation Competencies of Extension Professionals: Implications for Continuing Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Megan M.; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Morgan, A. Christian

    2012-01-01

    As states face tough economic times, extension organizations are increasingly emphasizing the importance of evaluation data to show program value. However, little is known about the evaluation skills and abilities of extension professionals expected to collect such data. This knowledge would help inform professional development opportunities…

  10. Comment on "Human neuroblasts migrate to the olfactory bulb via a lateral ventricular extension".

    PubMed

    Sanai, Nader; Berger, Mitchel S; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2007-10-19

    Curtis et al. (Research Articles, 2 March 2007, p. 1243) claimed discovery of a human neuronal migratory stream to the olfactory bulb along a putative lateral ventricular extension. However, high levels of proliferation reported with proliferating cell nuclear antigen were not confirmed using different markers, neuronal chain migration was not demonstrated, and no serial reconstruction shows a true ventricular extension.

  11. Exploration of the Core and Variable Dimensions of Extensive Reading Research and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Rob; McLean, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The Extensive Reading Foundation's bibliography now boasts over 530 articles with "Extensive Reading" in the title. About 35% of this rich and diverse body of papers were published in the past decade. A meta-review of this literature shows it is quite fragmented as evidenced by considerable variability in the conceptualization of…

  12. A Fungal Endoglucanase with Plant Cell Wall Extension Activity1

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Sheng; Wu, Yajun; Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2001-01-01

    We have identified a wall hydrolytic enzyme from Trichoderma reesei with potent ability to induce extension of heat-inactivated type I cell walls. It is a small (23-kD) endo-1,4-β-glucanase (Cel12A) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 12. Extension of heat-inactivated walls from cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv Burpee Pickler) hypocotyls was induced by Cel12A after a distinct lag time and was accompanied by a large increase in wall plasticity and elasticity. Cel12A also increased the rate of stress relaxation of isolated walls at very short times (<200 ms; equivalent to reducing t0, a parameter that estimates the minimum relaxation time). Similar changes in wall plasticity and elasticity were observed in wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Pennmore Winter) coleoptile (type II) walls, which showed only a negligible extension in response to Cel12A treatment. Thus, Cel12A modifies both type I and II walls, but substantial extension is found only in type I walls. Cel12A has strong endo-glucanase activity against xyloglucan and (1→3,1→4)-β-glucan, but did not exhibit endo-xylanase, endo-mannase, or endo-galactanase activities. In terms of kinetics of action and effects on wall rheology, wall loosening by Cel12A differs qualitatively from the action by expansins, which induce wall extension by a non-hydrolytic polymer creep mechanism. The action by Cel12A mimics some of the changes in wall rheology found after auxin-induced growth. The strategy used here to identify Cel12A could be used to identify analogous plant enzymes that cause auxin-induced changes in cell wall rheology. PMID:11553760

  13. Does subduction-induced mantle flow drive backarc extension?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhihao; Schellart, Wouter P.; Strak, Vincent; Duarte, João C.

    2016-05-01

    Backarc extension is a characteristic feature of many narrow subduction zones. Seismological and geochemical studies imply the occurrence of mantle flow around the narrow subducting slabs. Previous 3D models suggested that backarc extension is related to subduction-induced toroidal mantle flow. The physical viability of this mechanism, however, has never been tested using laboratory-based geodynamic models. In this work, we present dynamic laboratory models of progressive subduction in three-dimensional (3D) space that were carried out to test this mechanism. To achieve this, we have used a stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (sPIV) technique to map simultaneously overriding plate deformation and 3D subduction-induced mantle flow underneath and around an overriding plate. The results show that the strain field of the overriding plate is characterized by the localization of an area of maximum extension within its interior (at 300-500 km from the trench). The position of maximum extension closely coincides (within ∼2 cm, scaling to 100 km) with that of the maximum trench-normal horizontal mantle velocity and velocity gradient measured at a scaled depth of 15-25 km below the base of the overriding plate, and the maximum horizontal gradient of the vertical mantle velocity gradient. We propound that in narrow subduction zones backarc extension in the overriding plate is mainly a consequence of the trench-normal horizontal gradients of basal drag force at the base of the overriding plate. Such shear force gradients result from a horizontal gradient in velocity in the mantle below the base of the lithosphere induced by slab rollback. Calculations based on our models indicate a tensional horizontal trench-normal deviatoric stress in the backarc region scaling to ∼28.8 MPa, while the overriding plate trench-normal stress resulting from the horizontal component of the trench suction force is about an order of magnitude smaller, scaling to ∼2.4-3.6 MPa.

  14. 77 FR 13313 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... reinstate and extend for three years, an information collection request with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The information collection request, Historic Preservation for Energy Efficiency...

  15. 78 FR 14520 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information...) Review and Comment. SUMMARY: The EIA has submitted an information collection request to the OMB under the.... DATES: Comments regarding this proposed information collection must be received on or before April...

  16. 77 FR 13313 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    .... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy. ] ACTION: Agency information collection activities: Information... Price Survey;'' Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed collection of information is...

  17. 76 FR 63289 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... extend for three years, an information collection request with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the extended collection of information is necessary for the...

  18. 77 FR 70741 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    .... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information... satisfy numerous public requests for detailed information on AFVs and ATFs (in particular, the number of... Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, New Executive Office Building, Room...

  19. 78 FR 19695 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ] ACTION: Notice and request for comments... extend for three years an information collection request with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the extended collection of information is necessary for the...

  20. Community Level Impact Assessment--Extension Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Mike D.; Doeksen, Gerald A.

    Using the Oklahoma State University (OSU) computerized community simulation model, extension professionals can provide local decision makers with information derived from an impact model that is dynamic, community specific, and easy to adapt to different communities. The four main sections of the OSU model are an economic account, a capital…

  1. 36 CFR 223.115 - Contract extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contract extensions. 223.115 Section 223.115 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  2. 77 FR 26749 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and Request for Comments... extend for three years, an information collection request with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the extended collection of information is necessary for the...

  3. 76 FR 30143 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S...), pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995), intends to extend for three years, an information... extended collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the...

  4. 77 FR 34367 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and Request for Comments... extend for three years, an information collection request with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the extended collection of information is necessary for the...

  5. 78 FR 38020 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... reinstate for three years an information collection request with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the extended collection of information is necessary for the...

  6. 76 FR 127 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Occupational Radiation Protection Program, OMB Control Number 1910-5105. This information collection request covers information necessary to permit DOE and its contractors to provide management control and oversight over health...

  7. Introducing Extension/Outreach Education in Tajikistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Julie A.; Prochaska-Cue, Kathleen; Rockwell, S. Kay; Pulatov, Pulat A.

    2010-01-01

    University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL) and Khujand branch of the Technological University of Tajikistan (KbTUT) collaborated on the development of an Extension/outreach program in Tajikistan. Fifteen KbTUT administrators, faculty, and students from textiles, food science, and management engaged in training sessions at UNL on entrepreneurship, adult…

  8. Entrepreneurial Extension Conducted via Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelisse, Sarah; Hyde, Jeffrey; Raines, Christopher; Kelley, Kathleen; Ollendyke, Dana; Remcheck, James

    2011-01-01

    The widespread availability of and access to the Internet have led to the development of new forms of communication. Collectively termed "social media," these new communication tools have created vast opportunities for Extension professionals in how they perform their work and how businesses interact with consumers. This article outlines currently…

  9. Mining, compressing and classifying with extensible motifs

    PubMed Central

    Apostolico, Alberto; Comin, Matteo; Parida, Laxmi

    2006-01-01

    Background Motif patterns of maximal saturation emerged originally in contexts of pattern discovery in biomolecular sequences and have recently proven a valuable notion also in the design of data compression schemes. Informally, a motif is a string of intermittently solid and wild characters that recurs more or less frequently in an input sequence or family of sequences. Motif discovery techniques and tools tend to be computationally imposing, however, special classes of "rigid" motifs have been identified of which the discovery is affordable in low polynomial time. Results In the present work, "extensible" motifs are considered such that each sequence of gaps comes endowed with some elasticity, whereby the same pattern may be stretched to fit segments of the source that match all the solid characters but are otherwise of different lengths. A few applications of this notion are then described. In applications of data compression by textual substitution, extensible motifs are seen to bring savings on the size of the codebook, and hence to improve compression. In germane contexts, in which compressibility is used in its dual role as a basis for structural inference and classification, extensible motifs are seen to support unsupervised classification and phylogeny reconstruction. Conclusion Off-line compression based on extensible motifs can be used advantageously to compress and classify biological sequences. PMID:16722593

  10. Transient global amnesia: an extensive case report.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, B; Marin, O S

    1979-01-01

    A case of transient global amnesia was studied in detail. Of note was a temporally extensive, although quite patchy, retrograde amnesia during the event for information recallable at other times. While a consolidation block can explain the anterograde amnesia in transient global amnesia, the profound retrograde amnesia requires an additional block in the retrieval of old, established memories. PMID:469566

  11. Improving Generation Y Volunteerism in Extension Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Kevin B.; Lockett, Landry L.

