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  1. Large for gestational age (LGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/002248.htm Large for gestational age (LGA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Large for gestational age means that a fetus or infant is larger ...

  2. Safeguarding Post-Laming: Initial Scoping Study. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The Local Government Association (LGA) commissioned the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) to undertake an initial scoping study into safeguarding post-Laming, with a view to undertaking further work if relevant. The purpose of the study was to identify research and literature produced since the Laming report was published in…

  3. Benchmarking parameter-free AMaLGaM on functions with and without noise.

    PubMed

    Bosman, Peter A N; Grahl, Jörn; Thierens, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    We describe a parameter-free estimation-of-distribution algorithm (EDA) called the adapted maximum-likelihood Gaussian model iterated density-estimation evolutionary algorithm (AMaLGaM-ID[Formula: see text]A, or AMaLGaM for short) for numerical optimization. AMaLGaM is benchmarked within the 2009 black box optimization benchmarking (BBOB) framework and compared to a variant with incremental model building (iAMaLGaM). We study the implications of factorizing the covariance matrix in the Gaussian distribution, to use only a few or no covariances. Further, AMaLGaM and iAMaLGaM are also evaluated on the noisy BBOB problems and we assess how well multiple evaluations per solution can average out noise. Experimental evidence suggests that parameter-free AMaLGaM can solve a wide range of problems efficiently with perceived polynomial scalability, including multimodal problems, obtaining the best or near-best results among all algorithms tested in 2009 on functions such as the step-ellipsoid and Katsuuras, but failing to locate the optimum within the time limit on skew Rastrigin-Bueche separable and Lunacek bi-Rastrigin in higher dimensions. AMaLGaM is found to be more robust to noise than iAMaLGaM due to the larger required population size. Using few or no covariances hinders the EDA from dealing with rotations of the search space. Finally, the use of noise averaging is found to be less efficient than the direct application of the EDA unless the noise is uniformly distributed. AMaLGaM was among the best performing algorithms submitted to the BBOB workshop in 2009.

  4. Differentiation and recruitment of IL-22-producing helper T cells in lgA nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Chenggen; Zhou, Qiaoling; Li, Xiaozhao; Li, Hui; Meng, Ting; Zhong, Yong; Pu, Jiaxi; Zhu, Mengyuan; Xu, Yan; Gan, Lu; Sun, Hong; Xiao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    IL-22-producing helper T cells (Th22 cells) have been reported to be involved in lgA nephropathy. However, the mechanisms underlying the differentiation and immune regulation of Th22 cells in lgA nephropathy remain unknown. To elucidate the mechanisms by which Th22 cells differentiate and are recruited into the kidney in lgA nephropathy, the distribution of Th22 cells in both the kidney and blood was determined. Additionally, the impacts of proinflammatory cytokines and antigen presentation in the kidney on Th22 cell differentiation were explored. Specifically, the chemoattractant activities of chemokines produced by the kidney for Th22 cells were investigated. Th22 cells were significantly higher both in the kidney and in the blood in lgA nephropathy mice. IL-1β, IL-6, IL-21 and/or TNF-a promoted Th22 cells differentiation from CD4+ T cells. It was observed that kidneys undergoing lgA nephropathy expressed CCL20, CCL22 and CCL27, and kidney supernatants were chemotactic for Th22 cells. This activity was partially blocked by anti-CCL20, anti-CCL22, and anti-CCL27 antibodies, which also potentially improved renal lesions simultaneously. The overrepresentation of Th22 cells in lgAN may be attributable to the actions of kidney chemokines and cytokines. Our data suggest a collaborative loop between the kidney and Th22 cells in lgA nephropathy. PMID:27725866

  5. Likelihood Gradient Ascent (LGA): a closed-loop decoder adaptation algorithm for brain-machine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Dangi, Siddharth; Gowda, Suraj; Carmena, Jose M

    2013-01-01

    Closed-loop decoder adaptation (CLDA) is an emerging paradigm for improving or maintaining the online performance of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). Here, we present Likelihood Gradient Ascent (LGA), a novel CLDA algorithm for a Kalman filter (KF) decoder that uses stochastic, gradient-based corrections to update KF parameters during closed-loop BMI operation. LGA's gradient-based paradigm presents a variety of potential advantages over other "batch" CLDA methods, including the ability to update decoder parameters on any time-scale, even on every decoder iteration. Using a closed-loop BMI simulator, we compare the LGA algorithm to the Adaptive Kalman Filter (AKF), a partially gradient-based CLDA algorithm that has been previously tested in non-human primate experiments. In contrast to the AKF's separate mean-squared error objective functions, LGA's update rules are derived directly from a single log likelihood objective, making it one step towards a potentially optimal continuously adaptive CLDA algorithm for BMIs.

  6. Reliability of CGA/LGA/HDI Package Board/Assembly (Final Report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffaroam. Reza

    2014-01-01

    Package manufacturers are now offering commercial-off-the-shelf column grid array (COTS CGA) packaging technologies in high-reliability versions. Understanding the process and quality assurance (QA) indicators for reliability are important for low-risk insertion of these advanced electronics packages. The previous reports, released in January of 2012 and January of 2013, presented package test data, assembly information, and reliability evaluation by thermal cycling for CGA packages with 1752, 1517, 1509, and 1272 inputs/outputs (I/Os) and 1-mm pitch. It presented the thermal cycling (-55C either 100C or 125C) test results for up to 200 cycles. This report presents up to 500 thermal cycles with quality assurance and failure analysis evaluation represented by optical photomicrographs, 2D real time X-ray images, dye-and-pry photomicrographs, and optical/scanning electron Microscopy (SEM) cross-sectional images. The report also presents assembly challenge using reflowing by either vapor phase or rework station of CGA and land grid array (LGA) versions of three high I/O packages both ceramic and plastic configuration. A new test vehicle was designed having high density interconnect (HDI) printed circuit board (PCB) with microvia-in-pad to accommodate both LGA packages as well as a large number of fine pitch ball grid arrays (BGAs). The LGAs either were assembled onto HDI PCB as an LGA or were solder paste print and reflow first to form solder dome on pads before assembly. Both plastic BGAs with 1156 I/O and ceramic LGAs were assembled. It also presented the X-ray inspection results as well as failures due to 200 thermal cycles. Lessons learned on assembly of ceramic LGAs are also presented.

  7. Reliability of CGA/LGA/HDI Package Board/Assembly (Revision A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    This follow-up report presents reliability test results conducted by thermal cycling of five CGA assemblies evaluated under two extreme cycle profiles, representative of use for high-reliability applications. The thermal cycles ranged from a low temperature of 55 C to maximum temperatures of either 100 C or 125 C with slow ramp-up rate (3 C/min) and dwell times of about 15 minutes at the two extremes. Optical photomicrographs that illustrate key inspection findings of up to 200 thermal cycles are presented. Other information presented include an evaluation of the integrity of capacitors on CGA substrate after thermal cycling as well as process evaluation for direct assembly of an LGA onto PCB. The qualification guidelines, which are based on the test results for CGA/LGA/HDI packages and board assemblies, will facilitate NASA projects' use of very dense and newly available FPGA area array packages with known reliably and mitigation risks, allowing greater processing power in a smaller board footprint and lower system weight.

  8. Lack of expression of the liver-type glutaminase (LGA) mRNA in human malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Szeliga, Monika; Sidoryk, Marta; Matyja, Ewa; Kowalczyk, Paweł; Albrecht, Jan

    2005-02-21

    In the central nervous system (CNS), liver-type glutaminase (LGA) shows a unique nuclear localization suggesting its role in the regulation of transcription rather than in the cellular glutamine metabolism. RT-PCR analysis of RNA derived from postoperative tissue samples revealed the absence or only traces of LGA mRNA in all (9) cases of malignant gliomas (astrocytoma anaplasticum, AA, WHO grade III; glioblastoma multiforme, WHO grade IV) examined. The RNA was strongly expressed in the non-neoplastic tissue derived from the same patients (6 cases), and in most of the brain metastases from different organs (5 out of 7 cases). By contrast, the mRNAs coding for the kidney-type glutaminase (KGA) and its less ubiquitous isoform GAC, which catalyze degradation of the cytoplasmic pool of Gln, were expressed in all the tissues examined. The lack of LGA may be thus considered as a useful negative diagnostic marker of highly malignant gliomas in situ.

  9. Particulate Systems Based on Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic)Acid (pLGA) for Immunotherapy of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rahimian, Sima; Fransen, Marieke F; Kleinovink, Jan Willem; Amidi, Maryam; Ossendorp, Ferry; Hennink, Wim E

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy of cancer is a promising therapeutic approach which aims to eliminate malignancies by inducing or enhancing an immune response against the tumor. Immunotherapy, however, faces several challenges such as local immunosuppression in the tumor area leading to immunological tolerance. To overcome these challenges, particulate formulations such as nano- and microparticles containing immunotherapeutics have been developed to increase therapeutic efficacy and reduce toxicity of immunotherapy. Particulate formulations based on biodegradable aliphatic polyesters such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (pLGA) have been extensively used with promising results. In this review, we addressed the potential of pLGA-based particulate formulations for immunotherapy of cancer. The discussion was focused on cancer vaccines and delivery of immunomodulatory antibodies. Features and drawbacks of pLGA systems were discussed together with several examples of recently developed therapeutic cancer vaccines and antibody-loaded particulate systems. Various strategies to overcome the drawbacks and optimize the formulations were given. In conclusion, pLGA-based particulate systems are attractive carriers for development of clinically acceptable formulations in immunotherapy of cancer.

  10. Surface modification of PdlLGA microspheres with gelatine methacrylate: Evaluation of adsorption, entrapment, and oxygen plasma treatment approaches.

    PubMed

    Baki, Abdulrahman; Rahman, Cheryl V; White, Lisa J; Scurr, David J; Qutachi, Omar; Shakesheff, Kevin M

    2017-01-16

    Injectable poly (dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PdlLGA) microspheres are promising candidates as biodegradable controlled release carriers for drug and cell delivery applications; however, they have limited functional groups on the surface to enable dense grafting of tissue specific biocompatible molecules. In this study we have evaluated surface adsorption, entrapment and oxygen plasma treatment as three approaches to modify the surfaces of PdlLGA microspheres with gelatine methacrylate (gel-MA) as a biocompatible and photo cross-linkable macromolecule. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to detect and quantify gel-MA on the surfaces. Fluorescent and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) were used to image the topographical changes. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) of immortalised cell line were cultured on the surface of gel-MA modified PdlLGA microspheres and Presto-Blue assay was used to study the effect of different surface modifications on cell proliferation. Data analysis showed that the oxygen plasma treatment approach resulted in the highest density of gel-MA deposition. This study supports oxygen plasma treatment as a facile approach to modify the surface of injectable PdlLGA microspheres with macromolecules such as gel-MA to enhance proliferation rate of injected cells and potentially enable further grafting of tissue specific molecules.

  11. The Role of the Lead Member for Children's Services: Final Report (LGA Research Report F/SR268)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard; Harland, Jennie; Kendall, Sally; Kinder, Kay

    2008-01-01

    This research, commissioned by the LGA (Local Government Association), explores whether Lead Members for Children's Services [LMCS] have enough information and support to carry out their role effectively, especially for their corporate parenting role. It also explored the overall role, including issues like manageability; commissioning;…

  12. Antigen-Specific lgA B Memory Cell Responses to Shigella Antigens Elicited in Volunteers Immunized with Live Attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a Oral Vaccine Candidates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    J.B. Harris, Antigen-specific memory B-cell responses to Vibrio cholerae 01 infection in Bangladesh, Infect. lmmun. 77 (2009) 3850-3856. [38] K.L...detectable levels of lgG BM cells and 76% had detectable levels of lgA and lgM BM cells [40]. In natural cholera infection, anti-LPS lgA BM cells

  13. The Impact of School Fires: A Study of the Wider Economic and Social Impacts on Schools and the Local Community. LGA Research Report 3/07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Pauline; Teeman, David; Golden, Sarah; Wilson, Rebekah; Woodley, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    The findings presented in this report derive from a study undertaken by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) commissioned by Local Government Analysis and Research (LGAR) on behalf of the Local Government Association (LGA) and British Automatic Fire Sprinkler Association (BAFSA). The study employed a desk review of primarily…

  14. Association of cord blood des-acyl ghrelin with birth weight, and placental GHS-R1 receptor expression in SGA, AGA, and LGA newborns.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Martha I; Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy, Maria-Luisa; Zaina, Silvio; Sabanero, Myrna; Daza-Benítez, Leonel; Malacara, Juan Manuel; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria

    2016-07-01

    Although ghrelin in cord blood has been associated to birth weight, its role in fetal and postnatal growth has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to analyze total ghrelin, acyl ghrelin (AG), and des-acyl ghrelin (DAG) in cord blood of newborns with idiopathic birth weight alterations, and to evaluate protein expression of placental GHS-R1, in order to investigate their correlation with birth weight and placental weight. We performed a cross-sectional comparative study in umbilical cord blood and placentas from healthy mothers of SGA, AGA, and LGA (small, adequate and large for gestational age) term newborns (n = 20 per group). Cord blood total ghrelin, AG, and DAG were measured by ELISA, and placental GHS-R1 expression was evaluated by Western blot. Cord blood DAG was higher in SGA compared to AGA newborns (902.1 ± 109.1 and 597.4 ± 58.2 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.01) while LGA and AGA showed similar values (627.2 ± 76.4 pg/ml for LGA, p = 0.80). DAG negatively correlated with birthweight (r = -0.31, p = 0.02) and placental weight (r = -0.33, p = 0.02). No differences in AG or total ghrelin were found. GHS-R1 protein in placenta was not differentially expressed among SGA, AGA, and LGA. Our results suggest a role of DAG in intrauterine growth. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which DAG participates in fetal growth.

  15. DISTRIBUTION AND UTILISATION OF IVERMECTIN (MECTIZAN): A CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC APPROACH TO THE CONTROL OF ONCHOCERCIASIS IN OLD OHAOZARA LGA, EBONYI STATE, EASTERN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Okpara, Elom Michael; Mnaemeka, Alo Moses; Iyioku, Ugah Uchenna; Udoh, Usanga Victor

    2015-12-01

    Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a devastating, debilitating Stigmatising and incapacitating parasitic disease that is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including Nigeria. Mass distribution of ivermectin (Mectizan) to the endemic parts of the world was initiated by the Onchocerciasis Control Programmes (OCPs). Absolute compliance to the regimen for up to 15 years has been reported to be effective in the control of the disease. The study was carried out in Ohaozara LGA, Onicha LGA and Ivo LGA. The three (3) LGAs made up the defunct Old Ohaozara LGA. A structured questionnaire was used to generate information on knowledge of Onchocerciasis and on the use of ivermectin by the inhabitants of the communities of the study areas. The distribution coverage of ivermectin in the study areas dating from 2010 to 2014 was ascertained with drug distribution charts obtained from Ebonyi State Health Management Board (ESHMB), Abakaliki (the point source of distribution in the state), and from the health centres in communities of old Ohaozara LGA (the service delivery points (SDPs) to inhabitants of the communities. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics. Utilization of the regimen was ascertained by determining the actual number of tablets of mectizan that was administered to the patients at the various health cenrtes (service delivery points (SDPs) in the communities. The percentage utilization of the regimen was determined by dividing the number of mectizan tablets administered to the patients at SDPs with the number of mectizan tablets supplied from state point source of distribution and multiplying by 100. A total of 347, 299 out of 1, 919135 tablets of mectizan supplied to the study areas from 2010 to 2014 were actually utilized, forming an overall percentage utilization of 18.10%. There was adequate supply but very poor utilization of the regimen. The poor utilization resulted from factors including locating of health centres very far from

  16. Oxidative stress as common trait of endothelial dysfunction in chorionic arteries from fetuses with IUGR and LGA.

    PubMed

    Schneider, D; Hernández, C; Farías, M; Uauy, R; Krause, B J; Casanello, P

    2015-05-01

    Fetal macrosomia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) associate with increased morbidity in the neonate. Placental vascular relaxation is impaired in fetal macrosomia, as well as in IUGR, and this could result from increased oxidative stress present in both conditions. We determined the role of pro- and anti-oxidants on NOS dependent relaxation in placental chorionic arteries from pregnancies with LGA babies from overweight and/or obese mothers (LOOM) and IUGR fetuses from normal BMI women. Chorionic arteries were mounted in a wire-myograph, where responses to the NOS-dependent agent CGRP in presence or absence of the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), the pro-oxidant SIN-1, the SOD inhibitor DDC, and the GPx inhibitor MS were determined. Additionally the presence of pro- and antioxidant enzymes (NOX-4, SOD-1, SOD-2 and GPx-1) and eNOS in chorionic and umbilical vessels were addressed by immunohistochemistry. Maximal CGRP-induced relaxation was comparable to controls but presented a reduced potency in chorionic arteries from LOOM placentae, whilst in IUGR vessels both maximal response and potency were reduced. NAC increased maximal relaxation in controls, IUGR and LOOM arteries, whilst SIN-1 completely abolished the CGRP-induced relaxation only in IUGR and LOOM samples, the later effect was paralleled by SOD or GPx inhibition. These responses associated with the presence of NOX-4, SOD-1 and GPx-1 in the endothelium and vascular wall of chorionic and umbilical arteries in the different groups studied. These data suggest that NOS dependent relaxation in placental vessels from IUGR and LOOM pregnancies present a higher sensitivity to oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The a2 mating-type locus genes lga2 and rga2 direct uniparental mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inheritance and constrain mtDNA recombination during sexual development of Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Fedler, Michael; Luh, Kai-Stephen; Stelter, Kathrin; Nieto-Jacobo, Fernanda; Basse, Christoph W

    2009-03-01

    Uniparental inheritance of mitochondria dominates among sexual eukaryotes. However, little is known about the mechanisms and genetic determinants. We have investigated the role of the plant pathogen Ustilago maydis genes lga2 and rga2 in uniparental mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inheritance during sexual development. The lga2 and rga2 genes are specific to the a2 mating-type locus and encode small mitochondrial proteins. On the basis of identified sequence polymorphisms due to variable intron numbers in mitochondrial genotypes, we could demonstrate that lga2 and rga2 decisively influence mtDNA inheritance in matings between a1 and a2 strains. Deletion of lga2 favored biparental inheritance and generation of recombinant mtDNA molecules in combinations in which inheritance of mtDNA of the a2 partner dominated. Conversely, deletion of rga2 resulted in predominant loss of a2-specific mtDNA and favored inheritance of the a1 mtDNA. Furthermore, expression of rga2 in the a1 partner protected the associated mtDNA from elimination. Our results indicate that Lga2 in conjunction with Rga2 directs uniparental mtDNA inheritance by mediating loss of the a1-associated mtDNA. This study shows for the first time an interplay of mitochondrial proteins in regulating uniparental mtDNA inheritance.

  18. The a2 Mating-Type Locus Genes lga2 and rga2 Direct Uniparental Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Inheritance and Constrain mtDNA Recombination During Sexual Development of Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Fedler, Michael; Luh, Kai-Stephen; Stelter, Kathrin; Nieto-Jacobo, Fernanda; Basse, Christoph W.

    2009-01-01

    Uniparental inheritance of mitochondria dominates among sexual eukaryotes. However, little is known about the mechanisms and genetic determinants. We have investigated the role of the plant pathogen Ustilago maydis genes lga2 and rga2 in uniparental mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inheritance during sexual development. The lga2 and rga2 genes are specific to the a2 mating-type locus and encode small mitochondrial proteins. On the basis of identified sequence polymorphisms due to variable intron numbers in mitochondrial genotypes, we could demonstrate that lga2 and rga2 decisively influence mtDNA inheritance in matings between a1 and a2 strains. Deletion of lga2 favored biparental inheritance and generation of recombinant mtDNA molecules in combinations in which inheritance of mtDNA of the a2 partner dominated. Conversely, deletion of rga2 resulted in predominant loss of a2-specific mtDNA and favored inheritance of the a1 mtDNA. Furthermore, expression of rga2 in the a1 partner protected the associated mtDNA from elimination. Our results indicate that Lga2 in conjunction with Rga2 directs uniparental mtDNA inheritance by mediating loss of the a1-associated mtDNA. This study shows for the first time an interplay of mitochondrial proteins in regulating uniparental mtDNA inheritance. PMID:19104076

  19. Transfection of a human glioblastoma cell line with liver-type glutaminase (LGA) down-regulates the expression of DNA-repair gene MGMT and sensitizes the cells to alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Szeliga, Monika; Zgrzywa, Agata; Obara-Michlewska, Marta; Albrecht, Jan

    2012-11-01

    O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a DNA-repair protein promoting resistance of tumor cells to alkylating chemotherapeutic agents. Glioma cells are particularly resistant to this class of drugs which include temozolomide (TMZ) and carmustine (BCNU). A previous study using the RNA microarray technique showed that decrease of MGMT mRNA stands out among the alterations in gene expression caused by the cell growth-depressing transfection of a T98G glioma cell line with liver-type glutaminase (LGA) [Szeliga et al. (2009) Glia, 57, 1014]. Here, we show that stably LGA-transfected cells (TLGA) exhibit decreased MGMT protein expression and activity as compared with non-transfected or mock transfected cells (controls). However, the decrease of expression occurs in the absence of changes in the methylation of the promoter region, indicating that LGA circumvents, by an as yet unknown route, the most common mechanism of MGMT silencing. TLGA turned out to be significantly more sensitive to treatment with 100-1000 μM of TMZ and BCNU in the acute cell growth inhibition assay (MTT). In the clonogenic survival assay, TLGA cells displayed increased sensitivity even to 10 μM TMZ and BCNU. Our results indicate that enrichment with LGA, in addition to inhibiting glioma growth, may facilitate chemotherapeutic intervention.

  20. Factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and perceptions of risk factors among reproductive age women in Soba LGA, Kaduna State 2013.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Aishatu Abubakar; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick; Sabitu, Kabir; Abubakar, Aisha; Puone, Thandi

    2016-01-01

    Maternal mortality defined as deaths due to complications of pregnancy or childbirth remains a public health concern. Although statistics show a decline in maternal mortality ratio from 380 deaths to 210 deaths per 100,000 live births from1990 to 2013, in Sub-Saharan Africa, maternal mortality rates remain unacceptably high. Maternal mortality In Nigeria is currently 560/100,000 live births. This study was conducted to identify the associated risk factors and perceptions of adverse pregnancy outcomes among reproductive age women in Soba local government area (LGA). A 1:1 unmatched case control study with 138 respondents was used. Cases were women aged 15-49 years with a history of adverse pregnancy outcome. Controls: 15-49 years without a history of adverse outcomes. Adverse outcomes were: pregnancy induced hypertension and spontaneous abortions. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were taken. Six focus group discussions (FGDs) with grandmothers, mothers and teenagers were used to explore perceptions. Quantitative data was analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.3. Qualitative data analyzed by thematic approach. The median age of cases was: 25 years (Range: 16-44years), Median age of controls: 27 years (Range: 16-43years). Commencement of Antenatal care (ANC) attendance <4months (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.32; 95% CI: 0.12-0.81) and Number of pregnancies ≥4 (AOR: 5.02; 95% CI: 1.97-12.82) were found to be associated with adverse outcomes. Risk factors associated with outcomes are multiple pregnancies and delayed commencement of antenatal care. There was poor perception of adverse pregnancy outcomes. We recommended frequent community health talks, early commencement of antenatal and Utilization of Family planning services.

  1. Factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and perceptions of risk factors among reproductive age women in Soba LGA, Kaduna State 2013

    PubMed Central

    Sadiq, Aishatu Abubakar; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick; Sabitu, Kabir; Abubakar, Aisha; Puone, Thandi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Maternal mortality defined as deaths due to complications of pregnancy or childbirth remains a public health concern. Although statistics show a decline in maternal mortality ratio from 380 deaths to 210 deaths per 100,000 live births from1990 to 2013, in Sub-Saharan Africa, maternal mortality rates remain unacceptably high. Maternal mortality In Nigeria is currently 560/100,000 live births. This study was conducted to identify the associated risk factors and perceptions of adverse pregnancy outcomes among reproductive age women in Soba local government area (LGA). Methods A 1:1 unmatched case control study with 138 respondents was used. Cases were women aged 15-49 years with a history of adverse pregnancy outcome. Controls: 15-49 years without a history of adverse outcomes. Adverse outcomes were: pregnancy induced hypertension and spontaneous abortions. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were taken. Six focus group discussions (FGDs) with grandmothers, mothers and teenagers were used to explore perceptions. Quantitative data was analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.3. Qualitative data analyzed by thematic approach. Results The median age of cases was: 25 years (Range: 16-44years), Median age of controls: 27 years (Range: 16-43years). Commencement of Antenatal care (ANC) attendance <4months (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.32; 95% CI: 0.12-0.81) and Number of pregnancies ≥4 (AOR: 5.02; 95% CI: 1.97-12.82) were found to be associated with adverse outcomes. Conclusion Risk factors associated with outcomes are multiple pregnancies and delayed commencement of antenatal care. There was poor perception of adverse pregnancy outcomes. We recommended frequent community health talks, early commencement of antenatal and Utilization of Family planning services. PMID:28292074

  2. Large for Gestational Age (LGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common complications include the following: Excess amount of red blood cells (polycythemia—see see Polycythemia in the Newborn ): Large- ... may have a ruddy complexion because too many red blood cells are produced. As the excess red blood cells ...

  3. USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, owan west l.g.a edo state. Nigeria USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, owan west l.g.a edo state. Nigeria USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, owan west l.g.a edo state. Nigeria USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikpitanyi, C. U.

    2012-12-01

    This Project research was carried out using seismic refraction method at st Patrick catholic church( site) ozalla owan west l.g.a Edo state. Nigeria A MCSEIS- 160M Seismograph was used as the recording instrument with 12 geophones as wave detectors in series with one another, each of 1.5m Perpendicular to a firing line of of36m long. but the geophones are spread at a predetermined distance. the impact of heavy metal(about 5kg) on a flat metal plate served as the source of artificial wave generation. The wave front method of interpretation was used in interpreting the field results at fine distance . Plot reveals that the subsurface under Investigation is three layers of velocities, 208ms-1 750ms-1 and 1250ms-1 for the first, second and third layers respectively. And the depth of the first and second layer is 12 .7m and 14.0m respectively. This investigation has further revealed that at approximately 27m from the surface a possible aquifer could be encountered, this result agreed with electrical resistivity Studies carried out in the past within the studied area.

  4. Complete sequence of the genes encoding the VH and VL regions of low- and high-affinity monoclonal IgM and lgA1 rheumatoid factors produced by CD5+ B cells from a rheumatoid arthritis patient

    PubMed Central

    Harindranath, Nagaradona; Goldfarb, Inna S.; Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Burastero, Samuele E.; Wilder, Ronald L.; Notkins, Abner L.; Casali, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    We have characterized the VH and VL genes of three low-affinity polyreactive and two high-affinlty monoreactive IgM and lgA1 rheumatoid factor (RF) mAb generated using circulating CD5+ B cells from a single rheumatoid arthritis patient. We found that four and one RF mAb utilized genes of the VHIV and VHIII families, respectively. The VHIV gene usage by these RF mAb differs from the preferential VHIII, VHI, and, to a lesser extent, VHII gene usage by the IgM with RF activity found In patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, and other monoclonal gammopathies. In addition, in contrast to the preponderant χL chain usage by the RF In these patients, a λL chain was utilized by all RF mAb from our rheumatoid arthritis patient. Two RF mAbs utilized VλI, two VλIV, and one VλIII L chains. The VH genes of the two low-affinity polyreactive IgM RF mAb were in germline configuration. When compared with the deduced amino acid sequence of the putatively corresponding genomic segment, the VH gene of the high-affinity monoreactive IgM RF mAb displayed five amino acid differences, all of which are in the complementarity determining regions (CDR), possibly the result of a process of somatic point mutation and clonal selection driven by Ag. The unavailability of the corresponding genomic VH segment sequences made it impossible to infer whether the VH genes utilized by the two lgA1 RF were in a germline or somatically mutated configuration. Sequencing of the genes encoding the H chain CDR3 (D segments) revealed that all three low-affinity polyreactive RF mAb displayed a much longer D segment (36–45 bases) than their high-affinity monoreactive counterparts (15–24 bases), raising the possibility that a long D segment may be one of the factors involved in antibody polyreactivity. PMID:1718404

  5. Analysis of Youth Offending Team Inspection Reports. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeod, Shona; Jeffes, Jennifer; White, Richard; Bramley, George

    2010-01-01

    How well do youth offending teams (YOT) work? In which areas of their work is their performance excellent and where is improvement needed? This research examined annual performance assessments of services for children and young people undertaken by Ofsted in 57 local authorities from January 2006 to April 2009, together with relevant data relating…

  6. Intergenerational Practice: Outcomes and Effectiveness. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kerry; Springate, Iain; Atkinson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This research looked at five intergenerational projects focusing on football, arts, knife crime, living history and personal and social education. Two projects ran in schools, one in a health centre, one in a youth drop-in centre and one at a football club. Each project had its own aims, but in addition to these, the projects aimed to improve…

  7. Development of LGA & LBE 2D Parallel Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi; Nagata, Satoru; Akiyama, Minoru; Naitoh, Masanori; Ohashi, Hirotada

    A lattice-gas Automata two-dimensional program was developed for analysis of single and two-phase flow behaviors, to support the development of integrated software modules for Nuclear Power Plant mechanistic simulations. The program has single-color, which includes FHP I, II, and III models, two-color (Immiscible lattice gas), and two-velocity methods including a gravity effect model. Parameter surveys have been performed for Karman vortex street, two-phase separation for understanding flow regimes, and natural circulation flow for demonstrating passive reactor safety due to the chimney structure vessel. In addition, lattice-Boltzmann Equation two-dimensional programs were also developed. For analyzing single-phase flow behavior, a lattice-Boltzmann-BGK program was developed, which has multi-block treatments. A Finite Differential lattice-Boltzmann Equation program of parallelized version was introduced to analyze boiling two-phase flow behaviors. Parameter surveys have been performed for backward facing flow, Karman vortex street, bent piping flow with/without obstacles for piping system applications, flow in the porous media for demonstrating porous debris coolability, Couette flow, and spinodal decomposition to understand basic phase separation mechanisms. Parallelization was completed by using a domain decomposition method for all of the programs. An increase in calculation speed of at least 25 times, by parallel processing on 32 processors, demonstrated high parallelization efficiency. Application fields for microscopic model simulation to hypothetical severe conditions in large plants were also discussed.

  8. Children and Young People's Views on Web 2.0 Technologies. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, Peter; Walker, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Web 2.0 technologies are online tools that allow users to share, collaborate and interact with one another. This small-scale project focused on young people's personal use of social media, and on the potential to use these tools to collect the views of young people and involve them in democracy in communities and local authorities. The main…

  9. Provision of Mental Health Services for Care Leavers: Transition to Adult Services. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Emily; Harland, Jennie; Atkinson, Mary; White, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The Children (Leaving Care) Act 2000 was designed to address the wide variation in local authority provision for care leavers and to promote a more multi-dimensional approach to the process of leaving care. Care leavers are likely to be at greater risk of mental health difficulties than other young people and the transitional period from leaving…

  10. Admissions: Who Goes Where? Messages from the Statistics. LGA Research Report 4/06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Tamsin; Rutt, Simon; Fletcher-Campbell, Felicity

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which school populations reflect the profile of the local communities in which they are located, to support the development of policy and debate around school admissions and parental choice. The investigation also aimed to examine the effect that one school's intake has on another local…

  11. 75 FR 21692 - Denial of Airlines' Temporary Exemption Requests from DOT's Tarmac Delay Rules for JFK, EWR, LGA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... airports or carriers would be contrary to accepted existing practice, and would provide an unfair advantage... Center (New York ARTCC) would be fundamentally unfair and provide a competitive and operational advantage... often mistreat and take advantage of their customers. One commenter, who supports the carriers' request...

  12. Effect of Constructivist Teaching Method on Students' Achievement in French Listening Comprehension in Owerri North LGA of Imo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uwalaka, A. J.; Offorma, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of constructivist teaching method on students' achievement in French listening comprehension in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Achievement in French listening comprehension over the years has been discouraging. The conventional method of teaching French Language has not improved the…

  13. PATRONAGE AND COST OF MALARIA TREATMENT IN PRIVATE HOSPITALS IN IBADAN NORTH L.G.A SOUTH WESTERN, NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Salawu, A.T.; Fawole, O.I.; Dairo, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malaria accounts for about 60% of all clinic attendance in Nigeria. About 300,000 children die of malaria annually while an estimated 4,500 pregnant women are lost annually on account of malaria in Nigeria alone. High cost of treatment is a barrier to the uptake of health services in low resource settings, therefore an exploration of the cost of malaria management will reveal possible components that may benefit from intervention and thus reveal important clues for improving access to malaria treatment. Objective of this study therefore is to describe patronage and cost of malaria treatment in private hospitals in Ibadan. Method: This was a descriptive cross sectional study, carried out in private hospitals in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire with open and close-ended questions was used to collect data on patronage and cost of treatment in adults, children and pregnant women attending private health facilities in Ibadan, Nigeria. Data were presented using tables of frequencies and proportions while analysis was by descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 40 doctors and hospitals participated in the study. Average patronage for malaria, both complicated and uncomplicated per month was 153 patients per hospital. Malaria cases accounts for 331 (46.2%) of total clinic cases seen in private hospitals in a month. About 121 (78%) of malaria cases seen were uncomplicated while 32 (21%) of cases were complicated malaria. Average amount charged patient for treating uncomplicated malaria in private hospitals was N3,941. Average amount spent on antimalarial drugs was about N2,443 (62%) while N1,064 (27.7%) was spent on laboratory investigation and N406.00 (10.3%) for medical consultation. Conclusion: Drugs cost constitute the bulk of expenses on malaria treatment. Policy makers may improve access to malaria treatment by subsidizing the cost of anti-malaria drugs for pregnant women and children, who might not be able to afford treatment.

  14. Strategies for Dealing with Low Adoption of Agricultural Innovations: A Case Study of Farmers in Udenu L.G.A. of Enugu State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguru, Chike; Ajayi, S. L.; Ogbu, Oliver C.

    2015-01-01

    A study to access the level of acceptance/adoption of agricultural innovations by farmers in Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State was carried out. The aim was to find out the reasons behind the low acceptance/adoption of agricultural innovations by farmers in the area and to suggest possible strategies to address this ugly situation; as a…

  15. The Impact of Technological Language Anxiety on Adults Learning to Use Computers, in Esan West L.G.A. of Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusi, F. I.; Asokhia, M. O.; Longe, B. O.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of studying what affects adult learners and the use computer is motivated by the fact that technological innovations are being churned out in geometrical progression in the 21st century. Not to be computer literate is to be in the realm of darkness. Despite the popularity of computer training some problems still inhibit adults in…

  16. A survey of the repository of groundwater potential and distribution using geoelectrical resistivity method in Itu Local Government Area (L.G.A), Akwa Ibom State, southern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibuot, J.; Akpabio, G.; George, N.

    2013-12-01

    Vertical electrical sounding (VES), employing a Schlumberger electrode configuration, was used to investigate the sediments and aquifer repositories in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state, southern Nigeria. This was done in sixteen (16) locations/communities with the maximum current electrode spread ranging between 800-1000m. The field data were interpreted using forward and iterative least square inversion modeling, which gives a resolution with 3-5 geoelectric layers. The observed frequencies in curve types include 31.25% of AKH, 18.8% of AAK and HK and 6.25% of K, QHK, AKH, KA and KHQ, respectively. These sets of curves show a wide range of variabilities in resistivities between and within the layers penetrated by current. The presence of K and H curve types in the study area indicates the alteration of the geomaterials with limited hydrologic significance to the prolific groundwater repository. A correlation of the constrained nearby borehole lithology logs with the VES results shows that the layers were all sandy formations (fine and well sorted sands to gravelly sands or medium to coarse-grained sands as described by nearby lithology logs) with some wide ranges of electrical resistivity values and thicknesses caused by electrostratigraphic inhomogeneity. The geologic topsoil (motley topsoil) is generally porous and permeable and as such the longitudinal conductance (S) values for the covering/protective layer is generally less than unity of Siemens (S < 1Ω-1), the value considered for efficient protection of the underlying aquifers by the topmost and overlying layer. The spatial orientations and the leveling patterns of the most economically viable potential groundwater repository within the maximum current electrode separations has been delineated in 2-D and 3-D contoured maps. The estimated depth range for the desired groundwater repository is 32.6-113.1m and its average depth value is 74.30m. The thickness of this layer ranges from 27.9-103m while its average depth has been evaluated to be 63.02m. Also, its resistivity range and average value have been estimated to be 507-5612m and 3365.125Ωm

  17. A survey of the repository of groundwater potential and distribution using geoelectrical resistivity method in Itu Local Government Area (L.G.A), Akwa Ibom State, southern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibuot, J. C.; Akpabio, G. T.; George, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    Vertical electrical sounding (VES), employing a Schlumberger electrode configuration, was used to investigate the sediments and aquifer repositories in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state, southern Nigeria. This was done in sixteen (16) locations/communities with the maximum current electrode spread ranging between 800-1000m. The field data were interpreted using forward and iterative least square inversion modeling, which gives a resolution with 3-5 geoelectric layers. The observed frequencies in curve types include 31.25% of AKH, 18.8% of AAK and HK and 6.25% of K, QHK, AKH, KA and KHQ, respectively. These sets of curves show a wide range of variabilities in resistivities between and within the layers penetrated by current. The presence of K and H curve types in the study area indicates the alteration of the geomaterials with limited hydrologic significance to the prolific groundwater repository. A correlation of the constrained nearby borehole lithology logs with the VES results shows that the layers were all sandy formations (fine and well sorted sands to gravelly sands or medium to coarse-grained sands as described by nearby lithology logs) with some wide ranges of electrical resistivity values and thicknesses caused by electrostratigraphic inhomogeneity. The geologic topsoil (motley topsoil) is generally porous and permeable and as such the longitudinal conductance ( S) values for the covering/protective layer is generally less than unity of Siemens ( S < 1Ω-1), the value considered for efficient protection of the underlying aquifers by the topmost and overlying layer. The spatial orientations and the leveling patterns of the most economically viable potential groundwater repository within the maximum current electrode separations has been delineated in 2-D and 3-D contoured maps. The estimated depth range for the desired groundwater repository is 32.6-113.1m and its average depth value is 74.30m. The thickness of this layer ranges from 27.9-103m while its average depth has been evaluated to be 63.02m. Also, its resistivity range and average value have been estimated to be 507-5612m and 3365.125Ωm

  18. Effect of Concept Mapping and Outline Note-Taking Patterns in Students Academic Achievement in Geography in Secondary Schools in Enugu South Lga of Enugu State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okafor, Gabriel A.

    2016-01-01

    The WAEC Chief Examiner's report of 2013 pointed out that mass failure in geography had badly affected students who have the desire to study science related subjects in our Universities. The poor image of geography among students was attributed partly to its wide content and partly to the old fashioned approach to its teaching. This study…

  19. Special Purpose Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-30

    Agreement # 2009-616A DOTC-14-01-INIT302 N/A N/A NSWC Crane WXRL N/A Unlimited SAIC supported the development and evaluation of new compositions and...support of the Windstream Task 366. 06/28/2016 Purchased Epon Resin from Hexion in support of the Special Projects, Task MJU. 06/29/2016...Windstream Task 366. 06/29/2016 100% 100% 102 Purchased Epon Resin from Hexion in support of the Special Projects, Task MJU. 06/28/2016

  20. Data link relay design. [space probe with entry at Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, P.

    1974-01-01

    The data link for the Ames baseline probe as applied to the MJU spacecraft specifically with an entry at Uranus is analyzed. A frequency analysis, a trajectory analysis, and a discussion of the effects on the spacecraft design by the data link are presented. The possibilities of a two-way link are considered.

  1. Transfer from Earth to libration point orbit using lunar gravity assist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yi; Xu, Shijie; Qi, Rui

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, transfers from the low Earth orbit (LEO) to libration point orbits using lunar gravity assist (LGA) are proposed and investigated in the Sun-Earth-Moon restricted four-body problem (RFBP). Using the patched LGA orbits as the initial guesses, we present a design method of LGA transfers to libration orbits in the RFBP. The design method is applicable to both prograde and retrograde lunar flyby. Based on the design method, 8 kinds of LGA transfers are obtained. Then, the performances of those LGA transfers, including fuel cost and duration time, are compared and discussed. The analysis results can guide us choose appropriate types of LGA transfers in libration point mission. Finally, LGA transfers are compared with direct transfers based on the Sun-Earth stable manifolds to display the effect of lunar flyby on the transfer.

  2. Mechanical analysis of lunar gravity assist in the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yi; Xu, Shijie

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the lunar gravity assist (LGA) is investigated under the planar circular restricted three-body problem (PCRTBP) and two-body model. In the PCRTBP, the approximate expression of energy of the LGA in a small region of the Moon is derived. The expression uncovers the mechanism and mechanical process of the LGA in the framework of the PCRTBP. Based on the expression, the change of energy during the LGA is obtained and analyzed. To solve the limitation of the expressions and complete the research range of the LGA, a numerical methodology based on the patched-conic model is presented to analyze the LGA in a large region near the Moon. This numerical methodology cannot only obtain the change of energy but also may classify the trajectories before and after the LGA. As an application, we present a method to design a special kind of double LGA orbit. The design method synthesizes the preliminary results in the patched-conic model and the optimization in the PCRTBP. We can quickly obtain abundant double LGA orbits for the Earth-Moon transfer and interplanetary spaceflight.

  3. Te-Te and Te-C bond cleavage reactions using a monovalent gallanediyl.

    PubMed

    Ganesamoorthy, Chelladurai; Bendt, Georg; Bläser, Dieter; Wölper, Christoph; Schulz, Stephan

    2015-03-21

    LGa (L = [(2,6-i-Pr2-C6H3)NC(Me)]2CH) reacts with elemental tellurium with formation of the Te-bridged compound [LGa-μ-Te]2 1, whereas the reactions with Ph2Te2 and i-Pr2Te occurred with cleavage of the Te-Te and Te-C bond, respectively, and subsequent formation of LGa(TePh)2 2 and LGa(i-Pr)Tei-Pr 3. 1-3 were characterized by heteronuclear NMR ((1)H, (13)C, (125)Te) and IR spectroscopy and their solid state structures were determined by single crystal X-ray analyses.

  4. 14 CFR 93.350 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Manhattan Island, thence north along the west bank of the East River to the LGA VOR/DME 6-mile arc... the LGA VOR/DME 6-mile arc to the north tip of Roosevelt Island. (d) New York Class B airspace Hudson... intersect the Colts Neck VOR/DME 012° radial, thence southwest along the Colts Neck 012° radial to...

  5. 14 CFR 93.350 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Manhattan Island, thence north along the west bank of the East River to the LGA VOR/DME 6-mile arc... the LGA VOR/DME 6-mile arc to the north tip of Roosevelt Island. (d) New York Class B airspace Hudson... intersect the Colts Neck VOR/DME 012° radial, thence southwest along the Colts Neck 012° radial to...

  6. 14 CFR 93.350 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Manhattan Island, thence north along the west bank of the East River to the LGA VOR/DME 6-mile arc... the LGA VOR/DME 6-mile arc to the north tip of Roosevelt Island. (d) New York Class B airspace Hudson... intersect the Colts Neck VOR/DME 012° radial, thence southwest along the Colts Neck 012° radial to...

  7. 14 CFR 93.350 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... southwest tip of Manhattan Island, thence north along the west bank of the East River to the LGA VOR/DME 6... River, from the LGA VOR/DME 6-mile arc to the north tip of Roosevelt Island. (d) New York Class B... River to intersect the Colts Neck VOR/DME 012° radial, thence southwest along the Colts Neck 012°...

  8. 14 CFR 93.350 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Manhattan Island, thence north along the west bank of the East River to the LGA VOR/DME 6-mile arc... the LGA VOR/DME 6-mile arc to the north tip of Roosevelt Island. (d) New York Class B airspace Hudson... intersect the Colts Neck VOR/DME 012° radial, thence southwest along the Colts Neck 012° radial to...

  9. Study of lunar gravity assist orbits in the restricted four-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yi; Xu, Shijie

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the lunar gravity assist (LGA) orbits starting from the Earth are investigated in the Sun-Earth-Moon-spacecraft restricted four-body problem (RFBP). First of all, the sphere of influence of the Earth-Moon system (SOIEM) is derived. Numerical calculation displays that inside the SOIEM, the effect of the Sun on the LGA orbits is quite small, but outside the SOIEM, the Sun perturbation can remarkably influence the trend of the LGA orbit. To analyze the effect of the Sun, the RFBP outside the SOIEM is approximately replaced by a planar circular restricted three-body problem, where, in the latter case, the Sun and the Earth-Moon barycenter act as primaries. The stable manifolds associated with the libration point orbit and their Poincaré sections on the SOIEM are applied to investigating the LGA orbit. According to our research, the patched LGA orbits on the Poincaré sections can efficiently distinguish the transit LGA orbits from the non-transit LGA orbits under the RFBP. The former orbits can pass through the region around libration point away from the SOIEM, but the latter orbits will bounce back to the SOIEM. Besides, the stable transit probability is defined and analyzed. According to the variant requirement of the space mission, the results obtained can help us select the LGA orbit and the launch window.

  10. Macrosomia has its roots in early placental development

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Nadav; Quant, Hayley S.; Sammel, Mary D.; PARRY, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We sought to determine if early placental size, as measured by 3-dimensional ultrasonography, is associated with an increased risk of delivering a macrosomic or large-for-gestational age (LGA) infant. Methods We prospectively collected 3-dimensional ultrasound volume sets of singleton pregnancies at 11–14 weeks and 18–24 weeks. Birth weights were collected from the medical records. After delivery, the ultrasound volume set were used to measure the placental volume (PV) and placental quotient (PQ=PV/gestational age), as well as the mean placental and chorionic diameters (MPD and MCD, respectively). Placental measures were analyzed as predictors of macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 grams) and LGA (birth weight ≥90th percentile). Results The 578 pregnancies with first trimester volumes included 44 (7.6%) macrosomic and 43 (7.4%) LGA infants. 373 subjects also had second trimester volumes available. A higher PV and PQ were both significantly associated with macrosomia and LGA in both the first and second trimesters. Second trimester MPD was significantly associated with both outcomes as well, while second trimester MCD was only associated with LGA. The above associations remained significant after adjusting for maternal demographic variables such as race, ethnicity, age and diabetes. Adjusted models yielded moderate prediction of macrosomia and LGA (AUC: 0.71–0.77). Conclusions Sonographic measurement of the early placenta can identify pregnancies at greater risk of macrosomia and LGA. Macrosomia and LGA are already determined in part by early placental growth and development. PMID:25064071

  11. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes for Vulnerable Groups. A Review of the Research Evidence: Summary of Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Sally; Straw, Suzanne; Jones, Megan; Springate, Iain; Lord, Pippa; Stoney, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, the Local Government Association (LGA) commissioned the NFER to review the best evidence on what works in narrowing the gap in outcomes for vulnerable groups across the five Every Child Matters areas. The review aimed to underpin the Narrowing the Gap Programme, a major development programme being implemented by the LGA and the DCSF. …

  12. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes: Early Years (0-5 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springate, Ian; Atkinson, Mary; Straw, Suzanne; Lamont, Emily; Grayson, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the Local Government Association (LGA) to inform the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) and LGA work on "Narrowing the Gap." It focuses on early years' provision and presents findings from a review of the best evidence on narrowing the gap in outcomes across the five Every Child Matters…

  13. Can a customized standard for large for gestational age identify women at risk of operative delivery and shoulder dystocia?

    PubMed

    Cha, Hyun-Hwa; Kim, Ji-Young; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2012-04-22

    To determine whether a customized standard for large for gestational age (LGA) identifies undiagnosed women at risk of operative delivery and shoulder dystocia. We previously generated customized standards from our institution. We compared the baseline maternal characteristics and neonatal outcomes between LGA and non-LGA births, which were classified by both population-based and customized standards. The risk of operative delivery (vacuum delivery or emergent cesarean section) and shoulder dystocia was compared by logistic regression analysis in LGA pregnancies that were identified by a population-based birth weight standard and a customized standard after adjusting for maternal age, parity, body mass index, and neonatal gender. Multivariable analysis revealed that the pregnancies identified as LGA by a customized standard were associated with an increased risk of emergent cesarean section [odds ratio (OR), 4.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.00-5.74] and shoulder dystocia (OR, 10.56; 95% CI, 5.52-20.19). However, there was no association between an increased risk of vacuum delivery (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.92-2.30) and pregnancies identified as non-LGA, using both standards. In addition, customized LGA infants were at increased risk of admission to neonatal intensive care unit (OR 1.63; 95% CI, 1.09-2.43). A customized standard of LGA is useful in identifying previously unrecognized women at risk of emergent cesarean section and shoulder dystocia.

  14. IDH mutations as an early and consistent marker in low-grade astrocytomas WHO grade II and their consecutive secondary high-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Juratli, Tareq A; Kirsch, Matthias; Robel, Katja; Soucek, Silke; Geiger, Kathrin; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Schackert, Gabriele; Krex, Dietmar

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the prognostic and predictive significance of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in low-grade astrocytomas (LGA). The presence and consistency of IDH mutations during the progression of LGA to secondary high-grade gliomas (sHGG) were detected. Samples of patients with LGA and sHGG were investigated. The genomic regions around IDH1 codon 132 and IDH2 codon 172 were PCR amplified and directly sequenced. Furthermore, the MGMT promoter status was provided using the methylation-specific PCR. Our population comprised 71 patients with a total of 45 pairs of LGA and their consecutive sHGG. Median follow-up was 9.6 years. IDH mutations were found in 36/45 LGA (80%) and their sHGG without changes in the mutation status. A total of 71 patients with LGA were analyzed according to clinical and molecular tumor-related factors: 56/71 patients (78.8%) had an IDH mutation without significant influence on the progression-free or overall survival (OS), and 22/71 (31%) of the patients received postoperative radiotherapy (RT) after diagnosis of LGA. Patients with early RT but without IDH mutations had the shortest survival. Our study shows that IDH mutation status is stable during the progression course of LGA to sHGG. The presence of IDH mutations fails to demonstrate a significant influence on survival in the multivariate analysis of LGA patients. Early RT appears to be beneficial only LGA patients with IDH-mutations.

  15. Importance of maintaining left gastric arterial flow at Appleby operation preserving whole stomach for central pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Akifumi; Yamamoto, Junji; Aosasa, Suefumi; Hatsuse, Kazuo; Nishikawa, Makoto; Nishiyama, Kiyoshi; Tsujimoto, Hironori; Moriya, Tomoyuki; Hase, Kazuo; Shinmoto, Hiroshi; Kaji, Tatsumi

    2012-01-01

    The safety of whole stomach-preserving Appleby operation with resection of the left gastric artery (LGA) for pancreatic cancer cannot be assured. The anatomy of the celiac axis (CA) with special regard to the position of the origin of the LGA was examined. Using 3D images of the vascular architecture reconstructed from volume data of helical CT, the length of the CA and the position of the origin of the LGA from the CA were measured in 53 patients. Among 53 patients, 47 patients (89%) had classical anatomy of the CA branches. The mean length(2 standard deviation) of the CA and the distance from the root of the LGA to the bifurcation of the CA were 25.2mm (-4.9) (range 14.6-36.5) and 10.3mm (+4.5)(range 2.4-21.9), respectively. In 23 (45%) cases, the LGA arose farther than 10mm away from the bifurcation of the CA. Among six patients with anatomical variation of the arteries, two (4%) had the LGA directly arising from the aorta. Conservation of the LGA at modified Appleby operation would give complete cancer removal by en bloc resection of the nerve plexus, without risk of ischemic complications of the stomach and liver.

  16. Infants born large-for-gestational-age display slower growth in early infancy, but no epigenetic changes at birth.

    PubMed

    Chiavaroli, Valentina; Cutfield, Wayne S; Derraik, José G B; Pan, Zengxiang; Ngo, Sherry; Sheppard, Allan; Craigie, Susan; Stone, Peter; Sadler, Lynn; Ahlsson, Fredrik

    2015-09-30

    We evaluated the growth patterns of infants born large-for-gestational-age (LGA) from birth to age 1 year compared to those born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA). In addition, we investigated possible epigenetic changes associated with being born LGA. Seventy-one newborns were classified by birth weight as AGA (10(th)-90(th) percentile; n = 42) or LGA (>90(th) percentile; n = 29). Post-natal follow-up until age 1 year was performed with clinical assessments at 3, 6, and 12 months. Genome-wide DNA methylation was analysed on umbilical tissue in 19 AGA and 27 LGA infants. At birth, LGA infants had greater weight (p < 0.0001), length (p < 0.0001), ponderal index (p = 0.020), as well as greater head (p < 0.0001), chest (p = 0.044), and abdominal (p = 0.007) circumferences than AGA newborns. LGA infants were still larger at the age of 3 months, but by age 6 months there were no more differences between groups, due to higher length and weight increments in AGA infants between 0 and 6 months (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Genome-wide analysis showed no epigenetic differences between LGA and AGA infants. Overall, LGA infants had slower growth in early infancy, being anthropometrically similar to AGA infants by 6 months of age. In addition, differences between AGA and LGA newborns were not associated with epigenetic changes.

  17. Mammalian Glutaminase Gls2 Gene Encodes Two Functional Alternative Transcripts by a Surrogate Promoter Usage Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Sandoval, José A.; Manzanares, Elisa; Lobo, Carolina; Segura, J. A.; Alonso, Francisco J.; Matés, José M.; Márquez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Background Glutaminase is expressed in most mammalian tissues and cancer cells, but the regulation of its expression is poorly understood. An essential step to accomplish this goal is the characterization of its species- and cell-specific isoenzyme pattern of expression. Our aim was to identify and characterize transcript variants of the mammalian glutaminase Gls2 gene. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate for the first time simultaneous expression of two transcript variants from the Gls2 gene in human, rat and mouse. A combination of RT-PCR, primer-extension analysis, bioinformatics, real-time PCR, in vitro transcription and translation and immunoblot analysis was applied to investigate GLS2 transcripts in mammalian tissues. Short (LGA) and long (GAB) transcript forms were isolated in brain and liver tissue of human, rat and mouse. The short LGA transcript arises by a combination of two mechanisms of transcriptional modulation: alternative transcription initiation and alternative promoter. The LGA variant contains both the transcription start site (TSS) and the alternative promoter in the first intron of the Gls2 gene. The full human LGA transcript has two in-frame ATGs in the first exon, which are missing in orthologous rat and mouse transcripts. In vitro transcription and translation of human LGA yielded two polypeptides of the predicted size, but only the canonical full-length protein displayed catalytic activity. Relative abundance of GAB and LGA transcripts showed marked variations depending on species and tissues analyzed. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report demonstrating expression of alternative transcripts of the mammalian Gls2 gene. Transcriptional mechanisms giving rise to GLS2 variants and isolation of novel GLS2 transcripts in human, rat and mouse are presented. Results were also confirmed at the protein level, where catalytic activity was demonstrated for the human LGA protein. Relative abundance of GAB and LGA transcripts was

  18. Surgical adrenalectomy with diurnal corticosterone replacement slows escalation and prevents the augmentation of cocaine-induced reinstatement in rats self-administering cocaine under long-access conditions.

    PubMed

    Mantsch, John R; Baker, David A; Serge, Joseph P; Hoks, Michael A; Francis, David M; Katz, Eric S

    2008-03-01

    The loss of control over cocaine use and persistently heightened susceptibility to drug relapse that define human cocaine addiction are consequences of drug-induced neuroplasticity and can be studied in rats self-administering cocaine under conditions of daily long access (LgA) as escalating patterns of drug intake and heightened susceptibility to reinstatement. This study investigated the potential contribution of elevated glucocorticoids at the time of LgA cocaine self-administration (SA) to these behavioral indices of addiction-related neuroplasticity. Rats provided 14 days of 6-h access (LgA) to cocaine showed a progressive escalation of SA and were more susceptible to cocaine-induced reinstatement (10 mg/kg, i.p.) compared to rats self-administering under short-access (ShA; 2 h) conditions. A surgical adrenalectomy and corticosterone replacement (ADX/C) regimen that eliminated SA-induced increases in corticosterone (CORT) while maintaining the diurnal pattern of secretion failed to alter SA or reinstatement in ShA rats but slowed escalation and attenuated later reinstatement in LgA rats when applied before but not after chronic LgA SA testing. Although the contribution of other adrenal hormones cannot be ruled out, these data suggest that elevated glucocorticoids at the time of cocaine exposure may be required for the effects of LgA SA on cocaine intake and later reinstatement. The inability of daily CORT administration before daily ShA SA, at a dose that reproduced the response during LgA SA, to mimic the effects of LgA SA suggests that elevated glucocorticoids during SA may play a permissive role in cocaine-induced neuroplasticity that contributes to addiction.

  19. Macrosomia has its roots in early placental development.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, N; Quant, H S; Sammel, M D; Parry, S

    2014-09-01

    We sought to determine if early placental size, as measured by 3-dimensional ultrasonography, is associated with an increased risk of delivering a macrosomic or large-for-gestational age (LGA) infant. We prospectively collected 3-dimensional ultrasound volume sets of singleton pregnancies at 11-14 weeks and 18-24 weeks. Birth weights were collected from the medical records. After delivery, the ultrasound volume set were used to measure the placental volume (PV) and placental quotient (PQ = PV/gestational age), as well as the mean placental and chorionic diameters (MPD and MCD, respectively). Placental measures were analyzed as predictors of macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 g) and LGA (birth weight ≥90th percentile). The 578 pregnancies with first trimester volumes included 44 (7.6%) macrosomic and 43 (7.4%) LGA infants. 373 subjects also had second trimester volumes available. A higher PV and PQ were both significantly associated with macrosomia and LGA in both the first and second trimesters. Second trimester MPD was significantly associated with both outcomes as well, while second trimester MCD was only associated with LGA. The above associations remained significant after adjusting for maternal demographic variables such as race, ethnicity, age and diabetes. Adjusted models yielded moderate prediction of macrosomia and LGA (AUC: 0.71-0.77). Sonographic measurement of the early placenta can identify pregnancies at greater risk of macrosomia and LGA. Macrosomia and LGA are already determined in part by early placental growth and development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Progression of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in Subjects Born Small and Large for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Chiavaroli, Valentina; Marcovecchio, Maria Loredana; de Giorgis, Tommaso; Diesse, Laura; Chiarelli, Francesco; Mohn, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Background Subjects born small (SGA) and large (LGA) for gestational age have an increased risk of cardio-metabolic alterations already during prepuberty. Nevertheless, the progression of their cardio-metabolic profile from childhood to adolescence has not been fully explored. Our aim was to assess potential changes in the cardio-metabolic profile from childhood to adolescence in subjects born SGA and LGA compared to those born appropriate (AGA) for gestational age. Methods This longitudinal study included 35 AGA, 24 SGA and 31 LGA subjects evaluated during childhood (mean age (±SD) 8.4±1.4 yr) and then re-assessed during adolescence (mean age 13.3±1.8 yr). BMI, blood pressure, insulin resistance (fasting insulin, HOMA-IR) and lipids were assessed. A cardio-metabolic risk z-score was applied and this consisted in calculating the sum of sex-specific z-scores for BMI, blood pressure, HOMA-IR, triglycerides and triglycerides:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. Results Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were higher in SGA and LGA than AGA subjects both during childhood (all P<0.01) and adolescence (all P<0.01). Similarly, the clustered cardio-metabolic risk score was higher in SGA and LGA than AGA children (both P<0.05), and these differences among groups increased during adolescence (both P<0.05). Of note, a progression of the clustered cardio-metabolic risk score was observed from childhood to adolescence within SGA and within LGA subjects (both P<0.05). Conclusions SGA and LGA subjects showed an adverse cardio-metabolic profile during childhood when compared to AGA peers, with a worsening of this profile during adolescence. These findings indicate an overtime progression of insulin resistance and overall estimated cardiovascular risk from childhood to adolescence in SGA and LGA populations. PMID:25117750

  1. AFOSR Initiative Element: Lattice-Gas Automata and Lattice Boltzmann Methods as a Novel Parallel Computing Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    methods. LBE is a generalization of LGA, where single- particle distributions are encoded directly using real numbers. The simulation dynamics is driven...local cellular automaton rule (A.14) does not explicitly show any mixing of particle flow directions. That fact that (A.14) does represent collisional ... dynamics simulation , provides the researcher with complete system de- tails not obtainable by either empirical or analytical treatments. LGA as a

  2. Single Fasting Plasma Glucose Versus 75-g Oral Glucose-Tolerance Test in Prediction of Adverse Perinatal Outcomes: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Songying; Lu, Jinhua; Zhang, Lifang; He, Jianrong; Li, Weidong; Chen, Niannian; Wen, Xingxuan; Xiao, Wanqing; Yuan, Mingyang; Qiu, Lan; Cheng, Kar Keung; Xia, Huimin; Mol, Ben Willem J; Qiu, Xiu

    2017-02-01

    There remains uncertainty regarding whether a single fasting glucose measurement is sufficient to predict risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. We included 12,594 pregnant women who underwent a 75-g oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) at 22-28weeks' gestation in the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study, China. Outcomes were large for gestational age (LGA) baby, cesarean section, and spontaneous preterm birth. We calculated the area under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUCs) to assess the capacity of OGTT glucose values to predict adverse outcomes, and compared the AUCs of different components of OGTT. 1325 women had a LGA baby (10.5%). Glucose measurements were linearly associated with LGA, with strongest associations for fasting glucose (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.30-1.45). Weaker associations were observed for cesarean section and spontaneous preterm birth. Fasting glucose have a comparable discriminative power for prediction of LGA to the combination of fasting, 1h, and 2h glucose values during OGTT (AUCs, 0.611 vs. 0.614, P=0.166). The LGA risk was consistently increased in women with abnormal fasting glucose (≥5.1mmol/l), irrespective of 1h or 2h glucose levels. A single fasting glucose measurement performs comparably to 75-g OGTT in predicting risk of having a LGA baby. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lewis acid-base adducts of group 13 elements: synthesis, structure and reactivity toward benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Ganesamoorthy, C; Matthias, M; Bläser, D; Wölper, C; Schulz, S

    2016-07-28

    Lewis acid-base adducts [LGa-M(C6F5)3] (M = B 1, Al 2, Ga 3) were prepared by the reaction of gallanediyl LGa {L = HC[C(Me)N(2,6-i-Pr2C6H3)]2} with the Lewis acids M(C6F5)3 (M = B, Al, Ga). Benzaldehyde reacts with [LGa-M(C6F5)3] (M = B 1, Al 2) at room temperature with the insertion and formation of [LGa(C6F5){CH(Ph)(OB(C6F5)2)}] (4) and the zwitterionic species [LGa(C6F5){CH(Ph)(OAl(C6F5)2)}] (5), respectively, which was found to decompose at 80 °C with the formation of {(C6F5)2Al(OCH2Ph)}2 (6). Any attempts to isolate the insertion complex of [LGa-Ga(C6F5)3] with benzaldehyde failed and only {(C6F5)2Ga(OCH2Ph)}2 (7) was isolated at elevated temperatures. 2-5 and 7 were structurally characterized by heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  4. Effect of aripiprazole, a partial dopamine D2 receptor agonist, on increased rate of methamphetamine self-administration in rats with prolonged session duration.

    PubMed

    Wee, Sunmee; Wang, Zhixia; Woolverton, William L; Pulvirenti, Luigi; Koob, George F

    2007-10-01

    Aripiprazole is a dopamine (DA) D(2) receptor partial agonist, approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of schizophrenia. DA receptor partial agonists have been previously assessed as potential therapeutic agents for cocaine dependence. The present experiment examined the effect of aripiprazole on methamphetamine self-administration in a rodent model of an increasing drug self-administration with prolonged session duration. Wistar rats were allowed to self-administer methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg/injection, intravenously) in either 1-h (short access: ShA rats) or 6-h sessions (long access: LgA rats). After 15 sessions, the dose-response function of methamphetamine was determined under either a progressive- or a fixed-ratio schedule. Next, the effect of aripiprazole (0.3-10 mg/kg, subcutaneuously (s.c.)) on the dose-response function was examined. LgA rats exhibited an increasing rate of methamphetamine self-administration. Responding for methamphetamine by LgA rats was higher than that of ShA rats under both schedules. Pretreatment with aripiprazole shifted the dose-response function of methamphetamine to the right in both LgA and ShA rats. However, the effect of aripiprazole was greater in LgA than ShA rats. In in vitro receptor binding assay, no change in the level of D(2) DA receptors in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum was found in any group. The present data suggest increased sensitivity of the dopaminergic system to aripiprazole in LgA rats compared with ShA rats. However, mechanisms other than downregulation of D(2) DA receptors in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum may be responsible for the increased sensitivity of the dopaminergic function in LgA rats.

