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Sample records for lga mju vetisena

  1. Safeguarding Post-Laming: Initial Scoping Study. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The Local Government Association (LGA) commissioned the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) to undertake an initial scoping study into safeguarding post-Laming, with a view to undertaking further work if relevant. The purpose of the study was to identify research and literature produced since the Laming report was published in…

  2. Benchmarking parameter-free AMaLGaM on functions with and without noise.

    PubMed

    Bosman, Peter A N; Grahl, Jörn; Thierens, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    We describe a parameter-free estimation-of-distribution algorithm (EDA) called the adapted maximum-likelihood Gaussian model iterated density-estimation evolutionary algorithm (AMaLGaM-ID[Formula: see text]A, or AMaLGaM for short) for numerical optimization. AMaLGaM is benchmarked within the 2009 black box optimization benchmarking (BBOB) framework and compared to a variant with incremental model building (iAMaLGaM). We study the implications of factorizing the covariance matrix in the Gaussian distribution, to use only a few or no covariances. Further, AMaLGaM and iAMaLGaM are also evaluated on the noisy BBOB problems and we assess how well multiple evaluations per solution can average out noise. Experimental evidence suggests that parameter-free AMaLGaM can solve a wide range of problems efficiently with perceived polynomial scalability, including multimodal problems, obtaining the best or near-best results among all algorithms tested in 2009 on functions such as the step-ellipsoid and Katsuuras, but failing to locate the optimum within the time limit on skew Rastrigin-Bueche separable and Lunacek bi-Rastrigin in higher dimensions. AMaLGaM is found to be more robust to noise than iAMaLGaM due to the larger required population size. Using few or no covariances hinders the EDA from dealing with rotations of the search space. Finally, the use of noise averaging is found to be less efficient than the direct application of the EDA unless the noise is uniformly distributed. AMaLGaM was among the best performing algorithms submitted to the BBOB workshop in 2009.

  3. Differentiation and recruitment of IL-22-producing helper T cells in lgA nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Chenggen; Zhou, Qiaoling; Li, Xiaozhao; Li, Hui; Meng, Ting; Zhong, Yong; Pu, Jiaxi; Zhu, Mengyuan; Xu, Yan; Gan, Lu; Sun, Hong; Xiao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    IL-22-producing helper T cells (Th22 cells) have been reported to be involved in lgA nephropathy. However, the mechanisms underlying the differentiation and immune regulation of Th22 cells in lgA nephropathy remain unknown. To elucidate the mechanisms by which Th22 cells differentiate and are recruited into the kidney in lgA nephropathy, the distribution of Th22 cells in both the kidney and blood was determined. Additionally, the impacts of proinflammatory cytokines and antigen presentation in the kidney on Th22 cell differentiation were explored. Specifically, the chemoattractant activities of chemokines produced by the kidney for Th22 cells were investigated. Th22 cells were significantly higher both in the kidney and in the blood in lgA nephropathy mice. IL-1β, IL-6, IL-21 and/or TNF-a promoted Th22 cells differentiation from CD4+ T cells. It was observed that kidneys undergoing lgA nephropathy expressed CCL20, CCL22 and CCL27, and kidney supernatants were chemotactic for Th22 cells. This activity was partially blocked by anti-CCL20, anti-CCL22, and anti-CCL27 antibodies, which also potentially improved renal lesions simultaneously. The overrepresentation of Th22 cells in lgAN may be attributable to the actions of kidney chemokines and cytokines. Our data suggest a collaborative loop between the kidney and Th22 cells in lgA nephropathy. PMID:27725866

  4. Reliability of CGA/LGA/HDI Package Board/Assembly (Final Report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffaroam. Reza

    2014-01-01

    Package manufacturers are now offering commercial-off-the-shelf column grid array (COTS CGA) packaging technologies in high-reliability versions. Understanding the process and quality assurance (QA) indicators for reliability are important for low-risk insertion of these advanced electronics packages. The previous reports, released in January of 2012 and January of 2013, presented package test data, assembly information, and reliability evaluation by thermal cycling for CGA packages with 1752, 1517, 1509, and 1272 inputs/outputs (I/Os) and 1-mm pitch. It presented the thermal cycling (-55C either 100C or 125C) test results for up to 200 cycles. This report presents up to 500 thermal cycles with quality assurance and failure analysis evaluation represented by optical photomicrographs, 2D real time X-ray images, dye-and-pry photomicrographs, and optical/scanning electron Microscopy (SEM) cross-sectional images. The report also presents assembly challenge using reflowing by either vapor phase or rework station of CGA and land grid array (LGA) versions of three high I/O packages both ceramic and plastic configuration. A new test vehicle was designed having high density interconnect (HDI) printed circuit board (PCB) with microvia-in-pad to accommodate both LGA packages as well as a large number of fine pitch ball grid arrays (BGAs). The LGAs either were assembled onto HDI PCB as an LGA or were solder paste print and reflow first to form solder dome on pads before assembly. Both plastic BGAs with 1156 I/O and ceramic LGAs were assembled. It also presented the X-ray inspection results as well as failures due to 200 thermal cycles. Lessons learned on assembly of ceramic LGAs are also presented.

  5. Reliability of CGA/LGA/HDI Package Board/Assembly (Revision A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    This follow-up report presents reliability test results conducted by thermal cycling of five CGA assemblies evaluated under two extreme cycle profiles, representative of use for high-reliability applications. The thermal cycles ranged from a low temperature of 55 C to maximum temperatures of either 100 C or 125 C with slow ramp-up rate (3 C/min) and dwell times of about 15 minutes at the two extremes. Optical photomicrographs that illustrate key inspection findings of up to 200 thermal cycles are presented. Other information presented include an evaluation of the integrity of capacitors on CGA substrate after thermal cycling as well as process evaluation for direct assembly of an LGA onto PCB. The qualification guidelines, which are based on the test results for CGA/LGA/HDI packages and board assemblies, will facilitate NASA projects' use of very dense and newly available FPGA area array packages with known reliably and mitigation risks, allowing greater processing power in a smaller board footprint and lower system weight.

  6. The Role of the Lead Member for Children's Services: Final Report (LGA Research Report F/SR268)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard; Harland, Jennie; Kendall, Sally; Kinder, Kay

    2008-01-01

    This research, commissioned by the LGA (Local Government Association), explores whether Lead Members for Children's Services [LMCS] have enough information and support to carry out their role effectively, especially for their corporate parenting role. It also explored the overall role, including issues like manageability; commissioning;…

  7. The Mitochondrial Dnm1-Like Fission Component Is Required for lga2-Induced Mitophagy but Dispensable for Starvation-Induced Mitophagy in Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Jacobo, Fernanda; Pasch, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Selective elimination of mitochondria by autophagy (mitophagy) is a crucial developmental process to dispose of disintegrated or superflous organelles. However, little is known about underlying regulatory mechanisms. We have investigated mitophagy in response to conditional overexpression of the a2 mating-type locus gene lga2, which encodes a small mitochondrial protein critically involved in uniparental mitochondrial DNA inheritance during sexual development of Ustilago maydis. In this study, we show that conditional overexpression of lga2 efficiently triggers mitophagy that is dependent on atg8 and atg11, consistent with selective autophagy. lga2-triggered mitophagy is preceded by mitochondrial dysfunction, including depletion of mitochondrial RNA transcripts, and is mechanistically distinct from starvation-induced mitophagy despite a common requirement for atg11. In particular, lga2-triggered mitophagy strongly depends on the mitochondrial fission factor Dnm1, but it is only slightly affected by N-acetylcysteine, which is an inhibitor of starvation-induced mitophagy. To further delineate the role of mitochondrial fission, we analyzed lga2 effects in Δfis1 mutants. This revealed that mitochondrial fragmentation was only attenuated and mitophagy was largely unaffected. In further support of a Fis1-independent role for Dnm1, mitochondrial association of green fluorescent protein-tagged Dnm1 as well as Dnm1-opposed mitochondrial fusion during sexual development were fis1 independent. In conclusion, our results specify the role of the mitochondrial fission factor Dnm1 in mitophagy and uncover differences between mitophagy pathways in the same cellular system. PMID:22843561

  8. The Impact of School Fires: A Study of the Wider Economic and Social Impacts on Schools and the Local Community. LGA Research Report 3/07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Pauline; Teeman, David; Golden, Sarah; Wilson, Rebekah; Woodley, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    The findings presented in this report derive from a study undertaken by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) commissioned by Local Government Analysis and Research (LGAR) on behalf of the Local Government Association (LGA) and British Automatic Fire Sprinkler Association (BAFSA). The study employed a desk review of primarily…

  9. Association of cord blood des-acyl ghrelin with birth weight, and placental GHS-R1 receptor expression in SGA, AGA, and LGA newborns.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Martha I; Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy, Maria-Luisa; Zaina, Silvio; Sabanero, Myrna; Daza-Benítez, Leonel; Malacara, Juan Manuel; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria

    2016-07-01

    Although ghrelin in cord blood has been associated to birth weight, its role in fetal and postnatal growth has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to analyze total ghrelin, acyl ghrelin (AG), and des-acyl ghrelin (DAG) in cord blood of newborns with idiopathic birth weight alterations, and to evaluate protein expression of placental GHS-R1, in order to investigate their correlation with birth weight and placental weight. We performed a cross-sectional comparative study in umbilical cord blood and placentas from healthy mothers of SGA, AGA, and LGA (small, adequate and large for gestational age) term newborns (n = 20 per group). Cord blood total ghrelin, AG, and DAG were measured by ELISA, and placental GHS-R1 expression was evaluated by Western blot. Cord blood DAG was higher in SGA compared to AGA newborns (902.1 ± 109.1 and 597.4 ± 58.2 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.01) while LGA and AGA showed similar values (627.2 ± 76.4 pg/ml for LGA, p = 0.80). DAG negatively correlated with birthweight (r = -0.31, p = 0.02) and placental weight (r = -0.33, p = 0.02). No differences in AG or total ghrelin were found. GHS-R1 protein in placenta was not differentially expressed among SGA, AGA, and LGA. Our results suggest a role of DAG in intrauterine growth. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which DAG participates in fetal growth.

  10. Large for Gestational Age (LGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Subjects Women's Health Issues Symptoms General Abdomen & Digestive Bleeding Brain & Nervous System Chest & Respiratory Children's Symptoms Eye ... a tube placed in the nose or intense intervention, such as respiratory support with a ventilator. Other ...

  11. USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, owan west l.g.a edo state. Nigeria USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, owan west l.g.a edo state. Nigeria USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, owan west l.g.a edo state. Nigeria USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikpitanyi, C. U.

    2012-12-01

    This Project research was carried out using seismic refraction method at st Patrick catholic church( site) ozalla owan west l.g.a Edo state. Nigeria A MCSEIS- 160M Seismograph was used as the recording instrument with 12 geophones as wave detectors in series with one another, each of 1.5m Perpendicular to a firing line of of36m long. but the geophones are spread at a predetermined distance. the impact of heavy metal(about 5kg) on a flat metal plate served as the source of artificial wave generation. The wave front method of interpretation was used in interpreting the field results at fine distance . Plot reveals that the subsurface under Investigation is three layers of velocities, 208ms-1 750ms-1 and 1250ms-1 for the first, second and third layers respectively. And the depth of the first and second layer is 12 .7m and 14.0m respectively. This investigation has further revealed that at approximately 27m from the surface a possible aquifer could be encountered, this result agreed with electrical resistivity Studies carried out in the past within the studied area.

  12. The ion-channel activity of longibrachins LGA I and LGB II: effects of pro-2/Ala and gln-18/Glu substitutions on the alamethicin voltage-gated membrane channels.

    PubMed

    Cosette, P; Rebuffat, S; Bodo, B; Molle, G

    1999-11-01

    Longibrachins LGA I (Ac Aib Ala Aib Ala Aib(5) Ala Gln Aib Val Aib(10) Gly Leu Aib Pro Val(15) Aib Aib Gln Gln Pheol(20), with Aib: alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, pheol: phenylalaninol) and LGB II are two homologous 20-residue long-sequence peptaibols isolated from the fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum that differ between them by a Gln-18/Glu substitution. They distinguish from alamethicin by a Pro-2 for Ala replacement, which allowed to examine for the first time with natural Aib-containing analogues, the effect of Pro-2 on the ion-channel properties exhibited by alamethicin. The influence of these structural modifications on the voltage-gated ion-channel forming activity of the peptides in planar lipid bilayers were analysed. The general 'barrel-stave' model of ion-channel activity, already described for alamethicin, was preserved with both longibrachins. The negatively charged LGB II promoted higher oligomerisation levels, which could presumably dilute the repulsive effect of the negative Glu ring near the entrance of the channel and resulted in lower lifetimes of the substates, confirming the strong anchor of the peptide C-terminus at the cis-interface. Reduction of the channel lifetimes was observed for the longibrachins, compared to alamethicin. This argues for a better stabilisation of the channels formed by peptaibols having a proline at position 2, which results in better anchoring of the peptide monomer N-terminus at the trans-bilayer interface. Qualitative assays of the temperature dependence on the neutral longibrachin channel properties demonstrated a high increase of channel lifetimes and a markedly reduced voltage-sensitivity when the temperature was decreased, showing that such conditions may allow to study the channel-forming properties of peptides leading to fast current fluctuations. PMID:10556493

  13. Intergenerational Practice: Outcomes and Effectiveness. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kerry; Springate, Iain; Atkinson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This research looked at five intergenerational projects focusing on football, arts, knife crime, living history and personal and social education. Two projects ran in schools, one in a health centre, one in a youth drop-in centre and one at a football club. Each project had its own aims, but in addition to these, the projects aimed to improve…

  14. Analysis of Youth Offending Team Inspection Reports. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeod, Shona; Jeffes, Jennifer; White, Richard; Bramley, George

    2010-01-01

    How well do youth offending teams (YOT) work? In which areas of their work is their performance excellent and where is improvement needed? This research examined annual performance assessments of services for children and young people undertaken by Ofsted in 57 local authorities from January 2006 to April 2009, together with relevant data relating…

  15. The MEST score provides earlier risk prediction in lgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Sean J; Espino-Hernandez, Gabriela; Reich, Heather N; Coppo, Rosanna; Roberts, Ian S D; Feehally, John; Herzenberg, Andrew M; Cattran, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    The Oxford Classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) includes the following four histologic components: mesangial (M) and endocapillary (E) hypercellularity, segmental sclerosis (S) and interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (T). These combine to form the MEST score and are independently associated with renal outcome. Current prediction and risk stratification in IgAN requires clinical data over 2 years of follow-up. Using modern prediction tools, we examined whether combining MEST with cross-sectional clinical data at biopsy provides earlier risk prediction in IgAN than current best methods that use 2 years of follow-up data. We used a cohort of 901 adults with IgAN from the Oxford derivation and North American validation studies and the VALIGA study followed for a median of 5.6 years to analyze the primary outcome (50% decrease in eGFR or ESRD) using Cox regression models. Covariates of clinical data at biopsy (eGFR, proteinuria, MAP) with or without MEST, and then 2-year clinical data alone (2-year average of proteinuria/MAP, eGFR at biopsy) were considered. There was significant improvement in prediction by adding MEST to clinical data at biopsy. The combination predicted the outcome as well as the 2-year clinical data alone, with comparable calibration curves. This effect did not change in subgroups treated or not with RAS blockade or immunosuppression. Thus, combining the MEST score with cross-sectional clinical data at biopsy provides earlier risk prediction in IgAN than our current best methods. PMID:26759049

  16. Collaborative Good Practice between Local Authorities and the Further Education Sector. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrone, Tami; Southcott, Clare; Evans, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    In 2010 planning and funding responsibilities for 16-19 year olds will be transferred from the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) back to the local authorities (LAs). LAs will have responsibility for commissioning and funding all education and training for young people up to the age of 19, making them the strategic lead for all children's services…

  17. Local Authorities' Experiences of Improving Parental Confidence in the Special Educational Needs Process. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard; Macleod, Shona; Jeffes, Jennifer; Atkinson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    How can we help parents to understand the special educational needs (SEN) process? What sort of information and support do they need? This report details the results of research with SEN officers (or their equivalent) in 26 local authorities, covering: (1) the referral process; (2) early identification and intervention; (3) local authority and…

  18. Children and Young People's Views on Web 2.0 Technologies. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, Peter; Walker, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Web 2.0 technologies are online tools that allow users to share, collaborate and interact with one another. This small-scale project focused on young people's personal use of social media, and on the potential to use these tools to collect the views of young people and involve them in democracy in communities and local authorities. The main…

  19. 75 FR 21692 - Denial of Airlines' Temporary Exemption Requests from DOT's Tarmac Delay Rules for JFK, EWR, LGA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... travelers. 74 FR 68983. One of these provisions, which takes effect April 29, 2010, requires U.S..., with two safety/security and an ATC-related exceptions: (1) Where the pilot-in-command determines that..., and ATC exceptions. 14 CFR Sec. Sec. 259.4(b)(1) and (b)(2). For all flights, carriers must...

  20. Effect of Constructivist Teaching Method on Students' Achievement in French Listening Comprehension in Owerri North LGA of Imo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uwalaka, A. J.; Offorma, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of constructivist teaching method on students' achievement in French listening comprehension in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Achievement in French listening comprehension over the years has been discouraging. The conventional method of teaching French Language has not improved the…

  1. Strategies for Dealing with Low Adoption of Agricultural Innovations: A Case Study of Farmers in Udenu L.G.A. of Enugu State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguru, Chike; Ajayi, S. L.; Ogbu, Oliver C.

    2015-01-01

    A study to access the level of acceptance/adoption of agricultural innovations by farmers in Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State was carried out. The aim was to find out the reasons behind the low acceptance/adoption of agricultural innovations by farmers in the area and to suggest possible strategies to address this ugly situation; as a…

  2. A survey of the repository of groundwater potential and distribution using geoelectrical resistivity method in Itu Local Government Area (L.G.A), Akwa Ibom State, southern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibuot, J.; Akpabio, G.; George, N.

    2013-12-01

    Vertical electrical sounding (VES), employing a Schlumberger electrode configuration, was used to investigate the sediments and aquifer repositories in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state, southern Nigeria. This was done in sixteen (16) locations/communities with the maximum current electrode spread ranging between 800-1000m. The field data were interpreted using forward and iterative least square inversion modeling, which gives a resolution with 3-5 geoelectric layers. The observed frequencies in curve types include 31.25% of AKH, 18.8% of AAK and HK and 6.25% of K, QHK, AKH, KA and KHQ, respectively. These sets of curves show a wide range of variabilities in resistivities between and within the layers penetrated by current. The presence of K and H curve types in the study area indicates the alteration of the geomaterials with limited hydrologic significance to the prolific groundwater repository. A correlation of the constrained nearby borehole lithology logs with the VES results shows that the layers were all sandy formations (fine and well sorted sands to gravelly sands or medium to coarse-grained sands as described by nearby lithology logs) with some wide ranges of electrical resistivity values and thicknesses caused by electrostratigraphic inhomogeneity. The geologic topsoil (motley topsoil) is generally porous and permeable and as such the longitudinal conductance (S) values for the covering/protective layer is generally less than unity of Siemens (S < 1Ω-1), the value considered for efficient protection of the underlying aquifers by the topmost and overlying layer. The spatial orientations and the leveling patterns of the most economically viable potential groundwater repository within the maximum current electrode separations has been delineated in 2-D and 3-D contoured maps. The estimated depth range for the desired groundwater repository is 32.6-113.1m and its average depth value is 74.30m. The thickness of this layer ranges from 27.9-103m while its average depth has been evaluated to be 63.02m. Also, its resistivity range and average value have been estimated to be 507-5612m and 3365.125Ωm

  3. A survey of the repository of groundwater potential and distribution using geoelectrical resistivity method in Itu Local Government Area (L.G.A), Akwa Ibom State, southern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibuot, J. C.; Akpabio, G. T.; George, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    Vertical electrical sounding (VES), employing a Schlumberger electrode configuration, was used to investigate the sediments and aquifer repositories in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state, southern Nigeria. This was done in sixteen (16) locations/communities with the maximum current electrode spread ranging between 800-1000m. The field data were interpreted using forward and iterative least square inversion modeling, which gives a resolution with 3-5 geoelectric layers. The observed frequencies in curve types include 31.25% of AKH, 18.8% of AAK and HK and 6.25% of K, QHK, AKH, KA and KHQ, respectively. These sets of curves show a wide range of variabilities in resistivities between and within the layers penetrated by current. The presence of K and H curve types in the study area indicates the alteration of the geomaterials with limited hydrologic significance to the prolific groundwater repository. A correlation of the constrained nearby borehole lithology logs with the VES results shows that the layers were all sandy formations (fine and well sorted sands to gravelly sands or medium to coarse-grained sands as described by nearby lithology logs) with some wide ranges of electrical resistivity values and thicknesses caused by electrostratigraphic inhomogeneity. The geologic topsoil (motley topsoil) is generally porous and permeable and as such the longitudinal conductance ( S) values for the covering/protective layer is generally less than unity of Siemens ( S < 1Ω-1), the value considered for efficient protection of the underlying aquifers by the topmost and overlying layer. The spatial orientations and the leveling patterns of the most economically viable potential groundwater repository within the maximum current electrode separations has been delineated in 2-D and 3-D contoured maps. The estimated depth range for the desired groundwater repository is 32.6-113.1m and its average depth value is 74.30m. The thickness of this layer ranges from 27.9-103m while its average depth has been evaluated to be 63.02m. Also, its resistivity range and average value have been estimated to be 507-5612m and 3365.125Ωm

  4. Effect of Concept Mapping and Outline Note-Taking Patterns in Students Academic Achievement in Geography in Secondary Schools in Enugu South Lga of Enugu State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okafor, Gabriel A.

    2016-01-01

    The WAEC Chief Examiner's report of 2013 pointed out that mass failure in geography had badly affected students who have the desire to study science related subjects in our Universities. The poor image of geography among students was attributed partly to its wide content and partly to the old fashioned approach to its teaching. This study…

  5. Data link relay design. [space probe with entry at Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, P.

    1974-01-01

    The data link for the Ames baseline probe as applied to the MJU spacecraft specifically with an entry at Uranus is analyzed. A frequency analysis, a trajectory analysis, and a discussion of the effects on the spacecraft design by the data link are presented. The possibilities of a two-way link are considered.

  6. 78 FR 32632 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ...-36B Infrared Decoy Flares, 30,000 RR-188 w/BBU-35B Training Chaff, 3,750 BDU-33D/B w/lugs/ Mk4 spot... (RNLAF) F-16 Formal Training Unit (FTU), 50,000 MJU-7B w/BBU-36B Infrared Decoy Flares, 30,000 RR-188...

  7. Study of lunar gravity assist orbits in the restricted four-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yi; Xu, Shijie

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the lunar gravity assist (LGA) orbits starting from the Earth are investigated in the Sun-Earth-Moon-spacecraft restricted four-body problem (RFBP). First of all, the sphere of influence of the Earth-Moon system (SOIEM) is derived. Numerical calculation displays that inside the SOIEM, the effect of the Sun on the LGA orbits is quite small, but outside the SOIEM, the Sun perturbation can remarkably influence the trend of the LGA orbit. To analyze the effect of the Sun, the RFBP outside the SOIEM is approximately replaced by a planar circular restricted three-body problem, where, in the latter case, the Sun and the Earth-Moon barycenter act as primaries. The stable manifolds associated with the libration point orbit and their Poincaré sections on the SOIEM are applied to investigating the LGA orbit. According to our research, the patched LGA orbits on the Poincaré sections can efficiently distinguish the transit LGA orbits from the non-transit LGA orbits under the RFBP. The former orbits can pass through the region around libration point away from the SOIEM, but the latter orbits will bounce back to the SOIEM. Besides, the stable transit probability is defined and analyzed. According to the variant requirement of the space mission, the results obtained can help us select the LGA orbit and the launch window.

  8. 77 FR 53249 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of New Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    .... The FAA has issued orders limiting operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), Newark... departure slots at JFK, EWR, and LGA. The designations resulted in part from increasing congestion and... and SFO. The information is reported to the FAA by carriers holding a slot at JFK, EWR, or LGA;...

  9. 78 FR 5856 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of New Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... orders limiting operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), Newark Liberty International... JFK, EWR, and LGA. The designations resulted in part from increasing congestion and delays at the... information is reported to the FAA by carriers holding a slot at JFK, EWR, or LGA; by carriers operating...

  10. Gallium containing glass polyalkenoate anti-cancerous bone cements: glass characterization and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Wren, A W; Coughlan, A; Placek, L; Towler, M R

    2012-08-01

    A gallium (Ga) glass series (0.48SiO(2)-0.40ZnO-0.12CaO, with 0.08 mol% substitution for ZnO) was developed to formulate a Ga-containing Glass Polyalkenoate Cement (GPC) series. Network connectivity (NC) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to investigate the role of Ga(3+) in the glass, where it is assumed to act as a network modifier. Ga-GPC series was formulated with E9 and E11 polyacrylic acid (PAA) at 50, 55 and 60 wt% additions. E11 working times (T(w)) ranged from 68 to 96 s (Lcon.) and 106 s for the Ga-GPCs (LGa-1 and LGa-2). Setting times (T(s)) ranged from 104 to 226 s (Lcon.) and 211 s for LGa-1 and LGa-2. Compression (σc) and biaxial flexural (σf) testing were conducted where Lcon. increased from 62 to 68 MPa, LGa-1 from 14 to 42 MPa and LGa-2 from 20 to 47 MPa in σc over 1-30 days. σf testing revealed that Lcon. increased from 29 to 42 MPa, LGa-1 from 7 to 32 MPa and LGa-2 from 12 to 36 MPa over 1-30 days.

  11. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes: Early Years (0-5 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springate, Ian; Atkinson, Mary; Straw, Suzanne; Lamont, Emily; Grayson, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the Local Government Association (LGA) to inform the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) and LGA work on "Narrowing the Gap." It focuses on early years' provision and presents findings from a review of the best evidence on narrowing the gap in outcomes across the five Every Child Matters (ECM) areas…

  12. Infants born large-for-gestational-age display slower growth in early infancy, but no epigenetic changes at birth

    PubMed Central

    Chiavaroli, Valentina; Cutfield, Wayne S.; Derraik, José G. B.; Pan, Zengxiang; Ngo, Sherry; Sheppard, Allan; Craigie, Susan; Stone, Peter; Sadler, Lynn; Ahlsson, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the growth patterns of infants born large-for-gestational-age (LGA) from birth to age 1 year compared to those born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA). In addition, we investigated possible epigenetic changes associated with being born LGA. Seventy-one newborns were classified by birth weight as AGA (10th–90th percentile; n = 42) or LGA (>90th percentile; n = 29). Post-natal follow-up until age 1 year was performed with clinical assessments at 3, 6, and 12 months. Genome-wide DNA methylation was analysed on umbilical tissue in 19 AGA and 27 LGA infants. At birth, LGA infants had greater weight (p < 0.0001), length (p < 0.0001), ponderal index (p = 0.020), as well as greater head (p < 0.0001), chest (p = 0.044), and abdominal (p = 0.007) circumferences than AGA newborns. LGA infants were still larger at the age of 3 months, but by age 6 months there were no more differences between groups, due to higher length and weight increments in AGA infants between 0 and 6 months (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Genome-wide analysis showed no epigenetic differences between LGA and AGA infants. Overall, LGA infants had slower growth in early infancy, being anthropometrically similar to AGA infants by 6 months of age. In addition, differences between AGA and LGA newborns were not associated with epigenetic changes. PMID:26419812

  13. The use of selected interventions in monitoring primary health care implementation in rural Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Egwu, I N

    1992-03-01

    Nigeria's Primary Health Care (PHC)-based health system development aims to strengthen PHC in the local government areas (LGA) through technical planning and implementation that emphasize maternal and child health services. Convenient variables, including expanded programme on immunization (EPI), antenatal care (ANC) utilization and attended births, were selected as interventions to monitor the progress of implementation of PHC activities during 1985-90 in Odukpani LGA. Analysis of available data at the LGA showed that immunization coverage for most EPI antigens increased; ANC services showed increased utilization; health worker-attended births increased as traditional birth deliveries declined during the period. Some of the increases were modest but are considered important. The study offers a pilot approach to monitoring implementation of PHC activities in Odukpani LGA. The implications of the findings for similar studies are discussed. PMID:1589661

  14. The impact of excessive maternal weight on the nutritional status of the fetus – the role of leptin

    PubMed Central

    Głowacka, Ewa; Krekora, Michał; Sobantka, Stanisław; Krokocka, Aleksandra; Krasomski, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Assessment of leptin concentration in the blood of pregnant women (leptin concentration – Lc) and in their newborns, according to their nutritional status. Material and methods Pregnant women (n = 42) were divided into normal body mass (NBM) and excessive body mass (EBM) groups. Neonates were divided into AGA (eutrophic) and LGA (macrosomic) groups. Leptin concentraction was studied in 4 subgroups: NBM/AGA, NBM/LGA, EBM/AGA, EBM/LGA. Results Mothers: A significant correlation was found between maternal Lc and body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.75, p < 0.001). Maternal Lc was 3 times higher than neonatal Lc (p < 0.00001). The NBM mothers showed lower Lc compared to EBM mothers (p = 0.000018). Leptin concentration values in NBM/LGA and NBM/AGA mothers were similar (p = 0.6775). Newborns: Correlations were found between Lc and ponderal index (PI) (r = 0.67, p < 0.001), weight (r = 0.43, p = 0.004) and placental weight (r = 0.56, p < 0.001). Girls presented higher Lc than boys (p = 0.0338). In LGA groups, newborns born to EBM mothers presented higher Lc than those born to NBM mothers (p = 0.0013). In both AGA groups, Lc was similar (AGA/EBM vs. AGA/NBM p = 0.1619). The highest Lc and the largest placentas were found in the group of LGA newborns born to EBM mothers. Conclusions Leptin concentration positively correlates with BMI in pregnant women, with PI and female sex in newborns as well as with placental weight. The nutritional status of fetuses does not affect the Lc of their non-obese mothers. The LGA neonates born to EBM women demonstrate higher Lc than LGA neonates born to NBM mothers, whereas Lc of AGA neonates is similar regardless of the nutritional status of their mothers. PMID:27186186

  15. Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Newborns in Women With Gestational Diabetes by Race and Ethnicity and Body Mass Index Categories

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Sneha B.; Ferrara, Assiamira; Ehrlich, Samantha F.; Brown, Susan D.; Hedderson, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the prevalence of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns across categories of body mass index (BMI) in five racial and ethnic groups. METHODS This cohort study examined 7,468 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) who delivered a live newborn between 1995 and 2006 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. The racial and ethnic groups were non-Hispanic white, African American, Hispanic, Asian, and Filipina. The BMI was classified using the World Health Organization International guidelines (normal, 18.50–24.99; overweight, 25.00–29.99; obese, 30.00–34.99; obese class II, 35.00 or higher). Having an LGA newborn was defined as birth weight more than 90th percentile for the study population’s race or ethnicity and gestational age–specific birth weight distribution. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of having an LGA newborn by BMI and race and ethnicity. RESULTS Overall prevalence of LGA newborns was highest in African American women (25.1%), lowest in Asians (13.9%), and intermediate among Hispanic (17.3%), white (16.4%), and Filipina women (15.3%). The highest increased risk of LGA newborns was observed among women with class II obesity in most racial and ethnic groups, and African American and Asian women with class II obesity had a four-fold increased risk of LGA newborns compared with women of normal weight in the same racial and ethnic group. CONCLUSIONS African American women with GDM have a greater risk of LGA newborns at a lower BMI than other racial and ethnic groups. Clinicians should be aware that among women with GDM, there may be significant racial and ethnic differences in the risk of LGA newborns by BMI threshold. PMID:23812460

  16. Genomic organization and transcriptional analysis of the human l-glutaminase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Gómez, Cristina; Matés, José M; Gómez-Fabre, Pedro M; del Castillo-Olivares, Antonio; Alonso, Francisco J; Márquez, Javier

    2003-01-01

    In mammals, glutaminase (GA) is expressed in most tissues, but the regulation of organ-specific expression is largely unknown. Therefore, as an essential step towards studying the regulation of GA expression, the human liver-type GA (hLGA) gene has been characterized. LGA genomic sequences were isolated using the genome walking technique. Analysis and comparison of these sequences with two LGA cDNA clones and the Human Genome Project database, allowed the determination of the genomic organization of the LGA gene. The gene has 18 exons and is approx. 18 kb long. All exon/intron junction sequences conform to the GT/AG rule. Progressive deletion analysis of LGA promoter-luciferase constructs indicated that the core promoter is located between nt -141 and +410, with several potential regulatory elements: CAAT, GC, TATA-like, Ras-responsive element binding protein and specificity protein 1 (Sp1) sites. The minimal promoter was mapped within +107 and +410, where only an Sp1 binding site is present. Mutation experiments suggested that two CAAT recognition elements near the transcription-initiation site (-138 and -87), play a crucial role for optimal promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays confirmed the importance of CAAT- and TATA-like boxes to enhance basal transcription, and demonstrated that HNF-1 motif is a significant distal element for transcriptional regulation of the hLGA gene. PMID:12444921

  17. Lewis acid-base adducts of group 13 elements: synthesis, structure and reactivity toward benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Ganesamoorthy, C; Matthias, M; Bläser, D; Wölper, C; Schulz, S

    2016-07-28

    Lewis acid-base adducts [LGa-M(C6F5)3] (M = B 1, Al 2, Ga 3) were prepared by the reaction of gallanediyl LGa {L = HC[C(Me)N(2,6-i-Pr2C6H3)]2} with the Lewis acids M(C6F5)3 (M = B, Al, Ga). Benzaldehyde reacts with [LGa-M(C6F5)3] (M = B 1, Al 2) at room temperature with the insertion and formation of [LGa(C6F5){CH(Ph)(OB(C6F5)2)}] (4) and the zwitterionic species [LGa(C6F5){CH(Ph)(OAl(C6F5)2)}] (5), respectively, which was found to decompose at 80 °C with the formation of {(C6F5)2Al(OCH2Ph)}2 (6). Any attempts to isolate the insertion complex of [LGa-Ga(C6F5)3] with benzaldehyde failed and only {(C6F5)2Ga(OCH2Ph)}2 (7) was isolated at elevated temperatures. 2-5 and 7 were structurally characterized by heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  18. Should an Aberrant Left Hepatic Artery Arising from the Left Gastric Artery Be Preserved during Laparoscopic Gastrectomy for Early Gastric Cancer Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jieun; Kim, Su Mi; Seo, Jeong Eun; Ha, Man Ho; An, Ji Yeong; Choi, Min Gew; Lee, Jun Ho; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung; Jeong, Woo Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose During laparoscopic gastrectomy, an aberrant left hepatic artery (ALHA) arising from the left gastric artery (LGA) is occasionally encountered. The aim of this study was to define when an ALHA should be preserved during laparoscopic gastrectomy. Materials and Methods From August 2009 to December 2014, 1,340 patients with early gastric cancer underwent laparoscopic distal gastrectomy. One hundred fifty patients presented with an ALHA; of the ALHA was ligated in 116 patients and preserved in 34 patients. Patient characteristics, postoperative outcomes and perioperative liver function tests were reviewed retrospectively. Correlations between the diameter of the LGA measured on preoperative abdominal computed tomography and postoperative liver enzyme levels were analyzed. Results Pearson's correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between the diameter of the LGA and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels on postoperative day 1 in the ALHA-ligated group (P=0.039, P=0.026, respectively). Linear regression analysis estimated the diameter of the LGA to be 5.1 mm and 4.9 mm when AST and ALT levels were twice the normal limit on postoperative day 1. Conclusions We suggest preserving the ALHA arising from a large LGA, having diameter greater than 5 mm, during laparoscopic gastrectomy to prevent immediate postoperative hepatic dysfunction. PMID:27433391

  19. landgenreport: a new r function to simplify landscape genetic analysis using resistance surface layers.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Bernd; Adamack, Aaron T

    2015-09-01

    We describe functions recently added to the r package popgenreport that can be used to perform a landscape genetic analysis (LGA) based on landscape resistance surfaces, which aims to detect the effect of landscape features on gene flow. These functions for the first time implement a LGA in a single framework. Although the approach has been shown to be a valuable tool to study gene flow in landscapes, it has not been widely used to date, despite the type of data being widely available. In part, this is likely due to the necessity to use several software packages to perform landscape genetic analyses. To apply LGA functions, two types of data sets are required: a data set with spatially referenced and genotyped individuals, and a resistance layer representing the effect of the landscape. The function outputs three pairwise distance matrices from these data: a genetic distance matrix, a cost distance matrix and a Euclidean distance matrix. Statistical tests are performed to test whether the cost matrix contributes to the understanding of the observed population structure. A full report on the analysis and outputs in the form of plots and tables of all intermediate steps of the LGA is produced. It is possible to customize the LGA to allow for different cost path approaches and measures of genetic distances. The package is written in the r language and is available through the Comprehensive r Archive. Comprehensive tutorials and information on how to install and use the package are provided at the authors' website (www.popgenreport.org).