    2013-01-01

    Members of Generation Y have many positive attributes that make them attractive to Extension volunteer administrators as a potential source of labor. However, they think differently, have unique needs, require new management styles, and have less tolerance for unpleasant working conditions than previous generations. Additionally, they are engaged…

  12. Strategic Opportunities for Cooperative Extension. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this new century, opportunities exist to help advance America's greatness in the midst of many challenges. Energy, water, food, environment, health, economic productivity, global competitiveness, and the quality of the living environments are all paramount to the future. Extension is, as a part of higher education, prepared to create new…

  13. Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food…

  14. Extension Gets Help from "Master Gardeners"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otis, Earl J.

    1973-01-01

    More than 150 citizens, after studying under Washington State University Extension personnel and passing an examination administered by the State Department of Agriculture, find satisfaction in spending a few hours a week during the growing season in areas of heavy public traffic to answer questions from backyard gardeners and urban homeowners.…

  15. Telelearning for Extension Agents: The Virginia Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, William F., Jr.

    The creation of the Virginia Tech Teleport Facility and the installation of a nine-meter (diameter) C-Band satellite uplink antenna provided the initial impetus for the Virginia Cooperative Extension Service (VCES) to explore the use of satellite technology for information and program delivery. The $600,000 uplink became operational in September…

  16. TV and Extension in Carbon County, Pa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitz, Ray W.

    To help improve televised extension education, a study was made of the interests and characteristics of the potential audience (9,300) of PTVC, a community antenna television system in Carbon County, Pennsylvania. A checklist questionnaire survey drew 160 usable responses from the communities of Jim Thorpe, Lehighton, and Palmerton. Data on…

  17. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed…

  18. Ketso: A New Tool for Extension Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Extension professionals employ many techniques and tools to obtain feedback, input, information, and data from stakeholders, research participants, and program learners. An information-gathering tool called Ketso is described in this article. This tool and its associated techniques can be used in all phases of program development, implementation,…

  19. Extensive Air Showers in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badala, A.; Blanco, F.; La Rocca, P.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pulvirenti, A.; Riggi, F.

    2007-01-01

    The basic properties of extensive air showers of particles produced in the interaction of a high-energy primary cosmic ray in the Earth's atmosphere are discussed in the context of educational cosmic ray projects involving undergraduate students and high-school teams. Simulation results produced by an air shower development code were made…

  20. 77 FR 69613 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Chronic Beryllium Disease... from DOE and DOE contractors that are subject to the Department's ``Chronic Beryllium Disease... contained in the Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program have been promulgated under authority of...

  1. 78 FR 25065 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request for OMB review and comment. SUMMARY:...

  2. New polymer systems: Chain extension by dianhydrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhein, R. A.; Ingham, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Three anhydrides provide effective chain extension of hydroxy-terminated polyalkylene oxides and polybutadienes. Novel feature of these anhydride reactants is that they are difunctional as anhydrides, but they are tetrafunctional if conditions are selected that lead to total esterification or reaction of all carboxyl groups.

  3. 36 CFR 223.115 - Contract extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Contract extensions. 223.115 Section 223.115 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  4. 36 CFR 223.115 - Contract extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contract extensions. 223.115 Section 223.115 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  5. 36 CFR 223.115 - Contract extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contract extensions. 223.115 Section 223.115 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  6. ANTLR Tree Grammar Generator and Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craymer, Loring

    2005-01-01

    A computer program implements two extensions of ANTLR (Another Tool for Language Recognition), which is a set of software tools for translating source codes between different computing languages. ANTLR supports predicated- LL(k) lexer and parser grammars, a notation for annotating parser grammars to direct tree construction, and predicated tree grammars. [ LL(k) signifies left-right, leftmost derivation with k tokens of look-ahead, referring to certain characteristics of a grammar.] One of the extensions is a syntax for tree transformations. The other extension is the generation of tree grammars from annotated parser or input tree grammars. These extensions can simplify the process of generating source-to-source language translators and they make possible an approach, called "polyphase parsing," to translation between computing languages. The typical approach to translator development is to identify high-level semantic constructs such as "expressions," "declarations," and "definitions" as fundamental building blocks in the grammar specification used for language recognition. The polyphase approach is to lump ambiguous syntactic constructs during parsing and then disambiguate the alternatives in subsequent tree transformation passes. Polyphase parsing is believed to be useful for generating efficient recognizers for C++ and other languages that, like C++, have significant ambiguities.

  7. Integrating Reading and Writing through Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jeongyeon

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether an extensive reading (ER) approach can enhance L2 learners' writing performance in an English for Academic Purposes context. Two classes were compared in terms of writing improvement after one semester: a 'traditional' writing class primarily focused on writing practice and grammar instruction, and an ER class in which…

  8. 40 CFR 52.691 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Idaho § 52.691 Extensions. (a) The Administrator, by authority delegated under section 188(d) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, hereby extends for one year (until December 31, 1995) the attainment date for the Power-Bannock Counties PM-10 nonattainment area and...

  9. 40 CFR 52.691 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Idaho § 52.691 Extensions. (a) The Administrator, by authority delegated under section 188(d) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, hereby extends for one year (until December 31, 1995) the attainment date for the Power-Bannock Counties PM-10 nonattainment area and...

  10. 40 CFR 52.691 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Idaho § 52.691 Extensions. (a) The Administrator, by authority delegated under section 188(d) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, hereby extends for one year (until December 31, 1995) the attainment date for the Power-Bannock Counties PM-10 nonattainment area and...

  11. 40 CFR 52.691 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Idaho § 52.691 Extensions. (a) The Administrator, by authority delegated under section 188(d) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, hereby extends for one year (until December 31, 1995) the attainment date for the Power-Bannock Counties PM-10 nonattainment area and...

  12. 40 CFR 52.691 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Idaho § 52.691 Extensions. (a) The Administrator, by authority delegated under section 188(d) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, hereby extends for one year (until December 31, 1995) the attainment date for the Power-Bannock Counties PM-10 nonattainment area and...

  13. 77 FR 34368 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... 11, 2012 at 77 FR 21756 regarding the extension of the collection of information for the Petroleum... Report'' Form EIA-809 ``Weekly Oxygenate Report'' Form EIA-22M ``Monthly Biodiesel Production Survey... proposes to treat all information reported on biodiesel production capacity on Form EIA-22M as...

  14. Disaster Preparedness and the Cooperative Extension Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    This past decade has recorded an increase in catastrophic events that have led to dramatic changes for Americans. The wake of these disasters has resulted in many lessons being learned. These lessons have been captured by Homeland Security in the First Edition of the National Preparedness Goal. Extension is uniquely positioned to assist with…

  15. Boundary extension: Insights from signal detection theory.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zili; Yang, Xiaoyang; Intraub, Helene

    2016-06-01

    After viewing a scene, people often remember having seen more of the world than was originally visible, an error referred to as boundary extension. Despite the large number of studies on this phenomenon, performance has never been considered in terms of signal detection theory (SDT). We report two visual memory experiments that allowed us to explore boundary extension in terms of SDT. In our experiments, participants first studied pictures presented as close-up or wide-angle views. At test, either the identical view or a different view (a closer or wider angle version of the same scene) were presented and participants rated the test image as being the same or different than before on a 6-point scale. We found that both discrimination sensitivity and bias contributed to the boundary extension effect. The discrimination sensitivity difference was at least 28%, and its presence refuted the hypothesis that boundary extension was due solely to participants' response bias to label test pictures as more wide-angled. Instead, our results support the idea that participants' responses reflect false memory beyond the view (i.e., a more wide-angle view of the world). PMID:27281464

  16. 78 FR 31885 - Patent Term Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce...: Susan K. Fawcett, Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent...

  17. 75 FR 20561 - Patent Term Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce... the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450,...

  18. Testing Extension Services through AKAP Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Rosa, Marcello; Bartoli, Luca; La Rocca, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to analyse the attitude of Italian farms in gaining access to agricultural extension services (AES). Design/methodology/approach: The ways Italian farms use AES are described through the AKAP (Awareness, Knowledge, Adoption, Product) sequence. This article investigated the AKAP sequence by submitting a…

  19. Professional Development Needs of State Extension Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishna, Rama B.

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 47 of 78 Clemson University extension specialists identified three critical professional development needs: communicating program impact to key decision makers, communicating client problems to researchers, and viewing problems from different perspectives. They felt that their expertise in other areas was high. (Contains 16…

  20. 77 FR 47048 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ..., Forrestal Building, 1000 Independence Ave. SW., U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20585-0670, (202... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY U.S. Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy...

  1. 36 CFR 251.89 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time extensions. 251.89 Section 251.89 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.89...

  2. Extension theorems for homogenization on lattice structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    When applying homogenization techniques to problems involving lattice structures, it is necessary to extend certain functions defined on a perforated domain to a simply connected domain. This paper provides general extension operators which preserve bounds on derivatives of order l. Only the special case of honeycomb structures is considered.

  3. Extension Learning Exchange: Lessons from Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell, Paul; Lachapelle, Paul; Howe, Rod

    2013-01-01

    There is a clear need to support global professional development, international education, and collaborative learning opportunities in Extension. The program described here established an international learning exchange in Nicaragua to lead to global professional development and future international collaboration. The primary lessons and outcomes…

  4. Oregon Extension Volunteers: Partners in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braker, Marjorie J.; Leno, Janice R.; Pratt, Clara C.; Grobe, Deana

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses from 969 (of 2,552) Oregon Extension volunteers revealed personal benefits, including gains in knowledge, self-confidence, and interpersonal relationships. Community benefits were noted by more than one third. A few noted economic benefits (increased job skills and useful contacts). The costs of volunteering were perceived as low…

  5. Using Audience Response Devices for Extension Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Koff, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    Audience response devices (ARDs), or "clickers," have traditionally been used in the classroom to take attendance, provide testing of current knowledge and knowledge gain, and assist with review of course topics. The ARDs were used at a recent Extension conference, which provided an opportunity to test how well this tool worked. Though…

  6. Emergency Food Programs: Untapped Opportunities for Extension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports results from a questionnaire that assessed the frequency and type of nutrition questions asked at emergency food programs to determine if Extension professionals need to increase direct outreach efforts. Emergency food program workers (n = 460) were recruited via mail to complete a self-administered survey. More than one-third…

  7. Supersymmetric extension of the quantum spherical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Pedro R. S.; Bienzobaz, P. F.; Gomes, M.