  5. First trimester prediction of small- and large-for-gestation neonates by an integrated model incorporating ultrasound parameters, biochemical indices and maternal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Papastefanou, Ioannis; Souka, Athena P; Pilalis, Athanasios; Eleftheriades, Makarios; Michalitsi, Vasiliki; Kassanos, Demetrios

    2012-01-01

    To identify maternal/pregnancy characteristics, first trimester ultrasound parameters and biochemical indices which are significant independent predictors of small-for-gestational age (SGA) and large-for-gestational age (LGA) neonates. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Two fetal Medicine Units. 4 702 singleton pregnancies presenting for screening for chromosomal abnormalities by nuchal translucency and maternal serum biochemistry at 11-14 weeks. Reference ranges for birthweight applied to our population were constructed by the Royston and Wright method. Multiple logistic regression was applied to develop first trimester prediction models for SGA and LGA. Birth of SGA or LGA neonate. Maternal height, parity, smoking, assisted conception, delta crown-rump length, delta nuchal translucency, free beta human chorionic gonadotrophin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A were significant independent predictors of SGA. Maternal weight and height, smoking, delta crown-rump length and delta nuchal translucency were significant independent predictors of LGA. Models for SGA (AUC=0.7296, CI: 0.69-0.76, p<0.0001) and LGA (AUC=0.6901, CI: 0.65-0.72, p<0.0001) were derived, applicable to routine obstetric population at low risk for these conditions. For 20% screen positive rate the modeling achieves sensitivities of about 55% for SGA and 48% for LGA neonates. Prediction for birthweight deviations is feasible using data available at the routine 11-14 weeks' examination. Delta CRL and delta nuchal translucency were significant independent predictors for both SGA and LGA. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Preservation of the left gastric artery on the basis of anatomical features in patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy with celiac axis en-bloc resection (DP-CAR).

    PubMed

    Okada, Ken-Ichi; Kawai, Manabu; Tani, Masaji; Hirono, Seiko; Miyazawa, Motoki; Shimizu, Atsushi; Kitahata, Yuji; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is high in patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy with celiac axis en-bloc resection (DP-CAR). The medical records of 37 consecutive patients who underwent DP-CAR were evaluated for the incidence of DGE in 23 patients (62 %) with left gastric artery (LGA)-resecting DP-CAR (conventional DP-CAR) compared with 14 patients (38 %) who underwent distal pancreatectomy with resection of the common hepatic artery and splenic artery, with preservation of the LGA (modified DP-CAR) for pancreatic carcinoma. The patients with tumors situated more than 10 mm away from the antecedent branching LGA underwent modified DP-CAR. Antecedent branching of the LGA was found in 19 patients (51 %) in this series. In the conventional DP-CAR group, the LGA was involved in 20 patients (87.0 %). The International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) grades for the conventional DP-CAR group were as follows: no DGE = 43 %, grade A = 26 %, B = 13 %, and C = 17 %. In the modified DP-CAR group, they were as follows: no DGE = 93 %, grade A = 7 %, and grade B/C = 0 %. The R0 rate was higher in the modified DP-CAR group (79 %) than in the conventional DP-CAR group (43 %) (p = 0.048). Univariate analyses revealed resection of LGA, residual tumor status (R1), and clinically relevant (Grade B, C) pancreatic fistula increased the risk of DGE. On multivariate analysis, resection of the LGA was an independent risk factor for increased incidence of DGE. Modified DP-CAR, when it is feasible, significantly reduces the incidence of DGE in comparison with conventional DP-CAR.

  7. A Role for the Endocannabinoid System in the Increased Motivation for Cocaine in Extended Access Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Orio, Laura; Edwards, Scott; George, Olivier; Parsons, Loren H.; Koob, George F.

    2009-01-01

    Extended access to cocaine produces an increase in cocaine self-administration in rats that mimics aspects of compulsive drug intake in human addicts. While emerging evidence implicates the endogenous cannabinoid system in aspects of opioid and ethanol addiction, a role of the endocannabinoid system in cocaine addiction remains largely inconclusive. Here, we investigate the effects of systemic and intra-accumbal administration of the CB1 antagonist SR141716A (Rimonabant) on cocaine self-administration (0.5 mg/kg/infusion) under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule in rats with extended (long access, LgA; 6 h/day) or limited (short access, ShA; 1 h/day) access to cocaine. LgA rats, but not ShA rats showed an increase in cocaine intake as previously reported, and responding for cocaine by LgA rats was higher than in ShA rats under a PR schedule. Systemic SR141716A induced a dramatic dose-dependent decrease in the break-point for cocaine by LgA rats, whereas only the highest dose of the antagonist had a significant effect in the ShA group. Anandamide levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell were decreased in ShA rats but unchanged in LgA rats during cocaine self-administration. Both phosphorylated and total CB1 receptor protein expression were upregulated in LgA rats in the NAc and the amygdala compared to ShA and drug-naïve rats, 24 h after last cocaine session. Finally, intra-NAc infusions of SR141716A reduced cocaine break-points selectively in LgA animals. These results suggest that neuroadaptations in the endogenous cannabinoid system may be part of the neuroplasticity associated with the development of cocaine addiction. PMID:19369553

  8. Effect of Aripiprazole, a Partial Dopamine D2 Receptor Agonist, on Increased Rate of Methamphetamine Self-Administration in Rats with Prolonged Session Duration

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Sunmee; Wang, Zhixia; Woolverton, William L; Pulvirenti, Luigi; Koob, George F

    2009-01-01

    Aripiprazole is a dopamine (DA) D2 receptor partial agonist, approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of schizophrenia. DA receptor partial agonists have been previously assessed as potential therapeutic agents for cocaine dependence. The present experiment examined the effect of aripiprazole on methamphetamine self-administration in a rodent model of an increasing drug self-administration with prolonged session duration. Wistar rats were allowed to self-administer methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg/injection, intravenously) in either 1-h (short access: ShA rats) or 6-h sessions (long access: LgA rats). After 15 sessions, the dose–response function of methamphetamine was determined under either a progressive- or a fixed-ratio schedule. Next, the effect of aripiprazole (0.3–10 mg/kg, subcutaneuously (s.c.)) on the dose–response function was examined. LgA rats exhibited an increasing rate of methamphetamine self-administration. Responding for methamphetamine by LgA rats was higher than that of ShA rats under both schedules. Pretreatment with aripiprazole shifted the dose–response function of methamphetamine to the right in both LgA and ShA rats. However, the effect of aripiprazole was greater in LgA than ShA rats. In in vitro receptor binding assay, no change in the level of D2 DA receptors in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum was found in any group. The present data suggest increased sensitivity of the dopaminergic system to aripiprazole in LgA rats compared with ShA rats. However, mechanisms other than downregulation of D2 DA receptors in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum may be responsible for the increased sensitivity of the dopaminergic function in LgA rats. PMID:17327886

  9. Biomechanical and histological comparison between the cryopreserved and the lyophilized Gracilis tendon allograft for MPFL reconstruction, a cadaveric experimental study.

    PubMed

    Negrín, Roberto; Duboy, Jaime; Olavarría, Fernando; Wainer, Mauricio; Jimenez, Horacio; Las Heras, Facundo; Reyes, Nicolas; Godoy, Hugo

    2016-12-01

    Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is the main restrictor of lateral shifting of the patella, contributing by 60 % in the first 20° flexion of the knee. MPFL reconstruction has been performed in order to restore the stability of the patella with good results.Lyophilized Gracilis tendon allograft (LGA) compared to Cryopreserved Gracilis tendon allograft (CGA) has a lower cost, does not require to maintain cooling chain or preparation. The purpose of this study is to compare the histological and biomechanical characteristics of an experimental model of reconstruction of the MPFL in porcine patellas with LGA versus CGA. Randomized controlled experimental study in porcine model conducted on 36 porcine patellas in which 18 were intervened with LGA and 18 were intervened with CGA. The confluent tunnel technique was used for MPFL reconstruction. Maximum tensile force, allograft elongation and stiffness of the construct were measured. The cellularity and collagen tissue distribution were evaluated in the allografts. The histological and biomechanical characteristics of the LGA were compared to those of the CGA. The median of the maximum tensile force for the LGA group was 299.63 N and 280.86 N for the CGA group (p = 0.45). The median of the stiffness was 57.86 N/mm for the LGA and 54.23 N/mm for the CGA (p = 0.2). The median of the elongation for the LGA was 5.95 mm and 6.12 mm for the CGA (p = 0,29). The bone bridge failed in 88.88 % of the constructs with LGA and 94.44 % in those with CGA (p = 0.5). No differences were observed between the LGA group and the CGA group in maximum tensile force, elongation, stiffness, site of rupture and histological characteristics. The use of a lyophilized Gracilis tendon allograft for MPFL reconstruction confers the same histological and biomechanical characteristics as a cryopreserved Gracilis tendon allograft.

  10. Influence of pre-pregnancy obesity on the development of macrosomia and large for gestational age in women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, L-F; Wang, H-J; Ao, D; Liu, Z; Wang, Y; Yang, H-X

    2015-12-01

    To determine the effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pre-pregnancy obesity on macrosomia and large for gestational age (LGA). We conducted a prospective cohort study of 587 GDM women and 478 non-GDM women from 2012 to 2013. We collected their data of the pre-pregnancy weight, sociodemographic data, medical histories, clinical treatment, and followed-up the outcomes of delivery including birth weight. Multiple logistic regression models were used to test associations between pre-pregnant obesity and macrosomia/LGA and between GDM and macrosomia/LGA. Of 1065 women we studied, obese women had 4.17 times and 2.27 times increased risk of developing macrosomia (95% CI: 2.52 to 6.91) and LGA (95% CI: 1.60 to 3.21), respectively, than non-obese women after adjustment for maternal age, gestational weeks and GDM. We did not find GDM is a risk factor for macrosomia or LGA after GDM treatment. Pre-pregnancy obesity accounts for a high prevalence of macrosomia. Interventions that focus on pre-pregnancy obesity have the potential to reach far more women at risk of macrosomia.

  11. Unavailability of Essential Obstetric Care Services in a Local Government Area of South-West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Fatusi, Adesegun O.; Orji, Ernest O.; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B.; Owolabi, Olabimpe O.; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer O.; Omideyi, Adekunbi K.; Adewuyi, Alfred A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the findings at baseline in a multi-phase project that aimed at reducing maternal mortality in a local government area (LGA) of South-West Nigeria. The objectives were to determine the availability of essential obstetric care (EOC) services in the LGA and to assess the quality of existing services. The first phase of this interventional study, which is the focus of this paper, consisted of a baseline health facility and needs assessment survey using instruments adapted from the United Nations guidelines. Twenty-one of 26 health facilities surveyed were public facilities, and five were privately owned. None of the facilities met the criteria for a basic EOC facility, while only one private facility met the criteria for a comprehensive EOC facility. Three facilities employed a nurse and/or a midwife, while unskilled health attendants manned 46% of the facilities. No health worker in the LGA had ever been trained in lifesaving skills. There was a widespread lack of basic EOC equipment and supplies. The study concluded that there were major deficiencies in the supply side of obstetric care services in the LGA, and EOC was almost non-existent. This result has implications for interventions for the reduction of maternal mortality in the LGA and in Nigeria. PMID:17615909

  12. Improving caregivers' home management of common childhood illnesses through community level interventions.

    PubMed

    Ebuehi, Olufunke Margaret; Adebajo, Sylvia

    2010-09-01

    The study obtained information using quantitative and qualitative techniques, on key home management practices of common childhood illnesses in Community-Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (C-IMCI) and non-C-IMCI implemented local government areas (LGAs) in Osun state, to determine if any differences existed between them. Data analysis was done using Epi-info version 6.0 for the quantitative survey and content analysis method for the qualitative survey. Findings revealed better key home management practices in the C-IMCI compliant LGA than in the non-CIMCI compliant LGA. The proportion of caregivers who gave appropriate home treatment for malaria during their children's illnesses differed significantly (p = 0.000) between the two LGAs. Similarly, caregivers from the compliant LGA demonstrated better treatment practices for diarrhoea and cough. Community Resource Persons (CORPs) were the major source of information on these key practices in the compliant LGA; while in the non-compliant LGA, the traditional healers, elders, and to a lesser extent, health workers gave information. Findings showed that the C-IMCI strategy improved caregivers' home management of common childhood illnesses.

  13. Relationships among acylation-stimulating protein, insulin resistance, lipometabolism, and fetal growth in gestational diabetes mellitus women.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Liu, B; Wu, M-F; Chen, H-T; Cianflone, K; Wang, Z-L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential relationship between acylation-stimulating protein (ASP), insulin resistance, lipometabolism, the intrauterine metabolic environment and fetal growth in well-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) women. A total of 55 well-controlled GDM women, 66 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and their newborns, were included in this study. Fasting maternal and cord blood ASP, serum lipid profiles, glucose level, insulin level, HOMA-IR, in addition to neonatal anthropometry data, were measured. Maternal blood ASP in GDM is higher than that in NGT. In the GDM group, maternal blood ASP has a positive correlation with TG, FFA and HOMA-IR. Maternal and cord blood ASP levels of LGA fetuses correlate with elevated birth weight and SF4. Similarly, cord blood ASP levels of LGA fetuses also correlate with birth weight and SF4 in the NGT group. The maternal blood ASP level of GDM mothers is associated with lipometabolism, insulin resistance and LGA fetal growth. Nevertheless, the cord blood ASP level correlates with FFA of GDM mothers, LGA fetal growth of GDM and NGT mothers. ASP may be a biomarker for evaluating insulin resistance of GDM and LGA fetal growth.

  14. Gestational overgrowth and undergrowth affect neurodevelopment: similarities and differences from behavior to epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Grissom, Nicola M; Reyes, Teresa M

    2013-10-01

    The size of an infant at birth, a measure of gestational growth, has been recognized for many years as a biomarker of future risk of morbidity. Both being born small for gestational age (SGA) and being born large for gestational age (LGA), are associated with increased rates of obesity and metabolic disorder, as well as a number of mental disorders including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, anxiety, and depression. The common risks raise the question of what neurobiological mechanisms are altered in SGA and LGA offspring. Here we review recent findings allowing for direct comparison of neurobiological outcomes of SGA and LGA in human and animal models. We also present new data highlighting similarities and differences in behavior and neurobiology in our mouse models of SGA and LGA. Overall, there is significant data to support aberrant epigenetic mechanisms, particularly related to DNA methylation, in the brains of SGA and LGA offspring, leading to disruptions in the cell cycle in development and gene expression in adulthood. Copyright © 2012 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical, ultrasound and molecular biomarkers for early prediction of large for gestational age infants in nulliparous women: An international prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Matias C; McCowan, Lesley M E; Gillett, Alexandra; Poston, Lucilla; Fyfe, Elaine; Dekker, Gustaaf A; Baker, Philip N; Walker, James J; Kenny, Louise C; Pasupathy, Dharmintra

    2017-01-01

    To develop a prediction model for term infants born large for gestational age (LGA) by customised birthweight centiles. International prospective cohort of nulliparous women with singleton pregnancy recruited to the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study. LGA was defined as birthweight above the 90th customised centile, including adjustment for parity, ethnicity, maternal height and weight, fetal gender and gestational age. Clinical risk factors, ultrasound parameters and biomarkers at 14-16 or 19-21 weeks were combined into a prediction model for LGA infants at term using stepwise logistic regression in a training dataset. Prediction performance was assessed in a validation dataset using area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve (AUC) and detection rate at fixed false positive rates. The prevalence of LGA at term was 8.8% (n = 491/5628). Clinical and ultrasound factors selected in the prediction model for LGA infants were maternal birthweight, gestational weight gain between 14-16 and 19-21 weeks, and fetal abdominal circumference, head circumference and uterine artery Doppler resistance index at 19-21 weeks (AUC 0.67; 95%CI 0.63-0.71). Sensitivity of this model was 24% and 49% for a fixed false positive rate of 10% and 25%, respectively. The addition of biomarkers resulted in selection of random glucose, LDL-cholesterol, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), but with minimal improvement in model performance (AUC 0.69; 95%CI 0.65-0.73). Sensitivity of the full model was 26% and 50% for a fixed false positive rate of 10% and 25%, respectively. Prediction of LGA infants at term has limited diagnostic performance before 22 weeks but may have a role in contingency screening in later pregnancy.

  16. Case report and systematic literature review of a novel etiology of sinistral portal hypertension presenting with UGI bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Seifeldin; Bortman, Jared; Orosey, Molly; Cappell, Mitchell S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: A novel case is reported of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding from sinistral portal hypertension, caused by a left gastric artery (LGA) pseudoaneurysm (PA) compressing the splenic vein (SV) that was successfully treated with PA embolization. Case report: A 41-year-old man with previous medical history of recurrent, alcoholic pancreatitis presented with several episodes of hematemesis and abdominal pain for 48 hours. Physical examination revealed a soft abdomen, with no abdominal bruit, no pulsatile abdominal mass, and no stigmata of chronic liver disease. The hemoglobin declined acutely from 12.3 to 9.3 g/dL. Biochemical parameters of liver function and routine coagulation profile were entirely within normal limits. Abdominal CT revealed a 5-cm-wide peripancreatic mass compressing the stomach and constricting the SV. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed blood oozing from portal hypertensive gastropathy, small nonbleeding gastric cardial and fundal varices, gastric compression from the extrinsic mass, and no esophageal varices. MRCP and angiography showed that the mass was vascular, arose from the LGA, compressed the mid SV without SV thrombosis, and caused sinistral portal hypertension. At angiography, the PA was angioembolized and occluded. The patient has been asymptomatic with no further bleeding and a stable hemoglobin level during 8 weeks of follow-up. Discussion: Literature review of the 14 reported cases of LGA PA revealed that this report of acute UGI bleeding from sinistral portal hypertension from a LGA PA constricting the SV is novel; one previously reported patient had severe anemia without acute UGI bleeding associated with sinistral portal hypertension from a LGA PA. Conclusion: A patient presented with UGI bleeding from sinistral portal hypertension from a LGA PA compressing the SV that was treated by angiographic obliteration of the PA which relieved the SV compression and arrested the UGI bleeding. Primary therapy for

  17. Identification, production and assessment of two Toxoplasma gondii recombinant proteins for use in a Toxoplasma IgG avidity assay.

    PubMed

    Teh, Ai Ying; Amerizadeh, Atefeh; Osman, Sabariah; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Noordin, Rahmah

    The IgG avidity assay is an important tool in the management of suspected toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. This study aimed to produce new Toxoplasma gondii recombinant proteins and to assess their usefulness in an IgG avidity assay. Toxoplasma positive and negative serum samples were used, the former were categorized into low (LGA) and high (HGA) IgG avidity samples. Immunoblots were performed on 30 T. gondii cDNA clones to determine the reactivity and IgG avidity to the expressed proteins. Two of the clones were found to have diagnostic potential and were analyzed further; AG12b encoded T. gondii apical complex lysine methyltransferase (AKMT) protein and AG18 encoded T. gondii forkhead-associated (FHA) domain-containing protein. The His-tagged recombinant proteins, rAG12b and rAG18, were expressed and tested with LGA and HGA samples using an IgG avidity western blot and ELISA. With the IgG avidity western blot, rAG12b identified 86.4% of LGA and 90.9% of HGA samples, whereas rAG18 identified 81.8% of both LGA and HGA samples. With the IgG avidity ELISA, rAG12b identified 86.4% of both LGA and HGA samples, whereas rAG18 identified 77.3% of LGA and 86.4% of HGA serum samples. This study showed that the recombinant antigens were able to differentiate low avidity and high avidity serum samples, suggesting that they are potential candidates for use in the Toxoplasma IgG avidity assay.

  18. Transfection with liver-type glutaminase cDNA alters gene expression and reduces survival, migration and proliferation of T98G glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Szeliga, Monika; Obara-Michlewska, Marta; Matyja, Ewa; Łazarczyk, Marzena; Lobo, Carolina; Hilgier, Wojciech; Alonso, Francisco J; Márquez, Javier; Albrecht, Jan

    2009-07-01

    Liver-type glutaminase (LGA) is a glutaminase isoform that has been implicated in transcription modulation. LGA mRNA is absent from postoperative samples of primary gliomas and is low in cultured astrocytes. In this study, stable transfection of T98G cells with a vector carrying human LGA sequence increased the expression of LGA mRNA and protein, and the ability of the cells to degrade glutamine (Gln), as manifested by a three-fold reduction of their steady-state Gln content and a 2.5-fold increase of their glutamate (Glu) content. The transfected cells (TLGA cells) showed a 40% decrease of cell survival as assessed by colony formation, well correlated with significant reduction of mitochondrial activity as demonstrated with MTT test. Also, a 45% reduction of cell migration and a 47% decrease of proliferation index (Ki67 immunostaining) were found as compared with sham-transfected cells. Microarray analysis, which included over 47,000 transcripts, revealed a significantly altered expression of 85 genes in TLGA, but not in sham-transfected or control cells (P < 0.005). Microarray data were confirmed with real-time PCR analysis for eight genes potentially relevant to malignancy: S100A16, CAPN2, FNDC3B, DYNC1LI1, TIMP4, MGMT, ADM, and TIMP1. Of these changes, decreased expression of S100A16 and MGMT can be best reconciled with the current views on the role of their protein products in glioma malignancy. Malignancy-reducing effect of newly inserted LGA mRNA in glioblastoma cells can be reconciled with a hypothesis that absence of such a modulatory mechanism in glia-derived tumors deprived of LGA mRNA may facilitate some aspects of their progression.

  19. Clinical, ultrasound and molecular biomarkers for early prediction of large for gestational age infants in nulliparous women: An international prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    McCowan, Lesley M. E.; Gillett, Alexandra; Poston, Lucilla; Fyfe, Elaine; Dekker, Gustaaf A.; Baker, Philip N.; Walker, James J.; Kenny, Louise C.; Pasupathy, Dharmintra

    2017-01-01

    Objective To develop a prediction model for term infants born large for gestational age (LGA) by customised birthweight centiles. Methods International prospective cohort of nulliparous women with singleton pregnancy recruited to the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study. LGA was defined as birthweight above the 90th customised centile, including adjustment for parity, ethnicity, maternal height and weight, fetal gender and gestational age. Clinical risk factors, ultrasound parameters and biomarkers at 14–16 or 19–21 weeks were combined into a prediction model for LGA infants at term using stepwise logistic regression in a training dataset. Prediction performance was assessed in a validation dataset using area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve (AUC) and detection rate at fixed false positive rates. Results The prevalence of LGA at term was 8.8% (n = 491/5628). Clinical and ultrasound factors selected in the prediction model for LGA infants were maternal birthweight, gestational weight gain between 14–16 and 19–21 weeks, and fetal abdominal circumference, head circumference and uterine artery Doppler resistance index at 19–21 weeks (AUC 0.67; 95%CI 0.63–0.71). Sensitivity of this model was 24% and 49% for a fixed false positive rate of 10% and 25%, respectively. The addition of biomarkers resulted in selection of random glucose, LDL-cholesterol, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), but with minimal improvement in model performance (AUC 0.69; 95%CI 0.65–0.73). Sensitivity of the full model was 26% and 50% for a fixed false positive rate of 10% and 25%, respectively. Conclusion Prediction of LGA infants at term has limited diagnostic performance before 22 weeks but may have a role in contingency screening in later pregnancy. PMID:28570613

  20. The associations of large-for-gestational-age and infant feeding practices with children's body mass index z-score trajectories: the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Salahuddin, M; Pérez, A; Ranjit, N; Hoelscher, D M; Kelder, S H

    2017-10-01

    Very few studies have examined if high birth weight and infant feeding practices have implications for the trajectory of body mass index (BMI) growth across the early childhood period. The goal of this study was to assess if large-for-gestational-age (LGA) and infant feeding practices (exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, and early introduction of complementary food prior to 4 months) are associated with BMI z-score trajectories over the early childhood period. Group-based trajectory modelling (GBTM) methods were employed to describe and classify developmental BMI z-score trajectories (the outcome of interest) in children from 9 months to 4 years of age (n = 4497) born to prenatal non-smoking mothers in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (2001-2005). Further analyses examined if the identified BMI z-score trajectories varied systematically with the exposures, LGA and specific infant feeding practices, after accounting for sociodemographic and other early-life factors. Two BMI z-score trajectory groups were identified: normal BMI z-score (56.2%) and high BMI z-score (43.8%). Children who were LGA infants had 2.3 times (risk ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 4.5) greater risk of being in high BMI z-score group relative to normal BMI z-score group. BMI z-score trajectory groups did not differ by infant feeding practices, after controlling for LGA at birth. Membership in the high BMI z-score group was associated with LGA, but not with infant feeding practices. Healthcare professionals should provide early obesity counselling to parents of LGA infants so that parents can take appropriate obesity prevention measures for their children. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  1. Mobile terminal antennas for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Te-Kao; Farazian, K.; Golshan, N.; Divsalar, D.; Hinedi, S.; Woo, K.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of using an L-band low gain antenna (LGA) as a mobile terminal antenna for helicopters is described. The objective is to select the lowest cost antenna system which can be easily mounted on a helicopter and capable of communicating with a geosynchronous satellite. To ensure that all the antenna options are being considered, the steerable high gain reflector and medium gain array antennas as well as LGA are studied and compared in an exhaustive survey. The high gain reflector antenna in L-band is usually very large in size and heavy in weight. In addition, a bulky and expensive tracking system is needed to steer the antenna beam to the satellite direction. The medium gain antennas (including mechanically and electronically steered arrays) are also more expensive and less reliable than an LGA due to the addition of a beam steering system to track the satellite. The omni-directional LGA is simple, reliable, and inexpensive. It is typically ten times smaller than the medium gain antenna. This makes the position, selection, and mounting on the helicopter relatively easier. Therefore, the LGA is selected as a mobile terminal antenna for helicopters. Among the many LGA's (cross-dipole, helix, spiral, and slot antennas), the helix antenna is the most inexpensive. One can also change the size, shape, or pitch angle of the helix to optimize the gain in the desired direction. Therefore, the helix antenna is selected for further study. Both 2-arm and 4-arm helices are studied theoretically and experimentally to determine the antenna's performance and the scattering effects from the helicopter body and the blades. The multipath, Doppler, and Doppler rate issues as well as the periodic fading effects caused by the helicopter rotor blades will be briefly discussed in the paper.

  2. Ab initio dynamics of cellulose pyrolysis: nascent decomposition pathways at 327 and 600 °C.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Vishal; Dauenhauer, Paul J; Huber, George W; Auerbach, Scott M

    2012-09-12

    We modeled nascent decomposition processes in cellulose pyrolysis at 327 and 600 °C using Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations with rare events accelerated with the metadynamics method. We used a simulation cell comprised of two unit cells of cellulose Iβ periodically repeated in three dimensions to mimic the solid cellulose. To obtain initial conditions at reasonable densities, we extracted coordinates from larger classical NPT simulations at the target temperatures. CPMD-metadynamics implemented with various sets of collective variables, such as coordination numbers of the glycosidic oxygen, yielded a variety of chemical reactions such as depolymerization, fragmentation, ring opening, and ring contraction. These reactions yielded precursors to levoglucosan (LGA)-the major product of pyrolysis-and also to minor products such as 5-hydroxy-methylfurfural (HMF) and formic acid. At 327 °C, we found that depolymerization via ring contraction of the glucopyranose ring to the glucofuranose ring occurs with the lowest free-energy barrier (20 kcal/mol). We suggest that this process is key for formation of liquid intermediate cellulose, observed experimentally above 260 °C. At 600 °C, we found that a precursor to LGA (pre-LGA) forms with a free-energy barrier of 36 kcal/mol via an intermediate/transition state stabilized by anchimeric assistance and hydrogen bonding. Conformational freedom provided by expansion of the cellulose matrix at 600 °C was found to be crucial for formation of pre-LGA. We performed several comparison calculations to gauge the accuracy of CPMD-metadynamics barriers with respect to basis set and level of theory. We found that free-energy barriers at 600 °C are in the order pre-LGA < pre-HMF < formic acid, explaining why LGA is the kinetically favored product of fast cellulose pyrolysis.

  3. The Relative Contribution of Prepregnancy Overweight and Obesity, Gestational Weight Gain, and IADPSG-Defined Gestational Diabetes Mellitus to Fetal Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Black, Mary Helen; Sacks, David A.; Xiang, Anny H.; Lawrence, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) identifies women and infants at risk for adverse outcomes, which are also strongly associated with maternal overweight, obesity, and excess gestational weight gain. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a retrospective study of 9,835 women who delivered at ≥20 weeks’ gestation; had a prenatal, 2-h, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test; and were not treated with diet, exercise, or antidiabetic medications during pregnancy. Women were classified as having GDM based on IADPSG criteria and were categorized into six mutually exclusive prepregnancy BMI/GDM groups: normal weight ± GDM, overweight ± GDM, and obese ± GDM. RESULTS Overall, 5,851 (59.5%) women were overweight or obese and 1,892 (19.2%) had GDM. Of those with GDM, 1,443 (76.3%) were overweight or obese. The prevalence of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants was significantly higher for overweight and obese women without GDM compared with their normal-weight counterparts. Among women without GDM, 21.6% of LGA infants were attributable to maternal overweight and obesity, and the combination of being overweight or obese and having GDM accounted for 23.3% of LGA infants. Increasing gestational weight gain was associated with a higher prevalence of LGA in all groups. CONCLUSIONS Prepregnancy overweight and obesity account for a high proportion of LGA, even in the absence of GDM. Interventions that focus on maternal overweight/obesity and gestational weight gain, regardless of GDM status, have the potential to reach far more women at risk for having an LGA infant. PMID:22891256

  4. The relative contribution of prepregnancy overweight and obesity, gestational weight gain, and IADPSG-defined gestational diabetes mellitus to fetal overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Black, Mary Helen; Sacks, David A; Xiang, Anny H; Lawrence, Jean M

    2013-01-01

    The International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) identifies women and infants at risk for adverse outcomes, which are also strongly associated with maternal overweight, obesity, and excess gestational weight gain. We conducted a retrospective study of 9,835 women who delivered at ≥20 weeks' gestation; had a prenatal, 2-h, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test; and were not treated with diet, exercise, or antidiabetic medications during pregnancy. Women were classified as having GDM based on IADPSG criteria and were categorized into six mutually exclusive prepregnancy BMI/GDM groups: normal weight ± GDM, overweight ± GDM, and obese ± GDM. Overall, 5,851 (59.5%) women were overweight or obese and 1,892 (19.2%) had GDM. Of those with GDM, 1,443 (76.3%) were overweight or obese. The prevalence of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants was significantly higher for overweight and obese women without GDM compared with their normal-weight counterparts. Among women without GDM, 21.6% of LGA infants were attributable to maternal overweight and obesity, and the combination of being overweight or obese and having GDM accounted for 23.3% of LGA infants. Increasing gestational weight gain was associated with a higher prevalence of LGA in all groups. Prepregnancy overweight and obesity account for a high proportion of LGA, even in the absence of GDM. Interventions that focus on maternal overweight/obesity and gestational weight gain, regardless of GDM status, have the potential to reach far more women at risk for having an LGA infant.

  5. Prepregnancy body mass index is an independent risk factor for gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, preterm labor, and small- and large-for-gestational-age infants.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2015-01-01

    We examined if prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, preterm labor, and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants with consideration of gestational weight gain, to document the importance of preconception versus prenatal stage. We used the data of 219 868 women from 2004 to 2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the effect of prepregnancy BMI for gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, preterm labor, and SGA and LGA infants with consideration of gestational weight gain. Regardless of gestational weight gain, women with obese prepregnancy BMI (≥30 kg/m(2)) had increased odds of gestational hypertension (adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 2.91; 95% CI = 2.76-3.07), gestational diabetes (2.78; 2.60-2.96), and LGA (1.87; 1.76-1.99) compared to women with normal prepregnancy BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). Women with underweight prepregnancy BMI (<18.5 kg/m(2)) had increased odds of preterm labor (1.25; 1.16-1.36) and SGA infants (1.36; 1.25-1.49), but decreased odds of LGA infants (0.72; 0.61-0.85) in reference to women with normal prepregnancy BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). Regardless of adequacy of gestational weight gain, the risk of gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, and LGA infants increases with obese prepregnancy BMI, whereas that of preterm labor and SGA infants increases with underweight prepregnancy BMI. Preconception care of reproductive aged women is as important as prenatal care to lower the risk of gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, preterm labor, and SGA and LGA infants.

  6. N-acetylcysteine Facilitates Self-Imposed Abstinence After Escalation of Cocaine Intake.

    PubMed

    Ducret, Eric; Puaud, Mickaël; Lacoste, Jérôme; Belin-Rauscent, Aude; Fouyssac, Maxime; Dugast, Emilie; Murray, Jennifer E; Everitt, Barry J; Houeto, Jean-Luc; Belin, David

    2016-08-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been suggested to prevent relapse to cocaine seeking. However, the psychological processes underlying its potential therapeutic benefit remain largely unknown. We investigated the hallmark features of addiction that were influenced by chronic NAC treatment in rats given extended access to cocaine: escalation, motivation, self-imposed abstinence in the face of punishment, or propensity to relapse. For this, Sprague Dawley rats were given access either to 1 hour (short access) or 6 hours (long access [LgA]) self-administration (SA) sessions until LgA rats displayed a robust escalation. Rats then received daily saline or NAC (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) treatment and were tested under a progressive ratio and several consecutive sessions in which lever presses were punished by mild electric foot shocks. NAC increased the sensitivity to punishment in LgA rats only, thereby promoting abstinence. Following the cessation of punishment, NAC-treated LgA rats failed to recover fully their prepunishment cocaine intake levels and resumed cocaine SA at a lower rate than short access and vehicle-treated LgA rats. However, NAC altered neither the escalation of SA nor the motivation for cocaine. At the neurobiological level, NAC reversed cocaine-induced decreases in the glutamate type 1 transporter observed in both the nucleus accumbens and the dorsolateral striatum. NAC also increased the expression of Zif268 in the nucleus accumbens and dorsolateral striatum of LgA rats. Our results indicate that NAC contributes to the restoration of control over cocaine SA following adverse consequences, an effect associated with plasticity mechanisms in both the ventral and dorsolateral striatum. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Maternal Factors and Fetomaternal Glucose Homeostasis on Birth Weight and Postnatal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Özbörü Aşkan, Öykü; Bozaykut, Abdülkadir; Sezer, Rabia Gönül; Güran, Tülay; Bereket, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It is important to identify the possible risk factors for the occurrence of large for gestational age (LGA) in newborns and to determine the effect of birth weight and metabolic parameters on subsequent growth. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal weight, weight gain during pregnancy, maternal hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-peptide and insulin as well as cord C-peptide and insulin levels on birth weight and postnatal growth during the first two years of life. Methods: Healthy, non-diabetic mothers and term singleton newborns were included in this prospective case-control cohort study. Fasting maternal glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide and insulin levels were studied. Cord blood was analyzed for C-peptide and insulin. At birth, newborns were divided into two groups according to birth size: LGA and appropriate for GA (AGA). Infants were followed at six-month intervals for two years and their length and weight were recorded. Results: Forty LGA and 43 AGA infants were included in the study. Birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) was positively correlated with maternal body mass index (BMI) before delivery (r=0.2, p=0.04) and with weight gain during pregnancy (r=0.2, p=0.04). In multivariate analyses, the strongest association with macrosomia was a maternal C-peptide level >3.85 ng/mL (OR=20). Although the LGA group showed decreased growth by the 6-month of follow-up, the differences between the LGA and AGA groups in weight and length SDS persisted over the 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: The control of maternal BMI and prevention of overt weight gain during pregnancy may prevent excessive birth weight. The effect of the in utero metabolic environment on the weight and length SDS of infants born LGA persists until at least two years of age. PMID:26831549

  8. Association between Native American-owned casinos and the prevalence of large-for-gestational-age births.

    PubMed

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Dow, William H; Oddo, Vanessa M

    2017-04-19

    A small number of studies have used a natural experiment approach to examine the health impacts of increased economic resources stemming from Native American-owned casinos. We build on this work by examining whether casinos are associated with obesity-related health in utero . We examined whether casino openings or expansion (as proxy for increased economic resources) are associated with a decreased likelihood of infants being born large-for-gestational-age (LGA), an important risk factor for childhood overweight/obesity. We used repeated cross-sectional data from California birth records (1987-2011) to assess the prevalence of LGA births among Native Americans ( n = 21 011). Using zip code fixed-effect regression models, we compared how prevalence of LGA births changed in association with casino openings or expansions, while controlling for secular trends through the inclusion of a comparison group of Native American newborns in zip codes that were eligible to open or expand casinos, but did not do so. In sensitivity analyses, we evaluated whether there was any change in small-for-gestational-age births (SGA). Average prevalence of LGA births over the period was 11%. Every one slot machine per capita increase was associated with a 0.13 percentage point decrease (95% confidence interval: -0.25, -0.01) in the prevalence of LGA births but was not associated with SGA prevalence. Casino expansion in California is associated with a lower prevalence of LGA births. Interpreted in combination with previous work showing that California casino expansions were associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) among schoolchildren, these results suggest that casinos are associated with improvement in a surrogate marker of excess adiposity. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which casinos might be associated with obesity-related health outcomes among Native Americans.

  9. Diagnosing gestational diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The newly proposed criteria for diagnosing gestational diabetes will result in a gestational diabetes prevalence of 17.8%, doubling the numbers of pregnant women currently diagnosed. These new diagnostic criteria are based primarily on the levels of glucose associated with a 1.75-fold increased risk of giving birth to large-for-gestational age infants (LGA) in the Hyperglycemia Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study; they use a single OGTT. Thus, of 23,316 pregnancies, gestational diabetes would be diagnosed in 4,150 women rather than in 2,448 women if a twofold increased risk of LGA were used. It should be recognised that the majority of women with LGA have normal glucose levels during pregnancy by these proposed criteria and that maternal obesity is a stronger predictor of LGA. The expected benefit of a diagnosis of gestational diabetes in these 1,702 additional women would be the prevention of 140 cases of LGA, 21 cases of shoulder dystocia and 16 cases of birth injury. The reproducibility of an OGTT for diagnosing mild hyperglycaemia is poor. Given that (1) glucose is a weak predictor of LGA, (2) treating these extra numbers has a modest outcome benefit and (3) the diagnosis may be based on a single raised OGTT value, further debate should occur before resources are allocated to implementing this change. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-010-2005-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorised users. PMID:21203743

  10. Secular trends of macrosomia in southeast China, 1994-2005.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanyu; Zhang, Jun; Lu, Xinrong; Xi, Wei; Li, Zhu

    2011-10-20

    The rate of macrosomia (birth weight≥4, 000 g) increased over the past four decades in many parts of the world. Macrosomia is associated not only with higher risks of maternal and neonatal complications but also with health risks in adulthood. We examined trends in neonatal macrosomia and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births among singleton, live, term and postterm births (≥37 complete weeks' gestation) in southeast China from 1994 to 2005 and explored possible causes of the temporal trends. Data from Perinatal Health Care Surveillance System in 12 cities and counties in southeast China were analyzed for trends in birth weight, neonatal macrosomia and LGA from 1994 to 2005. A total of 594, 472 singleton live births were included. We conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to relate these trends to changes in maternal and pregnancy characteristics. The rate of macrosomia rose from 6.00% in 1994 to 8.49% in 2000 and then levelled off to 7.83% in 2005. Similar trends were observed in mean birth weight. The incidence of LGA births increased continuously from 13.72% in 1994 to 18.08% in 2000, but the LGA rate remained relatively stable from 2002 to 2005. There was a decrease in gestational age and a significant increase in frequency of prelabor caesarean delivery from 1994 to 2005. In an adjusted multivariable model, the increase in LGA rate from 1994 to 2000 was associated with increasing net gestational weight gain, maternal age, maternal height and maternal education. But they didn't fully explain the increase. The trends of 2002-2005 LGA declined after adjusted for maternal and neonatal characteristics. In southeast China, the incidence of macrosomia increased from 1994 to 2000 was mainly related to increasing net gestational weight gain. The incidence of macrosomia has levelled off in recent years partly due to increasing use of prelabor caesarean delivery and earlier delivery and partly due to moderation of gestational weight gain.

  11. κ Opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell mediate escalation of methamphetamine intake.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Timothy W; Schlosburg, Joel E; Wee, Sunmee; Gould, Adam; George, Olivier; Grant, Yanabel; Zamora-Martinez, Eva R; Edwards, Scott; Crawford, Elena; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Koob, George F

    2015-03-11

    Given that the κ opioid receptor (KOR) system has been implicated in psychostimulant abuse, we evaluated whether the selective KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine dihydrochloride (nor-BNI) would attenuate the escalation of methamphetamine (METH) intake in an extended-access self-administration model. Systemic nor-BNI decreased the escalation of intake of long-access (LgA) but not short-access (ShA) self-administration. nor-BNI also decreased elevated progressive-ratio (PR) breakpoints in rats in the LgA condition and continued to decrease intake after 17 d of abstinence, demonstrating that the effects of a nor-BNI injection are long lasting. Rats with an ShA history showed an increase in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in both the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and shell, but LgA animals showed a selective increase in the NAc shell. Other cohorts of rats received nor-BNI directly into the NAc shell or core and entered into ShA or LgA. nor-BNI infusion in the NAc shell, but not NAc core, attenuated escalation of intake and PR responding for METH in LgA rats. These data indicate that the development and/or expression of compulsive-like responding for METH under LgA conditions depends on activation of the KOR system in the NAc shell and suggest that the dynorphin-KOR system is a central component of the neuroplasticity associated with negative reinforcement systems that drive the dark side of addiction. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354296-10$15.00/0.

  12. Short and long access to cocaine self-administration activates tyrosine phosphatase STEP and attenuates GluN expression but differentially regulates GluA expression in the prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei-Lun; Zelek-Molik, Agnieszka; McGinty, Jacqueline F.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Dephosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) at the end of short access (ShA) cocaine self-administration is implicated in cocaine-seeking. However, what receptors and phosphatases mediate this effect and whether ERK/CREB and related phospho-proteins in the dmPFC react similarly during early withdrawal from long access (LgA) cocaine self-administration are unknown. Objectives The effects of ShA vs. LgA cocaine self-administration on the phosphorylation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP), as well as GluN and GluA receptor subtype expression in the dmPFC during early withdrawal were compared. Methods Rats self-administered cocaine or received saline during 2-hr or 6-hr daily sessions for 10-11 days. Two hr after the final session, the dmPFC was dissected out and processed for immunoblotting. Results Similar to previous findings after ShA cocaine, phospho-ERK and phospho-CREB in the dmPFC were decreased after LgA cocaine. Cocaine elevated phospho-PP2A (de-activation) and decreased phosphor-STEP (activation) in both ShA and LgA cocaine rats. GluN1, GluN2B and phospho-GluN2B Tyr1472 in the dmPFC were decreased after ShA and LgA cocaine. Further, a significant reduction of GluA2, GluA1 and phospho-GluA1 Ser845 was found only in LgA rats. Conclusions Activation of phospho-STEP may underlie ERK and CREB dephosphorylation in the dmPFC as well as internalization and degradation of GluN complexes during early withdrawal from both ShA and LgA cocaine self-administration whereas differential alteration of AMPA receptor subunits after ShA and LgA cocaine self-administration depends on cocaine intake. PMID:23624776

  13. Genetic Considerations in the Prenatal Diagnosis of Overgrowth Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Neeta; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2015-01-01

    Large (>90%) for gestational age (LGA) fetuses are usually identified incidentally. Detection of the LGA fetus should first prompt the provider to rule out incorrect dates and maternal diabetes. Once this is done, consideration should be given to certain overgrowth syndromes, especially if anomalies are present. The overgrowth syndromes have significant clinical and molecular overlap, and are associated with developmental delay, tumors, and other anomalies. Although genetic causes of overgrowth are considered postnatally, they are infrequently diagnosed prenatally. Here, we review prenatal sonographic findings in fetal overgrowth syndromes, including Pallister-Killian, Beckwith-Wiedemann, Sotos, Perlman, and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel. We also discuss prenatal diagnosis options and recurrence risks. PMID:19609940

  14. Maternal Glycemia and Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Babies in a Population-Based Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kerényi, Zsuzsa; Tamás, Gyula; Kivimäki, Mika; Péterfalvi, Andrea; Madarász, Eszter; Bosnyák, Zsolt; Tabák, Adam G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Gestational diabetes is a risk factor for large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns, but many LGA babies are born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance. We aimed to clarify the association of maternal glycemia across the whole distribution with birth weight and risk of LGA births in mothers with normal glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We undertook a population-based gestational diabetes screening in an urban area of Hungary in 2002–2005. All singleton pregnancies of mothers ≥18 years of age, without known diabetes or gestational diabetes (World Health Organization criteria) and data on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 22–30 weeks of gestation, were included (n = 3,787, 78.9% of the target population). LGA was determined as birth weight greater than the 90th percentile using national sex- and gestational age–specific charts. RESULTS Mean ± SD maternal age was 30 ± 4 years, BMI was 22.6 ± 4.0 kg/m2, fasting blood glucose was 4.5 ± 0.5 mmol/l, and postload glucose was 5.5 ± 1.0 mmol/l. The mean birth weight was 3,450 ± 476 g at 39.2 ± 1.2 weeks of gestation. There was a U-shaped association of maternal fasting glucose with birth weight (Pcurve = 0.004) and risk of having an LGA baby (lowest values between 4 and 4.5 mmol/l, Pcurve = 0.0004) with little change after adjustments for clinical characteristics. The association of postload glucose with birth weight (P = 0.03) and the risk of an LGA baby (P = 0.09) was weaker and linear. CONCLUSIONS Both low and high fasting glucose values at 22–30 weeks of gestation are associated with increased risk of an LGA newborn. We suggest that the excess risk related to low glucose reflects the increased use of nutrients by LGA fetuses that also affects the mothers' fasting glucose. PMID:19729526

  15. Effect of Metals in Biomimetic Dimetal Complexes on Affinity and Gas-Phase Protection of Phosphate Esters.

    PubMed

    Svane, Simon; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; McKenzie, Christine J; Kjeldsen, Frank

    2015-07-21

    Although the biomimetic dimetal complex [LGa2(OH)2(H2O)2](3+) [L = 2,6-bis((N,N'-bis(2-picolyl)amino)methyl)-4-tertbutylphenolate] provides efficient protection against phosphate loss in phosphopeptides upon collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID MS/MS), the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we explored the mechanism in detail and investigated the selective binding to phosphate groups in solution. Dimetal complexes containing combinations of Ga(3+), In(3+), Fe(3+), Co(3+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and V(2+) were reacted with HPO4(2-), phosphoserine, and a phosphopeptide (FQpSEEQQQTEDELQDK, abbreviated "βcas") and studied with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), CID MS/MS, and density functional theory (DFT). Ka for HPO4(2-) binding scaled with the metal charge and was 35-fold larger for [LGa2(OH)2(H2O)2](3+) (3.08 ± 0.31 × 10(6) M(-1)) than for [LZn2(HCOO)2](+). CID MS/MS of [LGa2(βcas)](n+) revealed protection against phosphate detachment (<3% of the total ion intensity). Phosphate detachment from βcas was 22-40% and increased to 42-71% when bound to dimetal complexes of lower charge than {LGa2}(5+). CID data suggests that facile metal-phosphate dissociation is associated with proton transfer from the intermediate oxazoline ring formed in the phosphopeptide to the metal-phosphate complex. The observed phosphate stabilization was attributed to a significant reduction in the gas-phase basicity (GB) of the phosphate group when bound to {LGa2}(5+)/{LIn2}(5+) complex cores. Absence of proton transfer results in formation of an ion-zwitterion intermediate with a greater dissociation threshold. This hypothesis is supported by DFT calculations for [LGa2(PO4)](2+), [LGaZn(PO4)](+), [LZn2(PO4)], and 2,4-dimethyl-3-oxazoline showing that [LGa2(PO4)](2+) is the only compound with a substantial lower GB (321 kJ/mol less) than 2,4-dimethyl-3-oxazoline.

  16. Short and long access to cocaine self-administration activates tyrosine phosphatase STEP and attenuates GluN expression but differentially regulates GluA expression in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-Lun; Zelek-Molik, Agnieszka; McGinty, Jacqueline F

    2013-10-01

    Dephosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) at the end of short access (ShA) cocaine self-administration is implicated in cocaine seeking. However, what receptors and phosphatases mediate this effect and whether ERK/CREB and related phospho-proteins in the dmPFC react similarly during early withdrawal from long access (LgA) cocaine self-administration are unknown. The effects of ShA vs. LgA cocaine self-administration on the phosphorylation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP), as well as GluN and GluA receptor subtype expression in the dmPFC during early withdrawal, were compared. Rats self-administered cocaine or received saline during 2- or 6-h daily sessions for 10-11 days. Two hours after the final session, the dmPFC was dissected out and processed for immunoblotting. Similar to previous findings after ShA cocaine, phospho-ERK and phospho-CREB in the dmPFC were decreased after LgA cocaine. Cocaine elevated phospho-PP2A (deactivation) and decreased phospho-STEP (activation) in both ShA and LgA cocaine rats. GluN1, GluN2B, and phospho-GluN2B Tyr1472 in the dmPFC were decreased after ShA and LgA cocaine. Further, a significant reduction of GluA2, GluA1, and phospho-GluA1 Ser845 was found only in LgA rats. Activation of phospho-STEP may underlie ERK and CREB dephosphorylation in the dmPFC as well as internalization and degradation of GluN complexes during early withdrawal from both ShA and LgA cocaine self-administration, whereas differential alteration of AMPA receptor subunits after ShA and LgA cocaine self-administration depends on cocaine intake.

  17. Parenting Styles as Correlates of Adolescents Drug Addiction among Senior Secondary School Students in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onukwufor, Jonathan N.; Chukwu, Mercy Anwuri

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the relationship between parenting styles and secondary students' drug addiction among adolescents in secondary schools in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area (L.G.A.) of Rivers State Nigeria. The study was guided by three research questions and similar number of null hypotheses. The study adopted a correlation…

  18. Influence of Counselling Services on Perceived Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Lagos State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolu-Steve, Foluke; Oredugba, Oluwabunmi Olayinka

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at looking at the influence of counseling services on perceived academic performance of secondary school students in Lagos State. At the first stage, the researchers purposively selected Ikorodu L.G.A in Lagos State. At the researchers selected two schools (1 Private schools, & 1 Public schools), using simple random technique.…

  19. Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…

  20. Leptin and its Receptors in Human Placenta of Small, Adequate, and Large for Gestational Age Newborns.

    PubMed

    Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy, Maria-Luisa; González-Domínguez, Martha I; Zaina, Silvio; Sabanero, Myrna; Daza-Benítez, Leonel; Malacara, Juan Manuel; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria

    2017-05-01

    Alterations in birth weight impact postnatal outcome and adult metabolic health. Therefore, fetal growth regulation is crucial for preventing chronic metabolic diseases. Leptin has been suggested to play an important role in placental and fetal growth, albeit its specific mechanisms of action have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to analyze leptin concentrations in placenta, cord blood, and maternal blood of SGA, AGA, and LGA (small, adequate and large for gestational age, respectively) newborns, as well as placental leptin receptor (LEPRa and LEPRb) protein expression. We performed a cross-sectional comparative study in 3 groups of healthy mothers and their term newborns at delivery (SGA, AGA, and LGA, n=20 per group). Placental, maternal blood, and cord blood leptin content were measured by ELISA. Placental LEPRa and LEPRb protein expression were determined by Western Blot. Maternal leptin concentrations correlated positively with maternal weight before and at the end of gestation, without differences between groups. Cord leptin is higher in LGA and lower in SGA, whereas placental leptin is higher in SGA. Placental leptin was inversely correlated with placental weight, independently from maternal weight and gestational age. Both LEPRa and LEPRb expression are lower in SGA, while LEPRa positively correlated with placental weight and birthweight. The current findings indicate that placental leptin and its receptors are differentially expressed in SGA, AGA, and LGA newborns. We suggest that placental leptin and LEPR protein expression may influence placental growth and thus, birth weight. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Widening inequality in extreme macrosomia between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations of Québec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Auger, Nathalie; Park, Alison L; Zoungrana, Hamado; Fon Sing, Mélanie; Lo, Ernest; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate trends in macrosomia by severity in Indigenous vs. non-Indigenous populations of Québec, Canada. We used a retrospective cohort of 2,298,332 singleton live births in the province of Québec, 1981-2008. Indigenous births were identified by community of residence (First Nations, Inuit, non-Indigenous) and language spoken (First Nations, Inuit, French/English). High birth weight (HBW) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were categorised by severity (moderate, very, extreme). Time trends in HBW and LGA, by severity, were estimated using odds ratios (OR) and rate differences for Indigenous vs. non-Indigenous births, adjusting for maternal characteristics. Relative to non-Indigenous, First Nations (but not Inuit) had higher rates of extreme HBW (1.3% vs. 0.1%) and extreme LGA birth (12.6% vs. 2.2%), and rates increased over time. First Nations had progressively elevated ORs with greater severity of macrosomia, and associations were strongest for extreme HBW >5,000 g (OR=12.4) and LGA >97th percentile (OR=7.2). Inequalities in extreme macrosomia between First Nations and non-Indigenous Quebecers are pronounced and widened between 1981 and 2008. Studies are needed to determine why macrosomia rates are increasing in Québec's First Nations, and how they compare with Indigenous sub-groups of demographically similar countries, including Australia and New Zealand. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Aberrant fetal growth and early, late, and postneonatal mortality: an analysis of Milwaukee births, 1996-2007.

    PubMed

    Chen, Han-Yang; Chauhan, Suneet P; Ward, Trina C Salm; Mori, Naoyo; Gass, Eric T; Cisler, Ron A

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the study was to ascertain the association between fetal growth (small- [SGA], appropriate- [AGA], and large-for-gestational-age [LGA]) and early, late, and postneonatal mortality. Birth certificate data for nonanomalous singletons, delivered from 1996 to 2007, were obtained for Milwaukee residents. Multivariate logistic regression analyses, adjusted for 19 covariates, determined the association between fetal growth and mortality. Among the 123,383 live births, SGA was 57% higher than LGA (11% vs 7%). The infant mortality rate for SGA was 11.0, AGA, 5.3, and LGA, 2.7/1000 live births. SGA was a significant risk factor for early (adjusted odds ratio, 2.66) and late (2.06) but not postneonatal mortality. The adjusted risk of mortality for LGA was not significantly different from AGA. Over 12 years, 3 types of mortality for aberrant fetal growth did not change significantly. In the city of Milwaukee, aberrant fetal growth was variably associated with early, late, and postneonatal mortality. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterizing and Targeting Bone Marrow-Derived Inflammatory Cells in Driving the Malignancy and Progression of Childhood Astrocytic Brain Tumors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    CD16 ) by flow cytometery in peripheral of low-grade astrocytoma patients (LGA) vs glioblastoma patients (GBM). Figure 2. IHC of CD11b...myeloid lineage increased following the progression of diseases. The MDSCs are heterogeneous regarding the expression of CD14/ CD16 , representing

  4. Founder effect confirmation of c.241A>G mutation in the L2HGDH gene and characterization of oxidative stress parameters in six Tunisian families with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria.

    PubMed

    Jellouli, Nadege Kammoun; Hadj Salem, Ikhlass; Ellouz, Emna; Kamoun, Zeineb; kamoun, Fatma; tlili, Abdelaziz; Kaabachi, Naziha; Triki, Chanez; Fakhfakh, Faiza

    2014-04-01

    L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA) is an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder characterized essentially by the presence of elevated levels of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid (LGA) in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and urine. L2HGA is caused by a deficiency in the L2-Hydroxyglutaric dehydrogenase (L2HGDH) enzyme involved in the oxidation of LGA to the alpha 2-ketoglutarate. LGA has been proposed as an endo- and exogenous cytotoxic organic acid that induces free radical formation and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this report, we analyzed 14 L2HGA patients belonging to six unrelated consanguineous families the south of Tunisia. The patients were diagnosed with L2HGA disease confirmed on the presence of high level of LGA in urine. We analyzed the L2HGDH gene in all probands and identified the same c.241A>G homozygous mutation, which was previously reported in Tunisia. We also used intragenic single nucleotide length polymorphisms (SNPs) and two extragenic microsatellites flanking the L2HGDH gene to confirm the founder effect of c.241A>G mutation in the 14 studied cases. In addition, we carried out the measurement of the oxidative stress parameters in the plasma of L2HGA patients which revealed a significant increase in the malondialdehyde levels (MDA), a biomarker of lipid peroxydation, and the reduced glutathione (GSH). A diminution of the antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), was also observed.

  5. A Low-Vt Small-Offset Gated-Preamplifier for Sub-1-V DRAM Mid-Point Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Satoru; Takemura, Riichiro; Sekiguchi, Tomonori; Kotabe, Akira; Itoh, Kiyoo

    A gated sense amplifier (GSA) consisting of a low-Vt gated preamplifier (LGA) and a high-Vt sense amplifier (SA) is proposed. The gating scheme of the LGA enables quick amplification of an initial cell signal voltage (vS0) because of its low Vt and prevents the cell signal from degrading due to interference noise between data lines. As for a conventional sense amplifier (CSA), this new type of noise causes sensing error, and the noise-generation mechanism was clarified for the first time by analysis of vS0. The high-Vt SA holds the amplified signal and keeps subthreshold current low. Moreover, the gating scheme of the low-Vt MOSFETs in the LGA drives the I/O line quickly. The GSA thus simultaneously achieves fast sensing, low-leakage data holding, and fast I/O driving, even for sub-1-V mid-point sensing. The GSA is promising for future sub-1-V gigabit dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) because of reduced variations in the threshold voltage of MOSFETs; thus, the offset voltage of the LGA is reduced. The effectiveness of the GSA was verified with a 70-nm 512-Mbit DRAM chip. It demonstrated row access time (tRCD) of 16.4ns and read access (tAA) of 14.3ns at array voltage of 0.9V.

  6. Assessing Socioeconomic Impacts of Cascading Infrastructure Disruptions Using the Capability Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-31

    personal skills , talents, and psychological well- being. Examples of external resources include income and wealth. Cus- toms and traditions, laws, physical...of possible capabilities needs to be specified. • Each of the selected capabilities needs to provide information that can- not be ascertained from...government area (LGA) level, which is lacking neighborhood, community, or household level of information . Despite these limitations, examination

  7. Teachers and Students' Academic Performance in Nigerian Secondary Schools: Implications for Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinsolu, A. Olatoun

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined the number of qualified teachers and its relationship to students' academic performance in public secondary schools in a sample of Local Government Areas (LGA) of Osun State. This descriptive study used a post-hoc dataset. An instrument titled "Quantity and Quality of Teachers and Students' Academic Performance"…

  8. 76 FR 45313 - Petition for Waiver and Other Relief

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... divestitures of 20 LGA slot pairs and 14 DCA slot pairs. They say that the Southwest/AirTran merger will... United/Continental merger, consummated on September 30, 2010, enhanced United's competitive profile at... thereby address the competitive advantage secured by American Airlines/British Airways through their...

  9. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes: Further Overview of Data and Evidence on the ECM Outcomes for Vulnerable Groups. Progress Report and Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Marian; Easton, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Narrowing the Gap (NtG) is a two-year development and research programme, funded by the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) and the Local Government Association (LGA), working in partnership with other agencies, including local authorities. It seeks to make a significant difference, on a national scale, to the performance of…

  10. Birth weight and fetal growth in infants born to female hairdressers and their sisters.

    PubMed

    Axmon, A; Rylander, L

    2009-03-01

    To investigate birth weight and fetal growth in female hairdressers, while controlling for intergenerational effects and effects related to childhood exposures. A cohort of women who had attended vocational schools for hairdressers were compared to their sisters with respect to birth weight and fetal growth (measured as small for gestational age (SGA) or large for gestational age (LGA), respectively) in their infants. In total, 6223 infants born to 3137 hairdressers and 8388 infants born to 3952 hairdressers' sisters were studied. Among the infants born to the hairdressers' sisters, the distribution of birth weights were wider than that among the infants born to the hairdressers. This was also reflected in that hairdresser cohort affiliation tended to be protective against both SGA (odds ratio 0.80; 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 1.31) and LGA (0.77; 0.54 to 1.09). For LGA, this effect was even more pronounced among women who had actually worked as hairdressers during at least one pregnancy (0.60; 0.39 to 0.92). The infants born to these women also had a significantly lower mean birth weight (3387 g vs 3419 g; p = 0.033). The results from the present study suggest that infants born to hairdressers have a decreased risk of being LGA. This is most likely not caused by a shift in birth weight distribution or abnormal glucose metabolism.

  11. [Increased incidence of developmental hip dysplasia in hypertrophic newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Peschgens, T; Skopnik, H; Casser, H R; Rauschning-Sikora, K; Heimann, G

    1993-01-01

    "Lack of space" in utero is considered to be a major factor in the aetiology of the congenital dislocation of the hip. This study tries to answer the question whether hypertrophy of a newborn has to be regarded as a risk factor on the basis of the principle mentioned above. The results of postnatal clinical and sonographical examination performed on 98 large-for-gestational-age (LGA-) newborn were compared to those performed on 310 newborn children during a non selective screening program. Among the LGA-newborn pathological hip joints were found more often mainly female LGA-newborn infants were affected. It seemed that the birth weight did not correlate to the extent of the retardation of the hip joint development. It was again confirmed that the restriction to only clinical diagnostic procedures in the neonatal period is not effective in the early diagnosis of the malformation. Hypertrophy of a newborn has to be considered as a risk factor behind the development of congenital dislocation of the hip. It is recommended to examine all LGA-newborn infants post partum by clinical and most importantly also by sonographical means to recognize a retardation of hip joint development.

  12. Expression of NO synthases and redox enzymes in umbilical arteries from newborns born small, appropriate, and large for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Dellee, Ursula; Tobias, Silke; Li, Huige; Mildenberger, Eva

    2013-02-01

    Modified expression of nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and an imbalance between the pro-oxidative and the antioxidative system accompany endothelial dysfunction, the first stage of atherosclerosis. Humans born small (SGA) or large (LGA) for gestational age are at higher risk of developing atherosclerosis later in life than humans born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). We hypothesized that indicators of endothelial dysfunction could be detectable at birth. The purpose of this study was to find out whether the expression patterns of NO synthases (endothelial NOS (eNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and neuronal NOS (nNOS)), pro-oxidative enzymes (components of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1), NOX2, NOX4, p22phox, and p47phox), and antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase 1-3 (SOD1-3), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), and catalase) in umbilical arteries differ among SGA, LGA, and AGA newborns. Thirty-six umbilical cords were obtained from healthy, normal, full-term SGA, AGA, and LGA newborns. The umbilical arteries were dissected and homogenized. mRNA expression was analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR. Western blotting was performed to determine protein expression. mRNA and protein expression of NO synthases, pro-oxidative enzymes, and antioxidative enzymes did not differ in the umbilical arteries from newborns of the three groups. Indicators of endothelial dysfunction in terms of differences in enzyme expression in SGA or LGA newborns vs. AGA newborns were not present at birth.

  13. The Role of the Lead Member for Children's Services: A Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Foundation for Educational Research, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Local Government Association (LGA) initially commissioned the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) to explore: (1) whether Lead Members for Children's Services (LMCS) have sufficient information and support to carry out their role effectively, especially in relation to their corporate parenting role; (2) LMCSs' personal…

  14. Maternal glucose tolerance status influences the risk of macrosomia in male but not in female fetuses.

    PubMed

    Ricart, W; López, J; Mozas, J; Pericot, A; Sancho, M A; González, N; Balsells, M; Luna, R; Cortázar, A; Navarro, P; Ramírez, O; Flández, B; Pallardo, L F; Hernández, A; Ampudia, J; Fernández-Real, J M; Hernández-Aguado, I; Corcoy, R

    2009-01-01

    To elucidate whether the risk of macrosomia, large for gestational age (LGA) and small for gestational age (SGA) is influenced by maternal body mass index and glucose tolerance differently in male and female fetuses. A population study was conducted in 16 general hospitals from the Spanish National Health Service that included 9270 consecutive women with singleton pregnancies and without a former diagnosis of diabetes mellitus who delivered 4793 male and 4477 female newborns. Logistic regression analyses were performed to predict the effect of body mass index (BMI) category and glucose tolerance on macrosomia, large for gestational age newborns (LGA) and small for gestational age newborns (SGA) Separate analyses according to foetal sex were carried out for each outcome. The results were adjusted for maternal age, gestational age and pregnancy-induced hypertension. There were significant differences between males and females in the percentage of infants who had macrosomia, LGA or SGA. Maternal BMI category was positively associated with the risk of macrosomia and LGA in both male and female newborns. In addition, there was a negative association between maternal BMI and SGA that only reached significance in males. In contrast, gestational diabetes was only a predictor of macrosomia exclusively in male fetuses (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.49) There is sexual dimorphism in the risk of abnormal birth weight attributed to maternal glucose tolerance status. A closer surveillance of foetal growth might be warranted in pregnant women with abnormal glucose tolerance carrying a male fetus.