  20. Evidence for the possible relationship of neonatal skinfold thickness to maternal glucose metabolism during the third trimester.

    PubMed

    Kerner, J A; Stevenson, D K; Hattner, J A; Cohen, R S; Schwartz, H C; Sunshine, P

    1982-01-01

    Forty-eight infants, including 14 premature infants who were appropriate size for gestational age (AGA), 10 full-term AGA infants, 18 full-term infants who were large for gestational age (LGA), and six premature LGA infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs), had measurements of skinfold thickness (SFT) in the first 72 h of life. For the 24 LGA infants, there was a significant positive correlation between maternal glycohemoglobin (Hb AIc) in the post-partum period and SFT (r = 0.42, p less than 0.05). Our observations in this study support those of others, demonstrating that SFT increases with increasing gestational age. In addition, they support the hypothesis that, in diabetic pregnancies, or pregnancies associated with an elevated Hb AIc, a reflection of the time-integrated blood glucose level over the weeks preceding parturition, fetal hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia stimulate increased triglyceride synthesis in adipose cells and lead to an increase in fetal subcutaneous fat.

  1. Mobile terminal antennas for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Te-Kao; Farazian, K.; Golshan, N.; Divsalar, D.; Hinedi, S.; Woo, K.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of using an L-band low gain antenna (LGA) as a mobile terminal antenna for helicopters is described. The objective is to select the lowest cost antenna system which can be easily mounted on a helicopter and capable of communicating with a geosynchronous satellite. To ensure that all the antenna options are being considered, the steerable high gain reflector and medium gain array antennas as well as LGA are studied and compared in an exhaustive survey. The high gain reflector antenna in L-band is usually very large in size and heavy in weight. In addition, a bulky and expensive tracking system is needed to steer the antenna beam to the satellite direction. The medium gain antennas (including mechanically and electronically steered arrays) are also more expensive and less reliable than an LGA due to the addition of a beam steering system to track the satellite. The omni-directional LGA is simple, reliable, and inexpensive. It is typically ten times smaller than the medium gain antenna. This makes the position, selection, and mounting on the helicopter relatively easier. Therefore, the LGA is selected as a mobile terminal antenna for helicopters. Among the many LGA's (cross-dipole, helix, spiral, and slot antennas), the helix antenna is the most inexpensive. One can also change the size, shape, or pitch angle of the helix to optimize the gain in the desired direction. Therefore, the helix antenna is selected for further study. Both 2-arm and 4-arm helices are studied theoretically and experimentally to determine the antenna's performance and the scattering effects from the helicopter body and the blades. The multipath, Doppler, and Doppler rate issues as well as the periodic fading effects caused by the helicopter rotor blades will be briefly discussed in the paper.

  2. κ Opioid Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell Mediate Escalation of Methamphetamine Intake

    PubMed Central

    Schlosburg, Joel E.; Wee, Sunmee; Gould, Adam; George, Olivier; Grant, Yanabel; Zamora-Martinez, Eva R.; Edwards, Scott; Crawford, Elena; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.; Koob, George F.

    2015-01-01

    Given that the κ opioid receptor (KOR) system has been implicated in psychostimulant abuse, we evaluated whether the selective KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine dihydrochloride (nor-BNI) would attenuate the escalation of methamphetamine (METH) intake in an extended-access self-administration model. Systemic nor-BNI decreased the escalation of intake of long-access (LgA) but not short-access (ShA) self-administration. nor-BNI also decreased elevated progressive-ratio (PR) breakpoints in rats in the LgA condition and continued to decrease intake after 17 d of abstinence, demonstrating that the effects of a nor-BNI injection are long lasting. Rats with an ShA history showed an increase in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in both the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and shell, but LgA animals showed a selective increase in the NAc shell. Other cohorts of rats received nor-BNI directly into the NAc shell or core and entered into ShA or LgA. nor-BNI infusion in the NAc shell, but not NAc core, attenuated escalation of intake and PR responding for METH in LgA rats. These data indicate that the development and/or expression of compulsive-like responding for METH under LgA conditions depends on activation of the KOR system in the NAc shell and suggest that the dynorphin–KOR system is a central component of the neuroplasticity associated with negative reinforcement systems that drive the dark side of addiction. PMID:25762676

  3. Effect of Maternal Factors and Fetomaternal Glucose Homeostasis on Birth Weight and Postnatal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Özbörü Aşkan, Öykü; Bozaykut, Abdülkadir; Sezer, Rabia Gönül; Güran, Tülay; Bereket, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It is important to identify the possible risk factors for the occurrence of large for gestational age (LGA) in newborns and to determine the effect of birth weight and metabolic parameters on subsequent growth. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal weight, weight gain during pregnancy, maternal hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-peptide and insulin as well as cord C-peptide and insulin levels on birth weight and postnatal growth during the first two years of life. Methods: Healthy, non-diabetic mothers and term singleton newborns were included in this prospective case-control cohort study. Fasting maternal glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide and insulin levels were studied. Cord blood was analyzed for C-peptide and insulin. At birth, newborns were divided into two groups according to birth size: LGA and appropriate for GA (AGA). Infants were followed at six-month intervals for two years and their length and weight were recorded. Results: Forty LGA and 43 AGA infants were included in the study. Birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) was positively correlated with maternal body mass index (BMI) before delivery (r=0.2, p=0.04) and with weight gain during pregnancy (r=0.2, p=0.04). In multivariate analyses, the strongest association with macrosomia was a maternal C-peptide level >3.85 ng/mL (OR=20). Although the LGA group showed decreased growth by the 6-month of follow-up, the differences between the LGA and AGA groups in weight and length SDS persisted over the 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: The control of maternal BMI and prevention of overt weight gain during pregnancy may prevent excessive birth weight. The effect of the in utero metabolic environment on the weight and length SDS of infants born LGA persists until at least two years of age. PMID:26831549

  4. Genetic and epigenetic characterization of low-grade gliomas reveals frequent methylation of the MLH3 gene.

    PubMed

    Lhotska, Halka; Zemanova, Zuzana; Cechova, Hana; Ransdorfova, Sarka; Lizcova, Libuse; Kramar, Filip; Krejcik, Zdenek; Svobodova, Karla; Bystricka, Dagmar; Hrabal, Petr; Dohnalova, Alena; Michalova, Kyra

    2015-11-01

    Diffuse astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade II) are the most common histological subtypes of low-grade gliomas (LGGs). Several molecular and epigenetic markers have been identified that predict tumor progression. Our aim was in detail to investigate the genetic and epigenetic background of LGGs and to identify new markers that might play a role in tumor behavior. Twenty-three patients with oligodendroglioma or oligoastrocytoma (LGO) and 22 patients with diffuse astrocytoma (LGA) were investigated using several molecular-cytogenetic and molecular methods to assess their copy number variations, mutational status and level of promoter methylation. The most frequent findings were a 1p/19q codeletion in 83% of LGO and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) of 17p in 72% of LGA. Somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH1/IDH2) genes were detected in 96% of LGO and 91% of LGA. The O-6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter was methylated in 83% of LGO and 59% of LGA. MutL homolog 3 (MLH3) promoter methylation was observed in 61% of LGO and 27% of LGA. Methylation of the MGMT promoter, 1p/19q codeletion, mutated IDH1, and CN-LOH of 17p were the most frequent genetic aberrations in LGGs. The findings were more diverse in LGA than in LGO. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time description of methylation of the MLH3 gene promoter in LGGs. Further studies are required to determine the role of the methylated MLH3 promoter and the other aberrations detected.

  5. Small and large size for gestational age and neighborhood deprivation measured within increasing proximity to homes

    PubMed Central

    Wentz, Anna E.; Messer, Lynne C.; Nguyen, Thuan; Boone-Heinonen, Janne

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhood deprivation is consistently associated with greater risk of low birthweight. However, large birth size is increasingly relevant but overlooked in neighborhood health research, and proximity within which neighborhood deprivation may affect birth outcomes is unknown. We estimated race/ethnic-specific effects of neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) within 1, 3, 5, and 8 km buffers around Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (n=3,716; 2004-2007) respondents’ homes on small and large for gestational age (SGA, LGA). NDI was positively associated with LGA and SGA in most race/ethnic groups. The results varied little across the four buffer sizes. PMID:25240489

  6. 14 CFR 93.350 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES New York Class B Airspace Hudson River and East... Exclusion, as defined in paragraph (d) of this section, from one end to the other. (c) New York Class B... the LGA VOR/DME 6-mile arc to the north tip of Roosevelt Island. (d) New York Class B airspace...

  7. 14 CFR 93.350 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES New York Class B Airspace Hudson River and East... Exclusion, as defined in paragraph (d) of this section, from one end to the other. (c) New York Class B... the LGA VOR/DME 6-mile arc to the north tip of Roosevelt Island. (d) New York Class B airspace...

  8. 14 CFR 93.350 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES New York Class B Airspace Hudson River and East... Exclusion, as defined in paragraph (d) of this section, from one end to the other. (c) New York Class B... the LGA VOR/DME 6-mile arc to the north tip of Roosevelt Island. (d) New York Class B airspace...

  9. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes for Vulnerable Groups: Overview and Analysis of Available Datasets on Vulnerable Groups and the Five ECM Outcomes. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Marian

    2007-01-01

    This summary presents the main findings from a data mapping and analysis study commissioned by the Local Government Association (LGA) from the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) as part of a two-year development and research programme, Narrowing the Gap. This programme seeks to make a significant difference in "narrowing the gap"…

  10. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes: Further Overview of Data and Evidence on the ECM Outcomes for Vulnerable Groups. Progress Report and Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Marian; Easton, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Narrowing the Gap (NtG) is a two-year development and research programme, funded by the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) and the Local Government Association (LGA), working in partnership with other agencies, including local authorities. It seeks to make a significant difference, on a national scale, to the performance of…

  11. 78 FR 28278 - Operating Limitations at New York LaGuardia Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . You also may obtain a copy by sending a request to the Federal... LGA operations terminated as of January 1, 2007.\\2\\ \\1\\ 33 FR 17896 (Dec. 3, 1968). The FAA codified..., on October 7, 2009,\\8\\ and on April 4, 2011.\\9\\ \\3\\ 71 FR 51360 (August 29, 2006); Docket...

  12. Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…

  13. The Role of the Lead Member for Children's Services: A Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Foundation for Educational Research, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Local Government Association (LGA) initially commissioned the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) to explore: (1) whether Lead Members for Children's Services (LMCS) have sufficient information and support to carry out their role effectively, especially in relation to their corporate parenting role; (2) LMCSs' personal…

  14. Perceptions of the LGE. Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Jean; Wilkin, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Local Government Employers (LGE) was created by the Local Government Association (LGA) in April 2006. The aim of LGE is to work with local authorities, regional employers and other bodies to lead and create solutions on pay, pensions and the employment contract, to ensure the provision of excellent and affordable local services. The LGE…

  15. Effect of Further Mathematics on Students' Achievement in Mathematics, Biology, Chemistry and Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatoye, R. Ademola

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Further Mathematics on students' achievement in mathematics, biology, chemistry and physics in Ogun State, Nigeria. Two Local Government Areas (LGAs) were judgmentally selected from the state. Ten secondary schools were also purposively selected from the two LGAs (Five schools from each LGA). At least twenty…

  16. Functional Impacts of Adult Literacy Programme on Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbah, Blessing Akaraka

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the functional impacts of adult literacy programme among rural women participants in Ishielu Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study was made up of 115 adult instructors and 2,408 adult learners giving a total of 2,623. The sample…

  17. CAMHS Funding and Priorities. LGAR Report 2/07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Mary; Lamont, Emily; Downing, Dick

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments, such as passage of the Children Act 2004, subsequent implementation of "Every Child Matters: Change for Children" and increase in funding to councils for Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), the Local Government Association (LGA) asked the NFER to examine the funding mechanisms and priorities in CAMHS. An…

  18. Sequences and antimycoplasmic properties of longibrachins LGB II and LGB III, two novel 20-residue peptaibols from Trichoderma longibrachiatum.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, G; Goulard, C; Prigent, Y; Bodo, B; Wróblewski, H; Rebuffat, S

    2001-02-01

    Longibrachins are members of the class of natural Aib-containing peptides designated as peptaibols. Six longibrachins, LGA I-IV and LGB II and III, were purified from a Trichoderma longibrachiatum strain by a procedure employing several chromatography steps including reversed-phase HPLC. The amino acid sequence determination was based on a combination of liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (LSIMS) and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Longibrachins are 20-residue peptaibols with a C-terminal phenylalaninol and either neutral (LGA; Gln18) or acidic (LGB; Glu18) character. Longibrachins LGB II and III have novel sequences. Both longibrachins LGA and LGB show significant bactericidal activity against mycoplasmas (Acholeplasma, Mycoplasma, and Spiroplasma), with minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range 1.56-12.5 microM (3-25 micrograms/mL), and also perturb the permeability of membrane bilayers. Longibrachin LGA IV is the most potent of the presently known 18-20-residue peptaibols. The antimicrobial and membrane-perturbing properties of longibrachins, which are described here for the first time, were shown to be correlated. PMID:11429993

  19. A Novel Glass Polyalkenoate Cement for Fixation and Stabilisation of the Ribcage, Post Sternotomy Surgery: An ex-Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Alhalawani, Adel M F; Curran, Declan J; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Boyd, Daniel; Towler, Mark R

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the use of gallium (Ga) based glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) as a possible alternative adhesive in sternal fixation, post sternotomy surgery. The glass series consists of a Control (CaO-ZnO-SiO2), and LGa-1 and LGa-2 which contain Ga at the expense of zinc (Zn) in 0.08 mol% increments. The additions of Ga resulted in increased working time (75 s to 137 s) and setting time (113 to 254 s). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis indicated that this was a direct result of increased unreacted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and the reduction of crosslink formation during cement maturation. LGa samples (0.16 wt % Ga) resulted in an altered ion release profile, particularly for 30 days analysis, with maximum Ca2+, Zn2+, Si4+ and Ga3+ ions released into the distilled water. The additions of Ga resulted in increased roughness and decreased contact angles during cement maturation. The presence of Ga has a positive effect on the compressive strength of the samples with strengths increasing over 10 MPa at 7 days analysis compared to the 1 day results. The additions of Ga had relatively no effect on the flexural strength. Tensile testing of bovine sterna proved that the LGa samples (0.16 wt % Ga) are comparable to the Control samples. PMID:24956193

  20. 76 FR 65773 - Petition for Waiver of the Terms of the Order Limiting Scheduled Operations at LaGuardia Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Delta Air Lines, Inc. (Delta) and US Airways, Inc. (US Airways) from the prohibition on purchasing operating authorizations (slots) at LaGuardia Airport (LGA). 76 FR 63702 (Oct. 13, 2011) (the Waiver). The... are being divested by Delta Air Lines, Inc. and US Airways, Inc. resulting from a grant of waiver...

  1. A Novel Glass Polyalkenoate Cement for Fixation and Stabilisation of the Ribcage, Post Sternotomy Surgery: An ex-Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Alhalawani, Adel M.F.; Curran, Declan J.; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Boyd, Daniel; Towler, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the use of gallium (Ga) based glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) as a possible alternative adhesive in sternal fixation, post sternotomy surgery. The glass series consists of a Control (CaO–ZnO–SiO2), and LGa-1 and LGa-2 which contain Ga at the expense of zinc (Zn) in 0.08 mol% increments. The additions of Ga resulted in increased working time (75 s to 137 s) and setting time (113 to 254 s). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis indicated that this was a direct result of increased unreacted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and the reduction of crosslink formation during cement maturation. LGa samples (0.16 wt % Ga) resulted in an altered ion release profile, particularly for 30 days analysis, with maximum Ca2+, Zn2+, Si4+ and Ga3+ ions released into the distilled water. The additions of Ga resulted in increased roughness and decreased contact angles during cement maturation. The presence of Ga has a positive effect on the compressive strength of the samples with strengths increasing over 10 MPa at 7 days analysis compared to the 1 day results. The additions of Ga had relatively no effect on the flexural strength. Tensile testing of bovine sterna proved that the LGa samples (0.16 wt % Ga) are comparable to the Control samples. PMID:24956193

  2. Low dose of L-glutamic acid attenuated the neurological dysfunctions and excitotoxicity in bilateral common carotid artery occluded mice.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Muthiah; Abdul, Khadar K; Justin, Antony

    2016-10-01

    Glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, produces excitotoxicity through its agonistic action on postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, resulting in neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that the administration of low doses of glutamate in cerebral ischemia could attenuate the excitotoxicity in neurons through its autoreceptor regulatory mechanism, and thereby control neurodegeneration. To test the hypothesis, the effect of L-glutamic acid (L-GA) 400 μmol/l/kg was evaluated in a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion-induced global ischemic mouse model. Memantine was used as a positive control. Global ischemia in mice was induced by occlusion of both the common carotid artery (bilateral common carotid artery occlusion) for 20 min, followed by reperfusion injury. L-GA was infused slowly through the tail vein 30 min before the surgery and every 24 h thereafter until the end of the experiment. The time-dependent change in cerebral blood flow was monitored using a laser Doppler image analyzer. The neurotransmitters glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the neurobiochemicals ATP, glutathione, and nitric oxide were measured in the different regions of brain at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after reperfusion injury. L-GA increased locomotor activity, muscle coordination, and cerebral blood flow in ischemic mice at 72 h after ischemic insult. L-GA reduced glutamate levels in the cortex, striatum, and hippocampus at 72 h, whereas GABA levels were elevated in all three brain regions studied. Further, L-GA elevated glutathione levels and attenuated nitric oxide levels, but failed to restore ATP levels 72 h after ischemia-reperfusion. We conclude that the gradual reduction of glutamate along with elevation of GABA in different brain regions could have contributed toward the neuroprotective effect of L-GA. Hence, a slow infusion of a low dose of L-GA could be beneficial in controlling excitotoxicity-induced neurodegeneration following ischemia

  3. The NK1 receptor antagonist L822429 reduces heroin reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Estelle; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Edwards, Scott; Juergens, Nathan; Park, Paula E; Misra, Kaushik K; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C; Schank, Jesse; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F; Heilig, Markus

    2013-05-01

    Genetic deletion of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) has been shown to decrease the reinforcing properties of opioids, but it is unknown whether pharmacological NK1R blockade has the same effect. Here, we examined the effect of L822429, a rat-specific NK1R antagonist, on the reinforcing properties of heroin in rats on short (1 h: ShA) or long (12 h: LgA) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. ShA produces heroin self-administration rates that are stable over time, whereas LgA leads to an escalation of heroin intake thought to model important dependence-related aspects of addiction. L822429 reduced heroin self-administration and the motivation to consume heroin, measured using a progressive-ratio schedule, in both ShA and LgA rats. L822429 also decreased anxiety-like behavior in both groups, measured on the elevated plus maze, but did not affect mechanical hypersensitivity observed in LgA rats. Expression of TacR1 (the gene encoding NK1R) was decreased in reward- and stress-related brain areas both in ShA and LgA rats compared with heroin-naïve rats, but did not differ between the two heroin-experienced groups. In contrast, passive exposure to heroin produced increases in TacR1 expression in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results show that pharmacological NK1R blockade attenuates heroin reinforcement. The observation that animals with ShA and LgA to heroin were similarly affected by L822429 indicates that the SP/NK1R system is not specifically involved in neuroadaptations that underlie escalation resulting from LgA self-administration. Instead, the NK1R antagonist appears to attenuate acute, positively reinforcing properties of heroin and may be useful as an adjunct to relapse prevention in detoxified opioid-dependent subjects.

  4. Low dose of L-glutamic acid attenuated the neurological dysfunctions and excitotoxicity in bilateral common carotid artery occluded mice.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Muthiah; Abdul, Khadar K; Justin, Antony

    2016-10-01

    Glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, produces excitotoxicity through its agonistic action on postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, resulting in neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that the administration of low doses of glutamate in cerebral ischemia could attenuate the excitotoxicity in neurons through its autoreceptor regulatory mechanism, and thereby control neurodegeneration. To test the hypothesis, the effect of L-glutamic acid (L-GA) 400 μmol/l/kg was evaluated in a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion-induced global ischemic mouse model. Memantine was used as a positive control. Global ischemia in mice was induced by occlusion of both the common carotid artery (bilateral common carotid artery occlusion) for 20 min, followed by reperfusion injury. L-GA was infused slowly through the tail vein 30 min before the surgery and every 24 h thereafter until the end of the experiment. The time-dependent change in cerebral blood flow was monitored using a laser Doppler image analyzer. The neurotransmitters glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the neurobiochemicals ATP, glutathione, and nitric oxide were measured in the different regions of brain at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after reperfusion injury. L-GA increased locomotor activity, muscle coordination, and cerebral blood flow in ischemic mice at 72 h after ischemic insult. L-GA reduced glutamate levels in the cortex, striatum, and hippocampus at 72 h, whereas GABA levels were elevated in all three brain regions studied. Further, L-GA elevated glutathione levels and attenuated nitric oxide levels, but failed to restore ATP levels 72 h after ischemia-reperfusion. We conclude that the gradual reduction of glutamate along with elevation of GABA in different brain regions could have contributed toward the neuroprotective effect of L-GA. Hence, a slow infusion of a low dose of L-GA could be beneficial in controlling excitotoxicity-induced neurodegeneration following ischemia.

  5. Spatial Dynamics and High Risk Transmission Pathways of Poliovirus in Nigeria 2001-2013

    PubMed Central

    Mangal, Tara D.; Aylward, R. Bruce; Shuaib, Faisal; Mwanza, Michael; Pate, Muhammed A.; Abanida, Emmanuel; Grassly, Nicholas C.

    2016-01-01

    The polio eradication programme in Nigeria has been successful in reducing incidence to just six confirmed cases in 2014 and zero to date in 2015, but prediction and management of future outbreaks remains a concern. A Poisson mixed effects model was used to describe poliovirus spread between January 2001 and November 2013, incorporating the strength of connectivity between districts (local government areas, LGAs) as estimated by three models of human mobility: simple distance, gravity and radiation models. Potential explanatory variables associated with the case numbers in each LGA were investigated and the model fit was tested by simulation. Spatial connectivity, the number of non-immune children under five years old, and season were associated with the incidence of poliomyelitis in an LGA (all P < 0.001). The best-fitting spatial model was the radiation model, outperforming the simple distance and gravity models (likelihood ratio test P < 0.05), under which the number of people estimated to move from an infected LGA to an uninfected LGA was strongly associated with the incidence of poliomyelitis in that LGA. We inferred transmission networks between LGAs based on this model and found these to be highly local, largely restricted to neighbouring LGAs (e.g. 67.7% of secondary spread from Kano was expected to occur within 10 km). The remaining secondary spread occurred along routes of high population movement. Poliovirus transmission in Nigeria is predominantly localised, occurring between spatially contiguous areas. Outbreak response should be guided by knowledge of high-probability pathways to ensure vulnerable children are protected. PMID:27668435

  6. Temporal Pattern of Cocaine Intake Determines Tolerance vs Sensitization of Cocaine Effects at the Dopamine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Calipari, Erin S; Ferris, Mark J; Zimmer, Benjamin A; Roberts, David CS; Jones, Sara R

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is responsible for terminating dopamine (DA) signaling and is the primary site of cocaine's reinforcing actions. Cocaine self-administration has been shown previously to result in changes in cocaine potency at the DAT. To determine whether the DAT changes associated with self-administration are due to differences in intake levels or temporal patterns of cocaine-induced DAT inhibition, we manipulated cocaine access to produce either continuous or intermittent elevations in cocaine brain levels. Long-access (LgA, 6 h) and short-access (ShA, 2 h) continuous self-administration produced similar temporal profiles of cocaine intake that were sustained throughout the session; however, LgA had greater intake. ShA and intermittent-access (IntA, 6 h) produced the same intake, but different temporal profiles, with ‘spiking' brain levels in IntA compared with constant levels in ShA. IntA consisted of 5-min access periods alternating with 25-min timeouts, which resulted in bursts of high responding followed by periods of no responding. DA release and uptake, as well as the potency of cocaine for DAT inhibition, were assessed by voltammetry in the nucleus accumbens slices following control, IntA, ShA, and LgA self-administration. Continuous-access protocols (LgA and ShA) did not change DA parameters, but the ‘spiking' protocol (IntA) increased both release and uptake of DA. In addition, high continuous intake (LgA) produced tolerance to cocaine, while ‘spiking' (IntA) produced sensitization, relative to ShA and naive controls. Thus, intake and pattern can both influence cocaine potency, and tolerance seems to be produced by high intake, while sensitization is produced by intermittent temporal patterns of intake. PMID:23719505

  7. Geogagnetic Activity and Effectiveness of Millimeter Electromagnetic Radiation in Unstable Angina Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshina, S. S.; Samsonov, S. N.; Afanasiyeva, T. N.; Tokayeva, L. K.; Petrova, V. D.; Dolgova, E. M.; Manykina, V. I.; Vodolagina, E. S.

    There had been performed a research of an effectiveness of millimeter electromagnetic radiation (MM EMR) use in patients with an unstable angina (UA) at periods of a lower (daily value of Kp-index 16,19±0,18) and a higher (daily value of Kp-index 17,25±0,21, p<0,05) gemagnetic activity (GA). It was found that involving of the MM EMR (the wave length 7.1 mm) into the treatment of the patients with an UA, enhances an antianginal effect of a drug therapy independently on the period of GA. The MM EMR at the period of a lower geomagnetic activity (LGA) enhances the decrease of diastolic blood pressure (BP), and at the period of a higher geomagnetic activity (HGA) - the decrease of systolic BP. At a HGA there were noted: a quick and more serious antianginal effect, maximal antihypertensive effect was achieved quicker, but (as opposed to the period of a LGA) there was no a pulse slowing effect of a MM EMR. Including the MM EMR into the treatment accelerates stabilization of the patients' condition only at a LGA. Positive effect on blood rheological properties is an independent effect of MM EMR, and it is in blood viscosity reduce in microcirculatory at both of the periods of GA. Normalization of blood viscosity under the MM EMR is only at the period of a LGA. So, the effect of MM EMR on a clinical condition of the patients is more evident at the period of a HGA, blood viscosity - at the period of a LGA.

  8. Waist-to-Hip Ratio versus Body Mass Index as Predictor of Obesity-Related Pregnancy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    McDonnold, Mollie; Mele, Lisa M; Myatt, Leslie; Hauth, John C; Leveno, Kenneth J; Reddy, Uma M; Mercer, Brian M

    2016-05-01

    Objective In nonpregnant populations the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is a better predictor of obesity-related outcomes than body mass index (BMI). Our objective was to determine, in pregnancy, the relationship between these measures of obesity, and large-for-gestational age (LGA) and cesarean delivery (CD). Methods This is a secondary analysis of data from the Combined Antioxidant and Preeclampsia Prediction Study. Women with a WHR of ≥ 0.85 and 0.80 to 0.84 at 9 to 16 weeks gestation were compared with those with a WHR < 0.80. Women with early pregnancy BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2) (obese) and 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m(2) (overweight) were compared with those < 25.0 kg/m(2). LGA was defined as > 90% by Alexander nomogram. Univariable analysis, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves were used. Results Data from 2,276 women were analyzed. After correcting for potential confounders, only BMI ≥ 30 was significantly associated with LGA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.07, 1.35-3.16) while BMI 25.0-29.9 (aOR: 1.5, 0.98-2.28), WHR 0.8-0.84 (aOR: 1.33, 0.83-2.13), and WHR ≥ 0.85 (aOR: 1.05, 0.67-1.65) were not. Risk for CD was increased for women with elevated WHR and with higher BMI compared with normal. Conclusion WHR is not associated with LGA. While BMI performed better than WHR, neither was a strong predictor of LGA or need for CD in low-risk nulliparous women.

  9. Psychosocial deprivation in women with gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with poor fetomaternal prognoses: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Cosson, Emmanuel; Bihan, Hélène; Reach, Gérard; Vittaz, Laurence; Carbillon, Lionel; Valensi, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prognoses associated with psychosocial deprivation in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design Observational study considering the 1498 multiethnic women with GDM who gave birth between January 2009 and February 2012. Setting Four largest maternity units in the northeastern suburban area of Paris. Participants The 994 women who completed the Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centers (EPICES) questionnaire. Main outcome measure Main complications of GDM (large infant for gestational age (LGA), shoulder dystocia, caesarean section, pre-eclampsia). Results Psychosocial deprivation (EPICES score ≥30.17) affected 577 women (56%) and was positively associated with overweight/obesity, parity and non-European origin, and negatively associated with family history of diabetes, fruit and vegetable consumption and working status. The psychosocially deprived women were diagnosed with GDM earlier, received insulin treatment during pregnancy more often and were more likely to have LGA infants (15.1% vs 10.6%, OR=1.5 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.2), p<0.05) and shoulder dystocia (3.1% vs 1.2%, OR=2.7 (0.97 to 7.2), p<0.05). In addition to psychosocial deprivation, LGA was associated with greater parity, obesity, history of GDM, ethnicity, excessive gestational weight gain and insulin therapy. A multivariate analysis using these covariates revealed that the EPICES score was independently associated with LGA infants (per 10 units, OR=1.12 (1.03 to 1.20), p<0.01). Conclusions In our area, psychosocial deprivation is common in women with GDM and is associated with earlier GDM diagnoses and greater insulin treatment, an increased likelihood of shoulder dystocia and, independently of obesity, gestational weight gain and other confounders with LGA infants. PMID:25748416

  10. Constraints on timing and magnitude of early global expansion of the Moon from topographic features in linear gravity anomaly areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Natsuki; Morota, Tomokatsu; Kato, Shinsuke; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro

    2016-05-01

    Gravity data obtained from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory have revealed linear gravity anomalies (LGAs) formed by the early global expansion of the Moon and subsequent magma intrusion. In this study, using Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter topographic data, we investigated topographic profiles across LGAs to verify that they were formed by extensional tectonics. We found that 17 of the 20 LGAs investigated exhibited a valley structure, suggesting that they were formed by tensile stress. Assuming that these topographic depressions accompanied graben formation, the increase in the lunar radius is estimated to be on the order of several tens of meters. On the other hand, assuming that these topographic depressions accompanied flexure of elastic lithosphere due to the LGA load, the elastic thickness during the LGA formation is estimated as ~10 km. The crater frequencies in the vicinity of LGAs indicate that the peak tectonic activity occurred before the basin-forming epoch.

  11. Small-for-gestational age and large-for-gestational age thresholds to predict infants at risk of adverse delivery and neonatal outcomes: are current charts adequate? An observational study from the Born in Bradford cohort

    PubMed Central

    Norris, T; Johnson, W; Farrar, D; Tuffnell, D; Wright, J; Cameron, N

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Construct an ethnic-specific chart and compare the prediction of adverse outcomes using this chart with the clinically recommended UK-WHO and customised birth weight charts using cut-offs for small-for-gestational age (SGA: birth weight <10th centile) and large-for-gestational age (LGA: birth weight >90th centile). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Born in Bradford (BiB) study, UK. Participants 3980 White British and 4448 Pakistani infants with complete data for gestational age, birth weight, ethnicity, maternal height, weight and parity. Main outcome measures Prevalence of SGA and LGA, using the three charts and indicators of diagnostic utility (sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC)) of these chart-specific cut-offs to predict delivery and neonatal outcomes and a composite outcome. Results In White British and Pakistani infants, the prevalence of SGA and LGA differed depending on the chart used. Increased risk of SGA was observed when using the UK-WHO and customised charts as opposed to the ethnic-specific chart, while the opposite was apparent when classifying LGA infants. However, the predictive utility of all three charts to identify adverse clinical outcomes was poor, with only the prediction of shoulder dystocia achieving an AUROC>0.62 on all three charts. Conclusions Despite being recommended in national clinical guidelines, the UK-WHO and customised birth weight charts perform poorly at identifying infants at risk of adverse neonatal outcomes. Being small or large may increase the risk of an adverse outcome; however, size alone is not sensitive or specific enough with current detection to be useful. However, a significant amount of missing data for some of the outcomes may have limited the power needed to determine true associations. PMID:25783424

  12. Nitric oxide-dependent and -independent hyperaemia due to calcitonin gene-related peptide in the rat stomach.

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, P.; Lippe, I. T.; Jocic, M.; Wachter, C.; Erb, R.; Heinemann, A.

    1993-01-01

    1. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) potently enhances mucosal blood flow in the rat stomach. The aim of this study was to examine whether CGRP also dilates extramural arteries supplying the stomach and whether the vasodilator action of CGRP involves nitric oxide (NO). 2. Rat CGRP-alpha (0.03-1 nmol kg-1, i.v.) produced a dose-dependent increase in blood flow through the left gastric artery (LGA) as determined by an ultrasonic transit time technique in urethane-anaesthetized rats. Blockade of NO synthesis by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 20 and 60 mumol kg-1, i.v.) significantly reduced basal blood flow (BF) in the LGA and attenuated the hyperaemic activity of CGRP by a factor of 2.8-4. D-NAME tended to enhance basal BF in the LGA but had no influence on the dilator activity of CGRP. The ability of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide to increase left gastric arterial blood flow remained unaltered by L-NAME. 3. L-NAME (20 and 60 mumol kg-1, i.v.) evoked a prompt and sustained rise of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and caused a slight decrease in the hypotensive activity of CGRP. In contrast, D-NAME induced a delayed and moderate increase in MAP and did not influence the hypotensive activity of CGRP. 4. Rat CGRP-alpha dilated the isolated perfused bed of the rat LGA precontracted with methoxamine and was 3 times more potent in this respect than rat CGRP-beta. The dilator action of rat CGRP-alpha in this preparation was not affected by L-NAME or D-NAME (40 microM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8220901

  13. A Survey and Recent Development of Lunar Gravity Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penzo, Paul A.

    2000-01-01

    Earth's moon is the largest in the solar system relative to its parent body, the Earth, and can have significant effect on the path of a spacecraft flying close by. This effect, when planned to benefit a specific mission, is called lunar gravity assist (LGA) , and assumes that one aims the spacecraft towards the Moon in such a way that the Moon's gravitational pull will alter the spacecraft's course in a favorable manner. The first application of LGA was in the Apollo program, where the command and lunar modules (and astronauts) were propelled to the Moon such that, if no additional course changes were made, they would swing around the backside of the Moon at a certain altitude and be flung back to Earth to enter the atmosphere at a specified location in the Pacific ocean. This LGA was an essential element saving the lives of the astronauts on Apollo 13. This paper will illustrate the basic mechanics of gravity assist, and list the many applications where it has been used effectively over the past 30 some years. These include missions to the sun and Earth libration points, redirecting a spacecraft from one of these point to a comet encounter, and enhancing payloads by providing an energy boost by the Moon. More recently, studies and actual missions have shown the benefits of LGA in: (1) assisting lunar capture, (2) repositioning geosynchronous communications satellites, (3) boosting spacecraft to Earth escape and departure to planets and other solar system bodies, and (4) allowing small spacecraft to be launched as secondary payloads and released into almost a random orbit from which each may depart and maneuver in space with gravity assists from the Earth and Moon to perform a specific planetary or other mission. This latter application is a recent development by the author and is being applied in 2002 and later years, with piggyback flights on the Ariane 5 which launches comsats to GEO.