    2012-06-01

    In this work, we present a supersymmetric extension of the quantum spherical model, both in components and also in the superspace formalisms. We find the solution for short- and long-range interactions through the imaginary time formalism path integral approach. The existence of critical points (classical and quantum) is analyzed and the corresponding critical dimensions are determined.

  8. Need for Methamphetamine Programming in Extension Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudreault, Amy R.; Miller, Larry E.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported sought to identify the prevention education needs involving methamphetamine through survey methodology. The study focused on a random sample of U.S. states and the Extension Directors within each state, resulting in a 70% response rate (n = 134). Findings revealed that 11% reported they had received methamphetamine user…

  9. Creating Safe Spaces within Extension Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Adrienne

    2014-01-01

    Extension agents, educators, and specialists are challenged to find effective ways to ensure that our participants learn in program contexts that are inclusive and respectful of all people. In order to make our programs inclusive environments, it is important for us to be brave enough to disrupt statements that are demeaning and marginalize…

  10. Trials and Triumphs of Expanded Extension Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavengood, Scott; Love, Bob

    1998-01-01

    Oregon extension faced challenges in presenting programs in the wood products industry. Several traditional tactics, revised to suit a new audience, have proved successful: personal coaching, building partnerships, and providing a high level of service. Newer methods, such as database marketing and distance learning, are also proving to be…

  11. 36 CFR 223.115 - Contract extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract extensions. 223.115 Section 223.115 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Contract Administration § 223.115...

  12. Booker T. Washington and Cooperative Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenstein, Erwin H.

    1989-01-01

    Describes Booker T. Washington's contributions to cooperative extension activities which have been overlooked by many writers. Indicates that his work as educator, in conjunction with Seaman A. Knapp, served a vital purpose to rural Black farmers and homemakers in the late 1800s. (JS)

  13. 77 FR 71787 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE), pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, intends...

  14. Stories and Storytelling in Extension Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Scott; Franz, Nancy K.

    2012-01-01

    Deep budget cuts, increased accountability, and the growth of anti-government and anti-intellectual sentiments place Extension systems in a defensive position. In response, we're engaging in organizational change exercises, restructuring, regionalizing, rewriting mission statements, and developing strategic plans. We're spending…

  15. 75 FR 21285 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request for Comments... extend, for three years, an information collection request with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Comments were invited on: (a) Whether the extended collection of information is necessary for the...

  16. 75 FR 38514 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... extend for three years, an information collection request with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the extended collection of information is necessary for the...

  17. Principles Guiding Vocabulary Learning through Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reading is one of a range of activities that can be used in a language learning course. Ideally, the choice of activities to go into a course should be guided by principles which are well supported by research. Similarly, the way each of those activities is used should be guided by well-justified principles. In this article, we look at…

  18. Participatory Research: A Tool for Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tritz, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Given their positions in communities across the United States, Extension educators are poised to have meaningful partnerships with the communities they serve. This article presents a case for the use of participatory research, which is a departure from more conventional forms of research based on objectivity, researcher distance, and social…

  19. Effectively Communicating Science to Extension Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of "framing" within the context of relevant communication and psychological research and considers its potential applicability to Extension science communication. Examples of research-based support for the framing of scientific issues are presented, along with a literature-based discussion of the…

  20. Neogene crustal extension in Aegean, revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Stiros, S.C. )

    1988-08-01

    The Neogene evolution of the Aegean and adjacent areas has been described as the result of homogeneous, subduction-associated lithosphere stretching by a factor near two, interrupted or not by short regional compressional intervals. However, reconsideration of some of the existing data (structural, volcanological, heat flow) and new or unpublished information from Greece, southern Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia concerning different scales, structural (tectonics of lignite and other basins), morpholtectonic (describing bulges, differential coastal movements, rotations of blocks around vertical axes, etc.), some seismic lines offshore, and aeromagnetic data suggest the following. (1) The patterns of Neogene volcanism, heat flow, and vertical motions are inconsistent with the idea of homogeneous stretching. (2) There is no evidence of features that should have accommodated the postulated level of regional extension. (3) The evolution of most Neogene basins, compressional features, and bulges in normal faulting environments most likely does not reflect cycles of regional extension-compression but of transtension-transpression associated with Mesozoic and still active shear zones and deeper processes. These data suggest that for the Aegean the uniform extension model is unsatisfactory in both large and local scale; small amounts of probably secondary extension are likely; and processes other than subduction must be anticipated.

  1. Tools for Creating Mobile Applications for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Considerations and tools for developing mobile applications for Extension include evaluating the topic, purpose, and audience. Different computing platforms may be used, and apps designed as modified Web pages or implicitly programmed for a particular platform. User privacy is another important consideration, especially for data collection apps.…

  2. Communication for extension: developing country experience.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A J

    1985-01-01

    This paper characterizes several major approaches to the use of communication in support of agricultural extension and suggests directions for change. The approaches discussed include: direct farmer contact, farmer forums, open broadcasting, advertising and social marketing, print media, multiple channel systems (campaigns and distance teaching), and comprehensive communication systems. Although all programs should be able to use media in interaction with training and the coordination of other inputs, this approach has not been comprehensively implemented in extension programs. There are few examples of cases where multiple methods have been brought together under a comprehensive communications strategy and institutionalized as part of an ongoing extension system. Lessons from social marketing in other sectors have not been exploited, while lessons from distance teaching have been underutilized. In addition, the networking and feedback functions of communication in extenson have not been given adequate attention. There is substantial potential for increasing the coverage and impact of agricultural extension through the more systematic and comprehensive use of communication. PMID:12268503

  3. Best Practices for Extension Curricula Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Gayle; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Baker, Susan; Bowen, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Effective curricula are a cornerstone of successful Extension programming. The National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) Nutrition and Health Planning and Guidance Committee (NGPGC) developed a set of recommendations for a curriculum review system and created a curriculum review checklist. The checklist describes components of an effective…

  4. The Extensive Reading File: Let's Be Honest!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raz, Ayelet

    2000-01-01

    To find out whether her students really read all the books in their extensive reading files, one English-as-a-foreign-language teacher in Israel developed a questionnaire that examined how much the students read, whether the reading file should remain as it is, and whether students enjoyed preparing the reading files. Overall, the results were…

  5. Money 2000: A Model Extension Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Nancy M.; Christenbury, Joyce H.

    1999-01-01

    Money 2000 is a South Carolina program that educates participants in personal savings and debt reduction. It is marketed through state-local government agency collaboration, promotional items, and extensive media coverage. It targets a diversified audience, including youth, rural farm families, and families with limited resources. (SK)

  6. Collaboration of Extension and Grape Industry Members to Create a New Extension Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafne, Eric T.; Ingels, George; Ingels, Jane; Carroll, Becky

    2016-01-01

    Collaboration is an important part of the interaction between Extension and industry. Successful sharing of workload can provide benefits for both parties. A project to create a workbook to address vineyard sustainability was initiated by members of the Oklahoma grape industry with assistance from land-grant university Extension. Productive…

  7. Implications of the U.S. Cooperative Extension Service for Agricultural Extension in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navaratnam, K. K.

    A study compared the organizational form and functional activities of the U.S. Cooperative Extension Service with agricultural extension activities in Sri Lanka and recommended ways of improving such programs in developing countries. Distinctive differences were found in the organizational set-up, subject-matter coverage, approach to clients,…

  8. Workplace Issues in Extension--A Delphi Study of Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroth, Michael; Peutz, Joey

    2011-01-01

    Using the Delphi technique, expert Extension educators identified and prioritized those workplace issues they believe will be the most important to attract, motivate, and retain Extension educators/agents over the next 5 to 7 years. Obtaining and then utilizing a talented, highly motivated workforce during a period when many will be retiring will…

  9. EXTENSION IN RURAL COMMUNITIES, A MANUAL FOR AGRICULTURAL AND HOME EXTENSION WORKERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAVILE, A.H.

    A PRACTICAL GUIDE IS PROVIDED FOR TRAINERS OF ADVISORY AND EXTENSION WORKERS AND LOCAL LEADERS IN AGRICULTURE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING NATIONS. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, COMMUNITY SURVEY PROCEDURES, ELEMENTS OF PROGRAM PLANNING, AND PURPOSES AND METHODS OF PROGRAM EVALUATION ARE DESCRIBED. THEN FOLLOW TWO CHAPTERS…

  10. READINESS OF NEW YORK COOPERATIVE EXTENSION TO UNDERTAKE A FARM LABOR PROGRAM. EXTENSION STUDY, NUMBER 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALEXANDER, FRANK D.

    THIS STUDY SOUGHT MAINLY TO DETERMINE THE PRESENT NEW YORK STATE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION INPUT ON FARM LABOR EDUCATION, ESPECIALLY FOR YEAR ROUND FARM LABOR, AND TO ANTICIPATE EXTENSION INPUT FOR THE NEAR FUTURE IN THIS FIELD. QUESTIONNAIRES WERE RETURNED FROM 54 OF THE 56 COUNTIES WITH AGRICULTURAL DIVISIONS, ALL 13 COOPERATIVE EXTENSION…

  11. Strain localisation and weakening of the lithosphere during extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Weinberg, Roberto F.