  15. Functional Impacts of Adult Literacy Programme on Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbah, Blessing Akaraka

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the functional impacts of adult literacy programme among rural women participants in Ishielu Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study was made up of 115 adult instructors and 2,408 adult learners giving a total of 2,623. The sample…

  16. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes for Vulnerable Groups: Overview and Analysis of Available Datasets on Vulnerable Groups and the Five ECM Outcomes. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Marian

    2007-01-01

    This summary presents the main findings from a data mapping and analysis study commissioned by the Local Government Association (LGA) from the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) as part of a two-year development and research programme, Narrowing the Gap. This programme seeks to make a significant difference in "narrowing the…

  17. 76 FR 18616 - Operating Limitations at New York LaGuardia Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... until the final Congestion Management Rule for LaGuardia Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport... LGA, John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), and Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR). The...Guardia Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport, and Newark Liberty International Airport (RIN 2120...

  18. Urtra-Hard Bonds in P-Carbon Stronger than Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wen-Feng; Wang, Ling-Sheng; Li, Zhi-Ping; Xia, Mei-Rong; Gao, Fa-Ming

    2015-09-01

    Not Available Support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No 21403188, the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province under Grant No B20150396, the Autonomic Research Project of Yanshan University under Grant No 14LGA017, and the Key Technology Research and Development Program of Qinhuangdao under Grant No 201401A025.

  19. The NK1 receptor antagonist L822429 reduces heroin reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Estelle; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Edwards, Scott; Juergens, Nathan; Park, Paula E; Misra, Kaushik K; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C; Schank, Jesse; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F; Heilig, Markus

    2013-05-01

    Genetic deletion of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) has been shown to decrease the reinforcing properties of opioids, but it is unknown whether pharmacological NK1R blockade has the same effect. Here, we examined the effect of L822429, a rat-specific NK1R antagonist, on the reinforcing properties of heroin in rats on short (1 h: ShA) or long (12 h: LgA) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. ShA produces heroin self-administration rates that are stable over time, whereas LgA leads to an escalation of heroin intake thought to model important dependence-related aspects of addiction. L822429 reduced heroin self-administration and the motivation to consume heroin, measured using a progressive-ratio schedule, in both ShA and LgA rats. L822429 also decreased anxiety-like behavior in both groups, measured on the elevated plus maze, but did not affect mechanical hypersensitivity observed in LgA rats. Expression of TacR1 (the gene encoding NK1R) was decreased in reward- and stress-related brain areas both in ShA and LgA rats compared with heroin-naïve rats, but did not differ between the two heroin-experienced groups. In contrast, passive exposure to heroin produced increases in TacR1 expression in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results show that pharmacological NK1R blockade attenuates heroin reinforcement. The observation that animals with ShA and LgA to heroin were similarly affected by L822429 indicates that the SP/NK1R system is not specifically involved in neuroadaptations that underlie escalation resulting from LgA self-administration. Instead, the NK1R antagonist appears to attenuate acute, positively reinforcing properties of heroin and may be useful as an adjunct to relapse prevention in detoxified opioid-dependent subjects.

  20. The NK1 Receptor Antagonist L822429 Reduces Heroin Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Barbier, Estelle; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Edwards, Scott; Juergens, Nathan; Park, Paula E; Misra, Kaushik K; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C; Schank, Jesse; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F; Heilig, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Genetic deletion of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) has been shown to decrease the reinforcing properties of opioids, but it is unknown whether pharmacological NK1R blockade has the same effect. Here, we examined the effect of L822429, a rat-specific NK1R antagonist, on the reinforcing properties of heroin in rats on short (1 h: ShA) or long (12 h: LgA) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. ShA produces heroin self-administration rates that are stable over time, whereas LgA leads to an escalation of heroin intake thought to model important dependence-related aspects of addiction. L822429 reduced heroin self-administration and the motivation to consume heroin, measured using a progressive-ratio schedule, in both ShA and LgA rats. L822429 also decreased anxiety-like behavior in both groups, measured on the elevated plus maze, but did not affect mechanical hypersensitivity observed in LgA rats. Expression of TacR1 (the gene encoding NK1R) was decreased in reward- and stress-related brain areas both in ShA and LgA rats compared with heroin-naïve rats, but did not differ between the two heroin-experienced groups. In contrast, passive exposure to heroin produced increases in TacR1 expression in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results show that pharmacological NK1R blockade attenuates heroin reinforcement. The observation that animals with ShA and LgA to heroin were similarly affected by L822429 indicates that the SP/NK1R system is not specifically involved in neuroadaptations that underlie escalation resulting from LgA self-administration. Instead, the NK1R antagonist appears to attenuate acute, positively reinforcing properties of heroin and may be useful as an adjunct to relapse prevention in detoxified opioid-dependent subjects. PMID:23303056

  1. Geogagnetic Activity and Effectiveness of Millimeter Electromagnetic Radiation in Unstable Angina Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshina, S. S.; Samsonov, S. N.; Afanasiyeva, T. N.; Tokayeva, L. K.; Petrova, V. D.; Dolgova, E. M.; Manykina, V. I.; Vodolagina, E. S.

    There had been performed a research of an effectiveness of millimeter electromagnetic radiation (MM EMR) use in patients with an unstable angina (UA) at periods of a lower (daily value of Kp-index 16,19±0,18) and a higher (daily value of Kp-index 17,25±0,21, p<0,05) gemagnetic activity (GA). It was found that involving of the MM EMR (the wave length 7.1 mm) into the treatment of the patients with an UA, enhances an antianginal effect of a drug therapy independently on the period of GA. The MM EMR at the period of a lower geomagnetic activity (LGA) enhances the decrease of diastolic blood pressure (BP), and at the period of a higher geomagnetic activity (HGA) - the decrease of systolic BP. At a HGA there were noted: a quick and more serious antianginal effect, maximal antihypertensive effect was achieved quicker, but (as opposed to the period of a LGA) there was no a pulse slowing effect of a MM EMR. Including the MM EMR into the treatment accelerates stabilization of the patients' condition only at a LGA. Positive effect on blood rheological properties is an independent effect of MM EMR, and it is in blood viscosity reduce in microcirculatory at both of the periods of GA. Normalization of blood viscosity under the MM EMR is only at the period of a LGA. So, the effect of MM EMR on a clinical condition of the patients is more evident at the period of a HGA, blood viscosity - at the period of a LGA.

  2. Spatial Dynamics and High Risk Transmission Pathways of Poliovirus in Nigeria 2001-2013

    PubMed Central

    Mangal, Tara D.; Aylward, R. Bruce; Shuaib, Faisal; Mwanza, Michael; Pate, Muhammed A.; Abanida, Emmanuel; Grassly, Nicholas C.

    2016-01-01

    The polio eradication programme in Nigeria has been successful in reducing incidence to just six confirmed cases in 2014 and zero to date in 2015, but prediction and management of future outbreaks remains a concern. A Poisson mixed effects model was used to describe poliovirus spread between January 2001 and November 2013, incorporating the strength of connectivity between districts (local government areas, LGAs) as estimated by three models of human mobility: simple distance, gravity and radiation models. Potential explanatory variables associated with the case numbers in each LGA were investigated and the model fit was tested by simulation. Spatial connectivity, the number of non-immune children under five years old, and season were associated with the incidence of poliomyelitis in an LGA (all P < 0.001). The best-fitting spatial model was the radiation model, outperforming the simple distance and gravity models (likelihood ratio test P < 0.05), under which the number of people estimated to move from an infected LGA to an uninfected LGA was strongly associated with the incidence of poliomyelitis in that LGA. We inferred transmission networks between LGAs based on this model and found these to be highly local, largely restricted to neighbouring LGAs (e.g. 67.7% of secondary spread from Kano was expected to occur within 10 km). The remaining secondary spread occurred along routes of high population movement. Poliovirus transmission in Nigeria is predominantly localised, occurring between spatially contiguous areas. Outbreak response should be guided by knowledge of high-probability pathways to ensure vulnerable children are protected. PMID:27668435

  3. Escalation of i.v. cocaine intake in peri-adolescent vs. adult rats selectively bred for high (HiS) vs. low (LoS) saccharin intake

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Nathan A.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Adolescence marks a period of increased vulnerability to the development of substance use disorders. High sweet preference is a genetically mediated behavioral trait that also predicts vulnerability to substances of abuse. Previous research has shown that while adolescent rats selectively bred for high (HiS) saccharin intake acquire cocaine self-administration at the same rate as adult HiS rats, adolescent rats bred for low saccharin intake (LoS) acquire cocaine self-administration faster than adult LoS rats. Objectives To investigate the interaction of the addiction vulnerability factors of peri-adolescence and saccharin preference on cocaine-intake using an animal model of escalation of cocaine intake over 6-h/day sessions. Methods Peri-adolescent and adult HiS and LoS female rats self-administered i.v. cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/inf) during short-access (2-h/day) sessions for 2 days. Next, a long-access (6-h/day) period (LgA) commenced and lasted 16 days. Following LgA, session length was returned to 2-h/day for a second short access phase. Results LoS peri-adolescent rats escalated cocaine intake over the LgA period and consumed more drug than LoS adult rats; however, peri-adolescent and adult HiS rats consumed similar amounts of cocaine during this period. Additionally, adult HiS rats self-administered more cocaine than adult LoS rats during the LgA period, while there was no phenotypic difference between the rat lines during peri-adolescence for the LgA period. During the first short-access phase, peri-adolescent rats self-administered more cocaine than adult rats. Conclusions These results emphasize the importance of adolescent drug abuse prevention by illustrating that phenotypic protection from addiction may not be expressed until adulthood. PMID:23307070

  4. Escalation of i.v. cocaine intake in peri-adolescent vs. adult rats selectively bred for high (HiS) vs. low (LoS) saccharin intake.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Nathan A; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2013-05-01

    Adolescence marks a period of increased vulnerability to the development of substance use disorders. High sweet preference is a genetically mediated behavioral trait that also predicts vulnerability to substances of abuse. Previous research has shown that while adolescent rats selectively bred for high (HiS) saccharin intake acquire cocaine self-administration at the same rate as adult HiS rats, adolescent rats bred for low saccharin intake (LoS) acquire cocaine self-administration faster than adult LoS rats. This study was conducted to investigate the interaction of the addiction vulnerability factors of peri-adolescence and saccharin preference on cocaine intake using an animal model of escalation of cocaine consumption over 6-h/day sessions. Peri-adolescent and adult HiS and LoS female rats self-administered i.v. cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/inf) during short-access (2-h/day) sessions for 2 days. Next, a long-access (6-h/day) period (LgA) commenced and lasted 16 days. Following LgA, session length was returned to 2-h/day for a second short access phase. LoS peri-adolescent rats escalated cocaine intake over the LgA period and consumed more drug than LoS adult rats; however, peri-adolescent and adult HiS rats consumed similar amounts of cocaine during this period. Additionally, adult HiS rats self-administered more cocaine than adult LoS rats during the LgA period, while there was no phenotypic difference between the rat lines during peri-adolescence for the LgA period. During the first short-access phase, peri-adolescent rats self-administered more cocaine than adult rats. These results emphasize the importance of adolescent drug abuse prevention by illustrating that phenotypic protection from addiction may not be expressed until adulthood.

  5. Waist-to-Hip Ratio versus Body Mass Index as Predictor of Obesity-Related Pregnancy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    McDonnold, Mollie; Mele, Lisa M; Myatt, Leslie; Hauth, John C; Leveno, Kenneth J; Reddy, Uma M; Mercer, Brian M

    2016-05-01

    Objective In nonpregnant populations the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is a better predictor of obesity-related outcomes than body mass index (BMI). Our objective was to determine, in pregnancy, the relationship between these measures of obesity, and large-for-gestational age (LGA) and cesarean delivery (CD). Methods This is a secondary analysis of data from the Combined Antioxidant and Preeclampsia Prediction Study. Women with a WHR of ≥ 0.85 and 0.80 to 0.84 at 9 to 16 weeks gestation were compared with those with a WHR < 0.80. Women with early pregnancy BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2) (obese) and 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m(2) (overweight) were compared with those < 25.0 kg/m(2). LGA was defined as > 90% by Alexander nomogram. Univariable analysis, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves were used. Results Data from 2,276 women were analyzed. After correcting for potential confounders, only BMI ≥ 30 was significantly associated with LGA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.07, 1.35-3.16) while BMI 25.0-29.9 (aOR: 1.5, 0.98-2.28), WHR 0.8-0.84 (aOR: 1.33, 0.83-2.13), and WHR ≥ 0.85 (aOR: 1.05, 0.67-1.65) were not. Risk for CD was increased for women with elevated WHR and with higher BMI compared with normal. Conclusion WHR is not associated with LGA. While BMI performed better than WHR, neither was a strong predictor of LGA or need for CD in low-risk nulliparous women.

  6. Can magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging discriminate between carcinomas and low grade adenomas in gastric superficial elevated lesions?

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Takashi; Inamori, Masahiko; Honda, Yasushi; Kanoshima, Kenji; Inoh, Yumi; Matsuura, Mizue; Uchiyama, Shiori; Sakai, Eiji; Higurashi, Takuma; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Iida, Hiroshi; Endo, Hiroki; Fujita, Koji; Kusakabe, Akihiko; Atsukawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hisao; Tateishi, Yoko; Maeda, Shin; Ohashi, Kenichi; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2016-11-01

    Background and study aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the capability of magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (ME-NBI) to discriminate between early carcinomas (EC) and low grade adenomas (LGA) in gastric superficial elevated epithelial neoplasias. Patients and methods: We investigated 100 consecutive cases of gastric superficial elevated epithelial neoplasias that were removed using endoscopic submucosal dissection. The pathological diagnostic criteria were based on the revised Vienna classification; category 4 (mucosal high grade neoplasia) and category 5 (submucosal invasion by carcinoma) lesions were diagnosed as EC, whereas category 3 (mucosal low grade neoplasia) lesions were diagnosed as LGA. The associations between the postoperative pathological diagnoses and the ME-NBI findings were analyzed, and included the shape, specification, and area of irregularity in the microvascular architecture (MV) and the microsurface structure (MS). Results: Seventy-nine EC and 21 LGA cases diagnosed postoperatively were evaluated retrospectively. The lesion size (median; range (mm)) was significantly larger in the EC group (14; 2 - 95) compared to the LGA group (5; 2 - 16) (P < 0.001). Wavy forms in the MV shapes (P = 0.031), extension in the MV specifications (P = 0.035), and area with MV irregularity (P = 0.001) were found to be statistically significant predictive findings for EC. Villous forms in the MS shapes (P = 0.026), enlargement in the MS specifications (P = 0.044), and area with MS irregularity (P = 0.021) were also found to be statistically significant predictive findings for EC. The rates of preoperative sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of ME-NBI for discriminating EC were 86.1 %, 38.9 %, and 75 %, respectively. Conclusions: The present study suggests that ME-NBI is useful for the differential diagnosis of EC and LGA in gastric superficial elevated epithelial neoplasias. UMIN

  7. Kappa Opioid Receptor-Mediated Dysregulation of GABAergic Transmission in the Central Amygdala in Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kallupi, Marsida; Wee, Sunmee; Edwards, Scott; Whitfield, Tim W.; Oleata, Christopher S.; Luu, George; Schmeichel, Brooke E.; Koob, George F.; Roberto, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies have demonstrated an enhanced dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) system following repeated cocaine exposure, but few reports have focused on neuroadaptations within the central amygdala (CeA). Methods We identified KOR-related physiological changes in the CeA following escalation of cocaine self-administration in rats. We used in vitro slice electrophysiological (intracellular and whole-cell recordings) methods to assess whether differential cocaine access in either 1h (short access, ShA) or 6h (long access, LgA) sessions induced plasticity at CeA GABAergic synapses, or altered the sensitivity of these synapses to KOR agonism (U50488) or antagonism (nor-BNI). We then determined the functional effects of CeA KOR blockade in cocaine-related behaviors. Results Baseline evoked GABAergic transmission was enhanced in the CeA from ShA and LgA rats compared to cocaine-naïve rats. Acute cocaine (1 uM) application significantly decreased GABA release in all groups (naïve, ShA, and LgA rats). Application of U50488 (1 uM) significantly decreased GABAergic transmission in the CeA from naïve rats, but increased it in LgA rats. Conversely, nor-BNI (200 nM) significantly increased GABAergic transmission in the CeA from naïve rats, but decreased it in LgA rats. Nor-BNI did not alter the acute cocaine-induced inhibition of GABAergic responses. Finally, CeA microinfusion of nor-BNI blocked cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and attenuated the heightened anxiety-like behavior observed during withdrawal from chronic cocaine exposure in the defensive burying paradigm. Conclusion Together these data demonstrate that CeA dynorphin/KOR systems are dysregulated following excessive cocaine exposure and suggest KOR antagonism as a viable therapeutic strategy for cocaine addiction. PMID:23751206

  8. Second- to Third-Trimester Longitudinal Growth Assessment for the Prediction of Largeness for Gestational Age and Macrosomia in an Unselected Population.

    PubMed

    Caradeux, Javier; Eixarch, Elisenda; Mazarico, Edurne; Basuki, Tri Rahmat; Gratacós, Eduard; Figueras, Francesc

    2017-07-13

    Prenatal detection of excessive growth remains inaccurate. Most strategies rely on a single cross-sectional evaluation of fetal size during the third trimester. To compare second- to third-trimester longitudinal growth assessment with cross-sectional evaluation at the third trimester in the prediction of largeness for gestational age (LGA) and macrosomia. A cohort of 2,696 unselected singleton pregnancies scanned at 21 ± 2 and 32 ± 2 weeks was created. Abdominal circumference (AC) measurements were transformed to z values according to the INTERGROWTH-21st standards. Longitudinal growth assessment was performed by calculation of z velocity and conditional growth. Both methods were compared to cross-sectional assessment at 32 ± 2 weeks. Predictive performance for LGA and macrosomia was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. A total of 188 (7%) newborns qualified for LGA and 182 (6.8%) for macrosomia. The areas under the curve (AUCs) for 32-week AC z score, AC z velocity, and conditional AC were 0.78, 0.61, and 0.55, respectively, for the prediction of LGA, and 0.75, 0.61, and 0.55, respectively, for the prediction of macrosomia. Both AUCs of AC z velocity and conditional AC were significantly lower (p < 0.001) than the AUC of cross-sectional AC z scores. In the general population, second- to third-trimester longitudinal assessment of fetal growth is inferior to third-trimester cross-sectional evaluation of size in the prediction of LGA and macrosomia. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Spatial Dynamics and High Risk Transmission Pathways of Poliovirus in Nigeria 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    Mangal, Tara D; Aylward, R Bruce; Shuaib, Faisal; Mwanza, Michael; Pate, Muhammed A; Abanida, Emmanuel; Grassly, Nicholas C

    The polio eradication programme in Nigeria has been successful in reducing incidence to just six confirmed cases in 2014 and zero to date in 2015, but prediction and management of future outbreaks remains a concern. A Poisson mixed effects model was used to describe poliovirus spread between January 2001 and November 2013, incorporating the strength of connectivity between districts (local government areas, LGAs) as estimated by three models of human mobility: simple distance, gravity and radiation models. Potential explanatory variables associated with the case numbers in each LGA were investigated and the model fit was tested by simulation. Spatial connectivity, the number of non-immune children under five years old, and season were associated with the incidence of poliomyelitis in an LGA (all P < 0.001). The best-fitting spatial model was the radiation model, outperforming the simple distance and gravity models (likelihood ratio test P < 0.05), under which the number of people estimated to move from an infected LGA to an uninfected LGA was strongly associated with the incidence of poliomyelitis in that LGA. We inferred transmission networks between LGAs based on this model and found these to be highly local, largely restricted to neighbouring LGAs (e.g. 67.7% of secondary spread from Kano was expected to occur within 10 km). The remaining secondary spread occurred along routes of high population movement. Poliovirus transmission in Nigeria is predominantly localised, occurring between spatially contiguous areas. Outbreak response should be guided by knowledge of high-probability pathways to ensure vulnerable children are protected.

  10. Contribution of overweight and obesity to adverse pregnancy outcomes among immigrant and non-immigrant women in Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Katharina; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Borde, Theda; Brenne, Silke; David, Matthias; Razum, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    Maternal excessive weight and smoking are associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes. In Germany, immigrant women have a higher prevalence of pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity compared with autochthonous women. We compared the contribution of pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity to adverse pregnancy outcomes among immigrant and autochthonous women in Berlin/Germany. Data from 2586 immigrant women (from Turkey, Lebanon, other countries of origin) and 2676 autochthonous women delivering in three maternity hospitals of Berlin within 12 months (2011/2012) was used. Cox regression models were applied to estimate the association between overweight/obesity and smoking with the outcomes large-for-gestational-age (LGA), small-for-gestational-age (SGA), preterm birth (PTB) and extreme preterm-birth (E-PTB). Population attributive fractions (PAF) were calculated to quantify the proportion of the outcomes attributable to overweight/obesity and smoking, respectively. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 33.4% among autochthonous and 53.6% among Turkish women. Prevalence risk ratios of excessive weight were highest for LGA infants among immigrant and autochthonous women. The PAFs were -11.8% (SGA), +16.3% (LGA), +3.6% (PTB) and +16.5% (E-PTB) for the total study population. Overweight/obesity is strongly associated with an increased risk of delivering an LGA infant among both immigrant and autochthonous women. Compared with autochthonous women, the contribution of excessive weight to LGA is even higher among immigrant women, in whom PAFs of overweight/obesity even exceed those of smoking for some outcomes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychosocial deprivation in women with gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with poor fetomaternal prognoses: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Cosson, Emmanuel; Bihan, Hélène; Reach, Gérard; Vittaz, Laurence; Carbillon, Lionel; Valensi, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prognoses associated with psychosocial deprivation in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design Observational study considering the 1498 multiethnic women with GDM who gave birth between January 2009 and February 2012. Setting Four largest maternity units in the northeastern suburban area of Paris. Participants The 994 women who completed the Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centers (EPICES) questionnaire. Main outcome measure Main complications of GDM (large infant for gestational age (LGA), shoulder dystocia, caesarean section, pre-eclampsia). Results Psychosocial deprivation (EPICES score ≥30.17) affected 577 women (56%) and was positively associated with overweight/obesity, parity and non-European origin, and negatively associated with family history of diabetes, fruit and vegetable consumption and working status. The psychosocially deprived women were diagnosed with GDM earlier, received insulin treatment during pregnancy more often and were more likely to have LGA infants (15.1% vs 10.6%, OR=1.5 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.2), p<0.05) and shoulder dystocia (3.1% vs 1.2%, OR=2.7 (0.97 to 7.2), p<0.05). In addition to psychosocial deprivation, LGA was associated with greater parity, obesity, history of GDM, ethnicity, excessive gestational weight gain and insulin therapy. A multivariate analysis using these covariates revealed that the EPICES score was independently associated with LGA infants (per 10 units, OR=1.12 (1.03 to 1.20), p<0.01). Conclusions In our area, psychosocial deprivation is common in women with GDM and is associated with earlier GDM diagnoses and greater insulin treatment, an increased likelihood of shoulder dystocia and, independently of obesity, gestational weight gain and other confounders with LGA infants. PMID:25748416

  12. Accelerated fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of severe large-for-gestational-age and macrosomic infant: a cohort study in a low-risk population.

    PubMed

    Simic, Marija; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Stephansson, Olof

    2017-10-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of severe large-for-gestational-age (LGA) and macrosomia at birth in a low-risk population. Cohort study that included 68 771 women with non-anomalous singleton pregnancies, without history of diabetes or hypertension, based on an electronic database on pregnancies and deliveries in Stockholm-Gotland Region, Sweden, 2008-2014. We performed multivariable logistic regression to estimate the association between accelerated fetal growth occurring in the first through early second trimester as measured by ultrasound and LGA and macrosomia at birth. Restricted analyses were performed in the groups without gestational diabetes and with normal body mass index (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2) ). When adjusting for confounders, the odds of having a severely LGA or macrosomic infant were elevated in mothers with fetuses that were at least 7 days larger than expected as compared with mothers without age discrepancy at the second-trimester scan (adjusted odds ratio 1.80; 95% CI 1.23-2.64 and adjusted odds ratio 2.15; 95% CI 1.55-2.98, respectively). Additionally, mothers without gestational diabetes and mothers with normal weight had an elevated risk of having a severely LGA or macrosomic infant when the age discrepancy by second-trimester ultrasound was at least 7 days. In a low-risk population, ultrasound-estimated accelerated fetal growth in early pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of having a severely LGA or macrosomic infant. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Secular trends of macrosomia in southeast China, 1994-2005

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rate of macrosomia (birth weight≥4, 000 g) increased over the past four decades in many parts of the world. Macrosomia is associated not only with higher risks of maternal and neonatal complications but also with health risks in adulthood. We examined trends in neonatal macrosomia and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births among singleton, live, term and postterm births (≥37 complete weeks' gestation) in southeast China from 1994 to 2005 and explored possible causes of the temporal trends. Methods Data from Perinatal Health Care Surveillance System in 12 cities and counties in southeast China were analyzed for trends in birth weight, neonatal macrosomia and LGA from 1994 to 2005. A total of 594, 472 singleton live births were included. We conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to relate these trends to changes in maternal and pregnancy characteristics. Results The rate of macrosomia rose from 6.00% in 1994 to 8.49% in 2000 and then levelled off to 7.83% in 2005. Similar trends were observed in mean birth weight. The incidence of LGA births increased continuously from 13.72% in 1994 to 18.08% in 2000, but the LGA rate remained relatively stable from 2002 to 2005. There was a decrease in gestational age and a significant increase in frequency of prelabor caesarean delivery from 1994 to 2005. In an adjusted multivariable model, the increase in LGA rate from 1994 to 2000 was associated with increasing net gestational weight gain, maternal age, maternal height and maternal education. But they didn't fully explain the increase. The trends of 2002-2005 LGA declined after adjusted for maternal and neonatal characteristics. Conclusions In southeast China, the incidence of macrosomia increased from 1994 to 2000 was mainly related to increasing net gestational weight gain. The incidence of macrosomia has levelled off in recent years partly due to increasing use of prelabor caesarean delivery and earlier delivery and partly due to moderation of

  14. The effects of supplementing grazing dairy cows with partial mixed ration on enteric methane emissions and milk production during mid to late lactation.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, B F; Deighton, M H; O'Loughlin, B M; Galvin, N; O'Donovan, M; Lewis, E

    2012-11-01

    This study compared the enteric CH(4) emissions and milk production of cows offered various grass-based diets during mid to late lactation. Forty-eight spring-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 nutritional treatments for 8 wk: (1) low grass allowance (LGA) + partial mixed ration (PMR), (2) high grass allowance (HGA), or (3) LGA. The PMR group received an allocation of 13.9 kg of grass dry matter (DM)/cow per day and in addition were offered 4.1 kg of PMR DM/cow per day. The HGA group received an allocation of 19.3 kg of grass DM/cow per day and the LGA group received an allocation of 14.4 kg of grass DM/cow per day. The PMR offered was composed of 450 g of maize silage/kg of DM, 450 g of concentrate blend/kg of DM, and 100g of barley straw/kg of DM. Daily CH(4) emissions were determined using the emissions from ruminants using a calibrated tracer technique, using sulfur hexafluoride, for 5 consecutive days during 2 periods. Simultaneously, grass DM intake (DMI) was estimated using the n-alkane technique and the PMR DMI was also recorded. Cows offered PMR had higher DMI than either the HGA or LGA cows (16.5 vs. 14.9 and 13.9 kg of DM/d). The higher DMI of PMR cows increased milk production relative to HGA and LGA cows: milk yield (17.0 vs. 14.6 and 13.1 kg) and fat and protein yield (1.29 vs. 1.14 and 1.04 kg). Daily CH(4) emissions were higher for the PMR group than for the HGA and LGA groups (406 vs. 384 and 349 g/cow per day). The enteric CH(4) emissions intensity per unit of DMI, milk yield, solids-corrected milk yield, and fat and protein yield did not differ between treatments. Effects observed in the PMR treatment were due to an increase in DMI rather than to any nutritional characteristic of the PMR.

  15. Computationally Efficient 2D DOA Estimation with Uniform Rectangular Array in Low-Grazing Angle

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Junpeng; Hu, Guoping; Zhang, Xiaofei; Sun, Fenggang; Xiao, Yu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient spatial differencing matrix set (SDMS) method for two-dimensional direction of arrival (2D DOA) estimation with uniform rectangular arrays (URAs) in a low-grazing angle (LGA) condition. By rearranging the auto-correlation and cross-correlation matrices in turn among different subarrays, the SDMS method can estimate the two parameters independently with one-dimensional (1D) subspace-based estimation techniques, where we only perform difference for auto-correlation matrices and the cross-correlation matrices are kept completely. Then, the pair-matching of two parameters is achieved by extracting the diagonal elements of URA. Thus, the proposed method can decrease the computational complexity, suppress the effect of additive noise and also have little information loss. Simulation results show that, in LGA, compared to other methods, the proposed methods can achieve performance improvement in the white or colored noise conditions. PMID:28245634

  16. EDGA: A Population Evolution Direction-Guided Genetic Algorithm for Protein-Ligand Docking.

    PubMed

    Guan, Boxin; Zhang, Changsheng; Ning, Jiaxu

    2016-07-01

    Protein-ligand docking can be formulated as a search algorithm associated with an accurate scoring function. However, most current search algorithms cannot show good performance in docking problems, especially for highly flexible docking. To overcome this drawback, this article presents a novel and robust optimization algorithm (EDGA) based on the Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA) for solving flexible protein-ligand docking problems. This method applies a population evolution direction-guided model of genetics, in which search direction evolves to the optimum solution. The method is more efficient to find the lowest energy of protein-ligand docking. We consider four search methods-a tradition genetic algorithm, LGA, SODOCK, and EDGA-and compare their performance in docking of six protein-ligand docking problems. The results show that EDGA is the most stable, reliable, and successful.

  17. A new Lamarckian genetic algorithm for flexible ligand-receptor docking.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, Jan; Rurainski, Alexander; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Neumann, Dirk

    2010-07-15

    We present a Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA) variant for flexible ligand-receptor docking which allows to handle a large number of degrees of freedom. Our hybrid method combines a multi-deme LGA with a recently published gradient-based method for local optimization of molecular complexes. We compared the performance of our new hybrid method to two non gradient-based search heuristics on the Astex diverse set for flexible ligand-receptor docking. Our results show that the novel approach is clearly superior to other LGAs employing a stochastic optimization method. The new algorithm features a shorter run time and gives substantially better results, especially with increasing complexity of the ligands. Thus, it may be used to dock ligands with many rotatable bonds with high efficiency.

  18. Methamphetamine affects cell proliferation in the medial prefrontal cortex: a new niche for toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Airee; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine addicts demonstrate impaired frontal cortical-dependent cognitive function that could result from methamphetamine-induced maladaptive plasticity in the prefrontal cortex. Reduced adult gliogenesis observed in a rodent model of compulsive methamphetamine self-administration could contribute to the maladaptive plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as excessive methamphetamine intake is associated with loss of gliogenesis. The present study explored the vulnerability of mPFC progenitors to the duration of various sessions of methamphetamine self-administration in limited and extended access schedule of reinforcement. Proliferation of progenitors via Ki-67 labeling and apoptosis via activated caspase-3 labeling were studied in rats that intravenously self-administered methamphetamine in a limited access (1 h/day: short access (ShA)) or extended access (6 h/day: long access (LgA)) paradigm over 4, 13, 22 or 42 sessions, and in rats that experienced 22 sessions and were withdrawn from self-administration for a period of 4 weeks. Four sessions of LgA methamphetamine enhanced proliferation and apoptosis and forty-two sessions of ShA and LgA methamphetamine reduced proliferation without effecting apoptosis. Withdrawal from twenty-two sessions of methamphetamine enhanced proliferation in LgA animals. Our findings demonstrate that proliferation of mPFC progenitors is vulnerable to psychostimulant exposure and withdrawal with distinct underlying mechanisms relating to methamphetamine toxicity. The susceptibility of mPFC progenitors to even modest doses of methamphetamine could account for the pronounced neuroadaptation in the mPFC linked to methamphetamine abuse. PMID:25260424

  19. Small-for-gestational age and large-for-gestational age thresholds to predict infants at risk of adverse delivery and neonatal outcomes: are current charts adequate? An observational study from the Born in Bradford cohort

    PubMed Central

    Norris, T; Johnson, W; Farrar, D; Tuffnell, D; Wright, J; Cameron, N

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Construct an ethnic-specific chart and compare the prediction of adverse outcomes using this chart with the clinically recommended UK-WHO and customised birth weight charts using cut-offs for small-for-gestational age (SGA: birth weight <10th centile) and large-for-gestational age (LGA: birth weight >90th centile). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Born in Bradford (BiB) study, UK. Participants 3980 White British and 4448 Pakistani infants with complete data for gestational age, birth weight, ethnicity, maternal height, weight and parity. Main outcome measures Prevalence of SGA and LGA, using the three charts and indicators of diagnostic utility (sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC)) of these chart-specific cut-offs to predict delivery and neonatal outcomes and a composite outcome. Results In White British and Pakistani infants, the prevalence of SGA and LGA differed depending on the chart used. Increased risk of SGA was observed when using the UK-WHO and customised charts as opposed to the ethnic-specific chart, while the opposite was apparent when classifying LGA infants. However, the predictive utility of all three charts to identify adverse clinical outcomes was poor, with only the prediction of shoulder dystocia achieving an AUROC>0.62 on all three charts. Conclusions Despite being recommended in national clinical guidelines, the UK-WHO and customised birth weight charts perform poorly at identifying infants at risk of adverse neonatal outcomes. Being small or large may increase the risk of an adverse outcome; however, size alone is not sensitive or specific enough with current detection to be useful. However, a significant amount of missing data for some of the outcomes may have limited the power needed to determine true associations. PMID:25783424

  20. Development of mechanical hypersensitivity in rats during heroin and ethanol dependence: alleviation by CRF₁ receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Scott; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Misra, Kaushik K; Wee, Sunmee; Park, Paula E; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F

    2012-02-01

    Animal models of drug dependence have described both reductions in brain reward processes and potentiation of stress-like (or anti-reward) mechanisms, including a recruitment of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling. Accordingly, chronic exposure to opiates often leads to the development of mechanical hypersensitivity. We measured paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) in male Wistar rats allowed limited (short access group: ShA) or extended (long access group: LgA) access to heroin or cocaine self-administration, or in rats made dependent on ethanol via ethanol vapor exposure (ethanol-dependent group). In heroin self-administering animals, after transition to LgA conditions, thresholds were reduced to around 50% of levels observed at baseline, and were also significantly lower than thresholds measured in animals remaining on the ShA schedule. In contrast, thresholds in animals self-administering cocaine under either ShA (1 h) or LgA (6 h) conditions were unaltered. Similar to heroin LgA rats, ethanol-dependent rats also developed mechanical hypersensitivity after eight weeks of ethanol vapor exposure compared to non-dependent animals. Systemic administration of the CRF1R antagonist MPZP significantly alleviated the hypersensitivity observed in rats dependent on heroin or ethanol. The emergence of mechanical hypersensitivity with heroin and ethanol dependence may thus represent one critical drug-associated negative emotional state driving dependence on these substances. These results also suggest a recruitment of CRF-regulated nociceptive pathways associated with escalation of intake and dependence. A greater understanding of relationships between chronic drug exposure and pain-related states may provide insight into mechanisms underlying the transition to drug addiction, as well as reveal new treatment opportunities. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'.

  1. The dopamine D3 receptor partial agonist CJB090 and antagonist PG01037 decrease progressive ratio responding for methamphetamine in rats with extended-access

    PubMed Central

    Orio, Laura; Wee, Sunmee; Newman, Amy H.; Pulvirenti, Luigi; Koob, George F.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work suggests a role for dopamine D3-like receptors in psychostimulant reinforcement. The development of new compounds acting selectively at dopamine D3 receptors has opened new possibilities to explore the role of these receptors in animal models of psychostimulant dependence. Here we investigated whether the dopamine D3 partial agonist CJB090 (1–10 mg/kg, i.v) and the D3 antagonist PG01037 (8–32 mg/kg, s.c.,) modified methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg/injection) intravenous self-administration under fixed- (FR) and progressive- (PR) ratio schedules in rats allowed limited (short access, ShA; 1h sessions 3 days/week) or extended access (long access, LgA; 6h sessions 6 days/week). Under a FR1 schedule, the highest dose of the D3 partial agonist CJB090 selectively reduced methamphetamine self-administration in LgA but not in ShA rats, whereas the full D3 antagonist PG01037 produced no effect in either group. Under a PR schedule of reinforcement, the D3 partial agonist CJB090 reduced the maximum number of responses performed (“breakpoint”) for methamphetamine in LgA rats at the doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg and also it produced a significant reduction in the ShA group at the highest dose. However, the D3 full antagonist PG01037 only reduced PR methamphetamine self-administration in LgA rats at the highest dose of 32 mg/kg with no effect in the ShA group. The results suggest that rats might be more sensitive to pharmacological modulation of dopamine D3 receptors following extended access to methamphetamine self-administration, opening the possibility that D3 receptors play a role in excessive methamphetamine intake. PMID:20456290

  2. Insulin-receptor kinase is enhanced in placentas from non-insulin-dependent diabetic women with large-for-gestational-age babies.

    PubMed

    Takayama-Hasumi, S; Yoshino, H; Shimisu, M; Minei, S; Sanaka, M; Omori, Y

    1994-01-01

    The function of insulin receptor and IGF-1 receptor was investigated in placentas from 10 healthy control mothers, 8 diabetic mothers with appropriate-for-gestational-age babies (AGA group) and 9 diabetic mothers with large-for-gestational-age babies (LGA group). None of the diabetic mothers were obese before pregnancy; their blood glucose was well controlled during pregnancy and glycosylated HbA1c was 6.52 +/- 0.71% (M +/- S.E.). Insulin and IGF-1 receptors were partially purified from placentas using wheat germ agglutinin chromatography. The insulin-binding capacity was significantly increased in both the AGA and the LGA groups compared to the control, whereas the IGF-1 binding capacity was similar in the three groups. Autophosphorylation studies were performed with partially purified receptors equalized for similar binding capacity, then immunoprecipitated with anti-insulin receptor antibody or anti-IGF-1 receptor antibody. Insulin-stimulated 32P-incorporation into the insulin receptor beta-subunit was increased by 133% in the LGA group versus the control, whereas incorporation in the AGA group was equivalent to the control. Insulin-stimulated tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor preparation for histone H2B phosphorylation was also significantly increased in the LGA group compared to the control. 32P-incorporation into beta-subunit IGF-1 receptor and IGF-1-stimulated tyrosine kinase activity did not show any significant differences among the three groups. The data in the present study suggest that elevated insulin receptor kinase might be involved in fetal overgrowth in diabetic mothers.

  3. The interaction of platinum-based drugs with native biologically relevant proteins.

    PubMed

    Brauckmann, Christine; Wehe, Christoph A; Kieshauer, Michael; Lanvers-Kaminsky, Claudia; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2013-02-01

    This study focuses on the identification of the products that are formed upon binding of therapeutically relevant platinum complexes to proteins like β-lactoglobulin A (LGA), human serum albumin (HSA), or human hemoglobin (HB). The respective proteins were incubated with the platinum-based anticancer drugs cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin. LGA was selected as the model protein in addition to the two most abundant blood proteins HSA and HB. In case of the model protein, the effect of free thiol groups on the affinity of cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin was investigated by means of liquid chromatography electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-ToF-MS). The reduced form of LGA, which contains four free thiol groups more than the native LGA, shows a much higher affinity to the platinum-based drugs. By means of liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, the reaction behavior of the platinum-based drugs towards HSA and HB was investigated under different conditions considering the chloride concentration (4 or 100 mM) and the incubation time (24 and 48 h). In case of carboplatin, less than 6 % protein-bound platinum was detected. However, both cisplatin and oxaliplatin display a high affinity to the proteins investigated. Further information was obtained by means of LC/ESI-ToF-MS. In case of oxaliplatin, the complex [Pt(DACH)](2+) (DACH=C(6)N(2)H(14)) was identified interacting with HSA and HB. For cisplatin, different results were observed for the two proteins. The complex [Pt(NH(3))(2)Cl](+) interacted predominantly with HSA and [Pt(NH(3))(2)](2+) with HB.

  4. Methamphetamine affects cell proliferation in the medial prefrontal cortex: a new niche for toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Airee; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2014-11-01

    Methamphetamine addicts demonstrate impaired frontal cortical-dependent cognitive function that could result from methamphetamine-induced maladaptive plasticity in the prefrontal cortex. Reduced adult gliogenesis observed in a rodent model of compulsive methamphetamine self-administration could contribute to the maladaptive plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as excessive methamphetamine intake is associated with loss of gliogenesis. The present study explored the vulnerability of mPFC progenitors to the duration of various sessions of methamphetamine self-administration in limited and extended access schedule of reinforcement. Proliferation of progenitors via Ki-67 labeling and apoptosis via activated caspase-3 labeling were studied in rats that intravenously self-administered methamphetamine in a limited access (1h/day: short access (ShA)) or extended access (6h/day: long access (LgA)) paradigm over 4, 13, 22 or 42 sessions, and in rats that experienced 22 sessions and were withdrawn from self-administration for a period of 4weeks. Four sessions of LgA methamphetamine enhanced proliferation and apoptosis and forty-two sessions of ShA and LgA methamphetamine reduced proliferation without effecting apoptosis. Withdrawal from twenty-two sessions of methamphetamine enhanced proliferation in LgA animals. Our findings demonstrate that proliferation of mPFC progenitors is vulnerable to psychostimulant exposure and withdrawal with distinct underlying mechanisms relating to methamphetamine toxicity. The susceptibility of mPFC progenitors to even modest doses of methamphetamine could account for the pronounced neuroadaptation in the mPFC linked to methamphetamine abuse.

  5. Prediction of neonates' macrosomia with maternal lipid profile of healthy mothers.

    PubMed

    Mossayebi, Elaheh; Arab, Zohreh; Rahmaniyan, Mojgan; Almassinokiani, Fariba; Kabir, Ali

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the association between the lipid profile of healthy nondiabetic, nonobese pregnant women in the first weeks of the third trimester of pregnancy and macrosomia or large-for-gestational-age (LGA) neonates with normal pregnancies. In this cohort study, 200 pregnant healthy women without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), obesity, or hypertension and carrying a single fetus in a prenatal clinic of a referral hospital were included based on a convenience sampling. Then, we took a blood sample to assess fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). GDM was assessed after administering 50 g of oral glucose. All cases were followed until the end of pregnancy. The main outcome measurement was neonatal birth weight. Only 154 mothers met eligibility criteria. There were eight cases (5.2%) with macrosomia (birth weight ≥ 4000 g) and 35 cases (22.7%) with LGA. Linear regression showed that mothers' TG and neonates' gender were independent predictors of the birth weight of the children (R-square = 0.52, p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that maternal FBS and TG are the most independent variables which can predict the presence of macrosomia (Nagelkerke R-square = 0.53, p < 0.001) and maternal TG and child gender are the most independent variables that can predict the presence of LGA in neonates of a healthy mother (Nagelkerke R-square = 0.49, p < 0.001). Maternal triglyceride levels may be a significant predictor of fetal size in late pregnancy but not in early pregnancy. Our study reinforces that this is true not only in the case of macrosomia (birth weight > 4500 g), but also for LGA. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Induction of labor versus expectant management of large-for-gestational-age infants in nulliparous women.

    PubMed

    Moldéus, Karolina; Cheng, Yvonne W; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Stephansson, Olof

    2017-01-01

    There is no apparent consensus on obstetric management, i.e., induction of labor or expectant management of women with suspected large-for-gestational-age (LGA)-fetuses. To further examine the subject, a nationwide population-based cohort study from the Swedish Medical Birth Register in nulliparous non-diabetic women with singleton, vertex LGA (>90th centile) births, 1992-2013, was performed. Delivery of a live-born LGA infant induced at 38 completed weeks of gestation in non-preeclamptic pregnancies, was compared to those of expectant management, with delivery at 39, 40, 41, or 42 completed weeks of gestation and beyond, either by labor induction or via spontaneous labor. Primary outcome was mode of delivery. Secondary outcomes included obstetric anal sphincter injury, 5-minute Apgar<7 and birth injury. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to control for potential confounding. We found that among the 722 women induced at week 38, there was a significantly increased risk of cesarean delivery (aOR = 1.44 95% CI:1.20-1.72), compared to those with expectant management (n = 44 081). There was no significant difference between the groups in regards to risk of instrumental vaginal delivery (aOR = 1.05, 95% CI:0.85-1.30), obstetric anal sphincter injury (aOR = 0.81, 95% CI:0.55-1.19), nor 5-minute Apgar<7 (aOR = 1.06, 95% CI:0.58-1.94) or birth injury (aOR = 0.82, 95% CI:0.49-1.38). Similar comparisons for induction of labor at 39, 40 or 41 weeks compared to expectant management with delivery at a later gestational age, showed increased rates of cesarean delivery for induced women. In women with LGA infants, induction of labor at 38 weeks gestation is associated with increased risk of cesarean delivery compared to expectant management, with no difference in neonatal morbidity.

  7. Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain on Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Liu, Enqing; Guo, Jia; Pan, Lei; Li, Baojuan; Wang, Ping; Liu, Jin; Wang, Yue; Liu, Gongshu; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Hou, Lifang; Hu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the single and joint associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with pregnancy outcomes in Tianjin, China. Methods Between June 2009 and May 2011, health care records of 33,973 pregnant women were collected and their children were measured for birth weight and birth length. The independent and joint associations of prepregnancy BMI and GWG based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines with the risks of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were examined by using Logistic Regression. Results After adjustment for all confounding factors, maternal prepregnancy BMI was positively associated with risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, preterm delivery, large-for-gestational age infant (LGA), and macrosomia, and inversely associated with risks of small-for-gestational age infant (SGA) and low birth weight. Maternal excessive GWG was associated with increased risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, LGA, and macrosomia, and decreased risks of preterm delivery, SGA, and low birth weight. Maternal inadequate GWG was associated with increased risks of preterm delivery and SGA, and decreased risks of LGA and macrosomia, compared with maternal adequate GWG. Women with both prepregnancy obesity and excessive GWG had 2.2–5.9 folds higher risks of GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, LGA, and macrosomia compared with women with normal prepregnancy BMI and adequate GWG. Conclusions Maternal prepregnancy obesity and excessive GWG were associated with greater risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, and greater infant size at birth. Health care providers should inform women to start the pregnancy with a BMI in the normal weight category and limit their GWG to the range specified for their prepregnancy BMI. PMID:24376527

  8. Cocaine modulates both glutaminase gene expression and glutaminase activity in the brain of cocaine-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Eduardo; Campos-Sandoval, José Angel; Palomino, Ana; Luque-Rojas, María Jesús; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Suárez, Juan; Márquez, Javier; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez

    2012-02-01

    Glutaminase is considered the main glutamate (Glu)-producing enzyme. Two isoforms, liver (LGA)- and kidney (KGA)-type glutaminases, have been identified in neurons. The role of both enzymes in psychopharmacological responses to cocaine remains unknown. We examined both mRNA and protein expression of KGA and LGA in the brain of mice sensitized to cocaine. Additionally, total glutaminase activity was also measured. Total glutaminase activity and mRNA and protein expression of KGA and LGA were measured on the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of cocaine-sensitized mice. Cocaine-sensitized animals (20 mg/kg × 5 days, followed by 5 drug-free days) exhibited a decrease of total glutaminase activity in both the dorsal striatum and the prefrontal cortex. This was associated with an increase in KGA mRNA expression in both brain areas that was not observed when protein KGA levels were measured by western blot. LGA mRNA expression was increased as results of acute cocaine administration in sensitized animals, although protein levels were only enhanced in the prefrontal cortex of sensitized mice. These findings suggest that chronic cocaine administration modulates glutamate production through the regulation of glutaminase expression and activity. These actions are mainly observed in the prefrontal cortex-dorsal striatum circuit, the neuroanatomical target for the psychostimulant sensitization properties of cocaine. The present results indicate that glutaminase enzymes (mainly KGA) are modulated by cocaine in both the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum, as part of the neuroadaptions associated with behavioural sensitization to this drug of abuse.

  9. Glucose plasma levels and pregnancy outcomes in women with HIV.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Alessandra; Floridia, Marco; Alberico, Salvatore; Tamburrini, Enrica; Pinnetti, Carmela; Bucceri, Anna; Masuelli, Giulia; Viganò, Alessandra; Liuzzi, Giuseppina; Antoni, Anna Degli; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Spinillo, Arsenio; Marocco, Raffaella; Dalzero, Serena; Ravizza, Marina

    2011-01-01

    There is limited information on the relation between glucose levels in pregnancy and adverse perinatal outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women. To evaluate the potential impact of fasting glucose levels on pregnancy outcomes in a large sample of pregnant women with HIV from a national study, adjusting for potential confounders. Data from the Italian National Program on Surveillance on Antiretroviral Treatment in Pregnancy were used. The main outcomes evaluated in univariate and multivariable analyses were birthweight for gestational age>90th percentile (large for gestational age [LGA]), nonelective cesarean delivery, and preterm delivery. Glucose measurements were considered both as continuous and as categorical variables, following the HAPO study definition. Overall, 1,032 cases were eligible for the analysis. In multivariable analyses, a birthweight>90th percentile was associated with increasing fasting plasma glucose levels (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] per unitary (mg/dL) increase, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06; P=.005), a higher body mass index, and parity of 1 or higher. A lower risk of LGA was associated with smoking and African ethnicity. A higher fasting plasma glucose category was significantly associated with LGA occurrence, and AORs for the glucose categories of 90-94 mg/ dL and 95-99 mg/dL were 3.34 (95% CI, 1.09-10.22) and 6.26 (95% CI, 1.82-21.58), respectively. Fasting plasma glucose showed no association with nonelective cesarean section [OR per unitary increase, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.98-1.02] or preterm delivery [OR per unitary increase, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99-1.02]. In pregnant women with HIV, glucose values below the threshold usually defining hyperglycemia are associated with an increased risk of delivering LGA infants. Other conditions may independently contribute to adverse perinatal outcomes in women with HIV and should be considered to identify pregnancies at risk.

  10. A dysphoric-like state during early withdrawal from extended access to methamphetamine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Jang, Choon-Gon; Whitfield, Timothy; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F; Wee, Sunmee

    2013-02-01

    Negative emotional states during drug withdrawal may contribute to compulsive drug intake and seeking in humans. Studies suggest that extended access to methamphetamine induces compulsive drug intake in rats. The present study tested the hypothesis that compulsive methamphetamine intake in rats with extended access is associated with negative emotional states during drug withdrawal. Rats with short (1 h, ShA) and extended access (6 h, LgA) to methamphetamine self-administration (0.05 mg/kg/infusion) were tested for reward thresholds using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). Different groups of ShA and LgA rats were examined for depression-like and anxiety-like states in the novelty-suppressed feeding, open field, defensive burying, and forced swim tests. With extended access, ICSS thresholds gradually increased, which was correlated with the increase of drug intake. During drug withdrawal, the increased ICSS thresholds returned to levels observed before exposure to extended access to methamphetamine. Upon re-exposure to extended access to methamphetamine, ICSS thresholds showed a more rapid escalation than during the initial exposure. LgA rats showed a longer latency to approach chow in the center of a novel field and remained immobile longer in the forced swim test than ShA rats did during early withdrawal. In contrast, ShA rats actively buried an aversive shock probe whereas LgA rats remained immobile in the defensive burying test. The data suggest that extended access to methamphetamine produces a more depressive-like state than anxiety-like state in rats during early withdrawal.

  11. A Survey and Recent Development of Lunar Gravity Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penzo, Paul A.

    2000-01-01

    Earth's moon is the largest in the solar system relative to its parent body, the Earth, and can have significant effect on the path of a spacecraft flying close by. This effect, when planned to benefit a specific mission, is called lunar gravity assist (LGA) , and assumes that one aims the spacecraft towards the Moon in such a way that the Moon's gravitational pull will alter the spacecraft's course in a favorable manner. The first application of LGA was in the Apollo program, where the command and lunar modules (and astronauts) were propelled to the Moon such that, if no additional course changes were made, they would swing around the backside of the Moon at a certain altitude and be flung back to Earth to enter the atmosphere at a specified location in the Pacific ocean. This LGA was an essential element saving the lives of the astronauts on Apollo 13. This paper will illustrate the basic mechanics of gravity assist, and list the many applications where it has been used effectively over the past 30 some years. These include missions to the sun and Earth libration points, redirecting a spacecraft from one of these point to a comet encounter, and enhancing payloads by providing an energy boost by the Moon. More recently, studies and actual missions have shown the benefits of LGA in: (1) assisting lunar capture, (2) repositioning geosynchronous communications satellites, (3) boosting spacecraft to Earth escape and departure to planets and other solar system bodies, and (4) allowing small spacecraft to be launched as secondary payloads and released into almost a random orbit from which each may depart and maneuver in space with gravity assists from the Earth and Moon to perform a specific planetary or other mission. This latter application is a recent development by the author and is being applied in 2002 and later years, with piggyback flights on the Ariane 5 which launches comsats to GEO.

  12. Managing the Global Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Development Projects in Brazilian Amazonia .’ Conservation L2.LgA . 1.3 (Oct. 1987): 214-21. Fearnside, Philip M. ’Land-Use Trends in the Brazilian Amazon...78, Xohlhepp, Gerd. ’A Challenge to Science and Regional Development Policy: Reflections on the Future Development of Amazonia .’ Alied Geography j...Public Policy. 2 (Fall 1987): 58- 67. Hassan, Rashid M., and Greg Hertzler. *Deforestation From the Overexploitation of Wood Resources as a Cooking

  13. Extended access methamphetamine decreases immature neurons in the hippocampus which results from loss and altered development of neural progenitors without altered dynamics of the S-phase of the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Clara J.; Quiocho, Jovy Marie D.; Kim, Airee; Wee, Sunmee; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine addicts demonstrate impaired hippocampal-dependent cognitive function that could result from methamphetamine-induced maladaptive plasticity in the hippocampus. Reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis observed in a rodent model of compulsive methamphetamine self-administration partially contributes to the maladaptive plasticity in the hippocampus. The potential mechanisms underlying methamphetamine-induced inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis were identified in the present study. Key aspects of the cell cycle dynamics of hippocampal progenitors, including proliferation and neuronal development, were studied in rats that intravenously self-administered methamphetamine in a limited access (1 h/day: short access (ShA)-4 days and ShA-13 days) or extended access (6 h/day: long access (LgA)-4 days and LgA-13 days) paradigm. Immunohistochemical analysis of Ki-67 cells with 5-chloro-2’-deoxyuridine (CldU) demonstrated that LgA methamphetamine inhibited hippocampal proliferation by decreasing the proliferating pool of progenitors that are in the synthesis (S)-phase of the cell cycle. Double S-phase labeling with CldU and 5-iodo-2’-deoxyuridine (IdU) revealed that reduced S-phase cells were not due to alterations in the length of the S-phase. Further systematic analysis of Ki-67 cells with GFAP, Sox2, and DCX revealed that LgA methamphetamine-induced inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis was attributable to impairment in the development of neuronal progenitors from preneuronal progenitors to immature neurons. Methamphetamine concomitantly increased hippocampal apoptosis, changes that were evident during the earlier days of self-administration. These findings demonstrate that methamphetamine self-administration initiates allostatic changes in adult neuroplasticity maintained by the hippocampus, including increased apoptosis, and altered dynamics of hippocampal neural progenitors. These data suggest that altered hippocampal plasticity by methamphetamine

  14. A dysphoric-like state during early withdrawal from extended access to methamphetamine self-administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Choon-Gon; Whitfield, Timothy; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F.; Wee, Sunmee

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Negative emotional states during drug withdrawal may contribute to compulsive drug intake and seeking in humans. Studies suggest that extended access to methamphetamine induces compulsive drug intake in rats. Objective The present study tested the hypothesis that compulsive methamphetamine intake in rats with extended access is associated with negative emotional states during drug withdrawal. Methods Rats with short (1 h, ShA) and extended access (6 h, LgA) to methamphetamine self-administration (0.05 mg/kg/infusion) were tested for reward thresholds using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). Different groups of ShA and LgA rats were examined for depression-like and anxiety-like states in the novelty-suppressed feeding, open field, defensive burying, and forced swim tests. Results With extended access, ICSS thresholds gradually increased, which was correlated with the increase of drug intake. During drug withdrawal, the increased ICSS thresholds returned to levels observed before exposure to extended access to methamphetamine. Upon re-exposure to extended access to methamphetamine, ICSS thresholds showed a more rapid escalation than during the initial exposure. LgA rats showed a longer latency to approach chow in the center of a novel field and remained immobile longer in the forced swim test than ShA rats did during early withdrawal. In contrast, ShA rats actively buried an aversive shock probe whereas LgA rats remained immobile in the defensive burying test. Conclusion The data suggest that extended access to methamphetamine produces a more depressive-like state than anxiety-like state in rats during early withdrawal. PMID:23007601

  15. Hypocretin receptor 2 antagonism dose-dependently reduces escalated heroin self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Schmeichel, Brooke E; Barbier, Estelle; Misra, Kaushik K; Contet, Candice; Schlosburg, Joel E; Grigoriadis, Dimitri; Williams, John P; Karlsson, Camilla; Pitcairn, Caleb; Heilig, Markus; Koob, George F; Vendruscolo, Leandro F

    2015-03-13

    The hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) system has been associated with both positive and negative drug reinforcement, implicating HCRT receptor 1 (HCRT-R1) signaling in drug-related behaviors for all major drug classes, including opioids. However, to date there are limited studies investigating the role of HCRT receptor 2 (HCRT-R2) signaling in compulsive-like drug seeking. Escalation of drug intake with extended access has been suggested to model the transition from controlled drug use to compulsive-like drug seeking/taking. The current study examined the effects of a HCRT-R2 antagonist, NBI-80713, on heroin self-administration in rats allowed short- (1 h; ShA) or long- (12 h; LgA) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. Results indicate that systemically administered NBI-80713 dose-dependently decreased heroin self-administration in LgA, but not in ShA, animals. Quantitative PCR analyses showed an increase in Hcrtr2 mRNA levels in the central amygdala, a stress-related brain region, of LgA rats. These observations suggest a functional role for HCRT-R2 signaling in compulsive-like heroin self-administration associated with extended access and indicate HCRT-R2 antagonism as a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of heroin dependence.

  16. Evaluating the Role of Birth Weight and Gestational Age on Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Risk Among Those of Hispanic Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Barahmani, Nadia; Dorak, M Tevfik; Forman, Michele R; Sprehe, Michael R; Scheurer, Michael E; Bondy, Melissa L; Okcu, M Fatih; Lupo, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    High birth weight is an established risk factor for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially in children younger than 5 years of age at diagnosis. The goal of this study was to explore the association between being born large for gestational age and the risk for ALL by race/ethnicity to determine if the role of this risk factor differed by these characteristics. The authors compared birth certificate data of 575 children diagnosed with ALL who were younger than 5 years and included in the Texas Cancer Registry, Texas Department of Health, between the years 1995 and 2003 with 11,379 controls matched by birth year. Stratified odds ratios were calculated for risk of ALL by birth weight for gestational age, categorized in 3 groups, small, appropriate, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA, respectively), for each race/ethnicity group. The risk of developing ALL was higher among Hispanics who were LGA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-2.68) compared with LGA non-Hispanic whites (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.87-1.86) after adjusting for infant gender, year of birth, maternal age, birth order, and presence of Down syndrome. However, the difference was not statistically significant. These results suggest that there may be differences in the association between higher growth in utero and risk of childhood ALL among Hispanics versus non-Hispanic whites.

  17. α1-Noradrenergic System Role in Increased Motivation for Cocaine Intake in Rats with Prolonged Access

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Sunmee; Mandyam, Chitra D.; Lekic, Dusan M; Koob, George F.

    2008-01-01

    In rodents, extended access to cocaine produces an escalation in cocaine self-administration that has face and construct validity for human compulsive drug intake. Here we report that rats with six-hour access (long access, LgA) to cocaine self-administration produced a higher breakpoint for cocaine using a progressive-ratio schedule than rats with one-hour access (short access, ShA), and prazosin (α1 receptor antagonist) reduced the higher breakpoint for cocaine in LgA rats. Additionally, the number of neurons with α1-adrenergic receptor-like immunoreactivity in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) was found to be much lower in LgA rats than in ShA and drug-naive rats. In contrast, UK14304 (α2 receptor agonist) and betaxolol (β1 receptor antagonist) had no effect on cocaine self-administration in either group. The data suggest that activation of the α1-noradrenergic system, perhaps in the BNST, is associated with increased motivation for cocaine in rats with extended access. PMID:17920248

  18. People, places and policies - trying to account for health inequalities in impoverished neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Peter; Warr, Deborah; Tacticos, Theonie; Kelaher, Margaret

    2009-02-01

    We consider associations between individual, household and area-level characteristics and self-reported health. Data is taken from baseline surveys undertaken in 13 socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria (n=3,944). The neighbourhoods are sites undergoing Neighbourhood Renewal (NR), a State government initiative redressing place-based disadvantage. This focused on the relationship between area and compositional factors and self-reported health. Area was coded into three categories; LGA, NR residents living in public housing (NRPU) and NR residents who lived in private housing (NRPR). Compositional factors included age, gender, marital status, identifying as a person with a disability, level of education, unemployment and receipt of pensions/benefits. There was a gradient in socio-economic disadvantage on all measures. People living in NR public housing were more disadvantaged than people living in NR private housing who, in turn, were more disadvantaged than people in the same LGA. NR public housing residents reported the worst health status and LGA residents reported the best. Associations between compositional characteristics of disability, educational achievement and unemployment income and poorer self-reported health were shown. They suggested that area characteristics, with housing policies, may be contributing to differences in self-reported health at the neighbourhood level. The clustering of socio-economic disadvantage and health outcomes requires the integration of health and social support interventions that address the circumstances of people and places.

  19. Earth-Facing Antenna Characterization in Complex Ground Plane/Multipath Rich Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.; Piasecki, Marie T.

    2015-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed was a Software Defined Radio (SDR)-based payload launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in July of 2012. The purpose of the SCAN Testbed payload was to investigate the applicability of SDRs to NASA space missions in an operational environment, which means that a proper model for system performance in said operational space environment is a necessary condition. The SCAN Testbed has line-of-sight connections to various ground stations with its S-Band Earth-facing Near-Earth-Network Low Gain Antenna (NEN-LGA). Any previous efforts to characterize the NEN-LGA proved difficult, therefore, the NASA Glenn Research Center built its own S-Band ground station, which became operational in 2015, and has been used successfully to characterize the NEN-LGA's in-situ pattern measurements. This methodology allows for a more realistic characterization of the antenna performance, where the pattern oscillation induced by the complex ISS ground plane, as well as shadowing effects due to ISS structural blockage are included into the final performance model. This paper describes the challenges of characterizing an antenna pattern in this environment. It will also discuss the data processing, present the final antenna pattern measurements and derived model, as well as discuss various lessons learned

  20. Investigation of the interaction of Mercurochrome constituents with proteins using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Andrea; Janzen, Rasmus; Holtkamp, Michael; Nowak, Sascha; Sperling, Michael; Vogel, Martin; Karst, Uwe

    2010-08-01

    The interaction of Mercurochrome, a medical preparation based on the mercury organic compound merbromin, with free thiols in low molecular weight peptides and in proteins has been investigated by means of liquid chromatography (LC) and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Beta-lactoglobulin A (beta-LGA) from bovine milk (18.4 kDa) has been used as the model protein. It was found that, in contrast to assumptions in literature, the commercial product itself is a heterogeneous mixture of moderate chemical stability, which may contain precipitated Hg salts depending on storage time and conditions. Further variability results from different degrees of bromination of the fluorescein backbone of the compound. The formation of mercury compound-protein adducts was detected. The peptide sequence T13 containing a free thiol residue was identified as the binding site for mercury species after tryptic digestion of beta-lactoglobulin A. While fresh Mercurochrome tends to the formation of a Hg(II)-beta-LGA adducts due to excess Hg(2+) in solution, investigations after precipitation of Hg salts yield Hg(merbromin)(beta-LGA) as the major product.