  14. 14 CFR 93.350 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... drawn direct to the southwestern tip of Governors Island, thence north along a line direct to the southwest tip of Manhattan Island, thence north along the west bank of the East River to the LGA VOR/DME 6... along the east bank of the East River to the point of beginning at lat. 40°38′39″ N., long 74°02′03″...

  15. Somatic classification of neonates based on birth weight, length, and head circumference: quantification of the effects of maternal BMI and smoking.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Manfred; Zels, Krisztina; Guthmann, Florian; Hesse, Volker; Görlich, Yvonne; Straube, Sebastian

    2011-05-01

    We defined neonates as small, appropriate, or large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, LGA) based on birth weight, length, and head circumference. We analyzed the effects on the somatic classification of maternal body mass index (BMI) (<18.5, 18.5-24.99, 25.0-29.99, ≥ 30) and smoking during pregnancy (0, 1-7, 8-14, ≥ 15 cigarettes daily). Data were from the German Perinatal Survey (1998-2000; 433,669 cases). The following refers to the classification by birth weight. In the normal maternal weight population SGA rates increased with cigarette consumption: 9.8%, 17.8%, 21.6%, and 25.4% for non-smokers, and smokers of 1-7, 8-14, and ≥ 15 cigarettes daily, respectively. In non-smoking underweight women the SGA rate was 17.4%. In underweight smokers of ≥ 15 cigarettes daily the SGA rate was 38.5% [odds ratio 5.77, 95% confidence interval 5.10-6.53, compared with normal weight non-smokers]. In the normal maternal weight population, LGA rates were 9.9%, 5.3%, 4.6%, and 3.5% for non-smokers, and smokers of 1-7, 8-14, and ≥ 15 cigarettes daily, respectively. In the obese, LGA rates were 20.9% (non-smokers) and 11.4% (≥ 15 cigarettes). Similar findings were obtained for the somatic classifications based on birth length and head circumference. Results for the various combinations of maternal BMI and smoking status in the three classification systems are described. Our findings may assist in individualized risk assessment for SGA and LGA births. PMID:21526885

  16. Health care utilization in the first year of life among small- and large- for-gestational age term infants.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Patricia M; Rizzo, Joanne H; England, Lucinda J; Callaghan, William M; Vesco, Kimberly K; Bruce, F Carol; Bulkley, Joanna E; Sharma, Andrea J; Hornbrook, Mark C

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the study was to assess if small- and large-for gestational age term infants have greater health care utilization during the first year of life. The sample included 28,215 singleton term infants (37-42 weeks) without major birth defects delivered from 1998 through 2007 and continuously enrolled at Kaiser Permanente Northwest for 12 months after delivery. Birth weight for gestational age was categorized into 3 levels: <10th percentile (SGA), 10-90th percentile (AGA), >90th percentile (LGA). Length of delivery hospitalization, re-hospitalizations and sick/emergency room visits were obtained from electronic records. Logistic regression models estimated associations between birth weight category and re-hospitalization. Generalized linear models estimated adjusted mean number of sick/emergency visits. Among term infants, 6.2 % were SGA and 13.9 % were LGA. Of infants born by cesarean section, SGA infants had 2.7 higher odds [95 % 1.9, 3.8] than AGA infants of staying ≥5 nights during the delivery hospitalization; of those born vaginally, SGA infants had 1.5 higher adjusted odds [95 % 1.1, 2.1] of staying ≥4 nights. LGA compared to AGA infants had higher odds of re-hospitalization within 2 weeks of delivery [OR 1.25, 95 % CI 0.99, 1.58] and of a length of stay ≥4 days during that hospitalization [OR 2.6, 95 % CI 1.3, 5.0]. The adjusted mean number of sick/emergency room visits was slightly higher in SGA (7.8) than AGA (7.5) infants (P < .05). Term infants born SGA or LGA had greater health care utilization than their counterparts, although the increase in utilization beyond the initial delivery hospitalization was small. PMID:22855007

  17. Intermittent Cocaine Self-Administration Produces Sensitization of Stimulant Effects at the Dopamine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Calipari, Erin S.; Ferris, Mark J.; Siciliano, Cody A.; Zimmer, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous literature investigating neurobiological adaptations following cocaine self-administration has shown that high, continuous levels of cocaine intake (long access; LgA) results in reduced potency of cocaine at the dopamine transporter (DAT), whereas an intermittent pattern of cocaine administration (intermittent access; IntA) results in sensitization of cocaine potency at the DAT. Here, we aimed to determine whether these changes are specific to cocaine or translate to other psychostimulants. Psychostimulant potency was assessed by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in brain slices containing the nucleus accumbens following IntA, short access, and LgA cocaine self-administration, as well as in brain slices from naive animals. We assessed the potency of amphetamine (a releaser), and methylphenidate (a DAT blocker, MPH). MPH was selected because it is functionally similar to cocaine and structurally related to amphetamine. We found that MPH and amphetamine potencies were increased following IntA, whereas neither was changed following LgA or short access cocaine self-administration. Therefore, whereas LgA-induced tolerance at the DAT is specific to cocaine as shown in previous work, the sensitizing effects of IntA apply to cocaine, MPH, and amphetamine. This demonstrates that the pattern with which cocaine is administered is important in determining the neurochemical consequences of not only cocaine effects but potential cross-sensitization/cross-tolerance effects of other psychostimulants as well. PMID:24566123

  18. Exploring the Role of Different Neonatal Nutrition Regimens during the First Week of Life by Urinary GC-MS Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Dessì, Angelica; Murgia, Antonio; Agostino, Rocco; Pattumelli, Maria Grazia; Schirru, Andrea; Scano, Paola; Fanos, Vassilios; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomics study was applied to examine urine metabolite profiles of different classes of neonates under different nutrition regimens. The study population included 35 neonates, exclusively either breastfed or formula milk fed, in a seven-day timeframe. Urine samples were collected from intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), large for gestational age (LGA), and appropriate gestational age (AGA) neonates. At birth, IUGR and LGA neonates showed similarities in their urine metabolite profiles that differed from AGA. When neonates started milk feeding, their metabolite excretion profile was strongly characterized by the different diet regimens. After three days of formula milk nutrition, urine had higher levels of glucose, galactose, glycine and myo-inositol, while up-regulated aconitic acid, aminomalonic acid and adipic acid were found in breast milk fed neonates. At seven days, neonates fed with formula milk shared higher levels of pseudouridine with IUGR and LGA at birth. Breastfed neonates shared up-regulated pyroglutamic acid, citric acid, and homoserine, with AGA at birth. The role of most important metabolites is herein discussed. PMID:26907266

  19. Emergency Communications for NASA's Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Lee, Charles H.; Morabito, David D.; Cesarone, Robert J.; Abraham, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to communicate with spacecraft during emergencies is a vital service that NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) provides to all deep space missions. Emergency communications is characterized by low data rates(typically is approximately10 bps) with the spacecraft using either a low-gain antenna (LGA, including omnidirectional antennas) or,in some cases, a medium-gain antenna (MGA). Because of the use of LGAs/MGAs for emergency communications, the transmitted power requirements both on the spacecraft andon the ground are substantially greater than those required for normal operations on the high-gain antenna (HGA) despite the lower data rates. In this paper, we look at currentand future emergency communications capabilities available to NASA's deep-space missions and discuss their limitations in the context of emergency mode operations requirements.These discussions include the use of the DSN 70-m diameter antennas, the use of the 34-m diameter antennas either alone or arrayed both for the uplink (Earth-to-spacecraft) and the downlink (spacecraft-to-Earth), upgrades to the ground transmitters, and spacecraft power requirements both with unitygain (0 dB) LGAs and with antennas with directivity (>0 dB gain, either LGA or MGA, depending on the gain). Also discussed are the requirements for forward-error-correctingcodes for both the uplink and the downlink. In additional, we introduce a methodology for proper selection of a directionalLGA/MGA for emergency communications.

  20. Earth-Facing Antenna Characterization in Complex Ground Plane/Multipath Rich Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.; Piasecki, Marie T.

    2015-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed was a Software Defined Radio (SDR)-based payload launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in July of 2012. The purpose of the SCAN Testbed payload was to investigate the applicability of SDRs to NASA space missions in an operational environment, which means that a proper model for system performance in said operational space environment is a necessary condition. The SCAN Testbed has line-of-sight connections to various ground stations with its S-Band Earth-facing Near-Earth-Network Low Gain Antenna (NEN-LGA). Any previous efforts to characterize the NEN-LGA proved difficult, therefore, the NASA Glenn Research Center built its own S-Band ground station, which became operational in 2015, and has been used successfully to characterize the NEN-LGA's in-situ pattern measurements. This methodology allows for a more realistic characterization of the antenna performance, where the pattern oscillation induced by the complex ISS ground plane, as well as shadowing effects due to ISS structural blockage are included into the final performance model. This paper describes the challenges of characterizing an antenna pattern in this environment. It will also discuss the data processing, present the final antenna pattern measurements and derived model, as well as discuss various lessons learned

  1. Hypocretin receptor 2 antagonism dose-dependently reduces escalated heroin self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Schmeichel, Brooke E; Barbier, Estelle; Misra, Kaushik K; Contet, Candice; Schlosburg, Joel E; Grigoriadis, Dimitri; Williams, John P; Karlsson, Camilla; Pitcairn, Caleb; Heilig, Markus; Koob, George F; Vendruscolo, Leandro F

    2015-03-13

    The hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) system has been associated with both positive and negative drug reinforcement, implicating HCRT receptor 1 (HCRT-R1) signaling in drug-related behaviors for all major drug classes, including opioids. However, to date there are limited studies investigating the role of HCRT receptor 2 (HCRT-R2) signaling in compulsive-like drug seeking. Escalation of drug intake with extended access has been suggested to model the transition from controlled drug use to compulsive-like drug seeking/taking. The current study examined the effects of a HCRT-R2 antagonist, NBI-80713, on heroin self-administration in rats allowed short- (1 h; ShA) or long- (12 h; LgA) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. Results indicate that systemically administered NBI-80713 dose-dependently decreased heroin self-administration in LgA, but not in ShA, animals. Quantitative PCR analyses showed an increase in Hcrtr2 mRNA levels in the central amygdala, a stress-related brain region, of LgA rats. These observations suggest a functional role for HCRT-R2 signaling in compulsive-like heroin self-administration associated with extended access and indicate HCRT-R2 antagonism as a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of heroin dependence.

  2. Birth Outcomes by Infertility Diagnosis: Analyses of the Massachusetts Outcomes Study of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (MOSART)

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Barbara; Stern, Judy E.; Kotelchuck, Milton; Declercq, Eugene R.; Cohen, Bruce; Diop, Hafsatou

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate ART pregnancy outcomes by infertility diagnosis. Study Design ART data on women who were treated and gave birth in Massachusetts were linked to vital records and hospital utilization data. Live births were categorized by eight mutually-exclusive ART diagnoses. Risks of prematurity, low birthweight (LBW), small-for-gestation (SGA), large-for-gestation (LGA), pregnancy hypertension, gestational diabetes, prenatal hospitalizations, and primary cesarean delivery were modeled using logistic regression, adjusted for parental characteristics, treatment parameters, and plurality (adjusted odds ratios, AORs, and 95% confidence intervals); the reference group were pregnancies with the diagnosis of male factor. Results Among the 7,354 singleton and twin pregnancies, there were nonsignificant differences in the risks for LBW, SGA, or LGA. Significantly increased risks included gestational diabetes (ovulation disorders, AOR 1.80, 1.35–2.41); prematurity (ovulation disorders, AOR 1.36, 1.08–1.71; other factors, AOR 1.33, 1.05, 1.67); prenatal hospital admissions (endometriosis, tubal and other factors, ovulation disorders, and uterine factors, AORs ranging from 1.66 to 2.68); primary cesarean section (uterine factors, AOR 1.96, 1.15, 3.36). Conclusions Although the infant outcomes of LBW, SGA, and LGA were generally similar across diagnosis groups, specific diagnoses had greater risks for prematurity, gestational diabetes, prenatal hospital utilization, and primary cesarean delivery. PMID:26775455

  3. Generalized Software Architecture Applied to the Continuous Lunar Water Separation Process and the Lunar Greenhouse Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perusich, Stephen; Moos, Thomas; Muscatello, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This innovation provides the user with autonomous on-screen monitoring, embedded computations, and tabulated output for two new processes. The software was originally written for the Continuous Lunar Water Separation Process (CLWSP), but was found to be general enough to be applicable to the Lunar Greenhouse Amplifier (LGA) as well, with minor alterations. The resultant program should have general applicability to many laboratory processes (see figure). The objective for these programs was to create a software application that would provide both autonomous monitoring and data storage, along with manual manipulation. The software also allows operators the ability to input experimental changes and comments in real time without modifying the code itself. Common process elements, such as thermocouples, pressure transducers, and relative humidity sensors, are easily incorporated into the program in various configurations, along with specialized devices such as photodiode sensors. The goal of the CLWSP research project is to design, build, and test a new method to continuously separate, capture, and quantify water from a gas stream. The application is any In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) process that desires to extract or produce water from lunar or planetary regolith. The present work is aimed at circumventing current problems and ultimately producing a system capable of continuous operation at moderate temperatures that can be scaled over a large capacity range depending on the ISRU process. The goal of the LGA research project is to design, build, and test a new type of greenhouse that could be used on the moon or Mars. The LGA uses super greenhouse gases (SGGs) to absorb long-wavelength radiation, thus creating a highly efficient greenhouse at a future lunar or Mars outpost. Silica-based glass, although highly efficient at trapping heat, is heavy, fragile, and not suitable for space greenhouse applications. Plastics are much lighter and resilient, but are not

  4. Grouped False-Discovery Rate for Removing the Gene-Set-Level Bias of RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tae Young; Jeong, Seongmun

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, RNA-seq has become a very competitive alternative to microarrays. In RNA-seq experiments, the expected read count for a gene is proportional to its expression level multiplied by its transcript length. Even when two genes are expressed at the same level, differences in length will yield differing numbers of total reads. The characteristics of these RNA-seq experiments create a gene-level bias such that the proportion of significantly differentially expressed genes increases with the transcript length, whereas such bias is not present in microarray data. Gene-set analysis seeks to identify the gene sets that are enriched in the list of the identified significant genes. In the gene-set analysis of RNA-seq, the gene-level bias subsequently yields the gene-set-level bias that a gene set with genes of long length will be more likely to show up as enriched than will a gene set with genes of shorter length. Because gene expression is not related to its transcript length, any gene set containing long genes is not of biologically greater interest than gene sets with shorter genes. Accordingly the gene-set-level bias should be removed to accurately calculate the statistical significance of each gene-set enrichment in the RNA-seq. We present a new gene set analysis method of RNA-seq, called FDRseq, which can accurately calculate the statistical significance of a gene-set enrichment score by the grouped false-discovery rate. Numerical examples indicated that FDRseq is appropriate for controlling the transcript length bias in the gene-set analysis of RNA-seq data. To implement FDRseq, we developed the R program, which can be downloaded at no cost from http://home.mju.ac.kr/home/index.action?siteId=tyang.

  5. [New opioids for general anaesthesia and in- and out-hospital analgesia].

    PubMed

    Dabrowska-Wójciak, Iwona; Piotrowski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, three new opioids of the piperidine family have been introduced to anaesthesia clinical practice: sufentanil, alfentanil and remifentanil. Alfentanil is a derivative of fentanyl, with quicker onset than that of fentanyl and with shorter duration and more intense vagomimetic properties than those of fentanyl and sufentanil. It may cause less intense respiratory depression than equianalgesic doses of fentanyl. Clinical trials indicate that alfentanil can be used effectively as an analgesic, as an analgesic supplement to anaesthesia, and as the major component of a general anaesthetic. Its short duration of effect makes it attractive as an analgesic supplement for short ambulatory surgical procedures. Sufentanil is a more potent and more lipophilic analgesic than fentanyl. It would appear to maintain haemodynamic stability during surgery better than other opioids. Epidural sufentanil produces a rapid onset and good quality of analgesia. In addition, low doses administered intravenously via a PCA pump seem to have a potential role for analgesia during labour. Remifentanil is an opioid analgesic that is rapidly metabolized by non-specific blood and tissue esterases. According to its unique pharmacokinetic profile, remifentanil-based anaesthesia combines high-dosage opioid analgesia intraoperatively with a rapid and predictable postoperative awakening, even after long procedures. Its vagomimetic properties are especially pronounced in small children, the elderly and hypovolaemic patients, and in these groups atropine should be always given before remifentanil administration. Remifentanil also minimises the adrenergic response to endotracheal intubation. Three mju agonist-antagonists have been used for pain treatment: nalbuphine, butorphanol and buprenorphine. They can be used in ambulatory settings. Nalbuphine can be used parenterally. It reverses morphine-induced respiratory depression while maintaining adequate analgesic effect. Buprenorphine

  6. Cervical Abnormalities Are More Common among Indigenous than Other Australian Women: A Retrospective Record-Linkage Study, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Whop, Lisa J; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Lokuge, Kamalini; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Canfell, Karen; Diaz, Abbey; Roder, David; Gertig, Dorota M; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous Australian women have much higher incidence of cervical cancer compared to non-Indigenous women. Despite an organised cervical screening program introduced 25 years ago, a paucity of Indigenous-identified data in Pap Smear Registers remains. Prevalence of cervical abnormalities detected among the screened Indigenous population has not previously been reported. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of population-based linked health records for 1,334,795 female Queensland residents aged 20-69 years who had one or more Pap smears during 2000-2011; from linked hospital records 23,483 were identified as Indigenous. Prevalence was calculated separately for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, for cytology-detected low-grade (cLGA) and high-grade abnormalities (cHGA), and histologically confirmed high-grade abnormalities (hHGA). Odds ratios (OR) were estimated from logistic regression analysis. In 2010-2011 the prevalence of hHGA among Indigenous women (16.6 per 1000 women screened, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.6-18.9) was twice that of non-Indigenous women (7.5 per 1000 women screened, CI 7.3-7.7). Adjusted for age, area-level disadvantage and place of residence, Indigenous women had higher prevalence of cLGA (OR 1.4, CI 1.3-1.4), cHGA (OR 2.2, CI 2.1-2.3) and hHGA (OR 2.0, CI 1.9-2.1). Our findings show that Indigenous women recorded on the Pap Smear Register have much higher prevalence for cLGA, cHGA and hHGA compared to non-Indigenous women. The renewed cervical screening program, to be implemented in 2017, offers opportunities to reduce the burden of abnormalities and invasive cancer among Indigenous women and address long-standing data deficiencies. PMID:27064273

  7. Weight Loss Instead of Weight Gain within the Guidelines in Obese Women during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Maternal and Infant Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Mufiza Zia; Park, Christina K.; Beyene, Joseph; Giglia, Lucy; Maxwell, Cindy; McDonald, Sarah D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Controversy exists about how much, if any, weight obese pregnant women should gain. While the revised Institute of Medicine guidelines on gestational weight gain (GWG) in 2009 recommended a weight gain of 5–9 kg for obese pregnant women, many studies suggested even gestational weight loss (GWL) for obese women. Objectives A systematic review was conducted to summarize pregnancy outcomes in obese women with GWL compared to GWG within the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines (5–9 kg). Design Five databases were searched from 1 January 2009 to 31 July 2014. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the PRISMA Statement were followed. A modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess individual study quality. Small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA) and preterm birth were our primary outcomes. Results Six cohort studies were included, none of which assessed preterm birth. Compared to GWG within the guidelines, women with GWL had higher odds of SGA <10th percentile (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45–2.14) and SGA <3rd percentile (AOR 1.62; 95% CI 1.19–2.20) but lower odds of LGA >90th percentile (AOR 0.57; 95% CI 0.52–0.62). There was a trend towards a graded relationship between SGA <10th percentile and each of three obesity classes (I: AOR 1.73; 95% CI 1.53–1.97; II: AOR 1.63; 95% CI 1.44–1.85 and III: AOR 1.39; 95% CI 1.17–1.66, respectively). Conclusion Despite decreased odds of LGA, increased odds of SGA and a lack of information on preterm birth indicate that GWL should not be advocated in general for obese women. PMID:26196130

  8. The Utility of Ultrasound Surveillance of Fluid and Growth in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Lorie M.; Jauk, Victoria C.; Owen, John; Biggio, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the utility of ultrasound surveillance in obese women. Study Design Retrospective cohort of all obese women undergoing sonography at a single center from 2005–2013. Inclusion criteria were: body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, singleton, ≥1 ultrasound performed <20 weeks, and ≥1 ultrasound performed ≥24 weeks. Pregnancies with medical complications, fetal anomalies or preterm premature rupture of membranes were excluded. Outcomes considered were small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA), macrosomia, oligohydramnios, and polyhydramnios. We calculated the number needed to screen (NNS) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for scans performed during 3 gestational age ranges (240/7-316/7, 320/7-356/7, and ≥360/7 weeks). Results 2,002 sonograms were performed in 1,164 obese women ≥24 weeks. SGA was diagnosed in 59 (5.1%) pregnancies; 7 (0.6%) were diagnosed <32 weeks (NNS 159 (95% CI 69–490). LGA was diagnosed in 38 (3.3%) cases; only 1 was identified <32 weeks and was not LGA at birth. For every 29 (95% CI 19–46) scans performed >36 weeks, 1 case of macrosomia was identified. Amniotic fluid abnormalities were diagnosed in 44 (3.8%) pregnancies (oligohydramnios n=19, polyhydramnios n=25); 34.1% were diagnosed <32 weeks (NNS 113, 95% CI 55–282 for oligohydramnios, NNS 100, 95% CI 50–230 for polyhydramnios). At ≥36 weeks, 7 (95% CI 6–8) scans were needed to diagnose any fluid or growth abnormality. Conclusion In obese women without co-morbidities, few sonographic diagnoses of amniotic fluid or fetal growth abnormalities are made <32 weeks gestational age. Therefore, if a policy of serial sonographic surveillance is utilized, we suggest ultrasounds for fluid and growth in obese women begin ≥32 weeks. PMID:24791732

  9. Preventing large birth size in women with preexisting diabetes mellitus: The benefit of appropriate gestational weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin Y.; Sharma, Andrea J.; Sappenfield, William; Salihu, Hamisu M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the percentage of infants with large birth size attributable to excess gestational weight gain (GWG), independent of prepregnancy body mass index, among mothers with preexisting diabetes mellitus (PDM). Study design We analyzed 2004–2008 Florida linked birth certificate and maternal hospital discharge data of live, term (37–41 weeks) singleton deliveries (N = 641,857). We calculated prevalence of large-for-gestational age (LGA) (birth weight-for-gestational age ≥ 90th percentile) and macrosomia (birth weight > 4500 g) by GWG categories (inadequate, appropriate, or excess). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the relative risk (RR) of large birth size associated with excess compared to appropriate GWG among mothers with PDM. We then estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) of large birth size due to excess GWG among mothers with PDM (n = 4427). Results Regardless of diabetes status, half of mothers (51.2%) gained weight in excess of recommendations. Large birth size was higher in infants of mothers with PDM than in infants of mothers without diabetes (28.8% versus 9.4% for LGA, 5.8% versus 0.9% for macrosomia). Among women with PDM, the adjusted RR of having an LGA infant was 1.7 (95% CI 1.5, 1.9) for women with excess GWG compared to those with appropriate gain; the PAF was 27.7% (95% CI 22.0, 33.3). For macrosomia, the adjusted RR associated with excess GWG was 2.1 (95% CI 1.5, 2.9) and the PAF was 38.6% (95% CI 24.9, 52.4). Conclusion Preventing excess GWG may avert over one-third of macrosomic term infants of mothers with PDM. Effective strategies to prevent excess GWG are needed. PMID:27539071

  10. Inter-Pregnancy Weight Change and the Risk of Recurrent Pregnancy Complications.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jacqueline M; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Campbell, Doris M; Horgan, Graham W

    2016-01-01

    Women with specific adverse pregnancy outcomes in their first pregnancy may be receptive to inter-pregnancy weight management guidance aimed at preventing these complications reoccurring in subsequent pregnancies. Thus the association between inter-pregnancy weight change and the risk of recurrent pregnancy complications at the second pregnancy was investigated in a retrospective cohort study of 24,520 women with their first-ever and second consecutive deliveries in Aberdeen using logistic regression. Compared with women who were weight stable, weight loss (>2BMI units) between pregnancies was associated with an increased risk of recurrent small for gestational age (SGA) birth and elective Cesarean-section, and was protective against recurrent pre-eclampsia, placental oversize and large for gestational age (LGA) birth. Conversely weight gain (>2BMI units) between pregnancies increased the risk of recurrent gestational hypertension, placental oversize and LGA birth and was protective against recurrent low placental weight and SGA birth. The relationships between weight gain, and placental and birth weight extremes were evident only in women with a healthy weight at first pregnancy (BMI<25units), while that between weight gain and the increased risk of recurrent gestational hypertension was largely independent of first pregnancy BMI. No relationship was detected between inter-pregnancy weight change and the risk of recurrent spontaneous preterm delivery, labour induction, instrumental delivery, emergency Cesarean-section or postpartum hemorrhage. Therefor inter-pregnancy weight change impacts the risk of recurrent hypertensive disorders, SGA and LGA birth and women with a prior history of these specific conditions may benefit from targeted nutritional advice to either lose or gain weight after their first pregnancy. PMID:27145132

  11. Cervical Abnormalities Are More Common among Indigenous than Other Australian Women: A Retrospective Record-Linkage Study, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Whop, Lisa J.; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M. L.; Lokuge, Kamalini; Valery, Patricia C.; O’Connell, Dianne L.; Canfell, Karen; Diaz, Abbey; Roder, David; Gertig, Dorota M.; Moore, Suzanne P.; Condon, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous Australian women have much higher incidence of cervical cancer compared to non-Indigenous women. Despite an organised cervical screening program introduced 25 years ago, a paucity of Indigenous-identified data in Pap Smear Registers remains. Prevalence of cervical abnormalities detected among the screened Indigenous population has not previously been reported. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of population-based linked health records for 1,334,795 female Queensland residents aged 20–69 years who had one or more Pap smears during 2000–2011; from linked hospital records 23,483 were identified as Indigenous. Prevalence was calculated separately for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, for cytology-detected low-grade (cLGA) and high-grade abnormalities (cHGA), and histologically confirmed high-grade abnormalities (hHGA). Odds ratios (OR) were estimated from logistic regression analysis. In 2010–2011 the prevalence of hHGA among Indigenous women (16.6 per 1000 women screened, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.6–18.9) was twice that of non-Indigenous women (7.5 per 1000 women screened, CI 7.3–7.7). Adjusted for age, area-level disadvantage and place of residence, Indigenous women had higher prevalence of cLGA (OR 1.4, CI 1.3–1.4), cHGA (OR 2.2, CI 2.1–2.3) and hHGA (OR 2.0, CI 1.9–2.1). Our findings show that Indigenous women recorded on the Pap Smear Register have much higher prevalence for cLGA, cHGA and hHGA compared to non-Indigenous women. The renewed cervical screening program, to be implemented in 2017, offers opportunities to reduce the burden of abnormalities and invasive cancer among Indigenous women and address long-standing data deficiencies. PMID:27064273

  12. Inter-Pregnancy Weight Change and the Risk of Recurrent Pregnancy Complications

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Jacqueline M.; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Campbell, Doris M.; Horgan, Graham W.

    2016-01-01

    Women with specific adverse pregnancy outcomes in their first pregnancy may be receptive to inter-pregnancy weight management guidance aimed at preventing these complications reoccurring in subsequent pregnancies. Thus the association between inter-pregnancy weight change and the risk of recurrent pregnancy complications at the second pregnancy was investigated in a retrospective cohort study of 24,520 women with their first-ever and second consecutive deliveries in Aberdeen using logistic regression. Compared with women who were weight stable, weight loss (>2BMI units) between pregnancies was associated with an increased risk of recurrent small for gestational age (SGA) birth and elective Cesarean-section, and was protective against recurrent pre-eclampsia, placental oversize and large for gestational age (LGA) birth. Conversely weight gain (>2BMI units) between pregnancies increased the risk of recurrent gestational hypertension, placental oversize and LGA birth and was protective against recurrent low placental weight and SGA birth. The relationships between weight gain, and placental and birth weight extremes were evident only in women with a healthy weight at first pregnancy (BMI<25units), while that between weight gain and the increased risk of recurrent gestational hypertension was largely independent of first pregnancy BMI. No relationship was detected between inter-pregnancy weight change and the risk of recurrent spontaneous preterm delivery, labour induction, instrumental delivery, emergency Cesarean-section or postpartum hemorrhage. Therefor inter-pregnancy weight change impacts the risk of recurrent hypertensive disorders, SGA and LGA birth and women with a prior history of these specific conditions may benefit from targeted nutritional advice to either lose or gain weight after their first pregnancy. PMID:27145132

  13. Efficacy of a group-based dietary intervention for limiting gestational weight gain among obese women: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Vesco, Kimberly K.; Karanja, Njeri; King, Janet C.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Leo, Michael C.; Perrin, Nancy; McEvoy, Cindy T.; Eckhardt, Cara L.; Smith, K. Sabina; Stevens, Victor J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Observational studies suggest that minimal gestational weight gain (GWG) may optimize pregnancy outcomes for obese women. This trial tested the efficacy of a group-based weight management intervention for limiting GWG among obese women. Methods We randomized 114 obese women (BMI [mean±SD] 36.7±4.9 kg/m2) between 7–21 weeks’ (14.9±2.6) gestation to intervention (n=56) or usual care control conditions (n=58). The intervention included individualized calorie goals, advice to maintain weight within 3% of randomization and follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern without sodium restriction, and attendance at weekly group meetings until delivery. Control participants received one-time dietary advice. Our three main outcomes were maternal weight change from randomization to 2 weeks postpartum and from randomization to 34 weeks gestation, and newborn large-for-gestational age (birth weight >90th percentile, LGA). Results Intervention participants gained less weight from randomization to 34 weeks gestation (5.0 vs 8.4 kg, mean difference=−3.4 kg, 95% CI [−5.1, −1.8]), and from randomization to 2 weeks postpartum (−2.6 vs +1.2 kg, mean difference=−3.8 kg, 95% CI [−5.9, −1.7]). They also had a lower proportion of LGA babies (9% vs. 26%, odds ratio=0.28, 95% CI [0.09, 0.84]). Conclusions The intervention resulted in lower GWG and lower prevalence of LGA newborns. PMID:25164259

  14. Body composition in neonates: relationship between measured and derived anthropometry with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements.

    PubMed

    Koo, Winston W K; Walters, Jocelyn C; Hockman, Elaine M

    2004-11-01

    This study examined the relationship between measured and derived anthropometric measurements with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured lean and fat mass at 3.0 +/- 2.8 (SD) days in 120 neonates with birth weights appropriate (AGA; n=74), large (LGA; n=30); or small (SGA, n=16) for gestational age. Anthropometric measurements, including total body weight and length, and regional measurements, including circumferences of head, chest, abdomen, midarm, and midthigh and dynamic skinfold thickness (15 and 60 s) at tricep, subscapular, suprailiac, and midthigh, were performed. Derived anthropometry included muscle and fat areas, and ratios were calculated from direct measurements. The skinfold thickness measurements between 15 and 60 s were highly correlated (r=0.973-0.996, p <0.001 for all comparisons). Strong correlations existed within the four circumferences of trunk and extremities, the four skinfolds, and the ratios of weight to length and its higher powers. Weight and length accounted for >97% of the variance of lean mass in AGA and SGA infants and 46% of the variance in LGA infants and for 80, 82, and 84% of the variance of fat mass in SGA, AGA, and LGA infants, respectively, whereas midarm:head circumference ratio and arm muscle and fat areas are the most important derived anthropometry in the prediction for body composition. They independently accounted for up to 16.5 and 10.2%, respectively, of the variance in body composition depending on the state of in utero growth. Thus, total body weight and length and some selected regional and derived anthropometry accounted for the vast majority of the variance of body composition. PMID:15371563

  15. Long-Term Survival of Individuals Born Small and Large for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Wennerström, E. Christina M.; Simonsen, Jacob; Melbye, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known on long-term survival and causes of death among individuals born small or large for gestational age. This study investigates birth weight in relation to survival and causes of death over time. Methods A national cohort of 1.7 million live-born singletons in Denmark was followed during 1979–2011, using the Danish Civil Registration System, the Medical Birth Registry and the Cause of Death Registry. Cox proportional hazards were estimated for the impact of small (SGA) and large (LGA) gestation weight and mortality overall, by age group and birth cohort. Results Compared to normal weight children, SGA children were associated with increased risk of dying over time. Though most of the deaths occurred during the first year of life, the cumulative mortality risk was increased until 30 years of age. The hazard ratios [HR] for dying among SGA children ages <2 years were: 3.47 (95% CI, 3.30–3.64) and 1.06 (95% CI, 0.60–1.87) in 30 years and older. HR for dying among SGA adults (20–29 years) were: 1.20 (95% CI, 0.99–1.46) in years 1979–1982 and 1.61 (95% CI, 1.04–2.51) in years 1989–1994. The SGA born had increased risk of dying from infection, heart disease, respiratory disease, digestive disease, congenital malformation, perinatal conditions, and accidents, suicide, and homicide. Individuals born LGA were associated with decreased mortality risk, but with increased risk of dying from malignant neoplasm. Conclusions Survival has improved independently of birth weight the past 30 years. However, children born SGA remain at significantly increased risk of dying up till they turn 30 years of age. Individuals born LGA have lower mortality risk but only in the first two years of life. PMID:26390219

  16. Cervical Abnormalities Are More Common among Indigenous than Other Australian Women: A Retrospective Record-Linkage Study, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Whop, Lisa J; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Lokuge, Kamalini; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Canfell, Karen; Diaz, Abbey; Roder, David; Gertig, Dorota M; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous Australian women have much higher incidence of cervical cancer compared to non-Indigenous women. Despite an organised cervical screening program introduced 25 years ago, a paucity of Indigenous-identified data in Pap Smear Registers remains. Prevalence of cervical abnormalities detected among the screened Indigenous population has not previously been reported. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of population-based linked health records for 1,334,795 female Queensland residents aged 20-69 years who had one or more Pap smears during 2000-2011; from linked hospital records 23,483 were identified as Indigenous. Prevalence was calculated separately for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, for cytology-detected low-grade (cLGA) and high-grade abnormalities (cHGA), and histologically confirmed high-grade abnormalities (hHGA). Odds ratios (OR) were estimated from logistic regression analysis. In 2010-2011 the prevalence of hHGA among Indigenous women (16.6 per 1000 women screened, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.6-18.9) was twice that of non-Indigenous women (7.5 per 1000 women screened, CI 7.3-7.7). Adjusted for age, area-level disadvantage and place of residence, Indigenous women had higher prevalence of cLGA (OR 1.4, CI 1.3-1.4), cHGA (OR 2.2, CI 2.1-2.3) and hHGA (OR 2.0, CI 1.9-2.1). Our findings show that Indigenous women recorded on the Pap Smear Register have much higher prevalence for cLGA, cHGA and hHGA compared to non-Indigenous women. The renewed cervical screening program, to be implemented in 2017, offers opportunities to reduce the burden of abnormalities and invasive cancer among Indigenous women and address long-standing data deficiencies.