    2008-10-01

    We explore the sensitivity of extensional systems to the thermal structure of the lithosphere using numerical simulations that fully couple the energy, momentum and continuity equations. The rheology of the lithosphere is controlled by weakening processes, such as shear heating, that localises strain into shear zones and faults. Numerical models show that during extension of an initially unpatterned lithosphere, structures develop spontaneously out of basic thermodynamic energy fluxes, and without the imposition of ad hoc rules on strain localisation. This contrasts with the classical Mohr-Coulomb theory for brittle localisation, which prescribes the angles of faults by a mathematical rule. Our results show that the mode of extension is sensitive to subtle changes in rheology, heat flux and geometry of the system. This sensitivity lies at the core of the variety and complexity observed in extensional systems. Localisation processes make the lithosphere weaker than previously estimated from the Brace-Goetze quasi-static approach. Consequently, typical estimates for plate tectonic forces are capable of splitting the lithosphere under extension, even without the role of active magmatism.

  12. Adaptation to walking with an exoskeleton that assists ankle extension.

    PubMed

    Galle, S; Malcolm, P; Derave, W; De Clercq, D

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate adaptation to walking with bilateral ankle-foot exoskeletons with kinematic control that assisted ankle extension during push-off. We hypothesized that subjects would show a neuromotor and metabolic adaptation during a 24min walking trial with a powered exoskeleton. Nine female subjects walked on a treadmill at 1.36±0.04ms(-1) during 24min with a powered exoskeleton and 4min with an unpowered exoskeleton. Subjects showed a metabolic adaptation after 18.5±5.0min, followed by an adapted period. Metabolic cost, electromyography and kinematics were compared between the unpowered condition, the beginning of the adaptation and the adapted period. In the beginning of the adaptation (4min), a reduction in metabolic cost of 9% was found compared to the unpowered condition. This reduction was accompanied by reduced muscular activity in the plantarflexor muscles, as the powered exoskeleton delivered part of the necessary ankle extension moment. During the adaptation this metabolic reduction further increased to 16%, notwithstanding a constant exoskeleton assistance. This increased reduction is the result of a neuromotor adaptation in which subjects adapt to walking with the exoskeleton, thereby reducing muscular activity in all leg muscles. Because of the fast adaptation and the significant reductions in metabolic cost we want to highlight the potential of an ankle-foot exoskeleton with kinematic control that assists ankle extension during push-off. PMID:23465319

  13. Adaptation to walking with an exoskeleton that assists ankle extension.

    PubMed

    Galle, S; Malcolm, P; Derave, W; De Clercq, D

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate adaptation to walking with bilateral ankle-foot exoskeletons with kinematic control that assisted ankle extension during push-off. We hypothesized that subjects would show a neuromotor and metabolic adaptation during a 24min walking trial with a powered exoskeleton. Nine female subjects walked on a treadmill at 1.36±0.04ms(-1) during 24min with a powered exoskeleton and 4min with an unpowered exoskeleton. Subjects showed a metabolic adaptation after 18.5±5.0min, followed by an adapted period. Metabolic cost, electromyography and kinematics were compared between the unpowered condition, the beginning of the adaptation and the adapted period. In the beginning of the adaptation (4min), a reduction in metabolic cost of 9% was found compared to the unpowered condition. This reduction was accompanied by reduced muscular activity in the plantarflexor muscles, as the powered exoskeleton delivered part of the necessary ankle extension moment. During the adaptation this metabolic reduction further increased to 16%, notwithstanding a constant exoskeleton assistance. This increased reduction is the result of a neuromotor adaptation in which subjects adapt to walking with the exoskeleton, thereby reducing muscular activity in all leg muscles. Because of the fast adaptation and the significant reductions in metabolic cost we want to highlight the potential of an ankle-foot exoskeleton with kinematic control that assists ankle extension during push-off.

  14. Analysis of extensive air showers with the hybrid code SENECA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Jeferson A.; de Souza, Vitor; Medina-Tanco, Gustavo

    The ultrahigh energy tail of the cosmic ray spectrum has been explored with unprecedented detail. For this reason, new experiments are exerting a severe pressure on extensive air shower modeling. Detailed fast codes are in need in order to extract and understand the richness of information now available. In this sense we explore the potential of SENECA, an efficient hybrid tridimensional simulation code, as a valid practical alternative to full Monte Carlo simulations of extensive air showers generated by ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. We discuss the influence of this approach on the main longitudinal characteristics of proton, iron nucleus and gamma induced air showers for different hadronic interaction models. We also show the comparisons of our predictions with those of CORSIKA code.

  15. Reconceptualizing University Extension and Public Service: A Response to Lauzon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamble, Wayne; Thompson, Gordon

    2000-01-01

    This rejoinder to the response to an article on the role of university extension takes issue with Lauzon's criticism of the public service mission of extension and the growing pressure for cost recovery justification of extension units. (SK)

  16. 75 FR 19941 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY... announces that the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Advisory Board, National Institute of Standards..., 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Lellock, Manufacturing Extension Partnership,...

  17. 77 FR 50469 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY...: The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) announces that the Manufacturing Extension... Lellock, Manufacturing Extension Partnership, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100...

  18. 78 FR 52505 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY... National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) announces that the Manufacturing Extension... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Lellock, Manufacturing Extension Partnership, National Institute...

  19. 77 FR 20790 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY... announces that the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Advisory Board, National Institute of Standards... INFORMATION section below. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Lellock, Manufacturing Extension...

  20. 76 FR 22674 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY... announces that the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Advisory Board, National Institute of Standards... than May 2, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Lellock, Manufacturing Extension...

  1. 76 FR 53666 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY... National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) announces that the Manufacturing Extension...: Karen Lellock, Manufacturing Extension Partnership, National Institute of Standards and Technology,...

  2. An Extensible Aspect-Oriented Modeling Environment for Constructing Domain-Specific Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubayashi, Naoyasu; Kamei, Yasutaka

    AspectM, an aspect-oriented modeling (AOM) language, provides not only basic modeling constructs but also an extension mechanism called metamodel access protocol (MMAP) that allows a modeler to modify the metamodel. MMAP consists of metamodel extension points, extension operations, and primitive predicates for navigating the metamodel. Although the notion of MMAP is useful, it needs tool support. This paper proposes a method for implementing a MMAP-based AspectM support tool. It consists of model editor, model weaver, and model verifier. We introduce the notion of edit-time structural reflection and extensible model weaving. Using these mechanisms, a modeler can easily construct domain-specific languages (DSLs). We show a case study using the AspectM support tool and discuss the effectiveness of the extension mechanism provided by MMAP. As a case study, we show a UML-based DSL for describing the external contexts of embedded systems.

  3. Glioma-associated endothelial cells show evidence of replicative senescence.

    PubMed

    Charalambous, Christiana; Virrey, Jenilyn; Kardosh, Adel; Jabbour, Mark N; Qazi-Abdullah, Lubna; Pen, Ligaya; Zidovetzki, Raphael; Schönthal, Axel H; Chen, Thomas C; Hofman, Florence M

    2007-04-01

    The innately programmed process of replicative senescence has been studied extensively with respect to cancer, but primarily from the perspective of tumor cells overcoming this stringent innate barrier and acquiring the capacity for unlimited proliferation. In this study, we focus on the potential role of replicative senescence affecting the non-transformed endothelial cells of the blood vessels within the tumor microenvironment. Based on the well-documented aberrant structural and functional features of blood vessels within solid tumors, we hypothesized that tumor-derived factors may lead to premature replicative senescence in tumor-associated brain endothelial cells (TuBEC). We show here that glioma tissue, but not normal brain tissue, contains cells that express the signature of replicative senescence, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-gal), on CD31-positive endothelial cells. Primary cultures of human TuBEC stain for SA-beta-gal and exhibit characteristics of replicative senescence, including increased levels of the cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27, increased resistance to cytotoxic drugs, increased growth factor production, and inability to proliferate. These data provide the first demonstration that tumor-derived brain endothelial cells may have reached an end-stage of differentiation known as replicative senescence and underscore the need for anti-angiogenic therapies to target this unique tumor-associated endothelial cell population.

  4. Glioma-associated endothelial cells show evidence of replicative senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Charalambous, Christiana; Virrey, Jenilyn; Kardosh, Adel; Jabbour, Mark N.; Qazi-Abdullah, Lubna; Pen, Ligaya; Zidovetzki, Raphael; Schoenthal, Axel H.; Chen, Thomas C.; Hofman, Florence M. . E-mail: hofman@usc.edu

    2007-04-01

    The innately programmed process of replicative senescence has been studied extensively with respect to cancer, but primarily from the perspective of tumor cells overcoming this stringent innate barrier and acquiring the capacity for unlimited proliferation. In this study, we focus on the potential role of replicative senescence affecting the non-transformed endothelial cells of the blood vessels within the tumor microenvironment. Based on the well-documented aberrant structural and functional features of blood vessels within solid tumors, we hypothesized that tumor-derived factors may lead to premature replicative senescence in tumor-associated brain endothelial cells (TuBEC). We show here that glioma tissue, but not normal brain tissue, contains cells that express the signature of replicative senescence, senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal), on CD31-positive endothelial cells. Primary cultures of human TuBEC stain for SA-{beta}-gal and exhibit characteristics of replicative senescence, including increased levels of the cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27, increased resistance to cytotoxic drugs, increased growth factor production, and inability to proliferate. These data provide the first demonstration that tumor-derived brain endothelial cells may have reached an end-stage of differentiation known as replicative senescence and underscore the need for anti-angiogenic therapies to target this unique tumor-associated endothelial cell population.