  1. Associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with birth outcomes in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lingli; Ding, Guodong; Vinturache, Angela; Xu, Jian; Ding, Yifang; Guo, Jialin; Huang, Liping; Yin, Xuelei; Qiao, Jing; Thureraja, Inesh; Ben, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Recent data suggests that abnormal maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) or gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with unfavorable delivery outcomes. However, limited clinical evidence is available to support this correlation in China. Participating 510 mother-infant pairs were recruited from the Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, China, between January 1st and 30th 2016. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was categorized according to the China’s classification and GWG according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations (IOM). Linear regression tested the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI or GWG and length of gestation, birthweight, length, and head circumference. Logistic regression assessed the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI or GWG and macrosomic, small- (SGA) and large- (LGA) for-gestational-age infants. Overweight/obese women showed increased length of gestation and birthweight, but did not have a higher risk of macrosomic and LGA infants compared with normal weight women. Women with excessive GWG showed increased length of gestation, birthweight, length, and head circumference, and were more likely to deliver macrosomic and LGA infants compared with women with adequate GWG. Although a relatively low proportion of women from Shanghai area are overweight/obese or exhibit excessive GWG, both high pre-pregnancy BMI and excessive GWG influence perinatal outcomes. PMID:28120879

  2. Hypocretin Receptor 2 Antagonism Dose-Dependently Reduces Escalated Heroin Self-Administration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schmeichel, Brooke E; Barbier, Estelle; Misra, Kaushik K; Contet, Candice; Schlosburg, Joel E; Grigoriadis, Dimitri; Williams, John P; Karlsson, Camilla; Pitcairn, Caleb; Heilig, Markus; Koob, George F; Vendruscolo, Leandro F

    2015-01-01

    The hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) system has been associated with both positive and negative drug reinforcement, implicating HCRT receptor 1 (HCRT-R1) signaling in drug-related behaviors for all major drug classes, including opioids. However, to date there are limited studies investigating the role of HCRT receptor 2 (HCRT-R2) signaling in compulsive-like drug seeking. Escalation of drug intake with extended access has been suggested to model the transition from controlled drug use to compulsive-like drug seeking/taking. The current study examined the effects of a HCRT-R2 antagonist, NBI-80713, on heroin self-administration in rats allowed short- (1 h; ShA) or long- (12 h; LgA) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. Results indicate that systemically administered NBI-80713 dose-dependently decreased heroin self-administration in LgA, but not in ShA, animals. Quantitative PCR analyses showed an increase in Hcrtr2 mRNA levels in the central amygdala, a stress-related brain region, of LgA rats. These observations suggest a functional role for HCRT-R2 signaling in compulsive-like heroin self-administration associated with extended access and indicate HCRT-R2 antagonism as a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of heroin dependence. PMID:25367502

  3. Emergency Communications for NASA's Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Lee, Charles H.; Morabito, David D.; Cesarone, Robert J.; Abraham, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to communicate with spacecraft during emergencies is a vital service that NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) provides to all deep space missions. Emergency communications is characterized by low data rates(typically is approximately10 bps) with the spacecraft using either a low-gain antenna (LGA, including omnidirectional antennas) or,in some cases, a medium-gain antenna (MGA). Because of the use of LGAs/MGAs for emergency communications, the transmitted power requirements both on the spacecraft andon the ground are substantially greater than those required for normal operations on the high-gain antenna (HGA) despite the lower data rates. In this paper, we look at currentand future emergency communications capabilities available to NASA's deep-space missions and discuss their limitations in the context of emergency mode operations requirements.These discussions include the use of the DSN 70-m diameter antennas, the use of the 34-m diameter antennas either alone or arrayed both for the uplink (Earth-to-spacecraft) and the downlink (spacecraft-to-Earth), upgrades to the ground transmitters, and spacecraft power requirements both with unitygain (0 dB) LGAs and with antennas with directivity (>0 dB gain, either LGA or MGA, depending on the gain). Also discussed are the requirements for forward-error-correctingcodes for both the uplink and the downlink. In additional, we introduce a methodology for proper selection of a directionalLGA/MGA for emergency communications.

  4. Visual functions of commercial drivers in relation to road accidents in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oladehinde, M K; Adeoye, A O; Adegbehingbe, B O; Onakoya, A O

    2007-05-01

    To determine the effects of the visual functions on the occurrence of road traffic accidents (RTA) amongst commercial drivers in Ife central local government area (LGA) of Osun state of Nigeria. A cross-sectional study. Four major motor parks located at Ife Central LGA. Of the estimated 270 commercial drivers in the four major parks of the LGA, 215 consecutive drivers were interviewed and had their eyes examined. Structured questionnaires were administered by an ophthalmologist. The prevalence of visual impairment (visual acuity < 6/18) in the better eye without correction was 3.3% ± 2.4 and there was a significant association between uncorrected visual acuity impairment in the better eye and RTA (P = 0.0152). Refractive error was seen in 8.4% of the drivers, but none of these wear corrective glasses. Visual field defect, abnormal stereopsis and color vision impairment did not have any significant association with RTA. Poor visual acuity is strongly associated with RTA amongst Nigerian commercial drivers as opposed to visual field defect, abnormal color vision and stereopsis. A significant proportion of visual impairment was due to uncorrected refractive errors.

  5. Visual functions of commercial drivers in relation to road accidents in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oladehinde, M. K.; Adeoye, A. O.; Adegbehingbe, B. O.; Onakoya, A. O.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of the visual functions on the occurrence of road traffic accidents (RTA) amongst commercial drivers in Ife central local government area (LGA) of Osun state of Nigeria. Design: A cross-sectional study. Settings: Four major motor parks located at Ife Central LGA. Materials and Methods: Of the estimated 270 commercial drivers in the four major parks of the LGA, 215 consecutive drivers were interviewed and had their eyes examined. Structured questionnaires were administered by an ophthalmologist. Results: The prevalence of visual impairment (visual acuity < 6/18) in the better eye without correction was 3.3% ± 2.4 and there was a significant association between uncorrected visual acuity impairment in the better eye and RTA (P = 0.0152). Refractive error was seen in 8.4% of the drivers, but none of these wear corrective glasses. Visual field defect, abnormal stereopsis and color vision impairment did not have any significant association with RTA. Conclusion: Poor visual acuity is strongly associated with RTA amongst Nigerian commercial drivers as opposed to visual field defect, abnormal color vision and stereopsis. A significant proportion of visual impairment was due to uncorrected refractive errors. PMID:21938219

  6. Investigation of the lymphatic stream of the stomach in gastric cancer with solitary lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Masanori; Ohyama, Shigekazu; Hiki, Naoki; Fukunaga, Tetsu; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Sano, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu

    2009-06-01

    Understanding the lymphatic drainage route in gastric cancer is crucial for complete lymph node retrieval from sites susceptible to metastasis. However, the lymphatic stream of the stomach is complex and remains incompletely characterized. Patients with small (<4 cm) serosa-negative gastric cancer with solitary lymph node metastasis treated at the Cancer Institute Hospital were included in this study. A total of 135 patients were classified according to the location of the solitary lymph node metastasis into the left gastric artery (LGA) group, the right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) group, the right gastric artery (RGA) group, or the splenic artery (SA) group. The location of the primary tumors was investigated to aid the mapping of the lymphatic stream of the stomach. Lymphatic flow in LGA (65 patients) and in RGEA (57 patients) are main lymphatic drainage routes of the stomach. The lymphatic area overlapped in the lower third of the stomach in LGA and RGEA, and the lymphatic flow associated with gastric cancer located within this overlapped area can be multidirectional. Skip metastases were observed in 13 patients (10%), and all skip metastases were observed in the suprapancreatic area (station 7, 8a, 9, or 11p). The lymphatic stream of the stomach is complicated and multidirectional. Understanding and mapping the complex lymphatic streams of the stomach will allow surgeons to perform more effective lymph node dissection during gastric cancer surgery.

  7. Telomere length in the two extremes of abnormal fetal growth and the programming effect of maternal arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tellechea, Mariana; Gianotti, Tomas Fernandéz; Alvariñas, Jorge; González, Claudio D; Sookoian, Silvia; Pirola, Carlos J

    2015-01-19

    We tested the hypothesis that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with birth weight in both extremes of abnormal fetal growth: small (SGA) and large for gestational age newborns (LGA). Clinical and laboratory variables of the mothers and the neonates were explored; 45 newborns with appropriate weight for gestational age (AGA), 12 SGA and 12 LGA were included. Whether the differences might be explained by variation in OBFC1 (rs9419958) and CTC1 (rs3027234) genes associated with LTL was determined. A significant association between birth weight and LTL was observed; LTL was significantly shorter in LGA newborns (1.01 ± 0.12) compared with SGA (1.73 ± 0.19) p < 0.005, mean ± SE. Maternal (Spearman R = -0.6, p = 0.03) and neonatal LTL (R = -0.25, p = 0.03) were significantly and inversely correlated with maternal history of arterial hypertension in previous gestations. Neonatal LTL was not significantly associated with either rs9419950 or rs3027234, suggesting that the association between neonatal LTL and birth weight is not influenced by genetic variation in genes that modify the interindividual LTL. In conclusion, telomere biology seems to be modulated by abnormal fetal growth; modifications in telomere length might be programmed by an adverse environment in utero.

  8. Molecular Group 13 Metallaborates Derived from M-O-M Cleavage Promoted by BH3.

    PubMed

    Bernabé-Pablo, Erandi; Jancik, Vojtech; Martínez-Otero, Diego; Barroso-Flores, Joaquín; Moya-Cabrera, Mónica

    2017-07-17

    The reaction of metalloxanes [{(Me)LM(OH)}2(μ-O)] [M = Al (1), Ga (2); (Me)L = CH{CMe(NAr)}2(-), Ar = 2,4,6-Me3C6H2, Me = methyl] with an excess of BH3·D (D = tetrahydrofuran (THF), SMe2) affords annular metallaborate systems achieved through M-O-M cleavage. Compound 1 led exclusively to the formation of eight-membered ring systems [{(Me)LAl(μ-O){B(O(n)Bu)}(μ-O)}2] (3) and [{(Me)LAl(μ-O)(BH)(μ-O)}2] (6), while for 2 the unprecedented six-membered ring systems [{((Me)LGa)2(μ-O)}(μ-O)2{B(O(n)Bu)}] (4) and [((Me)LGa)(μ-O)2{(BO(n)Bu)2(μ-O)}] (5) were observed. The use of BH3·THF with 1 and 2 led to the concomitant THF ring-opening reaction, while with BH3·SMe2 in THF no such reaction was observed. The metallaborates [(Me)LAl{OB(pinacol)}(OH)] (7) and [{(Me)LGa(OB(pinacol))}2(μ-O)] (8) were synthesized from pinacolborane and the corresponding metalloxane, providing structural evidence that supports the reaction pathways proposed for the formation of 3-6. Density functional theory studies were performed on 3-5 to assess the effect of the metal exchange between aluminum and gallium atoms on the energy of the general ring structures.

  9. Simulation of two-phase flow using lattice gas automata methods

    SciTech Connect

    Tsumaya, Akira; Ohashi, Hirotada; Akiyama, Mamoru

    1996-08-01

    Two-phase flow simulation has been primarily based on experimental data in the sense that constitutive relations necessary for solving fundamental equations are experimentally determined. This assures validity of simulation of two-phase flow within the experimental conditions, but it is difficult to predict the behavior of two-phase flow under extreme or complex conditions which occur, for example, in severe accidents of nuclear reactors. Lattice gas automaton (LGA) simulation has recently attracted attention as a method for numerical simulation of multi phase flow. The authors extend phase-separation LGA models and develop methods for two-phase flow simulation. First, they newly added a flow model to the immiscible lattice gas model and applied it to two-dimensional Poiseuille flow. They obtained a result looking like lubricated pipelining of crude oil with water. Also, considering the gravity effect, they introduced a buoyancy force into the liquid-gas model. As a result, they demonstrated that gas bubbles of various diameters rise and gradually coalesce each other turning into larger bubbles. Using these newly developed LGA models, they succeeded in simulating various flow patterns of two-phase flow.

  10. Synthesis of substituted β-diketiminate gallium hydrides via oxidative addition of H-O bonds.

    PubMed

    Herappe-Mejía, Eduardo; Trujillo-Hernández, Karla; Carlos Garduño-Jiménez, Juan; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Martínez-Otero, Diego; Jancik, Vojtech

    2015-10-14

    Oxidative addition of LGa into the OH bonds from HCCCH2OH, Ph2Si(OH)2, (nBuO)2P(O)(OH) and 4-MeC6H4S(O)2(OH) results in the formation of four compounds of the general formula LGa(H)(O-X). The correlation of the Ga-O bond length and the strength of the Ga-H bond depending on the acidity of the OH group in the starting materials has been demonstrated. The molecular structures of all four compounds have been determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. DFT calculations were performed on the reacting complex of LGa with propargyl alcohol and show an OHGa hydrogen bond as the first interaction between the reagents. This reacting complex changes into a D-A complex where the oxygen atom of the propargyl alcohol coordinates to the gallium atom and in a concerted reaction the oxidative addition product is formed.

  11. Insights in Quantum Dynamical Effects in the Infrared Spectroscopy of Liquid Water from a Semiclassical Study with an ab Initio-Based Flexible and Polarizable Force Field

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jianbo; Miller, William H.; Fanourgakis, G. S.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Imoto, Sho; Saito, Shinji

    2011-12-28

    The dynamical properties of liquid water play an important role in many processes in Nature. In this paper we focus on the infrared (IR) absorption spectrum of liquid water based on the linearized semiclassical initial value representation (LSC-IVR) with the local Gaussian approximation (LGA) [Liu and Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 074113 (2009)] and an ab initio based, flexible, polarizable Thole-type model (TTM3-F) [Fanourgakis and Xantheas, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 074506 (2008)]. Although the LSC-IVR (LGA) gives the exact result for the isolated 3-dimensional shifted harmonic stretching model, it yields a blue-shifted peak position for the more realistic anharmonic stretching potential. By using the short time information of the LSCIVR correlation function, however, it is shown how one can obtain more accurate results for the position of the stretching peak. Due to the physical decay in the condensed phase system, the LSC-IVR (LGA) is a good and practical approximate quantum approach for the IR spectrum of liquid water. The present results offer valuable insight into future attempts to improve the accuracy of the TTM3-F potential in reproducing the IR spectrum of liquid water.

  12. Glycemic Excursions in Type 1 Diabetes in Pregnancy: A Semiparametric Statistical Approach to Identify Sensitive Time Points during Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Resmi; Khoury, Jane; Altaye, Mekibib; Dolan, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To examine the gestational glycemic profile and identify specific times during pregnancy that variability in glucose levels, measured by change in velocity and acceleration/deceleration of blood glucose fluctuations, is associated with delivery of a large-for-gestational-age (LGA) baby, in women with type 1 diabetes. Methods. Retrospective analysis of capillary blood glucose levels measured multiple times daily throughout gestation in women with type 1 diabetes was performed using semiparametric mixed models. Results. Velocity and acceleration/deceleration in glucose levels varied across gestation regardless of delivery outcome. Compared to women delivering LGA babies, those delivering babies appropriate for gestational age exhibited significantly smaller rates of change and less variation in glucose levels between 180 days of gestation and birth. Conclusions. Use of innovative statistical methods enabled detection of gestational intervals in which blood glucose fluctuation parameters might influence the likelihood of delivering LGA baby in mothers with type 1 diabetes. Understanding dynamics and being able to visualize gestational changes in blood glucose are a potentially useful tool to assist care providers in determining the optimal timing to initiate continuous glucose monitoring. PMID:28280744

  13. Emergency Communications for NASA's Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Lee, Charles H.; Morabito, David D.; Cesarone, Robert J.; Abraham, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to communicate with spacecraft during emergencies is a vital service that NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) provides to all deep space missions. Emergency communications is characterized by low data rates(typically is approximately10 bps) with the spacecraft using either a low-gain antenna (LGA, including omnidirectional antennas) or,in some cases, a medium-gain antenna (MGA). Because of the use of LGAs/MGAs for emergency communications, the transmitted power requirements both on the spacecraft andon the ground are substantially greater than those required for normal operations on the high-gain antenna (HGA) despite the lower data rates. In this paper, we look at currentand future emergency communications capabilities available to NASA's deep-space missions and discuss their limitations in the context of emergency mode operations requirements.These discussions include the use of the DSN 70-m diameter antennas, the use of the 34-m diameter antennas either alone or arrayed both for the uplink (Earth-to-spacecraft) and the downlink (spacecraft-to-Earth), upgrades to the ground transmitters, and spacecraft power requirements both with unitygain (0 dB) LGAs and with antennas with directivity (>0 dB gain, either LGA or MGA, depending on the gain). Also discussed are the requirements for forward-error-correctingcodes for both the uplink and the downlink. In additional, we introduce a methodology for proper selection of a directionalLGA/MGA for emergency communications.

  14. Evaluating health impacts: Results from the neighbourhood renewal strategy [corrected] in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kelaher, Margaret; Warr, Deborah J; Tacticos, Theonie

    2010-09-01

    Neighbourhood Renewal [NR] Strategy is currently underway in the Victoria's most disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood Renewal utilises an 'area-based' approach to reducing inequalities between NR sites and the Victorian state average across a range of social, educational and health outcomes. We examine the impact of this intervention on health and life satisfaction in the five metropolitan sites involved in first phase of the project. We employed a before-and-after study design using two cross sectional community surveys to assess changes in health and life satisfaction. The study sample includes people living in NR areas and people living in other areas of the same Local Government Area (LGA). Survey responses from the five metropolitan NR and their surrounding were used in this analysis. NR residents involved in the program had worse health than people living in the LGA in all analyses. There was no evidence of an NR effect at a whole of area level. However, the health (OR=2.15, 95%CI 1.23-3.74) and life satisfaction (OR=1.79 95%CI 1.38-1.52) of people living in NR areas who participated in the intervention improved relative to people in the LGA. The results suggest that area-based health interventions are an important tool in the portfolio of strategies to reduce health inequalities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intermittent cocaine self-administration produces sensitization of stimulant effects at the dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Calipari, Erin S; Ferris, Mark J; Siciliano, Cody A; Zimmer, Benjamin A; Jones, Sara R

    2014-05-01

    Previous literature investigating neurobiological adaptations following cocaine self-administration has shown that high, continuous levels of cocaine intake (long access; LgA) results in reduced potency of cocaine at the dopamine transporter (DAT), whereas an intermittent pattern of cocaine administration (intermittent access; IntA) results in sensitization of cocaine potency at the DAT. Here, we aimed to determine whether these changes are specific to cocaine or translate to other psychostimulants. Psychostimulant potency was assessed by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in brain slices containing the nucleus accumbens following IntA, short access, and LgA cocaine self-administration, as well as in brain slices from naive animals. We assessed the potency of amphetamine (a releaser), and methylphenidate (a DAT blocker, MPH). MPH was selected because it is functionally similar to cocaine and structurally related to amphetamine. We found that MPH and amphetamine potencies were increased following IntA, whereas neither was changed following LgA or short access cocaine self-administration. Therefore, whereas LgA-induced tolerance at the DAT is specific to cocaine as shown in previous work, the sensitizing effects of IntA apply to cocaine, MPH, and amphetamine. This demonstrates that the pattern with which cocaine is administered is important in determining the neurochemical consequences of not only cocaine effects but potential cross-sensitization/cross-tolerance effects of other psychostimulants as well.

  16. Intermittent Cocaine Self-Administration Produces Sensitization of Stimulant Effects at the Dopamine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Calipari, Erin S.; Ferris, Mark J.; Siciliano, Cody A.; Zimmer, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous literature investigating neurobiological adaptations following cocaine self-administration has shown that high, continuous levels of cocaine intake (long access; LgA) results in reduced potency of cocaine at the dopamine transporter (DAT), whereas an intermittent pattern of cocaine administration (intermittent access; IntA) results in sensitization of cocaine potency at the DAT. Here, we aimed to determine whether these changes are specific to cocaine or translate to other psychostimulants. Psychostimulant potency was assessed by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in brain slices containing the nucleus accumbens following IntA, short access, and LgA cocaine self-administration, as well as in brain slices from naive animals. We assessed the potency of amphetamine (a releaser), and methylphenidate (a DAT blocker, MPH). MPH was selected because it is functionally similar to cocaine and structurally related to amphetamine. We found that MPH and amphetamine potencies were increased following IntA, whereas neither was changed following LgA or short access cocaine self-administration. Therefore, whereas LgA-induced tolerance at the DAT is specific to cocaine as shown in previous work, the sensitizing effects of IntA apply to cocaine, MPH, and amphetamine. This demonstrates that the pattern with which cocaine is administered is important in determining the neurochemical consequences of not only cocaine effects but potential cross-sensitization/cross-tolerance effects of other psychostimulants as well. PMID:24566123

  17. Label-free quantitative proteomics unravels the importance of RNA processing in glioma malignancy.

    PubMed

    Bi, Baibin; Li, Feng; Guo, Jisheng; Li, Cuiling; Jing, Ruirui; Lv, Xin; Chen, Xinjun; Wang, Fengqin; Azadzoi, Kazem M; Wang, Lin; Liu, Yuguang; Yang, Jing-Hua

    2017-03-21

    Glioma, one of the most common cancers in human, is classified to different grades according to the degrees of malignancy. Glioblastoma (GBM) is known to be the most malignant (Grade IV) whereas low-grade astrocytoma (LGA, Grade II) is relatively benign. The mechanism underlying the pathogenesis and progression of glioma malignancy remains unclear. Here we report a quantitative proteomic study to elucidate the differences between GBM and LGA using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry followed by label-free quantification. A total of 136 proteins were differentially expressed in GBM for at least five folds in comparison with LGA. Ontological analysis revealed a close correlation between GBM-associated proteins and RNA processing. Interaction network analysis indicated that the GBM-associated proteins in the RNA processing were linked to crucial signaling transduction modulators including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), which were further connected to the proteins important for neuronal structural integrity, development and functions. Upregulation of 40S ribosomal protein S5 (RPS5), Ferritin Heavy chain (FTH1) and STAT1, and downregulation of tenascin R (TNR) were validated as representatives by immune assays. In summary, we revealed a panel of GBM-associated proteins and the important modulators centered at the RNA-processing network in glioma malignancy that may become novel biomarkers and help elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  18. Comparative study on ATR-FTIR calibration models for monitoring solution concentration in cooling crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fangkun; Liu, Tao; Wang, Xue Z.; Liu, Jingxiang; Jiang, Xiaobin

    2017-02-01

    In this paper calibration model building based on using an ATR-FTIR spectroscopy is investigated for in-situ measurement of the solution concentration during a cooling crystallization process. The cooling crystallization of L-glutamic Acid (LGA) as a case is studied here. It was found that using the metastable zone (MSZ) data for model calibration can guarantee the prediction accuracy for monitoring the operating window of cooling crystallization, compared to the usage of undersaturated zone (USZ) spectra for model building as traditionally practiced. Calibration experiments were made for LGA solution under different concentrations. Four candidate calibration models were established using different zone data for comparison, by using a multivariate partial least-squares (PLS) regression algorithm for the collected spectra together with the corresponding temperature values. Experiments under different process conditions including the changes of solution concentration and operating temperature were conducted. The results indicate that using the MSZ spectra for model calibration can give more accurate prediction of the solution concentration during the crystallization process, while maintaining accuracy in changing the operating temperature. The primary reason of prediction error was clarified as spectral nonlinearity for in-situ measurement between USZ and MSZ. In addition, an LGA cooling crystallization experiment was performed to verify the sensitivity of these calibration models for monitoring the crystal growth process.

  19. Augmented cocaine seeking in response to stress or CRF delivered into the ventral tegmental area following long-access self-administration is mediated by CRF receptor type 1 but not CRF receptor type 2.

    PubMed

    Blacktop, Jordan M; Seubert, Chad; Baker, David A; Ferda, Nathan; Lee, Geng; Graf, Evan N; Mantsch, John R

    2011-08-03

    Stressful events are determinants of relapse in recovering cocaine addicts. Excessive cocaine use may increase susceptibility to stressor-induced relapse through alterations in brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) regulation of neurocircuitry involved in drug seeking. We previously reported that the reinstatement of cocaine seeking by a stressor (footshock) is CRF dependent and is augmented in rats that self-administered cocaine under long-access (LgA; 6 h daily) conditions for 14 d when compared with rats provided shorter daily cocaine access [short access (ShA) rats; 2 h daily]. Further, we have demonstrated that reinstatement in response to intracerebroventricular CRF administration is heightened in LgA rats. This study examined the role of altered ventral tegmental area (VTA) responsiveness to CRF in intake-dependent increases in CRF- and stress-induced cocaine seeking. Bilateral intra-VTA administration of CRF (250 or 500 ng/side) produced reinstatement in LgA but not ShA rats. In LgA rats, intra-VTA CRF-induced reinstatement was blocked by administration of the CRF-receptor type 1 (CRF-R1) antagonist antalarmin (500 ng/side) or CP-376395 (500 ng/side), but not the CRF-R2 antagonist astressin-2B (500 ng or 1 μg/side) or antisauvagine-30 (ASV-30; 500 ng/side) into the VTA. Likewise, intra-VTA antalarmin, but not astressin-2B, blocked footshock-induced reinstatement in LgA rats. By contrast, neither intra-VTA antalarmin nor CP-376395 altered food-reinforced lever pressing. Intra-VTA injection of the CRF-R1-selective agonist cortagine (100 ng/side) but not the CRF-R2-selective agonist rat urocortin II (rUCN II; 250 ng/side) produced reinstatement. These findings reveal that excessive cocaine use increases susceptibility to stressor-induced relapse in part by augmenting CRF-R1-dependent regulation of addiction-related neurocircuitry in the VTA.

  20. Generalized Software Architecture Applied to the Continuous Lunar Water Separation Process and the Lunar Greenhouse Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perusich, Stephen; Moos, Thomas; Muscatello, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This innovation provides the user with autonomous on-screen monitoring, embedded computations, and tabulated output for two new processes. The software was originally written for the Continuous Lunar Water Separation Process (CLWSP), but was found to be general enough to be applicable to the Lunar Greenhouse Amplifier (LGA) as well, with minor alterations. The resultant program should have general applicability to many laboratory processes (see figure). The objective for these programs was to create a software application that would provide both autonomous monitoring and data storage, along with manual manipulation. The software also allows operators the ability to input experimental changes and comments in real time without modifying the code itself. Common process elements, such as thermocouples, pressure transducers, and relative humidity sensors, are easily incorporated into the program in various configurations, along with specialized devices such as photodiode sensors. The goal of the CLWSP research project is to design, build, and test a new method to continuously separate, capture, and quantify water from a gas stream. The application is any In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) process that desires to extract or produce water from lunar or planetary regolith. The present work is aimed at circumventing current problems and ultimately producing a system capable of continuous operation at moderate temperatures that can be scaled over a large capacity range depending on the ISRU process. The goal of the LGA research project is to design, build, and test a new type of greenhouse that could be used on the moon or Mars. The LGA uses super greenhouse gases (SGGs) to absorb long-wavelength radiation, thus creating a highly efficient greenhouse at a future lunar or Mars outpost. Silica-based glass, although highly efficient at trapping heat, is heavy, fragile, and not suitable for space greenhouse applications. Plastics are much lighter and resilient, but are not

  1. Attenuation of methamphetamine seeking by the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 in rats with histories of restricted and escalated self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Kufahl, Peter R.; Watterson, Lucas R.; Nemirovsky, Natali E.; Hood, Lauren E.; Villa, Angel; Halstengard, Casey; Zautra, Nicholas; Olive, M. Foster

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings implicate group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) in the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants and have identified these receptors as potential treatment targets for drug addiction. Here, we investigated the effects of mGluR2/3 stimulation on cue- and drug-primed reinstatement in rats with different histories of methamphetamine (METH) self-administration training, under two conditions: 16 daily sessions of short access (90 min/day, ShA), or 8 daily sessions of short access followed by 8 sessions of long access (6 hr/day, LgA). Following self-administration and subsequent extinction training, rats were pretreated with the selective mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (variable dose, 0 – 3 mg/kg), exposed to METH-paired cues or a priming injection of METH (1 mg/kg), and tested for reinstatement of METH-seeking behavior. LgA rats self-administered greater amounts of METH during the second half of training, but when pretreated with vehicle, ShA and LgA rats showed cue- and drug-primed reinstatement at equivalent response rates. However, LgA rats demonstrated greater sensitivity to mGluR2/3 stimulation with attenuated responding during cue-induced reinstatement after 0.3 mg/kg and higher doses of LY379268, whereas ShA rats decreased cue-induced reinstatement behavior following 1.0 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg LY379268. Additionally, both LgA and ShA rats exhibited decreased METH-primed reinstatement behavior following 0.3 mg/kg and higher doses of LY379268. A separate group of control rats was trained to self-administer sucrose pellets, and demonstrated attenuated cue-induced sucrose-seeking behavior following 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg LY379268. Together, the results indicate that LY379268 has differential attenuating effects on cue-induced reinstatement behavior in rats with different histories of METH intake. PMID:22659409

  2. Escalation of intravenous cocaine self-administration, progressive-ratio performance, and reinstatement in rats selectively bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) saccharin intake.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Andrew D; Dess, Nancy K; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2005-02-01

    Rats selectively bred for high saccharin (HiS) intake consume more alcohol and acquire intravenous (IV) cocaine self-administration more rapidly than their low saccharin (LoS) consuming counterparts. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether HiS and LoS rats also differ in the escalation, maintenance, and reinstatement of IV cocaine self-administration. LoS and HiS female rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine [0.4 mg/kg; fixed ratio (FR) 1] under short (ShA, 2 h per day) or long (LgA, 12 h per day) access conditions for 21 days. Session lengths were subsequently equated (2 h) and (1) FR1-maintained cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) self-administration, (2) progressive ratio (PR)-maintained cocaine (0.2-1.6 mg/kg) self-administration, and (3) saline-induced and cocaine (10 mg/kg, IP)-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior were examined. HiS LgA rats escalated their cocaine intake more rapidly and self-administered more cocaine (mg/kg) than LoS LgA rats; however, there was no LoS versus HiS phenotype difference in the number of infusions self-administered by Day 21. Post-escalation cocaine self-administration under an FR1 schedule did not differ as a function of phenotype (LoS versus HiS) or access condition (ShA versus LgA); however, LoS rats responded more for cocaine under the PR schedule than HiS rats, and they showed a greater reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior than HiS rats. In contrast, ShA versus LgA did not affect PR or reinstatement performance in the LoS and HiS groups. These results suggest that LoS and HiS rats have distinct drug-seeking and drug-taking profiles that differ as a function of the experimental phase and access condition. The LoS and HiS rats differ along a wide range of behavioral dimensions and represent an important model to study the interactions of feeding, emotionality, and other factors related to vulnerability to drug abuse.

  3. Hypocretin Neurotransmission Within the Central Amygdala Mediates Escalated Cocaine Self-administration and Stress-Induced Reinstatement in Rats.

    PubMed

    Schmeichel, Brooke E; Herman, Melissa A; Roberto, Marisa; Koob, George F

    2017-04-01

    Cocaine addiction is characterized by patterns of compulsive drug-taking, including preoccupation with obtaining cocaine and loss of control over drug intake. The lateral hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) system has been implicated in drug-taking and the reinstatement of drug-seeking. Evidence suggests that HCRT may drive drug-seeking through activation of specific brain regions implicated in stress system dysfunction, including the central amygdala (CeA). The role of HCRT in the persistence of compulsive-like cocaine-taking has yet to be fully elucidated. Systemic and intra-CeA microinfusions of the HCRT-receptor 1 antagonist, SB-334867, were administered to rats allowed either short (1 hour; ShA) or long (6 hours; LgA) access to cocaine self-administration. Animals were tested for fixed and progressive ratio responding for cocaine and stress-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking. In addition, using electrophysiological techniques on in vitro slices, we investigated gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) neurotransmission in the medial CeA and the sensitivity of GABAergic synapses to modulation of the HCRT system in ShA or LgA rats. We found systemic administration of SB-334867 (0, 7.5, 15, 30 mg/kg) dose dependently decreased cocaine intake specifically in LgA rats but not in ShA rats. Microinjections of SB-334867 (20 nmol) bilaterally into the CeA significantly reduced cocaine intake in LgA rats. We also observed a significant attenuation of yohimbine-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking after intra-CeA SB-334867 (10 nmol) administration. Finally, electrophysiological data indicated enhanced GABAergic neurotransmission within the medial CeA in LgA rats, which was blocked with SB-334867 (10 μmol/L). These findings suggest that HCRT neurotransmission within the CeA is implicated in compulsive-like cocaine-seeking. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Attenuation of methamphetamine seeking by the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 in rats with histories of restricted and escalated self-administration.

    PubMed

    Kufahl, Peter R; Watterson, Lucas R; Nemirovsky, Natali E; Hood, Lauren E; Villa, Angel; Halstengard, Casey; Zautra, Nicholas; Olive, M Foster

    2013-03-01

    Recent findings implicate group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR(2/3)) in the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants and have identified these receptors as potential treatment targets for drug addiction. Here, we investigated the effects of mGluR(2/3) stimulation on cue- and drug-primed reinstatement in rats with different histories of methamphetamine (METH) self-administration training, under two conditions: 16 daily sessions of short access (90 min/day, ShA), or 8 daily sessions of short access followed by 8 sessions of long access (6 h/day, LgA). Following self-administration and subsequent extinction training, rats were pretreated with the selective mGluR(2/3) agonist LY379268 (variable dose, 0-3 mg/kg), exposed to METH-paired cues or a priming injection of METH (1 mg/kg), and tested for reinstatement of METH-seeking behavior. LgA rats self-administered greater amounts of METH during the second half of training, but when pretreated with vehicle, ShA and LgA rats showed cue- and drug-primed reinstatement at equivalent response rates. However, LgA rats demonstrated greater sensitivity to mGluR(2/3) stimulation with attenuated responding during cue-induced reinstatement after 0.3 mg/kg and higher doses of LY379268, whereas ShA rats decreased cue-induced reinstatement behavior following 1.0 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg LY379268. Additionally, both LgA and ShA rats exhibited decreased METH-primed reinstatement behavior following 0.3 mg/kg and higher doses of LY379268. A separate group of control rats was trained to self-administer sucrose pellets, and demonstrated attenuated cue-induced sucrose-seeking behavior following 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg LY379268. Together, the results indicate that LY379268 has differential attenuating effects on cue-induced reinstatement behavior in rats with different histories of METH intake. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Differentiation between Solitary Cerebral Metastasis and Astrocytoma on the Basis of Subventricular Zone Involvement on Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Ma, Jiaqi; Niu, Gang; Zheng, Jie; Liu, Zhe; Du, Yonghao; Yu, Bolang; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    To determine the relationship between the subventricular zone (SVZ) and astrocytoma based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and whether SVZ involvement can be used to distinguish solitary cerebral metastases (SCMs) from astrocytomas. This retrospective study involved 154 patients with solitary low-grade astrocytoma (LGA), high-grade astrocytoma (HGA), and SCM, who underwent T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), Gd-DTPA-enhanced T1WI, and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) T2WI. The spatial relationship between the tumor and SVZ was classified as "involvement" or "segregation" on contrast-enhanced T1WI for enhanced tumors and T2WI/FLAIR T2WI for non-enhanced tumors. Patient-based SVZ-contact rates were compared between the LGA, HGA, and SCM groups. The frequencies of involvement of various lateral ventricle regions by astrocytoma were compared. The correlation between SVZ involvement and tumor necrosis was analyzed. Patient-based SVZ-contact rates in SCM, LGA, and HGA were 24.1%, 68.8%, and 85.4%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the SVZ-contact rate was significantly different between SCM and astrocytoma (24.1% vs. 75.2% P < 0.001), also between LGA and HGA (68.1% vs. 85.4% P=0.037). After the tumor volume was adjusted as a covariate, SVZ-contact rates still differed between SCMs and astrocytomas (Odds ratio [OR]: 4.58, 95% Confidence interval [CI]: 1.65 to 12.8, P=0.004). Tumor volume differed between LGA and HGA (P< 0.001), and influenced the association between SVZ involvement and astrocytoma grade (P = 0.05). Among the lateral ventricle regions, the frontal horn was the most frequently involved by astrocytomas. SVZ-contact rates were higher in necrosis group compared with non-necrosis groups (83.9% vs. 50.0%, P < 0.001) among astrocytoma patients. Necrosis positively correlated with SVZ involvement in astrocytomas (rs = 0.342, P < 0.001), but did not correlate with SVZ involvement in SCMs (P = 0.193). Compared to SCMs

  6. Grouped False-Discovery Rate for Removing the Gene-Set-Level Bias of RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tae Young; Jeong, Seongmun

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, RNA-seq has become a very competitive alternative to microarrays. In RNA-seq experiments, the expected read count for a gene is proportional to its expression level multiplied by its transcript length. Even when two genes are expressed at the same level, differences in length will yield differing numbers of total reads. The characteristics of these RNA-seq experiments create a gene-level bias such that the proportion of significantly differentially expressed genes increases with the transcript length, whereas such bias is not present in microarray data. Gene-set analysis seeks to identify the gene sets that are enriched in the list of the identified significant genes. In the gene-set analysis of RNA-seq, the gene-level bias subsequently yields the gene-set-level bias that a gene set with genes of long length will be more likely to show up as enriched than will a gene set with genes of shorter length. Because gene expression is not related to its transcript length, any gene set containing long genes is not of biologically greater interest than gene sets with shorter genes. Accordingly the gene-set-level bias should be removed to accurately calculate the statistical significance of each gene-set enrichment in the RNA-seq. We present a new gene set analysis method of RNA-seq, called FDRseq, which can accurately calculate the statistical significance of a gene-set enrichment score by the grouped false-discovery rate. Numerical examples indicated that FDRseq is appropriate for controlling the transcript length bias in the gene-set analysis of RNA-seq data. To implement FDRseq, we developed the R program, which can be downloaded at no cost from http://home.mju.ac.kr/home/index.action?siteId=tyang.

  7. Is it appropriate for Korean women to adopt the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations for gestational weight gain?

    PubMed

    Wie, Jeong Ha; Park, In Yang; Namkung, Jeong; Seo, Hae Won; Jeong, Min Jin; Kwon, Ji Young

    2017-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain (GWG) are intended for use among women in the United States. Little data are available on whether the 2009 IOM recommendations can be applied to Asian women. This study aimed to evaluate whether the recommendations are related to adverse pregnancy outcomes in Korean pregnant women. A retrospective cohort study was conducted for all singleton-pregnant women at a university hospital in Korea. After classifying the enrolled women into four Korean pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) categories, the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes were analyzed for women who gained inadequate or excessive GWG based on 2009 IOM recommendations. Of 7,843 pregnancies, 64.0% of women had normal pre-pregnancy BMI and 42.7% achieved optimal GWG. Across all BMI categories, adverse pregnancies outcomes such as small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA), preterm birth, preeclampsia, and cesarean due to dystocia were significantly associated with GWG (all P ≤ 0.001).Women with normal BMI who gained inadequate weight were more likely to develop SGA and preterm birth and less likely to develop LGA (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.21, 1.33, and 0.54, respectively). Whereas, women with normal BMI who gained excessive weight were more likely to develop LGA, preterm birth, preeclampsia, and cesarean section due to dystocia (aOR 2.10, 1.33, 1.37, and 1.37, respectively) and less likely to develop SGA (aOR 0.60). It is tolerable for Korean women to follow recommended GWG from the 2009 IOM guidelines to decrease adverse pregnancy outcomes. This will be helpful for antenatal care on GWG not only for Korean pregnant women, but also other Asian women who have lower BMI criteria than Caucasian women.

  8. Determining optimal gestational weight gain in a multiethnic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Ee, Tat Xin; Allen, John Carson; Malhotra, Rahul; Koh, Huishan; Østbye, Truls; Tan, Thiam Chye

    2014-04-01

    To define the optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) for the multiethnic Singaporean population. Data from 1529 live singleton deliveries was analyzed. A multinomial logistic regression analysis, with GWG as the predictor, was conducted to determine the lowest aggregated risk of a composite perinatal outcome, stratified by Asia-specific body mass index (BMI) categories. The composite perinatal outcome, based on a combination of delivery type (cesarean section [CS], vaginal delivery [VD]) and size for gestational age (small [SGA], appropriate [AGA], large [LGA]), had six categories: (i) VD with LGA; (ii) VD with SGA; (iii) CS with AGA; (iv) CS with SGA; (v) CS with LGA; (vi) and VD with AGA. The last was considered as the 'normal' reference category. In each BMI category, the GWG value corresponding to the lowest aggregated risk was defined as the optimal GWG, and the GWG values at which the aggregated risk did not exceed a 5% increase from the lowest aggregated risk were defined as the margins of the optimal GWG range. The optimal GWG by pre-pregnancy BMI category, was 19.5 kg (range, 12.9 to 23.9) for underweight, 13.7 kg (7.7 to 18.8) for normal weight, 7.9 kg (2.6 to 14.0) for overweight and 1.8 kg (-5.0 to 7.0) for obese. The results of this study, the first to determine optimal GWG in the multiethnic Singaporean population, concur with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines in that GWG among Asian women who are heavier prior to pregnancy, especially those who are obese, should be lower. However, the optimal GWG for underweight and obese women was outside the IOM recommended range. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. The Utility of Ultrasound Surveillance of Fluid and Growth in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Lorie M.; Jauk, Victoria C.; Owen, John; Biggio, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the utility of ultrasound surveillance in obese women. Study Design Retrospective cohort of all obese women undergoing sonography at a single center from 2005–2013. Inclusion criteria were: body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, singleton, ≥1 ultrasound performed <20 weeks, and ≥1 ultrasound performed ≥24 weeks. Pregnancies with medical complications, fetal anomalies or preterm premature rupture of membranes were excluded. Outcomes considered were small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA), macrosomia, oligohydramnios, and polyhydramnios. We calculated the number needed to screen (NNS) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for scans performed during 3 gestational age ranges (240/7-316/7, 320/7-356/7, and ≥360/7 weeks). Results 2,002 sonograms were performed in 1,164 obese women ≥24 weeks. SGA was diagnosed in 59 (5.1%) pregnancies; 7 (0.6%) were diagnosed <32 weeks (NNS 159 (95% CI 69–490). LGA was diagnosed in 38 (3.3%) cases; only 1 was identified <32 weeks and was not LGA at birth. For every 29 (95% CI 19–46) scans performed >36 weeks, 1 case of macrosomia was identified. Amniotic fluid abnormalities were diagnosed in 44 (3.8%) pregnancies (oligohydramnios n=19, polyhydramnios n=25); 34.1% were diagnosed <32 weeks (NNS 113, 95% CI 55–282 for oligohydramnios, NNS 100, 95% CI 50–230 for polyhydramnios). At ≥36 weeks, 7 (95% CI 6–8) scans were needed to diagnose any fluid or growth abnormality. Conclusion In obese women without co-morbidities, few sonographic diagnoses of amniotic fluid or fetal growth abnormalities are made <32 weeks gestational age. Therefore, if a policy of serial sonographic surveillance is utilized, we suggest ultrasounds for fluid and growth in obese women begin ≥32 weeks. PMID:24791732

  10. Prenatal effects of intra-uterine growth retardation on adult height of conscripts from Hungary.

    PubMed

    Joubert, K; Gyenis, G

    2003-01-01

    Physical development appropriate for age, and the normal rate of development of children, are two well-known indicators of the biological status of populations. Physical development of children is influenced by several factors, and the intrauterine environment may be critical among them. The authors studied the effect of the prenatal environment, as measured by birth length and birth weight, and socio-economic factors, as measured by place of residence and educational level of parents, on the height of 18-year-old conscripts surveyed in 1998. The following results were obtained: 1. The conscripts were classified into one of the following groups: small for gestational age (SGA), appropriate for gestational age (AGA), large for gestational age (LGA) according to their data of birth and their development at birth. Statistically significant differences in birth length and height at 18 years of age were found for the AGA and LGA groups, according to place of residence at birth. In addition, nutrition at birth (and the biological and social inclusion related to this) affects the extent of change in physique between birth and 18 years of age, within each group. The extent of change in height in the SGA group is 122.38 cm, 123.40 cm in the AGA group, and 124.11 cm in the LGA group. With each neonatal developmental group, conscripts from Budapest had the highest values both in body length and height at 18 years of age. 2. The educational level of parents influenced the physical development of their children. Means of birth length, and of body height at the age of 18 years, were greater, the higher the level of education of their parents. The lower the level of education the parents have, the more significant is the difference between birth length and height at the age of 18 years, compared to the sample mean. This is attributed to a health-cultural-information deficit arising from the low level of education of the parents.

  11. Effects of health-care services and commodities cost on the patients at the primary health facilities in Zaria Metropolis, North Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adegboyega, O; Abioye, K

    2017-08-01

    The payment for health-care services is a major problem for many poor patients in developing nations. The aim of the study was to examine the cost of services and commodities and how these affect the patients who utilizes the primary health-care centers in Zaria, North western Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of six primary health-care facilities in Zaria metropolis, namely Baban dodo, Tudun Wada, Magajiya PHCs from Zaria local government areas (LGA) and Samaru, Kwata, and Dogarawa PHCs from Sabon Gari LGA, was carried out. The mean age of the respondents was 28.87± 8.63 years, most of them were married (53.3%), Hausa (63.3%), and Muslims (85.7%); also, they were unemployed housewives with daily stipends from their husbands less than 1 dollar/day. The major method for payment for health-care services was out of pocket (98.3%). More than one-third of the clients were not aware of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) (39%). There was a significant inverse relationship between the monthly income of the clients and the experience of financial stress and a positive association between patients' monthly income and awareness of the NHIS (P < 0.05). The respondents were paying user fees for essential health-care services at the primary health-care centers and this was not convenient for them. There is a need for the LGA health department to intensify the supervision of the activities at the PHCs. Standardization of prices of services and commodities and the implementation of the National Health Act may alleviate the burdens of the poor community members who access PHCs in Nigeria.

  12. Stressor- and corticotropin releasing factor-induced reinstatement and active stress-related behavioral responses are augmented following long-access cocaine self-administration by rats

    PubMed Central

    Baker, David A.; Francis, David M.; Katz, Eric S.; Hoks, Michael A.; Serge, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Stressful events during periods of drug abstinence likely contribute to relapse in cocaine-dependent individuals. Excessive cocaine use may increase susceptibility to stressor-induced relapse through alterations in brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) responsiveness. Objectives This study examined stressor- and CRF-induced cocaine seeking and other stress-related behaviors in rats with different histories of cocaine self-administration (SA). Materials and methods Rats self-administered cocaine under short-access (ShA; 2 h daily) or long-access (LgA; 6 h daily) conditions for 14 days or were provided access to saline and were tested for reinstatement by a stressor (electric footshock), cocaine or an icv injection of CRF and for behavioral responsiveness on the elevated plus maze, in a novel environment and in the light–dark box after a 14- to 17-day extinction/withdrawal period. Results LgA rats showed escalating patterns of cocaine SA and were more susceptible to reinstatement by cocaine, EFS, or icv CRF than ShA rats. Overall, cocaine SA increased activity in the center field of a novel environment, on the open arms of the elevated plus maze, and in the light compartment of a light–dark box. In most cases, the effects of cocaine SA were dependent on the pattern/amount of cocaine intake with statistically significant differences from saline self-administering controls only observed in LgA rats. Conclusions When examined after several weeks of extinction/withdrawal, cocaine SA promotes a more active pattern of behavior during times of stress that is associated with a heightened susceptibility to stressor-induced cocaine-seeking behavior and may be the consequence of augmented CRF regulation of addiction-related neurocircuitry. PMID:17899015

  13. Stressor- and corticotropin releasing factor-induced reinstatement and active stress-related behavioral responses are augmented following long-access cocaine self-administration by rats.

    PubMed

    Mantsch, John R; Baker, David A; Francis, David M; Katz, Eric S; Hoks, Michael A; Serge, Joseph P

    2008-01-01

    Stressful events during periods of drug abstinence likely contribute to relapse in cocaine-dependent individuals. Excessive cocaine use may increase susceptibility to stressor-induced relapse through alterations in brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) responsiveness. This study examined stressor- and CRF-induced cocaine seeking and other stress-related behaviors in rats with different histories of cocaine self-administration (SA). Rats self-administered cocaine under short-access (ShA; 2 h daily) or long-access (LgA; 6 h daily) conditions for 14 days or were provided access to saline and were tested for reinstatement by a stressor (electric footshock), cocaine or an icv injection of CRF and for behavioral responsiveness on the elevated plus maze, in a novel environment and in the light-dark box after a 14- to 17-day extinction/withdrawal period. LgA rats showed escalating patterns of cocaine SA and were more susceptible to reinstatement by cocaine, EFS, or icv CRF than ShA rats. Overall, cocaine SA increased activity in the center field of a novel environment, on the open arms of the elevated plus maze, and in the light compartment of a light-dark box. In most cases, the effects of cocaine SA were dependent on the pattern/amount of cocaine intake with statistically significant differences from saline self-administering controls only observed in LgA rats. When examined after several weeks of extinction/withdrawal, cocaine SA promotes a more active pattern of behavior during times of stress that is associated with a heightened susceptibility to stressor-induced cocaine-seeking behavior and may be the consequence of augmented CRF regulation of addiction-related neurocircuitry.

  14. Changes in Birth Weight between 2002 and 2012 in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiao-Yan; Mo, Wei-Jian; Wang, Ping; Feng, Qiong; Larson, Charles P.; Xia, Hui-Min; Qiu, Xiu

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent surveillance data suggest that mean birth weight has begun to decline in several developed countries. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in birth weight among singleton live births from 2002 to 2012 in Guangzhou, one of the most rapidly developed cities in China. Methods We used data from the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for 34108 and 54575 singleton live births with 28–41 weeks of gestation, who were born to local mothers, in 2002 and 2012, respectively. The trends in birth weight, small (SGA) and large (LGA) for gestational age and gestational length were explored in the overall population and gestational age subgroups. Results The mean birth weight decreased from 3162 g in 2002 to 3137 g in 2012 (crude mean difference, −25 g; 95% CI, −30 to −19). The adjusted change in mean birth weight appeared to be slight (−6 g from 2002 to 2012) after controlling for maternal age, gestational age, educational level, parity, newborn's gender and delivery mode. The percentages of SGA and LGA in 2012 were 0.6% and 1.5% lower than those in 2002, respectively. The mean gestational age dropped from 39.2 weeks in 2002 to 38.9 weeks in 2012. In the stratified analysis, we observed the changes in birth weight differed among gestational age groups. The mean birth weight decreased among very preterm births (28–31 weeks), while remained relatively stable among other gestational age subcategories. Conclusions Among local population in Guangzhou from 2002 to 2012, birth weight appeared to slightly decrease. The percentage of SGA and LGA also simultaneously dropped, indicating that newborns might gain a healthier weight for gestational age. PMID:25531295

  15. Cervical Abnormalities Are More Common among Indigenous than Other Australian Women: A Retrospective Record-Linkage Study, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Whop, Lisa J; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Lokuge, Kamalini; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Canfell, Karen; Diaz, Abbey; Roder, David; Gertig, Dorota M; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous Australian women have much higher incidence of cervical cancer compared to non-Indigenous women. Despite an organised cervical screening program introduced 25 years ago, a paucity of Indigenous-identified data in Pap Smear Registers remains. Prevalence of cervical abnormalities detected among the screened Indigenous population has not previously been reported. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of population-based linked health records for 1,334,795 female Queensland residents aged 20-69 years who had one or more Pap smears during 2000-2011; from linked hospital records 23,483 were identified as Indigenous. Prevalence was calculated separately for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, for cytology-detected low-grade (cLGA) and high-grade abnormalities (cHGA), and histologically confirmed high-grade abnormalities (hHGA). Odds ratios (OR) were estimated from logistic regression analysis. In 2010-2011 the prevalence of hHGA among Indigenous women (16.6 per 1000 women screened, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.6-18.9) was twice that of non-Indigenous women (7.5 per 1000 women screened, CI 7.3-7.7). Adjusted for age, area-level disadvantage and place of residence, Indigenous women had higher prevalence of cLGA (OR 1.4, CI 1.3-1.4), cHGA (OR 2.2, CI 2.1-2.3) and hHGA (OR 2.0, CI 1.9-2.1). Our findings show that Indigenous women recorded on the Pap Smear Register have much higher prevalence for cLGA, cHGA and hHGA compared to non-Indigenous women. The renewed cervical screening program, to be implemented in 2017, offers opportunities to reduce the burden of abnormalities and invasive cancer among Indigenous women and address long-standing data deficiencies.

  16. Macrosomic Neonates Carry Increased Risk of Dental Caries in Early Childhood: Findings from a Cohort Study, the Okinawa Child Health Study, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Taichiro; Suzuki, Kohta; Akiyama, Tomoki; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2015-01-01

    Background Although many studies have discussed health risks in neonates with a low birth weight, few studies have focused on the risks in neonates with a high birth weight. The objective of this study was to determine whether differences in the incidence of dental caries in early childhood are associated with birth weight status. Methods A total of 117,175 children born in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan from 1997 to 2007 were included in this study. Medical professionals collected information about birth records, growth and development, parental child-rearing practices and dental health at 3 months, 18 months and 3 years of age. The risk of dental caries among neonates with macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 g) was compared with that among neonates with normal weight (2500–3999 g). Sensitivity analyses included ‘large for gestational age’ (LGA, birth weight above the 90th percentile for gestational age), which was relative to ‘appropriate for gestational age’ (birth weight between 10th and 90th percentiles). Relative risks and relative risk increases were estimated by multivariate Poisson regression. Results At 3 years of age, the relative risk increases for dental caries after adjusting for confounding factors were 19% [95% confidence interval (CI), 11%–28%, P < 0.001] for macrosomic neonates and 12% (95% CI, 9%–16%, P < 0.001) for LGA neonates. Conclusion Macrosomia and LGA were associated with an increased risk of dental caries in early childhood. Particular attention should be paid to abnormally large neonates. PMID:26207737

  17. Preventing large birth size in women with preexisting diabetes mellitus: The benefit of appropriate gestational weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin Y.; Sharma, Andrea J.; Sappenfield, William; Salihu, Hamisu M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the percentage of infants with large birth size attributable to excess gestational weight gain (GWG), independent of prepregnancy body mass index, among mothers with preexisting diabetes mellitus (PDM). Study design We analyzed 2004–2008 Florida linked birth certificate and maternal hospital discharge data of live, term (37–41 weeks) singleton deliveries (N = 641,857). We calculated prevalence of large-for-gestational age (LGA) (birth weight-for-gestational age ≥ 90th percentile) and macrosomia (birth weight > 4500 g) by GWG categories (inadequate, appropriate, or excess). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the relative risk (RR) of large birth size associated with excess compared to appropriate GWG among mothers with PDM. We then estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) of large birth size due to excess GWG among mothers with PDM (n = 4427). Results Regardless of diabetes status, half of mothers (51.2%) gained weight in excess of recommendations. Large birth size was higher in infants of mothers with PDM than in infants of mothers without diabetes (28.8% versus 9.4% for LGA, 5.8% versus 0.9% for macrosomia). Among women with PDM, the adjusted RR of having an LGA infant was 1.7 (95% CI 1.5, 1.9) for women with excess GWG compared to those with appropriate gain; the PAF was 27.7% (95% CI 22.0, 33.3). For macrosomia, the adjusted RR associated with excess GWG was 2.1 (95% CI 1.5, 2.9) and the PAF was 38.6% (95% CI 24.9, 52.4). Conclusion Preventing excess GWG may avert over one-third of macrosomic term infants of mothers with PDM. Effective strategies to prevent excess GWG are needed. PMID:27539071

  18. Changes in birth weight between 2002 and 2012 in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yong; Liu, Yu; He, Jian-Rong; Xia, Xiao-Yan; Mo, Wei-Jian; Wang, Ping; Feng, Qiong; Larson, Charles P; Xia, Hui-Min; Qiu, Xiu

    2014-01-01

    Recent surveillance data suggest that mean birth weight has begun to decline in several developed countries. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in birth weight among singleton live births from 2002 to 2012 in Guangzhou, one of the most rapidly developed cities in China. We used data from the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for 34108 and 54575 singleton live births with 28-41 weeks of gestation, who were born to local mothers, in 2002 and 2012, respectively. The trends in birth weight, small (SGA) and large (LGA) for gestational age and gestational length were explored in the overall population and gestational age subgroups. The mean birth weight decreased from 3162 g in 2002 to 3137 g in 2012 (crude mean difference, -25 g; 95% CI, -30 to -19). The adjusted change in mean birth weight appeared to be slight (-6 g from 2002 to 2012) after controlling for maternal age, gestational age, educational level, parity, newborn's gender and delivery mode. The percentages of SGA and LGA in 2012 were 0.6% and 1.5% lower than those in 2002, respectively. The mean gestational age dropped from 39.2 weeks in 2002 to 38.9 weeks in 2012. In the stratified analysis, we observed the changes in birth weight differed among gestational age groups. The mean birth weight decreased among very preterm births (28-31 weeks), while remained relatively stable among other gestational age subcategories. Among local population in Guangzhou from 2002 to 2012, birth weight appeared to slightly decrease. The percentage of SGA and LGA also simultaneously dropped, indicating that newborns might gain a healthier weight for gestational age.

  19. Altered DNA methylation in neonates born large-for-gestational-age is associated with cardiometabolic risk in children

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun-yu; Pan, Hai-tao; Wang, Hui; Li, Cheng; Zhang, Ping; Guo, Meng-xi; Wu, Yan-ting; Tan, Ya-jing; Jin, Li; Xiang, Yu-qian; Li, Ju-xue; Sheng, Jian-zhong; Huang, He-feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Infants being born Large-for-gestational-age (LGA) are prone to developing cardiometabolic disease. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Results Clinical investigation showed that children born LGA had significantly higher serum level of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), and insulin, ratio of TC/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) compared to children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Birth weight (BW) was positively correlated to TC, LDL-c, and the ratio of TC/HDL in serum. Genome-wide DNA methylation analyzed in umbilical cord blood of controls and macrosomia cases. We identified 3459 methylation variable positions (MVPs) achieving genome-wide significance (adjusted P-value < 0.05) with methylation differences of ≥ 5%. A total of 327 MVPs were filtered by methylation differences of ≥ 7% located within an island, which mapped to 213 genes. Function analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed 16 genes enriched in “cardiovascular disease”. Four genes included contributed to hyperlipidemia. Materials And Methods Fifty-eight children aged 3–6 years born LGA and 123 subjects born AGA were enrolled. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure (BP) were measured, and metabolic assessment was performed in all subjects. Genome-wide DNA methylation in umbilical blood was assayed by the 450K BeadChip in six AGA and six macrosomia newborns. Conclusions Our data indicate that excess birth weight may increase the risk of lipid dysfunction in children aged 3–6 years. It might through reprogramming a group of genes correlated to cardiovascular disease. The genes identified in this study might be potential biomarker for cardiometabolic disease. PMID:27888796

  20. Dynamic interaction between fetal adversity and a genetic score reflecting dopamine function on developmental outcomes at 36 months.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Adrianne R; Pokhvisneva, Irina; Léger, Étienne; Gaudreau, Hélène; Steiner, Meir; Kennedy, James L; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Diorio, Josie; Meaney, Michael J; Silveira, Patrícia P

    2017-01-01

    Fetal adversity, evidenced by poor fetal growth for instance, is associated with increased risk for several diseases later in life. Classical cut-offs to characterize small (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) newborns are used to define long term vulnerability. We aimed at exploring the possible dynamism of different birth weight cut-offs in defining vulnerability in developmental outcomes (through the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development), using the example of a gene vs. fetal adversity interaction considering gene choices based on functional relevance to the studied outcome. 36-month-old children from an established prospective birth cohort (Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability, and Neurodevelopment) were classified according to birth weight ratio (BWR) (SGA ≤0.85, LGA >1.15, exploring a wide range of other cut-offs) and genotyped for polymorphisms associated with dopamine signaling (TaqIA-A1 allele, DRD2-141C Ins/Ins, DRD4 7-repeat, DAT1-10- repeat, Met/Met-COMT), composing a score based on the described function, in which hypofunctional variants received lower scores. There were 251 children (123 girls and 128 boys). Using the classic cut-offs (0.85 and 1.15), there were no statistically significant interactions between the neonatal groups and the dopamine genetic score. However, when changing the cut-offs, it is possible to see ranges of BWR that could be associated with vulnerability to poorer development according to the variation in the dopamine function. The classic birth weight cut-offs to define SGA and LGA newborns should be seen with caution, as depending on the outcome in question, the protocols for long-term follow up could be either too inclusive-therefore most costly, or unable to screen true vulnerabilities-and therefore ineffective to establish early interventions and primary prevention.

  1. Inter-Pregnancy Weight Change and the Risk of Recurrent Pregnancy Complications

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Jacqueline M.; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Campbell, Doris M.; Horgan, Graham W.

    2016-01-01

    Women with specific adverse pregnancy outcomes in their first pregnancy may be receptive to inter-pregnancy weight management guidance aimed at preventing these complications reoccurring in subsequent pregnancies. Thus the association between inter-pregnancy weight change and the risk of recurrent pregnancy complications at the second pregnancy was investigated in a retrospective cohort study of 24,520 women with their first-ever and second consecutive deliveries in Aberdeen using logistic regression. Compared with women who were weight stable, weight loss (>2BMI units) between pregnancies was associated with an increased risk of recurrent small for gestational age (SGA) birth and elective Cesarean-section, and was protective against recurrent pre-eclampsia, placental oversize and large for gestational age (LGA) birth. Conversely weight gain (>2BMI units) between pregnancies increased the risk of recurrent gestational hypertension, placental oversize and LGA birth and was protective against recurrent low placental weight and SGA birth. The relationships between weight gain, and placental and birth weight extremes were evident only in women with a healthy weight at first pregnancy (BMI<25units), while that between weight gain and the increased risk of recurrent gestational hypertension was largely independent of first pregnancy BMI. No relationship was detected between inter-pregnancy weight change and the risk of recurrent spontaneous preterm delivery, labour induction, instrumental delivery, emergency Cesarean-section or postpartum hemorrhage. Therefor inter-pregnancy weight change impacts the risk of recurrent hypertensive disorders, SGA and LGA birth and women with a prior history of these specific conditions may benefit from targeted nutritional advice to either lose or gain weight after their first pregnancy. PMID:27145132

  2. Long-Term Survival of Individuals Born Small and Large for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Wennerström, E. Christina M.; Simonsen, Jacob; Melbye, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known on long-term survival and causes of death among individuals born small or large for gestational age. This study investigates birth weight in relation to survival and causes of death over time. Methods A national cohort of 1.7 million live-born singletons in Denmark was followed during 1979–2011, using the Danish Civil Registration System, the Medical Birth Registry and the Cause of Death Registry. Cox proportional hazards were estimated for the impact of small (SGA) and large (LGA) gestation weight and mortality overall, by age group and birth cohort. Results Compared to normal weight children, SGA children were associated with increased risk of dying over time. Though most of the deaths occurred during the first year of life, the cumulative mortality risk was increased until 30 years of age. The hazard ratios [HR] for dying among SGA children ages <2 years were: 3.47 (95% CI, 3.30–3.64) and 1.06 (95% CI, 0.60–1.87) in 30 years and older. HR for dying among SGA adults (20–29 years) were: 1.20 (95% CI, 0.99–1.46) in years 1979–1982 and 1.61 (95% CI, 1.04–2.51) in years 1989–1994. The SGA born had increased risk of dying from infection, heart disease, respiratory disease, digestive disease, congenital malformation, perinatal conditions, and accidents, suicide, and homicide. Individuals born LGA were associated with decreased mortality risk, but with increased risk of dying from malignant neoplasm. Conclusions Survival has improved independently of birth weight the past 30 years. However, children born SGA remain at significantly increased risk of dying up till they turn 30 years of age. Individuals born LGA have lower mortality risk but only in the first two years of life. PMID:26390219

  3. Effect of community level intervention on nutritional status and feeding practices of under five children in Ile Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogundele, Olorunfemi Akinbode; Ogundele, Tolulope

    2015-01-01

    Childhood malnutrition remains a widespread problem in developing world like Nigeria. The country ranks second among the ten countries contributing to sixty percent of the world's wasted under-five children. Community Integrated Management of Childhood illness (CIMCI) is a programme that employs the use of community based counsellors to address child health and nutritional challenges of the under-five and has the potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality resulting from poor nutritional and feeding practices. The study assessed the effect of community level intervention on nutritional status and feeding practices of children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. A cross-sectional comparative study that employed the use of multi stage cluster sampling techniques in selecting 722 mothers of index under five children. The study was done in two Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria. Quantitative techniques were used in data collection. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0. Descriptive and bivariate analyses was performed. The two Local Government Area (LGA) did not differ significantly in their wealth index (p = 0.344). However, more children in the non-implementing LGA (16.1%) had low weight for age compared with 3.6% in the CIMCI implementing LGA (p = 0.000). A statistically significant difference exist in the MUAC measurement of children 12-23 months between the CIMCI implementing and non-implementing communities (p = 0.007). A higher percentage of caregivers (19.3%) introduced complementary feeding earlier than 6 months in the non-implementing area (p < 0.001). Using community level nutritional counseling can greatly improve nutritional status and feeding practices of under five children.

  4. [Gestational diabetes mellitus and maternal ethnicity: high prevalence of fetal macrosomia in non-Caucasian women].