  17. Charge inversion of phospholipids by dimetal complexes for positive ion-mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Svane, Simon; Gorshkov, Vladimir; Kjeldsen, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Phospholipids are vital constituents of living cells, as they are involved in signaling and membrane formation. Mass spectrometry analysis of many phospholipids is preferentially performed in the negative ion-mode because of their acidic nature. Here we have studied the potential of a digallium and dizinc complex to charge-invert a range of different types of phospholipids and measured their ion yield and fragmentation behavior in positive ion-mode tandem mass spectrometry. The dimetal complexes bind specifically the phosphate groups of phospholipids and add an excess of up to three positive charges per phosphate group. Three different phosphoinositide phosphates (mono-, di-, and triphosphorylated inositides), a phosphatidic acid, a phosphatidylcholine, a phosphatidylethanolamine, and a phosphatidylglycerol were investigated. The intensities obtained in positive ion-mode of phosphoinositide phosphates and phosphatidic acid bound to {LGa2}(5+) were between 2.5- and 116-fold higher than that of the unmodified lipids in the negative ion-mode. Native phosphoinositide ions yielded upon CID in the negative ion-mode predominantly product ions due to losses of H3PO4, PO3(-) and H2O. In comparison, CID spectra of {LGa2}(5+)-bound phosphoinositides generally resulted in fragment ions corresponding to loss of the full diglyceride chain as well as the remaining headgroup bound to {LGa2}(5+) as the most abundant peaks. A number of signature fragment ions of moderate abundance were observed that allowed for distinction between the three regioisomers of 1,2-di(9Z-octadecenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-[phosphoinositol-x,y-bisphosphate] (PI(3,4)P2, PI(3,5)P2, PI(4,5)P2).

  18. Effect of community level intervention on nutritional status and feeding practices of under five children in Ile Ife, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ogundele, Olorunfemi Akinbode; Ogundele, Tolulope

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Childhood malnutrition remains a widespread problem in developing world like Nigeria. The country ranks second among the ten countries contributing to sixty percent of the world's wasted under-five children. Community Integrated Management of Childhood illness (CIMCI) is a programme that employs the use of community based counsellors to address child health and nutritional challenges of the under-five and has the potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality resulting from poor nutritional and feeding practices. The study assessed the effect of community level intervention on nutritional status and feeding practices of children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional comparative study that employed the use of multi stage cluster sampling techniques in selecting 722 mothers of index under five children. The study was done in two Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria. Quantitative techniques were used in data collection. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0. Descriptive and bivariate analyses was performed. Results The two Local Government Area (LGA) did not differ significantly in their wealth index (p = 0.344). However, more children in the non-implementing LGA (16.1%) had low weight for age compared with 3.6% in the CIMCI implementing LGA (p = 0.000). A statistically significant difference exist in the MUAC measurement of children 12-23 months between the CIMCI implementing and non-implementing communities (p = 0.007). A higher percentage of caregivers (19.3%) introduced complementary feeding earlier than 6 months in the non-implementing area (p < 0.001). Conclusion Using community level nutritional counseling can greatly improve nutritional status and feeding practices of under five children. PMID:26958118

  19. Galileo spacecraft modeling for orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, Bruce A.; Nilsen, Erik N.

    1994-01-01

    The Galileo Jupiter orbital mission using the Low Gain Antenna (LGA) requires a higher degree of spacecraft state knowledge than was originally anticipated. Key elements of the revised design include onboard buffering of science and engineering data and extensive processing of data prior to downlink. In order to prevent loss of data resulting from overflow of the buffers and to allow efficient use of the spacecraft resources, ground based models of the spacecraft processes will be implemented. These models will be integral tools in the development of satellite encounter sequences and the cruise/playback sequences where recorded data is retrieved.

  20. Fetal Growth and Risk of Stillbirth: A Population-Based Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I.; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M.; Parker, Corette B.; Pinar, Halit; Silver, Robert M.; Dudley, Donald J.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Saade, George R.; Koch, Matthew A.; Rowland Hogue, Carol J.; Varner, Michael W.; Conway, Deborah L.; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stillbirth is strongly related to impaired fetal growth. However, the relationship between fetal growth and stillbirth is difficult to determine because of uncertainty in the timing of death and confounding characteristics affecting normal fetal growth. Methods and Findings We conducted a population-based case–control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in five geographic areas in the US. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small for gestational age (SGA) (<10th percentile) or large for gestational age (LGA) (>90th percentile) at death (stillbirth) or delivery (live birth) using population, ultrasound, and individualized norms. Gestational age at death was determined using an algorithm that considered the time-of-death interval, postmortem examination, and reliability of the gestational age estimate. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design and differential participation rates in various subgroups. Among 527 singleton stillbirths and 1,821 singleton live births studied, stillbirth was associated with SGA based on population, ultrasound, and individualized norms (odds ratio [OR] [95% CI]: 3.0 [2.2 to 4.0]; 4.7 [3.7 to 5.9]; 4.6 [3.6 to 5.9], respectively). LGA was also associated with increased risk of stillbirth using ultrasound and individualized norms (OR [95% CI]: 3.5 [2.4 to 5.0]; 2.3 [1.7 to 3.1], respectively), but not population norms (OR [95% CI]: 0.6 [0.4 to 1.0]). The associations were stronger with more severe SGA and LGA (<5th and >95th percentile). Analyses adjusted for stillbirth risk factors, subset analyses excluding potential confounders, and analyses in preterm and term pregnancies showed similar patterns of association. In this study 70% of cases and 63% of controls agreed to participate. Analysis weights accounted for differences between consenting and non-consenting women. Some of the characteristics used for individualized fetal growth estimates were missing

  1. Levels of Neural Progenitors in the Hippocampus Predict Memory Impairment and Relapse to Drug Seeking as a Function of Excessive Methamphetamine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Recinto, Patrick; Samant, Anjali Rose H; Chavez, Gustavo; Kim, Airee; Yuan, Clara J; Soleiman, Matthew; Grant, Yanabel; Edwards, Scott; Wee, Sunmee; Koob, George F; George, Olivier; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine affects the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for learning and memory, as well as relapse to drug seeking. Rats self-administered methamphetamine for 1 h twice weekly (intermittent-short-I-ShA), 1 h daily (limited-short-ShA), or 6 h daily (extended-long-LgA) for 22 sessions. After 22 sessions, rats from each access group were withdrawn from self-administration and underwent spatial memory (Y-maze) and working memory (T-maze) tests followed by extinction and reinstatement to methamphetamine seeking or received one intraperitoneal injection of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label progenitors in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) during the synthesis phase. Two-hour-old and 28-day-old surviving BrdU-immunoreactive cells were quantified. I-ShA rats performed better on the Y-maze and had a greater number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug controls. LgA rats, but not ShA rats, performed worse on the Y- and T-maze and had a fewer number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug and I-ShA rats, suggesting that new hippocampal progenitors, decreased by methamphetamine, were correlated with impairment in the acquisition of new spatial cues. Analyses of addiction-related behaviors after withdrawal and extinction training revealed methamphetamine-primed reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior in all three groups (I-ShA, ShA, and LgA), and this effect was enhanced in LgA rats compared with I-ShA and ShA rats. Protracted withdrawal from self-administration enhanced the survival of SGZ BrdU cells, and methamphetamine seeking during protracted withdrawal enhanced Fos expression in the dentate gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex in LgA rats to a greater extent than in ShA and I-ShA rats. These results indicate that changes in the levels of the proliferation and survival of hippocampal neural progenitors and neuronal activation of hippocampal granule cells predict the effects of methamphetamine self-administration (limited vs extended

  2. Self-reported sleep in late pregnancy in relation to birth size and fetal distress: the E Moe, Māmā prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Laura D; Signal, T Leigh; Paine, Sarah-Jane; Sweeney, Bronwyn; Priston, Monique; Muller, Diane; Lee, Kathy; Huthwaite, Mark; Gander, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore associations between features of sleep during pregnancy and adverse outcomes for the infant. Setting E Moe, Māmā is a cohort study in Aotearoa/New Zealand that investigates self-reported sleep and maternal health in late pregnancy and the postpartum period. Participants Women (N=633; 194 Māori) reported detailed information on their sleep duration, quality, disturbances, disorders (snoring, breathing pauses, twitching legs, restless legs) and daytime sleepiness between 35 and 37 weeks gestation. Outcome measures Birthweight and fetal distress during labour were extracted from medical records. Associations between each sleep variable and small or large for gestational age (SGA/LGA) using customised birthweight centile or fetal distress were estimated using multinomial/logistic regression, controlling for potential confounders. Secondary analyses considered differences in associations between Māori and non-Māori women. Results There was some indication that breathing pauses (a measure of sleep apnoea) were associated with both SGA (OR 2.8, 95% CI 0.9 to 9.0, p=0.08) and LGA (OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.7 to 5.7, p=0.20), with the association for LGA being stronger when only pregnancy-onset breathing pauses were considered (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 9.6, p=0.01). There was also some evidence that pregnancy-onset leg twitching (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.0, p=0.03) and frequent sleep disturbance due to feeling too hot or too cold (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.9 to 3.6, p=0.13) were associated with higher risk of fetal distress. Other sleep measures, including snoring, were not associated with SGA, LGA or fetal distress. Many of the associations we observed were considerably stronger in Māori compared with non-Māori women. Conclusions We did not find evidence of previously reported associations between snoring and SGA. Our findings tentatively suggest that self-reported breathing pauses and leg twitching in late pregnancy are associated with infant outcomes, and

  3. A Human-in-the Loop Evaluation of a Coordinated Arrival Departure Scheduling Operations for Managing Departure Delays at LaGuardia Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Paul U.; Smith, Nancy M.; Bienert, Nancy; Brasil, Connie; Buckley, Nathan; Chevalley, Eric; Homola, Jeffrey; Omar, Faisal; Parke, Bonny; Yoo, Hyo-Sang

    2016-01-01

    LaGuardia (LGA) departure delay was identified by the stakeholders and subject matter experts as a significant bottleneck in the New York metropolitan area. Departure delay at LGA is primarily due to dependency between LGA's arrival and departure runways: LGA departures cannot begin takeoff until arrivals have cleared the runway intersection. If one-in one-out operations are not maintained and a significant arrival-to-departure imbalance occurs, the departure backup can persist through the rest of the day. At NASA Ames Research Center, a solution called "Departure-sensitive Arrival Spacing" (DSAS) was developed to maximize the departure throughput without creating significant delays in the arrival traffic. The concept leverages a Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (TSS) operations that create and manage the arrival schedule to the runway threshold and added an interface enhancement to the traffic manager's timeline to provide the ability to manually adjust inter-arrival spacing to build precise gaps for multiple departures between arrivals. A more complete solution would include a TSS algorithm enhancement that could automatically build these multi-departure gaps. With this set of capabilities, inter-arrival spacing could be controlled for optimal departure throughput. The concept was prototyped in a human-in-the- loop (HITL) simulation environment so that operational requirements such as coordination procedures, timing and magnitude of TSS schedule adjustments, and display features for Tower, TRACON and Traffic Management Unit could be determined. A HITL simulation was conducted in August 2014 to evaluate the concept in terms of feasibility, controller workload impact, and potential benefits. Three conditions were tested, namely a Baseline condition without scheduling, TSS condition that schedules the arrivals to the runway threshold, and TSS+DSAS condition that adjusts the arrival schedule to maximize the departure throughput. The results showed that during high

  4. Local-global alignment for finding 3D similarities in protein structures

    DOEpatents

    Zemla, Adam T.

    2011-09-20

    A method of finding 3D similarities in protein structures of a first molecule and a second molecule. The method comprises providing preselected information regarding the first molecule and the second molecule. Comparing the first molecule and the second molecule using Longest Continuous Segments (LCS) analysis. Comparing the first molecule and the second molecule using Global Distance Test (GDT) analysis. Comparing the first molecule and the second molecule using Local Global Alignment Scoring function (LGA_S) analysis. Verifying constructed alignment and repeating the steps to find the regions of 3D similarities in protein structures.

  5. Structural re-alignment in an immunologic surface region of ricin A chain

    SciTech Connect

    Zemla, A T; Zhou, C E

    2007-07-24

    We compared structure alignments generated by several protein structure comparison programs to determine whether existing methods would satisfactorily align residues at a highly conserved position within an immunogenic loop in ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs). Using default settings, structure alignments generated by several programs (CE, DaliLite, FATCAT, LGA, MAMMOTH, MATRAS, SHEBA, SSM) failed to align the respective conserved residues, although LGA reported correct residue-residue (R-R) correspondences when the beta-carbon (Cb) position was used as the point of reference in the alignment calculations. Further tests using variable points of reference indicated that points distal from the beta carbon along a vector connecting the alpha and beta carbons yielded rigid structural alignments in which residues known to be highly conserved in RIPs were reported as corresponding residues in structural comparisons between ricin A chain, abrin-A, and other RIPs. Results suggest that approaches to structure alignment employing alternate point representations corresponding to side chain position may yield structure alignments that are more consistent with observed conservation of functional surface residues than do standard alignment programs, which apply uniform criteria for alignment (i.e., alpha carbon (Ca) as point of reference) along the entirety of the peptide chain. We present the results of tests that suggest the utility of allowing user-specified points of reference in generating alternate structural alignments, and we present a web server for automatically generating such alignments.

  6. Task-parallel message passing interface implementation of Autodock4 for docking of very large databases of compounds using high-performance super-computers.

    PubMed

    Collignon, Barbara; Schulz, Roland; Smith, Jeremy C; Baudry, Jerome

    2011-04-30

    A message passing interface (MPI)-based implementation (Autodock4.lga.MPI) of the grid-based docking program Autodock4 has been developed to allow simultaneous and independent docking of multiple compounds on up to thousands of central processing units (CPUs) using the Lamarkian genetic algorithm. The MPI version reads a single binary file containing precalculated grids that represent the protein-ligand interactions, i.e., van der Waals, electrostatic, and desolvation potentials, and needs only two input parameter files for the entire docking run. In comparison, the serial version of Autodock4 reads ASCII grid files and requires one parameter file per compound. The modifications performed result in significantly reduced input/output activity compared with the serial version. Autodock4.lga.MPI scales up to 8192 CPUs with a maximal overhead of 16.3%, of which two thirds is due to input/output operations and one third originates from MPI operations. The optimal docking strategy, which minimizes docking CPU time without lowering the quality of the database enrichments, comprises the docking of ligands preordered from the most to the least flexible and the assignment of the number of energy evaluations as a function of the number of rotatable bounds. In 24 h, on 8192 high-performance computing CPUs, the present MPI version would allow docking to a rigid protein of about 300K small flexible compounds or 11 million rigid compounds.

  7. Repeated intravenous administrations of teneurin-C terminal associated peptide (TCAP)-1 attenuates reinstatement of cocaine seeking by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in rats.

    PubMed

    Erb, Suzanne; McPhee, Matthew; Brown, Zenya J; Kupferschmidt, David A; Song, Lifang; Lovejoy, David A

    2014-08-01

    The teneurin c-terminal associated peptides (TCAP) have been implicated in the regulation of the stress response, possibly via a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-related mechanism. We have previously shown that repeated intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of TCAP-1 attenuate the reinstatement of cocaine seeking by CRF in rats. Here, we determined whether intravenous (IV) administrations of TCAP-1 would likewise attenuate CRF-induced reinstatement, and whether this effect would vary depending on the rat's history of cocaine self administration. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine for 10 days, during once daily sessions that were either 3h ("short access"; ShA) or 6h ("long access"; LgA). Rats were then given five daily injections of TCAP-1 (0, 300, or 3,000 pmol, IV) in their home cage. Subsequently, they were returned to the self-administration chambers where extinction of cocaine seeking and testing for CRF-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking was carried out. Repeated IV administrations of TCAP-1 were efficacious in attenuating CRF-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking, but at different doses in ShA and LgA rats. Taken together, the findings extend previous work showing a consistent effect of repeated ICV TCAP-1 on CRF-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking, and point to a potential therapeutic benefit of TCAP-1 in attenuating cocaine seeking behaviors.

  8. Bone metabolism compensates for the delayed growth in small for gestational age neonates.

    PubMed

    Tenta, Roxane; Bourgiezi, Ifigeneia; Aliferis, Evangelos; Papadopoulou, Magdalini; Gounaris, Antonis; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to investigate the relationship between anthropometric and bone metabolism markers in a sample of neonates and their mothers. A sample of 20 SGA (small for the gestational age), AGA (appropriate for the gestational age) and LGA (large for the gestational age) term neonates and their 20 mothers was analyzed at birth and at exit. Elisa method was used to measure the OPG (Osteoprotegerin), RANK (Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB), RANKL (Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB Ligand), IGF-1 (Insulin-like growth factor 1), IGFBP3 (Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3) and Leptin levels. Birth weight and length were positively correlated with RANKL, IGF-1 and IGFBP3 and negatively with the ratio OPG/RANKL. SGA neonates presented lower RANKL values and higher OPG/RANKL ratio while LGA neonates had higher RANK levels than AGA neonates. Positive association was shown between neonatal IGFBP3 and maternal IGF-1 values and between neonatal and maternal RANK values at birth and at exit. These results reveal a remarkable upregulation of OPG/RANKL ratio in SGA neonates, pointing out the role of bone turnover in compensating for the delayed neonatal growth.

  9. On-line monitoring of the crystallization process: relationship between crystal size and electrical impedance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanlin; Yao, Jun; Wang, Mi

    2016-07-01

    On-line monitoring of crystal size in the crystallization process is crucial to many pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industrial applications. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for the on-line monitoring of the cooling crystallization process of L-glutamic acid (LGA) using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EIS method can be used to monitor the growth of crystal particles relying on the presence of an electrical double layer on the charged particle surface and the polarization of double layer under the excitation of alternating electrical field. The electrical impedance spectra and crystal size were measured on-line simultaneously by an impedance analyzer and focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), respectively. The impedance spectra were analyzed using the equivalent circuit model and the equivalent circuit elements in the model can be obtained by fitting the experimental data. Two equivalent circuit elements, including capacitance (C 2) and resistance (R 2) from the dielectric polarization of the LGA solution and crystal particle/solution interface, are in relation with the crystal size. The mathematical relationship between the crystal size and the equivalent circuit elements can be obtained by a non-linear fitting method. The function can be used to predict the change of crystal size during the crystallization process.

  10. Voltage-dependent dye coupling at a rectifying electrotonic synapse of the crayfish.

    PubMed Central

    Giaume, C; Korn, H

    1984-01-01

    At the crayfish giant motor synapse, the lateral giant axon (l.g.a.) and the giant motor fibre (g.m.f.) form an electrotonic junction which exhibits two states of ionic coupling (Furshpan & Potter, 1959a; Giaume & Korn, 1983). Junctional conductance is low at resting membrane potentials (i.e. with lateral axon more negative than the motor fibre) and high when the polarity of the voltage difference (delta V) across the synapse is reversed. For these two states of conductance, junctional permeability was investigated using the intercellular tracer Lucifer Yellow. The dye was ionophoretically injected into either the presynaptic (l.g.a.) or the post-synaptic (g.m.f.) cell. In the high conductance state (delta V greater than 0), fluorescence was detected in both neurones whether Lucifer Yellow had been injected pre- or post-synaptically. By contrast, at the resting junctional polarization (delta V less than 0) Lucifer Yellow spread from the giant axon to the g.m.f., but not from the g.m.f. to the giant axons. These data demonstrate that dye transfer at the giant motor synapse, like ionic coupling, is sensitive to junctional polarization and is more marked in the high conductance state. Possible explanations for the asymmetry observed in the low conductance state are discussed. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PLATE 3 PMID:6097668

  11. Right Gastric Artery Embolization Prior to Treatment with Yttrium-90 Microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Cosin, Octavio; Bilbao, Jose Ignacio Alvarez, Sergio; Luis, Esther de; Alonso, Alberto; Martinez-Cuesta, Antonio

    2007-02-15

    Purpose. Intra-arterial infusion of yttrium-90 microspheres is a form of radiation treatment for unresectable hepatic neoplasms. Misdeposition of particles in the gastroduodenal area such as the right gastric artery (RGA) may occur with serious consequences. We present a series of patients who underwent a detailed vascular study followed by RGA embolization. Special emphasis is placed on anatomic variations and technical considerations .Methods. In a 1 year period, 27 patients were treated. Initial vascular evaluation was performed, with careful attention to anatomic variants or extrahepatic arterial supply, especially to the gastroduodenal area. Embolization of such arteries was planned if needed. RGA embolization was performed antegradely from the hepatic artery or retrogradely via the left gastric artery (LGA). Postprocedural follow-up included clinical interview and gastroscopy if necessary. Results. RGA embolization was performed in 9 patients presenting with primary (n = 3) or metastatic liver tumors (n 6). Six patients underwent antegrade RGA embolization and 3 had embolization done retrogradely via the LGA. Retrograde access was chosen for anatomic reasons. None of the patients complained of gastroduodenal symptoms. Conclusion. RGA embolization can help minimize the gastroduodenal deposition of radioactive particles. RGA embolization should routinely be carried out. The procedure can be performed, with similar technical success, by both anterograde and retrograde approaches.

  12. Earth-Facing Antenna Characterization in a Complex Ground Plane/Multipath Rich Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.; Piasecki, Marie T.

    2015-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed was a Software Defined Radio (SDR)-based payload launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in July of 2012. The purpose of the SCAN Testbed payload was to investigate the applicability of SDRs to NASA space missions in an operational space environment, which means that a proper model for system performance in said operational space environment is a necessary condition. The SCAN Testbed has line-of-sight connections to various ground stations with its S-Band Earth-facing Near-Earth Network Low Gain Antenna (NEN-LGA). Any previous efforts to characterize the NEN-LGA proved difficult, therefore, the NASA Glenn Research Center built its own S-Band ground station, which became operational in 2015, and has been successfully used to characterize the NEN-LGAs in-situ pattern measurements. This methodology allows for a more realistic characterization of the antenna performance, where the pattern oscillation induced by the complex ISS ground plane, as well as shadowing effects due to ISS structural blockage are included into the final performance model. This paper describes the challenges of characterizing an antenna pattern in this environment. It will also discuss the data processing, present the final antenna pattern measurements and derived model, as well as discuss various lessons learned.

  13. Conformation of poly(γ-glutamic acid) in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Muroga, Yoshio; Nakaya, Asami; Inoue, Atsuki; Itoh, Daiki; Abiru, Masaya; Wada, Kaori; Takada, Masako; Ikake, Hiroki; Shimizu, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    Local conformation and overall conformation of poly(γ-DL-glutamic acid) (PγDLGA) and poly(γ-L-glutamic acid) (PγLGA) in aqueous solution was studied as a function of degree of ionization ε by (1) H-NMR, circular dichroism, and potentiometric titration. It was clarified that their local conformation is represented by random coil over an entire ε range and their overall conformation is represented by expanded random-coil in a range of ε > ε(*) , where ε(*) is about 0.3, 0.35, 0.45, and 0.5 for added-salt concentration of 0.02M, 0.05M, 0.1M, and 0.2M, respectively. In a range of ε < ε(*) , however, ε dependence of their overall conformation is significantly differentiated from each other. PγDLGA tends to aggregate intramolecularly and/or intermolecularly with decreasing ε, but PγLGA still behaves as expanded random-coil. It is speculated that spatial arrangement of adjacent carboxyl groups along the backbone chain essentially affects the overall conformation of PγGA in acidic media.

  14. Youth Group Engagement in Noncompliant Communities During Supplemental Immunization Activities in Kaduna, Nigeria, in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Audu; Mkanda, Pascal; Manneh, Fadinding; Korir, Charles; Warigon, Charity; Gali, Emmanuel; Banda, Richard; Umeh, Gregory; Nsubuga, Peter; Chevez, Ana; Vaz, Rui G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. One of the major challenges being faced in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative program is persistent refusal of oral polio vaccine (OPV) and harassment of vaccination team members by youths. The objective of the study was to describe the strategy of collaborating with recognized youth groups to reduce team harassment during vaccination campaigns and improve vaccination coverage in noncompliant communities. Methods. We assessed data from polio vaccination activities in OPV-refusing communities in the Igabi and Zaria local government areas (LGAs) of Kaduna State in Nigeria. We evaluated the following factors to determine trends: enhanced independent monitoring data on the proportion of children missed by vaccination activities (hereafter, “missed children”), lot quality assurance surveys, and vaccination team harassment. Results. The proportion of missed children decreased in both LGAs after the intervention. In Igabi LGA and Zaria LGA, the lowest proportions of missed children before and after the intervention decreased from 7% to 2% and from 5% to 1%, respectively. Lot quality assurance survey trends showed an improvement in immunization coverage 1 year after youth groups' engagement in both LGAs. Conclusions. Systematic engagement of youth groups has a great future in polio interruption as we approach the endgame strategy for polio eradication. It promises to be a veritable innovation in reaching chronically missed children in OPV-refusing communities. PMID:26609003

  15. Positive Allosteric Modulation of mGluR5 Accelerates Extinction Learning but Not Relearning Following Methamphetamine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Kufahl, Peter R.; Hood, Lauren E.; Nemirovsky, Natali E.; Barabas, Piroska; Halstengard, Casey; Villa, Angel; Moore, Elisabeth; Watterson, Lucas R.; Olive, M. Foster

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated glutamate neurotransmission as an important substrate for the extinction of conditioned behaviors, including responding for drug reinforcement. Positive allosteric modulation of the type-5 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR5) in particular has emerged as a treatment strategy for the enhancement of extinction of drug-motivated behaviors. Here, we investigated the effects of the mGluR5 positive allosteric modulator CDPPB, a compound known for its cognitive enhancing effects in rodents, on extinction learning in rats with different histories of methamphetamine (METH) training. Rats were trained to self-administer METH under two conditions: 16 daily sessions of short access (90 min/day, ShA), or eight daily sessions of short access followed by eight sessions of long access (6 h/day, LgA). Control rats self-administered sucrose pellets in daily 30 min sessions. Next, rats were administered vehicle or 30 mg/kg CDPPB prior to seven consecutive daily extinction sessions, subjected to additional extinction sessions to re-establish a post-treatment baseline, and then tested for reinstatement of behavior in the presence of METH- or sucrose-paired cues. Rats were then subjected to a second series of extinction sessions, preceded by vehicle or 30 mg/kg CDPPB, and an additional test for cue-triggered reinstatement. CDPPB treatment resulted in a more rapid extinction of responding on the active lever, especially in the early sessions of the first extinction sequence. However, treatment effects were minimal during subsequent cue reinstatement tests and non-existent during the second series of extinction sessions. Rats with histories of ShA, LgA, and sucrose training expressed similar behavioral sensitivities to CDPPB, with LgA rats demonstrating a modestly higher treatment effect. Positive allosteric modulation of mGluR5 may therefore have some beneficial effects on efforts to facilitate extinction learning and reduce methamphetamine

  16. Income inequality and alcohol attributable harm in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dietze, Paul M; Jolley, Damien J; Chikritzhs, Tanya N; Clemens, Susan; Catalano, Paul; Stockwell, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Background There is little research on the relationship between key socioeconomic variables and alcohol related harms in Australia. The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between income inequality and the rates of alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and death at a local-area level in Australia. Method We conducted a cross sectional ecological analysis at a Local Government Area (LGA) level of associations between data on alcohol caused harms and income inequality data after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs. The main outcome measures used were matched rate ratios for four measures of alcohol caused harm; acute (primarily related to the short term consequences of drinking) and chronic (primarily related to the long term consequences of drinking) alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and acute and chronic alcohol-attributable death. Matching was undertaken using control conditions (non-alcohol-attributable) at an LGA level. Results A total of 885 alcohol-attributable deaths and 19467 alcohol-attributable hospitalisations across all LGAs were available for analysis. After weighting by the total number of cases in each LGA, the matched rate ratios of acute and chronic alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and chronic alcohol-attributable death were associated with the squared centred Gini coefficients of LGAs. This relationship was evident after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs. For both measures of hospitalisation the relationship was curvilinear; increases in income inequality were initially associated with declining rates of hospitalisation followed by large increases as the Gini coefficient increased beyond 0.15. The pattern for chronic alcohol-attributable death was similar, but without the initial decrease. There was no association between income inequality and acute alcohol-attributable death, probably due to the relatively small number of these types of death. Conclusion We found a

  17. Gestational Weight Gain and Obesity: Is 20 Pounds Too Much?

    PubMed Central

    Kominiarek, Michelle A.; Seligman, Neil S.; Dolin, Cara; Gao, Weihua; Berghella, Vincenzo; Hoffman, Matthew; Hibbard, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in obese women according to weight change and obesity class. Study design Cohort study from the Consortium on Safe Labor of 20,950 obese women with a singleton, term, livebirth from 2002–2008. Risk for adverse outcomes was calculated by multiple logistic regression analysis for weight change categories [weight loss (<0kg), low (0−4.9kg), normal (5.0−9.0kg), high weight gain (>9.0 kg)] in each obesity class (I 30.0−34.9kg/m2, II 35.0−39.9kg/m2, and III ≥40 kg/m2) and by predicted probabilities with weight change as a continuous variable. Results Weight loss was associated with decreased cesareans for class I women (nulliparas OR 0.21, 95%CI 0.11−0.42; multiparas OR 0.61, 95%CI 0.45−.83) and increased small for gestational age (SGA) infants (class I OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.3−2.5; class II OR 2.2, 95%CI 1.5−3.2; class III OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.1−2.6). High weight gain was associated with increased large for gestational age (LGA) infants (class I OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.9−2.9; class II OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3−2.1; class III OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.3−2.1). As weight change increased, the predicted probability for cesareans and LGA infants increased. The predicted probability of low birth weight never exceeded 4% for all obesity classes, but SGA increased with decreased weight change. The lowest average predicted probability of adverse outcomes (cesarean, postpartum hemorrhage, SGA, LGA, NICU admission) occurred when women (class I,II,III) lost weight. Conclusion Optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes appear to occur when weight gain is less than current IOM recommendations for obese women. Further study of long-term outcomes is needed with respect to gestational weight changes. PMID:23635421

  18. Placental expression profile of imprinted genes impacts birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Kappil, Maya A; Green, Benjamin B; Armstrong, David A; Sharp, Andrew J; Lambertini, Luca; Marsit, Carmen J; Chen, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The importance of imprinted genes in regulating feto-placental development has been long established. However, a comprehensive assessment of the role of placental imprinted gene expression on fetal growth has yet to be conducted. In this study, we examined the association between the placental expression of 108 established and putative imprinted genes and birth weight in 677 term pregnancies, oversampled for small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) infants. Using adjusted multinomial regression analyses, a 2-fold increase in the expression of 9 imprinted genes was positively associated with LGA status: BLCAP [odds ratio (OR) = 3.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.83, 7.82], DLK1 [OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.27, 2.09], H19 [OR = 2.79, 95% CI: 1.77, 4.42], IGF2 [OR = 1.43, 95% CI:1.31, 2.40], MEG3 [OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.71], MEST [OR = 4.78, 95% CI: 2.64, 8.65], NNAT [OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.86], NDN [OR = 2.52, 95% CI: 1.72, 3.68], and PLAGL1 [OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.40, 2.44]. For SGA status, a 2-fold increase in MEST expression was associated with decreased risk [OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.58], while a 2-fold increase in NNAT expression was associated with increased risk [OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1]. Following a factor analysis, all genes significantly associated with SGA or LGA status loaded onto 2 of the 8 gene-sets underlying the variability in the dataset. Our comprehensive placental profiling of imprinted genes in a large birth cohort supports the importance of these genes for fetal growth. Given that abnormal birth weight is implicated in numerous diseases and developmental abnormalities, the expression pattern of placental imprinted genes has the potential to be developed as a novel biomarker for postnatal health outcomes. PMID:26186239

  19. Early Gestational Weight Gain Rate and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun-Hee; Hur, Junguk; Lee, Kyung-Ju

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, many women gain excessive weight, which is related to adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. In this study, we evaluated whether rate of gestational weight gain (RGWG) in early, mid, and late pregnancy is strongly associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective chart review of 2,789 pregnant Korean women was performed. Weights were recorded at the first clinic visit, during the screening test for fetal anomaly, and during the 50g oral glucose challenge test and delivery, to represent early, mid, and late pregnancy, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes. At early pregnancy, the RGWG was significantly associated with high risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), large for gestational age (LGA) infants, macrosomia, and primary cesarean section (P-CS). The RGWG of mid pregnancy was not significantly associated with any adverse pregnancy outcomes. The RGWG at late pregnancy was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing GDM, preterm birth and P-CS, but with a higher risk of developing LGA infants and macrosomia. When the subjects were divided into three groups (Underweight, Normal, and Obese), based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), the relationship between early RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes was significantly different across the three BMI groups. At early pregnancy, RGWG was not significantly associated to adverse pregnancy outcomes for subjects in the Underweight group. In the Normal group, however, early RGWG was significantly associated with GDM, PIH, LGA infants, macrosomia, P-CS, and small for gestational weight (SGA) infants, whereas early RGWG was significantly associated with only a high risk of PIH in the Obese group. The results of our study suggest that early RGWG is significantly associated with various adverse pregnancy outcomes and that

  20. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma'anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma'anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn's gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  1. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  2. Guidelines for Selection, Screening and Qualification of Low-Voltage Commercial Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors for Space Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.

    2012-01-01

    This document has been developed in the course of NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) program and is not an official endorsement of the insertion of commercial capacitors in space programs or an established set of requirements for their testing. The purpose of this document is to suggest possible ways for selection, screening, and qualification of commercial capacitors for NASA projects and open discussions in the parts engineering community related to the use of COTS ceramic capacitors. This guideline is applicable to commercial surface mount chip, simple parallel plate design, multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) rated to voltages of 100V and less. Parts with different design, e.g. low inductance ceramic capacitors (LICA), land grid array (LGA) etc., might need additional testing and tailoring of the requirements described in this document. Although the focus of this document is on commercial MLCCs, many procedures discussed below would be beneficial for military-grade capacitors

  3. Knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning in rural communities in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aja, G N; Nwangwa, M A; Egwu, I N

    1995-01-01

    Maternal and infant mortality rates, coupled with a high population growth rate, are unacceptably high in Nigeria. More recently, the Nigerian government endorsed the promotion of reproductive health, including family planning, through maternal and child health services. The Ohaozara Local Government Area (LGA) introduced a Five-Year Action Plan (FYAP) in 1989. To appraise the Ohaozara Five-Year Action Plan, 600 persons stratified by geographical location and sex were interviewed in three randomly selected autonomous communities in the Ohaozara Local Government Area to determine their knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP). The findings in this study showed a high awareness level with a moderately positive attitude and generally low level of practice. Comprehensive reproductive health education (RHE), budgetary increase, evaluation of FYAP, and program coordination are recommended. PMID:9037803

  4. Analysis of the absorption spectra of gas emission of patients with lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by laser optoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yurii V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgenii L.

    2013-02-01

    It is important to identify patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer in the early stages of the disease. The method of laser opto-acoustic gas analysis, in this case, can act as a promising tool for diagnostics. The material for this study were the gas emission samples collected from patients and healthy volunteers - samples of exhaled air, swabs from teeth and cheeks. A set of material was formed three groups: healthy volunteers, patients with COPD, lung cancer patients. The resulting samples were analyzed by means of laser opto-acoustic gas analyzers: with intracavity location detector (ILPA-1), with extracavity location detector (LGA-2). Presentation of the results in an easy to visual form was performed using the method of elastic maps, based on the principal component analysis. The results of analysis show potentialities of usage of laser optoacoustic spectroscopy application to assess the status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer.

  5. Urinary schistosomiasis in rural communities of some local government areas in Plateau State, Nigeria: a preliminary parasitological and malacological survey.

    PubMed

    Akufongwe, P F; Dakul, D A; Michael, P D; Dajagat, P D; Arabs, W L

    1996-03-01

    A preliminary parasitological and malacological survey was effected in rural communities of some Local Government Areas (LGA) in Plateau State, Nigeria, to estimate the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and identify active transmission foci. Out of 2888 persons examined in six LGAs, 1381 (47.82%) were excreting eggs of Schistosoma haematobium in their urine. Prevalence rates did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) between the LGAs: Pankshin (62.4%), Shendam (40.2%), Qua'an-Pan (22.9%), Langtang South (45.4%), Langtang North (58.8%) and Wase (50.0%). Infection rates were significantly different (P < 0.001) between the sexes. Many water bodies in the study communities were colonized by infected Bulinus snails. Snail infection rates varied significantly (P < 0.001) between the dry and wet seasons. A positive correlation was observed between snail infection rates and the prevalence of S. haematobium. PMID:8960195

  6. Sexual dimorphism in epigenomicresponses of stem cells to extreme fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Delahaye, Fabien; Wijetunga, N. Ari; Heo, Hye J.; Tozour, Jessica N.; Zhao, Yong Mei; Greally, John M.; Einstein, Francine H.