  5. Minifish shows high genetic variation in mtDNA size.

    PubMed

    Chen, X-W; Li, Q-L; Hu, X-J; Yuan, Y-M; Wen, M; Peng, L-Y; Liu, S-J; Hong, Y-H

    2014-01-01

    The genus Paedocypris is a newly described taxon of minifish species that are characterized by extensive chromosome evolution and one of the smallest known vertebrate nuclear genomes. Paedocypris features a tiny adult size, a short generation time, low fecundity and fragmented tropical habitats, which are factors that favor rapid speciation. Most recently, we have revealed that P. progenetica (Pp), the type species of the genus Paedocypris, has an unusual mtDNA bearing - within its D-loop - a tandem array of a 34-bp repeat sequence called the minifish repeat, which shows compromised replication efficiency in vitro. Here we report that Pp exhibits high genetic variation in mtDNA size. The efficiency of D-loop amplification was found to depend upon primers. Interestingly, Pp individuals of one and the same population differed drastically in mtDNA size resulting from varying copy numbers of the minifish repeat. We conclude that minifish has a high mutation rate and perhaps represents a rapidly evolving taxon of vertebrates.

  6. Crustal extension in the Baikal rift zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zorin, Yu; Cordell, L.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of the gravity field along four profiles crossing the Baikal rift zone permits an estimate of the amount of anomalous mass produced by 1. (1) graben-fill sediments, 2. (2) Moho uplift and intrusion of mantle sills and dikes, 3. (3) an asthenospheric bulge. Crustal extension is evaluated based on the idea of mass and volume balance of material introduced into and removed from the initial volume of the crust. Extension in the Baikal rift increases southwestward from 0.9 km in the Chara depression to 19.3 km in the South Baikal depression. These values generally agree with the position of the Euler pole determined from seismic data (fault plane solutions). Average rotation velocity for the lithospheric plates separated by the rift zone is estimated to be 5.93 ?? 10-4 rad/m.y. over about 30 m.y. ?? 1991.

  7. Thrust improvement with ablative insert nozzle extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, R. M.; Back, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects are examined of an investigation by the Marshall Space Flight Center into the conceptual feasibility of increasing the thrust performance of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) by using a conical nozzle extension fitted with an ablative insert in order to achieve a low-cost, near-term gain in payload. The ablating insert would provide a controlled increase in nozzle expansion ratio during launch and early climbout (first 30-60 seconds) so as to reduce thrust loss from nozzle over-expansion in the lower atmosphere. Summaries are given of JPL studies in the area of: defining the near-wall flow environment in the extended nozzle insert region; selecting potential insert materials; conceptualizing an extension/insert geometrical configuration; and identifying future experimental efforts necessary to verify the feasibility of the concepts.

  8. XCEDE: an extensible schema for biomedical data.

    PubMed

    Gadde, Syam; Aucoin, Nicole; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Keator, David B; Marcus, Daniel S; Pieper, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The XCEDE (XML-based Clinical and Experimental Data Exchange) XML schema, developed by members of the BIRN (Biomedical Informatics Research Network), provides an extensive metadata hierarchy for storing, describing and documenting the data generated by scientific studies. Currently at version 2.0, the XCEDE schema serves as a specification for the exchange of scientific data between databases, analysis tools, and web services. It provides a structured metadata hierarchy, storing information relevant to various aspects of an experiment (project, subject, protocol, etc.). Each hierarchy level also provides for the storage of data provenance information allowing for a traceable record of processing and/or changes to the underlying data. The schema is extensible to support the needs of various data modalities and to express types of data not originally envisioned by the developers. The latest version of the XCEDE schema and manual are available from http://www.xcede.org/ . PMID:21479735

  9. An Extensible Information Grid for Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Bell, David G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes recent work on developing an extensible information grid for risk management at NASA - a RISK INFORMATION GRID. This grid is being developed by integrating information grid technology with risk management processes for a variety of risk related applications. To date, RISK GRID applications are being developed for three main NASA processes: risk management - a closed-loop iterative process for explicit risk management, program/project management - a proactive process that includes risk management, and mishap management - a feedback loop for learning from historical risks that escaped other processes. This is enabled through an architecture involving an extensible database, structuring information with XML, schemaless mapping of XML, and secure server-mediated communication using standard protocols.

  10. Greene V. Black and "extension for prevention".

    PubMed

    Cohen, Howard B

    2002-03-01

    This study is an attempt to intervene in the contemporary debate on the interpretation of Greene V. Black's well known principle of "extension for prevention." It is possible to discern two, divergent strains within Black's thought: he contends that his principle should have universal application, at the same time as he seeks to limit its application. The conflict between these two positions may be resolved by arguing that Black's comments are directed at different audiences: Black does not actually believe that extension for prevention should be universally applied, but reserves the judgment not to extend to only the most experienced operators. The remainder, the majority of operators, should behave as if it were a universal principle. PMID:11944504

  11. [Surgical treatment of extensive craniofacial juvenile angiofibromas].

    PubMed

    Cherekaev, V A; Gol'bin, D A; Kapitanov, D N; Belov, A I; Arustamian, S R; Gromova, V V; Imaev, A A

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare benign tumor occurring almost exclusively in adolescent and young adult males. The tumor is characterized by slow progression, aggressive growth, high vascularization and increased rate of persistence and recurrence. From 2000 till 2008 29 consecutive male patients with JNA Fisch grade III and IV (intracranial extradural or intradural extension) were operated in Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute (Moscow, Russia). Most patients received different kinds of treatment before admission to the Institute. All patients underwent surgical resection using predominantly orbitozygomatic approach. Preoperative endovascular embolization was applied. Total removal was achieved in 86% of cases. Postoperative complications included osteomyelitis of the bone flap (4 cases), nasal CSF leak (1 case) etc. Recurrences were observed in 3 patients, all of them underwent repeated surgeries. 4 cases are presented (3 patients with Fisch grade IV tumor and 1 with grade III). Surgical treatment is the basic tactics in management of extensive JNAs. The authors recommend to use orbitozygomatic approach and endoscopic assistance.

  12. Extensions of ADA for SIMD parallel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, C.; Siegel, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    In order to program SIMD (single instruction stream-multiple data stream) parallel machines used for tasks such as speech and image processing, a language with explicit parallel constructs is often desirable. The language ADA, developed by the Department of Defense, is used as a basis for such a language. Extensions of ADA which allow the user to specify such things as interprocessor communications and activation of processors are proposed. 25 references.

  13. Extension in Mona Passage, Northeast Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2010-10-01

    As shown by the recent M w 7.0 Haiti earthquake, intra-arc deformation, which accompanies the subduction process, can present seismic and tsunami hazards to nearby islands. Spatially-limited diffuse tectonic deformation within the Northeast Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone likely led to the development of the submerged Mona Passage between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. GPS geodetic data and a moderate to high level of seismicity indicate that extension within the region is ongoing. Newly-collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles and previously-collected samples are used here to determine the tectonic evolution of the Mona Passage intra-arc region. The passage is floored almost completely by Oligocene-Pliocene carbonate platform strata, which have undergone submarine and subaerial erosion. Structurally, the passage is characterized by W- to NNW-trending normal faults that offset the entire thickness of the Oligo-Pliocene carbonate platform rocks. The orientation of these faults is compatible with the NE-oriented extension vector observed in GPS data. Fault geometry best fits an oblique extension model rather than previously proposed single-phase, poly-phase, bending-moment, or rotation extension models. The intersection of these generally NW-trending faults in Mona Passage with the N-S oriented faults of Mona Canyon may reflect differing responses of the brittle upper-crust, along an arc-forearc rheological boundary, to oblique subduction along the Puerto Rico trench. Several faults within the passage, if ruptured completely, are long enough to generate earthquakes with magnitudes on the order of M w 6.5-7.

  14. 19 CFR 103.8 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time extensions. 103.8 Section 103.8 Customs... AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Production of Documents/Disclosure of Information Under the FOIA § 103.8 Time... deciding an initial request or an appeal may extend the time limitations set in §§ 103.6 and 103.7...

  15. 19 CFR 103.8 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time extensions. 103.8 Section 103.8 Customs... AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Production of Documents/Disclosure of Information Under the FOIA § 103.8 Time... deciding an initial request or an appeal may extend the time limitations set in §§ 103.6 and 103.7...

  16. 19 CFR 103.8 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time extensions. 103.8 Section 103.8 Customs... AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Production of Documents/Disclosure of Information Under the FOIA § 103.8 Time... deciding an initial request or an appeal may extend the time limitations set in §§ 103.6 and 103.7...

  17. 19 CFR 103.8 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time extensions. 103.8 Section 103.8 Customs... AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Production of Documents/Disclosure of Information Under the FOIA § 103.8 Time... deciding an initial request or an appeal may extend the time limitations set in §§ 103.6 and 103.7...

  18. FTP Extensions for Variable Protocol Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allman, Mark; Ostermann, Shawn

    2000-01-01

    The specification for the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) assumes that the underlying network protocols use a 32-bit network address and a 16-bit transport address (specifically IP version 4 and TCP). With the deployment of version 6 of the Internet Protocol, network addresses will no longer be 32-bits. This paper species extensions to FTP that will allow the protocol to work over a variety of network and transport protocols.