    PubMed

    Aulinas, Anna; Biagetti, Betina; Vinagre, Irene; Capel, Ismael; Ubeda, Justa; María, Miguel Ángel; García-Patterson, Apolonia; Adelantado, Juan María; Ginovart, Gemma; Corcoy, Rosa

    2013-09-21

    Differences in perinatal outcomes according to ethnicity have been described in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We analysed the relationship between ethnicity, maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with GDM. Retrospective analysis of women with GDM attended at the centre between 1986 and 2007. We studied 2,543 mother-infant pairs (8.9% multiple pregnancies, 2,480 Caucasian [C] and 63 non-Caucasian [NC] mothers). Maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes were compared according to maternal ethnicity and multivariable logistic regression analyses (backward method) were performed to predict perinatal outcomes. The groups (C vs NC) differed in previous pregnancies, obstetric history, pregestational body mass index, delay between diagnosis and clinic entry, fasting plasma glucose at diagnosis and both initial and third trimester glycated hemoglobin, with all of them being worse in NC group. As to perinatal outcomes, we also observed differences in the prevalence of macrosomic (4.3 vs 19.4%) and large for gestational age newborns (LGA) (9.5 vs 32.3%), all of them being higher in the NC group. In the logistic regression analyses, NC was an independent predictor of macrosomia, LGA and jaundice with odds ratio ranging from 2.767 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.257-6.091) for LGA and 3.629 (95% CI 0.972-13.548) for neonatal jaundice. NC-GDM patients had more adverse perinatal outcomes only partially explained by medical history, anthropometric data and maternal glycemic control. NC ethnicity was an independent predictor of poor perinatal outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of exposure misclassification on associations between prepregnancy body mass index and adverse pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Lisa M.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Diesel, Jill C.; Abrams, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) is a widely used marker of maternal nutritional status that relies on maternal self-report of prepregnancy weight and height. Pregravid BMI has been associated with adverse health outcomes for the mother and infant, but the impact of BMI misclassification on measures of effect has not been quantified. The authors applied published probabilistic bias analysis methods to quantify the impact of exposure misclassification bias on well-established associations between self-reported prepregnancy BMI category and five pregnancy outcomes (small- and large-for gestational age birth (SGA; LGA), spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB), gestational diabetes (GDM), and preeclampsia) derived from a hospital-based delivery database in Pittsburgh, PA (2003-2005; n=18 362). The bias analysis method recreates the data that would have been observed had BMI been correctly classified, assuming given classification parameters. The point estimates derived from the bias analysis account for random error as well as systematic error caused by exposure misclassification bias and additional uncertainty contributed by classification errors. In conventional multivariable logistic regression models, underweight women were at increased risk of SGA and sPTB, and reduced risk of LGA, while overweight, obese, and severely obese women had elevated risks of LGA, GDM, and preeclampsia compared with normal-weight women. After applying the probabilistic bias analysis method, adjusted point estimates were attenuated, indicating the conventional estimates were biased away from the null. However, the majority of relations remained readily apparent. This analysis suggests that in this population, associations between self-reported prepregnancy BMI and pregnancy outcomes are slightly overestimated. PMID:20168307

  6. The effect of diet on pregnancy outcomes among pregnant with abnormal glucose challenge test.

    PubMed

    Deveer, R; Deveer, M; Akbaba, E; Engin-Üstün, Y; Aydoğan, P; Celikkaya, H; Danişman, N; Mollamahmutoğlu, L

    2013-05-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance, first time detected in pregnancy. Diagnostic criteria for GDM have changed over the decades. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of diet on birth weight, number of large for gestational age (LGA) (birth weight > 90th percentile) babies, total maternal weight gain, gestational age and route of delivery among patients with positive 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) and negative 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted among patients with positive 50 g GCT and negative 100 g OGTT. A plasma glucose value of 140 mg/dL was used as the threshold to define an abnormal GCT result. In group 1 50 patients were given a caloric diet and compared with group 2 with 50 patients without a given diet. Patients were followed up until delivery and evaluated for birth weight, number of LGA babies, total maternal weight gain, gestational age and route of delivery. There were no significant differences between the groups in maternal age, parity, body mass index and gestational age at delivery. There were significant differences in birth weight, number of LGA babies, total maternal weight gain during pregnancy. The mean gestational age at delivery was 38.7±1.2 weeks in group 1 and 38.9±1.1 weeks in group 2 (p = 0.615). The mean birth weight in group 1 was 3328±399 g and 3623±485 g in group 2 (p = 0.007), cesarean rate was 32% in group 1 and 40% in group 2 (p = 0.405). In the management of patients with positive 50 g GCT and negative 100 g OGTT, patients who were prescribed medical nutrition therapy by a dietitian experienced in GDM management had better perinatal outcomes.

  7. Milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with increased infant size at birth: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Willett, Walter C; Knudsen, Vibeke K; Gillman, Matthew W; Mikkelsen, Tina B; Olsen, Jørn

    2007-10-01

    Cow milk contains many potentially growth-promoting factors. The objective was to examine whether milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with greater infant size at birth. During 1996-2002, the Danish National Birth Cohort collected data on midpregnancy diet through questionnaires and on covariates through telephone interviews and ascertained birth outcomes through registry linkages. Findings were adjusted for mother's parity, age, height, prepregnant BMI, gestational weight gain, smoking status, and total energy intake; father's height; and family's socioeconomic status The analyses included data from 50,117 mother-infant pairs. Mean (+/-SD) consumption of milk was 3.1 +/- 2.0 glasses/d. Milk consumption was inversely associated with the risk of small-for gestational age (SGA) birth and directly with both large-for-gestational age (LGA) birth and mean birth weight (P for trend < 0.001). In a comparison of women drinking >or=6 glasses/d with those drinking 0 glasses/d, the odds ratio for SGA was 0.51 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.65) and for LGA was 1.59 (1.16, 2.16); the increment in mean birth weight was 108 g (74, 143 g). We also found graded relations (P < 0.001) for abdominal circumference (0.52 cm; 0.35, 0.69 cm), placental weight (26 g; 15, 38 g), birth length (increment: 0.31 cm; 0.15, 0.46 cm), and head circumference (0.13 cm; 0.04, 0.25 cm). Birth weight was related to intake of protein, but not of fat, derived from milk. Milk intake in pregnancy was associated with higher birth weight for gestational age, lower risk of SGA, and higher risk of LGA.

  8. Performance of an anthropometric assessment method as a predictor of low birthweight and being small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Padilha, P de Carvalho; Barros, D C; Campos, A B F; Ayeta, A C; Queiróz, J A; Saunders, C

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of the method proposed in 2009 by the Institute of Medicine for the anthropometric assessment of pregnant women, predicting perinatal outcomes: adequacy of birthweight, adequacy of birthweight according to gestational age [small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA)] and gestational and neonatal complications. The study comprised a cross-sectional study involving 827 post-partum women (>20 years) who were treated in a public maternity hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Data collection occurred by interviews and record consultation. Adequacy of weight gain during pregnancy was determined as being insufficient and excessive for the recommended range according to nutritional status category. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for logistic regression. Some 36.2% of women initiated gestation with some weight deviation. The prevalence of the outcomes studied was 4.6% (n = 35) for low birthweight, 3.7% (n = 31) for SGA, 5.7% (n = 47) for LGA, 45.2% (n = 374) for pregnancy complications and 15.2% (n = 85) for neonatal complications. For women with insufficient weight gain, the new recommendation indicated a correlation in the prediction of low birthweight (OR = 3.76, 95% CI = 1.53-9.21), SGA newborns (OR = 5.77, 95% CI = 2.10-15.8) and gestational complications (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.20-2.48). The method evaluated demonstrated a better sensitivity and specificity for the main outcomes related to insufficient weight gain (low birthweight and SGA). Regarding excessive foetal growth (LGA), gestational and neonatal complications demonstrated sensitivity for an intermediate value. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Descriptive epidemiology of a cholera outbreak in Kaduna State, Northwest Nigeria, 2014.

    PubMed

    Sule, Ibrahim Baffa; Yahaya, Mohammed; Aisha, Abubakar Ahmed; Zainab, Ahmed Datti; Ummulkhulthum, Bajoga; Nguku, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Cholera is an acute gastrointestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae, which may lead to severe dehydration and death if not treated. This analysis is aimed at highlighting the magnitude, pattern and trend of cholera outbreak that occurred in Kaduna State in 2014. We obtained the 2014 cholera line-list from the Kaduna State Disease Surveillance and Notification officer (DSNO). We described the outbreaks in time, place and person using Epi-info 7 and Health Mapper. A total of 1468 case-patients and 54 deaths were recorded, giving a case fatality rate (CFR) of 3.68%. Female case-patients were 809(55.08%). The median age for case-patients was 15 years, with an age range of 0.04-90 years. Age specific case fatality rate (ASCFR) is highest among the > 60 years. Seven (30%) out of the 23 local government areas (LGAs) in Kaduna State were affected by the cholera outbreak in 2014. Igabi LGA has the highest attack rate (150.46 per 100,000 population) while Chikun LGA has the lowest attack rate (12.22 per 100,000 population). Chikun LGA records the highest CFR (17.54%). Cholera infection spread across LGAs sharing the same borders. The outbreak started from the first epidemic week of 2014 and lasted over 33 weeks. Our analysis revealed a protracted cholera outbreak that gradually increases in magnitude throughout the first half of 2014 and spread within contiguous LGAs. We recommended the strengthening of the state's diseases surveillance system towards timely detection and early response to disease outbreaks in the future.

  10. Maternal Lipids as Strong Determinants of Fetal Environment and Growth in Pregnancies With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer-Graf, Ute M.; Graf, Kristof; Kulbacka, Irina; Kjos, Siri L.; Dudenhausen, Joachim; Vetter, Klaus; Herrera, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine the contribution of maternal glucose and lipids to intrauterine metabolic environment and fetal growth in pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—In 150 pregnancies, serum triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFAs), glycerol, insulin, and glucose were determined in maternal serum and cord blood during the 3rd trimester. Maternal glucose values came from oral glucose tolerance testing and glucose profiles. Measurements of fetal abdominal circumference (AC) were performed simultaneously with maternal blood sampling and birth weight, and BMI and neonatal fat mass were obtained following delivery. RESULTS—Maternal TGs and FFAs correlated with fetal AC size (at 28 weeks: triglycerides, P = 0.001; FFAs, P = 0.02), and at delivery they correlated with all neonatal anthropometric measures (FFA: birth weight, P = 0.002; BMI, P = 0.001; fat mass, P = 0.01). After adjustment for confounding variables, maternal FFAs and TGs at delivery remained the only parameters independently related to newborns large for gestational age (LGA) (P = 0.008 and P = 0.04, respectively). Maternal FFA levels were higher in mothers with LGA newborns than in those with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) newborns (362.8 ± 101.7 vs. 252.4 ± 10.1, P = 0.002). Maternal levels of TGs, FFAs, and glycerol at delivery correlated with those in cord blood (P = 0.003, P = 0.004, and P = 0.005, respectively). Fetal triglyceride and cholesterol levels were negatively correlated with newborn birth weight (P = 0.001), BMI (P = 0.004), and fat mass (P = 0.001). TGs were significantly higher in small for gestational age (SGA) newborns compared with AGA or LGA newborns, while insulin-to-glucose ratio and FFAs were the highest in LGA newborns. CONCLUSIONS—In well-controlled GDM pregnancies, maternal lipids are strong predictors for fetal lipids and fetal growth. Infants with abnormal growth seem to be exposed to a distinct

  11. Size for gestational age at birth: impact on risk for sudden infant death and other causes of death, USA 2002.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Michael H

    2007-11-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) infants have been reported to be at higher risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). To compare the risk of SIDS among SGA and large for gestational age (LGA) infants with that of death from other causes of sudden unexpected deaths in infancy (SUDI) and the residual "other" causes of infant death. The 2002 US period infant birth and death certificate linked file was used to identify infant deaths classified as SIDS (ICD-10 code R95), SUDI (ICD-10 codes R00-Y84 excluding R95) or all other residual codes. The 2002 race and sex-specific birth cohorts were used to generate the 10th and 90th percentiles of birth weight for each gestational age week from 24 to 42 weeks' gestation. Demographic variables previously identified as associated with SIDS were used in multiple logistic regression equations to determine the risk for death among SGA and LGA infants (birth weight <10th percentile and >90th percentile, respectively) independent of other potentially confounding variables. Complete data on 1956 SIDS deaths, 2012 SUDI, and 11 592 other deaths were available. The adjusted OR for SIDS, SUDI and "other" causes for SGA infants was 1.65 (95% CI 1.47 to 1.85), 1.78 (1.59 to 2.00) and 4.68 (4.49 to 4.88), respectively. The adjusted OR for LGA infants was reduced for SIDS (0.73 (0.60 to 0.89)), SUDI (0.81 (0.68 to 0.98)) and "other" (0.42 (0.38 to 0.46)). Although SGA infants seem to be at slightly increased risk for SIDS or SUDI their risk for "other" residual causes is about 2.5 times higher. LGA infants seem to be at reduced risk of mortality for all causes. The mechanisms by which restricted intrauterine growth increases risk of mortality and excessive intrauterine growth offers protective effects are uncertain.

  12. Levels of neural progenitors in the hippocampus predict memory impairment and relapse to drug seeking as a function of excessive methamphetamine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Recinto, Patrick; Samant, Anjali Rose H; Chavez, Gustavo; Kim, Airee; Yuan, Clara J; Soleiman, Matthew; Grant, Yanabel; Edwards, Scott; Wee, Sunmee; Koob, George F; George, Olivier; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2012-04-01

    Methamphetamine affects the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for learning and memory, as well as relapse to drug seeking. Rats self-administered methamphetamine for 1 h twice weekly (intermittent-short-I-ShA), 1 h daily (limited-short-ShA), or 6 h daily (extended-long-LgA) for 22 sessions. After 22 sessions, rats from each access group were withdrawn from self-administration and underwent spatial memory (Y-maze) and working memory (T-maze) tests followed by extinction and reinstatement to methamphetamine seeking or received one intraperitoneal injection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label progenitors in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) during the synthesis phase. Two-hour-old and 28-day-old surviving BrdU-immunoreactive cells were quantified. I-ShA rats performed better on the Y-maze and had a greater number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug controls. LgA rats, but not ShA rats, performed worse on the Y- and T-maze and had a fewer number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug and I-ShA rats, suggesting that new hippocampal progenitors, decreased by methamphetamine, were correlated with impairment in the acquisition of new spatial cues. Analyses of addiction-related behaviors after withdrawal and extinction training revealed methamphetamine-primed reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior in all three groups (I-ShA, ShA, and LgA), and this effect was enhanced in LgA rats compared with I-ShA and ShA rats. Protracted withdrawal from self-administration enhanced the survival of SGZ BrdU cells, and methamphetamine seeking during protracted withdrawal enhanced Fos expression in the dentate gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex in LgA rats to a greater extent than in ShA and I-ShA rats. These results indicate that changes in the levels of the proliferation and survival of hippocampal neural progenitors and neuronal activation of hippocampal granule cells predict the effects of methamphetamine self-administration (limited vs extended access) on

  13. Self-reported sleep in late pregnancy in relation to birth size and fetal distress: the E Moe, Māmā prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Laura D; Signal, T Leigh; Paine, Sarah-Jane; Sweeney, Bronwyn; Priston, Monique; Muller, Diane; Lee, Kathy; Huthwaite, Mark; Gander, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore associations between features of sleep during pregnancy and adverse outcomes for the infant. Setting E Moe, Māmā is a cohort study in Aotearoa/New Zealand that investigates self-reported sleep and maternal health in late pregnancy and the postpartum period. Participants Women (N=633; 194 Māori) reported detailed information on their sleep duration, quality, disturbances, disorders (snoring, breathing pauses, twitching legs, restless legs) and daytime sleepiness between 35 and 37 weeks gestation. Outcome measures Birthweight and fetal distress during labour were extracted from medical records. Associations between each sleep variable and small or large for gestational age (SGA/LGA) using customised birthweight centile or fetal distress were estimated using multinomial/logistic regression, controlling for potential confounders. Secondary analyses considered differences in associations between Māori and non-Māori women. Results There was some indication that breathing pauses (a measure of sleep apnoea) were associated with both SGA (OR 2.8, 95% CI 0.9 to 9.0, p=0.08) and LGA (OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.7 to 5.7, p=0.20), with the association for LGA being stronger when only pregnancy-onset breathing pauses were considered (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 9.6, p=0.01). There was also some evidence that pregnancy-onset leg twitching (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.0, p=0.03) and frequent sleep disturbance due to feeling too hot or too cold (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.9 to 3.6, p=0.13) were associated with higher risk of fetal distress. Other sleep measures, including snoring, were not associated with SGA, LGA or fetal distress. Many of the associations we observed were considerably stronger in Māori compared with non-Māori women. Conclusions We did not find evidence of previously reported associations between snoring and SGA. Our findings tentatively suggest that self-reported breathing pauses and leg twitching in late pregnancy are associated with infant outcomes, and

  14. Theoretical Equation of State for Beryllium Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettger, Jonathan C.; Honnell, Kevin G.; Mori, Yoshihisa; Niiya, Naoto; Mizuno, Takafumi

    2006-07-01

    A new, tabular (SESAME format) equation of state for BeO is developed. The new equation of state combines LGA and GGA density-functional predictions for the 0 K isotherm, the Johnson ionic model (which transitions smoothly from Debye behavior in the solid to ideal-gas behavior at high temperatures), and the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac model for thermal electronic contributions. Results for the compressibility, shock Hugoniots, thermal expansion, and heat capacity are in very good agreement with experimental measurements. At room temperature, the theory predicts a wurtzite-to-rock-salt transition at a pressure of 105 GPa, consistent with new XRD diamond-anvil results.

  15. MRI FLAIR lesion segmentation in multiple sclerosis: Does automated segmentation hold up with manual annotation?

    PubMed

    Egger, Christine; Opfer, Roland; Wang, Chenyu; Kepp, Timo; Sormani, Maria Pia; Spies, Lothar; Barnett, Michael; Schippling, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become key in the diagnosis and disease monitoring of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Both, T2 lesion load and Gadolinium (Gd) enhancing T1 lesions represent important endpoints in MS clinical trials by serving as a surrogate of clinical disease activity. T2- and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) lesion quantification - largely due to methodological constraints - is still being performed manually or in a semi-automated fashion, although strong efforts have been made to allow automated quantitative lesion segmentation. In 2012, Schmidt and co-workers published an algorithm to be applied on FLAIR sequences. The aim of this study was to apply the Schmidt algorithm on an independent data set and compare automated segmentation to inter-rater variability of three independent, experienced raters. MRI data of 50 patients with RRMS were randomly selected from a larger pool of MS patients attending the MS Clinic at the Brain and Mind Centre, University of Sydney, Australia. MRIs were acquired on a 3.0T GE scanner (Discovery MR750, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI) using an 8 channel head coil. We determined T2-lesion load (total lesion volume and total lesion number) using three versions of an automated segmentation algorithm (Lesion growth algorithm (LGA) based on SPM8 or SPM12 and lesion prediction algorithm (LPA) based on SPM12) as first described by Schmidt et al. (2012). Additionally, manual segmentation was performed by three independent raters. We calculated inter-rater correlation coefficients (ICC) and dice coefficients (DC) for all possible pairwise comparisons. We found a strong correlation between manual and automated lesion segmentation based on LGA SPM8, regarding lesion volume (ICC = 0.958 and DC = 0.60) that was not statistically different from the inter-rater correlation (ICC = 0.97 and DC = 0.66). Correlation between the two other algorithms (LGA SPM12 and LPA SPM12) and manual raters was weaker

  16. A Human-in-the Loop Evaluation of a Coordinated Arrival Departure Scheduling Operations for Managing Departure Delays at LaGuardia Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Paul U.; Smith, Nancy M.; Bienert, Nancy; Brasil, Connie; Buckley, Nathan; Chevalley, Eric; Homola, Jeffrey; Omar, Faisal; Parke, Bonny; Yoo, Hyo-Sang

    2016-01-01

    LaGuardia (LGA) departure delay was identified by the stakeholders and subject matter experts as a significant bottleneck in the New York metropolitan area. Departure delay at LGA is primarily due to dependency between LGA's arrival and departure runways: LGA departures cannot begin takeoff until arrivals have cleared the runway intersection. If one-in one-out operations are not maintained and a significant arrival-to-departure imbalance occurs, the departure backup can persist through the rest of the day. At NASA Ames Research Center, a solution called "Departure-sensitive Arrival Spacing" (DSAS) was developed to maximize the departure throughput without creating significant delays in the arrival traffic. The concept leverages a Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (TSS) operations that create and manage the arrival schedule to the runway threshold and added an interface enhancement to the traffic manager's timeline to provide the ability to manually adjust inter-arrival spacing to build precise gaps for multiple departures between arrivals. A more complete solution would include a TSS algorithm enhancement that could automatically build these multi-departure gaps. With this set of capabilities, inter-arrival spacing could be controlled for optimal departure throughput. The concept was prototyped in a human-in-the- loop (HITL) simulation environment so that operational requirements such as coordination procedures, timing and magnitude of TSS schedule adjustments, and display features for Tower, TRACON and Traffic Management Unit could be determined. A HITL simulation was conducted in August 2014 to evaluate the concept in terms of feasibility, controller workload impact, and potential benefits. Three conditions were tested, namely a Baseline condition without scheduling, TSS condition that schedules the arrivals to the runway threshold, and TSS+DSAS condition that adjusts the arrival schedule to maximize the departure throughput. The results showed that during high

  17. Galileo spacecraft modeling for orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, Bruce A.; Nilsen, Erik N.

    1994-01-01

    The Galileo Jupiter orbital mission using the Low Gain Antenna (LGA) requires a higher degree of spacecraft state knowledge than was originally anticipated. Key elements of the revised design include onboard buffering of science and engineering data and extensive processing of data prior to downlink. In order to prevent loss of data resulting from overflow of the buffers and to allow efficient use of the spacecraft resources, ground based models of the spacecraft processes will be implemented. These models will be integral tools in the development of satellite encounter sequences and the cruise/playback sequences where recorded data is retrieved.

  18. Fetal growth and risk of stillbirth: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M; Parker, Corette B; Pinar, Halit; Silver, Robert M; Dudley, Donald J; Stoll, Barbara J; Saade, George R; Koch, Matthew A; Rowland Hogue, Carol J; Varner, Michael W; Conway, Deborah L; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2014-04-01

    Stillbirth is strongly related to impaired fetal growth. However, the relationship between fetal growth and stillbirth is difficult to determine because of uncertainty in the timing of death and confounding characteristics affecting normal fetal growth. We conducted a population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in five geographic areas in the US. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small for gestational age (SGA) (<10th percentile) or large for gestational age (LGA) (>90th percentile) at death (stillbirth) or delivery (live birth) using population, ultrasound, and individualized norms. Gestational age at death was determined using an algorithm that considered the time-of-death interval, postmortem examination, and reliability of the gestational age estimate. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design and differential participation rates in various subgroups. Among 527 singleton stillbirths and 1,821 singleton live births studied, stillbirth was associated with SGA based on population, ultrasound, and individualized norms (odds ratio [OR] [95% CI]: 3.0 [2.2 to 4.0]; 4.7 [3.7 to 5.9]; 4.6 [3.6 to 5.9], respectively). LGA was also associated with increased risk of stillbirth using ultrasound and individualized norms (OR [95% CI]: 3.5 [2.4 to 5.0]; 2.3 [1.7 to 3.1], respectively), but not population norms (OR [95% CI]: 0.6 [0.4 to 1.0]). The associations were stronger with more severe SGA and LGA (<5th and >95th percentile). Analyses adjusted for stillbirth risk factors, subset analyses excluding potential confounders, and analyses in preterm and term pregnancies showed similar patterns of association. In this study 70% of cases and 63% of controls agreed to participate. Analysis weights accounted for differences between consenting and non-consenting women. Some of the characteristics used for individualized fetal growth estimates were missing and were replaced with reference

  19. Induction of labor versus expectant management of large-for-gestational-age infants in nulliparous women

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yvonne W.; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Stephansson, Olof

    2017-01-01

    Background There is no apparent consensus on obstetric management, i.e., induction of labor or expectant management of women with suspected large-for-gestational-age (LGA)-fetuses. Methods and findings To further examine the subject, a nationwide population-based cohort study from the Swedish Medical Birth Register in nulliparous non-diabetic women with singleton, vertex LGA (>90th centile) births, 1992–2013, was performed. Delivery of a live-born LGA infant induced at 38 completed weeks of gestation in non-preeclamptic pregnancies, was compared to those of expectant management, with delivery at 39, 40, 41, or 42 completed weeks of gestation and beyond, either by labor induction or via spontaneous labor. Primary outcome was mode of delivery. Secondary outcomes included obstetric anal sphincter injury, 5-minute Apgar<7 and birth injury. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to control for potential confounding. We found that among the 722 women induced at week 38, there was a significantly increased risk of cesarean delivery (aOR = 1.44 95% CI:1.20–1.72), compared to those with expectant management (n = 44 081). There was no significant difference between the groups in regards to risk of instrumental vaginal delivery (aOR = 1.05, 95% CI:0.85–1.30), obstetric anal sphincter injury (aOR = 0.81, 95% CI:0.55–1.19), nor 5-minute Apgar<7 (aOR = 1.06, 95% CI:0.58–1.94) or birth injury (aOR = 0.82, 95% CI:0.49–1.38). Similar comparisons for induction of labor at 39, 40 or 41 weeks compared to expectant management with delivery at a later gestational age, showed increased rates of cesarean delivery for induced women. Conclusions In women with LGA infants, induction of labor at 38 weeks gestation is associated with increased risk of cesarean delivery compared to expectant management, with no difference in neonatal morbidity. PMID:28727729

  20. The Impact of Encounters on the Members of Local Group Analogs. A View from GALEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buson, L. M.; Bettoni, D.; Bianchi, L.; Buzzoni, A.; Marino, A.; Rampazzo, R.

    2009-03-01

    The bright galaxy population of the Local Group Analog (LGA) LGG 225 has been imaged with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) through its Far- and Near-UV wavebands. A significant fraction of the group members appear to underwent recent/on-going interaction episodes that strongly disturbed overall galaxy morphology. UV-bright regions, sites of intense star formation activity accompanied by intense dust extinction, mark the galaxy outskirts forming irregular structures and tails. Compared to the Local Group, LGG 225 seems thus to be experiencing a more intense and active evolutionary phase.

  1. Fetal Growth and Risk of Stillbirth: A Population-Based Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I.; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M.; Parker, Corette B.; Pinar, Halit; Silver, Robert M.; Dudley, Donald J.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Saade, George R.; Koch, Matthew A.; Rowland Hogue, Carol J.; Varner, Michael W.; Conway, Deborah L.; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stillbirth is strongly related to impaired fetal growth. However, the relationship between fetal growth and stillbirth is difficult to determine because of uncertainty in the timing of death and confounding characteristics affecting normal fetal growth. Methods and Findings We conducted a population-based case–control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in five geographic areas in the US. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small for gestational age (SGA) (<10th percentile) or large for gestational age (LGA) (>90th percentile) at death (stillbirth) or delivery (live birth) using population, ultrasound, and individualized norms. Gestational age at death was determined using an algorithm that considered the time-of-death interval, postmortem examination, and reliability of the gestational age estimate. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design and differential participation rates in various subgroups. Among 527 singleton stillbirths and 1,821 singleton live births studied, stillbirth was associated with SGA based on population, ultrasound, and individualized norms (odds ratio [OR] [95% CI]: 3.0 [2.2 to 4.0]; 4.7 [3.7 to 5.9]; 4.6 [3.6 to 5.9], respectively). LGA was also associated with increased risk of stillbirth using ultrasound and individualized norms (OR [95% CI]: 3.5 [2.4 to 5.0]; 2.3 [1.7 to 3.1], respectively), but not population norms (OR [95% CI]: 0.6 [0.4 to 1.0]). The associations were stronger with more severe SGA and LGA (<5th and >95th percentile). Analyses adjusted for stillbirth risk factors, subset analyses excluding potential confounders, and analyses in preterm and term pregnancies showed similar patterns of association. In this study 70% of cases and 63% of controls agreed to participate. Analysis weights accounted for differences between consenting and non-consenting women. Some of the characteristics used for individualized fetal growth estimates were missing

  2. Levels of Neural Progenitors in the Hippocampus Predict Memory Impairment and Relapse to Drug Seeking as a Function of Excessive Methamphetamine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Recinto, Patrick; Samant, Anjali Rose H; Chavez, Gustavo; Kim, Airee; Yuan, Clara J; Soleiman, Matthew; Grant, Yanabel; Edwards, Scott; Wee, Sunmee; Koob, George F; George, Olivier; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine affects the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for learning and memory, as well as relapse to drug seeking. Rats self-administered methamphetamine for 1 h twice weekly (intermittent-short-I-ShA), 1 h daily (limited-short-ShA), or 6 h daily (extended-long-LgA) for 22 sessions. After 22 sessions, rats from each access group were withdrawn from self-administration and underwent spatial memory (Y-maze) and working memory (T-maze) tests followed by extinction and reinstatement to methamphetamine seeking or received one intraperitoneal injection of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label progenitors in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) during the synthesis phase. Two-hour-old and 28-day-old surviving BrdU-immunoreactive cells were quantified. I-ShA rats performed better on the Y-maze and had a greater number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug controls. LgA rats, but not ShA rats, performed worse on the Y- and T-maze and had a fewer number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug and I-ShA rats, suggesting that new hippocampal progenitors, decreased by methamphetamine, were correlated with impairment in the acquisition of new spatial cues. Analyses of addiction-related behaviors after withdrawal and extinction training revealed methamphetamine-primed reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior in all three groups (I-ShA, ShA, and LgA), and this effect was enhanced in LgA rats compared with I-ShA and ShA rats. Protracted withdrawal from self-administration enhanced the survival of SGZ BrdU cells, and methamphetamine seeking during protracted withdrawal enhanced Fos expression in the dentate gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex in LgA rats to a greater extent than in ShA and I-ShA rats. These results indicate that changes in the levels of the proliferation and survival of hippocampal neural progenitors and neuronal activation of hippocampal granule cells predict the effects of methamphetamine self-administration (limited vs extended

  3. Self-reported sleep in late pregnancy in relation to birth size and fetal distress: the E Moe, Māmā prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Howe, Laura D; Signal, T Leigh; Paine, Sarah-Jane; Sweeney, Bronwyn; Priston, Monique; Muller, Diane; Lee, Kathy; Huthwaite, Mark; Gander, Philippa

    2015-10-05

    To explore associations between features of sleep during pregnancy and adverse outcomes for the infant. E Moe, Māmā is a cohort study in Aotearoa/New Zealand that investigates self-reported sleep and maternal health in late pregnancy and the postpartum period. Women (N=633; 194 Māori) reported detailed information on their sleep duration, quality, disturbances, disorders (snoring, breathing pauses, twitching legs, restless legs) and daytime sleepiness between 35 and 37 weeks gestation. Birthweight and fetal distress during labour were extracted from medical records. Associations between each sleep variable and small or large for gestational age (SGA/LGA) using customised birthweight centile or fetal distress were estimated using multinomial/logistic regression, controlling for potential confounders. Secondary analyses considered differences in associations between Māori and non-Māori women. There was some indication that breathing pauses (a measure of sleep apnoea) were associated with both SGA (OR 2.8, 95% CI 0.9 to 9.0, p=0.08) and LGA (OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.7 to 5.7, p=0.20), with the association for LGA being stronger when only pregnancy-onset breathing pauses were considered (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 9.6, p=0.01). There was also some evidence that pregnancy-onset leg twitching (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.0, p=0.03) and frequent sleep disturbance due to feeling too hot or too cold (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.9 to 3.6, p=0.13) were associated with higher risk of fetal distress. Other sleep measures, including snoring, were not associated with SGA, LGA or fetal distress. Many of the associations we observed were considerably stronger in Māori compared with non-Māori women. We did not find evidence of previously reported associations between snoring and SGA. Our findings tentatively suggest that self-reported breathing pauses and leg twitching in late pregnancy are associated with infant outcomes, and highlight ethnic inequalities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  4. Local-global alignment for finding 3D similarities in protein structures

    DOEpatents

    Zemla, Adam T [Brentwood, CA

    2011-09-20

    A method of finding 3D similarities in protein structures of a first molecule and a second molecule. The method comprises providing preselected information regarding the first molecule and the second molecule. Comparing the first molecule and the second molecule using Longest Continuous Segments (LCS) analysis. Comparing the first molecule and the second molecule using Global Distance Test (GDT) analysis. Comparing the first molecule and the second molecule using Local Global Alignment Scoring function (LGA_S) analysis. Verifying constructed alignment and repeating the steps to find the regions of 3D similarities in protein structures.

  5. Birth weight in offspring of mothers with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sir-Petermann, Teresa; Hitchsfeld, Catalina; Maliqueo, Manuel; Codner, Ethel; Echiburú, Bárbara; Gazitúa, Raimundo; Recabarren, Sergio; Cassorla, Fernando

    2005-08-01

    A relationship between reduced fetal growth and the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been proposed in girls with PCOS. However, the birth weight in the offspring of PCOS mothers has not been systematically investigated. The aim of this study was to establish the birth weight of newborns of mothers with PCOS and to compare it with a control group of newborns of normal women matched by age and weight at the beginning of pregnancy. The birth weight of 47 infants born from singleton pregnancies in women with well-documented PCOS was compared with 180 infants born from singleton pregnancies in healthy controls. The prevalence of small for gestational age (SGA) infants was significantly higher in the PCOS group compared to the control group (12. 8% versus 2.8%, respectively, P<0.02). Moreover, SGA infants born to PCOS mothers were smaller than those born to control mothers (P<0.05). The prevalence of large for gestational age infants (LGA) was similar in both groups, but birth length of LGA newborns was greater in PCOS women than controls (P<0.05). PCOS mothers showed a significantly higher prevalence of SGA newborns which cannot be completely attributed to pregnancy complications, and seems to be more related to the PCOS condition of the mother.

  6. Ethnic diversity and disease surveillance: Guinea worm among the Fulani in a predominantly Yoruba district of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Oke, G A; Otusanya, S; Adesope, A; Tijanu, J; Banjoko, M

    1997-01-01

    Guinea-worm eradication has been progressing internationally and efforts at case containment have begun in most endemic countries. Case containment rests on the assumption that in previous phases of eradication most if not all endemic settlements have been identified. Experiences in the predominantly Yoruba communities of Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) in Oyo State, Nigeria, however, have shown that the settlements of ethnic minority groups may be overlooked during initial case searches and subsequent programmes of village-based reporting. The migrant cattle-herding Fulani are found throughout the savannah and sahel regions of West Africa. Nearly 3000 live in 60 settlements in Ifeloju. An intensive case search identified 57 cases in 15 settlements. The assumption that village-based health workers (VBHWs) in neighbouring Yoruba farm hamlets would identify cases in the Fulani settlements, known as gaa, proved false. Only 5 endemic gaa were located next to a Yoruba hamlet that had a VBHW, and even then the VBHW did not identify and report the cases in the gaa. Efforts to recruit VBHWs for each endemic gaa are recommended, but only after LGA staff improve the poor relationship between themselves and the Fulani, whom they view as outsiders. The results also imply the need for Guinea worm eradication staff in neighbouring LGAs, states and countries to search actively for the disease among their minority populations.

  7. Urinary metabolomics (GC-MS) reveals that low and high birth weight infants share elevated inositol concentrations at birth.

    PubMed

    Barberini, Luigi; Noto, Antonio; Fattuoni, Claudia; Grapov, Dmitry; Casanova, Andrea; Fenu, Gianni; Gaviano, Mauro; Carboni, Roberta; Ottonello, Giovanni; Crisafulli, Maurizio; Fanos, Vassilios; Dessì, Angelica

    2014-10-01

    Metabolomics is a new "omics" platform aimed at high-throughput identification, quantification and characterization of small-molecule metabolites. The metabolomics approach has been successfully applied to the classification different physiological states and identification of perturbed biochemical pathways. The purpose of the current investigation is the application of metabolomics to explore biological mechanisms which may lead to the onset of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. We evaluated differences in metabolites in the urine collected within 12 h from 23 infants with IUGR (IntraUterine Growth Restriction), or LGA (Large for Gestational Age), compared to control infants (10 patients defined AGA: Appropriate for Gestational Age). Urinary metabolites were quantified by GC-MS and used to highlight similarities between the two metabolic diseases and identify metabolic markers for their predisposition. Quantified metabolites were analyzed using a multivariate statistics coupled with receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) analysis of identified biomarkers. Urinary myo-inositol was the most important discriminant between LGA + IUGR and control infants, and displayed an area under the ROC curve = 1. We postulate that the increase in plasma and consequently urinary inositol may constitute a marker of altered glucose metabolism during fetal development in both IUGR and LGA newborns.

  8. The relationship between neonatal developmental status and post-natal nutritional status in Hungarian children.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Kalman; Molnar, Denes; Gyenis, Gyula; Zsakai, Annamaria

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal development may have an influence on post-natal nutritional status. Age at adiposity rebound is critical for later development of nutritional status. The objective was to analyse the relationship between neonatal development and post-natal changes in nutritional status. Subjects were studied in a longitudinal national survey (1980-2001) from birth (n = 6219) to 18.0 years (n = 1448). Subjects were divided into small (SGA), appropriate (AGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) sub-groups. Nutritional status was assessed by BMI. The Reed-Asefa model was fitted to the subject's serial data of BMI. The body parameters of the neonatal developmental sub-groups differed significantly in all studied neonatal body dimensions: the higher the intra-uterine growth rate (the slowest growth rate was assumed in the SGA, the fastest in the LGA children), the heavier the body weight, the longer the length and the bigger the BMI values found. The nutritional status of the neonatal developmental sub-groups differed significantly during the studied post-natal interval: the higher the pre-natal growth rate, the better nutritional status (the larger BMI) was found after birth. Neonatal development influenced strongly the post-natal nutritional status of children. The results indicate that not only age at adiposity rebound but also neonatal developmental status can be used as an indicator of later obesity.

  9. Spatial patterns and socioecological drivers of dengue fever transmission in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenbiao; Clements, Archie; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2012-02-01

    Understanding how socioecological factors affect the transmission of dengue fever (DF) may help to develop an early warning system of DF. We examined the impact of socioecological factors on the transmission of DF and assessed potential predictors of locally acquired and overseas-acquired cases of DF in Queensland, Australia. We obtained data from Queensland Health on the numbers of notified DF cases by local government area (LGA) in Queensland for the period 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2005. Data on weather and the socioeconomic index were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. A Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive model was fitted at the LGA level to quantify the relationship between DF and socioecological factors. Our estimates suggest an increase in locally acquired DF of 6% [95% credible interval (CI): 2%, 11%] and 61% (95% CI: 2%, 241%) in association with a 1-mm increase in average monthly rainfall and a 1°C increase in average monthly maximum temperature between 2002 and 2005, respectively. By contrast, overseas-acquired DF cases increased by 1% (95% CI: 0%, 3%) and by 1% (95% CI: 0%, 2%) in association with a 1-mm increase in average monthly rainfall and a 1-unit increase in average socioeconomic index, respectively. Socioecological factors appear to influence the transmission of DF in Queensland, but the drivers of locally acquired and overseas-acquired DF may differ. DF risk is spatially clustered with different patterns for locally acquired and overseas-acquired cases.

  10. A retrospective study comparing outcomes in a midwestern US population after introduction of IADPSG guidelines for gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gene T; Satyan, Megha Teeka; Grothusen, Jill D; Drummond, Kelsi M; Hagen, Grace; Brown, Crystal; Satterwhite, Catherine L

    2017-09-06

    More evidence is required to endorse the 1-step approach for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) for clinical practice. Since 2010, our department has pragmatically allowed faculty to self-select the guidelines they use to screen and diagnose GDM. We sought to compare the maternal and neonatal outcomes from these two simultaneous cohorts. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all singleton pregnancies delivered between October 2011 and -November 2013 at our hospital. Patients were excluded if they had preexisting diabetes, were not screened or screened inappropriately, or their fetus had congenital anomalies. Patients were grouped by their screening strategy, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. The 1-step group had a higher incidence of GDM (21.6% versus 5.0%). Initial results suggested higher rates of neonatal hypoglycemia, phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia, and a lower rate of gestational HTN. After adjustment, these differences disappeared, but a lower rate of large for gestational age (LGA) infants was discovered (adjusted odds ratios (aOR) 0.78). The picture remains unclear as to whether the 1-step approach is associated with significantly improved outcomes compared with the 2-step approach. We did find a lower risk for a LGA infant in our 1-step cohort, but it is unlikely that the 1-step approach would be cost-effective due to the absence of other improved outcomes.

  11. Translation of fetal abdominal circumference-guided therapy of gestational diabetes complicated by maternal obesity to a clinical outpatient setting.

    PubMed

    Quevedo, Stephen F; Bovbjerg, Marit L; Kington, Randi L

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of fetal abdominal circumference-guided therapy for gestational diabetes (GDM) in an outpatient population characterized by highly-prevalent maternal obesity. Data for this translational retrospective cohort study come from medical records. Fetal abdominal circumference was assessed by ultrasound in late second trimester, and sex- and gestational age-specific percentiles assigned. Taking fetal abdominal circumference percentile as a marker for adequacy of fetal growth, maternal glucose targets were set accordingly: loose, moderate or tight. Associations between mother's targets and neonatal outcomes (small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA), macrosomia, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, and neonatal hypoglycemia) were assessed using unconditional logistic regression, controlling for pre-gravid body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. In 419 consecutive pregnancies complicated by GDM, neonatal outcomes compared favorably with previous randomized trials of intensive GDM management. Importantly, adverse outcomes were observed less often than might be expected in an obese GDM population. BMI did not have an independent effect on neonatal outcomes. Ultrasound-guided therapy of GDM, in general clinic use, can limit excess macrosomia and LGA, even in a population with significant maternal obesity.

  12. Preliminary spatiotemporal analysis of the association between socio-environmental factors and suicide

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The seasonality of suicide has long been recognised. However, little is known about the relative importance of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence of suicide in different geographical areas. This study examined the association of climate, socioeconomic and demographic factors with suicide in Queensland, Australia, using a spatiotemporal approach. Methods Seasonal data on suicide, demographic variables and socioeconomic indexes for areas in each Local Government Area (LGA) between 1999 and 2003 were acquired from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Climate data were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A multivariable generalized estimating equation model was used to examine the impact of socio-environmental factors on suicide. Results The preliminary data analyses show that far north Queensland had the highest suicide incidence (e.g., Cook and Mornington Shires), while the south-western areas had the lowest incidence (e.g., Barcoo and Bauhinia Shires) in all the seasons. Maximum temperature, unemployment rate, the proportion of Indigenous population and the proportion of population with low individual income were statistically significantly and positively associated with suicide. There were weaker but not significant associations for other variables. Conclusion Maximum temperature, the proportion of Indigenous population and unemployment rate appeared to be major determinants of suicide at a LGA level in Queensland. PMID:19796389

  13. [Liver transplantation: anomalies of the hepatic artery and the liver in 80 donors].

    PubMed

    Chaib, E

    1993-01-01

    The author has studied the main hepatic artery (HA) alterations and liver related disease (LRD) in 80 donors. The normal arterial anatomy with a single HA arising from the celiac trunk was seen in 61% of cases; a left hepatic artery (LHA) off left gastric artery (LGA) in 19% of cases and a right hepatic artery (RHA) arising from superior mesenteric artery (SMA) in 15% of cases. Two rare anomalies: an HA off anastomosis connecting celiac trunk to SMA and a LHA off LGA around the esophagus. A case of absence of celiac artery and the splenic artery (SA) was found arising directly from the aorta, and another one the SM arose from RHA. Six livers were turned down: 3 by cholecystitis, 2 by preoperative hypoxia and 1 by hepatic polycystic disease. Steatosis and hemangioma have been among the others LRD. In conclusion, HA and LRD have occurred in approximately 50% of donors, this fact underline the importance of searching the anomalies of the HA and LRD during the organ retrieval.

  14. Impact of Early Screening for Gestational Diabetes on Perinatal Outcomes in High Risk Women

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Winston Y.; Biggio, Joseph R.; Tita, Alan; Harper, Lorie M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the benefits of early gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening in a high risk population. Study Design Retrospective cohort of all singletons diagnosed with GDM with indications for early screening: GDM or macrosomia in a prior pregnancy or obesity. Subjects were classified as early (<20 weeks) or routine (>24 weeks) screening. Patients diagnosed with GDM were managed according to standard institutional protocols. Outcomes examined were cesarean delivery (CD), preeclampsia, large for gestational age (LGA), small for gestational age (SGA), macrosomia, and preterm birth (PTB). Results Subjects screened early were more likely to have had GDM in a prior pregnancy, hypertension, higher body mass index (BMI), and higher fasting glucose. Early and routine screening groups had similar incidences of CD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55–1.64), preeclampsia (AOR 0.84, 95% CI 0.38–1.83), LGA (AOR 0.90, 95% CI 0.51–1.72), SGA (AOR 0.38, 95% CI 0.13–1.13), and macrosomia (AOR 1.00, 95% CI 0.53–1.87). Subjects in the early screening group had a higher incidence of PTB (AOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.08–2.99). Conclusion We did not detect a benefit to early screening for women who met criteria. The utility of early GDM screening requires evaluation in a prospective trial. PMID:26890436

  15. Earth-Facing Antenna Characterization in a Complex Ground Plane/Multipath Rich Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.; Piasecki, Marie T.

    2015-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed was a Software Defined Radio (SDR)-based payload launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in July of 2012. The purpose of the SCAN Testbed payload was to investigate the applicability of SDRs to NASA space missions in an operational space environment, which means that a proper model for system performance in said operational space environment is a necessary condition. The SCAN Testbed has line-of-sight connections to various ground stations with its S-Band Earth-facing Near-Earth Network Low Gain Antenna (NEN-LGA). Any previous efforts to characterize the NEN-LGA proved difficult, therefore, the NASA Glenn Research Center built its own S-Band ground station, which became operational in 2015, and has been successfully used to characterize the NEN-LGAs in-situ pattern measurements. This methodology allows for a more realistic characterization of the antenna performance, where the pattern oscillation induced by the complex ISS ground plane, as well as shadowing effects due to ISS structural blockage are included into the final performance model. This paper describes the challenges of characterizing an antenna pattern in this environment. It will also discuss the data processing, present the final antenna pattern measurements and derived model, as well as discuss various lessons learned.

  16. Premature birth and low birthweight are associated with a lower rate of reproduction in adulthood: a Swedish population-based registry study.

    PubMed

    deKeyser, N; Josefsson, A; Bladh, M; Carstensen, J; Finnström, O; Sydsjö, G

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if individuals born with sub-optimal birth characteristics have reduced probability of reproducing in adulthood. Using population-based registries, the authors included 522 216 males and 494 692 females born between 1973 and 1983 and examined their reproductive status as of 2006. Outcome measure was the hazard ratio (HR) of reproducing. Adjustments were made for socio-economic factors. Males and females born very premature displayed a reduced probability of reproducing [HR = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-0.86 for males; HR = 0.81, CI: 0.75-0.88 for females]. Likewise for very low birthweight (HR = 0.83, CI: 0.71-0.95 for males; HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.72-0.89 for females). Individuals born large for gestational age (LGA) displayed no significant changes. Males born small for gestational age (SGA) had a 9% lower reproductive rate (CI: 0.89-0.94) and that reduction increased as the individuals aged. Women born SGA tended to start reproducing at an earlier age. The results suggest that being born with low birthweight, premature or SGA (for males) is associated with a reduced probability of reproducing as an adult. LGA shows no statistically significant relationship with future reproduction.

  17. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in primary versus secondary care: The clinical outcomes of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, Angela; Tierney, Marie; Danyliv, Andriy; Glynn, Liam G; McGuire, Brian E; Carmody, Louise A; Newell, John; Dunne, Fidelma P

    2016-07-01

    To examine the clinical outcomes of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in primary care versus secondary care, in the Irish healthcare system. A parallel group randomised controlled trial (RCT) of screening for GDM in primary versus secondary care was used to examine (i) prevalence, (ii) gestational week of screen, (iii) time to access specialist care, and (iv) maternal and neonatal outcomes. In total 781 women were recruited for screening in primary care (n=391) or secondary care (n=390). The prevalence of GDM and gestational week of screen were similar in both locations. There was a trend towards a longer time to access diabetes care in primary care (24days) versus secondary care (19days), a difference of 5days (p=0.09). Women screened in primary care also showed a trend towards a higher rate of large for gestational age (LGA) infants (20%) than those screened in secondary care (14.7%), (p=0.09). There were no differences between groups in maternal outcomes. This RCT suggests that screening for GDM in secondary care may be associated with potentially faster time to access specialist antenatal diabetes care and possibly lower LGA rates. Further research is needed to clarify these findings and to improve the delay in accessing specialist care requires an urgent focus. Further research is needed to test these findings in other health systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence for Stopping Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis in Some, But Not All Local Government Areas of Plateau and Nasarawa States, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    King, Jonathan D.; Eigege, Abel; Umaru, John; Jip, Nimzing; Miri, Emmanuel; Jiya, Jonathan; Alphonsus, Kal M.; Sambo, Yohanna; Graves, Patricia; Richards, Frank

    2012-01-01

    An average of six annual rounds of ivermectin and albendazole were distributed in Plateau and Nasarawa States, Nigeria, to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. From 2007 to 2008, population-based surveys were implemented in all 30 local government areas (LGAs) of the two states to determine the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia to assess which LGA mass drug administration (MDA) could be halted. In total, 36,681 persons from 7,819 households were examined for filarial antigen as determined by immunochromatographic card tests. Overall antigen prevalence was 3.05% (exact upper 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.41%) with an upper 95% CI range by LGA of 0.50–19.3%. Among 3,233 children 6–7 years of age, overall antigen prevalence was 1.71% (exact upper 95% CI = 2.19%), too high to recommend generally halting MDA in the two-state area. However, based on criteria of < 2% antigenemia among persons > 2 years of age, stopping MDA was recommended for 10 LGAs. PMID:22855758

  19. Fetal weight estimation for prediction of fetal macrosomia: does additional clinical and demographic data using pattern recognition algorithm improve detection?

    PubMed Central

    Degani, Shimon; Peleg, Dori; Bahous, Karina; Leibovitz, Zvi; Shapiro, Israel; Ohel, Gonen

    2008-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to test whether pattern recognition classifiers with multiple clinical and sonographic variables could improve ultrasound prediction of fetal macrosomia over prediction which relies on the commonly used formulas for the sonographic estimation of fetal weight. Methods The SVM algorithm was used for binary classification between two categories of weight estimation: >4000gr and <4000gr. Clinical and sononographic input variables of 100 pregnancies suspected of having LGA fetuses were tested. Results Thirteen out of 38 features were selected as contributing variables that distinguish birth weights of below 4000gr and of 4000gr and above. Considering 4000gr. as a cutoff weight the pattern recognition algorithm predicted macrosomia with a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 73%, positive predictive value of 81% and negative predictive value of 73%. The comparative figures according to the combined criteria based on two commonly used formulas generated from regression analysis were 88.1%, 34%, 65.8%, 66.7%. Conclusions The SVM algorithm provides a comparable prediction of LGA fetuses as other commonly used formulas generated from regression analysis. The better specificity and better positive predictive value suggest potential value for this method and further accumulation of data may improve the reliability of this approach. PMID:22439018

  20. The Halos and Environments of Nearby Galaxies (HERON) Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, R. Michael; Brosch, Noah; Bullock, James; Burkert, Andreas; Collins, Michelle; de Groot, Laura; Kennefick, Julia; Koch, Andreas; Longstaff, Francis; Sales, Laura

    2017-03-01

    We have used dedicated 0.7m telescopes in California and Israel to image the halos of ~ 200 galaxies in the Local Volume to 29 mag/sq arcsec, the sample mainly drawn from the 2MASS Large Galaxy Atlas (LGA). We supplement the LGA sample with dwarf galaxies and more distant giant ellipticals. Low surface brightness halos exceeding 50 kpc in diameter are found only in galaxies more luminous than L*, and classic interaction signatures are relatively infrequent. Halo diameter is correlated with total galaxy luminosity. Extended low surface brightness halos are present even in galaxies as faint as MV = - 18. Edge-on galaxies with boxy bulges tend to lack extended spheroidal halos, while those with large classical bulges exhibit extended round halos, supporting the notions that boxy or barlike bulges originate from disks. Most face-on spiral galaxies present features that appear to be irregular extensions of spiral arms, although rare cases show smooth boundaries with no sign of star formation. Although we serendipitously discovered a dwarf galaxy undergoing tidal disruption in the halo of NGC 4449, we found no comparable examples in our general survey. A search for similar examples in the Local Volume identified hcc087, a tidally disrupting dwarf galaxy in the Hercules Cluster, but we do not confirm an anomalously large half-light radius reported for the dwarf VCC 1661.

  1. Task-parallel message passing interface implementation of Autodock4 for docking of very large databases of compounds using high-performance super-computers.

    PubMed

    Collignon, Barbara; Schulz, Roland; Smith, Jeremy C; Baudry, Jerome

    2011-04-30

    A message passing interface (MPI)-based implementation (Autodock4.lga.MPI) of the grid-based docking program Autodock4 has been developed to allow simultaneous and independent docking of multiple compounds on up to thousands of central processing units (CPUs) using the Lamarkian genetic algorithm. The MPI version reads a single binary file containing precalculated grids that represent the protein-ligand interactions, i.e., van der Waals, electrostatic, and desolvation potentials, and needs only two input parameter files for the entire docking run. In comparison, the serial version of Autodock4 reads ASCII grid files and requires one parameter file per compound. The modifications performed result in significantly reduced input/output activity compared with the serial version. Autodock4.lga.MPI scales up to 8192 CPUs with a maximal overhead of 16.3%, of which two thirds is due to input/output operations and one third originates from MPI operations. The optimal docking strategy, which minimizes docking CPU time without lowering the quality of the database enrichments, comprises the docking of ligands preordered from the most to the least flexible and the assignment of the number of energy evaluations as a function of the number of rotatable bounds. In 24 h, on 8192 high-performance computing CPUs, the present MPI version would allow docking to a rigid protein of about 300K small flexible compounds or 11 million rigid compounds.

  2. Task-parallel message passing interface implementation of Autodock4 for docking of very large databases of compounds using high-performance super-computers

    SciTech Connect

    Collignon, Barbara C; Schultz, Roland; Smith, Jeremy C; Baudry, Jerome Y

    2011-01-01

    A message passing interface (MPI)-based implementation (Autodock4.lga.MPI) of the grid-based docking program Autodock4 has been developed to allow simultaneous and independent docking of multiple compounds on up to thousands of central processing units (CPUs) using the Lamarkian genetic algorithm. The MPI version reads a single binary file containing precalculated grids that represent the protein-ligand interactions, i.e., van der Waals, electrostatic, and desolvation potentials, and needs only two input parameter files for the entire docking run. In comparison, the serial version of Autodock4 reads ASCII grid files and requires one parameter file per compound. The modifications performed result in significantly reduced input/output activity compared with the serial version. Autodock4.lga.MPI scales up to 8192 CPUs with a maximal overhead of 16.3%, of which two thirds is due to input/output operations and one third originates from MPI operations. The optimal docking strategy, which minimizes docking CPU time without lowering the quality of the database enrichments, comprises the docking of ligands preordered from the most to the least flexible and the assignment of the number of energy evaluations as a function of the number of rotatable bounds. In 24 h, on 8192 high-performance computing CPUs, the present MPI version would allow docking to a rigid protein of about 300K small flexible compounds or 11 million rigid compounds.

  3. Voltage-dependent dye coupling at a rectifying electrotonic synapse of the crayfish.

    PubMed Central

    Giaume, C; Korn, H

    1984-01-01

    At the crayfish giant motor synapse, the lateral giant axon (l.g.a.) and the giant motor fibre (g.m.f.) form an electrotonic junction which exhibits two states of ionic coupling (Furshpan & Potter, 1959a; Giaume & Korn, 1983). Junctional conductance is low at resting membrane potentials (i.e. with lateral axon more negative than the motor fibre) and high when the polarity of the voltage difference (delta V) across the synapse is reversed. For these two states of conductance, junctional permeability was investigated using the intercellular tracer Lucifer Yellow. The dye was ionophoretically injected into either the presynaptic (l.g.a.) or the post-synaptic (g.m.f.) cell. In the high conductance state (delta V greater than 0), fluorescence was detected in both neurones whether Lucifer Yellow had been injected pre- or post-synaptically. By contrast, at the resting junctional polarization (delta V less than 0) Lucifer Yellow spread from the giant axon to the g.m.f., but not from the g.m.f. to the giant axons. These data demonstrate that dye transfer at the giant motor synapse, like ionic coupling, is sensitive to junctional polarization and is more marked in the high conductance state. Possible explanations for the asymmetry observed in the low conductance state are discussed. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PLATE 3 PMID:6097668

  4. Structural re-alignment in an immunologic surface region of ricin A chain

    SciTech Connect

    Zemla, A T; Zhou, C E

    2007-07-24

    We compared structure alignments generated by several protein structure comparison programs to determine whether existing methods would satisfactorily align residues at a highly conserved position within an immunogenic loop in ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs). Using default settings, structure alignments generated by several programs (CE, DaliLite, FATCAT, LGA, MAMMOTH, MATRAS, SHEBA, SSM) failed to align the respective conserved residues, although LGA reported correct residue-residue (R-R) correspondences when the beta-carbon (Cb) position was used as the point of reference in the alignment calculations. Further tests using variable points of reference indicated that points distal from the beta carbon along a vector connecting the alpha and beta carbons yielded rigid structural alignments in which residues known to be highly conserved in RIPs were reported as corresponding residues in structural comparisons between ricin A chain, abrin-A, and other RIPs. Results suggest that approaches to structure alignment employing alternate point representations corresponding to side chain position may yield structure alignments that are more consistent with observed conservation of functional surface residues than do standard alignment programs, which apply uniform criteria for alignment (i.e., alpha carbon (Ca) as point of reference) along the entirety of the peptide chain. We present the results of tests that suggest the utility of allowing user-specified points of reference in generating alternate structural alignments, and we present a web server for automatically generating such alignments.

  5. Hypoglycaemia and hypocalcaemia as determinants of admission birth weight criteria for term stable low risk macrosomic neonates.

    PubMed

    Bandika, Victor L; Were, Fred N; Simiyu, Eseli D; Oyatsi, Donald P

    2014-09-01

    Large for gestational age (LGA) accounts for about 6.3% of admissions in kenyatta national hospital, newborn unit. As a policy all IGA's, defined by birth weight of 4000 g and above are admitted for 24 hours to monitor blood glucose levels. The rational for this policy is questionable and contributes to unnecessary burden on resources needed for new born care. To study birth weight related incidence of hypoglycemia and hypocalcaemia in stable low risk lgas in knh and use it to establish a new admission weight based criteria. prospective cohort study done in new born-unit, post natal and labour wards of knh. Term lga neonates (birth weight = 4000 g) were recruited as subjects and controlled against term appropriate weight (aga) neonates. the incidence of hypoglycemia and hypocalcaemia in lgas was 21% and 9% respectively. Hypoglycemia was rarely encountered after 12 hours of life in lgas. Hypoglycemia and hypocalcaemia showed a direct upward relationship with weight beyond 4250 g. No significant difference in incidence of hypoglycemia and hypocalcaemia between controls and 4000-4249 g category to justify their routine admission to newborn unit. the study identified 4275 g as new admission birth weight criteria for stable term low risk IGA's admission.

  6. Full-Genome Sequencing Identifies in the Genetic Background Several Determinants That Modulate the Resistance Phenotype in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Carrying the Novel mecC Gene.

    PubMed

    Milheiriço, Catarina; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Tomasz, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Most methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics due to the presence of the mecA gene, encoding an extra penicillin-binding protein (PBP2A) that has low affinity for virtually all beta-lactam antibiotics. Recently, a new resistance determinant-the mecC gene-was identified in S. aureus isolates recovered from humans and dairy cattle. Although having typically low MICs to beta-lactam antibiotics, MRSA strains with the mecC determinant are also capable of expressing high levels of oxacillin resistance when in an optimal genetic background. In order to test the impact of extensive beta-lactam selection on the emergence of mecC-carrying strains with high levels of antibiotic resistance, we exposed the prototype mecC-carrying MRSA strain, LGA251, to increasing concentrations of oxacillin. LGA251 was able to rapidly adapt to high concentrations of oxacillin in growth medium. In such laboratory mutants with increased levels of oxacillin resistance, we identified mutations in genes with no relationship to the mecC regulatory system, indicating that the genetic background plays an important role in the establishment of the levels of oxacillin resistance. Our data also indicate that the stringent stress response plays a critical role in the beta-lactam antibiotic resistance phenotype of MRSA strains carrying the mecC determinant.

  7. Population Attributable Risk Fractions of Maternal Overweight and Obesity for Adverse Perinatal Outcomes.

    PubMed

    MacInnis, Natasha; Woolcott, Christy G; McDonald, Sarah; Kuhle, Stefan

    2016-03-10

    The objective of the current study was to determine the proportion of adverse perinatal outcomes that could be potentially prevented if maternal obesity were to be reduced or eliminated (population attributable risk fractions, PARF); and the number needed to treat (NNT) of overweight or obese women to prevent one case of adverse perinatal outcome. Data from the Atlee Perinatal Database on 66,689 singleton infants born in Nova Scotia, Canada, between 2004 and 2014, and their mothers were used. Multivariable-adjusted PARFs and NNTs of maternal pre-pregnancy weight status were determined for various perinatal outcomes under three scenarios: If all overweight and obese women were to i) become normal weight before pregnancy; ii) shift down one weight class; or iii) lose 10% of their body weight, significant relative reductions would be seen for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, 57/33/15%), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP, 26/16/6%), caesarean section (CS, 18/10/3%), and large for gestational age births (LGA, 24/14/3%). The NNT were lowest for the outcomes GDM, induction of labour, CS, and LGA, where they ranged from 13 to 73. The study suggests that a substantial proportion of adverse perinatal outcomes may be preventable through reductions in maternal pre-pregnancy weight.

  8. Clinical Significance of Low Result of 1-hour 50-g Glucose-Challenge Test in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Oawada, Nozomi; Aoki, Shigeru; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Obata, Soichiro; Seki, Kazuo; Hirahara, Fumiki

    2017-08-22

    To examine the effect of low glucose value on the 1-hour 50-g Glucose Challenge Test (GCT) on neonatal body weight in low-risk Asian singleton pregnant women. We retrospectively analyzed women who delivered a singleton neonate at term at a tertiary center and underwent GCT at 24-28 weeks of gestation between June 2001 and June 2015. Low GCT group was defined as < 75 mg/dL, and 75-139 mg/dL were control. We compared these two groups of maternal characteristics, small for gestational age neonate (SGA), large for gestational age neonate (LGA), low-birth weight, and macrosomia. The Χ2 test, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t test were used. There were 313 low GCT group, and 4611 control. Low GCT group were younger, had lower prepregnancy body weight, higher stature, and lower prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). After adjusting these variables, the low GCT group had a lower rate of LGA and a higher rate of SGA. Neonatal body weight is more influenced by maternal physique than by low GCT result (Standardized coefficient (β)(β); GCT 0.071, height 0.188, prepregnancy BMI 0.143). Neonatal body weight was only slightly influenced by low GCT result, but markedly influenced by maternal physique, such as height and prepregnancy BMI.

  9. Repeated intravenous administrations of teneurin-C terminal associated peptide (TCAP)-1 attenuates reinstatement of cocaine seeking by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in rats.

    PubMed

    Erb, Suzanne; McPhee, Matthew; Brown, Zenya J; Kupferschmidt, David A; Song, Lifang; Lovejoy, David A

    2014-08-01

    The teneurin c-terminal associated peptides (TCAP) have been implicated in the regulation of the stress response, possibly via a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-related mechanism. We have previously shown that repeated intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of TCAP-1 attenuate the reinstatement of cocaine seeking by CRF in rats. Here, we determined whether intravenous (IV) administrations of TCAP-1 would likewise attenuate CRF-induced reinstatement, and whether this effect would vary depending on the rat's history of cocaine self administration. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine for 10 days, during once daily sessions that were either 3h ("short access"; ShA) or 6h ("long access"; LgA). Rats were then given five daily injections of TCAP-1 (0, 300, or 3,000 pmol, IV) in their home cage. Subsequently, they were returned to the self-administration chambers where extinction of cocaine seeking and testing for CRF-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking was carried out. Repeated IV administrations of TCAP-1 were efficacious in attenuating CRF-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking, but at different doses in ShA and LgA rats. Taken together, the findings extend previous work showing a consistent effect of repeated ICV TCAP-1 on CRF-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking, and point to a potential therapeutic benefit of TCAP-1 in attenuating cocaine seeking behaviors.

  10. Preliminary spatiotemporal analysis of the association between socio-environmental factors and suicide.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao

    2009-10-01

    The seasonality of suicide has long been recognised. However, little is known about the relative importance of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence of suicide in different geographical areas. This study examined the association of climate, socioeconomic and demographic factors with suicide in Queensland, Australia, using a spatiotemporal approach. Seasonal data on suicide, demographic variables and socioeconomic indexes for areas in each Local Government Area (LGA) between 1999 and 2003 were acquired from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Climate data were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A multivariable generalized estimating equation model was used to examine the impact of socio-environmental factors on suicide. The preliminary data analyses show that far north Queensland had the highest suicide incidence (e.g., Cook and Mornington Shires), while the south-western areas had the lowest incidence (e.g., Barcoo and Bauhinia Shires) in all the seasons. Maximum temperature, unemployment rate, the proportion of Indigenous population and the proportion of population with low individual income were statistically significantly and positively associated with suicide. There were weaker but not significant associations for other variables. Maximum temperature, the proportion of Indigenous population and unemployment rate appeared to be major determinants of suicide at a LGA level in Queensland.