    2014-01-01

    Extreme fetal growth is associated with increased susceptibility to a range of adult diseases through an unknown mechanism of cellular memory. We tested whether heritable epigenetic processes in long-lived CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) showed evidence for re-programming associated with the extremes of fetal growth. Here we show that both fetal growth restriction and over-growth are associated with global shifts towards DNA hypermethylation, targeting cis-regulatory elements in proximity to genes involved in glucose homeostasis and stem cell function. We find a sexually dimorphic response; intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with substantially greater epigenetic dysregulation in males, whereas large for gestational age (LGA) growth predominantly affects females. The findings are consistent with extreme fetal growth interacting with variable fetal susceptibility to influence cellular aging and metabolic characteristics through epigenetic mechanisms, potentially generating biomarkers that could identify infants at higher risk for chronic disease later in life. PMID:25300954

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of dioleoyl glyceric acids showing antitrypsin activity.

    PubMed

    Habe, Hiroshi; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Sato, Shun; Kitamoto, Dai; Sakaki, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    Previously, Lešová et al. reported the isolation and identification of metabolite OR-1, showing antitrypsin activity, produced during fermentation by Penicillium funiculosum. The structure of OR-1 was a mixture of glyceric acid (GA), esterified with C(14)-C(18) fatty acids, and oleic acid (C18:1) as the most predominant fatty acid (Folia Microbiol. 46, 21-23, 2001). In this study, dioleoyl D-GA and dioleoyl L-GA were synthesized via diesterification with oleoyl chloride, and their antitrypsin activities were evaluated using both a disk diffusion method and spectral absorption measurements. The results show that both compounds and their equivalent mixtures possess antitrypsin activities; however, their IC(50) values (approximately 2 mM) are much higher than that of OR-1 (4.25 µM), suggesting that dioleoyl GA does not play a major role in the OR-1 antitrypsin activity. PMID:21606621

  8. Joint and Independent Associations of Gestational Weight Gain and Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index with Outcomes of Pregnancy in Chinese Women: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunming; Liu, Yajun; Zhang, Weiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the joint and independent effects of gestational weight gain (GWG) and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) on pregnancy outcomes in a population of Chinese Han women and to evaluate pregnant women’s adherence to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) gestational weight gain guidelines. Methods This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of 48,867 primiparous women from mainland China who had a full-term singleton birth between January 1, 2011 and December 30, 2011. The independent associations of pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG and categories of combined pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with outcomes of interest were examined using an adjusted multivariate regression model. In addition, women with pre-pregnancy hypertension were excluded from the analysis of the relationship between GWG and delivery of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, and women with gestational diabetes (GDM) were excluded from the analysis of the relationship between GWG and delivery of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants. Results Only 36.8% of the women had a weight gain that was within the recommended range; 25% and 38.2% had weight gains that were below and above the recommended range, respectively. The contribution of GWG to the risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes was modest. Women with excessive GWG had an increased likelihood of gestational hypertension (adjusted OR 2.55; 95% CI = 1.92–2.80), postpartum hemorrhage (adjusted OR 1.30; 95% CI = 1.17–1.45), cesarean section (adjusted OR 1.31; 95% CI = 1.18–1.36) and delivery of an LGA infant (adjusted OR 2.1; 95% CI = 1.76–2.26) compared with women with normal weight gain. Conversely, the incidence of GDM (adjusted OR 1.64; 95% CI = 1.20–1.85) and SGA infants (adjusted OR 1.51; 95% CI = 1.32–1.72) was increased in the group of women with inadequate GWG. Moreover, in the obese women, excessive GWG was associated with an apparent increased risk of delivering an LGA infant. In the women who were

  9. A Staphylococcus xylosus isolate with a new mecC allotype.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ewan M; Paterson, Gavin K; Holden, Matthew T G; Morgan, Fiona J E; Larsen, Anders Rhod; Petersen, Andreas; Leroy, Sabine; De Vliegher, Sarne; Perreten, Vincent; Fox, Lawrence K; Lam, Theo J G M; Sampimon, Otlis C; Zadoks, Ruth N; Peacock, Sharon J; Parkhill, Julian; Holmes, Mark A

    2013-03-01

    Recently, a novel variant of mecA known as mecC (mecA(LGA251)) was identified in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from both humans and animals. In this study, we identified a Staphylococcus xylosus isolate that harbors a new allotype of the mecC gene, mecC1. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that mecC1 forms part of a class E mec complex (mecI-mecR1-mecC1-blaZ) located at the orfX locus as part of a likely staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec) remnant, which also contains a number of other genes present on the type XI SCCmec.

  10. Geographic variation of failure-to-rescue in public acute hospitals in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Assareh, Hassan; Ou, Lixin; Chen, Jack; Hillman, Kenneth; Flabouris, Arthas; Hollis, Stephanie J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wide acceptance of Failure-to-Rescue (FTR) as a patient safety indicator (defined as the deaths among surgical patients with treatable complications), no study has explored the geographic variation of FTR in a large health jurisdiction. Our study aimed to explore the spatiotemporal variations of FTR rates across New South Wales (NSW), Australia. We conducted a population-based study using all admitted surgical patients in public acute hospitals during 2002-2009 in NSW, Australia. We developed a spatiotemporal Poisson model using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) methods in a Bayesian framework to obtain area-specific adjusted relative risk. Local Government Area (LGA) was chosen as the areal unit. LGA-aggregated covariates included age, gender, socio-economic and remoteness index scores, distance between patient residential postcode and the treating hospital, and a quadratic time trend. We studied 4,285,494 elective surgical admissions in 82 acute public hospitals over eight years in NSW. Around 14% of patients who developed at least one of the six FTR-related complications (58,590) died during hospitalization. Of 153 LGAs, patients who lived in 31 LGAs, accommodating 48% of NSW patients at risk, were exposed to an excessive adjusted FTR risk (10% to 50%) compared to the state-average. They were mostly located in state's centre and western Sydney. Thirty LGAs with a lower adjusted FTR risk (10% to 30%), accommodating 8% of patients at risk, were mostly found in the southern parts of NSW and Sydney east and south. There were significant spatiotemporal variations of FTR rates across NSW over an eight-year span. Areas identified with significantly high and low FTR risks provide potential opportunities for policy-makers, clinicians and researchers to learn from the success or failure of adopting the best care for surgical patients and build a self-learning organisation and health system. PMID:25310260

  11. Validating the use of Medicare Australia billing data to examine trends in skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Eshini; Gnaneswaran, Neiraja; Perera, Marlon; Sinclair, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Background:  Epidemiological data surrounding non-melanomatous skin cancer (NMSC) is highly variable, in part due to the lack of government cancer registries. Several studies employ the use of Medical Australia (MA) rebate data in assessing such trends, the validity of which has not been studied in the past. Conversely, melanoma skin cancer is a notifiable disease, and thus, MA and cancer registry data is readily available. The aim of the current study is to assess the use of MA for epidemiological measures for skin cancers, by using melanoma as a disease sample. Methods:  Following ethics approval, data from MA and Victorian Cancer Registry (VCR) from 2004-2008 were extracted. Incidence of MA and VCR unique melanoma cases were compared and stratified by age and local government area (LGA). Regression and a paired-samples t-test were performed. Results: During the study period; 15,150 and 13,886 unique melanoma patients were identified through VCR and MA data sources respectively. An outlier in the >80­ year age group was noted between MA and VCR data. When stratified by age, significant correlation between MA and VCR was observed for all patients (gradient 0.91, R²= 0.936) and following exclusion of >80 patients (gradient 0.96, R²= 0.995). When stratified by LGA, a high degree of observation was observed for all patients (gradient 0.94, R²= 0.977) and following exclusion of >80 patients (gradient 0.996, R²= 0.975). Conclusion: Despite the inclusion of outlier data groups, acceptable correlation between MA and VCR melanoma data was observed, suggesting that MA may be suitable for assessing epidemiological trends. Such principals may be used to validate the use of MA data for similar calculations assessing NMSC trends. PMID:26937270

  12. Conditioned stress prevents cue-primed cocaine reinstatement only in stress-responsive rats.

    PubMed

    Hadad, Natalie A; Wu, Lizhen; Hiller, Helmut; Krause, Eric G; Schwendt, Marek; Knackstedt, Lori A

    2016-07-01

    Neurobiological mechanisms underlying comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cocaine use disorder (CUD) are unknown. We aimed to develop an animal model of PTSD + CUD to examine the neurobiology underlying cocaine-seeking in the presence of PTSD comorbidity. Rats were exposed to cat urine once for 10-minutes and tested for anxiety-like behaviors one week later. Subsequently, rats underwent long-access (LgA) cocaine self-administration and extinction training. Rats were re-exposed to the trauma context and then immediately tested for cue-primed reinstatement of cocaine-seeking. Plasma and brains were collected afterwards for corticosterone assays and real-time qPCR analysis. Urine-exposed (UE; n = 23) and controls not exposed to urine (Ctrl; n = 11) did not differ in elevated plus maze behavior, but UE rats displayed significantly reduced habituation of the acoustic startle response (ASR) relative to Ctrl rats. A median split of ASR habituation scores was used to classify stress-responsive rats. UE rats (n = 10) self-administered more cocaine on Day 1 of LgA than control rats (Ctrl + Coc; n = 8). Re-exposure to the trauma context prevented cocaine reinstatement only in stress-responsive rats. Ctrl + Coc rats had lower plasma corticosterone concentrations than Ctrls, and decreased gene expression of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and Glcci1 in the hippocampus. Rats that self-administered cocaine displayed greater CRH expression in the amygdala that was independent of urine exposure. While we did not find that cat urine exposure induced a PTSD-like phenotype in our rats, the present study underscores the need to separate stressed rats into cohorts based on anxiety-like behavior in order to study individual vulnerability to PTSD + CUD.

  13. Inter-pregnancy weight change impacts placental weight and is associated with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the second pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The inter-pregnancy period is considered a teachable moment when women are receptive to weight- management guidance aimed at optimising pregnancy outcome in subsequent pregnancies. In population based studies inter-pregnancy weight change is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes but the impact on placental size is unknown. Methods The association between inter-pregnancy weight change and the primary risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the second pregnancy was investigated in 12,740 women with first two consecutive deliveries at a single hospital using logistic regression. Results Compared with women who were weight stable, weight loss (>1BMI unit) between pregnancies was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery, low placental weight and small for gestational age (SGA) birth, while weight gain (>3BMI units) increased the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, emergency caesarean section, placental oversize and large for gestational age (LGA) birth at the second pregnancy. The relationship between weight gain and pre-eclampsia risk was evident in women who were overweight at first pregnancy only (BMI ≥25 units), while that between weight loss and preterm delivery was confined to women with a healthy weight at first pregnancy (BMI <25 units). In contrast, the association between weight loss and SGA was independent of first pregnancy BMI. A higher percentage of women who were obese at first pregnancy were likely to experience a large weight gain (P < 0.01) or weight loss (P < 0.001) between consecutive pregnancies compared with the normal BMI reference group. Conclusion Inter-pregnancy weight change in either direction increases the risk of a number of contrasting pregnancy complications, including extremes of placental weight. The placenta may lie on the causal pathway between BMI change and the risk of LGA or SGA birth. PMID:24450357

  14. Spontaneously induced prophages in Lactobacillus gasseri contribute to horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Baugher, J L; Durmaz, E; Klaenhammer, T R

    2014-06-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri is an endogenous species of the human gastrointestinal tract and vagina. With recent advances in microbial taxonomy, phylogenetics, and genomics, L. gasseri is recognized as an important commensal and is increasingly being used in probiotic formulations. L. gasseri strain ADH is lysogenic and harbors two inducible prophages. In this study, prophage adh was found to spontaneously induce in broth cultures to populations of ∼ 10(7) PFU/ml by stationary phase. The adh prophage-cured ADH derivative NCK102 was found to harbor a new, second inducible phage, vB_Lga_jlb1 (jlb1). Phage jlb1 was sequenced and found to be highly similar to the closely related phage LgaI, which resides as two tandem prophages in the neotype strain L. gasseri ATCC 33323. The common occurrence of multiple prophages in L. gasseri genomes, their propensity for spontaneous induction, and the high degree of homology among phages within multiple species of Lactobacillus suggest that temperate bacteriophages likely contribute to horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in commensal lactobacilli. In this study, the host ranges of phages adh and jlb1 were determined against 16 L. gasseri strains. The transduction range and the rate of spontaneous transduction were investigated in coculture experiments to ascertain the degree to which prophages can promote HGT among a variety of commensal and probiotic lactobacilli. Both adh and jlb1 particles were confirmed to mediate plasmid transfer. As many as ∼10(3) spontaneous transductants/ml were obtained. HGT by transducing phages of commensal lactobacilli may have a significant impact on the evolution of bacteria within the human microbiota. PMID:24682298

  15. Mapping knowledge management resources of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) among people living in rural and urban settings of Ilorin, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bolarinwa, Oladimeji Akeem; Ameen, Hafsat Abolore; Durowade, Kabir Adekunle; Akande, Tanimola Makanjuola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lack of access to information and knowledge about mother and child health was identified as a major contributor to poor maternal and child health in Nigeria. The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (PMNCH) has recognized mapping the knowledge management of Maternal Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) as one of the major strategies to be deployed in improving the health of these vulnerable groups. The main aim of this study is to map the knowledge management resources of Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) in rural and urban settings of Ilorin West LGA of Kwara state Nigeria. Methods It is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a comparative analysis of findings from urban and rural settings. Epi-mapping was used to carve out the LGA and map responses. The p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant at 95% confidence level. Results The study showed that traditional leader was responsible for more than half of the traditional way of obtaining information by rural (66.7%) and urban (56.2%) respondents while documentation accounts for the main MNCH knowledge preservation for the rural (40.6%) and the urban (50%) dwellers. Traditional leaders (32.2%) and elders (46.7%) were the main people responsible for dissemination of knowledge in rural areas whereas elders (35.9%) and Parents (19.9%) were the main people responsible in urban areas. Conclusion It was concluded that traditional and family institutions are important in the knowledge management of MNCH in both rural and urban settings of Nigeria. PMID:24932345

  16. Electrochemical oxidation and protein adduct formation of aniline: a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry study.

    PubMed

    Melles, Daniel; Vielhaber, Torsten; Baumann, Anne; Zazzeroni, Raniero; Karst, Uwe

    2012-04-01

    Historically, skin sensitization tests are typically based on in vivo animal tests. However, for substances used in cosmetic products, these tests have to be replaced according to the European Commission regulation no. 1223/2009. Modification of skin proteins by electrophilic chemicals is a key process associated with the induction of skin sensitization. The present study investigates the capabilities of a purely instrumental setup to determine the potential of commonly used non-electrophilic chemicals to cause skin sensitization by the generation of electrophilic species from the parent compound. In this work, the electrophiles were generated by the electrochemical oxidation of aniline, a basic industrial chemical which may also be released from azo dyes in cosmetics. The compound is a known sensitizer and was oxidized in an electrochemical thin-layer cell which was coupled online to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The electrochemical oxidation was performed on a boron-doped diamond working electrode, which is able to generate hydroxyl radicals in aqueous solutions at high potentials. Without any pretreatment, the oxidation products were identified by electrospray ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-ToF-MS) using their exact masses. A mass voltammogram was generated by plotting the obtained mass spectra against the applied potential. Oligomerization states with up to six monomeric units in different redox states of aniline were observed using this setup. This approach was extended to generate adducts between the oxidation products of aniline and the tripeptide glutathione. Two adducts were identified with this trapping experiment. Protein modification was carried out subsequently: Aniline was oxidized at a constant potential and was allowed to react with β-lactoglobulin A (β-LGA) or human serum albumin (HSA), respectively. The generated adducts were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to ESI-ToF-MS. For both β-LGA and HSA, aniline

  17. Two-scale treatment of low-grazing-angle scattering from spilling breaker water waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, James C.; Ja, Shiou-Jyh

    2002-07-01

    A two-scale scattering analysis is applied to two series of profiles that represent the measured time evolution of the crests of spilling breaker waves that were mechanically generated and measured in a wave tank. The backscattering at microwave frequencies and low-grazing-angle (LGA) illumination were considered. A deterministic implementation of the perturbation theory that is the foundation of any two-scale scattering model (TSM) is used that allows an instantaneous comparison of TSM cross sections with reference ``exact'' cross sections found using a numerical moment-method-based electromagnetic approach. TSM proved unable to model the scattering from steep features that appear on the crest both before and after the onset of breaking, even in cases where the horizontal-to-vertical polarization ratios are as low as -10 dB. This shows that the ``fast'' scattering (with Doppler speeds greater than or equal to the velocity of the breaker) associated with these features is not due to Bragg scattering in the traditional sense in these cases despite the low polarization ratios. TSM is more accurate after the steep features subside and the turbulent ``scar'' roughness is primarily on the front face of the breaker. However, accuracy is lost as the wave propagates and the scar roughness moves to the crest top and back face of the wave. It appears that a scattering coefficient based on the spectral content of the roughness at the Bragg-resonant condition can provide only a rough estimate of the actual LGA scattering coefficient even after the major steep features have disappeared.

  18. Conditioned stress prevents cue-primed cocaine reinstatement only in stress-responsive rats.

    PubMed

    Hadad, Natalie A; Wu, Lizhen; Hiller, Helmut; Krause, Eric G; Schwendt, Marek; Knackstedt, Lori A

    2016-07-01

    Neurobiological mechanisms underlying comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cocaine use disorder (CUD) are unknown. We aimed to develop an animal model of PTSD + CUD to examine the neurobiology underlying cocaine-seeking in the presence of PTSD comorbidity. Rats were exposed to cat urine once for 10-minutes and tested for anxiety-like behaviors one week later. Subsequently, rats underwent long-access (LgA) cocaine self-administration and extinction training. Rats were re-exposed to the trauma context and then immediately tested for cue-primed reinstatement of cocaine-seeking. Plasma and brains were collected afterwards for corticosterone assays and real-time qPCR analysis. Urine-exposed (UE; n = 23) and controls not exposed to urine (Ctrl; n = 11) did not differ in elevated plus maze behavior, but UE rats displayed significantly reduced habituation of the acoustic startle response (ASR) relative to Ctrl rats. A median split of ASR habituation scores was used to classify stress-responsive rats. UE rats (n = 10) self-administered more cocaine on Day 1 of LgA than control rats (Ctrl + Coc; n = 8). Re-exposure to the trauma context prevented cocaine reinstatement only in stress-responsive rats. Ctrl + Coc rats had lower plasma corticosterone concentrations than Ctrls, and decreased gene expression of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and Glcci1 in the hippocampus. Rats that self-administered cocaine displayed greater CRH expression in the amygdala that was independent of urine exposure. While we did not find that cat urine exposure induced a PTSD-like phenotype in our rats, the present study underscores the need to separate stressed rats into cohorts based on anxiety-like behavior in order to study individual vulnerability to PTSD + CUD. PMID:27181613

  19. Eradicating guinea worm without wells: unrealized hopes of the Water Decade.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Otusanya, S; Adeniyi, J D; Tijani, J; Banjoko, M

    1997-12-01

    At the start of the United Nations International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in the 1980s, guinea worm disease was targeted as the major indicator of the success of the Decade's efforts to promote safe water. By the late 1980s, most of the guinea worm endemic countries in Africa and South Asia had established guinea worm eradication programmes that included water supply as one of their main technical strategies. By surveying the water supply situation in Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) in Oyo State, Nigeria, in June 1996, as a case study, it was possible to determine the role that water supply has played in the eradication effort. Although two major agencies, the former Directorate for Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure and UNICEF, provided hand dug and bore-hole wells respectively in many parts of the LGA, coverage of the smaller farm hamlets has been minor compared to efforts in the larger towns. This is ironic because the farm hamlets served as a reservoir for the disease in the 1980s, such that when the piped water system in the towns broke down, guinea worm was easily reintroduced into the towns. The survey of 188 ever-endemic hamlets with an estimated population of 23,556 found that 74.3% of the people still drink only pond water. Another 11.3% have wells that have become dysfunctional. Only 14.4% of this rural population has access' to functioning wells. Guinea worm was eliminated from 107 of the hamlets mainly by the use of cloth filters and chemical treatment of ponds. While this proves that it is possible to eradicate guinea worm, it fails to leave behind the legacy of reliable, safe water supplies that was the hope of the Water Decade.

  20. MRSA carrying mecC in captive mara

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa-Gongora, C.; Harrison, E. M.; Moodley, A.; Guardabassi, L.; Holmes, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus ST130 isolated from mara (Dolichotis patagonum), a large rodent species native to South America and kept in captivity at Copenhagen Zoo. Methods The presence of mecC was confirmed by PCR in 15 S. aureus ST130 isolated from mara during a previous study. WGS was performed on two randomly selected isolates to characterize their genomes with respect to SCCmec, virulence and resistance gene content. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested using commercial broth microdilution tests. Results All the isolates belonged to spa type t528 ST130 and carried mecC. Based on WGS, mecC was 100% identical to the prototype sequence of S. aureus strain LGA251. The sequence of SCCmec type XI in the mara isolates had 23 SNPs compared with the one described in LGA251. The two sequenced strains harboured a set of virulence factors and other genomic features previously observed in ST130. Both strains carried norA as the only putative antimicrobial resistance gene in addition to mecC. Conclusions Our findings support the notion that a genetically conserved mecC-carrying MRSA ST130 clone is widespread in a variety of unrelated hosts in Denmark. Since the mara at Copenhagen Zoo have limited contact with humans and other animal species, it remains unclear whether mara are natural hosts of ST130 or acquired this lineage from unknown sources. The broad host range of MRSA ST130 supports its designation as a generalist lineage. PMID:25722301

  1. Association of Second and Third Trimester Weight Gain in Pregnancy with Maternal and Fetal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Drehmer, Michele; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Kac, Gilberto; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between weekly weight gain, during the second and third trimesters, classified according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM/NRC) recommendations, and maternal and fetal outcomes. Methods Gestational weight gain was evaluated in 2,244 pregnant women of the Brazilian Study of Gestational Diabetes (Estudo Brasileiro do Diabetes Gestacional – EBDG). Outcomes were cesarean delivery, preterm birth and small or large for gestational age birth (SGA, LGA). Associations between inadequate weight gain and outcomes were estimated using robust Poisson regression adjusting for pre-pregnancy body mass index, trimester-specific weight gain, age, height, skin color, parity, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Results In fully adjusted models, in the second trimester, insufficient weight gain was associated with SGA (relative risk [RR] 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26–2.33), and excessive weight gain with LGA (RR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16–2.31); in third trimester, excessive weight gain with preterm birth (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.08–2.70) and cesarean delivery (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.03–1.44). Women with less than recommended gestational weight gain in the 2nd trimester had a lesser risk of cesarean deliveries (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.71–0.96) than women with adequate gestational weight gain in this trimester. Conclusion Though insufficient weight gain in the 3rd trimester was not associated with adverse outcomes, other deviations from recommended weight gain during second and third trimester were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. These findings support, in part, the 2009 IOM/NRC recommendations for nutritional monitoring during pregnancy. PMID:23382944

  2. miRNA regulation of Sirtuin-1 expression in human astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Sara Giovanna; Conti, Alfredo; Polito, Francesca; Tomasello, Chiara; Barresi, Valeria; La Torre, Domenico La; Cucinotta, Maria; Angileri, Flavio Filippo; Bartolotta, Marcello; Di Giorgio, Rosa Maria; Aguennouz, M'Hammed

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuins are a family of 7 histone deacetylases largely involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival and death. The role of sirtuins in tumorigenesis and cancer progression has been previously studied in certain cancer types. Few studies have investigated sirtuin expression in gliomas, with controversial results. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1) in diffuse astrocytoma [low grade astrocytoma (LGA)], anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and in primary glioma cell lines: PLGAC (primary LGA cells); PAAC (primary AA cells); and PGBMC (primary GBM cells). Tumor samples were obtained from patients who underwent craniotomy for microsurgical tumor resection at the Neurosurgery Unit of the University of Messina between 2011 and 2014. Sirt-1 expression was qualitatively analyzed in 30 human glial tumor samples and 5 non-neoplastic brain tissue (NBT) specimens using immunohistochemistry and western blotting techniques. Sirt-1 expression was quantitatively analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). In addition, Sirt-1 expression in primary cell lines was investigated by immunoblotting and RT-qPCR. Sirt-1 expression was downregulated in gliomas compared to NBTs. Sirt-1 levels also varied among different tumor grades, with more evident downregulation in high-grade (P<0.001) than low-grade tumors (P<0.01). These data were confirmed in cell lines, with the exception of upregulation of protein level in the highest malignancy grade cell lines. The present results suggest a role for miRNA-34a, miRNA-132 and miRNA-217 in the epigenetic control of Sirt-1 during gliomagenesis and progression, and demonstrate the different implications of Sirt-1 in human tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, the present results reveal that Sirt-1 may be an intrinsic regulator of tumor progression and the regulation of Sirt-1 involves complex molecular pathways. However, the

  3. Association Between Hearing Impairment and Albuminuria in the Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the associations between albuminuria and renal and cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and hypertension, have been extensively studied, few studies have investigated the association between albuminuria and hearing impairment. In this study, we assessed the relationship between albuminuria and hearing impairment in 9786 adult Korean subjects, using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) performed in 2011–2012. The range of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) was divided into 4 grades: grade 1 (first tertile of low-grade albuminuria [LGA]), 0.00 to 1.99 mg/g Cr; grade 2 (second tertile of LGA), 2.00 to 5.49 mg/g Cr; grade 3 (third tertile of LGA), 5.50 to 29.99 mg/g Cr; grade 4 (albuminuria), ≥30.00 mg/g Cr. The age- and sex-adjusted weighted UACR was higher in subjects with hearing impairment compared with those without hearing impairment (26.2 ± 4.7 mg/g Cr vs 14.1 ± 1.5 mg/g Cr, P = 0.020). The age- and sex-adjusted weighted prevalence of albuminuria was also higher in subjects with hearing impairment compared with subjects without hearing impairment. (8.3 ± 0.9% vs 5.8 ± 0.4%, P = 0.013) The age- and sex-adjusted weighted percentage of hearing impairment increased as UACR increased (18.0% ± 0.6%, 20.0% ± 0.8%, 22.2% ± 0.9%, 25.3% ± 2.0%, respectively; P < 0.001). Logistic regression analyses were performed for hearing impairment by albuminuria, with age, sex, tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, educational background, occupational noise exposure, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, total serum cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 as covariates. Using grade 1 of UACR as the control, grade 3 (odds ratio [OR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.53, P = 0.005) and grade 4 (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.04–1.90, P = 0.026) of UACR were correlated with hearing impairment, respectively

  4. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Palomino, Ana; Pavón, Francisco-Javier; Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Arrabal, Sergio; Rivera, Patricia; Alén, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rubio, Leticia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum's intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB) and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression {cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptors and enzymes that produce [diacylglycerol lipase alpha/beta (DAGLα/β) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD)] and degrade [monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amino hydrolase (FAAH)] eCB} were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system [glutamate synthesizing enzymes liver-type glutaminase isoform (LGA) and kidney-type glutaminase isoform (KGA), metabotropic glutamatergic receptor (mGluR3/5), NMDA-ionotropic glutamatergic receptor (NR1/2A/2B/2C) and AMPA-ionotropic receptor subunits (GluR1/2/3/4)] and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and

  5. The mGluR2 Positive Allosteric Modulator BINA Decreases Cocaine Self-Administration and Cue-Induced Cocaine-Seeking and Counteracts Cocaine-Induced Enhancement of Brain Reward Function in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xinchun; Semenova, Svetlana; Yang, Li; Ardecky, Robert; Sheffler, Douglas J; Dahl, Russell; Conn, P Jeffrey; Cosford, Nicholas DP; Markou, Athina

    2010-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 (mGluR2/3) agonists were shown previously to nonselectively decrease both cocaine- and food-maintained responding in rats. mGluR2 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) may represent improved therapeutic compounds because of their modulatory properties and higher selectivity for mGluR2. We analyzed the effects of the selective, brain penetrant, and systemically active mGluR2 PAM potassium 3′-([(2-cyclopentyl-6-7-dimethyl-1-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)oxy]methyl)biphenyl l-4-carboxylate (BINA) and the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 on intravenous cocaine self-administration and cocaine-seeking behavior in rats that had short (1 h, ShA) or long (6 h, LgA) access to cocaine. The effects of BINA on food responding and food-seeking behavior were also analyzed. Finally, we examined the effects of BINA on brain reward function and cocaine-induced reward enhancement using the intracranial self-stimulation procedure. BINA decreased cocaine self-administration in both ShA and LgA rats, with no effect on food self-administration. Alternatively, LY379268 nonselectively decreased both cocaine and food self-administration. BINA decreased cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking with no effect on food seeking. The cocaine-induced enhancement of brain reward function was blocked by BINA, although the highest doses of BINA decreased brain reward function when administered alone, suggesting additive, rather than interactive, effects of BINA and cocaine. In conclusion, BINA attenuated the reinforcing and counteracted the reward-enhancing effects of cocaine and decreased cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior, without affecting behaviors motivated by food reinforcement. The higher selectivity of BINA compared with an mGluR2/3 agonist for drug- vs food-motivated behaviors suggests a therapeutic role for mGluR2 PAMs for the treatment of cocaine addiction and possibly other drugs of abuse. PMID:20555310

  6. The association between maternal hyperglycemia and perinatal outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus patients: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hee Young; Jung, Inkyung; Kim, So Jung

    2016-09-01

    Pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are associated with increased risks of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. The risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes differ depending on the glucose values among GDM patients. For accurate and effective prenatal counseling, it is necessary to understand the relationship between different maternal hyperglycemia values and the severity of adverse outcomes. With this objective, this study reexamines the relationship between maternal hyperglycemia versus maternal and perinatal outcomes in GDM patients. For this study, maternal hyperglycemia was diagnosed using the 2-step diagnostic approach.Medical records of 3434 pregnant women, who received the 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) between March 2001 and April 2013, were reviewed. As a result, 307 patients were diagnosed with GDM, and they were divided into 2 groups according to their fasting glucose levels. A total of 171 patients had normal fasting glucose level (<95 mg/dL), and 136 patients had abnormal fasting glucose level (≥95 mg/dL). The 50-g GCT results were subdivided by 20-unit increments (140-159, n = 123; 160-179, n = 84; 180-199, n = 50; and ≥200, n = 50), and the maternal and perinatal outcomes were compared against the normal 50-g GCT group (n = 307).Maternal fasting blood glucose (FBG) level showed clear association with adverse perinatal outcomes. The odds ratio (OR) of macrosomia was 6.72 (95% CI: 2.59-17.49, P < 0.001) between the 2 groups. The ORs of large for gestational age (LGA) and neonatal hypoglycemia were 3.75 (95% CI: 1.97-7.12, P < 0.001) and 1.65 (95% CI: 0.79-3.43, P  =  0.183), respectively. Also, the results of the 50-g GCT for each category showed strong association with increased risks of adverse perinatal outcomes compared to the normal 50-g GCT group. The OR of macrosomia (up to 20.31-fold), LGA (up to 6.15-fold), and neonatal hypoglycemia (up to 84.00-fold) increased with increasing 50-g GCT result

  7. Baclofen has opposite effects on escalation of cocaine self-administration: increased intake in rats selectively bred for high (HiS) saccharin intake and decreased intake in those selected for low (LoS) saccharin intake.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Nathan A; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2011-12-01

    Rats selectively bred for high saccharin intake (HiS) self-administer more cocaine, escalate their cocaine intake during long access, and reinstate cocaine seeking at higher levels than those bred for low saccharin intake (LoS). The present study was conducted to determine if baclofen, an agonist at the GABA(b) receptor, has differential effects on the escalation of i.v. cocaine intake and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in HiS and LoS rats. HiS and LoS rats self-administered cocaine during a 2-h daily short-access (ShA) phase for 3 days and then long-access (LgA) sessions for 21 days followed by a second ShA phase. One group of HiS and LoS rats received i.p. injections of 2.5 mg/kg baclofen (HiS+B and LoS+B, respectively), and other groups of HiS and LoS rats received saline (HiS+Sal and LoS+Sal) before each daily session. In a second experiment, HiS and LoS rats self-administered i.v. cocaine during 2-h sessions for 14 days followed by a 21-day extinction period. Baclofen (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline was administered before saline- or cocaine-primed reinstatement sessions. The HiS+B group escalated their cocaine self-administration and had increased cocaine infusions in the post-LgA ShA phase. The LoS+B group self-administered less cocaine throughout the entire LgA period compared to the LoS+Sal or HiS groups. Baclofen attenuated reinstatement of cocaine seeking in both the HiS and LoS rats with no phenotype differences. Thus, baclofen had opposite effects on cocaine intake in HiS and LoS rats during escalation; but similar effects during reinstatement. These results suggest that treatment effects might vary with individual differences (HiS vs. LoS) and the phase of drug-motivated behavior that is modeled.

  8. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Palomino, Ana; Pavón, Francisco-Javier; Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Arrabal, Sergio; Rivera, Patricia; Alén, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rubio, Leticia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum's intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB) and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression {cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptors and enzymes that produce [diacylglycerol lipase alpha/beta (DAGLα/β) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD)] and degrade [monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amino hydrolase (FAAH)] eCB} were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system [glutamate synthesizing enzymes liver-type glutaminase isoform (LGA) and kidney-type glutaminase isoform (KGA), metabotropic glutamatergic receptor (mGluR3/5), NMDA-ionotropic glutamatergic receptor (NR1/2A/2B/2C) and AMPA-ionotropic receptor subunits (GluR1/2/3/4)] and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and

  9. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Palomino, Ana; Pavón, Francisco-Javier; Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Arrabal, Sergio; Rivera, Patricia; Alén, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rubio, Leticia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum’s intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB) and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression {cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptors and enzymes that produce [diacylglycerol lipase alpha/beta (DAGLα/β) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD)] and degrade [monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amino hydrolase (FAAH)] eCB} were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system [glutamate synthesizing enzymes liver-type glutaminase isoform (LGA) and kidney-type glutaminase isoform (KGA), metabotropic glutamatergic receptor (mGluR3/5), NMDA-ionotropic glutamatergic receptor (NR1/2A/2B/2C) and AMPA-ionotropic receptor subunits (GluR1/2/3/4)] and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and

  10. Classical nucleation theory with a radius-dependent surface tension: a two-dimensional lattice-gas automata model.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Joseph; L'Heureux, Ivan

    2013-02-01

    The constant surface tension assumption of the Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT) is known to be flawed. In order to probe beyond this limitation, we consider a microscopic, two-dimensional Lattice-Gas Automata (LGA) model of nucleation in a supersaturated system, with model input parameters E(ss) (solid particle-to-solid particle bonding energy), E(sw) (solid particle-to-water bonding energy), η (next-to-nearest-neighbor bonding coefficient in solid phase), and C(in) (initial solute concentration). The LGA method has the advantages of easy implementation, low memory requirements, and fast computation speed. Analytical results for the system's concentration and the crystal radius as functions of time are derived and the former is fit to the simulation data in order to determine the equilibrium concentration. The "Mean First-Passage Time" technique is used to obtain the nucleation rate and critical nucleus size from the simulation data. The nucleation rate and supersaturation data are evaluated using a modification to the CNT that incorporates a two-dimensional radius-dependent surface tension term. The Tolman parameter, δ, which controls the radius dependence of the surface tension, decreases (increases) as a function of the magnitude of E(ss) (E(sw)), at fixed values of η and E(sw) (E(ss)). On the other hand, δ increases as η increases while E(ss) and E(sw) are held constant. The constant surface tension term of the CNT, Σ(0), increases (decreases) with increasing magnitudes of E(ss) (E(sw)) at fixed values of E(sw) (E(ss)) and increases as η is increased. Σ(0) increases linearly as a function of the change in energy during an attachment or detachment reaction, |ΔE|, however, with a slope less than that predicted for a crystal that is uniformly packed at maximum density. These results indicate an increase in the radius-dependent surface tension, Σ, with respect to increasing magnitude of the difference between E(ss) and E(sw).