  19. An object oriented extension to CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobkowicz, Clifford

    1990-01-01

    A presentation of software sub-system developed to augment C Language Production Systems (CLIPS) with facilities for object oriented Knowledge representation. Functions are provided to define classes, instantiate objects, access attributes, and assert object related facts. This extension is implemented via the CLIPS user function interface and does not require modification of any CLIPS code. It does rely on internal CLIPS functions for memory management and symbol representation.

  20. 19 CFR 103.8 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time extensions. 103.8 Section 103.8 Customs... AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Production of Documents/Disclosure of Information Under the FOIA § 103.8 Time... deciding an initial request or an appeal may extend the time limitations set in §§ 103.6 and 103.7...

  1. Extension in Mona Passage, Northeast Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaytor, J.D.; ten Brink, U.S.

    2010-01-01

    As shown by the recent Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake, intra-arc deformation, which accompanies the subduction process, can present seismic and tsunami hazards to nearby islands. Spatially-limited diffuse tectonic deformation within the Northeast Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone likely led to the development of the submerged Mona Passage between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. GPS geodetic data and a moderate to high level of seismicity indicate that extension within the region is ongoing. Newly-collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles and previously-collected samples are used here to determine the tectonic evolution of the Mona Passage intra-arc region. The passage is floored almost completely by Oligocene-Pliocene carbonate platform strata, which have undergone submarine and subaerial erosion. Structurally, the passage is characterized by W- to NNW-trending normal faults that offset the entire thickness of the Oligo-Pliocene carbonate platform rocks. The orientation of these faults is compatible with the NE-oriented extension vector observed in GPS data. Fault geometry best fits an oblique extension model rather than previously proposed single-phase, poly-phase, bending-moment, or rotation extension models. The intersection of these generally NW-trending faults in Mona Passage with the N-S oriented faults of Mona Canyon may reflect differing responses of the brittle upper-crust, along an arc-forearc rheological boundary, to oblique subduction along the Puerto Rico trench. Several faults within the passage, if ruptured completely, are long enough to generate earthquakes with magnitudes on the order of Mw 6.5-7. ?? 2010.

  2. Valgus Extension Overload in Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Franklin E; Villacis, Diego C; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive throwing, such as in baseball pitching, applies massive stress on the elbow. This can often lead to a predictable constellation of elbow injuries, such as valgus extension overload syndrome (VEO). The following review of VEO provides an understanding of relevant anatomy, explanation of pathomechanics, key aspects to clinical evaluation, effective treatment options, and indications for surgery. In addition, we provide the senior author's (CSA) preferred arthroscopic technique for cases of VEO refractory to conservative management.

  3. Valgus Extension Overload in Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Franklin E; Villacis, Diego C; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive throwing, such as in baseball pitching, applies massive stress on the elbow. This can often lead to a predictable constellation of elbow injuries, such as valgus extension overload syndrome (VEO). The following review of VEO provides an understanding of relevant anatomy, explanation of pathomechanics, key aspects to clinical evaluation, effective treatment options, and indications for surgery. In addition, we provide the senior author's (CSA) preferred arthroscopic technique for cases of VEO refractory to conservative management. PMID:26991567

  4. FORTRAN Extensions for Modular Parallel Processing

    1996-01-12

    FORTRAN M is a small set of extensions to FORTRAN that supports a modular approach to the construction of sequential and parallel programs. FORTRAN M programs use channels to plug together processes which may be written in FORTRAN M or FORTRAN 77. Processes communicate by sending and receiving messages on channels. Channels and processes can be created dynamically, but programs remain deterministic unless specialized nondeterministic constructs are used.

  5. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  6. Life extension research: health, illness, and death.

    PubMed

    Turner, Leigh

    2004-06-01

    Scientists, bioethicists, and policy makers are currently engaged in a contentious debate about the scientific prospects and morality of efforts to increase human longevity. Some demographers and geneticists suggest that there is little reason to think that it will be possible to significantly extend the human lifespan. Other biodemographers and geneticists argue that there might well be increases in both life expectancy and lifespan. Bioethicists and policy makers are currently addressing many of the ethical, social, and economic issues raised by life extension research. However, the emphasis on philosophical argument supporting or condemning efforts to increase human longevity means that much less attention is currently being given to the factors that might play a role in generating interest in efforts to increase human longevity. This analysis considers three factors that might play a role in heightening public interest in efforts to develop biomedical technologies capable of retarding or reversing aging processes. While discussions of life extension research can seem quite futuristic and impractical, there are some powerful existential factors that might well generate considerable public support for life extension strategies if effective biomedical interventions emerge. Rather than providing philosophical justifications supporting or condemning efforts to increase human longevity, this essay seeks to promote a better understanding of the factors generating contemporary interest in prolonging life and postponing death.

  7. A note on mass-minimising extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    A conjecture related to the Bartnik quasilocal mass, is that the infimum of the ADM energy, over an appropriate space of extensions to a compact 3-manifold with boundary, is realised by a static metric. It was shown by Corvino (Commun Math Phys 214(1):137-189, 2000) that if the infimum is indeed achieved, then it is achieved by a static metric; however, the more difficult question of whether or not the infimum is achieved, is still an open problem. Bartnik (Commun Anal Geom 13(5):845-885, 2005) then proved that critical points of the ADM mass, over the space of solutions to the Einstein constraints on an asymptotically flat manifold without boundary, correspond to stationary solutions. In that article, he stated that it should be possible to use a similar construction to provide a more natural proof of Corvino's result. In the first part of this note, we discuss the required modifications to Bartnik's argument to adapt it to include a boundary. Assuming that certain results concerning a Hilbert manifold structure for the space of solutions carry over to the case considered here, we then demonstrate how Bartnik's proof can be modified to consider the simpler case of scalar-flat extensions and obtain Corvino's result. In the second part of this note, we consider a space of extensions in a fixed conformal class. Sufficient conditions are given to ensure that the infimum is realised within this class.

  8. Force vs. extension of colloidal membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Leroy; Pelcovits, Robert; Powers, Thomas; Zakhary, Mark; Dogic, Zvonimir

    In experiments, disk-shaped colloidal membranes composed of long rod-like viruses will take on a twisted ribbon shape under the application of a diametric stretching force. We use an effective model valid for membranes with small twist penetration to study this phase transition and calculate the force necessary to stretch the membrane to a given extension. The model predicts that for small deformations, the force is linear with spring constant depending on the effective edge bending stiffness of the membrane, while for large extensions, the force is found to saturate to a constant value. Surprisingly, the force is not a monotonic function of the extension. Finally, we use simple numerical calculations to find a power law that accurately describes the critical stretch at which the membrane starts to twist, which may be used to estimate the value of unknown parameters by comparison with experimental data. We are grateful for support from the Brandeis Center for Bioinspired Soft Materials, NSF MRSEC, DMR-1420382.

  9. Sequential Stenting for Extensive Malignant Airway Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Takahama, Makoto; Nakajima, Ryu; Kimura, Michitaka; Tei, Keiko; Yamamoto, Ryoji

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Malignant airway stenosis extending from the bronchial bifurcation to the lower lobar orifice was treated with airway stenting. We herein examine the effectiveness of airway stenting for extensive malignant airway stenosis. Methods: Twelve patients with extensive malignant airway stenosis underwent placement of a silicone Dumon Y stent (Novatech, La Ciotat, France) at the tracheal bifurcation and a metallic Spiral Z-stent (Medico’s Hirata, Osaka, Japan) at either distal side of the Y stent. We retrospectively analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of the sequential placement of these silicone and metallic stents in these 12 patients. Results: The primary disease was lung cancer in eight patients, breast cancer in two patients, tracheal cancer in one patient, and thyroid cancer in one patient. The median survival period after airway stent placement was 46 days. The Hugh–Jones classification and performance status improved in nine patients after airway stenting. One patient had prolonged hemoptysis and died of respiratory tract hemorrhage 15 days after the treatment. Conclusion: Because the initial disease was advanced and aggressive, the prognosis after sequential airway stent placement was significantly poor. However, because respiratory distress decreased after the treatment in most patients, this treatment may be acceptable for selected patients with extensive malignant airway stenosis. PMID:25273272

  10. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  11. A Collaborative Extensible User Environment for Simulation and Knowledge Management

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Lansing, Carina S.; Porter, Ellen A.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Guillen, Zoe C.; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Gorton, Ian

    2015-06-01

    In scientific simulation, scientists use measured data to create numerical models, execute simulations and analyze results from advanced simulators executing on high performance computing platforms. This process usually requires a team of scientists collaborating on data collection, model creation and analysis, and on authorship of publications and data. This paper shows that scientific teams can benefit from a user environment called Akuna that permits subsurface scientists in disparate locations to collaborate on numerical modeling and analysis projects. The Akuna user environment is built on the Velo framework that provides both a rich client environment for conducting and analyzing simulations and a Web environment for data sharing and annotation. Akuna is an extensible toolset that integrates with Velo, and is designed to support any type of simulator. This is achieved through data-driven user interface generation, use of a customizable knowledge management platform, and an extensible framework for simulation execution, monitoring and analysis. This paper describes how the customized Velo content management system and the Akuna toolset are used to integrate and enhance an effective collaborative research and application environment. The extensible architecture of Akuna is also described and demonstrates its usage for creation and execution of a 3D subsurface simulation.