  11. Associations between maternal BMI as well as glucose tolerance and adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Ying; Ye, Su-Qi; Zhong, Zhuo-Hui; Xu, Qiong; Mai, Wei-Bi; Yin, Cai-Xin; Zhu, Zhi-Qin; He, Xiao-Qian; Xiao, Qing

    2017-04-01

    This retrospective, cohort study examined the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), independent of glucose tolerance and adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), for which there are few previous studies. Medical records from 2012 to 2015 at Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, China were reviewed for women previously diagnosed with PCOS with normal 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results (n = 1249). The separate and joint effects of maternal BMI and glucose levels on pregnancy outcomes were assessed. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.02-1.45), preterm birth (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.08-2.17), and large for gestational age (LGA) (OR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.16-2.20). Elevated fasting glucose and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI were jointly associated with increased risks of HDP, preterm birth, and LGA. Therefore, among women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI is an independent risk factor of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  12. Observations on the epidemiology of ruminant trypanosomosis in Kano State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kalu, A U; Lawani, F A

    1996-01-01

    The epidemiology of ruminant trypanosomosis was investigated during a two-year period in Kano State, Nigeria. Prevalence was 5.3 +/- 1.3% (mean +/- confidence interval), 1.2 +/- 1.6% and 0.7 +/- 1.3% in cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was higher during the second year (6.1%) than in the first (4.8%). Infections doubled during the rains (7.6%) in comparison with an average of 3.8% during the dry season. The northern guinea vegetational zone recorded a high infection rate (Tudun-Wada local government area (LGA), 16.7%). It was the only area in which tsetse flies (Glossina tachinoides) were encountered. Nevertheless, haematophagous flies were common in the sudan savanna; tabanids were ubiquitous. Trypanosoma vivax infected 3.0% of bovine herds and was responsible for 57.6% of all diagnosable cases. It is suggested that vector control in Tudun-Wada LGA and chemoprophylaxis may break the transmission cycle of ruminant trypanosomosis in the area.

  13. Should Gestational Weight Gain Recommendations be Tailored by Maternal Characteristics?

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Lisa M.; Hutcheon, Jennifer A.; Platt, Robert W.; Himes, Katherine P.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Abrams, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The authors tested whether the relation between gestational weight gain (GWG) and 5 adverse pregnancy outcomes (small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth, large-for-gestational-age (LGA) birth, spontaneous preterm birth, indicated preterm birth, and unplanned cesarean delivery) differed according to maternal race/ethnicity, smoking, parity, age, and/or height. They also evaluated whether GWG guidelines should be modified for special populations by studying GWG and risk of at least 1 adverse outcome within different subgroups. Data came from a cohort of 23,362 normal-weight mothers who delivered singletons at Magee-Womens Hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (2003–2008). Adequacy of GWG was defined as observed GWG divided by recommended GWG. The synergy analysis found that the combination of smoking, black race/ethnicity, primiparity, or short height with poor GWG was associated with an excess risk of SGA birth, while high GWG combined with each of these characteristics diminished risk of LGA birth in comparison with the same GWG among the women's counterparts. Nevertheless, there were no significant or meaningful differences in the risk of at least 1 adverse outcome between the GWG recommended by the Institute of Medicine in 2009 and the GWG that minimized risk of the composite outcome. These findings do not support the tailoring of GWG guidelines on the basis of a mother's smoking status, race/ethnicity, parity, age, or height among normal-weight women. PMID:21633118

  14. Conformation of poly(γ-glutamic acid) in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Muroga, Yoshio; Nakaya, Asami; Inoue, Atsuki; Itoh, Daiki; Abiru, Masaya; Wada, Kaori; Takada, Masako; Ikake, Hiroki; Shimizu, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    Local conformation and overall conformation of poly(γ-DL-glutamic acid) (PγDLGA) and poly(γ-L-glutamic acid) (PγLGA) in aqueous solution was studied as a function of degree of ionization ε by (1) H-NMR, circular dichroism, and potentiometric titration. It was clarified that their local conformation is represented by random coil over an entire ε range and their overall conformation is represented by expanded random-coil in a range of ε > ε(*) , where ε(*) is about 0.3, 0.35, 0.45, and 0.5 for added-salt concentration of 0.02M, 0.05M, 0.1M, and 0.2M, respectively. In a range of ε < ε(*) , however, ε dependence of their overall conformation is significantly differentiated from each other. PγDLGA tends to aggregate intramolecularly and/or intermolecularly with decreasing ε, but PγLGA still behaves as expanded random-coil. It is speculated that spatial arrangement of adjacent carboxyl groups along the backbone chain essentially affects the overall conformation of PγGA in acidic media.

  15. Socioeconomic and geographic disparities in access to pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Morley, Kirsten C; Logge, Warren; Pearson, Sallie-Anne; Baillie, Andrew; Haber, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    A higher rate of alcohol-attributable morbidity and mortality exists in remote and socioeconomically disadvantaged regions of Australia. This study aimed to explore the dispensing pattern of pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence across these groups. A retrospective cohort study of patients (aged 15-84) dispensed acamprosate or naltrexone (July 2009-June 2013) was conducted. Observed dispensing rates were obtained for 541 local government areas (LGA) of Australia. Expected dispensing was based on national rates and age standardized to each LGA. Mean dispensing ratios (observed to expected) for each medicine over the period were calculated for remoteness and socioeconomic disadvantaged groups. For both medications, the mean dispensing ratio significantly differed across geographical groups and across socioeconomic groups (p's<0.05). For naltrexone and acamprosate, respectively, the mean dispensing ratio in remote areas was 6 and 9 times less than for the major cities. The mean dispensing ratio for both medications in the most socially disadvantaged areas was approximately 5 times less than that of the most disadvantaged areas. Our data highlight geographical and socioeconomic disparities in Australia regarding access to pharmacological treatment for alcohol use disorder. Targeted strategies aimed at bridging the gap of accessibility for relapse prevention medications are required. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Low frequency seabed scattering at low grazing angles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ji-Xun; Zhang, Xue-Zhen

    2012-04-01

    Low-frequency (LF) seabed scattering at low grazing angles (LGA) is almost impossible to directly measure in shallow water (SW), except through inversion from reverberation. The energy flux method for SW reverberation is briefly introduced in this paper. The closed-form expressions of reverberation in an isovelocity waveguide, derived from this method, indicate that in the three-halves law range interval multimode/ray sea bottom scattering with different incident and scattering angles in forming the reverberation may equivalently be represented by the bottom backscattering at a single range-dependent angle. This equivalent relationship is used to derive the bottom backscattering strength (BBS) as a function of angle and frequency. The LF&LGA BBS is derived in a frequency band of 200-2500 Hz and in a grazing angle range of 1.1°-14.0° from reverberation measurements at three sites with sandy bottoms. This is based on three previous works: (1) The closed-form expressions of SW reverberation [Zhou, (Chinese) Acta Acustica 5, 86-99 (1980)]; (2) the effective geo-acoustic model of sandy bottoms that follows the Biot model [Zhou et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 2847-2866 (2009)] and (3) A quality database of wideband reverberation level normalized to source level [Zhou and Zhang, IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 30, 832-842 (2005)].

  17. Factors affecting development: similarities and differences among children who were small, average, and large for gestational age at birth.

    PubMed

    Ounsted, M; Moar, V A; Scott, A

    1986-03-01

    The development of 118 small-for-gestational age (SGA), 137 average-for-gestational age (AGA), and 118 large-for-gestational age (LGA) children was assessed at 7 years. The contributions of different factors to the variance in developmental scores were investigated by multiple regression analyses. All three groups showed the powerful influence of social class on intellectual ability at this age; and in the SGA and AGA groups the gross and fine-motor skills of girls were superior to boys. Smoking had a small effect in the AGA group, and in the two extreme groups first-born children did slightly better than later-born. Hypertension was associated with reduced scores in the SGA group, and LGA children who had spontaneous vaginal deliveries had higher scores than those delivered instrumentally or by caesarean section. There was a significant positive correlation between gestational age and developmental scores in the AGA group; but in the SGA group the relationship was in the reverse direction. Social class and sex affect the development of most children aged 7 years. Other factors seem to manifest an effect only under specified conditions.

  18. Investigation of the operating conditions to morphology evolution of β-L-glutamic acid during seeded cooling crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fangkun; Liu, Tao; Huo, Yan; Guan, Runduo; Wang, Xue Z.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper the effects of operating conditions including cooling rate, initial supersaturation, and seeding temperature were investigated on the morphology evolution of β-L-glutamic acid (β-LGA) during seeded cooling crystallization. Based on the results of in-situ image acquisition of the crystal morphology evolution during the crystallization process, it was found that the crystal products tend to be plate-like or short rod-like under a slow cooling rate, low initial supersaturation, and low seeding temperature. In the opposite, the operating conditions of a faster cooling rate, higher initial supersaturation, and higher seeding temperature tend to produce long rod-like or needle-like crystals, and meanwhile, the length and width of crystal products will be increased together with a wider crystal size distribution (CSD). The aspect ratio of crystals, defined by the crystal length over width measured from in-situ or sample images, was taken as a shape index to analyze the crystal morphologies. Based on comparative analysis of the experimental results, guidelines on these operating conditions were given for obtaining the desired crystal shapes, along with the strategies for obtaining a narrower CSD for better product quality. Experimental verifications were performed to illustrate the proposed guidelines on the operating conditions for seeded cooling crystallization of LGA solution.

  19. Pregnancy outcome in immigrant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Dalfrà, Maria Grazia; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Masin, Michela; Bonsembiante, Barbara; Cosma, Chiara; Barison, Antonella; Toniato, Rosanna; Fedele, Domenico; Lapolla, Annunziata

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies show adverse outcomes of pregnancy among immigrant women from countries with high diabetes rates. We compared maternal and fetal outcomes in immigrant and Italian women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) followed up at our center. Maternal characteristics considered were age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), HbA1c, frequency of insulin treatment, timing and mode of delivery, and hypertensive disorders; and, for fetal outcome, infants large or small for gestational age, and fetal complications. Pre-pregnancy BMI and HbA1c were higher in immigrant GDM women than in Italians, and more of them were on insulin. No differences in maternal outcome emerged between the two groups. More large for gestational age (LGA) babies were born to immigrant women than to Italians, but no other differences emerged. Apart from newborn LGA, maternal and fetal outcomes were comparable in our immigrant and Italian GDM women. Immigrant GDM women have favourable outcomes if given access to health care and language and cultural barriers are removed.

  20. On-line monitoring of the crystallization process: relationship between crystal size and electrical impedance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanlin; Yao, Jun; Wang, Mi

    2016-07-01

    On-line monitoring of crystal size in the crystallization process is crucial to many pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industrial applications. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for the on-line monitoring of the cooling crystallization process of L-glutamic acid (LGA) using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EIS method can be used to monitor the growth of crystal particles relying on the presence of an electrical double layer on the charged particle surface and the polarization of double layer under the excitation of alternating electrical field. The electrical impedance spectra and crystal size were measured on-line simultaneously by an impedance analyzer and focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), respectively. The impedance spectra were analyzed using the equivalent circuit model and the equivalent circuit elements in the model can be obtained by fitting the experimental data. Two equivalent circuit elements, including capacitance (C 2) and resistance (R 2) from the dielectric polarization of the LGA solution and crystal particle/solution interface, are in relation with the crystal size. The mathematical relationship between the crystal size and the equivalent circuit elements can be obtained by a non-linear fitting method. The function can be used to predict the change of crystal size during the crystallization process.

  1. Partnering to proceed: scaling up adolescent sexual reproductive health programmes in Tanzania. Operational research into the factors that influenced local government uptake and implementation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about how to implement promising small-scale projects to reduce reproductive ill health and HIV vulnerability in young people on a large scale. This evaluation documents and explains how a partnership between a non-governmental organization (NGO) and local government authorities (LGAs) influenced the LGA-led scale-up of an innovative NGO programme in the wider context of a new national multisectoral AIDS strategy. Methods Four rounds of semi-structured interviews with 82 key informants, 8 group discussions with 49 district trainers and supervisors (DTS), 8 participatory workshops involving 52 DTS, and participant observations of 80% of LGA-led and 100% of NGO-led meetings were conducted, to ascertain views on project components, flow of communication and decision-making and amount of time DTS utilized undertaking project activities. Results Despite a successful ten-fold scale-up of intervention activities in three years, full integration into LGA systems did not materialize. LGAs contributed significant human resources but limited finances; the NGO retained control over finances and decision-making and LGAs largely continued to view activities as NGO driven. Embedding of technical assistants (TAs) in the LGAs contributed to capacity building among district implementers, but may paradoxically have hindered project integration, because TAs were unable to effectively transition from an implementing to a facilitating role. Operation of NGO administration and financial mechanisms also hindered integration into district systems. Conclusions Sustainable intervention scale-up requires operational, financial and psychological integration into local government mechanisms. This must include substantial time for district systems to try out implementation with only minimal NGO support and modest output targets. It must therefore go beyond the typical three- to four-year project cycles. Scale-up of NGO pilot projects of this nature also need NGOs to be

  2. Gestational Weight Gain and Obesity: Is 20 Pounds Too Much?

    PubMed Central

    Kominiarek, Michelle A.; Seligman, Neil S.; Dolin, Cara; Gao, Weihua; Berghella, Vincenzo; Hoffman, Matthew; Hibbard, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in obese women according to weight change and obesity class. Study design Cohort study from the Consortium on Safe Labor of 20,950 obese women with a singleton, term, livebirth from 2002–2008. Risk for adverse outcomes was calculated by multiple logistic regression analysis for weight change categories [weight loss (<0kg), low (0−4.9kg), normal (5.0−9.0kg), high weight gain (>9.0 kg)] in each obesity class (I 30.0−34.9kg/m2, II 35.0−39.9kg/m2, and III ≥40 kg/m2) and by predicted probabilities with weight change as a continuous variable. Results Weight loss was associated with decreased cesareans for class I women (nulliparas OR 0.21, 95%CI 0.11−0.42; multiparas OR 0.61, 95%CI 0.45−.83) and increased small for gestational age (SGA) infants (class I OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.3−2.5; class II OR 2.2, 95%CI 1.5−3.2; class III OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.1−2.6). High weight gain was associated with increased large for gestational age (LGA) infants (class I OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.9−2.9; class II OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3−2.1; class III OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.3−2.1). As weight change increased, the predicted probability for cesareans and LGA infants increased. The predicted probability of low birth weight never exceeded 4% for all obesity classes, but SGA increased with decreased weight change. The lowest average predicted probability of adverse outcomes (cesarean, postpartum hemorrhage, SGA, LGA, NICU admission) occurred when women (class I,II,III) lost weight. Conclusion Optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes appear to occur when weight gain is less than current IOM recommendations for obese women. Further study of long-term outcomes is needed with respect to gestational weight changes. PMID:23635421

  3. From the Neoproterozoic mafic rock to the Silurian high-grade metamorphic rock: Evidence from zircon U-Pb geochronological, bulk-rock geochemical and mineral EPMA studies of Longyou garnet amphibolite in SE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing-Qiang; Shu, Liang-Shu; Yu, Jin-Hai

    2017-06-01

    The Longyou garnet amphibolite is exposed on the southeast of the Neoproterozoic Jiangshan-Shaoxing fault zone of South China. Some recent studies propose that the Longyou garnet amphibolite was retrograded from an Early Paleozoic collision-related eclogite, which is inconsistent with previous numerous studies. Here we carry out a systematic study including field investigation, petrography, mineral chemistry, zircon geochronology and bulk rock geochemistry to ascertain its genesis. Our results indicate that a small amount of plagioclase inclusions found in garnet and clinopyroxene are anorthite, while plagioclase that largely distribute in the outer part of garnet and clinopyroxene porphyroblasts are andesine and labradorite (with An values of 44-66). No sodium-rich plagioclase (albite or oligoclase) which is indicative of omphacite symplectite has been found. The zircon CL images and Th/U ratios indicate that, apart from some newborn-metamorphic small zircons, a number of large zircon crystals exhibit obvious core-rim structures. Zircon U-Pb dating results indicate that the zircon cores yield concordant weighted average age of 879 ± 11 Ma and the zircon metamorphic rims yield weighted average age of 446 ± 5 Ma. Furthermore, the bulk rock geochemical features of garnet amphibolite suggest that its protolith is basic igneous rock (the SiO2 content within 46.8-48.2%), and its trace elements exhibit E-MORB geochemical affinity. This study also constrains the P-T pseudosection for Longyou garnet amphibolite (LGA), which revealing that the LGA at least experienced three stages of metamorphism in Silurian: the prograde metamorphism stage with P-T condition of 0.67-0.75 G Pa/685-719 °C (M1), the peak-metamorphism with P-T condition of 0.9-1.1 G Pa/760-778 °C (M2), and the retrograde metamorphism stage with P-T condition of ∼0.68G Pa/∼767 °C (M3). In combination with regional geological setting, this study constrains the formation process for the LGA.

  4. Service readiness, health facility management practices, and delivery care utilization in five states of Nigeria: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Gage, Anastasia J; Ilombu, Onyebuchi; Akinyemi, Akanni Ibukun

    2016-10-06

    Existing studies of delivery care in Nigeria have identified socioeconomic and cultural factors as the primary determinants of health facility delivery. However, no study has investigated the association between supply-side factors and health facility delivery. Our study analyzed the role of supply-side factors, particularly health facility readiness and management practices for provision of quality maternal health services. Using linked data from the 2005 and 2009 health facility and household surveys in the five states in which the Community Participation for Action in the Social Sector (COMPASS) project was implemented, indices of health service readiness and management were developed based on World Health Organization guidelines. Multilevel logistic regression models were run to determine the association between these indices and health facility delivery among 2710 women aged 15-49 years whose last child was born within the five years preceding the surveys and who lived in 51 COMPASS LGAs. The health facility delivery rate increased from 25.4 % in 2005 to 44.1 % in 2009. Basic amenities for antenatal care provision, readiness to deliver basic emergency obstetric and newborn care, and management practices supportive of quality maternal health services were suboptimal in health facilities surveyed and did not change significantly between 2005 and 2009. The LGA mean index of basic amenities for antenatal care provision was more positively associated with the odds of health facility delivery in 2009 than in 2005, and in rural than in urban areas. The LGA mean index of management practices was associated with significantly lower odds of health facility delivery in rural than in urban areas. The LGA mean index of facility readiness to deliver basic emergency obstetric and neonatal care declined slightly from 5.16 in 2005 to 3.98 in 2009 and was unrelated to the odds of health facility delivery. Supply-side factors appeared to play a role in health facility delivery

  5. Diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus: falling through the net.

    PubMed

    Meek, Claire L; Lewis, Hannah B; Patient, Charlotte; Murphy, Helen R; Simmons, David

    2015-09-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased risks to mother and child, but globally agreed diagnostic criteria remain elusive. Identification of women with GDM is important, as treatment reduces adverse outcomes such as perinatal death, shoulder dystocia and neonatal hypoglycaemia. Recently, the UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommended new diagnostic thresholds for GDM which are different from the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria endorsed by the WHO. The study aim was to assess neonatal and obstetric outcomes among women who would test positive for the IADPSG criteria but negative for the NICE 2015 criteria. Data from 25,543 consecutive singleton live births (2004-2008) were obtained retrospectively from hospital records. Women were screened with a random plasma glucose (RPG; 12-16 weeks) and a 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT; 26-28 weeks). If RPG >7.0 mmol/l, GCT >7.7 mmol/l or symptoms were present, a 75 g OGTT was offered (n = 3,848). In this study, GDM prevalence was 4.13% (NICE 2015) and 4.62% (IADPSG). Women who 'fell through the net', testing NICE-negative but IADPSG-positive (n = 387), had a higher risk of having a large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infant (birthweight >90th percentile for gestational age; adjusted OR [95% CI] 3.12 [2.44, 3.98]), Caesarean delivery (1.44 [1.15, 1.81]) and polyhydramnios (6.90 [3.94, 12.08]) compared with women with negative screening results and no OGTT (n = 21,695). LGA risk was highest among women with fasting plasma glucose 5.1-5.5 mmol/l (n = 167): the mean birthweight was 350 g above that of the reference population and 37.7% of infants were LGA. The IADPSG criteria identify women at substantial risk of complications who would not be identified by the NICE 2015 criteria.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance dephasing effects in a spherical pore with a magnetic dipolar field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valckenborg, R. M. E.; Huinink, H. P.; Kopinga, K.

    2003-02-01

    The NMR dephasing behavior of the nuclear spins of a fluid confined in a porous material can be investigated by Hahn spin echoes. Previous experimental results on water in a magnetically doped clay have shown a nonmonoexponentially decaying magnetization, which can be understood neither by the known dephasing rate of freely diffusing spins in a uniform gradient nor by spins diffusing in a restricted geometry. For a better understanding of NMR measurements on these systems, a systematic survey was performed of the various length scales that are involved. The standard length scales for the situation of a uniform gradient are diffusing length, structure length, and dephasing length. We show that for a nonuniform gradient, a new length scale has to be introduced: the magnetic-field curvature length. When a particle diffuses less than this length scale, it experiences a local uniform gradient. In that case the spin-echo decay can be described by the so-called local gradient approximation (LGA). When a particle diffuses over a longer distance than the structure length, the spin-echo decay can be described by the motional averaging regime. For both regimes, scaling laws are derived. In this paper, a random-walk model is used to simulate the dephasing effect of diffusing spins in a spherical pore in the presence of a magnetic dipole field. By varying the dipole magnitude, situations can be created in which the dephasing behavior scales according to the motional averaging regime or according to the LGA regime, for certain ranges of echo times. Two model systems are investigated: a spherical pore in the vicinity of a magnetic point dipole and a spherical pore adjacent to a magnetic dipolar grain of the same size as the pore. The simulated magnetization decay curves of both model systems confirm the scaling laws. The LGA, characterized by a nonmonoexponential magnetization decay, is also investigated by calculating the spatially resolved magnetization in the pore. For this

  7. Association of Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain with Preterm Births and Fetal Size: an Observational Study from Lebanon.

    PubMed

    El Rafei, Rym; Abbas, Hussein A; Charafeddine, Lama; Nakad, Pascale; Al Bizri, Ayah; Hamod, Dany; Yunis, Khalid A

    2016-01-01

    Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) are reported to impact the preterm birth (PTB) rate and newborn size. Most studies have been conducted in developed countries, although PTB and adverse pregnancy outcomes are more frequent in the developing world. The aim of this study is to elucidate the association of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG on the occurrence of PTB and sub-optimal fetal size in Lebanon. This is a retrospective cohort study using a hospital-based register covering 35% of births in Lebanon between 2001 and 2012. Data were collected on 170 428 pregnancies from 32 hospitals using medical records and interviews. After adjusting for confounders, underweight women had increased odds of having very preterm [odds ratio (OR) 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16, 2.14], preterm (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.28, 1.58), and small for gestational age (SGA) (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.37, 1.63) neonates. When BMI was analysed with GWG, only SGA remained significant in underweight women with low GWG. For all BMI groups, low GWG was protective against large for gestational age (LGA) and high GWG increased the odds of LGA. GWG, both low (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.15, 1.35) and high (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.32, 1.55) increased the risk of PTB in normal weight women. The same result was obtained for overweight women. High GWG increased the risk of LGA for all groups and PTB in normal weight and overweight women, whereas low GWG increased the risk of SGA and PTB. Given that there are not many studies from middle income/developing countries on patterns of weight gain during pregnancy, findings from this study may help with pre-conception counselling with emphasis on the importance of an optimal pre-pregnancy BMI and appropriate weight gain during pregnancy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Positive Allosteric Modulation of mGluR5 Accelerates Extinction Learning but Not Relearning Following Methamphetamine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Kufahl, Peter R.; Hood, Lauren E.; Nemirovsky, Natali E.; Barabas, Piroska; Halstengard, Casey; Villa, Angel; Moore, Elisabeth; Watterson, Lucas R.; Olive, M. Foster

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated glutamate neurotransmission as an important substrate for the extinction of conditioned behaviors, including responding for drug reinforcement. Positive allosteric modulation of the type-5 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR5) in particular has emerged as a treatment strategy for the enhancement of extinction of drug-motivated behaviors. Here, we investigated the effects of the mGluR5 positive allosteric modulator CDPPB, a compound known for its cognitive enhancing effects in rodents, on extinction learning in rats with different histories of methamphetamine (METH) training. Rats were trained to self-administer METH under two conditions: 16 daily sessions of short access (90 min/day, ShA), or eight daily sessions of short access followed by eight sessions of long access (6 h/day, LgA). Control rats self-administered sucrose pellets in daily 30 min sessions. Next, rats were administered vehicle or 30 mg/kg CDPPB prior to seven consecutive daily extinction sessions, subjected to additional extinction sessions to re-establish a post-treatment baseline, and then tested for reinstatement of behavior in the presence of METH- or sucrose-paired cues. Rats were then subjected to a second series of extinction sessions, preceded by vehicle or 30 mg/kg CDPPB, and an additional test for cue-triggered reinstatement. CDPPB treatment resulted in a more rapid extinction of responding on the active lever, especially in the early sessions of the first extinction sequence. However, treatment effects were minimal during subsequent cue reinstatement tests and non-existent during the second series of extinction sessions. Rats with histories of ShA, LgA, and sucrose training expressed similar behavioral sensitivities to CDPPB, with LgA rats demonstrating a modestly higher treatment effect. Positive allosteric modulation of mGluR5 may therefore have some beneficial effects on efforts to facilitate extinction learning and reduce methamphetamine

  9. The association between cooking oil fume exposure during pregnancy and birth weight: A prospective mother-child cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Hu, Weiyue; Guan, Quanquan; Du, Guizhen; Chen, Ting; Wu, Wei; Wang, Yun; Wang, Xinru; Xia, Yankai

    2017-09-04

    Effects of indoor air pollution on neonatal birth weight has been studied for many years. In China, cooking oil fumes are important parts of indoor air pollution. However, whether cooking oil fume exposure during pregnancy affects birth weight in China remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to examine the association between pregnancy exposure to cooking oil fumes and birth weight in a newly established prospective mother-child cohort in China. We finally included 1420 pregnant women from 2013 to 2015 and follow up for one year until the offspring was born. According to self-reported exposure status, we categorized mothers into non-exposure group and exposed group or three exposure time subgroups, including 0h/day, 0-1h/day and >1h/day respectively. By using multinomial logistics regression models, we found that pregnancy exposure to cooking oil fumes significantly increased the risk of large for gestational age (LGA, OR=1.58, 95% CI=1.15-2.18, P=4.88×10(-3)). Additionally, compared to pregnant women who were in non-exposure group, 0-1h/day exposure elevated the risk of LGA (OR=1.69, 95% CI=1.22-2.33, P=1.63×10(-3)), while >1h/day exposure elevated the risk of small for gestational age, but were not significant (SGA, OR=2.15, 95% CI=0.61-7.66, P=0.24). In the stratification analysis, women aged 25-29years and ≥30years were predisposed to the influence of cooking oil fumes and have LGA newborns (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.09-2.75, P=0.02; OR=1.72, 95% CI=1.07-2.77, P=0.02, respectively). In conclusion, the present study suggests inverse U-shape dose response association between maternal exposure to cooking oil fumes during pregnancy and birth weight, and further studies are needed to verify the effect of cooking oil fumes on the birth weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Obesity and peritoneal surface disease: outcomes after cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for appendiceal and colon primary tumors.

    PubMed

    Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I; Swords, Douglas S; Swett, Katrina R; Randle, Reese W; Shen, Perry; Stewart, John H; Levine, Edward A

    2013-11-01

    It is estimated that 37% of the U.S. population is obese. It is unknown how obesity influences the operative and survival outcomes of cytoreductive surgery (CRS)/hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) procedures. A retrospective analysis of a prospective database of 1,000 procedures was performed. Type of malignancy, performance status, resection status, hospital and intensive care unit stay, comorbidities, morbidity, mortality, and survival were reviewed. A total of 246 patients with body mass index (BMI) of >30 kg/m(2) underwent 272 CRS/HIPEC procedures. Ninety-five (38.6%) were severely obese (BMI > 35 kg/m(2)). A total of 135 (49.6%) procedures were performed for appendiceal and 60 (22.1%) for colon cancer. Median follow-up was 52 months. Both major and minor morbidity were similar for obese and non-obese patients. The 30-day mortality rates for obese and non-obese patients were 1.5 and 2.5%, respectively. Median intensive care unit and hospital stay were 1 and 9 days, regardless of BMI. The 30-day readmission rate was similar between obese and non-obese patients (24.8 vs. 19.4%, p = 0.11). Median survival for low-grade appendiceal cancer (LGA) was 76 months for obese patients and 107 months for non-obese patients (p = 0.32). Survival was worse for severely obese patients (median survival 54 months) versus non-obese patients with LGA (p = 0.04). Survival was similar for obese and non-obese patients with peritoneal surface disease (PSD) from colon cancer or high-grade appendiceal cancer. Obesity does not influence postoperative morbidity or mortality of patients with PSD, regardless of primary tumor. Severe obesity is associated with decreased long-term survival only in patients with LGA primary disease; however, application of CRS/HIPEC still offers meaningful prolongation of life. Obesity should not be considered a contraindication for CRS/HIPEC procedures.

  11. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  12. Income inequality and alcohol attributable harm in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dietze, Paul M; Jolley, Damien J; Chikritzhs, Tanya N; Clemens, Susan; Catalano, Paul; Stockwell, Tim

    2009-02-25

    There is little research on the relationship between key socioeconomic variables and alcohol related harms in Australia. The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between income inequality and the rates of alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and death at a local-area level in Australia. We conducted a cross sectional ecological analysis at a Local Government Area (LGA) level of associations between data on alcohol caused harms and income inequality data after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs.The main outcome measures used were matched rate ratios for four measures of alcohol caused harm; acute (primarily related to the short term consequences of drinking) and chronic (primarily related to the long term consequences of drinking) alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and acute and chronic alcohol-attributable death. Matching was undertaken using control conditions (non-alcohol-attributable) at an LGA level. A total of 885 alcohol-attributable deaths and 19467 alcohol-attributable hospitalisations across all LGAs were available for analysis. After weighting by the total number of cases in each LGA, the matched rate ratios of acute and chronic alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and chronic alcohol-attributable death were associated with the squared centred Gini coefficients of LGAs. This relationship was evident after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs. For both measures of hospitalisation the relationship was curvilinear; increases in income inequality were initially associated with declining rates of hospitalisation followed by large increases as the Gini coefficient increased beyond 0.15. The pattern for chronic alcohol-attributable death was similar, but without the initial decrease. There was no association between income inequality and acute alcohol-attributable death, probably due to the relatively small number of these types of death. We found a curvilinear relationship between income

  13. Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index in Relation to Infant Birth Weight and Offspring Overweight/Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhangbin; Han, Shuping; Zhu, Jingai; Sun, Xiaofan; Ji, Chenbo; Guo, Xirong

    2013-01-01

    Background Overweight/obesity in women of childbearing age is a serious public-health problem. In China, the incidence of maternal overweight/obesity has been increasing. However, there is not a meta-analysis to determine if pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) is related to infant birth weight (BW) and offspring overweight/obesity. Methods Three electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL) were searched systematically from January 1970 to November 2012. The dichotomous data on pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and BW or offspring overweight/obesity were extracted. Summary statistics (odds ratios, ORs) were used by Review Manager, version 5.1.7. Results After screening 665 citations from three electronic databases, we included 45 studies (most of high or medium quality). Compared with normal-weight mothers, pre-pregnancy underweight increased the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) (odds ratios [OR], 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76–1.87); low BW (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.27–1.71). Pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity increased the risk of being large for gestational age (LGA) (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.44–1.63; and OR, 2.08; 95% CI; 1.95–2.23), high BW (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.44–1.63; and OR, 2.00; 95% CI; 1.84–2.18), macrosomia (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.42–1.97; and OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.39–4.37), and subsequent offspring overweight/obesity (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.77–2.13; and OR, 3.06; 95% CI, 2.68–3.49), respectively. Sensitivity analyses revealed that sample size, study method, quality grade of study, source of pre-pregnancy BMI or BW had a strong impact on the association between pre-pregnancy obesity and LGA. No significant evidence of publication bias was observed. Conclusions Pre-pregnancy underweight increases the risk of SGA and LBW; pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity increases the risk of LGA, HBW, macrosomia, and subsequent offspring overweight/obesity. A potential effect modification by maternal age, ethnicity, gestational weight

  14. Stability Analysis of Radial Turning Process for Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Alberto; Boto, Fernando; Irigoien, Itziar; Sierra, Basilio; Suarez, Alfredo

    2017-09-01

    Stability detection in machining processes is an essential component for the design of efficient machining processes. Automatic methods are able to determine when instability is happening and prevent possible machine failures. In this work a variety of methods are proposed for detecting stability anomalies based on the measured forces in the radial turning process of superalloys. Two different methods are proposed to determine instabilities. Each one is tested on real data obtained in the machining of Waspalloy, Haynes 282 and Inconel 718. Experimental data, in both Conventional and High Pressure Coolant (HPC) environments, are set in four different states depending on materials grain size and Hardness (LGA, LGS, SGA and SGS). Results reveal that PCA method is useful for visualization of the process and detection of anomalies in online processes.

  15. A Staphylococcus xylosus isolate with a new mecC allotype.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ewan M; Paterson, Gavin K; Holden, Matthew T G; Morgan, Fiona J E; Larsen, Anders Rhod; Petersen, Andreas; Leroy, Sabine; De Vliegher, Sarne; Perreten, Vincent; Fox, Lawrence K; Lam, Theo J G M; Sampimon, Otlis C; Zadoks, Ruth N; Peacock, Sharon J; Parkhill, Julian; Holmes, Mark A

    2013-03-01

    Recently, a novel variant of mecA known as mecC (mecA(LGA251)) was identified in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from both humans and animals. In this study, we identified a Staphylococcus xylosus isolate that harbors a new allotype of the mecC gene, mecC1. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that mecC1 forms part of a class E mec complex (mecI-mecR1-mecC1-blaZ) located at the orfX locus as part of a likely staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec) remnant, which also contains a number of other genes present on the type XI SCCmec.

  16. Knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning in rural communities in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aja, G N; Nwangwa, M A; Egwu, I N

    1995-01-01

    Maternal and infant mortality rates, coupled with a high population growth rate, are unacceptably high in Nigeria. More recently, the Nigerian government endorsed the promotion of reproductive health, including family planning, through maternal and child health services. The Ohaozara Local Government Area (LGA) introduced a Five-Year Action Plan (FYAP) in 1989. To appraise the Ohaozara Five-Year Action Plan, 600 persons stratified by geographical location and sex were interviewed in three randomly selected autonomous communities in the Ohaozara Local Government Area to determine their knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP). The findings in this study showed a high awareness level with a moderately positive attitude and generally low level of practice. Comprehensive reproductive health education (RHE), budgetary increase, evaluation of FYAP, and program coordination are recommended.

  17. Lactococcus garvieae carries a chromosomally encoded pentapeptide repeat protein that confers reduced susceptibility to quinolones in Escherichia coli producing a cytotoxic effect.

    PubMed

    Gibello, Alicia; Díaz de Alba, Paula; Blanco, M Mar; Machuca, Jesus; Cutuli, M Teresa; Rodríguez-Martínez, José Manuel

    2014-09-01

    This study characterises a chromosomal gene of Lactococcus garvieae encoding a pentapeptide repeat protein designated as LgaQnr. This gene has been implicated in reduced susceptibility to quinolones in this bacterium, which is of relevance to both veterinary and human medicine. All of the L. garvieae isolates analysed were positive for the lgaqnr gene. The expression of lgaqnr in Escherichia coli reduced the susceptibility to quinolones, producing an adverse effect. The reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was 16-fold in E. coli ATCC 25922 and 32-fold in E. coli DH10B, compared to the control strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration of nalidixic acid was also increased 4 or 5-fold. The effect of the expression of lgaqnr in E. coli was investigated by electron microscopy and was observed to affect the structure of the cell and the inner membrane of the recombinant cells.

  18. Perinatal outcomes of children born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer: a Nordic cohort study from the CoNARTaS group.

    PubMed

    Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Romundstad, Liv Bente; Bergh, Christina; Pinborg, Anja; Skjaerven, Rolv; Forman, Julie; Gissler, Mika; Nygren, Karl Gösta; Tiitinen, Aila

    2013-09-01

    What are the risks of adverse outcomes in singletons born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET)? Singletons born after FET have a better perinatal outcome compared with singletons born after fresh IVF and ICSI as regards low birthweight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB), but a worse perinatal outcome compared with singletons born after spontaneous conception. Previous studies have shown a worse perinatal outcome in children born after IVF in general compared with children born after spontaneous conception. In singletons born after FET, a lower rate of PTB and LBW and a higher rate of large for gestational age (LGA) compared with singletons born after fresh IVF have been shown. A retrospective Nordic population-based cohort study of all singletons conceived after FET in Denmark, Norway and Sweden until December 2007 was performed. Singletons born after FET (n = 6647) were compared with a control group of singletons born after fresh IVF and ICSI (n = 42 242) and singletons born after spontaneous conception (n = 288 542). Data on perinatal outcomes were obtained by linkage to the national Medical Birth Registries. Odds ratios were calculated for several perinatal outcomes and adjustments were made for maternal age, parity, year of birth, offspring sex and country of origin. Singletons born after FET had a lower risk of LBW (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-0.91), PTB (aOR 0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.92), very PTB (VPTB; aOR 0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.95) and small for gestational age (SGA; aOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.62-0.83), but a higher risk of post-term birth (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.27-1.55), LGA (aOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.27-1.64), macrosomia (aOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.39-1.80) and perinatal mortality (aOR 1.49, 95% CI 1.07-2.07) compared with singletons born after fresh IVF and ICSI. Compared with children conceived after spontaneous conception, singletons born after FET had a higher risk of LBW (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.13-1.43), very LBW (aOR 1.69, 95% CI 1.33-2.15), PTB (a

  19. Guidelines for Selection, Screening and Qualification of Low-Voltage Commercial Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors for Space Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.

    2012-01-01

    This document has been developed in the course of NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) program and is not an official endorsement of the insertion of commercial capacitors in space programs or an established set of requirements for their testing. The purpose of this document is to suggest possible ways for selection, screening, and qualification of commercial capacitors for NASA projects and open discussions in the parts engineering community related to the use of COTS ceramic capacitors. This guideline is applicable to commercial surface mount chip, simple parallel plate design, multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) rated to voltages of 100V and less. Parts with different design, e.g. low inductance ceramic capacitors (LICA), land grid array (LGA) etc., might need additional testing and tailoring of the requirements described in this document. Although the focus of this document is on commercial MLCCs, many procedures discussed below would be beneficial for military-grade capacitors

  20. Joint and Independent Associations of Gestational Weight Gain and Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index with Outcomes of Pregnancy in Chinese Women: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunming; Liu, Yajun; Zhang, Weiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the joint and independent effects of gestational weight gain (GWG) and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) on pregnancy outcomes in a population of Chinese Han women and to evaluate pregnant women’s adherence to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) gestational weight gain guidelines. Methods This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of 48,867 primiparous women from mainland China who had a full-term singleton birth between January 1, 2011 and December 30, 2011. The independent associations of pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG and categories of combined pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with outcomes of interest were examined using an adjusted multivariate regression model. In addition, women with pre-pregnancy hypertension were excluded from the analysis of the relationship between GWG and delivery of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, and women with gestational diabetes (GDM) were excluded from the analysis of the relationship between GWG and delivery of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants. Results Only 36.8% of the women had a weight gain that was within the recommended range; 25% and 38.2% had weight gains that were below and above the recommended range, respectively. The contribution of GWG to the risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes was modest. Women with excessive GWG had an increased likelihood of gestational hypertension (adjusted OR 2.55; 95% CI = 1.92–2.80), postpartum hemorrhage (adjusted OR 1.30; 95% CI = 1.17–1.45), cesarean section (adjusted OR 1.31; 95% CI = 1.18–1.36) and delivery of an LGA infant (adjusted OR 2.1; 95% CI = 1.76–2.26) compared with women with normal weight gain. Conversely, the incidence of GDM (adjusted OR 1.64; 95% CI = 1.20–1.85) and SGA infants (adjusted OR 1.51; 95% CI = 1.32–1.72) was increased in the group of women with inadequate GWG. Moreover, in the obese women, excessive GWG was associated with an apparent increased risk of delivering an LGA infant. In the women who were

  1. Optimizing the Galileo space communication link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, J. I.

    1994-01-01

    The Galileo mission was originally designed to investigate Jupiter and its moons utilizing a high-rate, X-band (8415 MHz) communication downlink with a maximum rate of 134.4 kb/sec. However, following the failure of the high-gain antenna (HGA) to fully deploy, a completely new communication link design was established that is based on Galileo's S-band (2295 MHz), low-gain antenna (LGA). The new link relies on data compression, local and intercontinental arraying of antennas, a (14,1/4) convolutional code, a (255,M) variable-redundancy Reed-Solomon code, decoding feedback, and techniques to reprocess recorded data to greatly reduce data losses during signal acquisition. The combination of these techniques will enable return of significant science data from the mission.

  2. Place of birth or place of death: an evaluation of 1139 maternal deaths in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, Adetoro A; Campbell, Malcolm; Ogundeji, Martins O; Lawoyin, Taiwo; Thomson, Ann M

    2013-11-01

    to describe the incidence of maternal death by age, marital status, timing and place of death in Ibadan North and Ido Local Government Areas of Oyo State, Nigeria. a retrospective study using multistage sampling with stratification and clustering to select local government areas, political wards and households. We included one eligible subject by household in the sample. Data on maternal mortality were collected using the principles of the indirect sisterhood method. Ibadan city of Oyo state, Nigeria. We included eight randomly selected political wards from Ibadan North LGA (urban) and Ido LGA (rural). 3028 participants were interviewed using the four questions of the indirect sisterhood method: How many sisters have you ever had who are ever married (or who survived until age 15)? How many are dead? How many are alive? How many died while they were pregnant, during childbirth, or within six weeks after childbirth (that is, died of maternal causes)? We also included other questions such as place and timing of death, age of women at death and number of pregnancies. 1139 deaths were reported to be related to pregnancy, childbirth or the puerperium. Almost half were aged between aged 25-34 years. More deaths occurred to women who were pregnant for the first time (33.4%, n=380) than for any other number of pregnancies, with 49.9% (n=521) dying within 24 hours after childbirth or abortion and 30.9% (n=322) dying after 24 hours but within 72 hours after childbirth or abortion. Only 71.5% (n=809) were reported to have been admitted to health-care facilities before their death, the percentage being higher in the urban LGA (72.4%, n=720) than the rural LGA (65.4%, n=89). The percentage being admitted varied from one political ward to another (from 42.9% to 80.4%), the difference being statistically significant (χ(2)=17.55, df=7, p=0.014). The majority of the deaths occurred after childbirth (63.5%, n=723). Most deaths were said to have occurred in the hospital (38.6%) or

  3. Self-adaptive differential evolution algorithm incorporating local search for protein-ligand docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hwan Won; Cho, Seung Joo; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Lee, Kyu-Hwan

    2013-02-01

    Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm is powerful in optimization problems over several real parameters. DE depends on strategies to generate new trial solutions and the associated parameter values for searching performance. In self-adaptive DE, the automatic learning about previous evolution was used to determine the best mutation strategy and its parameter settings. By combining the self-adaptive DE and Hooke Jeeves local search, we developed a new docking method named SADock (Strategy Adaptation Dock) with the help of AutoDock4 scoring function. As the accuracy and performance of SADock was evaluated in self-docking using the Astex diverse set, the introduced SADock showed better success ratio (89%) than the success ratio (60%) of the Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA) of AutoDock4. The self-adapting scheme enabled our new docking method to converge fast and to be robust through the various docking problems.

  4. In silico evaluation of TERT inhibition by anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Mahendar, Porika; Sirisha, Kalam; Kulandaivelu, Umasankar; Shankar, Prakhya Laxmi Jaya; Radhika, Tippani; Sadanandam, Abbagani

    2012-10-01

    The activation of telomerase represents an early step in carcinogenesis. Increased telomerase expression in malignant tumors suggests that telomerase inactivation may represent a potential chemotherapeutic target. In this work, existing anticancer drugs were docked against telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) using a Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA). Autodock's scoring function was applied to each of the molecules in order to identify the inhibitor with the strongest pharmacological action. The structural insights provided by this study regarding binding poses and possible interactions, free energies of binding, and drug scores aided in the identification of potential inhibitory compounds. The ranks of the various ligands investigated were based on the final docked energy values. Among nine selected compounds, vindesine, temsirolimus, and cyclosporine were found to be more potent TERT inhibitors than the standard inhibitor, curcumin.

  5. Analysis of the absorption spectra of gas emission of patients with lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by laser optoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yurii V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgenii L.

    2013-02-01

    It is important to identify patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer in the early stages of the disease. The method of laser opto-acoustic gas analysis, in this case, can act as a promising tool for diagnostics. The material for this study were the gas emission samples collected from patients and healthy volunteers - samples of exhaled air, swabs from teeth and cheeks. A set of material was formed three groups: healthy volunteers, patients with COPD, lung cancer patients. The resulting samples were analyzed by means of laser opto-acoustic gas analyzers: with intracavity location detector (ILPA-1), with extracavity location detector (LGA-2). Presentation of the results in an easy to visual form was performed using the method of elastic maps, based on the principal component analysis. The results of analysis show potentialities of usage of laser optoacoustic spectroscopy application to assess the status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer.

  6. Factors influencing motivation and retention of primary healthcare workers in the rural areas of Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jegede, Ayodele S; Adejumo, Prisca; Ushie, Boniface Ayanbekongshie

    2013-01-01

    Limited data exist on retention of primary healthcare (PHC) staff in rural areas, crippling the already fragile healthcare systems in Nigeria. This study investigated why PHC staff would or would not want to work in rural areas and how they could be retained. Four hundred and twelve (412) health workers and caregivers, and 21 key informants were interviewed in Ona-Ara LGA. Logistic regression statistics was used to analyse quantitative data and narrative for qualitative data. There was no significant factor influencing health workers' unwillingness to work in rural areas and, relationship between their demographic characteristics and perceived reasons to do so. Combined factors influencing PHC workers' willingness to work in rural areas influenced use of PHC. Financial and non-financial incentives are responsible for workers' motivation to work in rural areas. The mal-distribution of health facilities and health workers between urban and rural areas must be addressed. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.

  7. Optimizing Weight for Maternal and Infant Health - Tenable, or Too Late?

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Jacinda M; Barbour, Linda A

    Obesity in pregnancy is the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity, and gestational weight gain (GWG) is one modifiable risk factor that improves pregnancy outcomes. Most pregnant women gain more than the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations, particularly overweight and obese women. GWG even less than the 2009 IOM guidelines in obese women may improve pregnancy outcomes and reduce large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants, an independent risk factor for childhood obesity, without increasing small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Unfortunately, despite the fact that over 50 interventional trials designed to decrease excess GWG have been conducted, these interventions have been only modestly effective, and interventions designed to facilitate weight postpartum weight loss have also been disappointing. Successful interventions are of paramount importance not only to improve pregnancy outcomes but also for the future metabolic health of the mother and her infant, and may be key in attenuating the trans-generational risk on childhood obesity.

  8. Optimizing Weight for Maternal and Infant Health – Tenable, or Too Late?

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity in pregnancy is the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity, and gestational weight gain (GWG) is one modifiable risk factor that improves pregnancy outcomes. Most pregnant women gain more than the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations, particularly overweight and obese women. GWG even less than the 2009 IOM guidelines in obese women may improve pregnancy outcomes and reduce large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants, an independent risk factor for childhood obesity, without increasing small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Unfortunately, despite the fact that over 50 interventional trials designed to decrease excess GWG have been conducted, these interventions have been only modestly effective, and interventions designed to facilitate weight postpartum weight loss have also been disappointing. Successful interventions are of paramount importance not only to improve pregnancy outcomes but also for the future metabolic health of the mother and her infant, and may be key in attenuating the trans-generational risk on childhood obesity. PMID:26442123

  9. Sexual dimorphism in epigenomicresponses of stem cells to extreme fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Delahaye, Fabien; Wijetunga, N. Ari; Heo, Hye J.; Tozour, Jessica N.; Zhao, Yong Mei; Greally, John M.; Einstein, Francine H.

    2014-01-01

    Extreme fetal growth is associated with increased susceptibility to a range of adult diseases through an unknown mechanism of cellular memory. We tested whether heritable epigenetic processes in long-lived CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) showed evidence for re-programming associated with the extremes of fetal growth. Here we show that both fetal growth restriction and over-growth are associated with global shifts towards DNA hypermethylation, targeting cis-regulatory elements in proximity to genes involved in glucose homeostasis and stem cell function. We find a sexually dimorphic response; intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with substantially greater epigenetic dysregulation in males, whereas large for gestational age (LGA) growth predominantly affects females. The findings are consistent with extreme fetal growth interacting with variable fetal susceptibility to influence cellular aging and metabolic characteristics through epigenetic mechanisms, potentially generating biomarkers that could identify infants at higher risk for chronic disease later in life. PMID:25300954

  10. Birth Outcomes by Infertility Treatment: Analyses of the Population-Based Cohort Massachusetts Outcomes Study of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (MOSART)

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Barbara; Stern, Judy E.; Kotelchuck, Milton; Declercq, Eugene R.; Anderka, Marlene; Diop, Hafsatou

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate pregnancy and birth outcomes by infertility treatment. Study Design ART data on women who were both treated and gave birth in Massachusetts were linked to vital records and hospital data. Singleton and twin live births were categorized by ART treatment parameters; risks for adverse outcomes (pregnancy hypertension, PIH; gestational diabetes, GDM; primary cesarean, CS; prematurity, PTB; low birthweight, LBW; small-for-gestation, SGA; large-for-gestation, LGA; and birth defects, BD) were modeled using logistic regression (adjusted odds ratios, AORs, and 95% confidence intervals), adjusted for parental and treatment factors. GDM and PIH were additionally modeled as adverse outcomes. Results Among the 8,948 pregnancies, risks were significantly higher among twins (PIH-2.58, GDM-1.30, CS-5.83, PTB-11.84, LBW-10.68, SGA-2.17; BD-2.54); donor oocytes (PIH-1.87, CS-1.43, PTB-1.43); ICSI (SGA-1.20); and the presence of >one fetal heartbeat at six-weeks gestation (two fetal heartbeats: PTB-1.49, LBW-1.57; three fetal heartbeats: PTB-2.07, LBW-2.30, SGA-2.04). Thawed embryos were associated with a higher risk for PIH (1.30), but lower risks for LBW (0.79) and SGA (0.38). GDM was associated with increased risks for CS (1.22), LGA (1.40), and BD (1.50); PIH was associated with risks for CS (1.86), PTB (2.70), and LBW (1.83). Conclusions Plurality is the predominant ART treatment risk factor associated with substantial excess morbidity for both mother and infants. PMID:27172633

  11. Eradicating guinea worm without wells: unrealized hopes of the Water Decade.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Otusanya, S; Adeniyi, J D; Tijani, J; Banjoko, M

    1997-12-01

    At the start of the United Nations International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in the 1980s, guinea worm disease was targeted as the major indicator of the success of the Decade's efforts to promote safe water. By the late 1980s, most of the guinea worm endemic countries in Africa and South Asia had established guinea worm eradication programmes that included water supply as one of their main technical strategies. By surveying the water supply situation in Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) in Oyo State, Nigeria, in June 1996, as a case study, it was possible to determine the role that water supply has played in the eradication effort. Although two major agencies, the former Directorate for Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure and UNICEF, provided hand dug and bore-hole wells respectively in many parts of the LGA, coverage of the smaller farm hamlets has been minor compared to efforts in the larger towns. This is ironic because the farm hamlets served as a reservoir for the disease in the 1980s, such that when the piped water system in the towns broke down, guinea worm was easily reintroduced into the towns. The survey of 188 ever-endemic hamlets with an estimated population of 23,556 found that 74.3% of the people still drink only pond water. Another 11.3% have wells that have become dysfunctional. Only 14.4% of this rural population has access' to functioning wells. Guinea worm was eliminated from 107 of the hamlets mainly by the use of cloth filters and chemical treatment of ponds. While this proves that it is possible to eradicate guinea worm, it fails to leave behind the legacy of reliable, safe water supplies that was the hope of the Water Decade.

  12. Mapping knowledge management resources of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) among people living in rural and urban settings of Ilorin, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bolarinwa, Oladimeji Akeem; Ameen, Hafsat Abolore; Durowade, Kabir Adekunle; Akande, Tanimola Makanjuola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lack of access to information and knowledge about mother and child health was identified as a major contributor to poor maternal and child health in Nigeria. The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (PMNCH) has recognized mapping the knowledge management of Maternal Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) as one of the major strategies to be deployed in improving the health of these vulnerable groups. The main aim of this study is to map the knowledge management resources of Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) in rural and urban settings of Ilorin West LGA of Kwara state Nigeria. Methods It is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a comparative analysis of findings from urban and rural settings. Epi-mapping was used to carve out the LGA and map responses. The p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant at 95% confidence level. Results The study showed that traditional leader was responsible for more than half of the traditional way of obtaining information by rural (66.7%) and urban (56.2%) respondents while documentation accounts for the main MNCH knowledge preservation for the rural (40.6%) and the urban (50%) dwellers. Traditional leaders (32.2%) and elders (46.7%) were the main people responsible for dissemination of knowledge in rural areas whereas elders (35.9%) and Parents (19.9%) were the main people responsible in urban areas. Conclusion It was concluded that traditional and family institutions are important in the knowledge management of MNCH in both rural and urban settings of Nigeria. PMID:24932345

  13. Third- and fourth-degree perineal tears--incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Nir; Gavish, Oz; Eisner, Michal; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Wasserberg, Nir; Yogev, Yariv

    2013-05-01

    To assess the incidence and risk factors for third- and fourth-degree perineal tears (34DPT), and to identify subgroups of women who are at especially high risk for 34DPT. A cohort study of women who underwent vaginal delivery in a single tertiary medical center between 1999 and 2011, (58 937 deliveries). Women diagnosed with 34DPT following delivery were compared to control group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and tree classification analysis were used to identify combinations of risk factors which were associated with considerable risk for 34DPT. Overall, 356 (0.6%) deliveries were complicated by 34DPT (340 (95.5%) third-degree tears and 16 (4.5%) fourth-degree tears). Independent predictors of 34DPT were: forceps delivery (odds ratio (OR) = 5.5, confidence interval (CI) 3.9-7.8), precipitate labor (OR = 5.2, CI 2.9-9.2), persistent occiput posterior position (OR = 2.6, CI 1.6-4.3), vacuum extraction (OR = 1.9, CI 1.4-2.6) as well as large for gestational age (LGA) infant and gestational age > 40 weeks. Fourth-degree tears were associated with forceps delivery (OR = 12.5, CI 2.3-66.2), precipitate labor (OR = 9.7, 95%-CI 1.2-75.4) and LGA infant (OR = 7.4, 95%-CI 1.7 -1.5). Overall, the predictability of 34DPT was limited (R(2 )= 0.4). In subgroups of women with certain combinations of risk factors the risk of 34DPT ranged from 10% to 25%. Despite the limited predictability of 34DPT by individual risk factors, the use of combinations of risk factors may assist obstetricians in identifying women who are at especially high risk for 34DPT.

  14. Clinical significance of the anterosuperior lymph nodes along the common hepatic artery identified by sentinel node mapping in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Ayako; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Kamiya, Satoshi; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Rieko; Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Wada, Norihito; Kawakubo, Hirofumi; Saikawa, Yoshiro; Omori, Tai; Nakahara, Tadaki; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Murakami, Koji; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2016-10-01

    The sentinel node (SN) concept is safely applied and validated in early gastric cancer. Gastric lymph nodes are divided into five basins with the main gastric arteries, and the anterosuperior lymph nodes with the common hepatic artery (No. 8a) are classified in the right gastric artery (r-GA) basin. Although No. 8a are considered to have lymphatic flow from the r-GA basin, there might be additional multiple lymphatic flows into No. 8a. The aim of this study is to analyze the lymphatic flows to No. 8a and to investigate the clinical significance of No. 8a as a sentinel node (SN No. 8a). Four hundred and twenty-nine patients with cT1N0 or cT2N0 gastric cancer underwent SN mapping. We used technetium-99 tin colloid solution and blue dye as a tracer. We detected SN No. 8a in 35 (8.2 %) patients. In these patients, we detected SN No. 8a with SNs that belonged to the left gastric artery (l-GA) basin (66 %), right gastroepiploic artery (r-GEA) basin (54 %), and right gastric artery (r-GA) basin (46 %). In addition, celiac artery lymph nodes were detected as SNs significantly more frequently. Function-preserving surgery was performed significantly less often in patients with SN No. 8a (p =0.018). We found that SN No. 8a seemed to have lymphatic flow not only from the r-GA basin, but also from the l-GA basin or r-GEA basin. When SN No. 8a are detected, we should be careful to perform function-preserving surgery, even in SN-negative cases.

  15. Spatial Patterns and Socioecological Drivers of Dengue Fever Transmission in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Archie; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2011-01-01

    Background: Understanding how socioecological factors affect the transmission of dengue fever (DF) may help to develop an early warning system of DF. Objectives: We examined the impact of socioecological factors on the transmission of DF and assessed potential predictors of locally acquired and overseas-acquired cases of DF in Queensland, Australia. Methods: We obtained data from Queensland Health on the numbers of notified DF cases by local government area (LGA) in Queensland for the period 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2005. Data on weather and the socioeconomic index were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. A Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive model was fitted at the LGA level to quantify the relationship between DF and socioecological factors. Results: Our estimates suggest an increase in locally acquired DF of 6% [95% credible interval (CI): 2%, 11%] and 61% (95% CI: 2%, 241%) in association with a 1-mm increase in average monthly rainfall and a 1°C increase in average monthly maximum temperature between 2002 and 2005, respectively. By contrast, overseas-acquired DF cases increased by 1% (95% CI: 0%, 3%) and by 1% (95% CI: 0%, 2%) in association with a 1-mm increase in average monthly rainfall and a 1-unit increase in average socioeconomic index, respectively. Conclusions: Socioecological factors appear to influence the transmission of DF in Queensland, but the drivers of locally acquired and overseas-acquired DF may differ. DF risk is spatially clustered with different patterns for locally acquired and overseas-acquired cases. PMID:22015625

  16. Supermarket access, transport mode and BMI: the potential for urban design and planning policy across socio-economic areas.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Maureen; Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Badland, Hannah; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2017-09-07

    To investigate dietary intake, BMI and supermarket access at varying geographic scales and transport modes across areas of socio-economic disadvantage, and to evaluate the implementation of an urban planning policy that provides guidance on spatial access to supermarkets. Cross-sectional study used generalised estimating equations to investigate associations between supermarket density and proximity, vegetable and fruit intake and BMI at five geographic scales representing distances people travel to purchase food by varying transport modes. A stratified analysis by area-level disadvantage was conducted to detect optimal distances to supermarkets across socio-economic areas. Spatial distribution of supermarket and transport access was analysed using a geographic information system. Melbourne, Australia. Adults (n 3128) from twelve local government areas (LGA) across Melbourne. Supermarket access was protective of BMI for participants in high disadvantaged areas within 800 m (P=0·040) and 1000 m (P=0·032) road network buffers around the household but not for participants in less disadvantaged areas. In urban growth area LGA, only 26 % of dwellings were within 1 km of a supermarket, far less than 80-90 % of dwellings suggested in the local urban planning policy. Low public transport access compounded disadvantage. Rapid urbanisation is a global health challenge linked to increases in dietary risk factors and BMI. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying the most appropriate geographic scale to inform urban planning policy for optimal health outcomes across socio-economic strata. Urban planning policy implementation in disadvantaged areas within cities has potential for reducing health inequities.

  17. A qualitative study of internal wave ship wakes: Dependence on environmental conditions and experimental parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Mullenhoff, C.J.; Brase, J.M.

    1995-04-24

    For the past several years the UK-US Radar Ocean Imaging Program has conducted a series of field experiments with the primary purpose of gathering real aperture radar (RAR) imagery at low grazing angle of ship-generated internal wave (IW) wakes. The first observations with RAR`s were made in the 1989 Loch Linnhe experiment where it was observed that radar images at low grazing angles (LGA) of approximately six degrees had significantly higher modulation levels than SAR images made at higher grazing angles of 35 - 65 degrees. These initial observations have led to several more experiments designed to verify the phenomenon and to test its dependence on experimental and environmental conditions. A parallel effort began to develop theoretical models of the LGA imaging process. Through this series of experiments we have developed an extensive database of radar imagery and supporting environmental data. The objective of this report is twofold: (1) To describe the database and the associated space of parameters. We will look at the coverage of the parameter space within the database and at areas which should be covered. (2) To take an initial look at the dependence of qualitative modulation strength on the experimental and environmental parameters. This first look will indicate the strongest dependencies which can then be studied in more detail. Section 2 describes the experimental database and Section 3 discusses the parameter space, image quality, and their relationships based on the images in the database. In Section 4 we summarize our conclusions and make recommendations for both future analyses and experiments.

  18. Embolization of arterial gastric supply in obesity (EMBARGO): an endovascular approach in the management of morbid obesity. proof of the concept in the porcine model.

    PubMed

    Diana, Michele; Pop, Raoul; Beaujeux, Rémy; Dallemagne, Bernard; Halvax, Peter; Schlagowski, Isabel; Liu, Yu-Yin; Diemunsch, Pierre; Geny, Bernard; Lindner, Veronique; Marescaux, Jacques

    2015-03-01

    Embolization of the left gastric artery (LGA) reduces circulating levels of ghrelin, but might prevent from further obesity surgery, particularly sleeve gastrectomy (SG), since the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ), depending on LGA, would be devascularized. Our aim was to evaluate, in an experimental animal study, an endovascular approach targeting arteries of the gastroepiploic arcade aiming to modulate ghrelin levels and to generate an increased vascular supply of the GEJ to reduce the risks of staple-line leaks after SG. Seven pigs underwent embolization of both left and right gastroepiploic arteries (LGEA and RGEA) using 500-700-μ microspheres (embolization of arterial gastric supply in obesity (EMBARGO)-alpha). A SG was performed in six pigs 3 weeks after EMBARGO-alpha and on eight controls. Capillary lactates were measured at the cardia and pylorus. Five pigs underwent coiling of RGEA and embolization of LGEA using both coils and 100-300-μ microspheres (EMBARGO-beta). Ghrelin levels were assessed before and once per week after both EMBARGOs. Control celiac trunk angiography was performed at 3 weeks (alpha) and 4 weeks (beta). No significant ghrelin reduction was obtained with EMBARGO-alpha at 3 weeks when compared to baseline. Significant ghrelin reduction was found 3 weeks (p = 0.0363) and 4 weeks (p = 0.025) after EMBARGO-beta. Post-EMBARGO-alpha animals presented a significantly lower increase in cardia lactates when compared to controls after SG. Control angiography showed a significantly increased fundic vascular network in 5/6 animals after EMBARGO-alpha and in 5/5 after EMBARGO-beta. EMBARGO is effective to decrease ghrelin production and can enhance the vascular supply of the GEJ, preparing the vascular background for a SG.

  19. Estimating bias in derived body mass index in the Maternity Experiences Survey.

    PubMed

    Dzakpasu, S; Duggan, J; Fahey, J; Kirby, R S

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess bias in the body mass index (BMI) measure in the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey (MES) and possible implications of bias on the relationship between BMI and selected pregnancy outcomes. We assessed BMI classification based on self-reported versus measured values. We used a random sample of 6175 women from the MES, which derived BMI from self-reported height and weight, and a random sample of 259 women who had previously given birth from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS), which derived BMI from self-reported and measured height and weight. Two correction equations were applied to self-reported based BMI, and the impact of these corrections on associations between BMI and caesarean section, small-for-gestational age (SGA) and large-for-gestational age (LGA) births was studied. Overall, 86.9% of the CHMS subsample was classified into the same BMI category based on self-reported versus measured data. However, misclassification had a substantial effect on the proportion of women in underweight and obese BMI categories. For example, 14.5% versus 20.8% of women were classified as obese based on self-reported data versus measured data. Corrections improved estimates of obesity prevalence, but over- and underestimated other BMI categories. Corrections had nonsignificant effects on the associations between BMI and SGA, LGA, and caesarean section. While there was high concordance in BMI classification based on selfreported versus measured height and weight, bias in self-reported based measures may slightly over- or underestimate the risks associated with a particular BMI class. However, the general trend in associations is unaffected.