  11. The association between maternal hyperglycemia and perinatal outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Young; Jung, Inkyung; Kim, So Jung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are associated with increased risks of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. The risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes differ depending on the glucose values among GDM patients. For accurate and effective prenatal counseling, it is necessary to understand the relationship between different maternal hyperglycemia values and the severity of adverse outcomes. With this objective, this study reexamines the relationship between maternal hyperglycemia versus maternal and perinatal outcomes in GDM patients. For this study, maternal hyperglycemia was diagnosed using the 2-step diagnostic approach. Medical records of 3434 pregnant women, who received the 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) between March 2001 and April 2013, were reviewed. As a result, 307 patients were diagnosed with GDM, and they were divided into 2 groups according to their fasting glucose levels. A total of 171 patients had normal fasting glucose level (<95 mg/dL), and 136 patients had abnormal fasting glucose level (≥95 mg/dL). The 50-g GCT results were subdivided by 20-unit increments (140–159, n = 123; 160–179, n = 84; 180–199, n = 50; and ≥200, n = 50), and the maternal and perinatal outcomes were compared against the normal 50-g GCT group (n = 307). Maternal fasting blood glucose (FBG) level showed clear association with adverse perinatal outcomes. The odds ratio (OR) of macrosomia was 6.72 (95% CI: 2.59–17.49, P < 0.001) between the 2 groups. The ORs of large for gestational age (LGA) and neonatal hypoglycemia were 3.75 (95% CI: 1.97–7.12, P < 0.001) and 1.65 (95% CI: 0.79–3.43, P  =  0.183), respectively. Also, the results of the 50-g GCT for each category showed strong association with increased risks of adverse perinatal outcomes compared to the normal 50-g GCT group. The OR of macrosomia (up to 20.31-fold), LGA (up to 6.15-fold), and neonatal hypoglycemia (up to 84.00-fold) increased with

  12. Celiac Axis, Common Hepatic and Hepatic Artery Variants as Evidenced on MDCT Angiography in South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With the increase in the hepatobiliary, pancreatic surgeries and liver transplantation, being aware of the anatomic variations of the celiac axis and the hepatic arteries is of paramount importance. Aim To illustrate the normal anatomy and variants of the celiac axis and the hepatic arteries with multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography in South Indian population and determine the potential variations in the celiac axis anatomy and the hepatic arteries, thus assisting the hepatobiliary surgeon and the interventional radiologist in avoiding iatrogenic injury to the arteries. Materials and Methods Two hundred patients undergoing abdominal CT angiography from July 2014 till July 2015 were retrospectively studied for hepatic arterial and celiac axis anatomical variation. The anatomic variations in our study were correlated with other studies. Results The celiac axis (CA) and the hepatic artery (HA) variations were analysed as per criteria laid by Song et al., and Michel. Out of 15 possible CA variations, 5 types of celiac artery variations were seen in 14 patients. A normal CA was seen in 179(89.5%) patients of the 200 patients. In the remaining 7 patients, the CA anatomy was classified as ambiguous since there was separate origin of the right and left hepatic arteries from the CA with absent common hepatic artery (CHA). The CHA originated normally from the celiac axis in 94% of the cases. Variation of CHA origin was seen in 5 patients. Normal HA anatomy was seen in 114 (57%) patients. Variation in HA anatomy was seen in 86 (43%) patients. Origin of the right hepatic artery (RHA) from the hepatic artery proper was seen in 182 (91%) patients and replaced origin of RHA from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was seen in 18 (9%) of the cases. Accessory RHA was seen in 7(3.5%) patients. The left hepatic artery (LHA) originated from the hepatic artery proper in 186 (93%) patients and replaced origin of LHA from the left gastric artery (LGA) was

  13. Supporting breastfeeding In Local Communities (SILC) in Victoria, Australia: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, Helen L; Forster, Della A; Amir, Lisa H; Cullinane, Meabh; Shafiei, Touran; Watson, Lyndsey F; Ridgway, Lael; Cramer, Rhian L; Small, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Breastfeeding has significant health benefits for mothers and infants. Despite recommendations from the WHO, by 6 months of age 40% of Australian infants are receiving no breast milk. Increased early postpartum breastfeeding support may improve breastfeeding maintenance. 2 community-based interventions to increase breastfeeding duration in local government areas (LGAs) in Victoria, Australia, were implemented and evaluated. Design 3-arm cluster randomised trial. Setting LGAs in Victoria, Australia. Participants LGAs across Victoria with breastfeeding initiation rates below the state average and > 450 births/year were eligible for inclusion. The LGA was the unit of randomisation, and maternal and child health centres in the LGAs comprised the clusters. Interventions Early home-based breastfeeding support by a maternal and child health nurse (home visit, HV) with or without access to a community-based breastfeeding drop-in centre (HV+drop-in). Main outcome measures The proportion of infants receiving ‘any’ breast milk at 3, 4 and 6 months (women's self-report). Findings 4 LGAs were randomised to the comparison arm and provided usual care (n=41 clusters; n=2414 women); 3 to HV (n=32 clusters; n=2281 women); and 3 to HV+drop-in (n=26 clusters; 2344 women). There was no difference in breastfeeding at 4 months in either HV (adjusted OR 1.04; 95% CI 0.84 to 1.29) or HV+drop-in (adjusted OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.78 to 1.08) compared with the comparison arm, no difference at 3 or 6 months, nor in any LGA in breastfeeding before and after the intervention. Some issues were experienced with intervention protocol fidelity. Conclusions Early home-based and community-based support proved difficult to implement. Interventions to increase breastfeeding in complex community settings require sufficient time and partnership building for successful implementation. We cannot conclude that additional community-based support is ineffective in improving breastfeeding

  14. Airport-related air pollution and noise.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Beverly S; Bronzaft, Arline L; Heikkinen, Maire; Goodman, Jerome; Nádas, Arthur

    2008-02-01

    To provide quantitative evidence of the impact on people of a neighboring metropolitan airport, La Guardia Airport (LGA) in New York City, (1) airborne particulate matter (PM) was measured to determine whether concentration differences could be detected between homes that are upwind and downwind of the airport; (2) 24-hr noise measurements were made in 12 homes near the airport; and (3) the impact of noise was assessed by a Community Wellness and Health Promotion Survey. Particulate matter concentrations were higher during active airport operating hours than during nonoperating hours, and the percent increase varied inversely with distance from the airport. Hourly differences between paired upwind and downwind sites were not remarkable. Residents living near the airport were exposed to noise levels as much as four times greater than those experienced by residents in a quiet, comparison home. Impulse noise events were detected from both aircraft and vehicular traffic. More than 55% of the people living within the flight path were bothered by aircraft noise, and 63% by highway noise; these were significantly higher percentages than for residents in the nonflight area. The change in PM concentrations with distance during operating compared with nonoperating hours; traffic-related impulse noise events; and the elevated annoyance with highway noise, as well as aircraft noise among residents in the flight path area, show airport-related motor vehicle traffic to be a major contributor to the negative impact of airports on people in the surrounding communities.

  15. Singleton Pregnancy Outcomes after In Vitro Fertilization with Fresh or Frozen-Thawed Embryo Transfer and Incidence of Placenta Praevia

    PubMed Central

    Korosec, Sara; Kladnik, Urska; Kotar, Vanja; Virant-Klun, Irma; Vrtacnik Bokal, Eda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the single pregnancy and neonate outcome after fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfer in the in vitro fertilization programme (IVF). The study focused on clinical and laboratory factors affecting the abnormal placentation, especially placenta praevia, in patients conceiving in the IVF programme. The results confirm that neonates born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer had significantly higher mean birth weight than after fresh embryo transfer (ET). Moreover, the birth weight distribution in singletons was found to shift towards “large for gestation” (LGA) after frozen-thawed ET. On the other hand, the pregnancies after fresh ET were characterized by a higher incidence of placenta praevia and 3rd trimester bleeding. Placenta praevia was more common in IVF patients with fresh ET in a stimulated cycle than in patients with ET in a spontaneous cycle. It occurred more frequently in patients with transfer of 2 embryos. From this point of view, single ET and ET in a spontaneous cycle should be encouraged in good prognosis patients in the future with more than two good quality embryos developed. An important issue arose of how the ovarian hormonal stimulation relates to abnormal placentation and if the serum hormone levels interfere with in the IVF treatment results. PMID:24822209

  16. Minimally invasive percutaneous endovascular therapies in the management of complications of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A case report

    PubMed Central

    Salsamendi, Jason; Pereira, Keith; Kang, Kyungmin; Fan, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of disorders from simple steatosis to inflammation leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. With the progressive epidemics of obesity and diabetes, major risk factors in the development and pathogenesis of NAFLD, the prevalence of NAFLD and its associated complications including liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma is expected to increase by 2030 with an enormous health and economic impact. We present a patient who developed Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cirrhosis. Due to morbid obesity, she was not an optimal transplant candidate and was not initially listed. After attempts for lifestyle modifications failed to lead to weight reduction, a transarterial embolization of the left gastric artery was performed. This is the sixth such procedure in humans in literature. Subsequently she had a meaningful drop in BMI from 42 to 36 over the following 6 months ultimately leading to her being listed for transplant. During this time, the left hepatic HCC was treated with chemoembolization without evidence of recurrence. In this article, we wish to highlight the use of minimally invasive percutaneous endovascular therapies such as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in the comprehensive management of the NAFLD spectrum and percutaneous transarterial embolization of the left gastric artery (LGA), a novel method, for the management of obesity. PMID:26629307

  17. Promoting physical activity in women: evaluation of a 2-year community-based intervention in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Wen, Li Ming; Thomas, Margaret; Jones, Helen; Orr, Neil; Moreton, Renee; King, Lesley; Hawe, Penny; Bindon, Jeni; Humphries, Jenni; Schicht, Karin; Corne, Shauna; Bauman, Adrian

    2002-06-01

    Women are less likely than men to reach recommended levels of physical activity and have unequal access to active leisure time. Studies in Australia have consistently found that women are only half as likely as men to be adequately active. A community-based multi-strategic health promotion intervention, 'Concord, A Great Place to be Active', was implemented from 1997 to 1999. It aimed to increase the physical activity levels of women aged 20-50 years living in the Concord Local Government Area (LGA), an inner-western region of Sydney, Australia. A key feature of this intervention was a partnership between Concord Council (the local government) and the Central Sydney Health Promotion Unit (CSHPU). The project was evaluated using qualitative and quantitative methods. Key informant interviews and focus groups were conducted to inform the development of the intervention and to assess the impact of the project on Concord Council. Pre- and post-intervention telephone surveys of the target group were also conducted. Following the intervention, there was a statistically significant (6.4%) reduction in the proportion of sedentary women. Further, there were a number of positive enhancements in the Council's capacity to promote physical activity in the community. These findings demonstrate that a community-based intervention targeting a specific population can achieve positive changes in physical activity and that a local government has the capacity to be involved in and sustain physical activity interventions.

  18. Direct-referencing Two-dimensional-array Digital Microfluidics Using Multi-layer Printed Circuit Board

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jian; Kim, Chang-Jin “CJ”

    2008-01-01

    Digital (i.e. droplet-based) microfluidics, by the electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) mechanism, has shown great potential for a wide range of applications, such as lab-on-a-chip. While most reported EWOD chips use a series of electrode pads essentially in one-dimensional line pattern designed for specific tasks, the desired universal chips allowing user-reconfigurable paths would require the electrode pads in two-dimensional pattern. However, to electrically access the electrode pads independently, conductive lines need to be fabricated underneath the pads in multiple layers, raising a cost issue especially for disposable chip applications. In this article, we report the building of digital microfluidic plates based on a printed-circuit-board (PCB), in which multilayer electrical access lines were created inexpensively using mature PCB technology. However, due to its surface topography and roughness and resulting high resistance against droplet movement, as-fabricated PCB surfaces require unacceptably high (~500 V) voltages unless coated with or immersed in oil. Our goal is EWOD operations of aqueous droplets not only on oil-covered but also on dry surfaces. To meet varying levels of performances, three types of gradually complex post-PCB microfabrication processes are developed and evaluated. By introducing land-grid-array (LGA) sockets in the packaging, a scalable digital microfluidics system with reconfigurable and low-cost chip is also demonstrated. PMID:19234613

  19. Old Drugs To Treat Resistant Bugs: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates with mecC Are Susceptible to a Combination of Penicillin and Clavulanic Acid.

    PubMed

    Ba, Xiaoliang; Harrison, Ewan M; Lovering, Andrew L; Gleadall, Nicholas; Zadoks, Ruth; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J; Holden, Matthew T G; Paterson, Gavin K; Holmes, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    β-Lactam resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is mediated by the expression of an alternative penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) (encoded by mecA) with a low affinity for β-lactam antibiotics. Recently, a novel variant of mecA, known as mecC, was identified in MRSA isolates from both humans and animals. In this study, we demonstrate that mecC-encoded PBP2c does not mediate resistance to penicillin. Rather, broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance in MRSA strains carrying mecC (mecC-MRSA strains) is mediated by a combination of both PBP2c and the distinct β-lactamase encoded by the blaZ gene of strain LGA251 (blaZLGA251), which is part of mecC-encoding staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type XI. We further demonstrate that mecC-MRSA strains are susceptible to the combination of penicillin and the β-lactam inhibitor clavulanic acid in vitro and that the same combination is effective in vivo for the treatment of experimental mecC-MRSA infection in wax moth larvae. Thus, we demonstrate how the distinct biological differences between mecA- and mecC-encoded PBP2a and PBP2c have the potential to be exploited as a novel approach for the treatment of mecC-MRSA infections.

  20. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Part 1; Analysis of Historical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation (+4% annual growth), resulting in unreliable service and systemic delays. Estimates of the impact of delays and unreliable air transportation service on the economy range from $32B to $41B per year. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making with regards to: (1) geographic access, (2) economic access, and (3) airline finances. This analysis evaluated markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size, airfares, and profit from 2005-2009. During this period, airlines experienced changes in costs of operation (due to fluctuations in hedged fuel prices), changes in travel demand (due to changes in the economy), and changes in infrastructure capacity (due to the capacity limits at EWR, JFK, and LGA). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of capacity limits at airports, as well as the effect of increased costs of operation (i.e. hedged fuel prices). The increases in costs of operation serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed.

  1. Customized Versus Population Approach for Evaluation of Fetal Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    COSTANTINE, Maged M.; MELE, Lisa; LANDON, Mark B.; SPONG, Catherine Y.; RAMIN, Susan M.; CASEY, Brian; WAPNER, Ronald J.; VARNER, Michael W.; ROUSE, Dwight J.; THORP, John M.; SCISCIONE, Anthony; CATALANO, Patrick; CARITIS, Steve N.; SOROKIN, Yoram; PEACEMAN, Alan M.; TOLOSA, Jorge E.; ANDERSON, Garland D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the ability of customized versus normalized population fetal growth norms in identifying neonates at risk for adverse perinatal outcomes (APOs) associated with fetal overgrowth and gestational diabetes (GDM). Study Design Secondary analysis of a multicenter treatment trial of mild GDM. The primary outcome was a composite of neonatal outcomes associated with fetal overgrowth and GDM. Birthweight percentiles were calculated using ethnicity- & gender-specific population norms and customized norms (Gardosi). Results 203 (9.8%) and 288 (13.8%) neonates were LGA by population (LGApop) and customized (LGAcust) norms, respectively. Both LGApop and LGAcust were associated with the primary outcome and neonatal hyperinsulinemia, while neither was associated with hypoglycemia or hyperbilirubinemia. The ability of customized and population birthweight percentiles for predicting APOs were poor (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve <0.6 for 6 out of 8 APOs). Conclusion Neither customized nor normalized-population norms better identify neonates at risk of APOs related to fetal overgrowth and GDM. PMID:23147078

  2. QTL analysis of seed-flooding tolerance in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.).

    PubMed

    Sayama, Takashi; Nakazaki, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Goro; Yagasaki, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Naohiro; Hirota, Naoko; Hirata, Kaori; Yoshikawa, Takanori; Saito, Hiroki; Teraishi, Masayoshi; Okumoto, Yutaka; Tsukiyama, Takuji; Tanisaka, Takatoshi

    2009-04-01

    In soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), varieties with seed-flooding tolerance at the geminating stage are desirable for breeding in countries with much rainfall at sowing time. Our study revealed great intervarietal variation in seed-flooding tolerance as evaluated by germination rate (GR) and normal seedling rate (NS). Pigmented seed coat and small seed weight tended to give a positive effect on seed-flooding tolerance. Subsequently, QTL analysis of GR and NS were performed and a total of four QTLs were detected. Among them, Sft1 on the linkage group H (LG_H) exhibited a large effect on GR after a 24-h treatment; however, Sft2 near the I locus on LG_A2 involved in seed coat pigmentation exhibited the largest effect on seed-flooding tolerance. Sft1, Sft3 and Sft4 were independent of seed coat color and seed weight. Based on the results, we discussed the physiological effects of genetic factors responsible for seed-flooding tolerance in soybean.

  3. Giving cell phones to pregnant women and improving services may increase primary health facility utilization: a case–control study of a Nigerian project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, about 287 000 women die each year from mostly preventable complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. A disproportionately high number of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. The Abiye (‘Safe Motherhood’) project in the Ifedore Local Government Area (LGA) of Ondo-State of Nigeria aimed at improving facility utilization and maternal health through the use of cell phones and generally improved health care services for pregnant women, including Health Rangers, renovated Health Centres, and improved means of transportation. Methods A one-year sample of retrospective data was collected from hospital records and patients’ case files from Ifedore (the project area) and Idanre (control area) and was analyzed to determine healthcare facility utilization rates in each location. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to generate supplemental data. Results The total facility utilization rate of pregnant women was significantly higher in Ifedore than in Idanre. The facility utilization rate of the primary health care centres was significantly higher in Ifedore than in Idanre. The number of recorded cases of the five major causes of maternal death in the two LGAs was not significantly different, possibly because the project was new. Conclusions Giving cell phones to pregnant women and generally improving services could increase their utilization of the primary healthcare system. PMID:24438150

  4. Thermodynamics of reaction of praseodymium with gallium-indium eutectic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchakov, S. Yu.; Ivanov, V. A.; Yamshchikov, L. F.; Volkovich, V. A.; Osipenko, A. G.; Kormilitsyn, M. V.

    2013-06-01

    Thermodynamic properties of Ga-In eutectic alloys saturated with praseodymium were determined for the first time employing the electromotive force method. The equilibrium potentials of the Pr-In alloys saturated with praseodymium (8.7-12.1 mol.% Pr) and Pr-Ga-In alloys (containing 0.0012-6.71 mol.% Pr) were measured between 573-1073 K. Pr-In alloy containing solid PrIn3 with known thermodynamic properties was used as the reference electrode when measuring the potentials of ternary Pr-In-Ga alloys. Activity, partial and excessive thermodynamic functions of praseodymium in alloys with indium and Ga-In eutectic were calculated. Activity (a), activity coefficients (γ) and solubility (X) of praseodymium in the studied temperature range can be expressed by the following equations: lgaα-Pr(In) = 4.425 - 11965/T ± 0.026. lgаα-Pr(Ga-In) = 5.866 - 14766/T ± 0.190. lgγα-Pr(Ga-In) = 2.351 - 9996/T ± 0.39. lgХPr(Ga-In) = 3.515 - 4770/T ± 0.20.

  5. The Global Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Epidemic: What a Radiologist Needs to Know

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Keith; Salsamendi, Jason; Casillas, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of disorders from a benign steatosis to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Metabolic syndrome, mainly obesity, plays an important role, both as an independent risk factor and in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. With the progressive epidemics of obesity and diabetes mellitus, the prevalence of NAFLD and its associated complications is expected to increase dramatically. Therapeutic strategies for treating NAFLD and metabolic syndrome, particularly obesity, are continuously being refined. Their goal is the prevention of NAFLD by the management of risk factors, prevention of progression of the disease, as well as management of complications, ultimately preventing morbidity and mortality. Optimal management of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome requires a multidisciplinary collaboration between the government as well as the health system including the nutritionist, primary care physician, radiologist, hepatologist, oncologist, and transplant surgeon. An awareness of the clinical presentation, risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management is of paramount importance to a radiologist, both from the clinical perspective as well as from the imaging standpoint. With expertise in imaging modalities as well as minimally invasive percutaneous endovascular therapies, radiologists play an essential role in the comprehensive management, which is highlighted in this article, with cases from our practice. We also briefly discuss transarterial embolization of the left gastric artery (LGA), a novel method that promises to have an enormous potential in the minimally invasive management of obesity, with details of a case from our practice. PMID:26167390

  6. A comparison of various optimization algorithms of protein-ligand docking programs by fitness accuracy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liyong; Yan, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Xiliang; Hu, Liang; Yang, Yongliang; Wang, Jin

    2014-07-01

    In protein-ligand docking, an optimization algorithm is used to find the best binding pose of a ligand against a protein target. This algorithm plays a vital role in determining the docking accuracy. To evaluate the relative performance of different optimization algorithms and provide guidance for real applications, we performed a comparative study on six efficient optimization algorithms, containing two evolutionary algorithm (EA)-based optimizers (LGA, DockDE) and four particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based optimizers (SODock, varCPSO, varCPSO-ls, FIPSDock), which were implemented into the protein-ligand docking program AutoDock. We unified the objective functions by applying the same scoring function, and built a new fitness accuracy as the evaluation criterion that incorporates optimization accuracy, robustness, and efficiency. The varCPSO and varCPSO-ls algorithms show high efficiency with fast convergence speed. However, their accuracy is not optimal, as they cannot reach very low energies. SODock has the highest accuracy and robustness. In addition, SODock shows good performance in efficiency when optimizing drug-like ligands with less than ten rotatable bonds. FIPSDock shows excellent robustness and is close to SODock in accuracy and efficiency. In general, the four PSO-based algorithms show superior performance than the two EA-based algorithms, especially for highly flexible ligands. Our method can be regarded as a reference for the validation of new optimization algorithms in protein-ligand docking.

  7. Effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Subarna; Misra, Sujata; Nayak, Prasanta K.; Sahoo, Jaya Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on neonatal anthropometry. Materials and Methods: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2008 to June 2009 at a single tertiary care center. Maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters like fasting serum insulin, lipid profile, and random blood glucose were estimated in 50 pregnant women at term. Detailed anthropometry of the neonates was performed. Results: Large for gestational age (LGA) babies had higher maternal body mass index (BMI), fasting serum insulin, and cord blood insulin levels, and lower maternal high density lipoprotein (HDL) compared to appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group (P < 0.001). Among the maternal parameters, BMI, gestational age, fasting serum insulin, and random blood sugar (RBS) had significant positive correlation, while HDL had negative correlation with birth weight (P < 0.05). However, only maternal BMI was the significant predictor of neonatal birth weight on multiple regression analysis (ß = 0.340, P = 0.01). Conclusion: The BMI of glucose-tolerant mother is more important than metabolic parameters in determining the birth weight of term babies. PMID:23087859

  8. Markers of collagen metabolism and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 in term infants

    PubMed Central

    Hytinantti, T; Rutanen, E; Turpeinen, M; Sorva, R; Andersson, S

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To study the relation between fetal growth and markers of collagen metabolism and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in term infants.
METHODS—Cord vein plasma was obtained from 67 term infants of gestational age 37.1-41.7 weeks (39 appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 11 large for gestational age (LGA; relative birth weight ⩾ 2.0 SD), and 17 small for gestational age (SGA; relative birth weight ⩽ −2.0 SD)) for analysis of markers of metabolism of collagen type I (PICP and ICTP) and III (PIIINP) and of IGFBP-1.
RESULTS—Negative correlations existed between gestational age and PICP (r = −0.294, p = 0.0158), ICTP (r = −0.338, p = 0.0052), and PIIINP (r = −0.432, p = 0.0003). These correlations were also found in SGA infants (all p < 0.05). IGFBP-1 showed negative correlations with birth weight and relative birth weight (r = −0.644, p = 0.0001, and r = −0.693, p = 0.0001 respectively) but not with gestational age (p>0.05).
CONCLUSIONS—In the term fetus, collagen metabolism is primarily dependent on maturity and not on intrauterine growth status, whereas IGFBP-1 reflects intrauterine growth independently of maturity.

 PMID:10873165

  9. [Regional and national stroke units in Germany: amended certification criteria].

    PubMed

    Nabavi, D G; Ringelstein, E B; Faiss, J; Kessler, C; Röther, J; Busse, O

    2012-08-01

    Stroke units (SU) have been certified for many years by the German Stroke Society (DSG) and the German Stroke Aid Foundation (SDSH). Since 2009 this is now undertaken in the third generation by the LGA InterCert of the Technical Surveillance Society of Rhineland (TÜV Rheinland). This article presents the amended certification criteria which came into effect in 2012. Many criteria and definitions could be further defined and specified and residual grey areas and fields of conflict could be reduced. For the first time a distinction has been made between the minimum requirements relevant for certification and additional recommendations by the SU Commission of the DSG. In this manner the authors are aiming to motivate SU operators not just to align quality assurance measures to the minimum requirements but to deliberately go beyond them. There is a great deal of evidence to indicate that this will not only serve to increase the motivation of personnel and the quality of treatment but simultaneously the economic situation can also be improved.

  10. A cellular automaton simulation of contaminant transport in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Freed, D.M.; Simonson, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    A simulation tool to investigate radionuclide transport in porous groundwater flow is described. The flow systems of interest are those important in determining the fate of radionuclides emplaced in an underground repository, such as saturated matrix flow, matrix and fracture flow in the unsaturated zone, and viscous fingering in porous fractures. The work discussed here is confined to consideration of saturated flow in porous media carrying a dilute, sorptive species. The simulation technique is based on a special class of cellular automata known as lattice gas automata (LGA) which are capable of predicting hydrodynamic behavior. The original two-dimensional scheme (that of Frisch et. al. known as the FHP model) used particles of unit mass traveling on a triangular lattice with unit velocity and undergoing simple collisions which conserve mass and momentum at each node. These microscopic rules go over to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in the macroscopic limit. One of the strengths of this technique is the natural way that heterogeneities, such as boundaries, are accommodated. Complex geometries such as those associated with porous microstructures can be modeled effectively. Several constructions based on the FHP model have been devised, including techniques to eliminate statistical noise, extension to three dimensions, and the addition of surface tension which leads to multiphase flow.

  11. Midwives as drivers of reproductive health commodity security in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alayande, Audu; Mamman-Daura, Fatima; Adedeji, Olanike; Muhammad, Ado Zakari

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The significant improvement in the contraceptive prevalence rate in Kaduna State, Nigeria, from 8.4% in 2008 to 18.5% in 2013 is a notable achievement. This article analyses the role of midwives as drivers of reproductive health commodity security (RHCS) and their impact on contraceptive use in Kaduna State. Methods: The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) supported the bimonthly review resupply meetings facilitated by midwives at State and local government area (LGA) levels. The midwives deliver contraception to the LGAs for onward distribution to 6974 of the 25,000 health facilities across the country according to usage data from the previous 2 months. They also collect requisition, issue and resupply form data from the previous 2 months. Results: The active participation of midwives at the bimonthly meetings improved data timeliness by 23% and data completeness by 50% in 1 year. Only one health facility ran out of intrauterine devices and only 17% reported running out of female condoms. The total number of contraceptives issued increased from 31,866 in 2012 to 177,828 in 2013, resulting in a couple–year protection increase from 3408 in 2012 to 102,207 in 2013. Conclusions: Creation of increased demand and engagement of midwives in providing family planning services, especially long-acting contraceptive methods, coupled with the removal of cost to the user and the strengthening of the supply chain have been major factors in more than doubling the contraceptive prevalence rate. PMID:26909871

  12. Medical waste management in Ibadan, Nigeria: Obstacles and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, Akinwale Sangodoyin, Abimbola; Sridhar, Mynepalli; Booth, Colin; Olomolaiye, Paul; Hammond, Felix

    2009-02-15

    Quantification and characterization of medical waste generated in healthcare facilities (HCFs) in a developing African nation has been conducted to provide insights into existing waste collection and disposal approaches, so as to provide sustainable avenues for institutional policy improvement. The study, in Ibadan city, Nigeria, entailed a representative classification of nearly 400 healthcare facilities, from 11 local government areas (LGA) of Ibadan, into tertiary, secondary, primary, and diagnostic HCFs, of which, 52 HCFs were strategically selected. Primary data sources included field measurements, waste sampling and analysis and a questionnaire, while secondary information sources included public and private records from hospitals and government ministries. Results indicate secondary HCFs generate the greatest amounts of medical waste (mean of 10,238 kg/day per facility) followed by tertiary, primary and diagnostic HCFs, respectively. Characterised waste revealed that only {approx}3% was deemed infectious and highlights opportunities for composting, reuse and recycling. Furthermore, the management practices in most facilities expose patients, staff, waste handlers and the populace to unnecessary health risks. This study proffers recommendations to include (i) a need for sustained cooperation among all key actors (government, hospitals and waste managers) in implementing a safe and reliable medical waste management strategy, not only in legislation and policy formation but also particularly in its monitoring and enforcement and (ii) an obligation for each HCF to ensure a safe and hygienic system of medical waste handling, segregation, collection, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal, with minimal risk to handlers, public health and the environment.

  13. The prevalence, intensity and clinical signs of urinary schistosomiasis in Imo state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoli, C G; Iwuala, M O E

    2004-12-01

    Urine samples were assayed for urinary schistosomiasis in four local government areas (LGA) of Imo State, Nigeria between May 1998 and September 2000. A total of 3504 persons were sampled, with 880 (25.1%) being positive for urinary schistosomiasis, based on records of eggs of Schistosoma haematobium. The prevalence of S. haematobium infection differed in the various LGAs, with Oguta (38.9%) and Owerri-West (10.4%) showing the highest and the lowest values, respectively. Prevalence was higher in males (67.4%) than in females (32.6%) and in subjects 11-20 years of age (31.5%), while prevalence varied among different occupational groups, with farmers ranking the highest (41.6%). Visible haematuria was the predominant symptom (P<0.05). Of 880 persons positive for eggs of S. haematobium, 452 (51.4%) had visible haematuria, followed by suprapubic pains 214 (24.3%) and painful micturition 97 (11.0%). Although 367 (10. 5%) of the sampled subjects with eggs of S. haematobium showed no visible haematuria, 513 (14.6%) clearly demonstrated haematuria. PMID:15575992

  14. Old Drugs To Treat Resistant Bugs: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates with mecC Are Susceptible to a Combination of Penicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Xiaoliang; Lovering, Andrew L.; Gleadall, Nicholas; Zadoks, Ruth; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J.; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Paterson, Gavin K.; Holmes, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    β-Lactam resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is mediated by the expression of an alternative penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) (encoded by mecA) with a low affinity for β-lactam antibiotics. Recently, a novel variant of mecA, known as mecC, was identified in MRSA isolates from both humans and animals. In this study, we demonstrate that mecC-encoded PBP2c does not mediate resistance to penicillin. Rather, broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance in MRSA strains carrying mecC (mecC-MRSA strains) is mediated by a combination of both PBP2c and the distinct β-lactamase encoded by the blaZ gene of strain LGA251 (blaZLGA251), which is part of mecC-encoding staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type XI. We further demonstrate that mecC-MRSA strains are susceptible to the combination of penicillin and the β-lactam inhibitor clavulanic acid in vitro and that the same combination is effective in vivo for the treatment of experimental mecC-MRSA infection in wax moth larvae. Thus, we demonstrate how the distinct biological differences between mecA- and mecC-encoded PBP2a and PBP2c have the potential to be exploited as a novel approach for the treatment of mecC-MRSA infections. PMID:26392513

  15. Primary Prevention of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Large-for-Gestational-Age Newborns by Lifestyle Counseling: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Luoto, Riitta; Kinnunen, Tarja I.; Aittasalo, Minna; Kolu, Päivi; Raitanen, Jani; Ojala, Katriina; Mansikkamäki, Kirsi; Lamberg, Satu; Vasankari, Tommi; Komulainen, Tanja; Tulokas, Sirkku

    2011-01-01

    Background Our objective was to examine whether gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or newborns' high birthweight can be prevented by lifestyle counseling in pregnant women at high risk of GDM. Method and Findings We conducted a cluster-randomized trial, the NELLI study, in 14 municipalities in Finland, where 2,271 women were screened by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 8–12 wk gestation. Euglycemic (n = 399) women with at least one GDM risk factor (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2, glucose intolerance or newborn's macrosomia (≥4,500 g) in any earlier pregnancy, family history of diabetes, age ≥40 y) were included. The intervention included individual intensified counseling on physical activity and diet and weight gain at five antenatal visits. Primary outcomes were incidence of GDM as assessed by OGTT (maternal outcome) and newborns' birthweight adjusted for gestational age (neonatal outcome). Secondary outcomes were maternal weight gain and the need for insulin treatment during pregnancy. Adherence to the intervention was evaluated on the basis of changes in physical activity (weekly metabolic equivalent task (MET) minutes) and diet (intake of total fat, saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, saccharose, and fiber). Multilevel analyses took into account cluster, maternity clinic, and nurse level influences in addition to age, education, parity, and prepregnancy BMI. 15.8% (34/216) of women in the intervention group and 12.4% (22/179) in the usual care group developed GDM (absolute effect size 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71–2.62, p = 0.36). Neonatal birthweight was lower in the intervention than in the usual care group (absolute effect size −133 g, 95% CI −231 to −35, p = 0.008) as was proportion of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns (26/216, 12.1% versus 34/179, 19.7%, p = 0.042). Women in the intervention group increased their intake of dietary fiber (adjusted coefficient 1.83, 95% CI 0.30–3.25, p = 0

  16. The Yoruba farm market as a communication channel in guinea worm disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Kendall, C

    1996-01-01

    Disease eradication programmes are by definition time bound and require strategies that facilitate timely intervention. Surveillance, which undergirds eradication, also requires timely strategies. Finding such strategies is especially challenging when the target disease is endemic in remote areas, e.g. guinea worm disease, the focus of this study. A strategy of market based surveillance was pilot tested in Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) of Oyo State, Nigeria. The project goal was to design a surveillance system that both fit into the natural communication network of rural people, and also enlisted their active involvement. Ethnographic research methods were employed to learn about market location, structure, catchment area and attendance pattern. Four larger farm markets (serving 164 hamlets with 17,000 population) were chosen. Each hamlet was visited and a volunteer 'reporter' was recruited. Reporters were trained on case recognition and detection, first aid and prevention, with a sensitivity to distinguishing indigenous and clinical perceptions of guinea worm. The market cycle was based on the traditional four-day week. Field workers visited every second market 16 times between October 1990 and February 1991. The reporter was expected to identify correctly the first case of the season and thus label the village as endemic for the season. Reporters gave oral reports, and positive indications were followed up within 48 hr by field workers, who verified the case and administered first aid. All hamlets were visited once a month to verify negative reports. Reporter attendance was monitored. Those who had a formal role in the market, e.g. sales agents, had better attendance than ordinary farmers who came only to sell their own produce. Knowledge of market structure and attender roles offers a guide for adapting this surveillance approach to other cultural systems and health issues.

  17. [Is diabetes mellitus worth treating?].