  12. SIRT1 regulates lamellipodium extension and migration of melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kunimoto, Risa; Jimbow, Kowichi; Tanimura, Akihiko; Sato, Masahiro; Horimoto, Kouhei; Hayashi, Takashi; Hisahara, Shin; Sugino, Toshiya; Hirobe, Tomohisa; Yamashita, Toshiharu; Horio, Yoshiyuki

    2014-06-01

    Melanoma is highly metastatic, but the mechanism of melanoma cell migration is still unclear. We found that melanoma cells expressed the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1 in the cytoplasm. Cell membrane extension and migration of melanoma cells were inhibited by SIRT1 inhibitors or SIRT1 knockdown, whereas SIRT1 activators enhanced elongation of protrusion and cellular motility. In B16F1 cells, growth factor stimulation induced lamellipodium extension, a characteristic feature at the leading edge of migrating cells, and SIRT1 was found in the lamellipodium. SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM) or SIRT1 small interfering RNAs suppressed the lamellipodium extension by serum or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). The lamellipodium formation by dominant-active Rac1 was also inhibited by NAM, a SIRT1 inhibitor. NAM inhibited the accumulation of phosphorylated Akt at the submembrane by serum or PDGF. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we found that NAM impaired PDGF-dependent increase in the phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate level at the leading edge. NAM inhibited the abdominal metastasis of transplanted B16F1 melanoma cells in C57BL6/J mice and improved survival. Finally, SIRT1-knockdown B16F1 cells showed significantly reduced metastasis in transplanted mice compared with that in control B16F1 cells. These results indicate that SIRT1 inhibition is a strategy to suppress metastasis of melanoma cells. PMID:24480879

  13. Pronephric duct extension in amphibian embryos: migration and other mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Drawbridge, Julie; Meighan, Christopher M; Lumpkins, Rebecca; Kite, Mary E

    2003-01-01

    Initiation of excretory system development in all vertebrates requires (1) delamination of the pronephric and pronephric duct rudiments from intermediate mesoderm at the ventral border of anterior somites, and (2) extension of the pronephric duct to the cloaca. Pronephric duct extension is the central event in nephric system development; the pronephric duct differentiates into the tubule that carries nephric filtrate out of the body and induces terminal differentiation of adult kidneys. Early studies concluded that pronephric ducts formed by means of in situ segregation of pronephric duct tissue from lateral mesoderm ventral to the forming somites; more recent studies highlight caudal migration of the pronephric duct as the major morphogenetic mechanism. The purpose of this review is to provide the historical background on studies of the mechanisms of amphibian pronephric duct extension, to review evidence showing that different amphibians perform pronephric duct morphogenesis in different ways, and to suggest future studies that may help illuminate the molecular basis of the mechanisms that have evolved in amphibians to extend the pronephric duct to the cloaca. PMID:12508219

  14. EXTENSIVE ROTATOR CUFF INJURIES: AN EVALUATION OF ARTHROSCOPIC REPAIR OUTCOMES

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; Silva, Luciana Andrade; Eduardo, Cesar Moreira Mariz Pinto Rodrigo Tormin Ortiz; Checchia, Sergio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To assess the outcomes of the surgical treatment of extensive rotator cuff injuries through arthroscopy. Methods: Between June 1998 and October 2006, 61 patients with extensive rotator cuff injuries and submitted to surgical arthroscopy technique by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Santa Casa de Misericórdia Medical School were reassessed. The study included all patients with at least two tendons affected or with retraction at least on two tendons up to the glenoidal cavity edge and with at least 12 months of follow-up. Results: According to UCLA's evaluation criteria, 54 (89%) patients showed excellent or good outcomes; no fair outcome in none of the patients; and seven (11%) poor outcomes. A satisfaction rate of 92% was reported. Postoperative joint motion went from a mean lifting value of 93° to 141°, the mean lateral rotation went from 32° to 48° and the mean medial rotation went from L1 to T10. These differences were regarded as statistically significant. Conclusion: The arthroscopic repair of extensive rotator cuff injuries leads to satisfactory outcomes for most of the patients, with a high satisfaction degree. PMID:26998466

  15. Annotation extension through protein family annotation coherence metrics

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Hugo P.; Clarke, Luka A.; Couto, Francisco M.

    2013-01-01

    Protein functional annotation consists in associating proteins with textual descriptors elucidating their biological roles. The bulk of annotation is done via automated procedures that ultimately rely on annotation transfer. Despite a large number of existing protein annotation procedures the ever growing protein space is never completely annotated. One of the facets of annotation incompleteness derives from annotation uncertainty. Often when protein function cannot be predicted with enough specificity it is instead conservatively annotated with more generic terms. In a scenario of protein families or functionally related (or even dissimilar) sets this leads to a more difficult task of using annotations to compare the extent of functional relatedness among all family or set members. However, we postulate that identifying sub-sets of functionally coherent proteins annotated at a very specific level, can help the annotation extension of other incompletely annotated proteins within the same family or functionally related set. As an example we analyse the status of annotation of a set of CAZy families belonging to the Polysaccharide Lyase class. We show that through the use of visualization methods and semantic similarity based metrics it is possible to identify families and respective annotation terms within them that are suitable for possible annotation extension. Based on our analysis we then propose a semi-automatic methodology leading to the extension of single annotation terms within these partially annotated protein sets or families. PMID:24130572

  16. Showing and Telling Farming: Agricultural Shows and Re-Imaging British Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Lewis

    2004-01-01

    Some actors in the ''mainstream'' agricultural sector are beginning to engage in strategies of influencing public perceptions of farming, responding to public anxieties over industrialised agriculture and to a supposed separation of non-farming publics from food production. This paper focuses on agricultural shows as sites and events central to…

  17. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    PubMed

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. PMID:26169655

  18. Mechanical Coupling between Endoderm Invagination and Axis Extension in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lye, Claire M; Blanchard, Guy B; Naylor, Huw W; Muresan, Leila; Huisken, Jan; Adams, Richard J; Sanson, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    How genetic programs generate cell-intrinsic forces to shape embryos is actively studied, but less so how tissue-scale physical forces impact morphogenesis. Here we address the role of the latter during axis extension, using Drosophila germband extension (GBE) as a model. We found previously that cells elongate in the anteroposterior (AP) axis in the extending germband, suggesting that an extrinsic tensile force contributed to body axis extension. Here we further characterized the AP cell elongation patterns during GBE, by tracking cells and quantifying their apical cell deformation over time. AP cell elongation forms a gradient culminating at the posterior of the embryo, consistent with an AP-oriented tensile force propagating from there. To identify the morphogenetic movements that could be the source of this extrinsic force, we mapped gastrulation movements temporally using light sheet microscopy to image whole Drosophila embryos. We found that both mesoderm and endoderm invaginations are synchronous with the onset of GBE. The AP cell elongation gradient remains when mesoderm invagination is blocked but is abolished in the absence of endoderm invagination. This suggested that endoderm invagination is the source of the tensile force. We next looked for evidence of this force in a simplified system without polarized cell intercalation, in acellular embryos. Using Particle Image Velocimetry, we identify posteriorwards Myosin II flows towards the presumptive posterior endoderm, which still undergoes apical constriction in acellular embryos as in wildtype. We probed this posterior region using laser ablation and showed that tension is increased in the AP orientation, compared to dorsoventral orientation or to either orientations more anteriorly in the embryo. We propose that apical constriction leading to endoderm invagination is the source of the extrinsic force contributing to germband extension. This highlights the importance of physical interactions between

  19. Mechanical Coupling between Endoderm Invagination and Axis Extension in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lye, Claire M.; Blanchard, Guy B.; Naylor, Huw W.; Muresan, Leila; Huisken, Jan; Adams, Richard J.; Sanson, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    How genetic programs generate cell-intrinsic forces to shape embryos is actively studied, but less so how tissue-scale physical forces impact morphogenesis. Here we address the role of the latter during axis extension, using Drosophila germband extension (GBE) as a model. We found previously that cells elongate in the anteroposterior (AP) axis in the extending germband, suggesting that an extrinsic tensile force contributed to body axis extension. Here we further characterized the AP cell elongation patterns during GBE, by tracking cells and quantifying their apical cell deformation over time. AP cell elongation forms a gradient culminating at the posterior of the embryo, consistent with an AP-oriented tensile force propagating from there. To identify the morphogenetic movements that could be the source of this extrinsic force, we mapped gastrulation movements temporally using light sheet microscopy to image whole Drosophila embryos. We found that both mesoderm and endoderm invaginations are synchronous with the onset of GBE. The AP cell elongation gradient remains when mesoderm invagination is blocked but is abolished in the absence of endoderm invagination. This suggested that endoderm invagination is the source of the tensile force. We next looked for evidence of this force in a simplified system without polarized cell intercalation, in acellular embryos. Using Particle Image Velocimetry, we identify posteriorwards Myosin II flows towards the presumptive posterior endoderm, which still undergoes apical constriction in acellular embryos as in wildtype. We probed this posterior region using laser ablation and showed that tension is increased in the AP orientation, compared to dorsoventral orientation or to either orientations more anteriorly in the embryo. We propose that apical constriction leading to endoderm invagination is the source of the extrinsic force contributing to germband extension. This highlights the importance of physical interactions between

  20. Craniocervical necrotizing fasciitis of odontogenic origin with mediastinal extension.

    PubMed

    Edwards, John D; Sadeghi, Nader; Najam, Farzad; Margolis, Mark

    2004-08-01

    We review an interesting case of craniocervical necrotizing fasciitis with thoracic extension in an immunocompetent 44-year-old man. The patient underwent aggressive medical and surgical management during a long hospitalization. Multiple surgical debridements, including transcervical mediastinal debridement, and eventually a thoracotomy for mediastinal abscess were required. The patient eventually recovered, and 3 months later he showed no sign of complications or recurrence. Craniocervical necrotizing fasciitis is a fulminant soft-tissue infection, usually of odontogenic origin, that requires prompt identification and treatment to ensure survival. Broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics, aggressive surgical debridement and wound care, hyperbaric oxygen, and good intensive care are the mainstays of treatment.