  20. Association of Second and Third Trimester Weight Gain in Pregnancy with Maternal and Fetal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Drehmer, Michele; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Kac, Gilberto; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between weekly weight gain, during the second and third trimesters, classified according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM/NRC) recommendations, and maternal and fetal outcomes. Methods Gestational weight gain was evaluated in 2,244 pregnant women of the Brazilian Study of Gestational Diabetes (Estudo Brasileiro do Diabetes Gestacional – EBDG). Outcomes were cesarean delivery, preterm birth and small or large for gestational age birth (SGA, LGA). Associations between inadequate weight gain and outcomes were estimated using robust Poisson regression adjusting for pre-pregnancy body mass index, trimester-specific weight gain, age, height, skin color, parity, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Results In fully adjusted models, in the second trimester, insufficient weight gain was associated with SGA (relative risk [RR] 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26–2.33), and excessive weight gain with LGA (RR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16–2.31); in third trimester, excessive weight gain with preterm birth (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.08–2.70) and cesarean delivery (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.03–1.44). Women with less than recommended gestational weight gain in the 2nd trimester had a lesser risk of cesarean deliveries (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.71–0.96) than women with adequate gestational weight gain in this trimester. Conclusion Though insufficient weight gain in the 3rd trimester was not associated with adverse outcomes, other deviations from recommended weight gain during second and third trimester were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. These findings support, in part, the 2009 IOM/NRC recommendations for nutritional monitoring during pregnancy. PMID:23382944

  1. Maternal Lipids May Predict Fetal Growth in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Krstevska, Brankica; Jovanovska, Sasha Misevska; Krstevska, Slagjana Simeonova; Nakova, Valentina Velkoska; Serafimoski, Vladimir

    2016-11-01

    During diabetic pregnancy, complex metabolic changes occur in the lipid profile. The aim of the study was to determine the predictive values of maternal serum lipid levels on large-for-gestational age newborns during the third trimester in pregnancies of women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Data of forty three pregnancies of women with DM2 and two hundred women with GDM were analyzed. The analysis encompassed the following parameters: age, body mass index (BMI), lipid parameters, HbA1c in first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, preeclampsia and baby birth weight. DM2 and GDM groups showed statistically significant differences in the following variables: total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, BMI, age, baby birth weight, incidence of SGA and preterm delivery (9.4 ± 2.3 vs. 11.0 ± 2.3 mmol/L, 2.4 ± 1.4 vs. 3.4 ± 1.6 mmol/L, 5.5 ± 1.2 vs. 6.4 ± 1.4 mmol/L, 30.6 ± 5.4 vs. 26.9 ± 5.2 kg/m2, 34 ± 7.8 vs. 31.5 ± 5.6 years, 3183 ± 972 vs. 3533 ± 699 g., 20% vs. 7.5%, 27.9 vs. 14%, respectively, p < 0.05). Linear multiple regression analysis demonstrated that triglycerides, LDL-C and total cholesterol were independent predictors of LGA (p < 0.05). Triglycerides and LDL-C in the third trimester of pregnancy are independent predictors for fetal macrosomia in DM2 and GDM pregnancies. Thus, the maternal serum triglycerides and LDL-C levels determined in the maternal blood taken in the third trimester of pregnancy may indentify women who will give birth to LGA newborns.

  2. Electrochemical oxidation and protein adduct formation of aniline: a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry study.

    PubMed

    Melles, Daniel; Vielhaber, Torsten; Baumann, Anne; Zazzeroni, Raniero; Karst, Uwe

    2012-04-01

    Historically, skin sensitization tests are typically based on in vivo animal tests. However, for substances used in cosmetic products, these tests have to be replaced according to the European Commission regulation no. 1223/2009. Modification of skin proteins by electrophilic chemicals is a key process associated with the induction of skin sensitization. The present study investigates the capabilities of a purely instrumental setup to determine the potential of commonly used non-electrophilic chemicals to cause skin sensitization by the generation of electrophilic species from the parent compound. In this work, the electrophiles were generated by the electrochemical oxidation of aniline, a basic industrial chemical which may also be released from azo dyes in cosmetics. The compound is a known sensitizer and was oxidized in an electrochemical thin-layer cell which was coupled online to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The electrochemical oxidation was performed on a boron-doped diamond working electrode, which is able to generate hydroxyl radicals in aqueous solutions at high potentials. Without any pretreatment, the oxidation products were identified by electrospray ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-ToF-MS) using their exact masses. A mass voltammogram was generated by plotting the obtained mass spectra against the applied potential. Oligomerization states with up to six monomeric units in different redox states of aniline were observed using this setup. This approach was extended to generate adducts between the oxidation products of aniline and the tripeptide glutathione. Two adducts were identified with this trapping experiment. Protein modification was carried out subsequently: Aniline was oxidized at a constant potential and was allowed to react with β-lactoglobulin A (β-LGA) or human serum albumin (HSA), respectively. The generated adducts were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to ESI-ToF-MS. For both β-LGA and HSA, aniline

  3. Incidence and outcomes of pregnancy-associated cancer in Australia, 1994–2008: a population-based linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, YY; Roberts, CL; Dobbins, T; Stavrou, E; Black, K; Morris, J; Young, J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine trends in pregnancy-associated cancer and associations between maternal cancer and pregnancy outcomes. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting New South Wales, Australia, 1994–2008. Population A total of 781 907 women and their 1 309 501 maternities. Methods Cancer and maternal information were obtained from linked cancer registry, birth and hospital records for the entire population. Generalised estimating equations with a logit link were used to examine associations between cancer risk factors and pregnancy outcomes. Main outcome measures Incidence of pregnancy-associated cancer (diagnosis during pregnancy or within 12 months of delivery), maternal morbidities, preterm birth, and small- and large-for-gestational-age (LGA). Results A total of 1798 new cancer diagnoses were identified, including 499 during pregnancy and 1299 postpartum. From 1994 to 2007, the crude incidence rate of pregnancy-associated cancer increased from 112.3 to 191.5 per 100 000 maternities (P < 0.001), and only 14% of the increase was explained by increasing maternal age. Cancer diagnosis was more common than expected in women aged 15–44 years (observed-to-expected ratio 1.49; 95% CI 1.42–1.56). Cancers were predominantly melanoma (33.3%) and breast cancer (21.0%). Women with cancer diagnosed during pregnancy had high rates of labour induction (28.5%), caesarean section (40.0%) and planned preterm birth (19.7%). Novel findings included a cancer association with multiple pregnancies (adjusted odds ratio 1.52, 95% CI 1.13–2.05) and LGA (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.14–1.89). Conclusions Pregnancy-associated cancers have increased, and this increase is only partially explained by increasing maternal age. Pregnancy increases women’s interaction with health services and the possibility for diagnosis, but may also influence tumour growth. PMID:22947229

  4. Selective rather than universal screening for gestational diabetes mellitus?

    PubMed

    Miailhe, Grégoire; Kayem, Gilles; Girard, Guillaume; Legardeur, Hélène; Mandelbrot, Laurent

    2015-08-01

    To estimate the proportion of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) who would be missed by selective versus universal screening and to describe their pregnancy outcomes. An observational cohort study in a single center performing universal screening for GDM with a 75 g oral glucose challenge test (OGTT) at 24-28 weeks gestation. We excluded women with pregestational or first trimester diabetes, those not screened and deliveries <34 weeks. Risk factors were age ≥ 35 years, BMI ≥ 25, family history of diabetes, GDM in a previous pregnancy or macrosomia in a previous pregnancy. Main outcomes were large for gestational age (LGA>90th centile for gestational age, adjusted for gender) and small for gestational age<10th centile. Among 2187 women screened, 309 (14%) had GDM, of whom 256 (83%) had one or more risk factors. The proportion of women who had GDM despite the absence of any risk factor was 2.4%. In multivariate analysis, LGA was significantly associated with GDM only in case of risk factors. Mean fasting blood glucose was lower in GDM without risk factors than in GDM with risk factors (87 ± 1 mg/dl versus 94 ± 14, p<0.001) and fewer required insulin (6% versus 26%, respectively, p<0.001). Selective screening would have missed one-sixth of GDM cases, but these cases seemed milder, with normal fasting blood glucose, and thus less likely to lead to perinatal complications. Whereas an opt-in approach relies heavily on accurate patient screening, we suggest that screening tests could be avoided in low-risk women by an opt-out approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gestational weight gain among American Samoan women and its impact on delivery and infant outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Nicola L; Johnson, William; Hart, Chantelle N; Triche, Elizabeth W; Ah Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2015-02-03

    As obesity has increased worldwide, so have levels of obesity during pregnancy and excess gestational weight gain (GWG). The aim of this paper was to describe GWG among American Samoan women and examine the association between GWG and four adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes: cesarean delivery, small- and large-for-gestational age (SGA/LGA), and infant overweight/obesity. Data were extracted from prenatal care records of 632 Samoan women. Mixed-effects growth models were used to produce individual weight-for-gestational week curves from which second and third trimester weight gain was estimated. Binary logistic regression was used to examine associations between GWG and the outcomes of interest. Most women were overweight/obese in early pregnancy (86%) and 78% exceeded the Institute of Medicine GWG guidelines. Greater GWG in the second trimester and early pregnancy weight were independently associated with increased odds of a c-section (OR 1.40 [95% CI: 1.08, 1.83]) and OR 1.51 [95% CI: 1.17, 1.95], respectively). Risk of delivering a LGA infant increased with greater third trimester weight gain and higher early pregnancy weight, while second trimester weight gain was negatively associated with SGA. Risk of infant overweight/obesity at 12 months increased with early pregnancy weight (OR: 1.23 [95% CI: 1.01, 1.51]) and infant birthweight. The high levels of pregnancy obesity and excessive GWG in American Samoa suggest that it is important for physicians to encourage women into prenatal care early and begin education about appropriate GWG and the potential risks of excess weight gain for both the mother and baby.

  6. Obstetric and Neonatal Risks Among Obese Women Without Chronic Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Soo; Zhu, Yeyi; Grantz, Katherine L; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Chen, Zhen; Wallace, Maeve E; Smarr, Melissa M; Epps, Nikira M; Mendola, Pauline

    2016-07-01

    To investigate whether prepregnancy obesity is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes among women without chronic disease. Singleton deliveries (N=112,309) among mothers without chronic diseases in the Consortium on Safe Labor, a retrospective U.S. cohort, were analyzed using Poisson regression with robust variance estimation. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated perinatal risks in relation to prepregnancy obesity status adjusted for age, race-ethnicity, parity, insurance, smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy, and study site. Obstetric risks were variably (and mostly marginally) increased as body mass index (BMI) category and obesity class increased. In particular, the risk of gestational hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, and induction increased in a dose-response fashion. For example, the percentage of gestational diabetes among obese class III women was 14.6% in contrast to 2.8% among women with normal BMIs (corresponding relative risks [95% CI] 1.99 [1.86-2.13], 2.94 [2.73-3.18], 3.97 [3.61-4.36], and 5.47 [4.96-6.04] for overweight, obese class I, obese class II, and obese class III women, respectively) compared with women with normal BMIs. Similarly, neonatal risks increased in a dose-response fashion with maternal BMI status including preterm birth at less than 32 weeks of gestation, large for gestational age (LGA), transient tachypnea, sepsis, and intensive care unit admission. The percentage of LGA neonates increased from 7.9% among women with normal BMIs to 17.3% among obese class III women and relative risks increased to 1.52 (1.45-1.58), 1.74 (1.65-1.83), 1.93 (1.79-2.07), and 2.32 (2.14-2.52) as BMI category increased. Prepregnancy obesity is associated with increased risks of a wide range of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes among women without chronic diseases.

  7. Obstetric and Neonatal Risks Among Obese Women Without Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Soo; Zhu, Yeyi; Grantz, Katherine L.; Hinkle, Stefanie N.; Chen, Zhen; Wallace, Maeve E.; Smarr, Melissa M.; Epps, Nikira M.; Mendola, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether prepregnancy obesity is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes among women without chronic disease. Methods Singleton deliveries (n=112,309) among mothers without chronic diseases in the Consortium on Safe Labor, a retrospective U.S. cohort, were analyzed using Poisson regression with robust variance estimation. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) estimated perinatal risks in relation to pre-pregnancy obesity status adjusted for age, race–ethnicity, parity, insurance, smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy, and study site. Results Obstetric risks were variably (and mostly marginally) increased as BMI category and obesity class increased. In particular, the risk of gestational hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery and induction increased in a dose-response fashion. For example, the percent of gestational diabetes among obese class III women was 14.6% in contrast to 2.8% among normal BMI women, corresponding RR (95% CI) 1.99(1.86–2.13), 2.94(2.73–3.18), 3.97(3.61–4.36) and 5.47(4.96–6.04) for overweight, obese class I, obese class II, and obese class II women, respectively, compared with normal BMI women. Similarly, neonatal risks increased in a dose-response fashion with maternal BMI status including preterm birth <32 weeks, large for gestational age (LGA), transient tachypnea, sepsis and intensive care unit admission. The percent of LGA infants increased from 7.9% among normal BMI women to 17.3% among obese class III women and RR increased to 1.52(1.45–1.58), 1.74(1.65–1.83), 1.93(1.79–2.07) and 2.32(2.14–2.52) as BMI category increased. Conclusions Prepregnancy obesity is associated with increased risks of a wide range of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes among women without chronic diseases. PMID:27275800

  8. Conditioned stress prevents cue-primed cocaine reinstatement only in stress-responsive rats.

    PubMed

    Hadad, Natalie A; Wu, Lizhen; Hiller, Helmut; Krause, Eric G; Schwendt, Marek; Knackstedt, Lori A

    2016-07-01

    Neurobiological mechanisms underlying comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cocaine use disorder (CUD) are unknown. We aimed to develop an animal model of PTSD + CUD to examine the neurobiology underlying cocaine-seeking in the presence of PTSD comorbidity. Rats were exposed to cat urine once for 10-minutes and tested for anxiety-like behaviors one week later. Subsequently, rats underwent long-access (LgA) cocaine self-administration and extinction training. Rats were re-exposed to the trauma context and then immediately tested for cue-primed reinstatement of cocaine-seeking. Plasma and brains were collected afterwards for corticosterone assays and real-time qPCR analysis. Urine-exposed (UE; n = 23) and controls not exposed to urine (Ctrl; n = 11) did not differ in elevated plus maze behavior, but UE rats displayed significantly reduced habituation of the acoustic startle response (ASR) relative to Ctrl rats. A median split of ASR habituation scores was used to classify stress-responsive rats. UE rats (n = 10) self-administered more cocaine on Day 1 of LgA than control rats (Ctrl + Coc; n = 8). Re-exposure to the trauma context prevented cocaine reinstatement only in stress-responsive rats. Ctrl + Coc rats had lower plasma corticosterone concentrations than Ctrls, and decreased gene expression of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and Glcci1 in the hippocampus. Rats that self-administered cocaine displayed greater CRH expression in the amygdala that was independent of urine exposure. While we did not find that cat urine exposure induced a PTSD-like phenotype in our rats, the present study underscores the need to separate stressed rats into cohorts based on anxiety-like behavior in order to study individual vulnerability to PTSD + CUD.

  9. Malaria and anaemia in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study of pregnant women in rural communities of Southeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugwu, Emmanuel O; Dim, Cyril C; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S; Iloghalu, Emeka I; Ugwu, Angela O

    2014-06-01

    Several strategies are used in the care of pregnant women accessing antenatal care in primary health centres in Nigeria, with the aim of reducing the burden of malaria and anaemia. The objective of the study was to appraise the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in rural communities of Southeastern Nigeria where malaria preventive strategies are in place. We undertook a cross-sectional study of 300 pregnant women receiving antenatal care in randomly selected primary health centres in the Nkanu West local government area (LGA), Enugu state, Nigeria from August to September 2010. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was 92.0% (276/300) (mild in 86.7% [260/300] and moderate in 15.3% [16/300]). The prevalence of anaemia was 49.3% (148/300) (mild in 29.3% [88/300] and moderate in 20% [60/300]). There were no severe cases of malaria parasitaemia or anaemia. The educational status and occupation of participants were significantly associated with the occurrence of peripheral parasitaemia and anaemia respectively (p<0.05). The prevalence of malaria and anaemia is very high in the Nkanu West LGA of Enugu State, Nigeria. Efforts to reduce the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in pregnancy should be intensified in rural settings of Enugu state and Nigeria as a whole. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. miRNA regulation of Sirtuin-1 expression in human astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Sara Giovanna; Conti, Alfredo; Polito, Francesca; Tomasello, Chiara; Barresi, Valeria; La Torre, Domenico La; Cucinotta, Maria; Angileri, Flavio Filippo; Bartolotta, Marcello; Di Giorgio, Rosa Maria; Aguennouz, M'Hammed

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuins are a family of 7 histone deacetylases largely involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival and death. The role of sirtuins in tumorigenesis and cancer progression has been previously studied in certain cancer types. Few studies have investigated sirtuin expression in gliomas, with controversial results. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1) in diffuse astrocytoma [low grade astrocytoma (LGA)], anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and in primary glioma cell lines: PLGAC (primary LGA cells); PAAC (primary AA cells); and PGBMC (primary GBM cells). Tumor samples were obtained from patients who underwent craniotomy for microsurgical tumor resection at the Neurosurgery Unit of the University of Messina between 2011 and 2014. Sirt-1 expression was qualitatively analyzed in 30 human glial tumor samples and 5 non-neoplastic brain tissue (NBT) specimens using immunohistochemistry and western blotting techniques. Sirt-1 expression was quantitatively analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). In addition, Sirt-1 expression in primary cell lines was investigated by immunoblotting and RT-qPCR. Sirt-1 expression was downregulated in gliomas compared to NBTs. Sirt-1 levels also varied among different tumor grades, with more evident downregulation in high-grade (P<0.001) than low-grade tumors (P<0.01). These data were confirmed in cell lines, with the exception of upregulation of protein level in the highest malignancy grade cell lines. The present results suggest a role for miRNA-34a, miRNA-132 and miRNA-217 in the epigenetic control of Sirt-1 during gliomagenesis and progression, and demonstrate the different implications of Sirt-1 in human tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, the present results reveal that Sirt-1 may be an intrinsic regulator of tumor progression and the regulation of Sirt-1 involves complex molecular pathways. However, the

  11. Effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on neonatal birth weight.

    PubMed

    Du, Meng-Kai; Ge, Li-Ya; Zhou, Meng-Lin; Ying, Jun; Qu, Fan; Dong, Min-Yue; Chen, Dan-Qing

    To evaluate the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (pre-BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on neonatal birth weight (NBW) in the population of Chinese healthy pregnant women, attempting to guide weight control in pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study of 3772 Chinese women was conducted. The population was stratified by maternal pre-BMI categories as underweight (<18.5 kg/m(2)), normal weight (18.5-23.9 kg/m(2)), overweight (24.0-27.9 kg/m(2)), and obesity (≥28.0 kg/m(2)). The NBW differences were tested among the four groups, and then deeper associations among maternal pre-BMI, GWG, and NBW were investigated by multivariate analysis. NBW increased significantly with the increase of maternal pre-BMI level (P<0.05), except overweight to obesity (P>0.05). The multivariate analysis showed that both pre-BMI and GWG were positively correlated with NBW (P<0.05). Compared with normal pre-BMI, underweight predicted an increased odds ratio of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and decreased odds ratio for macrosomia and large-for-gestational-age (LGA), and the results were opposite for overweight. With the increase of GWG, the risk of SGA decreased and the risks of macrosomia and LGA increased. In addition, in different pre-BMI categories, the effects of weight gain in the first trimester on NBW were different (P<0.05). NBW is positively affected by both maternal pre-BMI and GWG, extreme pre-BMI and GWG are both associated with increased risks of abnormal birth weight, and maternal pre-BMI may modify the effect of weight gain in each trimester on NBW. A valid GWG guideline for Chinese women is an urgent requirement, whereas existing recommendations seem to be not very suitable for the Chinese.

  12. Mapping knowledge management resources of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) among people living in rural and urban settings of Ilorin, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Oladimeji Akeem; Ameen, Hafsat Abolore; Durowade, Kabir Adekunle; Akande, Tanimola Makanjuola

    2014-01-01

    Lack of access to information and knowledge about mother and child health was identified as a major contributor to poor maternal and child health in Nigeria. The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (PMNCH) has recognized mapping the knowledge management of Maternal Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) as one of the major strategies to be deployed in improving the health of these vulnerable groups. The main aim of this study is to map the knowledge management resources of Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) in rural and urban settings of Ilorin West LGA of Kwara state Nigeria. It is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a comparative analysis of findings from urban and rural settings. Epi-mapping was used to carve out the LGA and map responses. The p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant at 95% confidence level. The study showed that traditional leader was responsible for more than half of the traditional way of obtaining information by rural (66.7%) and urban (56.2%) respondents while documentation accounts for the main MNCH knowledge preservation for the rural (40.6%) and the urban (50%) dwellers. Traditional leaders (32.2%) and elders (46.7%) were the main people responsible for dissemination of knowledge in rural areas whereas elders (35.9%) and Parents (19.9%) were the main people responsible in urban areas. It was concluded that traditional and family institutions are important in the knowledge management of MNCH in both rural and urban settings of Nigeria.

  13. Distributed Attention Is Implemented through Theta-Rhythmic Gamma Modulation.

    PubMed

    Landau, Ayelet Nina; Schreyer, Helene Marianne; van Pelt, Stan; Fries, Pascal

    2015-08-31

    When subjects monitor a single location, visual target detection depends on the pre-target phase of an ∼8 Hz brain rhythm. When multiple locations are monitored, performance decrements suggest a division of the 8 Hz rhythm over the number of locations, indicating that different locations are sequentially sampled. Indeed, when subjects monitor two locations, performance benefits alternate at a 4 Hz rhythm. These performance alternations were revealed after a reset of attention to one location. Although resets are common and important events for attention, it is unknown whether, in the absence of resets, ongoing attention samples stimuli in alternation. Here, we examined whether spatially specific attentional sampling can be revealed by ongoing pre-target brain rhythms. Visually induced gamma-band activity plays a role in spatial attention. Therefore, we hypothesized that performance on two simultaneously monitored stimuli can be predicted by a 4 Hz modulation of gamma-band activity. Brain rhythms were assessed with magnetoencephalography (MEG) while subjects monitored bilateral grating stimuli for a unilateral target event. The corresponding contralateral gamma-band responses were subtracted from each other to isolate spatially selective, target-related fluctuations. The resulting lateralized gamma-band activity (LGA) showed opposite pre-target 4 Hz phases for detected versus missed targets. The 4 Hz phase of pre-target LGA accounted for a 14.5% modulation in performance. These findings suggest that spatial attention is a theta-rhythmic sampling process that is continuously ongoing, with each sampling cycle being implemented through gamma-band synchrony.

  14. Aberrant hepatic arteries running through pancreatic parenchyma encountered during pancreatoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Xu, Jianwei; Sun, Dong; Zhang, Zongli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Aberrant hepatic arteries (HAs) encountered during pancreatoduodenectomy are difficult to manage. Mehtods: Two cases with rare types of aberrant HA running through the pancreatic parenchyma were reviewed. Results: The first case, a 68-year-old man, was admitted with obstructive jaundice. A tumor of the pancreatic head and aberrant HAs were suspected on computed tomography (CT) scan. At laparotomy, a new variation was identified; namely, 2 aberrant arteries—a right replaced HA and middle HA (RMHA) that both originated from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and ran via intrapancreatic paths posterior and anterior to the pancreatic head, respectively. Branches of the RMHA to the pancreas were ligated and severed and the trunk preserved. The RMHA was mistakenly identified as an aberrant left HA (RLHA), whereas the RLHA was overlooked and not dissected intraoperatively. CT angiography performed 11 days postoperatively identified that the RLHA originated from the left gastric artery (LGA). The second case had a variation of Michels IX. A 58-year-old woman presented with obstructive jaundice and a distal cholangiocarcinoma was suspected on the basis of enhanced CT scan. At laparotomy, the common hepatic artery (CHA) was found to originate entirely from the SMA and run posterior to the pancreatic head via an intrapancreatic path. The segment of CHA in the pancreatic parenchyma was removed and reconstructed with the LGA. Conclusions: Preoperative identification of aberrant HAs helps in planning appropriate operative procedures and minimizing unnecessary complications. Both preservation and reconstruction of these arteries are technically safe and feasible; however, preservation is preferable. PMID:27930504

  15. Supply of a nondrug substitute reduces escalated heroin consumption.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Magalie; Ahmed, Serge H

    2008-08-01

    Escalation of drug consumption-a hallmark of addiction-has been hypothesized to be associated with a relative devaluation of alternative nondrug rewards and thus with a decrease in their ability to compete with or to substitute for the drug. In a behavioral economic framework, decreased substitutability of nondrug rewards for drug would explain why drug consumption is behaviorally dominant and relatively resistant to change (eg price-inelastic) in drug-addicted individuals. The goal of the present study was to test this hypothesis using a validated rat model of heroin intake escalation. Escalation was precipitated by long (6 h, long access (LgA)), but not short (1 h, short access (ShA)), daily access to i.v. heroin self-administration. After escalation, the effects of price (ie fixed-ratio value) on heroin consumption were assessed under two alternative reward conditions: in the presence or absence of a nondrug substitute for heroin (ie four freely available chow pellets). As expected, escalated heroin consumption by LgA rats was less sensitive to price than heroin consumption by ShA rats, showing that heroin had acquired greater reinforcing strength during escalation. However, supplying a substitute during access to heroin was sufficient to reverse this post-escalation increase in the reinforcing effectiveness of heroin. Thus, escalated heroin consumption is not associated with a decreased sensitivity to competing nondrug rewards. Escalated drug use may therefore persist, not so much because of a relative devaluation of nondrug substitutes, but because of a loss or reduction of their availability.

  16. Pregnancy outcomes of Chinese women with gestational diabetes mellitus defined by the IADPSG's but not by the 1999 WHO's criteria.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lei; Leng, Junhong; Liu, Gongshu; Zhang, Cuiping; Liu, Huikun; Li, Min; Tan, Linglin; Tian, Huiguang; Chan, Juliana C N; Hu, Gang; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin

    2015-11-01

    To compare pregnancy outcomes of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) newly defined by the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG)'s criteria vs GDM cases missed by a shift from the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO)'s criteria to the IADPSG's. From 2010 to 2012, we recruited 17 808 women who registered within 12 weeks of gestation in Tianjin, China. All women underwent a 50-g 1-h glucose challenge test (GCT) at 24-28 weeks of gestation and further underwent a 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) if the GCT result was ≥7·8 mmol/l. Women were divided into four groups, i.e., GDM defined by both criteria, GDM defined by the IADPSG's only, GDM defined by the 1999 WHO's only and non-GDM by either of them. Large for gestational age (LGA), macrosomia, pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and preterm birth were compared among the four groups. Logistic regression was used to control for confounders. The use of IADPSG's and the 1999 WHO's criteria detected that 7·7% (n = 1378) and 6·8% (n = 1206) of women had GDM, respectively, with 429 GDM newly identified and 257 women missed by a shift from the 1999 WHO's to the IADPSG's. The IADPSG's newly defined GDM had significantly increased risks of LGA (adjusted OR: 2·23, 95%CI: 1·36-3·64) and macrosomia (2·65, 95%CI: 1·50-4·66) than the 1999 WHO's only defined GDM cases. A shift of the 1999 WHO's criteria to the IADPSG's diagnosed more GDM cases who had worse pregnancy outcomes than those cases missed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Nutritional status of urban and rural primary school pupils in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ekekezie, O O; Odeyemi, K A; Ibeabuchi, N M

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out in Lagos State in Ikorodu LGA (rural), a largely agrarian area producing raw materials for agro-allied industries and Ikeja LGA (urban), a highly-developed metropolis and commercial centre. Hitherto, studies showed that undernutrition had been the main form of malnutrition among Nigerian children. However with influences from urbanization, westernization and globalization in cosmopolitan Lagos, it is imperative to find out if the global epidemic of overweight and obesity has caught on. To compare the nutritional status of primary school pupils in urban and rural LGAs in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a cross , sectional comparative study. A multistage sampling method was adopted. Data were collected from 529 pupils with an interviewer administered questionnaire. Their weight and height were recorded in pre-designed proforma and converted to nutritional indices. The prevalence rates of underweight, stunting and wasting in the rural area were 49.6%, 50.8% and 24.2% respectively; while it was 15.1%, 16.6% and 13.6% in the urban area respectively. There was overnutrition in the urban area: 15.1% were overweight and 13.2% were obese. The mean nutritional indices were significantly lower among the rural pupils than urban pupils (p<0.001) in each case. Undernutrition is still a major health problem among school children in Lagos State, Nigeria, more so in the rural area. There is an emergence of overweight and obesity in the urban area. A comprehensive programme to improve nutritional status is recommended as part of a well funded school health programme.

  18. Neurodevelopmental outcome of hypoglycaemia in healthy, large for gestational age, term newborns

    PubMed Central

    Brand, P; Molenaar, N; Kaaijk, C; Wierenga, W

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the effects of transient hypoglycaemia on the first day of life in 75 healthy term large for gestational age (LGA) infants, born to non-diabetic mothers, on their neurodevelopmental outcome at the age of 4 years. Methods: Screening for hypoglycaemia was performed 1, 3, and 5 hours after birth, and continued if blood glucose levels were low. Treatment with intravenous glucose for hypoglycaemia was started if hypoglycaemia was severe or symptomatic. Patients' development and behaviour was examined at the age of 4 years by the Denver Developmental Scale, a non-verbal intelligence test, and the Child Behaviour Check List. Results: There were no significant differences between children with neonatal normoglycaemia (n = 15) and hypoglycaemia (plasma glucose <2.2 mmol/l 1 hour after birth, or <2.5 mmol/l subsequently; n = 60) in Denver developmental scale scores and child behaviour checklist scores. Although total IQ did not differ between hypoglycaemic and normoglycaemic children, one subscale (reasoning) did (mean difference 9.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 17.2). The correlation between reasoning IQ and neonatal blood glucose levels was weak and not statistically significant. When other definitions for hypoglycaemia were applied, the difference in reasoning IQ was not found. There were no differences in any of the test scores between hypoglycaemic children who had and who had not been treated with intravenous glucose. Conclusion: Transient mild hypoglycaemia in healthy, term LGA newborns does not appear to be harmful to psychomotor development at the age of 4 years. PMID:15613521

  19. MEDock: a web server for efficient prediction of ligand binding sites based on a novel optimization algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chang, Darby Tien-Hau; Oyang, Yen-Jen; Lin, Jung-Hsin

    2005-07-01

    The prediction of ligand binding sites is an essential part of the drug discovery process. Knowing the location of binding sites greatly facilitates the search for hits, the lead optimization process, the design of site-directed mutagenesis experiments and the hunt for structural features that influence the selectivity of binding in order to minimize the drug's adverse effects. However, docking is still the rate-limiting step for such predictions; consequently, much more efficient algorithms are required. In this article, the design of the MEDock web server is described. The goal of this sever is to provide an efficient utility for predicting ligand binding sites. The MEDock web server incorporates a global search strategy that exploits the maximum entropy property of the Gaussian probability distribution in the context of information theory. As a result of the global search strategy, the optimization algorithm incorporated in MEDock is significantly superior when dealing with very rugged energy landscapes, which usually have insurmountable barriers. This article describes four different benchmark cases that span a diverse set of different types of ligand binding interactions. These benchmarks were compared with the use of the Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA), which is the major workhorse of the well-known AutoDock program. These results demonstrate that MEDock consistently converged to the correct binding modes with significantly smaller numbers of energy evaluations than the LGA required. When judged by a threshold of the number of energy evaluations consumed in the docking simulation, MEDock also greatly elevates the rate of accurate predictions for all benchmark cases. MEDock is available at http://medock.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ and http://bioinfo.mc.ntu.edu.tw/medock/.

  20. SODOCK: swarm optimization for highly flexible protein-ligand docking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Ming; Liu, Bo-Fu; Huang, Hui-Ling; Hwang, Shiow-Fen; Ho, Shinn-Ying

    2007-01-30

    Protein-ligand docking can be formulated as a parameter optimization problem associated with an accurate scoring function, which aims to identify the translation, orientation, and conformation of a docked ligand with the lowest energy. The parameter optimization problem for highly flexible ligands with many rotatable bonds is more difficult than that for less flexible ligands using genetic algorithm (GA)-based approaches, due to the large numbers of parameters and high correlations among these parameters. This investigation presents a novel optimization algorithm SODOCK based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) for solving flexible protein-ligand docking problems. To improve efficiency and robustness of PSO, an efficient local search strategy is incorporated into SODOCK. The implementation of SODOCK adopts the environment and energy function of AutoDock 3.05. Computer simulation results reveal that SODOCK is superior to the Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA) of AutoDock, in terms of convergence performance, robustness, and obtained energy, especially for highly flexible ligands. The results also reveal that PSO is more suitable than the conventional GA in dealing with flexible docking problems with high correlations among parameters. This investigation also compared SODOCK with four state-of-the-art docking methods, namely GOLD 1.2, DOCK 4.0, FlexX 1.8, and LGA of AutoDock 3.05. SODOCK obtained the smallest RMSD in 19 of 37 cases. The average 2.29 A of the 37 RMSD values of SODOCK was better than those of other docking programs, which were all above 3.0 A.

  1. Development of a Master Health Facility List in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Azeez, Aderemi; Bamidele, Samson; Oyemakinde, Akin; Oyediran, Kolawole Azeez; Adebayo, Wura; Fapohunda, Bolaji; Abioye, Abimbola; Mullen, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Routine Health Information Systems (RHIS) are increasingly transitioning to electronic platforms in several developing countries. Establishment of a Master Facility List (MFL) to standardize the allocation of unique identifiers for health facilities can overcome identification issues and support health facility management. The Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) recently developed a MFL, and we present the process and outcome. Methods The MFL was developed from the ground up, and includes a state code, a local government area (LGA) code, health facility ownership (public or private), the level of care, and an exclusive LGA level health facility serial number, as part of the unique identifier system in Nigeria. To develop the MFL, the LGAs sent the list of all health facilities in their jurisdiction to the state, which in turn collated for all LGAs under them before sending to the FMOH. At the FMOH, a group of RHIS experts verified the list and identifiers for each state. Results The national MFL consists of 34,423 health facilities uniquely identified. The list has been published and is available for worldwide access; it is currently used for planning and management of health services in Nigeria. Discussion Unique identifiers are a basic component of any information system. However, poor planning and execution of implementing this key standard can diminish the success of the RHIS. Conclusion Development and adherence to standards is the hallmark for a national health information infrastructure. Explicit processes and multi-level stakeholder engagement is necessary to ensuring the success of the effort. PMID:25422720

  2. Effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on neonatal birth weight* #

    PubMed Central

    Du, Meng-kai; Ge, Li-ya; Zhou, Meng-lin; Ying, Jun; Qu, Fan; Dong, Min-yue; Chen, Dan-qing

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (pre-BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on neonatal birth weight (NBW) in the population of Chinese healthy pregnant women, attempting to guide weight control in pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study of 3772 Chinese women was conducted. The population was stratified by maternal pre-BMI categories as underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5–23.9 kg/m2), overweight (24.0–27.9 kg/m2), and obesity (≥28.0 kg/m2). The NBW differences were tested among the four groups, and then deeper associations among maternal pre-BMI, GWG, and NBW were investigated by multivariate analysis. NBW increased significantly with the increase of maternal pre-BMI level (P<0.05), except overweight to obesity (P>0.05). The multivariate analysis showed that both pre-BMI and GWG were positively correlated with NBW (P<0.05). Compared with normal pre-BMI, underweight predicted an increased odds ratio of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and decreased odds ratio for macrosomia and large-for-gestational-age (LGA), and the results were opposite for overweight. With the increase of GWG, the risk of SGA decreased and the risks of macrosomia and LGA increased. In addition, in different pre-BMI categories, the effects of weight gain in the first trimester on NBW were different (P<0.05). NBW is positively affected by both maternal pre-BMI and GWG, extreme pre-BMI and GWG are both associated with increased risks of abnormal birth weight, and maternal pre-BMI may modify the effect of weight gain in each trimester on NBW. A valid GWG guideline for Chinese women is an urgent requirement, whereas existing recommendations seem to be not very suitable for the Chinese. PMID:28271662

  3. MRSA carrying mecC in captive mara.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Gongora, C; Harrison, E M; Moodley, A; Guardabassi, L; Holmes, M A

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus ST130 isolated from mara (Dolichotis patagonum), a large rodent species native to South America and kept in captivity at Copenhagen Zoo. The presence of mecC was confirmed by PCR in 15 S. aureus ST130 isolated from mara during a previous study. WGS was performed on two randomly selected isolates to characterize their genomes with respect to SCCmec, virulence and resistance gene content. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested using commercial broth microdilution tests. All the isolates belonged to spa type t528 ST130 and carried mecC. Based on WGS, mecC was 100% identical to the prototype sequence of S. aureus strain LGA251. The sequence of SCCmec type XI in the mara isolates had 23 SNPs compared with the one described in LGA251. The two sequenced strains harboured a set of virulence factors and other genomic features previously observed in ST130. Both strains carried norA as the only putative antimicrobial resistance gene in addition to mecC. Our findings support the notion that a genetically conserved mecC-carrying MRSA ST130 clone is widespread in a variety of unrelated hosts in Denmark. Since the mara at Copenhagen Zoo have limited contact with humans and other animal species, it remains unclear whether mara are natural hosts of ST130 or acquired this lineage from unknown sources. The broad host range of MRSA ST130 supports its designation as a generalist lineage. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  4. Validating the use of Medicare Australia billing data to examine trends in skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Eshini; Gnaneswaran, Neiraja; Perera, Marlon; Sinclair, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Background:  Epidemiological data surrounding non-melanomatous skin cancer (NMSC) is highly variable, in part due to the lack of government cancer registries. Several studies employ the use of Medical Australia (MA) rebate data in assessing such trends, the validity of which has not been studied in the past. Conversely, melanoma skin cancer is a notifiable disease, and thus, MA and cancer registry data is readily available. The aim of the current study is to assess the use of MA for epidemiological measures for skin cancers, by using melanoma as a disease sample. Methods:  Following ethics approval, data from MA and Victorian Cancer Registry (VCR) from 2004-2008 were extracted. Incidence of MA and VCR unique melanoma cases were compared and stratified by age and local government area (LGA). Regression and a paired-samples t-test were performed. Results: During the study period; 15,150 and 13,886 unique melanoma patients were identified through VCR and MA data sources respectively. An outlier in the >80­ year age group was noted between MA and VCR data. When stratified by age, significant correlation between MA and VCR was observed for all patients (gradient 0.91, R²= 0.936) and following exclusion of >80 patients (gradient 0.96, R²= 0.995). When stratified by LGA, a high degree of observation was observed for all patients (gradient 0.94, R²= 0.977) and following exclusion of >80 patients (gradient 0.996, R²= 0.975). Conclusion: Despite the inclusion of outlier data groups, acceptable correlation between MA and VCR melanoma data was observed, suggesting that MA may be suitable for assessing epidemiological trends. Such principals may be used to validate the use of MA data for similar calculations assessing NMSC trends. PMID:26937270

  5. The role of traditional birth attendants in Atakumosa, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abioye-Kuteyi, E A; Elias, S O; Familusi, A F; Fakunle, A; Akinfolayan, K

    2001-06-01

    All 26 traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and their 109 clients in 15 settlements in Atakumosa West Local Government Area (LGA) in Nigeria were interviewed to assess TBA training, practices and utilisation. The study showed that more than 80% of TBAs were older women with more than four children, practiced single-handedly and held other occupations. About 54% of those studied had no designated room for deliveries; twenty-one (80.8%) did not consider any pregnant woman to be at high risk; three (11.5%) perform intravaginal examinations during labour and only a few recognise complications; twelve (46.2%) never refer patients. Despite these deficiencies, TBAs continue to practise in appreciable numbers and their services continue to be on demand in the communities under study. Nearly all of the clients interviewed had started to use TBAs by the age of 25 and 50% had used TBAs for all of their deliveries. Most TBAs provide antenatal care and 77% had a case load of less than five clients per month. Ninety-six per cent of the clients had not been referred by the TBA before. Although 61% of clients felt TBAs in a future pregnancy and 49% would recommend TBA care to other women. Low socio-economic status, illiteracy, poor awareness of modern maternal health (MCH) facilities, personalized care, strong family influence and easy access to TBA services were strong factors promoting traditional midwifery in the LGA. If adequately trained, equipped, supported and supervised, TBAs can contribute towards safe motherhood in Nigeria and in other developing countries.

  6. Potent rewarding and reinforcing effects of the synthetic cathinone 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, Lucas R.; Kufahl, Peter R.; Nemirovsky, Natali E.; Sewalia, Kaveish; Grabenauer, Megan; Thomas, Brian F.; Marusich, Julie A.; Wegner, Scott; Olive, M. Foster

    2012-01-01

    Reports of abuse and toxic effects of synthetic cathinones, frequently sold as “bath salts” or “legal highs”, have increased dramatically in recent years. One of the most widely used synthetic cathinones is 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). The current study evaluated the abuse potential of MDPV by assessing its ability to support intravenous self-administration and lower thresholds for intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rats. In the first experiment, rats were trained to intravenously self-administer MDPV in daily 2 hr sessions for 10 days at doses of 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 mg/kg/infusion. Rats were then allowed to self-administer MDPV under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. Next, rats self-administered MDPV for an additional 10 days under short (2 hr/day, ShA) or long (6 hr/day, LgA) access conditions to assess escalation of intake. Aseparate group of rats underwent the same procedures with the exception of self-administering methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg/infusion) instead of MDPV. In a second experiment, the effects of MDPV on ICSS thresholds following acute administration (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg i.p.) were assessed. MDPV maintained self-administration across all doses tested. A positive relationship between MDPV dose and breakpoints for reinforcement under PR conditions was observed. LgA conditions led to escalation of drug intake at the 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg doses, and rats self-administering methamphetamine showed similar patterns of escalation. Finally, MDPV significantly lowered ICSS thresholds at all doses tested. Together, these findings indicate that MDPV has reinforcing properties and activates brain reward circuitry, suggesting a potential for abuse and addiction in humans. PMID:22784198

  7. Potent rewarding and reinforcing effects of the synthetic cathinone 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV).

    PubMed

    Watterson, Lucas R; Kufahl, Peter R; Nemirovsky, Natali E; Sewalia, Kaveish; Grabenauer, Megan; Thomas, Brian F; Marusich, Julie A; Wegner, Scott; Olive, M Foster

    2014-03-01

    Reports of abuse and toxic effects of synthetic cathinones, frequently sold as 'bath salts' or 'legal highs', have increased dramatically in recent years. One of the most widely used synthetic cathinones is 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). The current study evaluated the abuse potential of MDPV by assessing its ability to support intravenous self-administration and to lower thresholds for intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rats. In the first experiment, the rats were trained to intravenously self-administer MDPV in daily 2-hour sessions for 10 days at doses of 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg per infusion. The rats were then allowed to self-administer MDPV under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. Next, the rats self-administered MDPV for an additional 10 days under short access (ShA; 2 hours/day) or long access (LgA; 6 hours/day) conditions to assess escalation of intake. A separate group of rats underwent the same procedures, with the exception of self-administering methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg per infusion) instead of MDPV. In the second experiment, the effects of MDPV on ICSS thresholds following acute administration (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) were assessed. MDPV maintained self-administration across all doses tested. A positive relationship between MDPV dose and breakpoints for reinforcement under PR conditions was observed. LgA conditions led to escalation of drug intake at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg doses, and rats self-administering methamphetamine showed similar patterns of escalation. Finally, MDPV significantly lowered ICSS thresholds at all doses tested. Together, these findings indicate that MDPV has reinforcing properties and activates brain reward circuitry, suggesting a potential for abuse and addiction in humans. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Uniparental mitochondrial DNA inheritance is not affected in Ustilago maydis Δatg11 mutants blocked in mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Vogel, Gaby; Lämmer, Frauke; Kämper, Jörg; Basse, Christoph W

    2015-02-06

    Maternal or uniparental inheritance (UPI) of mitochondria is generally observed in sexual eukaryotes, however, the underlying mechanisms are diverse and largely unknown. Recently, based on the use of mutants blocked in autophagy, it has been demonstrated that autophagy is required for strict maternal inheritance in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Uniparental mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inheritance has been well documented for numerous fungal species, and in particular, has been shown to be genetically governed by the mating-type loci in the isogamous species Cryptococcus neoformans, Phycomyces blakesleeanus and Ustilago maydis. Previously, we have shown that the a2 mating-type locus gene lga2 is decisive for UPI during sexual development of U. maydis. In axenic culture, conditional overexpression of lga2 triggers efficient loss of mtDNA as well as mitophagy. To assess a functional relationship, we have investigated UPI in U. maydis Δatg11 mutants, which are blocked in mitophagy. This study has revealed that Δatg11 mutants are not affected in pathogenic development and this has allowed us to analyse UPI under comparable developmental conditions between mating-compatible wild-type and mutant strain combinations. Explicitly, we have examined two independent strain combinations that gave rise to different efficiencies of UPI. We demonstrate that in both cases UPI is atg11-independent, providing evidence that mitophagy is not critical for UPI in U. maydis, even under conditions of strict UPI. Until now, analysis of a role of mitophagy in UPI has not been reported for microbial species. Our study suggests that selective autophagy does not contribute to UPI in U. maydis, but is rather a consequence of selective mtDNA elimination in response to mitochondrial damage.

  9. Association between hyperglycaemia and adverse perinatal outcomes in south Asian and white British women: analysis of data from the Born in Bradford cohort

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, Diane; Fairley, Lesley; Santorelli, Gillian; Tuffnell, Derek; Sheldon, Trevor A; Wright, John; van Overveld, Lydia; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Diagnosis of gestational diabetes predicts risk of infants who are large for gestational age (LGA) and with high adiposity, which in turn aims to predict a future risk of obesity in the offspring. South Asian women have higher risk of gestational diabetes, lower risk of LGA, and on average give birth to infants with greater adiposity than do white European women. Whether the same diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes should apply to both groups of women is unclear. We aimed to assess the association between maternal glucose and adverse perinatal outcomes to ascertain whether thresholds used to diagnose gestational diabetes should differ between south Asian and white British women. We also aimed to assess whether ethnic origin affected prevalence of gestational diabetes irrespective of criteria used. Methods We used data (including results of a 26–28 week gestation oral glucose tolerance test) of women from the Born in Bradford study, a prospective study that recruited women attending the antenatal clinic at the Bradford Royal Infirmary, UK, between 2007 and 2011 and who intended to give birth to their infant in that hospital. We studied the association between fasting and 2 h post-load glucose and three primary outcomes (LGA [defined as birthweight >90th percentile for gestational age], high infant adiposity [sum of skinfolds >90th percentile for gestational age], and caesarean section). We calculated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for a 1 SD increase in fasting and post-load glucose. We established fasting and post-load glucose thresholds that equated to an OR of 1·75 for LGA and high infant adiposity in each group of women to identify ethnic-specific criteria for diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Findings Of 13 773 pregnancies, 3420 were excluded from analyses. Of 10 353 eligible pregnancies, 4088 women were white British, 5408 were south Asian, and 857 were of other ethnic origin. The

  10. Association between hyperglycaemia and adverse perinatal outcomes in south Asian and white British women: analysis of data from the Born in Bradford cohort.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Diane; Fairley, Lesley; Santorelli, Gillian; Tuffnell, Derek; Sheldon, Trevor A; Wright, John; van Overveld, Lydia; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2015-10-01

    Diagnosis of gestational diabetes predicts risk of infants who are large for gestational age (LGA) and with high adiposity, which in turn aims to predict a future risk of obesity in the offspring. South Asian women have higher risk of gestational diabetes, lower risk of LGA, and on average give birth to infants with greater adiposity than do white European women. Whether the same diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes should apply to both groups of women is unclear. We aimed to assess the association between maternal glucose and adverse perinatal outcomes to ascertain whether thresholds used to diagnose gestational diabetes should differ between south Asian and white British women. We also aimed to assess whether ethnic origin affected prevalence of gestational diabetes irrespective of criteria used. We used data (including results of a 26-28 week gestation oral glucose tolerance test) of women from the Born in Bradford study, a prospective study that recruited women attending the antenatal clinic at the Bradford Royal Infirmary, UK, between 2007 and 2011 and who intended to give birth to their infant in that hospital. We studied the association between fasting and 2 h post-load glucose and three primary outcomes (LGA [defined as birthweight >90th percentile for gestational age], high infant adiposity [sum of skinfolds >90th percentile for gestational age], and caesarean section). We calculated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for a 1 SD increase in fasting and post-load glucose. We established fasting and post-load glucose thresholds that equated to an OR of 1·75 for LGA and high infant adiposity in each group of women to identify ethnic-specific criteria for diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Of 13,773 pregnancies, 3420 were excluded from analyses. Of 10,353 eligible pregnancies, 4088 women were white British, 5408 were south Asian, and 857 were of other ethnic origin. The adjusted ORs of LGA per 1 SD fasting glucose were

  11. Impact of inter-pregnancy BMI change on perinatal outcomes: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    McBain, Rosemary D; Dekker, Gustaaf A; Clifton, Vicki L; Mol, Ben W; Grzeskowiak, Luke E

    2016-10-01

    To examine the patterns and predictors of inter-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) change and its impact on perinatal outcomes in the second pregnancy. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary teaching hospital in Adelaide, Australia. Women with their first and second consecutive, singleton deliveries occurring between 2000 and 2012 (N=5371). Inter-pregnancy weight change calculated based on difference between BMI at respective antenatal booking visits. Association between inter-pregnancy weight change and perinatal outcomes investigated using multivariate generalised linear models, with stratification according to initial maternal BMI category in first pregnancy. Gestational diabetes (GDM); pregnancy induced hypertensive disorders; small-for-gestational age (SGA); preterm birth; large-for-gestational age (LGA) and macrosomia (>4500g). On average, women with a normal BMI gained 1kg/m(2) between first and second pregnancies, while women who were overweight or obese gained 1.37kg/m(2). Among women with a normal BMI in their first pregnancy, a BMI increase of ≥4kg/m(2) was associated with increased risk of developing GDM (aRR 1.97; 95% CI 1.22-3.19), a macrosomic (aRR 4.06; 95% CI 2.25-7.34) or LGA infant (aRR 1.31 0.96-1.78) in the second pregnancy, while a reduction in BMI (≤-2kg/m(2)) was associated with an increased risk of SGA (aRR 1.94; 1.19-3.16). Among women who were overweight or obese in their first pregnancy, a BMI increase of ≥2-4 and ≥4kg/m(2) was associated with increased risks of developing GDM in the second pregnancy (aRR 1.39; 95% CI 1.01-1.91 and aRR 1.64 95% CI 1.16-2.31; ptrend<0.001), while no associations were observed for a BMI increase and risk of a macrosomic, SGA, or LGA infant. In contrast, reduction in BMI (≤-2kg/m(2)) was associated with a reduced risk of GDM (aRR 0.58 95% CI 0.37-0.90) and SGA (aRR 0.47; 95% CI 0.25-0.87). Increases in BMI between pregnancies is associated with an increased risk for perinatal complications, even in

  12. Assessment of ten trace elements in umbilical cord blood and maternal blood: association with birth weight.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Lorena; García-Vicent, Consuelo; López, Jorge; Torró, Maria Isabel; Lurbe, Empar

    2015-09-07

    Trace elements are an essential nutritional component for humans and inadequate tissue-concentrations may have a significant effect on fetal size. To measure ten trace elements in blood samples from mothers and their newborns, and assess their association with anthropometric characteristics at birth. The effects of other factors on fetal growth, such as biologic characteristics of the infant and mother, were analysed. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Hospital general, University of Valencia, Spain. Healthy pregnant women, and their full-term infants were selected (n = 54 paired samples). Infants were grouped according to birth weight: small for gestational age (SGA n = 11), appropriate (AGA n = 30), and large (LGA n = 13). Anthropometric and biologic characteristics of the infant and mother were recorded. Levels of ten essential elements: arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chrome (Cr), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), in maternal and cord plasma samples were determined. Samples were obtained from the umbilical cord immediately after delivery and the samples of their mothers were drawn at 2-4 h after delivery. The analysis identified that cord blood Cu (p = 0.017) and maternal blood Ba and Mg (p = 0.027 and p = 0.002, respectively) concentrations were significantly higher among SGA infants compared to AGA and LGA infants. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that increased umbilical cord Cu concentration (adjusted β -146.4 g, 95% CI -255 to -37.7; p = 0.009), maternal smoking during pregnancy (adjusted β -483.8 g, 95% CI -811.7 to -155.9; p = 0.005), shorter gestational age (adjusted β 350.1 g, 95% CI 244.5 to 455.8; p = 0.000), and female sex (adjusted β -374 g, 95% CI -648 to -100; p = 0.009) were significantly associated with decreased birth weight. Maternal anaemia was positively associated with birth weight (adjusted β 362 g, 95% CI 20.8 to 703.1; p = 0.038). No significant

  13. A complex intervention to improve pregnancy outcome in obese women; the UPBEAT randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Briley, Annette L; Barr, Suzanne; Badger, Shirlene; Bell, Ruth; Croker, Helen; Godfrey, Keith M; Holmes, Bridget; Kinnunen, Tarja I; Nelson, Scott M; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Patel, Nashita; Robson, Stephen C; Sandall, Jane; Sanders, Thomas; Sattar, Naveed; Seed, Paul T; Wardle, Jane; Poston, Lucilla

    2014-02-18

    Despite the widespread recognition that obesity in pregnant women is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and child, there is no intervention proven to reduce the risk of these complications. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial is to assess in obese pregnant women, whether a complex behavioural intervention, based on changing diet (to foods with a lower glycemic index) and physical activity, will reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) and delivery of a large for gestational age (LGA) infant. A secondary aim is to determine whether the intervention lowers the long term risk of obesity in the offspring. Multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing a behavioural intervention designed to improve glycemic control with standard antenatal care in obese pregnant women.Inclusion criteria; women with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and a singleton pregnancy between 15+0 weeks and 18+6 weeks' gestation. Exclusion criteria; pre-defined, pre-existing diseases and multiple pregnancy. Randomisation is on-line by a computer generated programme and is minimised by BMI category, maternal age, ethnicity, parity and centre. Intervention; this is delivered by a health trainer over 8 sessions. Based on control theory, with elements of social cognitive theory, the intervention is designed to improve maternal glycemic control. Women randomised to the control arm receive standard antenatal care until delivery according to local guidelines. All women have a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at 27+0- 28+6 weeks' gestation.Primary outcome; Maternal: diagnosis of GDM, according to the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) criteria. Neonatal; infant LGA defined as >90th customised birth weight centile.Sample size; 1546 women to provide 80% power to detect a 25% reduction in the incidence of GDM and a 30% reduction in infants large for gestational age. All aspects of this protocol have been evaluated in a pilot randomised controlled trial

  14. Stillbirths at Term: Case Control Study of Risk Factors, Growth Status and Placental Histology

    PubMed Central

    Mecacci, Federico; Serena, Caterina; Avagliano, Laura; Cozzolino, Mauro; Baroni, Eleonora; Rambaldi, Marianna Pina; Simeone, Serena; Castiglione, Francesca; Taddei, Gian Luigi; Bulfamante, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the proportion of stillbirths at term associated with abnormal growth using customized birth weight percentiles and to compare histological placental findings both in underweight stillborn fetuses and in live births. Methods A retrospective case-control study of 150 singleton term stillbirths. The livebirth control groups included 586 cases of low-risk pregnancies and 153 late fetal growth restriction fetuses. Stillbirths and livebirths from low-risk pregnancies were classified using customized standards for fetal weight at birth, as adequate for gestational age (AGA; 10-90th percentile), small (SGA; <10th percentile) or large for gestational age (LGA; >90th percentile). Placental characteristics in stillbirth were compared with those from livebirths using four categories: inflammation, disruptive, obstructive and adaptive lesions. Results There was a higher rate of SGA (26% vs 6%, p<0.001) and LGA fetuses (10.6% vs 5.6%, p<0.05) in the stillbirth group. Among stillbirth fetuses, almost half of the SGA were very low birthweight (≤3°percentile) (12% vs 0.3%, p<0.001). The disruptive (7.3% vs 0.17%;p<0.001), obstructive (54.6% vs 7.5%;p<0.001) and adaptive (46.6% vs 35.8%;p<0.001) findings were significantly more common in than in livebirth-low risk. Placental characteristics of AGA and SGA stillbirth were compared with those of AGA and FGR livebirth. In stillbirths-SGA we found a higher number of disruptive (12.8% vs 0%; p<0.001), obstructive (58.9% vs 23.5%;p<0.001) and adaptive lesions (56.4% vs 49%; p 0.47) than in livebirth-FGR. Conclusion The assessment of fetal weight with customized curves can identify fetuses which have not reached their genetically determined growth potential and are therefore at risk for adverse outcomes. Placental evaluation in stillbirths can reveal chronic histological signs that might be useful to clinical assessment, especially in underweight fetuses. PMID:27936018

  15. Prevalence of mange among West African Dwarf sheep and goats and associated haematological and biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Ogundiyi, Alex I; Bemji, Martha Nchang; Adebambo, Olufunmilayo A; Dipeolu, Morenike A; Onagbesan, Okanlawon M; James, Ikechwuku J; Osinowo, Olusegun A

    2012-08-01

    This study was carried out to assess the prevalence of mange in sheep and goats in five local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State in South Western Nigeria. A total of 4,973 sheep and 7,902 goats of West African Dwarf breeds were sampled of which only 4 (0.08%) of sheep and 42 (0.53%) of goats were confirmed positive for mange infestation. In all the LGAs sampled, Odeda LGA had the highest concentration of sheep (39%) and goats (51%) while Abeokuta South had the least percentage of sheep (1%) and goats (1%). All the mange-infested cases in sheep were recorded in just one LGA (Ewekoro) which constituted 0.24% of the population within the location. For goats, three out of five LGAs namely: Obafemi Owode, Ewekoro and Abeokuta North had prevalence of 1.46%, 0.53% and 0.72% respectively. There was no significant (P > 0.05) difference between non-infested and infested animals in terms of packed cell volume (31.79 ± 0.87% vs. 31.41 ± 1.13%), haemoglobin (10.51 ± 0.21 g/100 ml vs. 10.28 ± 0.37 g/100 ml) and red blood cells (8.71 ± 0.29 × 10(12)/l vs. 9.40 ± 0.37 × 10(12)/l). The infested group however showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher white blood cells count (7.60 ± 0.22 × 10(9)/l) than the non-infested animals (6.81 ± 0.17 × 10(9)/l). Neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil and monocyte as well as chloride were not significantly affected by the health status of the animals. There existed significant (P < 0.01) difference between non-infested and infested animals in terms of total protein (5.42 ± 0.16 vs. 4.75 ± 0.20 g/dl), sodium (137.98 ± 1.53 vs. 128.92 ± 1.92 mEq/l) and potassium (4.04 ± 0.14 vs. 3.46 ± 0.18 mEq/l). It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of mange mite infestation varied with location and was generally low or absent in some of the LGAs considered. Goats were particularly more susceptible to mange infestation than sheep. More concerted effort is needed to control mange in order to avoid spread since it is a contagious

  16. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Palomino, Ana; Pavón, Francisco-Javier; Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Arrabal, Sergio; Rivera, Patricia; Alén, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rubio, Leticia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum's intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB) and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression {cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptors and enzymes that produce [diacylglycerol lipase alpha/beta (DAGLα/β) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD)] and degrade [monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amino hydrolase (FAAH)] eCB} were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system [glutamate synthesizing enzymes liver-type glutaminase isoform (LGA) and kidney-type glutaminase isoform (KGA), metabotropic glutamatergic receptor (mGluR3/5), NMDA-ionotropic glutamatergic receptor (NR1/2A/2B/2C) and AMPA-ionotropic receptor subunits (GluR1/2/3/4)] and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and

  17. Baclofen has opposite effects on escalation of cocaine self-administration: increased intake in rats selectively bred for high (HiS) saccharin intake and decreased intake in those selected for low (LoS) saccharin intake.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Nathan A; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2011-12-01

    Rats selectively bred for high saccharin intake (HiS) self-administer more cocaine, escalate their cocaine intake during long access, and reinstate cocaine seeking at higher levels than those bred for low saccharin intake (LoS). The present study was conducted to determine if baclofen, an agonist at the GABA(b) receptor, has differential effects on the escalation of i.v. cocaine intake and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in HiS and LoS rats. HiS and LoS rats self-administered cocaine during a 2-h daily short-access (ShA) phase for 3 days and then long-access (LgA) sessions for 21 days followed by a second ShA phase. One group of HiS and LoS rats received i.p. injections of 2.5 mg/kg baclofen (HiS+B and LoS+B, respectively), and other groups of HiS and LoS rats received saline (HiS+Sal and LoS+Sal) before each daily session. In a second experiment, HiS and LoS rats self-administered i.v. cocaine during 2-h sessions for 14 days followed by a 21-day extinction period. Baclofen (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline was administered before saline- or cocaine-primed reinstatement sessions. The HiS+B group escalated their cocaine self-administration and had increased cocaine infusions in the post-LgA ShA phase. The LoS+B group self-administered less cocaine throughout the entire LgA period compared to the LoS+Sal or HiS groups. Baclofen attenuated reinstatement of cocaine seeking in both the HiS and LoS rats with no phenotype differences. Thus, baclofen had opposite effects on cocaine intake in HiS and LoS rats during escalation; but similar effects during reinstatement. These results suggest that treatment effects might vary with individual differences (HiS vs. LoS) and the phase of drug-motivated behavior that is modeled. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Going national with EPI in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Reid, R S; Smith, E A

    1984-01-01

    The basic purposes set out for the Owo Local Government Area (LGA) Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) model project in Ondo State, Nigeria, were: to demonstrate in 1 LGA that 80% EPI coverage can be achieved within the resources that the government normally provides to EPI; to dispel the unquestioning acquiescence that 10-15% coverage is all that can be done; to demonstrate that the health establishment at large can be convinced of these approaches and processes and can be expected to adopt them for a much wider dissemination; to show that a substantial number of health officers and workers are willing to work toward a higher EPI achievement; and to prove that resources from various origins can be integrated given the proper operational environment and a tight organization. The problems associated with EPI are basically similar in all Nigeria, leading to the decision to undertake a model project in a selected area. The EPI project was designed to break ground in Owo for further elements of primary health care. The project's objective was to capitalize upon the success and experience in EPI to introduce other health-related and self-help activities to communities. The project was organized with an overall project director exercising broad control and supervision over a management group at the project level. The management group is made up of a project manager, an assistant project manager, and heads of functional areas such as field operation, vaccine management system, transport system, mobile operation, health education, and administration and finance. The simple organization was designed to grow gradually to meet heavier volumes of work, altering and modifying approaches as required. The 2 key technical elements in the Owo approach were greatly increased use of cold packs and a decreased reliance on refrigerators; and increased use of simple static centers to reach remote catchment areas, instead of relying heavily on the mobile units. In both elements, the

  19. Intergenerational transmission of macrosomia in women with gestational diabetes and normal glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ogonowski, J; Miazgowski, T

    2015-12-01

    It has been suggested that neonatal macrosomia may contribute to increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in later life. Much less is known about the association between maternal birth weight (MBW) and offspring birth weight (OBW). This retrospective study evaluated the prevalence of macrosomia in women with treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. The study also investigated associations between MBW and OBW. Medical records of 519 pregnant women with treated GDM and 766 women with normal glucose tolerance, referred to the Gestational Diabetes Outpatient Clinic in Szczecin, Poland, were analyzed. The following data were assessed: maternal age, pregravid body weight, height, gestational weight gain, prior GDM, prior macrosomia, MBW and OBW. Birth weight was classified as small for gestational age (SGA), appropriate for gestational age (AGA), large for gestational age (LGA) and macrosomia (≥4000g). OBW was obtained from birth certificates, and MBW was obtained from birth certificates or self-report. The overall prevalence of macrosomia was 8.1%, and was comparable in subgroups of women with and without GDM (7.7% and 8.4%, respectively; p=0.905). The frequencies of SGA, AGA and LGA did not differ between study groups. A positive correlation was found between MBW and OBW in women with treated GDM (r=0.211, p<0.001) and in women with normal glucose tolerance (r=0.220, p<0.001). Regardless of glucose tolerance status during pregnancy, the greatest proportion of macrosomic babies were born to mothers who were themselves born macrosomic (26.5% in mothers with GDM and 20.0% in mothers with normal glucose tolerance; p=0.631). On logistic regression, MBW was found to be a robust predictor of macrosomia in offspring [odds ratio (OR) 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-2.36 in women with treated GDM; OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.07-1.76 in women with normal glucose tolerance). Other independent predictors of fetal macrosomia

  20. Spatial distribution of the sibling species of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (Diptera: Culicidae) and malaria prevalence in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Much of the confusing ecophenotypic plasticity of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato is attributable to the differential biological traits of the sibling species, with their heterogeneous geographical distribution, behavioral dissimilarities and divergent population dynamics. These differences are critical to their roles in malaria transmission. Studies were, therefore, undertaken on the spatial distribution of these species and malaria prevalence rates in Bayelsa State, September, 2008-August 2010. Methods Mosquito sampling was in 7 towns/villages in 7 Local Government Areas (LGAs) in 3 eco-vegetational zones: Fresh Water Swamp Forest (FWSF): Sagbama, Yenagoa, Kolokuma-Opokuma LGAs; Brackish Water Swamp Forest (BWSF): Ogbia, Ekeremor, Southern Ijaw LGAs; Mangrove Water Forest (MWF): Nembe LGA. Adults were collected twice quarterly by the Pyrethrum Spray Catch (PSC) technique. Anopheles was separated morphologically and the sibling species PCR- identified. Simultaneously, malaria prevalence rates were calculated from data obtained by the examination of blood smears from consenting individuals at hospitals/clinics. Results An. gambiae s.s. was dominant across the 3-eco-vegetational zones. Spatial distribution analyses by cell count and nearest neighbor techniques indicated a tendency to clustering of species. An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis clustered in Ekeremor LGA while these 2 species and An. melas aggregated in Nembe. The gonotrophic (physiological) status examination revealed that 34.3, 23.5, 23.1 and 18.4% of the population were fed, unfed, gravid and half gravid respectively. The highest malaria prevalence rates were obtained at Kolokuma-Opokuma and Nembe LGAs. Variation in prevalence rates among LGAs was significant (t = 5.976, df = 6, p-value = 0.002, p < 0.05). The highest prevalence rate was in the age group, 30-39 yrs, while the lowest prevalence was in the 0-9 yrs group. Conclusion High malaria prevalence rates were associated

  1. Supporting breastfeeding In Local Communities (SILC) in Victoria, Australia: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, Helen L; Forster, Della A; Amir, Lisa H; Cullinane, Meabh; Shafiei, Touran; Watson, Lyndsey F; Ridgway, Lael; Cramer, Rhian L; Small, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Breastfeeding has significant health benefits for mothers and infants. Despite recommendations from the WHO, by 6 months of age 40% of Australian infants are receiving no breast milk. Increased early postpartum breastfeeding support may improve breastfeeding maintenance. 2 community-based interventions to increase breastfeeding duration in local government areas (LGAs) in Victoria, Australia, were implemented and evaluated. Design 3-arm cluster randomised trial. Setting LGAs in Victoria, Australia. Participants LGAs across Victoria with breastfeeding initiation rates below the state average and > 450 births/year were eligible for inclusion. The LGA was the unit of randomisation, and maternal and child health centres in the LGAs comprised the clusters. Interventions Early home-based breastfeeding support by a maternal and child health nurse (home visit, HV) with or without access to a community-based breastfeeding drop-in centre (HV+drop-in). Main outcome measures The proportion of infants receiving ‘any’ breast milk at 3, 4 and 6 months (women's self-report). Findings 4 LGAs were randomised to the comparison arm and provided usual care (n=41 clusters; n=2414 women); 3 to HV (n=32 clusters; n=2281 women); and 3 to HV+drop-in (n=26 clusters; 2344 women). There was no difference in breastfeeding at 4 months in either HV (adjusted OR 1.04; 95% CI 0.84 to 1.29) or HV+drop-in (adjusted OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.78 to 1.08) compared with the comparison arm, no difference at 3 or 6 months, nor in any LGA in breastfeeding before and after the intervention. Some issues were experienced with intervention protocol fidelity. Conclusions Early home-based and community-based support proved difficult to implement. Interventions to increase breastfeeding in complex community settings require sufficient time and partnership building for successful implementation. We cannot conclude that additional community-based support is ineffective in improving breastfeeding

  2. Celiac Axis, Common Hepatic and Hepatic Artery Variants as Evidenced on MDCT Angiography in South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With the increase in the hepatobiliary, pancreatic surgeries and liver transplantation, being aware of the anatomic variations of the celiac axis and the hepatic arteries is of paramount importance. Aim To illustrate the normal anatomy and variants of the celiac axis and the hepatic arteries with multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography in South Indian population and determine the potential variations in the celiac axis anatomy and the hepatic arteries, thus assisting the hepatobiliary surgeon and the interventional radiologist in avoiding iatrogenic injury to the arteries. Materials and Methods Two hundred patients undergoing abdominal CT angiography from July 2014 till July 2015 were retrospectively studied for hepatic arterial and celiac axis anatomical variation. The anatomic variations in our study were correlated with other studies. Results The celiac axis (CA) and the hepatic artery (HA) variations were analysed as per criteria laid by Song et al., and Michel. Out of 15 possible CA variations, 5 types of celiac artery variations were seen in 14 patients. A normal CA was seen in 179(89.5%) patients of the 200 patients. In the remaining 7 patients, the CA anatomy was classified as ambiguous since there was separate origin of the right and left hepatic arteries from the CA with absent common hepatic artery (CHA). The CHA originated normally from the celiac axis in 94% of the cases. Variation of CHA origin was seen in 5 patients. Normal HA anatomy was seen in 114 (57%) patients. Variation in HA anatomy was seen in 86 (43%) patients. Origin of the right hepatic artery (RHA) from the hepatic artery proper was seen in 182 (91%) patients and replaced origin of RHA from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was seen in 18 (9%) of the cases. Accessory RHA was seen in 7(3.5%) patients. The left hepatic artery (LHA) originated from the hepatic artery proper in 186 (93%) patients and replaced origin of LHA from the left gastric artery (LGA) was

  3. QTL, additive and epistatic effects for SCN resistance in PI 437654.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaolei; Blake, Sean; Sleper, David A; Shannon, J Grover; Cregan, Perry; Nguyen, Henry T

    2009-04-01

    PI 437654 is a unique accession because of its resistance to nearly all HG types (races) of soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe; SCN). Objectives of this study were to confirm and refine the locations and gene action associated with SCN resistance previously discovered in PI 437654, and to identify new QTLs that may have been missed because of low coverage with genetic markers used in previous studies. Using 205 F(7:9) RILs and 276 SSR and AFLP molecular markers covering 2,406.5 cM of 20 linkage groups (LGs), we confirmed and refined the locations of major SCN resistance QTLs on LG-A2, -B1, and -G previously identified in PI 437654 or other resistant sources. We found that these major QTLs have epistatic effects among them or with other loci for SCN resistance. We also detected some new QTLs with additive or epistatic effects for SCN resistance to different HG types (races) on all LGs except LGs-B2 and -D1b. The QTL on LG-G was associated with resistance to HG types 2.5.7, 1.2.5.7, 0, and 2.7 (races 1, 2, 3, and 5), and it contributed a large proportion of the additive effects. The QTL on LG-A2 was associated with resistance to HG types 2.5.7 and 0 (races 1 and 3). The QTL on LG-B1, associated with resistance to HG types 2.5.7, 0, 2.7 (races 1, 3, and 5), was the similar QTL found in PI 90763 and PI 404198B. In addition to QTL on LGs-A2, -B1 and -G, a novel additive QTL associated with SCN resistance to HG types 0, 2.7, and 1.3.5.6.7 (race 3, 5, and 14) was identified on LG-I flanked by Sat_299 and Sat_189. Several minor QTLs on LGs-C1, D1a, H, and K were also found to be associated with SCN resistance. Confirmation of the new resistance QTL is underway by evaluating another RIL population with a different genetic background.