    PubMed

    Towpik, Iwona; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the paper was to present data that enable us to determine whether treatment of hyperglycemia diagnosed during pregnancy in the era of a steadily growing number of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and an ongoing debate about new criteria and diagnostic strategies, is a valid option. GDM is the main metabolic disorder developing during pregnancy complicating around 6% of all pregnancies. Mistreatment of hyperglycemia during pregnancy may cause several fetal complications, especially neonatal overgrowth (macrosomia or LGA). The risk of macrosomia is directly related to maternal hyperglycemia (twice as high as in the control group with glucose levels exceeding 130 mg/dl). Apart from maternal hyperglycemia and fetal hyperinsulinemia, insulin-like growth factors and selected adipocytokines produced by adipose tissue and placenta are among the factors contributing to the development of diabetic fetopathy, whose risk increases by 2-fold with glucose levels exceeding 130 mg/dl. The role of hyperglycemia as a factor inducing several perinatal complications was confirmed by the HAPO study but it is not the sole reason of adverse effects. Also, maternal obesity weight gain during pregnancy and maternal hyperlipidemia seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of feto-maternal complications. Changes in fetal growth, disturbances in the perinatal period, there just some of the negative consequences of maternal GDM. Disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism during pregnancy causes long-lasting consequences for both, the mother and the child, including increased risk of overt diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular complications. Children born to GDM mothers are at a significant risk of psycho-motoric disability and a higher risk of schizophrenia. ACHOIS and MFMU studies have confirmed that even mild hyperglycemia, detected and treated in a timely manner significantly improves maternal and fetal outcome. Various meta-analyses have revealed a positive

  18. Spatial distribution of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria using geographical information system and school based questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Adie, H A; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Braide, E I; Ekpo, U F

    2013-10-15

    Urinary schistosomiasis is a serious disease in Cross River State, Nigeria. Dearth of information on its distribution has hampered the implementation of focused control of the disease. The availability of a rapid method for mapping the disease necessitated this research to provide data for control of Urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study used a rapid validated school-based questionnaire method in mapping schistosomiasis. Geographical information system (GIS) software tools were used to produce a spatial map for prevalence of infection and areas at risk for urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State. Data analysis with SPSS package revealed that 9,993 (10.2%) female and 10,328 (10.0%) male pupils in 218 schools passed blood in urine in one month out of 199,794 pupils interviewed. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence between male and female pupils with infection (p < 0.005). The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis using questionnaire method correlated positively with the filtration method used in determining the egg output (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). Endemic schools were distributed in thirteen Local Government Areas of Cross River State, Nigeria. Yala and Yakurr LGAs had the highest number of schools that reported schistosomiasis with 39 (59%) and 13 (59%), respectively. Odukpani LGA had the lowest prevalence of 1 (0.2%). The overall results showed a mean urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 10.2% for Cross River State, Nigeria. The findings of this study would guide Government and other relevant agencies in the implementation of control strategies for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria.

  19. Acinetobacter baumannii K27 and K44 capsular polysaccharides have the same K unit but different structures due to the presence of distinct wzy genes in otherwise closely related K gene clusters.

    PubMed

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Kenyon, Johanna J; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Shneider, Mikhail M; Popova, Anastasiya V; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Volozhantsev, Nikolay V; Hall, Ruth M; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-05-01

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPSs), from Acinetobacter baumannii isolates 1432, 4190 and NIPH 70, which have related gene content at the K locus, were examined, and the chemical structures established using 2D(1)H and(13)C NMR spectroscopy. The three isolates produce the same pentasaccharide repeat unit, which consists of 5-N-acetyl-7-N-[(S)-3-hydroxybutanoyl] (major) or 5,7-di-N-acetyl (minor) derivatives of 5,7-diamino-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonic (legionaminic) acid (Leg5Ac7R), D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. However, the linkage between repeat units in NIPH 70 was different to that in 1432 and 4190, and this significantly alters the CPS structure. The KL27 gene cluster in 4190 and KL44 gene cluster in NIPH 70 are organized identically and contain lga genes for Leg5Ac7R synthesis, genes for the synthesis of the common sugars, as well as anitrA2 initiating transferase and four glycosyltransferases genes. They share high-level nucleotide sequence identity for corresponding genes, but differ in the wzy gene encoding the Wzy polymerase. The Wzy proteins, which have different lengths and share no similarity, would form the unrelated linkages in the K27 and K44 structures. The linkages formed by the four shared glycosyltransferases were predicted by comparison with gene clusters that synthesize related structures. These findings unambiguously identify the linkages formed by WzyK27 and WzyK44, and show that the presence of different wzy genes in otherwise closely related K gene clusters changes the structure of the CPS. This may affect its capacity as a protective barrier for A. baumannii.

  20. Customized nutritional enhancement for pregnant women appears to lower incidence of certain common maternal and neonatal complications: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Stone, Leslie P; Stone, P Michael; Rydbom, Emily A; Stone, Lucas A; Stone, T Elliot; Wilkens, Lindsey E; Reynolds, Kathryn

    2014-11-01

    A retrospective chart review analyzed the effect of customized nutrition on the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes (GDM), and small- and large-for-gestational-age (SGA, LGA) neonates, examining consecutive deliveries between January 1, 2011, and Decem ber 31, 2012, at a low-risk community hospital. The population was divided into 3 groups: (1) study group (SG), (2) private practice (PP), and (3) community healthcare clinic (CHCC). All groups received standard perinatal management, but additionally the study group was analyzed for serum zinc, carnitine, total 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25 OH-D), methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and catechol-O-methyl transferase polymorphisms in the first trimester prior to intervention, with subsequent second trimester and postpartum assessment of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D after intervention. Intervention consisted of trimesterby-trimester nutrition and lifestyle education, supplementation of L-methyl folate, magnesium, essential fatty acids, and probiotics for all SG patients, with targeted supplementation of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D. Because of small case occurrence rates of individual conditions in the study group, unreportable reductions were found, except GDM (SG vs CHCC, P value .046 with 95.38% confidence interval [CI]), and PIH (SG vs PP, P value .0505 with 94.95% CIl). The aggregated occurrence rate of the four conditions, however, was significantly lower in the study population than in either comparison population (PP P value .0154 with 98.46% CI, and CHCC P value .0265 with 97.35% CI). Customized nutritional intervention appears to have significantly reduced adverse perinatal outcomes. Prospective study within larger, at-risk populations is needed to determine whether customized nutrition improves conditions individually.

  1. Customized Nutritional Enhancement for Pregnant Women Appears to Lower Incidence of Certain Common Maternal and Neonatal Complications: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Stone, P. Michael; Rydbom, Emily A.; Stone, Lucas A.; Stone, T. Elliot; Wilkens, Lindsey E.; Reynolds, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective chart review analyzed the effect of customized nutrition on the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes (GDM), and small- and large-for-gestational-age (SGA, LGA) neonates, examining consecutive deliveries between January 1, 2011, and Decem ber 31, 2012, at a low-risk community hospital. The population was divided into 3 groups: (1) study group (SG), (2) private practice (PP), and (3) community healthcare clinic (CHCC). All groups received standard perinatal management, but additionally the study group was analyzed for serum zinc, carnitine, total 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25 OH-D), methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and catechol-O-methyl transferase polymorphisms in the first trimester prior to intervention, with subsequent second trimester and postpartum assessment of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D after intervention. Intervention consisted of trimesterby-trimester nutrition and lifestyle education, supplementation of L-methyl folate, magnesium, essential fatty acids, and probiotics for all SG patients, with targeted supplementation of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D. Because of small case occurrence rates of individual conditions in the study group, unreportable reductions were found, except GDM (SG vs CHCC, P value .046 with 95.38% confidence interval [CI]), and PIH (SG vs PP, P value .0505 with 94.95% CIl). The aggregated occurrence rate of the four conditions, however, was significantly lower in the study population than in either comparison population (PP P value .0154 with 98.46% CI, and CHCC P value .0265 with 97.35% CI). Customized nutritional intervention appears to have significantly reduced adverse perinatal outcomes. Prospective study within larger, at-risk populations is needed to determine whether customized nutrition improves conditions individually. PMID:25568832

  2. Proposed data compression schemes for the Galileo S-band contingency mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Tong, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft is currently on its way to Jupiter and its moons. In April 1991, the high gain antenna (HGA) failed to deploy as commanded. In case the current efforts to deploy the HGA fails, communications during the Jupiter encounters will be through one of two low gain antenna (LGA) on an S-band (2.3 GHz) carrier. A lot of effort has been and will be conducted to attempt to open the HGA. Also various options for improving Galileo's telemetry downlink performance are being evaluated in the event that the HGA will not open at Jupiter arrival. Among all viable options the most promising and powerful one is to perform image and non-image data compression in software onboard the spacecraft. This involves in-flight re-programming of the existing flight software of Galileo's Command and Data Subsystem processors and Attitude and Articulation Control System (AACS) processor, which have very limited computational and memory resources. In this article we describe the proposed data compression algorithms and give their respective compression performance. The planned image compression algorithm is a 4 x 4 or an 8 x 8 multiplication-free integer cosine transform (ICT) scheme, which can be viewed as an integer approximation of the popular discrete cosine transform (DCT) scheme. The implementation complexity of the ICT schemes is much lower than the DCT-based schemes, yet the performances of the two algorithms are indistinguishable. The proposed non-image compression algorith is a Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) variant, which is a lossless universal compression algorithm based on a dynamic dictionary lookup table. We developed a simple and efficient hashing function to perform the string search.

  3. The Effectiveness of a Route Crossing Tool in a Simulated New York Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, Bonny; Chevalley, Eric; Bienert, Nancy; Lee, Paul; Gonter, Kari; Omar, Faisal; Kraut, Joshua; Yoo, Hyo-Sang; Borade, Abhay; Gabriel, Conrad; Rein-Weston, Daphne; Palmer, Everett

    2015-01-01

    Congested airspace is the cause of many delays in the terminal area and these delays can have a ripple effect on the rest of a nation's airspace. The New York terminal area is an example of where this happens in the U. S. An important goal, therefore, is to increase the efficiency of operations in congested terminal airspace where possible. Modeling studies of arrival and departure flows have shown that sharing of arrival and departure airspace increases efficiency in terminal operations. One source of inefficiency in terminal operations is that departure aircraft are frequently held level under arrival flows when it would be more efficient to climb the departure aircraft earlier. A Route Crossing Tool was developed to help controllers climb Newark (EWR) departures to the south earlier by temporarily sharing airspace with arrivals coming into LaGuardia (LGA) from the south. Instead of flying under the arrivals, a departure to the south could climb earlier by flying through the arrival airspace if there was a suitable gap between arrivals. A Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) simulation was conducted in this environment which compared three tool conditions: Baseline (no tool), a Single Route Crossing tool in which one route through the arrival flow was evaluated for crossing, and a Multi-Route Crossing tool in which five parallel routes were evaluated. In all conditions, the departures could be held level under the arrival flow. The results showed that controllers climbed a higher proportion of departures in the Multi-Route tool condition than in the other two conditions, with a higher proportion of departures climbed in smaller gaps and in front of trailing arrivals. The controllers indicated that the Multi-Route and Single Route tools helped them estimate distances more accurately and rated safety, workload, and coordination in the simulation as acceptable.

  4. Optical hybrid package with an 8-channel 18GT/s CMOS transceiver for chip-to-chip optical interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, E.; Liao, J.; Kern, A.; Lu, D.; Braunisch, H.; Thomas, T.; Hyvonen, S.; Palermo, S.; Young, I. A.

    2008-02-01

    We describe the design and development of a high-speed 8-channel hybrid integrated optical transceiver package with Clock and Data Recovery (CDR) circuits. The package concept has been developed to be compatible with microprocessor package technology and at the same time allow the integration of low cost, high-performance optical components. A 90nm CMOS optical transceiver chip, 850nm 10Gb/s GaAs based vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) array and PIN photodiode array are flip-chip mounted on a standard microprocessor Land Grid Array (LGA) package substrate. The CMOS drivers and receivers on the transceiver chip and the optical components (VCSEL and Photodiode arrays) are electrically coupled using a short transmission line routed on the top surface of the package. VCSEL and photodiode arrays are optically coupled to on-package integrated polymer waveguide arrays with metallized 45° mirrors. The waveguides, which are terminated with multi-terminal (MT) fiber optic connectors, couple out/in high-speed optical signals to/from the chip. The CMOS transceiver chip fully integrates all analog optical circuits such as VCSEL drivers, transimpedance amplifiers and clock and data recovery (CDR) retiming circuit with a low jitter LC-PLL. Digital circuits for pseudorandom bit-pattern sequence generators (PRBS) and bit-error rate test (BERT) are fully integrated. 20Gb/s electrical and 18Gb/s optical eye diagrams for the transmitter were measured out of the package. A fully packaged transmitter and receiver including clock data recovery at 10Gb/s have also been measured.

  5. Identifying Multi-Dimensional Co-Clusters in Tensors Based on Hyperplane Detection in Singular Vector Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyu; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Co-clustering, often called biclustering for two-dimensional data, has found many applications, such as gene expression data analysis and text mining. Nowadays, a variety of multi-dimensional arrays (tensors) frequently occur in data analysis tasks, and co-clustering techniques play a key role in dealing with such datasets. Co-clusters represent coherent patterns and exhibit important properties along all the modes. Development of robust co-clustering techniques is important for the detection and analysis of these patterns. In this paper, a co-clustering method based on hyperplane detection in singular vector spaces (HDSVS) is proposed. Specifically in this method, higher-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD) transforms a tensor into a core part and a singular vector matrix along each mode, whose row vectors can be clustered by a linear grouping algorithm (LGA). Meanwhile, hyperplanar patterns are extracted and successfully supported the identification of multi-dimensional co-clusters. To validate HDSVS, a number of synthetic and biological tensors were adopted. The synthetic tensors attested a favorable performance of this algorithm on noisy or overlapped data. Experiments with gene expression data and lineage data of embryonic cells further verified the reliability of HDSVS to practical problems. Moreover, the detected co-clusters are well consistent with important genetic pathways and gene ontology annotations. Finally, a series of comparisons between HDSVS and state-of-the-art methods on synthetic tensors and a yeast gene expression tensor were implemented, verifying the robust and stable performance of our method. PMID:27598575

  6. Detection of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Type XI Carrying Highly Divergent mecA, mecI, mecR1, blaZ, and ccr Genes in Human Clinical Isolates of Clonal Complex 130 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿†

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Anna C.; Deasy, Emily C.; Slickers, Peter; Brennan, Grainne; O'Connell, Brian; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; Coleman, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin resistance in staphylococci is mediated by penicillin binding protein 2a (PBP 2a), encoded by mecA on mobile staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements. In this study, two clonal complex 130 (CC130) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from patients in Irish hospitals were identified that were phenotypically PBP 2a positive but lacked mecA by conventional PCR and by DNA microarray screening. The isolates were identified as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus using the GeneXpert real-time PCR assay. Whole-genome sequencing of one isolate (M10/0061) revealed a 30-kb SCCmec element encoding a class E mec complex with highly divergent blaZ-mecA-mecR1-mecI, a type 8 cassette chromosome recombinase (ccr) complex consisting of ccrA1-ccrB3, an arsenic resistance operon, and flanking direct repeats (DRs). The SCCmec element was almost identical to that of SCCmec type XI (SCCmec XI) identified by the Sanger Institute in sequence type 425 bovine MRSA strain LGA251 listed on the website of the International Working Group on the Classification of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Elements. The open reading frames (ORFs) identified within SCCmec XI of M10/0061 exhibited 21 to 93% amino acid identity to ORFs in GenBank. A third DR was identified ca. 3 kb downstream of SCCmec XI, indicating the presence of a possible SCC remnant. SCCmec XI was also identified in the second CC130 MRSA isolate by PCR and sequencing. The CC130 MRSA isolates may be of animal origin as previously reported CC130 S. aureus strains were predominantly from bovine sources. The highly divergent nature of SCCmec XI relative to other SCCmec elements indicates that it may have originated in another taxon. PMID:21636525

  7. System-in-package solution for a low-power active electrode module.

    PubMed

    Gaio, Nikolas; Gao, Linping; Cai, Jinhe; Zhang, Jinyong; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of system in package for a low-power active electrode module. The main aim of this research is to provide a low-cost, high-density, and high-quality module, exploiting the features of a System-in-Package (SiP) solution. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first time that SiP technology has been used in the development of a modular active electrode. Two SiPs have been designed and one of them has been fabricated and tested. The dimensions of the latter are 7×7×1 mm and it was designed taking in account the necessity of soldering it by hand. On the contrary, the other package dimensions are 4.5×4.5×1 mm and it was designed for fully exploiting the latest technologies available to authors. The SiPs have been designed to be reused in different electrocardiogram (ECG) systems and are easy to solder using ball grids arrays (BGA) and land grids arrays (LGA) as second level interconnection; both these features allow to reduce the time to market of the supra-system including the module. The active electrode presents a bandwidth which ranges from 7.9 mHz to 300 Hz and it has a mid-band gain which can be set to a maximum value of 40 dB. The fabricated SiP has been tested on a printed circuit board (PCB), with an input signal generated by a Dimetek iBUSS-P biomedical signal simulator showing a satisfying functioning of the SiP.

  8. System-in-package solution for a low-power active electrode module.

    PubMed

    Gaio, Nikolas; Gao, Linping; Cai, Jinhe; Zhang, Jinyong; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of system in package for a low-power active electrode module. The main aim of this research is to provide a low-cost, high-density, and high-quality module, exploiting the features of a System-in-Package (SiP) solution. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first time that SiP technology has been used in the development of a modular active electrode. Two SiPs have been designed and one of them has been fabricated and tested. The dimensions of the latter are 7×7×1 mm and it was designed taking in account the necessity of soldering it by hand. On the contrary, the other package dimensions are 4.5×4.5×1 mm and it was designed for fully exploiting the latest technologies available to authors. The SiPs have been designed to be reused in different electrocardiogram (ECG) systems and are easy to solder using ball grids arrays (BGA) and land grids arrays (LGA) as second level interconnection; both these features allow to reduce the time to market of the supra-system including the module. The active electrode presents a bandwidth which ranges from 7.9 mHz to 300 Hz and it has a mid-band gain which can be set to a maximum value of 40 dB. The fabricated SiP has been tested on a printed circuit board (PCB), with an input signal generated by a Dimetek iBUSS-P biomedical signal simulator showing a satisfying functioning of the SiP. PMID:25571119

  9. PubMed Central

    ADEBAYO, A.M.; CADMUS, E.O.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction. Malaria still constitutes a serious public health problem in Nigeria despite control efforts. The use of Insecticide Treated Net (ITN) has been proven to be an effective preventive modality in the control of malaria but its utilisation has been shown to be low. This study assessed the ownership and utilisation of ITN in Igbo-Ora, a rural community in Ibarapa Central Local Government Area (LGA) of Oyo State, Southwest Nigeria. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey among female caregivers of under-five children and pregnant women was conducted using semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results. Among 631 respondents that participated, 84.9% were caregivers of under-five children. Mean age was 27.7 ± 6.3 years with 53.4% between 20-29 age group. Majority, 91.1% had at least primary education, 60.2% were traders and 69.7% were married. Most respondents, 71.8% had at least one type of mosquito nets. Among those that had, 85.4% had window/door net, 25.2% untreated mosquito net while only 15.5% had ITN. Overall, 11.1% of the respondents had ITN among which 78.6% had ever slept under an ITN. Among those that had ever slept under an ITN, slightly less than half, 49.1% slept under an ITN the previous night. Less educated respondents were five times more likely to use ITN (95% CI = 1.24-21.28). Conclusions. This study revealed very low ownership and utilisation of ITNs. There is need to improve on the knowledge of community members of the relevance of ownership and utilisation of ITN in malaria prevention. PMID:25916022

  10. Identifying Multi-Dimensional Co-Clusters in Tensors Based on Hyperplane Detection in Singular Vector Spaces.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongya; Wang, Debby D; Chen, Long; Liu, Xinyu; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Co-clustering, often called biclustering for two-dimensional data, has found many applications, such as gene expression data analysis and text mining. Nowadays, a variety of multi-dimensional arrays (tensors) frequently occur in data analysis tasks, and co-clustering techniques play a key role in dealing with such datasets. Co-clusters represent coherent patterns and exhibit important properties along all the modes. Development of robust co-clustering techniques is important for the detection and analysis of these patterns. In this paper, a co-clustering method based on hyperplane detection in singular vector spaces (HDSVS) is proposed. Specifically in this method, higher-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD) transforms a tensor into a core part and a singular vector matrix along each mode, whose row vectors can be clustered by a linear grouping algorithm (LGA). Meanwhile, hyperplanar patterns are extracted and successfully supported the identification of multi-dimensional co-clusters. To validate HDSVS, a number of synthetic and biological tensors were adopted. The synthetic tensors attested a favorable performance of this algorithm on noisy or overlapped data. Experiments with gene expression data and lineage data of embryonic cells further verified the reliability of HDSVS to practical problems. Moreover, the detected co-clusters are well consistent with important genetic pathways and gene ontology annotations. Finally, a series of comparisons between HDSVS and state-of-the-art methods on synthetic tensors and a yeast gene expression tensor were implemented, verifying the robust and stable performance of our method. PMID:27598575

  11. Regions of High Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Incidence and Low Bystander CPR Rates in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Straney, Lahn D.; Bray, Janet E.; Beck, Ben; Finn, Judith; Bernard, Stephen; Dyson, Kylie; Lijovic, Marijana; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains a major public health issue and research has shown that large regional variation in outcomes exists. Of the interventions associated with survival, the provision of bystander CPR is one of the most important modifiable factors. The aim of this study is to identify census areas with high incidence of OHCA and low rates of bystander CPR in Victoria, Australia Methods We conducted an observational study using prospectively collected population-based OHCA data from the state of Victoria in Australia. Using ArcGIS (ArcMap 10.0), we linked the location of the arrest using the dispatch coordinates (longitude and latitude) to Victorian Local Government Areas (LGAs). We used Bayesian hierarchical models with random effects on each LGA to provide shrunken estimates of the rates of bystander CPR and the incidence rates. Results Over the study period there were 31,019 adult OHCA attended, of which 21,436 (69.1%) cases were of presumed cardiac etiology. Significant variation in the incidence of OHCA among LGAs was observed. There was a 3 fold difference in the incidence rate between the lowest and highest LGAs, ranging from 38.5 to 115.1 cases per 100,000 person-years. The overall rate of bystander CPR for bystander witnessed OHCAs was 62.4%, with the rate increasing from 56.4% in 2008–2010 to 68.6% in 2010–2013. There was a 25.1% absolute difference in bystander CPR rates between the highest and lowest LGAs. Conclusion Significant regional variation in OHCA incidence and bystander CPR rates exists throughout Victoria. Regions with high incidence and low bystander CPR participation can be identified and would make suitable targets for interventions to improve CPR participation rates. PMID:26447844

  12. Effect of glyceric acid calcium salt on the viability of ethanol-dosed gastric cells.

    PubMed

    Habe, Hiroshi; Sato, Shun; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai; Sakaki, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    D-Glyceric acid (D-GA) calcium has been reported to accelerate ethanol oxidation in vivo in rats (Eriksson et al., Metabolism, 56, 895-898 (2007)). However, no other reports have shown that D-GA can reduce the harmful effects of ethanol. In this study, the effects of D-, L-, and DL-GA calcium on ethanol-dosed gastric cell viability were investigated using human gastric carcinoma cells (Kato III) and normal rat gastric mucosa cells (RGM1). Addition of 2% and 3 % ethanol to Kato III and RGM1 cells, respectively, decreased their cell viability by approximately 20-50 % after 24 or 72 h of cultivation. In 2 % ethanol-dosed Kato III cells cultivated for 24 h, addition of 0.002-20 µg/mL D- and L-GA calcium did not affect cell viability. Similarly, addition of less than 20 µg/mL DL-GA calcium did not affect cell viability. However, when 20 µg/mL DL-GA calcium was added, cell viability increased by 35.7 % after 72 h of incubation, compared to the viability of control cells without ethanol or GA. Addition of 20 µg/mL DL-GA calcium to 3 % ethanol-dosed RGM1 cells cultivated for 24 or 72 h also increased cell viability up to those observed in control cells. These results suggest that a racemic mixture of GA may have the strongest effect on enhancing the viability of ethanol-exposed cells. PMID:22027025

  13. A Look into the Melting Pot: The mecC-Harboring Region Is a Recombination Hot Spot in Staphylococcus stepanovicii

    PubMed Central

    Semmler, Torsten; Harrison, Ewan M.; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Wieler, Lothar H.; Guenther, Sebastian; Stamm, Ivonne; Hanssen, Anne-Merethe; Holmes, Mark A.; Vincze, Szilvia; Walther, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is an important driver for resistance- and virulence factor accumulation in pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. Methods Here, we have investigated the downstream region of the bacterial chromosomal attachment site (attB) for the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element of a commensal mecC-positive Staphylococcus stepanovicii strain (IMT28705; ODD4) with respect to genetic composition and indications of HGT. S. stepanovicii IMT28705 was isolated from a fecal sample of a trapped wild bank vole (Myodes glareolus) during a screening study (National Network on “Rodent-Borne Pathogens”) in Germany. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of IMT28705 together with the mecC-negative type strain CM7717 was conducted in order to comparatively investigate the genomic region downstream of attB (GenBank accession no. KR732654 and KR732653). Results The bank vole isolate (IMT28705) harbors a mecC gene which shares 99.2% nucleotide (and 98.5% amino acid) sequence identity with mecC of MRSA_LGA251. In addition, the mecC-encoding region harbors the typical blaZ-mecC-mecR1-mecI structure, corresponding with the class E mec complex. While the sequences downstream of attB in both S. stepanovicii isolates (IMT28705 and CM7717) are partitioned by 15 bp direct repeats, further comparison revealed a remarkable low concordance of gene content, indicating a chromosomal “hot spot” for foreign DNA integration and exchange. Conclusion Our data highlight the necessity for further research on transmission routes of resistance encoding factors from the environmental and wildlife resistome. PMID:26799070

  14. Maternal Snoring May Predict Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Cohort Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xing; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of snoring during pregnancy and its effects on key pregnancy outcomes. Methods Pregnant women were consecutively recruited in their first trimester. Habitual snoring was screened by using a questionnaire in the 1st and 3rd trimester, respectively. According to the time of snoring, participants were divided into pregnancy onset snorers, chronic snorers and non-snorers. Logistic regressions were performed to examine the associations between snoring and pregnancy outcomes. Results Of 3 079 pregnant women, 16.6% were habitual snorers, with 11.7% were pregnancy onset snorers and 4.9% were chronic snorers. After adjusting for potential confounders, chronic snorers were independently associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (RR 1.66, 95%CI 1.09–2.53). Both pregnancy onset and chronic snorers were independently associated with placental adhesion (RR 1.96, 95%CI 1.17–3.27, and RR 2.33, 95%CI 1.22–4.46, respectively). Pregnancy onset snorers were at higher risk of caesarean delivery (RR 1.37, 95%CI 1.09–1.73) and having macrosomia (RR 1.54, 95%CI 1.05–2.27) and large for gestational age (LGA) (RR 1.71, 95%CI 1.31–2.24) infants. In addition, being overweight or obese before pregnancy plays an important role in mediating snoring and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Conclusions Maternal snoring may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and being overweight or obese before pregnancy with snoring is remarkable for researchers. Further studies are still needed to confirm our results. PMID:26871434

  15. Material properties and bone marrow stromal cells response to in situ crosslinkable RGD-functionlized lactide-co-glycolide scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Esmaiel; He, Xuezhong; Valarmathi, Mani T; Sarvestani, Alireza S; Xu, Weijie

    2009-04-01

    In situ crosslinkable biomaterials with degradation profiles that can be tailored to a particular application are indispensable for treating irregularly shaped defects and for fabrication of shape-selective scaffolds. The objective of this work was to synthesize ultra low molecular weight functionalized PLA and PLGA macromers that can be grafted with bioactive peptides and crosslinked in situ to fabricate biodegradable functional scaffolds. In situ crosslinkable lactide-co-glycolide macromer (cMLGA; "c" for crosslinkable, "M" for macromer, and "LGA" for lactide-co-glycolide) was synthesized by anionic polymerization of lactide and glycolide monomers followed by condensation polymerization with fumaryl chloride. The cMLA (100% L-lactide) and cMLGA macromers formed porous crosslinked scaffolds with NVP as the crosslinker. The mass loss of the crosslinked cMLA and cMLGA was linear with incubation time in vitro (zero-order degradation) and the degradation rate depended on the ratio of lactide to glycolide. cMLGA scaffold with 1:1 lactide to glycolide ratio completely degraded after 4 weeks while the cMLA lost less than 40% of its initial mass after 35 weeks. When cMLA scaffold was functionalized with acrylated integrin-binding Ac-GRGD amino acid sequence, bone marrow stromal (BMS) cells attached and spread on the cMLA scaffold and exhibited focal-point cell adhesion. The mRNA expression levels of collagen-1alpha, osteonectin, and osteopontin for BMS cells seeded in the scaffolds with 1 and 5% Ac-GRGD were upregulated compared with those without Ac-GRGD. cMLGA is attractive as in situ crosslinkable macromer for fabrication of functional scaffolds with degradation characteristics that can be tailored to a particular application. PMID:18431754

  16. Customized nutritional enhancement for pregnant women appears to lower incidence of certain common maternal and neonatal complications: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Stone, Leslie P; Stone, P Michael; Rydbom, Emily A; Stone, Lucas A; Stone, T Elliot; Wilkens, Lindsey E; Reynolds, Kathryn

    2014-11-01

    A retrospective chart review analyzed the effect of customized nutrition on the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes (GDM), and small- and large-for-gestational-age (SGA, LGA) neonates, examining consecutive deliveries between January 1, 2011, and Decem ber 31, 2012, at a low-risk community hospital. The population was divided into 3 groups: (1) study group (SG), (2) private practice (PP), and (3) community healthcare clinic (CHCC). All groups received standard perinatal management, but additionally the study group was analyzed for serum zinc, carnitine, total 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25 OH-D), methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and catechol-O-methyl transferase polymorphisms in the first trimester prior to intervention, with subsequent second trimester and postpartum assessment of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D after intervention. Intervention consisted of trimesterby-trimester nutrition and lifestyle education, supplementation of L-methyl folate, magnesium, essential fatty acids, and probiotics for all SG patients, with targeted supplementation of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D. Because of small case occurrence rates of individual conditions in the study group, unreportable reductions were found, except GDM (SG vs CHCC, P value .046 with 95.38% confidence interval [CI]), and PIH (SG vs PP, P value .0505 with 94.95% CIl). The aggregated occurrence rate of the four conditions, however, was significantly lower in the study population than in either comparison population (PP P value .0154 with 98.46% CI, and CHCC P value .0265 with 97.35% CI). Customized nutritional intervention appears to have significantly reduced adverse perinatal outcomes. Prospective study within larger, at-risk populations is needed to determine whether customized nutrition improves conditions individually. PMID:25568832

  17. Monitoring maternal, newborn, and child health interventions using lot quality assurance sampling in Sokoto State of northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa; Shoretire, Kamil; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Mohammed, Zainab; Abdulazeez, Jumare; Gwamzhi, Ringpon; Ganiyu, Akeem

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate are as high as 1,576 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births, respectively, in Nigeria's northwestern region, where Sokoto State is located. Using applicable monitoring indicators for tracking progress in the UN/WHO framework on continuum of maternal, newborn, and child health care, this study evaluated the progress of Sokoto toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 by December 2015. The changes in outcomes in 2012–2013 associated with maternal and child health interventions were assessed. Design We used baseline and follow-up lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) data obtained in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In each of the surveys, data were obtained from 437 households sampled from 19 LQAS locations in each of the 23 local government areas (LGAs). The composite state-level coverage estimates of the respective indicators were aggregated from estimated LGA coverage estimates. Results None of the nine indicators associated with the continuum of maternal, neonatal, and child care satisfied the recommended 90% coverage target for achieving MDGs 4 and 5. Similarly, the average state coverage estimates were lower than national coverage estimates. Marginal improvements in coverage were obtained in the demand for family planning satisfied, antenatal care visits, postnatal care for mothers, and exclusive breast-feeding. Antibiotic treatment for acute pneumonia increased significantly by 12.8 percentage points. The majority of the LGAs were classifiable as low-performing, high-priority areas for intensified program intervention. Conclusions Despite the limited time left in the countdown to December 2015, Sokoto State, Nigeria, is not on track to achieving the MDG 90% coverage of indicators tied to the continuum of maternal and child care, to reduce maternal and childhood mortality by a third by 2015. Targeted health system investments at the primary care level remain a

  18. Supercritical CO2 fluid-foaming of polymers to increase porosity: a method to improve the mechanical and biocompatibility characteristics for use as a potential alternative to allografts in impaction bone grafting?

    PubMed

    Tayton, Edward; Purcell, M; Aarvold, A; Smith, J O; Kalra, S; Briscoe, A; Shakesheff, K; Howdle, S M; Dunlop, D G; Oreffo, R O C

    2012-05-01

    Disease transmission, availability and cost of allografts have resulted in significant efforts to find an alternative for use in impaction bone grafting (IBG). Recent studies identified two polymers with both structural strength and biocompatibility characteristics as potential replacements. The aim of this study was to assess whether increasing the polymer porosity further enhanced the mechanical and cellular compatibility characteristics for use as an osteogenic biomaterial alternative to allografts in IBG. Solid and porous poly(DL-lactide) (P(DL)LA) and poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (P(DL)LGA) scaffolds were produced via melt processing and supercritical CO(2) foaming, and the differences characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical testing included milling and impaction, with comparisons made using a shear testing rig as well as a novel agitation test for cohesion. Cellular compatibility tests for cell number, viability, and osteogenic differentiation using WST-1 assays, fluorostaining, and ALP assays were determined following 14 day culture with skeletal stem cells. SEM showed excellent porosity throughout both of the supercritical-foam-produced polymer scaffolds, with pores between 50 and 200 μm. Shear testing showed that the porous polymers exceeded the shear strength of allograft controls (P<0.001). Agitation testing showed greater cohesion between the particles of the porous polymers (P<0.05). Cellular studies showed increased cell number, viability, and osteogenic differentiation on the porous polymers compared to solid block polymers (P<0.05). The use of supercritical CO(2) to generate porous polymeric biodegradable scaffolds significantly improves the cellular compatibility and cohesion observed compared to non-porous counterparts, without substantial loss of mechanical shear strength. These improved characteristics are critical for clinical translation as a potential osteogenic composite for use in IBG.

  19. Methodology for Analysis, Modeling and Simulation of Airport Gate-waiting Delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng

    This dissertation presents methodologies to estimate gate-waiting delays from historical data, to identify gate-waiting-delay functional causes in major U.S. airports, and to evaluate the impact of gate operation disruptions and mitigation strategies on gate-waiting delay. Airport gates are a resource of congestion in the air transportation system. When an arriving flight cannot pull into its gate, the delay it experiences is called gate-waiting delay. Some possible reasons for gate-waiting delay are: the gate is occupied, gate staff or equipment is unavailable, the weather prevents the use of the gate (e.g. lightning), or the airline has a preferred gate assignment. Gate-waiting delays potentially stay with the aircraft throughout the day (unless they are absorbed), adding costs to passengers and the airlines. As the volume of flights increases, ensuring that airport gates do not become a choke point of the system is critical. The first part of the dissertation presents a methodology for estimating gate-waiting delays based on historical, publicly available sources. Analysis of gate-waiting delays at major U.S. airports in the summer of 2007 identifies the following. (i) Gate-waiting delay is not a significant problem on majority of days; however, the worst delay days (e.g. 4% of the days at LGA) are extreme outliers. (ii) The Atlanta International Airport (ATL), the John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) and the Philadelphia International Airport (PHL) experience the highest gate-waiting delays among major U.S. airports. (iii) There is a significant gate-waiting-delay difference between airlines due to a disproportional gate allocation. (iv) Gate-waiting delay is sensitive to time of a day and schedule peaks. According to basic principles of queueing theory, gate-waiting delay can be attributed to over-scheduling, higher-than-scheduled arrival rate, longer-than-scheduled gate-occupancy time, and reduced gate

  20. The V[Combining Dot Above]O2 Kinetics of Maximal and Supramaximal Running Exercises in Sprinters and Middle-Distance Runners.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento Salvador, Paulo C; Dal Pupo, Juliano; De Lucas, Ricardo D; de Aguiar, Rafael A; Arins, Francimara B; Guglielmo, Luiz G A

    2016-10-01

    do Nascimento Salvador, PC, Dal Pupo, J, De Lucas, RD, de Aguiar, RA, Arins, FB, and Guglielmo, LGA. The V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics of maximal and supramaximal running exercises in sprinters and middle-distance runners. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2857-2863, 2016-The aim of this study was to compare the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics parameters during maximal and supramaximal running exercises in sprinters (SPR) and middle-distance runners (MDR). Twelve SPR (age 20.6 ± 3.4 years; and body mass 74.9 ± 6.2 kg) and 10 MDR (age 17.6 ± 1.4 years; and body mass 70.1 ± 11.8 kg) performed, on different days, a maximal incremental running test for determination of the velocity at maximum oxygen uptake (vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max) and 2 constant-speed tests for analysis of V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics at 100 and 120% of vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max. The MDR presented significantly higher values for the critical speed (18.0 ± 1.0 vs. 14.2 ± 1.0 km·h), vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max (19.4 ± 0.7 vs. 17.2 ± 0.8 km·h), and time to exhaustion at 100% (437 ± 53 vs. 366 ± 49 seconds) than the SPR (p ≤ 0.05). However, the SPR demonstrated greater values for the anaerobic distance capacity (281.3 ± 66.1 vs. 208.0 ± 43.4 m). Although the mean response time and the time to attain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics was higher in the maximal than supramaximal running speed (p ≤ 0.05), no difference was found in these parameters as well for V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component (p > 0.05) between the groups. This study showed that different aerobic and anaerobic characteristics in MDR and SPR did not affect the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics in maximal and supramaximal intensities within the severe-intensity domain. From a practical perspective, parameters of V[Combining Dot Above]O2 response may provide helpful information for training control as the duration of stimulus close to V[Combining Dot Above]O2max.