  1. Sea level differences across the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zlotnicki, Victor

    1991-01-01

    The sea level differences between the Sargasso Sea and the slope waters across the Gulf Stream region, averaged between 73 and 61 deg W, and the comparable areas across the Kuroshio extension region, averaged between 143 and 156 deg E, were estimated using the Geosat altimeter data obtained between November 1986 and December 1988. The sea-level differences between the two regions showed a strong correlation between the northwest Atlantic and Pacific, dominated by annual cycles that peak in late-September to mid-October, with about 9 cm (the Gulf Stream region) and about 6.9 cm (Kuroshio region) amplitudes.

  2. Sufficiency, justice, and the pursuit of health extension.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Colin

    2007-12-01

    According to one account of distributive justice, called the Sufficiency View, justice only requires that we bring everyone above some critical threshold of well-being and nothing more. This account of justice no doubt explains why some people believe it is unfair to invest scarce public funds into combating aging. In this paper I show why the sufficiency view is wrong. Furthermore, I argue that the real injustice occurs when we disparage or ignore all potential avenues of extending healthy living. We must be both ambitious and imaginative in our attitudes towards health extension.

  3. Fatigue reassessment for lifetime extension of offshore wind monopile substructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Lisa; Muskulus, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Fatigue reassessment is required to decide about lifetime extension of aging offshore wind farms. This paper presents a methodology to identify important parameters to monitor during the operational phase of offshore wind turbines. An elementary effects method is applied to analyze the global sensitivity of residual fatigue lifetimes to environmental, structural and operational parameters. Therefore, renewed lifetime simulations are performed for a case study which consists of a 5 MW turbine with monopile substructure in 20 m water depth. Results show that corrosion, turbine availability, and turbulence intensity are the most influential parameters. This can vary strongly for other settings (water depth, turbine size, etc.) making case-specific assessments necessary.

  4. A Technical Description of the Habitation Extension Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempsell, M.

    The Habitation Extension Module (HEM) is a study concept to explore the implications of a British contribution to the International Space Station that would lead to full partnership of that programme, as a contribution to the on-going debate on UK human space flight policy. The technical details of the study design are outlined to demonstrate the feasibility of the programme and the basis for the cost estimate. It also shows how the HEM not only can meet the operational needs of space station support, but also be a proving programme for technologies with relevance to future human mission to the Moon and Mars.

  5. A Comparison of Agricultural Extension in Five States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.

    The nature of the Cooperative Extension Service in agriculture was examined to identify aspects that could be applied to the design of an educational extension service. To learn about the organization, programs, and priorities of Cooperative Extension, employees of the state extension services in California, Colorado, New Mexico, New York, and…

  6. Theme--Teaming Up: Agricultural Education and Cooperative Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamon, Julia A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "Similarities and Differences" (Gamon); "Preparing Agriculture Teachers and Extension Agents" (Seevers); "Teaching and Extension" (Graham); "Cooperation between 4-H and FFA" (Hink); "Team Approach to Agricultural and Extension Education in Georgia" (Iverson, Rohs); "Agricultural Education and Cooperative Extension" (Nelson, Cvancara); "A…

  7. 48 CFR 52.211-13 - Time Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time Extensions. 52.211-13... Time Extensions. As prescribed in 11.503(c), insert the following clause: Time Extensions (SEP 2000) Time extensions for contract changes will depend upon the extent, if any, by which the changes...

  8. 48 CFR 52.211-13 - Time Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time Extensions. 52.211-13... Time Extensions. As prescribed in 11.503(c), insert the following clause: Time Extensions (SEP 2000) Time extensions for contract changes will depend upon the extent, if any, by which the changes...

  9. 48 CFR 52.211-13 - Time Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time Extensions. 52.211-13... Time Extensions. As prescribed in 11.503(c), insert the following clause: Time Extensions (SEP 2000) Time extensions for contract changes will depend upon the extent, if any, by which the changes...

  10. 48 CFR 52.211-13 - Time Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time Extensions. 52.211-13... Time Extensions. As prescribed in 11.503(c), insert the following clause: Time Extensions (SEP 2000) Time extensions for contract changes will depend upon the extent, if any, by which the changes...

  11. An Assessment of Extension Education Curriculum at Land Grant Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Amy; Mashburn, Diane; Benge, Matt

    2009-01-01

    A critical assessment of extension education is needed to ensure there are adequate opportunities for students to study extension education and that the curriculum is relevant to today's Cooperative Extension Service. This descriptive study was conducted to assess extension education curriculum by identifying and comparing the courses being taught…

  12. Former UBC Extension Directors Reminisce 1936-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Univ., Vancouver. Center for Continuing Education.

    Although the roots of university extension activities at the University of British Columbia (UBC) go back further, the extension department was put on a firm basis in 1936, when the Board of Governors appointed Robert England as the first Director of Extension. University extension at UBC has been succeeded by a Center for Continuing Education,…

  13. Private Agricultural Extension System in Kenya: Practice and Policy Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muyanga, Milu; Jayne, T. S.

    2008-01-01

    Private extension system has been at the centre of a debate triggered by inefficient public agricultural extension. The debate is anchored on the premise that the private sector is more efficient in extension service delivery. This study evaluates the private extension system in Kenya. It employs qualitative and quantitative methods. The results…

  14. Gerontology Information and Training Needs of Cooperative Extension Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Allison; Howard, Sally

    2002-01-01

    Data from 50 state extension websites, an aging specialist survey (n=30), and extension faculty needs assessment (n=51) revealed the scope of gerontology in Cooperative Extension. Faculty were interested in training on program design and information on health issues. County extension agents were particularly interested in resources for this…

  15. A Model for Evaluating eXtension Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Stafne, Eric T.

    2012-01-01

    As Americans shift their work and leisure activities online, Extension seeks to remain viable by delivering programs through a website known as eXtension. eXtension is predicated on the voluntary labor of Extension specialists and educators who form Communities of Practice to create and deliver content through the website. Evaluation of eXtension…

  16. Neural crest cell-derived VEGF promotes embryonic jaw extension

    PubMed Central

    Wiszniak, Sophie; Mackenzie, Francesca E.; Anderson, Peter; Kabbara, Samuela; Ruhrberg, Christiana; Schwarz, Quenten

    2015-01-01

    Jaw morphogenesis depends on the growth of Meckel’s cartilage during embryogenesis. However, the cell types and signals that promote chondrocyte proliferation for Meckel’s cartilage growth are poorly defined. Here we show that neural crest cells (NCCs) and their derivatives provide an essential source of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to enhance jaw vascularization and stabilize the major mandibular artery. We further show in two independent mouse models that blood vessels promote Meckel’s cartilage extension. Coculture experiments of arterial tissue with NCCs or chondrocytes demonstrated that NCC-derived VEGF promotes blood vessel growth and that blood vessels secrete factors to instruct chondrocyte proliferation. Computed tomography and X-ray scans of patients with hemifacial microsomia also showed that jaw hypoplasia correlates with mandibular artery dysgenesis. We conclude that cranial NCCs and their derivatives provide an essential source of VEGF to support blood vessel growth in the developing jaw, which in turn is essential for normal chondrocyte proliferation, and therefore jaw extension. PMID:25922531

  17. Extension of vector-valued integral polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carando, Daniel; Lassalle, Silvia

    2005-07-01

    We study the extendibility of integral vector-valued polynomials on Banach spaces. We prove that an X-valued Pietsch-integral polynomial on E extends to an X-valued Pietsch-integral polynomial on any space F containing E, with the same integral norm. This is not the case for Grothendieck-integral polynomials: they do not always extend to X-valued Grothendieck-integral polynomials. However, they are extendible to X-valued polynomials. The Aron-Berner extension of an integral polynomial is also studied. A canonical integral representation is given for domains not containing l1.

  18. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis.

  19. Novel Approach to Conformal FINFET Extension Doping

    SciTech Connect

    Zschaetzsch, G.; Vandervorst, W.; Hoffmann, T. Y.; Horiguchi, N.; Hautala, J.; Shao, Y.

    2011-01-07

    This paper presents a novel strategy to achieve conformal FINFET extension doping with low tilt-angle beam-line ion implantation. The process relies on the self-aligned cap layer formation exclusively on top of the FIN to tune doping levels in this particular area by partial dopant trapping. The conformality itself is evaluated for n- and p-type dopants by a novel extraction method applied to FIN resistor test structures. Furthermore, the process was integrated into a full NMOS device flow and compared to a highly tilted and more conformal As implant condition.

  20. High energy hadrons in extensive air showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tonwar, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental data on the high energy hadronic component in extensive air showers of energies approx. 10 to the 14 to 10 to the 16 eV when compared with expectations from Monte Carlo simulations have shown the observed showers to be deficient in high energy hadrons relative to simulated showers. An attempt is made to understand these anomalous features with more accurate comparison of observations with expectations, taking into account the details of the experimental system. Results obtained from this analysis and their implications for the high energy physics of particle interactions at energy approx. 10 to the 15 eV are presented.