  1. [VACCINE-ASSOCIATED PARALYTIC POLIOMYELITIS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION DURING THE PERIOD OF CHANGES IN VACCINATION SCHEDULE (2006-2013 yy.)].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, O E; Eremeeva, T P; Morozova, N S; Shakaryan, A K; Gmyl, A P; Yakovenko, M L; Korotkova, E A; Chernjavskaja, O P; Baykova, O Yu; Silenova, O V; Krasota, A Yu; Krasnoproshina, L I; Mustafina, A N; Kozlovskaja, L I

    2016-01-01

    The results of virologic testing of clinical materials and epidemiological analysis of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases obtained in 2006-2013 during AFP surveillance are presented. Among the 2976 cases of AFP 30 cases were VAPP. 15 cases were observed in OPV recipients, whereas 15 cases were observed in non-vaccinated contacts. The age of the patients varied from 4 months to 5.5 years (13.6 ± 12.4 months old). Children younger than 1 year constituted 63.3% of the group; boys were dominant (73.3%); 53.3% of children were vaccinated with OPV; the time period between receipt of OPV and onset of palsy was from 2 to 32 days (18.7 ± 8.2). Lower paraparesis was documented in 48.3% of patients; lower monoparesis in 37.9%; upper monoparesis, in 6.9%; tetraparesis with bulbar syndrome, in 6%. The majority of the patients (85.7%) had an unfavorable premorbid status. The violations of the humoral immunity were found in 73.9% cases: CVID (52.9%), hypogammaglobulinemia (41.2%); selective lgA deflciency (5.9%). In 70.6% cases damage to humoral immunity was combined with poor premorbid status. The most frequently observed (76%, p < 0.05) represented the single type of poliovirus--type 2 (44%) and type 3 (32%). All strains were of the vaccine origin, the divergence from the homotypic Sabin strains fell within the region of the gene encoding VPI protein, which did not exceed 0.5% of nucleotide substitutions except vaccine derived poliovirus type 2--multiple recombinant (type 2/type 3/ type 2/type 1) with the degree of the divergence of 1.44% isolated from 6-month old unvaccinated child (RUS08063034001). The frequency of the VAPP cases was a total of 1 case per 3.4 million doses of distributed OPV in 2006-2013; 2.2 cases per 1 million of newborns were observed. This frequency decreased after the introduction of the sequential scheme of vaccination (IPV, OPV) in 2008-2013 as compared with the period of exclusive use of OPV in 2006-2007: 1 case per 4.9 million

  2. Nutritional Practices and Taboos Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at General Hospital in Kano, Northwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ugwa, EA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food taboos among rural women have been identified as one of the factors contributing to maternal undernutrition in pregnancy. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore some of the taboos and nutritional practices among pregnant women attending antenatal care at a General Hospital in Dawakin Kudu LGA, Kano, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 220 pregnant women. Interviewer-administered structured questionnaire was used to interview the respondents, which showed various sociodemographic information, cultural nutritional processes, taboos of the community, and a 24 h food recall. The ages, parities, and gestational ages of the women were collated. Descriptive statistics was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software Version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Association between sociodemographic factors and nutritional practices and taboos was determined using Chi-square test and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: At the end of the study, 200 participants (91%) gave complete information. Most of the women, 70% (140/200) were in the 20–39 years age range with mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 23.7 (6.1) years, mostly uneducated, 70% (140/200), and unemployed, 51% (102/200). Most of the women did a child spacing of 12–24 months, 62% (124/200) with mean (SD) child spacing interval of 26.32 (10.19) months. Gestational age at booking was mostly 13–26 weeks, 48% (96/200) with an average of 26.60 (8.01). Most of the women had 1–4 children, 54.5% (109/200) with mean (SD) of 2.47 (2.50). Most of the women agreed that they had adequate intake of oil, 86% (172/200), meat/fish, 92% (194/200), fruit/vegetables 56% (112/200), and had 3 meals/day 80% (152/200), and did not practice pica 83% (166/200). All of the women, 100% (200/200) believe that women should eat more during pregnancy in order to have healthy babies. They were mostly supported by their husbands, 53% (106/200) and

  3. Technical Efficiency and Productivity of Yam in Kogi State Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekunwe, Peter A.; Orewa, Sylvester I.

    The study examined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam in Kogi States of Nigeria. Specifically the study examined the socioeconomic characteristics of yam producers in Kogi State, determined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam farmers in the study areas and made recommendations on ways of improving the efficiency of yam production in Kogi State. Primary data were collected using a set of structured questionnaire from 200 selected Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact yam farmers from the State. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting the farmers. The first stage was a purposive sampling of 5 Local Government Areas (LGAs) each from Kogi States. The LGAs selected were Omala, Ofu, Ankpa, Dekina and Ida. This was based on the high concentration of the population of yam producers and the availability of market for yam products. The second stage involved a simple random sampling of 5 villages from each LGA and 8 yam farmers from each village. In all 200 yam farmers were interviewed by trained enumerators. Out of the 200 only 144 copies of the questionnaires were found adequate and used in the analysis for the study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation, as well as the stochastic frontier production function. Results from the study showed that on the average more males (98.6%) were involved in yam production as compared to 1.4% in the case of female. The mean age of farmers was 53 years. The average years of schooling by farmers was about 4 years suggesting that the farmers were not well educated. The average farming years was 25 years. In terms of cropping pattern all the farmers practiced sole yam cropping. Their average farm sizes were 0.97 ha. The technical efficiency of the farmers in the State varied. The technical efficiency of farmers varied from 0.05 to 0.95 with a mean of 0.62, while only about 23% of the farmers had technical efficiencies exceeding 0

  4. Aeroflex Technology as Class-Y Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Jong-ook; Agarwal, Shri; Popelar, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Modern space field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices with increased functional density and operational frequency, such as Xilinx Virtex 4 (V4) and S (V5), are packaged in non-hermetic ceramic flip chip forms. These next generation space parts were not qualified to the MIL-PRF-38535 Qualified Manufacturer Listing (QML) class-V when they were released because class-V was only intended for hermetic parts. In order to bring Xilinx V5 type packages into the QML system, it was suggested that class-Y be set up as a new category. From 2010 through 2014, a JEDEC G12 task group developed screening and qualification requirements for Class-Y products. The Document Standardization Division of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) has completed an engineering practice study. In parallel with the class-Y efforts, the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) program has funded JPL to study potential reliability issues of the class-Y products. The major hurdle of this task was the absence of adequate research samples. Figure 1-1 shows schematic diagrams of typical structures of class-Y type products. Typically, class-Y products are either in ceramic flip chip column grid array (CGA) or land grid array (LGA) form. In class-Y packages, underfill and heat spread adhesive materials are directly exposed to the spacecraft environment due to their non-hermeticity. One of the concerns originally raised was that the underfill material could degrade due to the spacecraft environment and negatively impact the reliability of the package. In order to study such issues, it was necessary to use ceramic daisy chain flip chip package samples so that continuity of flip chip solder bumps could be monitored during the reliability tests. However, none of the commercially available class-Y daisy chain parts had electrical connections through flip chip solder bumps; only solder columns were daisy chained, which made it impossible to test continuity of flip chip solder bumps without using extremely

  5. Socio-environmental drivers and suicide in Australia: Bayesian spatial analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of socio-environmental factors on suicide has been examined in many studies. Few of them, however, have explored these associations from a spatial perspective, especially in assessing the association between meteorological factors and suicide. This study examined the association of meteorological and socio-demographic factors with suicide across small areas over different time periods. Methods Suicide, population and socio-demographic data (e.g., population of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (ATSI), and unemployment rate (UNE) at the Local Government Area (LGA) level were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics for the period of 1986 to 2005. Information on meteorological factors (rainfall, temperature and humidity) was supplied by Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A Bayesian Conditional Autoregressive (CAR) Model was applied to explore the association of socio-demographic and meteorological factors with suicide across LGAs. Results In Model I (socio-demographic factors), proportion of ATSI and UNE were positively associated with suicide from 1996 to 2000 (Relative Risk (RR)ATSI = 1.0107, 95% Credible Interval (CI): 1.0062-1.0151; RRUNE = 1.0187, 95% CI: 1.0060-1.0315), and from 2001 to 2005 (RRATSI = 1.0126, 95% CI: 1.0076-1.0176; RRUNE = 1.0198, 95% CI: 1.0041-1.0354). Socio-Economic Index for Area (SEIFA) and IND, however, had negative associations with suicide between 1986 and 1990 (RRSEIFA = 0.9983, 95% CI: 0.9971-0.9995; RRATSI = 0.9914, 95% CI: 0.9848-0.9980). Model II (meteorological factors): a 1°C higher yearly mean temperature across LGAs increased the suicide rate by an average by 2.27% (95% CI: 0.73%, 3.82%) in 1996–2000, and 3.24% (95% CI: 1.26%, 5.21%) in 2001–2005. The associations between socio-demographic factors and suicide in Model III (socio-demographic and meteorological factors) were similar to those in Model I; but, there is no substantive association between climate and

  6. A Report of At-Scale Distribution of Chlorhexidine Digluconate 7.1% Gel for Newborn Cord Care to 36,404 Newborns in Sokoto State, Nigeria: Initial Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Orobaton, Nosakhare; Abegunde, Dele; Shoretire, Kamil; Abdulazeez, Jumare; Fapohunda, Bolaji; Lamiri, Goli; Maishanu, Abubakar; Ganiyu, Akeem; Ndifon, Eric; Gwamzhi, Ringpon; Osborne-Smith, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background With an annual estimated 276,000 neonatal deaths, Nigeria has the second highest of any country in the world. Global progress in accelerating neonatal deaths is hinged to scaled-up interventions in Nigeria. We used routine data of chlorhexidine digluconate 7.1% gel utilized by 36,404 newborns delivered by 36,370 mothers, to study lessons associated with at-scale distribution in Sokoto State, North West Nigeria. Methods and Findings Under state government leadership, a community-based distribution system overseen by 244 ward development committees and over 3,440 community-based health volunteers and community drug keepers, was activated to deliver two locally stored medicines to women when labor commenced. Newborns and their mothers were tracked through 28 days and 42 days respectively, including verbal autopsy results. 36,404 or 26.3% of expected newborns received the gel from April 2013 to December 2013 throughout all 244 wards in the State. 99.97% of newborns survived past 28 days. There were 124 pre-verified neonatal deaths reported. Upon verification using verbal autopsy procedures, 76 deaths were stillborn and 48 were previously live births. Among the previous 48 live births, the main causes of death were sepsis (40%), asphyxia (29%) and prematurity (8%). Underuse of logistics management information by government in procurement decisions and not accounting for differences in LGA population sizes during commodity distribution, severely limited program scalability. Conclusions Enhancements in the predictable availability and supply of chlorhexidine digluconate 7.1% gel to communities through better, evidence-based logistics management by the state public sector will most likely dramatically increase program scalability. Infections as a cause of mortality in babies delivered in home settings may be much higher than previously conceived. In tandem with high prevalence of stillborn deaths, delivery, interventions designed to increase mothers’ timely

  7. Evaluation of vertical profiles to design continuous descent approach procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeep, Priyank

    The current research focuses on predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of Continuous Descent Approach (CDA), which is among the key concepts of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The idle-thrust CDA is a fuel economical, noise and emission abatement procedure, but requires increased separation to accommodate for variability and uncertainties in vertical and speed profiles of arriving aircraft. Although a considerable amount of researches have been devoted to the estimation of potential benefits of the CDA, only few have attempted to explain the predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of CDA. The analytical equations derived using flight dynamics and Base of Aircraft and Data (BADA) Total Energy Model (TEM) in this research gives insight into dependency of vertical profile of CDA on various factors like wind speed and gradient, weight, aircraft type and configuration, thrust settings, atmospheric factors (deviation from ISA (DISA), pressure and density of the air) and descent speed profile. Application of the derived equations to idle-thrust CDA gives an insight into sensitivity of its vertical profile to multiple factors. This suggests fixed geometric flight path angle (FPA) CDA has higher degree of predictability and lesser variability at the cost of non-idle and low thrust engine settings. However, with optimized design this impact can be overall minimized. The CDA simulations were performed using Future ATM Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET) based on radar-track and aircraft type data (BADA) of the real air-traffic to some of the busiest airports in the USA (ATL, SFO and New York Metroplex (JFK, EWR and LGA)). The statistical analysis of the vertical profiles of CDA shows 1) mean geometric FPAs derived from various simulated vertical profiles are consistently shallower than 3° glideslope angle and 2) high level of variability in vertical profiles of idle-thrust CDA even in absence of

  8. Role of smectite-rich shales in frequent foundation failures in southeast Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maduka, Raphael Iweanya; Ayogu, Nnadozie Onyekachi; Nneka Ayogu, Chinero; Gbakurun, Gabriel Auodugu

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigated the geotechnical properties of smectite-rich shale, and its implications as foundation material. Ten expansive shale samples were collected from foundation materials at Akpugo in Nkanu West L.G.A. of Enugu State, southeast Nigeria. Samples were subjected to grading, Atterberg limits-cum-compaction tests, slake durability, specific gravity, permeability, undrained triaxial tests and x-ray diffraction scan. Fines and sand contents of the soil samples range from 51-97% and 3-49% respectively. Liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index have average values of 60.7, 19.1 and 43.3% respectively. Linear shrinkage and free swell showed average of 16.3% and 76%. These results are indicative of predominant clay soil with high plasticity, compressibility and water holding capacity. XRD scan established presence of smectite and illite clay minerals, confirming soil high plasticity, capable of causing instability in foundation soil. The shale achieved maximum dry density range between 1.79 and 1.94 kg/m3 at optimum moisture content range of 6.9-12.8%, indicating poor to fair foundation materials. The shale cohesion ranges from 15 to 30 kPa while the angle of friction ranges between 10° and 18°, signifying an average strength soil material. Samples slake durability index and specific gravity fall within 24-55% and 2.50-2.58 respectively, suggesting non-durable and weak soil. Permeability of the samples ranges between 7.36 ×10-6 and 4.77 ×10-8 cm/s which suggested low drainage capable of causing water-log at sites. Therefore, the shale could be generally classified as poor to fair foundation material, which on moisture influx experience reduction in strength due to deterioration of its constituent minerals, especially clay and cement materials during the lifespan of engineering structures. Authors therefore recommend modification of foundation soil, appropriate foundation design and good drainage control as ways of improving stability of

  9. Local level epidemiological analysis of TB in people from a high incidence country of birth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The setting for this analysis is the low tuberculosis (TB) incidence state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Local level analysis of TB epidemiology in people from high incidence countries-of-birth (HIC) in a low incidence setting has not been conducted in Australia and has not been widely reported. Local level analysis could inform measures such as active case finding and targeted earlier diagnosis. The aim of this study was to use a novel approach to identify local areas in an Australian state that have higher TB rates given the local areas’ country of birth profiles. Methods TB notification data for the three year period 2006–2008 were analysed by grouping the population into those from a high-incidence country-of-birth and the remainder. Results During the study period there were 1401 notified TB cases in the state of NSW. Of these TB cases 76.5% were born in a high-incidence country. The annualised TB notification rate for the high-incidence country-of-birth group was 61.2/100,000 population and for the remainder of the population was 1.8/100,000. Of the 152 Local Government Areas (LGA) in NSW, nine had higher and four had lower TB notification rates in their high-incidence country-of-birth populations when compared with the high-incidence country-of-birth population for the rest of NSW. The nine areas had a higher proportion of the population with a country of birth where TB notification rates are >100/100,000. Those notified with TB in the nine areas also had a shorter length of stay in Australia than the rest of the state. The areas with higher TB notification rates were all in the capital city, Sydney. Among LGAs with higher TB notification rates, four had higher rates in both people with a high-incidence country of birth and people not born in a high-incidence country. The age distribution of the HIC population was similar across all areas, and the highest differential in TB rates across areas was in the 5–19 years age group

  10. Virtual Dual inhibition of COX-2 / 5-LOX enzymes based on binding properties of alpha-amyrins, the anti-inflammatory compound as a promising anti-cancer drug

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Mohammad Mehdi; Assadolahi, Vahideh; Yazdani, Mohsen; Nikaein, Donya; Rashidieh, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of Cordia myxa was considerably effective on curing acute inflammation in mouse model. Previous studies suggested significant anti-inflammatory activities as well as potential anticancer agent of α-amyrins in seeds. Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-Lipooxygenase (5-LOX) is significant in cancer prevention and therapeutics although this inhibition with chemo-drugs has its own side-effects. It is shown that these enzymes pathways are related to several cancers including colon, breast and lung cancer. This study was conducted based on Cordia species' α-amyrins as a safer natural anti-cancer compound for inhibition of COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes by molecular docking. The X-ray crystal structure of COX2 / 5-LOX enzymes and α-amyrins was retrieved and energetically minimized respectively. The binding site and surface of enzymes were detected. Docking studies were performed by AutoDock 4.2 using Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA). Finally drug likeness, molecular pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity of α-amyrins was calculated. Molecular Docking revealed hydrogen and hydrophobic interactions between α-amyrins with both active sites of COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes. Interestingly, it covalently bonded to Fe cofactor of 5-LOX enzyme and chelated this molecule. Base on binding energies (∆G) α-amyrin has more inhibitory effects on 5-LOX (-10.45 Kcal/mol) than COX-2 (-8.02 Kcal/mol). Analysis of molecular pharmacokinetic parameters suggested that α-amyrins complied with most sets of Lipinski's rules, and so it could be a suitable ligand for docking studies. Eventually, bioactivity score showed α-amyrins possess considerable biological activities as nuclear receptor, enzyme inhibitor, GPCR and protease inhibitor ligand. These results clearly demonstrate that α-amyrins could act as potential highly selective COX-/5-LOX inhibitor. Also, it is a safe compound in comparison with classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs

  11. Mid-Gestational Gene Expression Profile in Placenta and Link to Pregnancy Complications

    PubMed Central

    Uusküla, Liis; Männik, Jaana; Rull, Kristiina; Minajeva, Ave; Kõks, Sulev; Vaas, Pille; Teesalu, Pille; Reimand, Jüri; Laan, Maris

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of placenta in mediating rapid physiological changes in pregnancy, data on temporal dynamics of placental gene expression are limited. We completed the first transcriptome profiling of human placental gene expression dynamics (GeneChips, Affymetrix®; ∼47,000 transcripts) from early to mid-gestation (n = 10; gestational weeks 5–18) and report 154 genes with significant transcriptional changes (ANOVA, FDR P<0.1). TaqMan RT-qPCR analysis (n = 43; gestational weeks 5–41) confirmed a significant (ANOVA and t-test, FDR P<0.05) mid-gestational peak of placental gene expression for BMP5, CCNG2, CDH11, FST, GATM, GPR183, ITGBL1, PLAGL1, SLC16A10 and STC1, followed by sharp decrease in mRNA levels at term (t-test, FDR P<0.05). We hypothesized that normal course of late pregnancy may be affected when genes characteristic to mid-gestation placenta remain highly expressed until term, and analyzed their expression in term placentas from normal and complicated pregnancies [preeclampsia (PE), n = 12; gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), n = 12; small- and large-for-gestational-age newborns (SGA, LGA), n = 12+12]. STC1 (stanniocalcin 1) exhibited increased mRNA levels in all studied complications, with the most significant effect in PE- and SGA-groups (t-test, FDR P<0.05). In post-partum maternal plasma, the highest STC1 hormone levels (ELISA, n = 129) were found in women who had developed PE and delivered a SGA newborn (median 731 vs 418 pg/ml in controls; ANCOVA, P = 0.00048). Significantly higher expression (t-test, FDR P<0.05) of CCNG2 and LYPD6 accompanied with enhanced immunostaining of the protein was detected in placental sections of PE and GDM cases (n = 15). Our study demonstrates the importance of temporal dynamics of placental transcriptional regulation across three trimesters of gestation. Interestingly, many genes with high expression in mid-gestation placenta have also been implicated in adult complex

  12. Virtual Dual inhibition of COX-2 / 5-LOX enzymes based on binding properties of alpha-amyrins, the anti-inflammatory compound as a promising anti-cancer drug.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Mohammad Mehdi; Assadolahi, Vahideh; Yazdani, Mohsen; Nikaein, Donya; Rashidieh, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of Cordia myxa was considerably effective on curing acute inflammation in mouse model. Previous studies suggested significant anti-inflammatory activities as well as potential anticancer agent of α-amyrins in seeds. Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-Lipooxygenase (5-LOX) is significant in cancer prevention and therapeutics although this inhibition with chemo-drugs has its own side-effects. It is shown that these enzymes pathways are related to several cancers including colon, breast and lung cancer. This study was conducted based on Cordia species' α-amyrins as a safer natural anti-cancer compound for inhibition of COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes by molecular docking. The X-ray crystal structure of COX2 / 5-LOX enzymes and α-amyrins was retrieved and energetically minimized respectively. The binding site and surface of enzymes were detected. Docking studies were performed by AutoDock 4.2 using Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA). Finally drug likeness, molecular pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity of α-amyrins was calculated. Molecular Docking revealed hydrogen and hydrophobic interactions between α-amyrins with both active sites of COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes. Interestingly, it covalently bonded to Fe cofactor of 5-LOX enzyme and chelated this molecule. Base on binding energies (∆G) α-amyrin has more inhibitory effects on 5-LOX (-10.45 Kcal/mol) than COX-2 (-8.02 Kcal/mol). Analysis of molecular pharmacokinetic parameters suggested that α-amyrins complied with most sets of Lipinski's rules, and so it could be a suitable ligand for docking studies. Eventually, bioactivity score showed α-amyrins possess considerable biological activities as nuclear receptor, enzyme inhibitor, GPCR and protease inhibitor ligand. These results clearly demonstrate that α-amyrins could act as potential highly selective COX-/5-LOX inhibitor. Also, it is a safe compound in comparison with classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs

  13. Exploring Consumer Perceptions and Economic Burden of Onchocerciasis on Households in Enugu State, South-East Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ibe, Ogochukwu; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Ajuba, Miriam; Okonkwo, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Onchocerciasis or river blindness constitutes a major burden to households especially in resource-poor settings, causing a significant reduction in household productivity. There has been renewed interest from policy makers to reduce the burden of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) such as onchocerciasis on individuals and households. This paper provides new information on the patient’s perceptions of onchocerciasis and its economic burden on households in South-eastern Nigeria. The information will be useful to health providers and policy makers for evidence-informed resource allocation decisions. Methods Information was generated from a cross-sectional household survey conducted in Achi community, Oji River Local Government Area (LGA) of Enugu State, Southeast Nigeria. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 747 households were visited randomly and data were collected using pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire from 370 respondents. The respondents’ knowledge of the cause of symptoms of the disease, costs incurred for seeking treatment and productivity losses were elicited. Data were analyzed using tabulations and inferential statistics. A socio-economic status (SES) index was used to disaggregate some key variables by SES quintiles for equity analysis. Results Many people had more than one type of manifestation of onchocerciasis. However, more than half of the respondents (57%) had no knowledge of the cause of their symptoms. Male respondents had significantly more knowledge of the cause of symptoms than females (P = 0.04) but knowledge did not differ across SES (P = 0.82). The average monthly treatment cost per respondent was US$ 14.0. Drug cost (US$10) made up about 72% of total treatment cost. The per capita productivity loss among patients was US$16 and it was higher in the poorest (Q1) (US$20) and the third SES quintiles (Q3) (US$21). The average monthly productivity loss among

  14. Virtual Dual inhibition of COX-2 / 5-LOX enzymes based on binding properties of alpha-amyrins, the anti-inflammatory compound as a promising anti-cancer drug.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Mohammad Mehdi; Assadolahi, Vahideh; Yazdani, Mohsen; Nikaein, Donya; Rashidieh, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of Cordia myxa was considerably effective on curing acute inflammation in mouse model. Previous studies suggested significant anti-inflammatory activities as well as potential anticancer agent of α-amyrins in seeds. Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-Lipooxygenase (5-LOX) is significant in cancer prevention and therapeutics although this inhibition with chemo-drugs has its own side-effects. It is shown that these enzymes pathways are related to several cancers including colon, breast and lung cancer. This study was conducted based on Cordia species' α-amyrins as a safer natural anti-cancer compound for inhibition of COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes by molecular docking. The X-ray crystal structure of COX2 / 5-LOX enzymes and α-amyrins was retrieved and energetically minimized respectively. The binding site and surface of enzymes were detected. Docking studies were performed by AutoDock 4.2 using Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA). Finally drug likeness, molecular pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity of α-amyrins was calculated. Molecular Docking revealed hydrogen and hydrophobic interactions between α-amyrins with both active sites of COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes. Interestingly, it covalently bonded to Fe cofactor of 5-LOX enzyme and chelated this molecule. Base on binding energies (∆G) α-amyrin has more inhibitory effects on 5-LOX (-10.45 Kcal/mol) than COX-2 (-8.02 Kcal/mol). Analysis of molecular pharmacokinetic parameters suggested that α-amyrins complied with most sets of Lipinski's rules, and so it could be a suitable ligand for docking studies. Eventually, bioactivity score showed α-amyrins possess considerable biological activities as nuclear receptor, enzyme inhibitor, GPCR and protease inhibitor ligand. These results clearly demonstrate that α-amyrins could act as potential highly selective COX-/5-LOX inhibitor. Also, it is a safe compound in comparison with classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs

  15. AE (Acoustic Emission) for Flip-Chip CGA/FCBGA Defect Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2014-01-01

    that could be detected using the most advanced C-SAM equipment with a skilled operator. Investigation continued using in-house equipment with its limitations. For comparison, representative X-rays of the assemblies were also gathered to show key defect detection features of these non-destructive techniques. Key images gathered and compared are: Compared the images of 2D X-ray and C-SAM for a plastic LGA assembly showing features that could be detected by either NDE technique. For this specific case, X-ray was a clear winner. Evaluated flip-chip CGA and FCBGA assemblies with and without heat sink by C-SAM. Only the FCCGA package that had no heat sink could be fully analyzed for underfill and bump quality. Cross-sectional microscopy did not revealed peripheral delamination features detected by C-SAM. Analyzed a number of fine pitch PBGA assemblies by C-SAM. Even though the internal features of the package assemblies could be detected, C-SAM was unable to detect solder joint failure at either the package or board level. Twenty times touch ups by solder iron with 700degF tip temperature, each with about 5 second duration, did not induce defects to be detected by C-SAM images. Other techniques need to be considered to induce known defects for characterization. Given NASA's emphasis on the use of microelectronic packages and assemblies and quality assurance on workmanship defect detection, understanding key features of various inspection systems that detect defects in the early stages of package and assembly is critical to developing approaches that will minimize future failures. Additional specific, tailored non-destructive inspection approaches could enable low-risk insertion of these advanced electronic packages having hidden and fine features.

  16. FLIRT-ing with Zika: A Web Application to Predict the Movement of Infected Travelers Validated Against the Current Zika Virus Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Huff, Andrew; Allen, Toph; Whiting, Karissa; Breit, Nathan; Arnold, Brock

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Beginning in 2015, Zika virus rapidly spread throughout the Americas and has been linked to neurological and autoimmune diseases in adults and babies. Developing accurate tools to anticipate Zika spread is one of the first steps to mitigate further spread of the disease. When combined, air traffic data and network simulations can be used to create tools to predict where infectious disease may spread to and aid in the prevention of infectious diseases. Specific goals were to: 1) predict where travelers infected with the Zika Virus would arrive in the U.S.; and, 2) analyze and validate the open access web application’s (i.e., FLIRT) predictions using data collected after the prediction was made. Method: FLIRT was built to predict the flow and likely destinations of infected travelers through the air travel network. FLIRT uses a database of flight schedules from over 800 airlines, and can display direct flight traffic and perform passenger simulations between selected airports. FLIRT was used to analyze flights departing from five selected airports in locations where sustained Zika Virus transmission was occurring. FLIRT’s predictions were validated against Zika cases arriving in the U.S. from selected airports during the selected time periods.  Kendall’s τ and Generalized Linear Models were computed for all permutations of FLIRT and case data to test the accuracy of FLIRT’s predictions. Results: FLIRT was found to be predictive of the final destinations of infected travelers in the U.S. from areas with ongoing transmission of Zika in the Americas from 01 February 2016 - 01 to April 2016, and 11 January 2016 to 11 March 2016 time periods. MIA-FLL, JFK-EWR-LGA, and IAH were top ranked at-risk metro areas, and Florida, Texas and New York were top ranked states at-risk for the future time period analyzed (11 March 2016 - 11 June 2016). For the 11 January 2016 to 11 March 2016 time period, the region-aggregated model indicated 7.24 (95% CI 6.85

  17. Mount St. Augustine volcano fumarole wall rock alteration: Mineralogy, zoning, composition and numerical models of its formation process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Getahun, A.; Reed, M.H.; Symonds, R.

    1996-01-01

    ), sulfates (anhydrite) and halides (halite). The cooling calculations produce: (a) anhydrite, halite, sylvite; (b) Cu, Mo, Fe and Zn sulfides; (c) Mg fluoride at high temperature (> 370??C); (d) chlorides, fluorides and sulfates of Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu and Al at intermediate temperature (170-370??C); and (e) hydrated sulfates, liquid sulfur, crystalline sulfur, hydrated sulfuric acid and water at low temperature ( 0.41 (> 628??C). This is followed by precipitation of sulfates of Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn and Al at lg/a ratios between 0.41 and -0.4 (628-178??C). At a lg/r ratio of < - 0.4 (178??C), anhydrous sulfates are replaced by their hydrated forms and hygroscopic sulfuric acid forms. At these low g/a ratios, hydrated sulfuric acid becomes the dominant phase in the system. Comparison of the thermochemical modeling results with the natural samples suggests that the alteration assemblages include: (1) minerals that precipitate from direct cooling of the volcanic gas; (2) phases that form by volcanic gases mixing with air; and (3) phases that form by volcanic gas-air-rock reaction. A complex interplay of the three processes produces the observed mineral zoning. Another implication of the numerical simulation results is that most of the observed incrustation and sublimate minerals apparently formed below 700??C.

  18. Correlated-Data Fusion and Cooperative Aiding in GNSS-Stressed or Denied Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtarzadeh, Hamid

    , and BCInf filter measurement update equations. Furthermore, characteristics important to the proper implementation of CI and BCInf in practice are discussed. A new covariance normalization step is proposed as necessary to properly apply CI or BCInf. Lastly, both centralized and decentralized implementations of cooperative aiding are analyzed and evaluated using experimental data in the three applications. In the commercial aviation study aircraft are simulated to use their Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) systems to cooperatively aid their on board INS during a 60 min GPS outage in the national airspace. An availability study of cooperative navigation as proposed in this work around representative United States airports is performed. Availabilities between 70-100% were common at major airports like LGA and MSP in a 30 nmi radius around the airport during morning to evening hours. A GPS-denied navigation system for small UAVs based on cooperative information sharing is described. Experimentally collected flight data from 7 small UAV flights are played-back to evaluate the performance of the navigation system. The results show that the most effective of the architectures can lead to 5+ minutes of navigation without GPS maintaining position errors less than 200 m (1-sigma). The automotive case study considers 15 minutes of automotive traffic (2,000 + vehicles) driving through a half-mile stretch of highway without access to GPS. Automotive radar coupled with Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) protocol are used to implement cooperative aiding to a low-cost 2-D INS on board each vehicle. The centralized system achieves an order of magnitude reduction in uncertainty by aggressively aiding the INS on board each vehicle. The proposed CI-based decentralized estimator is demonstrated to be conservative and maintain consistency. A quantitative analysis of bandwidth requirements shows that the proposed

  19. PRETERM BIRTH AND FETAL GROWTH RESTRICTION IN HIV-INFECTED BRAZILIAN PREGNANT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    dos REIS, Helena Lucia Barroso; ARAUJO, Karina da Silva; RIBEIRO, Lilian Paula; da ROCHA, Daniel Ribeiro; ROSATO, Drielli Petri; PASSOS, Mauro Romero Leal; de VARGAS, Paulo Roberto Merçon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Maternal HIV infection and related co-morbidities may have two outstanding consequences to fetal health: mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and adverse perinatal outcomes. After Brazilian success in reducing MTCT, the attention must now be diverted to the potentially increased risk for preterm birth (PTB) and intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR). Objective: To determine the prevalence of PTB and IUGR in low income, antiretroviral users, publicly assisted, HIV-infected women and to verify its relation to the HIV infection stage. Patients and Methods: Out of 250 deliveries from HIV-infected mothers that delivered at a tertiary public university hospital in the city of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil, from November 2001 to May 2012, 74 single pregnancies were selected for study, with ultrasound validated gestational age (GA) and data on birth dimensions: fetal weight (FW), birth length (BL), head and abdominal circumferences (HC, AC). The data were extracted from clinical and pathological records, and the outcomes summarized as proportions of preterm birth (PTB, < 37 weeks), low birth weight (LBW, < 2500g) and small (SGA), adequate (AGA) and large (LGA) for GA, defined as having a value below, between or beyond the ±1.28 z/GA score, the usual clinical cut-off to demarcate the 10th and 90th percentiles. Results: PTB was observed in 17.5%, LBW in 20.2% and SGA FW, BL, HC and AC in 16.2%, 19.1%, 13.8%, and 17.4% respectively. The proportions in HIV-only and AIDS cases were: PTB: 5.9 versus 27.5%, LBW: 14.7% versus 25.0%, SGA BW: 17.6% versus 15.0%, BL: 6.0% versus 30.0%, HC: 9.0% versus 17.9%, and AC: 13.3% versus 21.2%; only SGA BL attained a significant difference. Out of 15 cases of LBW, eight (53.3%) were preterm only, four (26.7%) were SGA only, and three (20.0%) were both PTB and SGA cases. A concomitant presence of, at least, two SGA dimensions in the same fetus was frequent. Conclusions: The proportions of preterm

  20. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Nominal Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald; williams, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Mission (ARCM) nominal design and performance costs associated with an Orion based crewed rendezvous mission to a captured asteroid in an Earth-Moon DRO. The ARM study includes two fundamental mission phases: 1) The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) and 2) the ARCM. The ARRM includes a solar electric propulsion based robotic asteroid return vehicle (ARV) sent to rendezvous with a selected near Earth asteroid, capture it, and return it to a DRO in the Earth-Moon vicinity. The DRO is selected over other possible asteroid parking orbits due to its achievability (by both the robotic and crewed vehicles) and by its stability (e.g., no orbit maintenance is required). After the return of the asteroid to the Earth-Moon vicinity, the ARCM is executed and carries a crew of two astronauts to a DRO to rendezvous with the awaiting ARV with the asteroid. The outbound and inbound transfers employ lunar gravity assist (LGA) flybys to reduce the Orion propellant requirement for the overall nominal mission, which provides a nominal mission with some reserve propellant for possible abort situations. The nominal mission described in this report provides a better understanding of the mission considerations as well as the feasibility of such a crewed mission, particularly with regard to spacecraft currently undergoing development, such as the Orion vehicle and the Space Launch System (SLS).