  4. Baclofen has opposite effects on escalation of cocaine self-administration: increased intake in rats selectively bred for high (HiS) saccharin intake and decreased intake in those selected for low (LoS) saccharin intake

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Nathan A.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Rats selectively bred for high saccharin intake (HiS) self-administer more cocaine, escalate their cocaine intake during long access, and reinstate cocaine seeking at higher levels than those bred for low saccharin intake (LoS). The present study was conducted to determine if baclofen, an agonist at the GABAb receptor, has differential effects on the escalation of i.v. cocaine intake and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in HiS and LoS rats. HiS and LoS rats self-administered cocaine during a 2-h daily short-access (ShA) phase for 3 days and then long-access (LgA) sessions for 21 days followed by a second ShA phase. One group of HiS and LoS rats received i.p. injections of 2.5 mg/kg baclofen (HiS+B and LoS+B, respectively), and other groups of HiS and LoS rats received saline (HiS+Sal and LoS+Sal) before each daily session. In a second experiment, HiS and LoS rats self-administered i.v. cocaine during 2-h sessions for 14 days followed by a 21-day extinction period. Baclofen (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline was administered before saline- or cocaine-primed reinstatement sessions. The HiS+B group escalated their cocaine self-administration and had increased cocaine infusions in the post-LgA ShA phase. The LoS+B group self-administered less cocaine throughout the entire LgA period compared to the LoS+Sal or HiS groups. Baclofen attenuated reinstatement of cocaine seeking in both the HiS and LoS rats with no phenotype differences. Baclofen had opposite effects on cocaine intake in HiS and LoS rats during escalation; HiS increased and LoS decreased intake. These results suggest that treatment effects might vary with individual differences (HiS vs. LoS) and the phase of drug-motivated behavior that is modeled. PMID:21924281

  5. The mGluR2 Positive Allosteric Modulator BINA Decreases Cocaine Self-Administration and Cue-Induced Cocaine-Seeking and Counteracts Cocaine-Induced Enhancement of Brain Reward Function in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xinchun; Semenova, Svetlana; Yang, Li; Ardecky, Robert; Sheffler, Douglas J; Dahl, Russell; Conn, P Jeffrey; Cosford, Nicholas DP; Markou, Athina

    2010-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 (mGluR2/3) agonists were shown previously to nonselectively decrease both cocaine- and food-maintained responding in rats. mGluR2 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) may represent improved therapeutic compounds because of their modulatory properties and higher selectivity for mGluR2. We analyzed the effects of the selective, brain penetrant, and systemically active mGluR2 PAM potassium 3′-([(2-cyclopentyl-6-7-dimethyl-1-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)oxy]methyl)biphenyl l-4-carboxylate (BINA) and the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 on intravenous cocaine self-administration and cocaine-seeking behavior in rats that had short (1 h, ShA) or long (6 h, LgA) access to cocaine. The effects of BINA on food responding and food-seeking behavior were also analyzed. Finally, we examined the effects of BINA on brain reward function and cocaine-induced reward enhancement using the intracranial self-stimulation procedure. BINA decreased cocaine self-administration in both ShA and LgA rats, with no effect on food self-administration. Alternatively, LY379268 nonselectively decreased both cocaine and food self-administration. BINA decreased cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking with no effect on food seeking. The cocaine-induced enhancement of brain reward function was blocked by BINA, although the highest doses of BINA decreased brain reward function when administered alone, suggesting additive, rather than interactive, effects of BINA and cocaine. In conclusion, BINA attenuated the reinforcing and counteracted the reward-enhancing effects of cocaine and decreased cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior, without affecting behaviors motivated by food reinforcement. The higher selectivity of BINA compared with an mGluR2/3 agonist for drug- vs food-motivated behaviors suggests a therapeutic role for mGluR2 PAMs for the treatment of cocaine addiction and possibly other drugs of abuse. PMID:20555310

  6. The mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator BINA decreases cocaine self-administration and cue-induced cocaine-seeking and counteracts cocaine-induced enhancement of brain reward function in rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xinchun; Semenova, Svetlana; Yang, Li; Ardecky, Robert; Sheffler, Douglas J; Dahl, Russell; Conn, P Jeffrey; Cosford, Nicholas D P; Markou, Athina

    2010-09-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 (mGluR2/3) agonists were shown previously to nonselectively decrease both cocaine- and food-maintained responding in rats. mGluR2 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) may represent improved therapeutic compounds because of their modulatory properties and higher selectivity for mGluR2. We analyzed the effects of the selective, brain penetrant, and systemically active mGluR2 PAM potassium 3'-([(2-cyclopentyl-6-7-dimethyl-1-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)oxy]methyl)biphenyl l-4-carboxylate (BINA) and the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 on intravenous cocaine self-administration and cocaine-seeking behavior in rats that had short (1 h, ShA) or long (6 h, LgA) access to cocaine. The effects of BINA on food responding and food-seeking behavior were also analyzed. Finally, we examined the effects of BINA on brain reward function and cocaine-induced reward enhancement using the intracranial self-stimulation procedure. BINA decreased cocaine self-administration in both ShA and LgA rats, with no effect on food self-administration. Alternatively, LY379268 nonselectively decreased both cocaine and food self-administration. BINA decreased cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking with no effect on food seeking. The cocaine-induced enhancement of brain reward function was blocked by BINA, although the highest doses of BINA decreased brain reward function when administered alone, suggesting additive, rather than interactive, effects of BINA and cocaine. In conclusion, BINA attenuated the reinforcing and counteracted the reward-enhancing effects of cocaine and decreased cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior, without affecting behaviors motivated by food reinforcement. The higher selectivity of BINA compared with an mGluR2/3 agonist for drug- vs food-motivated behaviors suggests a therapeutic role for mGluR2 PAMs for the treatment of cocaine addiction and possibly other drugs of abuse.

  7. Cultural categorization of febrile illnesses in correlation with herbal remedies used for treatment in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajaiyeoba, E O; Oladepo, O; Fawole, O I; Bolaji, O M; Akinboye, D O; Ogundahunsi, O A T; Falade, C O; Gbotosho, G O; Itiola, O A; Happi, T C; Ebong, O O; Ononiwu, I M; Osowole, O S; Oduola, O O; Ashidi, J S; Oduola, A M J

    2003-04-01

    The ethnographic study was conducted in two communities in Oyo State in Southwestern Nigeria. The study sites consisted of a rural and an urban local government area located in the tropical rain forest zone of Nigeria. The study was designed to obtain information on febrile illnesses and herbal remedies for treatment with the aim of identifying potential antimalarial drugs. The study revealed that fever is a general term for describing illnesses associated with elevated body temperature. The indigenous Yoruba ethnic population has categorized fever based on symptoms and causes. The present communication is the result of focus group discussion and semi-structured questionnaire administered to traditional healers, herb sellers, elders and mothers. This was on types of fevers, symptoms and causes of febrile illnesses. The investigation also included use of traditional herbs in the prevention and treatment of the illnesses in the two communities.A total of 514 respondents were interviewed. This was made up of 266 (51.8%) from Atiba local government area (LGA), an urban centre while 248 (48.2%) respondents were interviewed from Itesiwaju LGA, a rural community. The LGAs are located in Oyo State of Nigeria. The respondents proffered 12 types of febrile illnesses in a multiple response answering system in Yoruba language. The most common ones (direct translation into English) were: yellow fever (39.1%), typhoid (34.8%), ordinary (28.8%), rainy season (20.8%) and headache (10.5%) fevers, respectively. Perceived causes of each of the febrile illnesses included stress, mosquito bites, unclean water, rains and over exposure to the sun. Methods of fever prevention were mainly with the use of herbal decoctions, powdered herbs, orthodox medications and maintenance of proper hygiene. Of a total of 112 different herbal remedies used in the treatment of the febrile illnesses compiled from the study, 25 recipes are presented. Recipes consisted of 2-7 ingredients. Oral decoctions (84

  8. A complex intervention to improve pregnancy outcome in obese women; the UPBEAT randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread recognition that obesity in pregnant women is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and child, there is no intervention proven to reduce the risk of these complications. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial is to assess in obese pregnant women, whether a complex behavioural intervention, based on changing diet (to foods with a lower glycemic index) and physical activity, will reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) and delivery of a large for gestational age (LGA) infant. A secondary aim is to determine whether the intervention lowers the long term risk of obesity in the offspring. Methods/Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing a behavioural intervention designed to improve glycemic control with standard antenatal care in obese pregnant women. Inclusion criteria; women with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and a singleton pregnancy between 15+0 weeks and 18+6 weeks’ gestation. Exclusion criteria; pre-defined, pre-existing diseases and multiple pregnancy. Randomisation is on-line by a computer generated programme and is minimised by BMI category, maternal age, ethnicity, parity and centre. Intervention; this is delivered by a health trainer over 8 sessions. Based on control theory, with elements of social cognitive theory, the intervention is designed to improve maternal glycemic control. Women randomised to the control arm receive standard antenatal care until delivery according to local guidelines. All women have a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at 27+0- 28+6 weeks’ gestation. Primary outcome; Maternal: diagnosis of GDM, according to the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) criteria. Neonatal; infant LGA defined as >90th customised birth weight centile. Sample size; 1546 women to provide 80% power to detect a 25% reduction in the incidence of GDM and a 30% reduction in infants large for gestational age. Discussion All aspects of this protocol have been

  9. Capsaicin-containing chili improved postprandial hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and fasting lipid disorders in women with gestational diabetes mellitus and lowered the incidence of large-for-gestational-age newborns.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li-Jia; Qin, Yu; Wang, Lin; Zeng, Yuan; Chang, Hui; Wang, Jian; Wang, Bin; Wan, Jing; Chen, Shi-Hui; Zhang, Qian-Yong; Zhu, Jun-Dong; Zhou, Yong; Mi, Man-Tian

    2016-04-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may increase the future health risks of women and their offspring. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of capsaicin supplementation on blood glucose, lipid metabolism and pregnancy outcomes in women with GDM. Forty-four pregnant women with GDM at 22-33 gestational weeks were randomly assigned to the capsaicin group (5 mg/d of capsaicin) or to the placebo group (0 mg/d of capsaicin) for 4 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The concentrations of fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin, 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (2-h PG) and serum insulin (2-h INS), and fasting serum lipids, liver and kidney function parameters, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were measured at 0 and 4 weeks. The maternal and neonatal outcomes were also recorded. Forty-two women completed the trial. Compared to the placebo group, 2-h PG and 2-h INS concentrations and 2-h postprandial HOMA-IR (2-h HOMA-IR) levels, and the fasting serum total cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations significantly decreased in the capsaicin group after treatment (P < 0.05). Moreover, the fasting serum apolipoprotein B and CGRP concentrations significantly increased in the capsaicin group (P < 0.05). The changes in the 2-h PG and 2-h INS concentrations and in the 2-h HOMA-IR were negatively correlated with the change in the serum CGRP concentration (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the incidence of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns was significantly lower in the capsaicin group than in the placebo group (P = 0.022). Capsaicin-containing chili supplementation regularly improved postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia as well as fasting lipid metabolic disorders in women with GDM, and it decreased the incidence of LGA newborns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Low-grade Albuminuria Associated with Subclinical Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction and Left Ventricular Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Yan, S; Yao, F; Huang, L; Ruan, Q; Shen, X; Zhang, S; Huang, C

    2015-10-01

    Low-grade albuminuria (LGA) has been shown to be associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Our study investigated the relationship between normal urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACRs) and subclinical left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and remodeling in diabetics and non-diabetics. A total of 888 diabetic and 208 non-diabetic patients with normal UACRs (< 30 mg/g) from Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China were examined. The subjects were stratified into quartiles based on their respective UACR levels. LV diastolic function was defined by early diastolic transmitral velocities (E)/average early diastolic annular velocities (average e), accompanied by average e. LV remodeling was defined by LV mass indexed to body surface area and relative wall thickness based on 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. UACR was independently associated with cardiac diastolic function as defined by E/e and average e (OR=1.042, P=0.001) and LV remodeling (OR=1.037, P=0.001) in all participants. Diabetic patients in the highest quartile of UACR demonstrated a greater risk of developing LV diastolic dysfunction by a magnitude of 1.625 (OR=1.625, P=0.037) than patients in the lowest quartile; those in the third and highest quartiles demonstrated a greater risk of LV remodeling by a magnitude of 1.729-1.994 compared to the lowest quartile (OR=1.729, P=0.027 and OR=1.994, P=0.005, respectively). The association between UACR and subclinical diastolic dysfunction was most prevalent in younger, non-obese, non-hypertensive females or patients who had experienced diabetes for fewer than 10 years. The association between UACR and LV remodeling was most prevalent in non-obese, older males, in patients with normal low-density lipoprotein levels, in patients who had experienced diabetes for fewer than 10 years, and in patients without hypertension. UACR was associated with subclinical LV diastolic dysfunction and remodeling in both patients with and without Type 2

  11. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Palomino, Ana; Pavón, Francisco-Javier; Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Arrabal, Sergio; Rivera, Patricia; Alén, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rubio, Leticia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum’s intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB) and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression {cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptors and enzymes that produce [diacylglycerol lipase alpha/beta (DAGLα/β) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD)] and degrade [monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amino hydrolase (FAAH)] eCB} were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system [glutamate synthesizing enzymes liver-type glutaminase isoform (LGA) and kidney-type glutaminase isoform (KGA), metabotropic glutamatergic receptor (mGluR3/5), NMDA-ionotropic glutamatergic receptor (NR1/2A/2B/2C) and AMPA-ionotropic receptor subunits (GluR1/2/3/4)] and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and

  12. Discovery of selective inhibitors of Glutaminase-2, which inhibit mTORC1, activate autophagy and inhibit proliferation in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ih-Shen; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Lee, Chih-Hao; Lee, Jinq-chyi; Kumar, Chidambaram Ramesh; Qiu, Ya-Qi; Chao, Yu-Sheng; Lee, Shiow-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Glutaminase, which converts glutamine to glutamate, is involved in Warburg effect in cancer cells. Two human glutaminase genes have been identified, GLS (GLS1) and GLS2. Two alternative transcripts arise from each glutaminase gene: first, the kidney isoform (KGA) and glutaminase C (GAC) for GLS; and, second, the liver isoform (LGA) and glutaminase B (GAB) for GLS2. While GLS1 is considered as a cancer therapeutic target, the potential role of GLS2 in cancer remains unclear. Here, we discovered a series of alkyl benzoquinones that preferentially inhibit glutaminase B isoform (GAB, GLS2) rather than the kidney isoform of glutaminase (KGA, GLS1). We identified amino acid residues in an allosteric binding pocket responsible for the selectivity. Treatment with the alkyl benzoquinones decreased intracellular glutaminase activity and glutamate levels. GLS2 inhibition by either alkyl benzoquinones or GLS2 siRNA reduced carcinoma cell proliferation and anchorage-independent colony formation, and induced autophagy via AMPK mediated mTORC1 inhibition. Our findings demonstrate amino acid sequences for selective inhibition of glutaminase isozymes and validate GLS2 as a potential anti-cancer target. PMID:25026281

  13. Additional branches of celiac trunk and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Nayak, S R; Prabhu, Latha V; Krishnamurthy, A; Ganesh Kumar, C; Ramanathan, Lakshmi A; Acharya, Abhijith; Prasad Sinha, Abhishek

    2008-01-01

    The anatomical variations of the abdominal arteries are important due to its clinical significance. Various types of vascular anomalies are frequently found in human abdominal viscera, during cadaveric dissection and diagnostic radiological imaging. The present report describes a variation in the celiac trunk as found during routine dissection in a 59-year-old male cadaver. The celiac trunk (CT) was unusually lengthy and took origin from the left antero-lateral surface of the abdominal aorta. Altogether, there were five branches, including three classic branches of CT. The left phrenic artery (LPA) was the first branch of the CT. The remaining four branches were left gastric artery (LGA), splenic artery (SA), common hepatic artery (CHA) and gastroduodenal artery (GDA). There was an arterial loop between the posterior branches of the superior pancreatico-duodenal artery (SPDA), arising from the GDA, and the posterior branch of the inferior pancreatico-duodenal artery (IPDA), arising from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The arterial loop formed by the above arteries, supplied the head of the pancreas and duodeno-jejunal flexure. The embryological and clinical significance of above variations has been described.

  14. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Part 1; Analysis of Historical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation (+4% annual growth), resulting in unreliable service and systemic delays. Estimates of the impact of delays and unreliable air transportation service on the economy range from $32B to $41B per year. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making with regards to: (1) geographic access, (2) economic access, and (3) airline finances. This analysis evaluated markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size, airfares, and profit from 2005-2009. During this period, airlines experienced changes in costs of operation (due to fluctuations in hedged fuel prices), changes in travel demand (due to changes in the economy), and changes in infrastructure capacity (due to the capacity limits at EWR, JFK, and LGA). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of capacity limits at airports, as well as the effect of increased costs of operation (i.e. hedged fuel prices). The increases in costs of operation serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed.

  15. Markers of collagen metabolism and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 in term infants

    PubMed Central

    Hytinantti, T; Rutanen, E; Turpeinen, M; Sorva, R; Andersson, S

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To study the relation between fetal growth and markers of collagen metabolism and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in term infants.
METHODS—Cord vein plasma was obtained from 67 term infants of gestational age 37.1-41.7 weeks (39 appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 11 large for gestational age (LGA; relative birth weight ⩾ 2.0 SD), and 17 small for gestational age (SGA; relative birth weight ⩽ −2.0 SD)) for analysis of markers of metabolism of collagen type I (PICP and ICTP) and III (PIIINP) and of IGFBP-1.
RESULTS—Negative correlations existed between gestational age and PICP (r = −0.294, p = 0.0158), ICTP (r = −0.338, p = 0.0052), and PIIINP (r = −0.432, p = 0.0003). These correlations were also found in SGA infants (all p < 0.05). IGFBP-1 showed negative correlations with birth weight and relative birth weight (r = −0.644, p = 0.0001, and r = −0.693, p = 0.0001 respectively) but not with gestational age (p>0.05).
CONCLUSIONS—In the term fetus, collagen metabolism is primarily dependent on maturity and not on intrauterine growth status, whereas IGFBP-1 reflects intrauterine growth independently of maturity.

 PMID:10873165

  16. Bus network redesign for inner southeast suburbs of Melbourne, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandangwati, S. T.; Milyanab, N. A.

    2017-06-01

    Public transport is the most effective mode of transport in the era of climate change and oil depletion. It can address climate change issues by reducing urban greenhouse gas emission and oil consumption while at the same time improving mobility. However, many public transport networks are not effective and instead create high operating costs with low frequencies and occupancy. Melbourne is one example of a metropolitan area that faces this problem. Even though the city has well-integrated train and tram networks, Melbourne’s bus network still needs to be improved. This study used network planning approach to redesign the bus network in the City of Glen Eira, a Local Government Area (LGA) in the southeastern part of Metropolitan Melbourne. The study area is the area between Gardenvale North and Oakleigh Station, as well as between Caulfield and Patterson Stations. This area needs network improvement mainly because of the meandering bus routes that run within it. This study aims to provide recommendations for improving the performance of bus services by reducing meandering routes, improving transfer point design and implementing coordinated timetables. The recommendations were formulated based on a ‘ready-made’ concept to increase bus occupancy. This approach can be implemented in other cities with similar problems and characteristics including those in Indonesia.

  17. The Global Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Epidemic: What a Radiologist Needs to Know

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Keith; Salsamendi, Jason; Casillas, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of disorders from a benign steatosis to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Metabolic syndrome, mainly obesity, plays an important role, both as an independent risk factor and in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. With the progressive epidemics of obesity and diabetes mellitus, the prevalence of NAFLD and its associated complications is expected to increase dramatically. Therapeutic strategies for treating NAFLD and metabolic syndrome, particularly obesity, are continuously being refined. Their goal is the prevention of NAFLD by the management of risk factors, prevention of progression of the disease, as well as management of complications, ultimately preventing morbidity and mortality. Optimal management of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome requires a multidisciplinary collaboration between the government as well as the health system including the nutritionist, primary care physician, radiologist, hepatologist, oncologist, and transplant surgeon. An awareness of the clinical presentation, risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management is of paramount importance to a radiologist, both from the clinical perspective as well as from the imaging standpoint. With expertise in imaging modalities as well as minimally invasive percutaneous endovascular therapies, radiologists play an essential role in the comprehensive management, which is highlighted in this article, with cases from our practice. We also briefly discuss transarterial embolization of the left gastric artery (LGA), a novel method that promises to have an enormous potential in the minimally invasive management of obesity, with details of a case from our practice. PMID:26167390

  18. Airport-related air pollution and noise.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Beverly S; Bronzaft, Arline L; Heikkinen, Maire; Goodman, Jerome; Nádas, Arthur

    2008-02-01

    To provide quantitative evidence of the impact on people of a neighboring metropolitan airport, La Guardia Airport (LGA) in New York City, (1) airborne particulate matter (PM) was measured to determine whether concentration differences could be detected between homes that are upwind and downwind of the airport; (2) 24-hr noise measurements were made in 12 homes near the airport; and (3) the impact of noise was assessed by a Community Wellness and Health Promotion Survey. Particulate matter concentrations were higher during active airport operating hours than during nonoperating hours, and the percent increase varied inversely with distance from the airport. Hourly differences between paired upwind and downwind sites were not remarkable. Residents living near the airport were exposed to noise levels as much as four times greater than those experienced by residents in a quiet, comparison home. Impulse noise events were detected from both aircraft and vehicular traffic. More than 55% of the people living within the flight path were bothered by aircraft noise, and 63% by highway noise; these were significantly higher percentages than for residents in the nonflight area. The change in PM concentrations with distance during operating compared with nonoperating hours; traffic-related impulse noise events; and the elevated annoyance with highway noise, as well as aircraft noise among residents in the flight path area, show airport-related motor vehicle traffic to be a major contributor to the negative impact of airports on people in the surrounding communities.

  19. Sparsity-based image monitoring of crystal size distribution during crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Huo, Yan; Ma, Cai Y.; Wang, Xue Z.

    2017-07-01

    To facilitate monitoring crystal size distribution (CSD) during a crystallization process by using an in-situ imaging system, a sparsity-based image analysis method is proposed for real-time implementation. To cope with image degradation arising from in-situ measurement subject to particle motion, solution turbulence, and uneven illumination background in the crystallizer, sparse representation of a real-time captured crystal image is developed based on using an in-situ image dictionary established in advance, such that the noise components in the captured image can be efficiently removed. Subsequently, the edges of a crystal shape in a captured image are determined in terms of the salience information defined from the denoised crystal images. These edges are used to derive a blur kernel for reconstruction of a denoised image. A non-blind deconvolution algorithm is given for the real-time reconstruction. Consequently, image segmentation can be easily performed for evaluation of CSD. The crystal image dictionary and blur kernels are timely updated in terms of the imaging conditions to improve the restoration efficiency. An experimental study on the cooling crystallization of α-type L-glutamic acid (LGA) is shown to demonstrate the effectiveness and merit of the proposed method.

  20. Street hawking among in-school adolescents in a south-western town in Nigeria: pattern, determinants and effects on school performance.

    PubMed

    Ijadunola, Macellina Y; Ojo, Temitope O; Babatunde, Adelekan; Olatunji, Gbajumo J; Owolabi, Gbolagade K; Adewale, Ibiyemi A; Ifedayo, Ibukun F; Friday, Ijuewe S

    2015-02-01

    Street hawking is the commonest form of child labor in Nigeria. Although street hawking is very pervasive, there is the increasing need to fully understand its pattern and effects on those involved in hawking particularly adolescents who combine schooling with hawking. In Nigeria, data on the effects of street hawking on in-school adolescents are generally scanty. Therefore, the present study was undertaken in Ife Central Local Government Area (LGA) of Osun State, Nigeria to assess the pattern, determinants of street hawking among in-school adolescents and its effect on school performance. A cross-sectional study of 435 adolescents (aged 10-19) attending public secondary schools was done. Data were collected using facilitated self-administered questionnaires alongside a review of class records. Appropriate statistical analysis including multiple regression was done. Results showed mean age of respondents to be 14.6±2.1 years with prevalence of street hawking at 37.2%. Early adolescents (10-13 years) were more likely to engage in street hawking compared to their counterparts in late adolescence (aged 17-19). Female adolescents and students of trading mothers were significantly more likely to engage in street hawking. Respondents engaged in street hawking were significantly more likely to have failed the last academic term examination. The findings from this study will be useful for stakeholders as they develop policies and programmes to address the challenge of street hawking among adolescent school goers.

  1. Direct-referencing Two-dimensional-array Digital Microfluidics Using Multi-layer Printed Circuit Board

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jian; Kim, Chang-Jin “CJ”

    2008-01-01

    Digital (i.e. droplet-based) microfluidics, by the electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) mechanism, has shown great potential for a wide range of applications, such as lab-on-a-chip. While most reported EWOD chips use a series of electrode pads essentially in one-dimensional line pattern designed for specific tasks, the desired universal chips allowing user-reconfigurable paths would require the electrode pads in two-dimensional pattern. However, to electrically access the electrode pads independently, conductive lines need to be fabricated underneath the pads in multiple layers, raising a cost issue especially for disposable chip applications. In this article, we report the building of digital microfluidic plates based on a printed-circuit-board (PCB), in which multilayer electrical access lines were created inexpensively using mature PCB technology. However, due to its surface topography and roughness and resulting high resistance against droplet movement, as-fabricated PCB surfaces require unacceptably high (~500 V) voltages unless coated with or immersed in oil. Our goal is EWOD operations of aqueous droplets not only on oil-covered but also on dry surfaces. To meet varying levels of performances, three types of gradually complex post-PCB microfabrication processes are developed and evaluated. By introducing land-grid-array (LGA) sockets in the packaging, a scalable digital microfluidics system with reconfigurable and low-cost chip is also demonstrated. PMID:19234613

  2. Advance Directive in End of Life Decision-Making among the Yoruba of South-Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Jegede, Ayodele Samuel; Adegoke, Olufunke Olufunsho

    2017-01-01

    End-of-life decision making is value-laden within the context of culture and bioethics. Also, ethics committee role is difficult to understand on this, thus need for ethnomethodological perspective in an expanding bioethical age. Anthropological approach was utilized to document Yoruba definition and perspective of death, cultural beliefs about end-of-life decision making, factors influencing it and ethics committee role. Interviews were conducted among selected Yoruba resident in Akinyele LGA, Oyo State, Nigeria. Content analytical approach was used for data analysis. Yoruba culture, death is socially constructed having spiritual, physical and social significance. Relationship between the dying and significant others influences decision making. Hierarchy of authority informs implementing traditional advance directive. Socialization, gender, patriarchy, religious belief and tradition are major considerations in end-of-life decision making. Awareness, resource allocation and advocacy are important ethics committees’ roles. Further research into cultural diversity of end-of-life decision making will strengthen ethical practice in health care delivery. PMID:28344984

  3. Thermodynamics of reaction of praseodymium with gallium-indium eutectic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchakov, S. Yu.; Ivanov, V. A.; Yamshchikov, L. F.; Volkovich, V. A.; Osipenko, A. G.; Kormilitsyn, M. V.

    2013-06-01

    Thermodynamic properties of Ga-In eutectic alloys saturated with praseodymium were determined for the first time employing the electromotive force method. The equilibrium potentials of the Pr-In alloys saturated with praseodymium (8.7-12.1 mol.% Pr) and Pr-Ga-In alloys (containing 0.0012-6.71 mol.% Pr) were measured between 573-1073 K. Pr-In alloy containing solid PrIn3 with known thermodynamic properties was used as the reference electrode when measuring the potentials of ternary Pr-In-Ga alloys. Activity, partial and excessive thermodynamic functions of praseodymium in alloys with indium and Ga-In eutectic were calculated. Activity (a), activity coefficients (γ) and solubility (X) of praseodymium in the studied temperature range can be expressed by the following equations: lgaα-Pr(In) = 4.425 - 11965/T ± 0.026. lgаα-Pr(Ga-In) = 5.866 - 14766/T ± 0.190. lgγα-Pr(Ga-In) = 2.351 - 9996/T ± 0.39. lgХPr(Ga-In) = 3.515 - 4770/T ± 0.20.

  4. Glutaminases in slowly proliferating gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms/tumors (GEP-NETs): Selective overexpression of mRNA coding for the KGA isoform.

    PubMed

    Szeliga, Monika; Ćwikła, Jarosław; Obara-Michlewska, Marta; Cichocki, Andrzej; Albrecht, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Glutamine (Gln) is a crucial metabolite in cancer cells of different origin, and the expression and activity of different isoforms of the Gln-degrading enzyme, glutaminase (GA), have variable implications for tumor growth and metabolism. Human glutaminases are encoded by two genes: the GLS gene encodes the kidney-type glutaminases, KGA and GAC, while the GLS2 gene encodes the liver-type glutaminases, GAB and LGA. Recent studies suggest that the GAC isoform and thus high GAC/KGA ratio, are characteristic of highly proliferating tumors, while GLS2 proteins have an inhibitory effect on tumor growth. Here we analyzed the expression levels of distinct GA transcripts in 7 gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) with low proliferation index and 7 non-neoplastic tissues. GEP-NETs overexpressed KGA, while GAC, which was the most abundant isoform, was not different from control. The expression of the GLS2 gene showed tendency towards elevation in GEP-NETs compared to control. Collectively, the expression pattern of GA isoforms conforms to the low proliferative capacity of GEP-NETs encompassed in this study.

  5. Opposing roles of glutaminase isoforms in determining glioblastoma cell phenotype.

    PubMed

    Szeliga, Monika; Albrecht, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Glutamine (Gln) and glutamate (Glu) play pivotal roles in the malignant phenotype of brain tumors via multiple mechanisms. Glutaminase (GA, EC 3.5.1.2) metabolizes Gln to Glu and ammonia. Human GA isoforms are encoded by two genes: GLS gene codes for kidney-type isoforms, KGA and GAC, whereas GLS2 codes for liver-type isoforms, GAB and LGA. The expression pattern of both genes in different neoplastic cell lines and tissues implicated that the kidney-type isoforms are associated with cell proliferation, while the liver-type isoforms dominate in, and contribute to the phenotype of quiescent cells. GLS gene has been demonstrated to be regulated by oncogene c-Myc, whereas GLS2 gene was identified as a target gene of p53 tumor suppressor. In glioblastomas (GBM, WHO grade IV), the most aggressive brain tumors, high levels of GLS and only traces or lack of GLS2 transcripts were found. Ectopic overexpression of GLS2 in human glioblastoma T98G cells decreased their proliferation and migration and sensitized them to the alkylating agents often used in the chemotherapy of gliomas. GLS silencing reduced proliferation of glioblastoma T98G cells and strengthen the antiproliferative effect evoked by previous GLS2 overexpression.

  6. Dollar Summary of Prime Contract Awards by State, County, Contractor and Place. Part 4 (Montgomery-Weston)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    I.WMi I GO I co ’Co lGa I I .g o "oc taa smMm E 2 IC )-I 0, W04= L-U A C 0 41 -.- C % . , 0 c I - . - z I >- IL I La. aL 00 Ezw 0 W- Ow 41. uj a I-9 t...34 2 2 2 -4z0 424. 0. I 2l I xx << W CK ZIL I.Rw L z ww 0ww0 w0 (0Z I- 30 ~ C C 0 OO 0Ze C fo I I in6 1D t 0L 4 - in 0C)c Dc r I& U)10 I I. L i 4 CK... 1D L-). IL 00L -U-L~ I0 CL-9 I.- "CUC 9ow I- 004 915)9 (0z 9J x 948o--iz0 0 0-O " 43 -a I" I<C zdw " 0 I -I (0. I " 9 I 04 ~~ I * J WM I UW . . 9 L. LL

  7. Giving cell phones to pregnant women and improving services may increase primary health facility utilization: a case–control study of a Nigerian project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, about 287 000 women die each year from mostly preventable complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. A disproportionately high number of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. The Abiye (‘Safe Motherhood’) project in the Ifedore Local Government Area (LGA) of Ondo-State of Nigeria aimed at improving facility utilization and maternal health through the use of cell phones and generally improved health care services for pregnant women, including Health Rangers, renovated Health Centres, and improved means of transportation. Methods A one-year sample of retrospective data was collected from hospital records and patients’ case files from Ifedore (the project area) and Idanre (control area) and was analyzed to determine healthcare facility utilization rates in each location. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to generate supplemental data. Results The total facility utilization rate of pregnant women was significantly higher in Ifedore than in Idanre. The facility utilization rate of the primary health care centres was significantly higher in Ifedore than in Idanre. The number of recorded cases of the five major causes of maternal death in the two LGAs was not significantly different, possibly because the project was new. Conclusions Giving cell phones to pregnant women and generally improving services could increase their utilization of the primary healthcare system. PMID:24438150

  8. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Thiazolidine-2,4-dione Derivatives as a Novel Class of Glutaminase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Teng-Kuang; Kuo, Ching-Chuan; Lee, Yue-Zhi; Ke, Yi-Yu; Chu, Kuang-Feng; Hsu, Hsing-Yu; Chang, Hsin-Yu; Liu, Yu-Wei; Song, Jen-Shin; Yang, Cheng-Wei; Lin, Li-Mei; Sun, Manwu; Wu, Szu-Huei; Kuo, Po-Chu; Shih, Chuan; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Tsou, Lun Kelvin; Lee, Shiow-Ju

    2017-07-13

    Humans have two glutaminase genes, GLS (GLS1) and GLS2, each of which has two alternative transcripts: the kidney isoform (KGA) and glutaminase C (GAC) for GLS, and the liver isoform (LGA) and glutaminase B (GAB) for GLS2. Initial hit compound (Z)-5-((1-(4-bromophenyl)-2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)methylene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (2), a thiazolidine-2,4-dione, was obtained from a high throughput screening of 40 000 compounds against KGA. Subsequently, a series of thiazolidine-2,4-dione derivatives was synthesized. Most of these were found to inhibit KGA and GAC with comparable activities, were less potent inhibitors of GAB, and were moderately selective for GLS1 over GLS2. The relationships between chemical structure, activity, and selectivity were investigated. The lead compounds obtained were found to (1) offer in vitro cellular activities for inhibiting cell growth, clonogenicity, and cellular glutamate production, (2) exhibit high concentrations of exposure in plasma by a pharmacokinetic study, and (3) reduce the tumor size of xenografted human pancreatic AsPC-1 carcinoma cells in mice.

  9. Midwives as drivers of reproductive health commodity security in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alayande, Audu; Mamman-Daura, Fatima; Adedeji, Olanike; Muhammad, Ado Zakari

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The significant improvement in the contraceptive prevalence rate in Kaduna State, Nigeria, from 8.4% in 2008 to 18.5% in 2013 is a notable achievement. This article analyses the role of midwives as drivers of reproductive health commodity security (RHCS) and their impact on contraceptive use in Kaduna State. Methods: The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) supported the bimonthly review resupply meetings facilitated by midwives at State and local government area (LGA) levels. The midwives deliver contraception to the LGAs for onward distribution to 6974 of the 25,000 health facilities across the country according to usage data from the previous 2 months. They also collect requisition, issue and resupply form data from the previous 2 months. Results: The active participation of midwives at the bimonthly meetings improved data timeliness by 23% and data completeness by 50% in 1 year. Only one health facility ran out of intrauterine devices and only 17% reported running out of female condoms. The total number of contraceptives issued increased from 31,866 in 2012 to 177,828 in 2013, resulting in a couple–year protection increase from 3408 in 2012 to 102,207 in 2013. Conclusions: Creation of increased demand and engagement of midwives in providing family planning services, especially long-acting contraceptive methods, coupled with the removal of cost to the user and the strengthening of the supply chain have been major factors in more than doubling the contraceptive prevalence rate. PMID:26909871

  10. The relationship of newborn adiposity to fetal growth outcome based on birth weight or the modified neonatal growth assessment score

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W; Riggs, T; Koo, W; Deter, RL; Yeo, L; Romero, R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives (1) Develop reference ranges of neonatal adiposity using air displacement plethysmography. (2) Use new reference ranges for neonatal adiposity to compare two different methods of evaluating neonatal nutritional status. Methods Three hundred and twenty-four normal neonates (35–41 weeks post-menstrual age) had body fat (%BF) and total fat mass (FM, g) measured using air displacement plethysmography shortly after delivery. Results were stratified for 92 of these neonates with corresponding fetal biometry using two methods for classifying nutritional status: (1) population-based weight percentiles; and (2) a modified neonatal growth assessment score (m3NGAS51). Results At the 50th percentile, &BF varied from 7.7% (35 weeks) to 11.8% (41 weeks), while the corresponding 50th percentiles for total FM were 186–436g. Among the subset of 92 neonates, no significant differences in adiposity were found between small for gestational age (SGA), appropriate for gestational age (AGA), and large for gestational age (LGA) groups using population-based weight standards. Classification of the same neonates using m3NGAS51 showed significant differences in mean %BF between corresponding groups. Conclusions Population-based weight criteria for neonatal nutritional status can lead to misclassification on the basis of adiposity. A neonatal growth assessment score, that considers the growth potential of several anatomic parameters, appears to more effectively classify under-and over-nourished newborns. PMID:22494346

  11. The Institute of Medicine Guidelines for Gestational Weight Gain after a Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Lorie M.; Tita, Alan; Biggio, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of gestational weight gain outside the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations after the diagnosis of gestational diabetes (GDM) on perinatal outcomes. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Women were classified as GWG within, less than, or greater than IOM recommendations for body mass index (BMI) as calculated by gestational weight gain per week after a diagnosis of GDM. Outcomes assessed were preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, A2 GDM, birth weight, small for gestational age, large for gestational age, macrosomia, and preterm delivery. Groups were compared using analysis of variance and chi-squared test for trend, as appropriate. Backwards stepwise logistic regression was used to adjust for significant confounding factors. Results Of 635 subjects, 92 gained within, 175 gained less than, and 368 gained more than IOM recommendations. The risk of cesarean delivery and A2 GDM was increased in those gaining above the IOM recommendations compared to within. For every 1-lb/week increase in weight gain after diagnosis of GDM, there was a 36–83% increase in the risk of preeclampsia, cesarean, A2 GDM, macrosomia, and LGA, without decreases in SGA or preterm delivery. Conclusions Weight gain more than the IOM recommendations per week of gestation after a diagnosis of GDM is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24971568

  12. Mapping Nucleotide Sequences that Encode Complex Binary Disease Traits with HapMap

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuehua; Fu, Wenjiang; Sun, Kelian; Romero, Roberto; Wu, Rongling

    2007-01-01

    Detecting the patterns of DNA sequence variants across the human genome is a crucial step for unraveling the genetic basis of complex human diseases. The human HapMap constructed by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) provides efficient sequence variation information that can speed up the discovery of genes related to common diseases. In this article, we present a generalized linear model for identifying specific nucleotide variants that encode complex human diseases. A novel approach is derived to group haplotypes to form composite diplotypes, which largely reduces the model degrees of freedom for an association test and hence increases the power when multiple SNP markers are involved. An efficient two-stage estimation procedure based on the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is derived to estimate parameters. Non-genetic environmental or clinical risk factors can also be fitted into the model. Computer simulations show that our model has reasonable power and type I error rate with appropriate sample size. It is also suggested through simulations that a balanced design with approximately equal number of cases and controls should be preferred to maintain small estimation bias and reasonable testing power. To illustrate the utility, we apply the method to a genetic association study of large for gestational age (LGA) neonates. The model provides a powerful tool for elucidating the genetic basis of complex binary diseases. PMID:19384427

  13. Influence of the microstructure on the bulk and grain boundary conductivity in apatite-type electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero-López, D.; dos Santos-Gómez, L.; León-Reina, L.; Canales-Vázquez, J.; Losilla, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Silicate and germanate apatites have attracted great interest because of their high ionic conductivity for fuel cells and other electrochemical applications. The values of conductivity of these materials are comparable or even higher than those of Zr0.84Y0.16O1.92 (YSZ), but vary depending on the synthetic method used and the level of densification. In order to evaluate the influence of the microstructure on the transport properties of apatite-type electrolytes, La10Si5.5Al0.5O26.75 (LSA) and La9.6Ge5.5Al0.5O26.15 (LGA) ceramics with different porosity and average grain size were prepared by varying the sintering temperature and time. Impedance spectroscopy was used to study separately both the bulk and grain boundary contributions from the overall conductivity. The bulk and grain boundary conductivities of silicates resulted highly dependent on both the porosity and the sintering temperature, on the contrary, the conductivity in germanates is barely affected by the microstructure.

  14. The impact of maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy on neonatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jiatong; Yu, Ping; Zhu, Huijuan; Pan, Hui; Li, Naishi; Yang, Hongbo; Jiang, Yu; Wang, Linjie; Wang, Bo; Wang, Yanhong; You, Lili; Chen, Shi

    2016-01-01

    The effects of maternal hypothyroidism on neonatal outcomes were not definitely confirmed. We conduct a systematic review of the literatures on the impact of maternal hypothyroidism on neonatal outcomes. We searched Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register databases complemented by manual searches in article references without language restrictions published from 1946 to April 2015. Nine trials are included. For preterm birth in pregnancies of hypothyroidism women, there is an increased tendency (RR 1.18; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.40; p = 0.06). The same result is seen relating to the low birth weight (RR 1.31; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.72; p = 0.05). Regarding small for gestational age there is no significant increase. Children who were born from mothers with hypothyroidism during pregnancy have increased birth weight (MD 32.35, 95% CI 7.46 to 57.24; p = 0.01). The impact of maternal hypothyroidism shows a trend of reduced risk of large for gestational age (RR 1.17; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.38; p = 0.06). Our review suggests that mothers with hypothyroidism during pregnancy are more likely to give birth to children with higher birth weight or LGA, and L-T4 supplementation should be recommended. The risk of preterm birth and low birth weight also tends to be higher in children with hypothyroidism mothers.

  15. Impact of a communication programme on female genital cutting in eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Babalola, Stella; Brasington, Angela; Agbasimalo, Ada; Helland, Anna; Nwanguma, Edith; Onah, Nkechi

    2006-10-01

    This study describes a female genital cutting (FGC) elimination communication programme in Enugu State and assesses its impact in changing relevant knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions. The FGC programme combined a community mobilization component with targeted advocacy and mass media activities. Data for assessing the impact of the programme derived from baseline and follow-up surveys in three intervention local government areas (LGA) in Enugu State and three comparison LGAs in Ebonyi State. An ideation model of behaviour change guided the analyses of the impact of the programme on personal advocacy for FGC, perceived self-efficacy to refuse pressure to perform FGC, perceived social support for FGC discontinuation, perceived benefits of FGC, perceived health complications of FGC and intention not to perform FGC on daughters. The analytical methods include comparing change in pertinent outcome variables from baseline to follow-up in the two study states and using logistic regression on follow-up data for the intervention state to assess the link between programme exposure and the relevant outcome indicators. The data show that while the pertinent ideational factors and the intention not to perform FGC either worsened or remained stagnant in Ebonyi State, they improved significantly in Enugu State. The logistic regression results show that programme exposure is associated with the expected improvements in all the pertinent indicators. The multimedia communication programme has been effective in changing FGC-related attitudes and promoting the intention not to perform FGC.

  16. Redesigning the active site of transaldolase TalB from Escherichia coli: new variants with improved affinity towards nonphosphorylated substrates.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sarah; Gutiérrez, Mariana; Sandalova, Tatyana; Schneider, Gunter; Clapés, Pere; Sprenger, Georg A; Samland, Anne K

    2010-03-22

    Recently, we reported on a transaldolase B variant (TalB F178Y) that is able to use dihydroxyacetone (DHA) as donor in aldol reactions. In a second round of protein engineering, we aimed at improving the affinity of this variant towards nonphosphorylated acceptor aldehydes, that is, glyceraldehyde (GA). The anion binding site was identified in the X-ray structure of TalB F178Y where a sulfate ion from the buffer was bound in the active site. Therefore, we performed site-directed saturation mutagenesis at three residues forming the putative phosphate binding site, Arg181, Ser226 and Arg228. The focused libraries were screened for the formation of D-fructose from DHA and d,l-GA by using an adjusted colour assay. The best results with respect to the synthesis of D-fructose were achieved with the TalB F178Y/R181E variant, which exhibited an at least fivefold increase in affinity towards d,l-GA (K(M)=24 mM). We demonstrated that this double mutant can use D-GA, glycolaldehyde and the L-isomer, L-GA, as acceptor substrates. This resulted in preparative synthesis of D-fructose, D-xylulose and L-sorbose when DHA was used as donor. Hence, we engineered a DHA-dependent aldolase that can synthesise the formation of polyhydroxylated compounds from simple and cheap substrates at preparative scale.

  17. Medical waste management in Ibadan, Nigeria: Obstacles and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, Akinwale Sangodoyin, Abimbola; Sridhar, Mynepalli; Booth, Colin; Olomolaiye, Paul; Hammond, Felix

    2009-02-15

    Quantification and characterization of medical waste generated in healthcare facilities (HCFs) in a developing African nation has been conducted to provide insights into existing waste collection and disposal approaches, so as to provide sustainable avenues for institutional policy improvement. The study, in Ibadan city, Nigeria, entailed a representative classification of nearly 400 healthcare facilities, from 11 local government areas (LGA) of Ibadan, into tertiary, secondary, primary, and diagnostic HCFs, of which, 52 HCFs were strategically selected. Primary data sources included field measurements, waste sampling and analysis and a questionnaire, while secondary information sources included public and private records from hospitals and government ministries. Results indicate secondary HCFs generate the greatest amounts of medical waste (mean of 10,238 kg/day per facility) followed by tertiary, primary and diagnostic HCFs, respectively. Characterised waste revealed that only {approx}3% was deemed infectious and highlights opportunities for composting, reuse and recycling. Furthermore, the management practices in most facilities expose patients, staff, waste handlers and the populace to unnecessary health risks. This study proffers recommendations to include (i) a need for sustained cooperation among all key actors (government, hospitals and waste managers) in implementing a safe and reliable medical waste management strategy, not only in legislation and policy formation but also particularly in its monitoring and enforcement and (ii) an obligation for each HCF to ensure a safe and hygienic system of medical waste handling, segregation, collection, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal, with minimal risk to handlers, public health and the environment.

  18. Bioreaction Engineering Leading to Efficient Synthesis of L-Glyceraldehyd-3-Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Molla, Getachew S; Kinfu, Birhanu M; Chow, Jennifer; Streit, Wolfgang; Wohlgemuth, Roland; Liese, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Enantiopure L-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (L-GAP) is a useful building block in natural biological and synthetic processes. A biocatalytic process using glycerol kinase from Cellulomonas sp. (EC 2.7.1.30) catalyzed phosphorylation of L-glyceraldehyde (L-GA) by ATP is used for the synthesis of L-GAP. L-GAP has a half-life of 6.86 h under reaction conditions. The activity of this enzyme depends on the Mg(2+) to ATP molar ratio showing maximum activity at the optimum molar ratio of 0.7. A kinetic model is developed and validated showing a 2D correlation of 99.9% between experimental and numerical data matrices. The enzyme exhibits inhibition by ADP, AMP, methylglyoxal and Ca(2+) , but not by L-GAP and inorganic orthophosphate. Moreover, equal amount of Ca(2+) exerts a different degree of inhibition relative to the activity without the addition of Ca(2+) depending on the Mg(2+) to ATP molar ratio. If the Mg(2+) to ATP molar ratio is set to be at the optimum value or less, inorganic hexametaphosphate (PPi6) suppresses the enzyme activity; otherwise PPi6 enhances the enzyme activity. Based on reaction engineering parameters such as conversion, selectivity and specific productivity, evaluation of different reactor types reveals that batchwise operation via stirred-tank reactor is the most efficient process for the synthesis of L-GAP.

  19. Minimally invasive percutaneous endovascular therapies in the management of complications of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A case report.

    PubMed

    Salsamendi, Jason; Pereira, Keith; Kang, Kyungmin; Fan, Ji

    2015-09-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of disorders from simple steatosis to inflammation leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. With the progressive epidemics of obesity and diabetes, major risk factors in the development and pathogenesis of NAFLD, the prevalence of NAFLD and its associated complications including liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma is expected to increase by 2030 with an enormous health and economic impact. We present a patient who developed Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cirrhosis. Due to morbid obesity, she was not an optimal transplant candidate and was not initially listed. After attempts for lifestyle modifications failed to lead to weight reduction, a transarterial embolization of the left gastric artery was performed. This is the sixth such procedure in humans in literature. Subsequently she had a meaningful drop in BMI from 42 to 36 over the following 6 months ultimately leading to her being listed for transplant. During this time, the left hepatic HCC was treated with chemoembolization without evidence of recurrence. In this article, we wish to highlight the use of minimally invasive percutaneous endovascular therapies such as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in the comprehensive management of the NAFLD spectrum and percutaneous transarterial embolization of the left gastric artery (LGA), a novel method, for the management of obesity.

  20. Association between polycystic ovary syndrome and the risk of pregnancy complications

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hai-Feng; Chen, Hong-Su; Rao, Da-Pang; Gong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is inconsistently associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to summarize the evidence regarding the strength of the association between pregnancy in women with PCOS and pregnancy complications. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library to identify observational studies up to January 2016. The primary focus was pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), preterm delivery, cesarean delivery, oligohydramnios, and polyhydramnios. Effect estimates were pooled using the random-effects model. The analysis was further stratified by factors that could affect these associations. Results: We included 40 observational studies that reported data on a total of 17,816 pregnancies with PCOS and 123,756 pregnancies without PCOS. Overall, PCOS in pregnancy was associated with greater risk of GDM, preeclampsia, PIH, preterm delivery, cesarean delivery, miscarriage, hypoglycemia, and perinatal death. However, PCOS in pregnancy had little or no effect on oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios, large-for-gestational age (LGA), small-for-gestational-age (SGA), fetal growth restriction (FGR), preterm premature membrane rupture, fasting blood glucose (FBG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride, total cholesterol, congenital malformation, macrosomia, and respiratory distress syndrome. Subgroup analysis suggested that these associations might be influenced by study design and pre-BMI. Conclusion: PCOS in pregnancy is associated with a significantly increased risk of adverse pregnancy, fetal, and neonatal outcomes. PMID:28002314

  1. Different types of dietary advice for women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Han, Shanshan; Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa; Heatley, Emer

    2013-03-28

    % total energy from carbohydrate), standard-fibre diet (American Diabetes Association (ADA) diet) (20 grams fibre/day) versus fibre-enriched diet (80 grams fibre/day).In the low-moderate GI food versus moderate-high GI food comparison, no significant differences were seen for macrosomia or large-for-gestational age (LGA), (two trials, 89 babies) (risk ratio (RR) 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10 to 2.08), (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.27 to 3.36), respectively; or caesarean section (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.47, one trial, 63 women).In the low-GI diet versus high-fibre moderate-GI diet comparison, no significant differences were seen for macrosomia or LGA (one trial, 92 babies) (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.03 to 2.96), (RR 2.87, 95% CI 0.61 to 13.50), respectively; or caesarean section (RR 1.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 4.94, one trial, 88 women).In the energy-restricted versus unrestricted diet comparison, no significant differences were seen for macrosomia (RR 1.56, 95% CI 0.61 to 3.94, one trial, 122 babies); LGA (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.65 to 2.12, one trial, 123 babies); or caesarean section (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.89, one trial, 121 women).In the low- versus high-carbohydrate diet comparison, none of the 30 babies in a single trial were macrosomic; and no significant differences in caesarean section rates were seen (RR 1.40, 95% CI 0.57 to 3.43, one trial, 30 women).In the high-monounsaturated fat versus high-carbohydrate diet comparison, neither macrosomia or LGA (one trial 27 babies) (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.91 to 2.18), (RR 0.54 95% CI 0.21 to 1.37), respectively showed significant differences. Women having a high-monounsaturated fat diet had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI) at birth (mean difference (MD) 3.90 kg/m², 95% CI 2.41 to 5.39, one trial, 27 women) and at six to nine months postpartum (MD 4.10 kg/m², 95% CI 2.34 to 5.86, one trial, 27 women) when compared with those having a high-carbohydrate diet. However, these findings were based on a single, small RCT with baseline

  2. Discovery of selective inhibitors of Glutaminase-2, which inhibit mTORC1, activate autophagy and inhibit proliferation in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yue-Zhi; Yang, Cheng-Wei; Chang, Hsin-Yu; Hsu, Hsing-Yu; Chen, Ih-Shen; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Lee, Chih-Hao; Lee, Jinq-chyi; Kumar, Chidambaram Ramesh; Qiu, Ya-Qi; Chao, Yu-Sheng; Lee, Shiow-Ju

    2014-08-15

    Glutaminase, which converts glutamine to glutamate, is involved in Warburg effect in cancer cells. Two human glutaminase genes have been identified, GLS (GLS1) and GLS2. Two alternative transcripts arise from each glutaminase gene: first, the kidney isoform (KGA) and glutaminase C (GAC) for GLS; and, second, the liver isoform (LGA) and glutaminase B (GAB) for GLS2. While GLS1 is considered as a cancer therapeutic target, the potential role of GLS2 in cancer remains unclear. Here, we discovered a series of alkyl benzoquinones that preferentially inhibit glutaminase B isoform (GAB, GLS2) rather than the kidney isoform of glutaminase (KGA, GLS1). We identified amino acid residues in an allosteric binding pocket responsible for the selectivity. Treatment with the alkyl benzoquinones decreased intracellular glutaminase activity and glutamate levels. GLS2 inhibition by either alkyl benzoquinones or GLS2 siRNA reduced carcinoma cell proliferation and anchorage-independent colony formation, and induced autophagy via AMPK mediated mTORC1 inhibition. Our findings demonstrate amino acid sequences for selective inhibition of glutaminase isozymes and validate GLS2 as a potential anti-cancer target.

  3. Expression profile of long noncoding RNAs and mRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from myasthenia gravis patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Liu, Guiyou; Bu, Yali; Ma, Xiaofeng; Hao, Junwei

    2016-10-15

    For the epigenetic characterization of myasthenia gravis (MG), we determined whether long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are expressed differentially in subjects with and without MG. Compared with healthy control subjects, the MG patients had 1561 upregulated lncRNAs, 1034 downregulated lncRNAs, 921 upregulated mRNAs, and 806 downregulated mRNAs (fold change>2.0). Several GO terms including nucleic acid transcription factor activity, inflammatory response, regulation of leukocyte activation, lymphocyte proliferation and regulation of B cell proliferation were enriched in gene lists, suggesting a potential correlation with MG. Pathway analysis then demonstrated that cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, intestinal immune network for lgA production, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, NF-kappaB signaling pathway, cell adhesion molecules and TNF signaling pathway play important roles in MG. Co-expression network analysis indicated that 33 lncRNAs were predicted to have 31 cis-regulated target genes, and 65 lncRNAs appeared to regulate the patients' 45 trans target genes among differentially expressed lncRNAs. Our present study identified a subset of dysregulated lncRNAs and mRNAs in patients with MG, which may impact this disease process. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. In vivo evaluation of whey protein-based biofilms as scaffolds for cutaneous cell cultures and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Gilbert, Vanessa; Wang, Hongxum; Subirade, Muriel

    2007-03-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity, biodegradability and immunogenicity of newly developed whey protein-based biofilms for possible use as biomaterials for medical applications. Biofilms were prepared using (A) a whey protein isolate plasticized with either diethylene glycol (DEG) or glycerol (GLY), and (B) beta-lactoglobulin (betaLGA) plasticized with DEG. The biofilms were implanted subcutaneously into Balb/c mice. Analyses were performed at various time points. At 15, 30 and 60 days post-implantation, no necrotic zones or exudates were present at the recipient sites. The biofilms began to degrade as early as 15 days post-implantation, as evidenced by erosion and crumbling. The macroscopic observations were supported by tissue analyses revealing no tissue necrosis or degradation and confirming that the biodegradation of the biofilms began as early as 15 days post-implantation and was almost complete after 60 days. The biodegradation was accompanied by significant leukocyte infiltration at 15 days which significantly decreased at 60 days. The absence of splenomagaly in the implanted mice confirms that these biofilms were not immunogenic. Whey protein-based biofilms are biocompatible and biodegradable and may be of interest for medical applications such as scaffolds for cutaneous cell cultures and skin recovery in burn patients.

  5. Old Drugs To Treat Resistant Bugs: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates with mecC Are Susceptible to a Combination of Penicillin and Clavulanic Acid.

    PubMed

    Ba, Xiaoliang; Harrison, Ewan M; Lovering, Andrew L; Gleadall, Nicholas; Zadoks, Ruth; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J; Holden, Matthew T G; Paterson, Gavin K; Holmes, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    β-Lactam resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is mediated by the expression of an alternative penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) (encoded by mecA) with a low affinity for β-lactam antibiotics. Recently, a novel variant of mecA, known as mecC, was identified in MRSA isolates from both humans and animals. In this study, we demonstrate that mecC-encoded PBP2c does not mediate resistance to penicillin. Rather, broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance in MRSA strains carrying mecC (mecC-MRSA strains) is mediated by a combination of both PBP2c and the distinct β-lactamase encoded by the blaZ gene of strain LGA251 (blaZLGA251), which is part of mecC-encoding staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type XI. We further demonstrate that mecC-MRSA strains are susceptible to the combination of penicillin and the β-lactam inhibitor clavulanic acid in vitro and that the same combination is effective in vivo for the treatment of experimental mecC-MRSA infection in wax moth larvae. Thus, we demonstrate how the distinct biological differences between mecA- and mecC-encoded PBP2a and PBP2c have the potential to be exploited as a novel approach for the treatment of mecC-MRSA infections. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Old Drugs To Treat Resistant Bugs: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates with mecC Are Susceptible to a Combination of Penicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Xiaoliang; Lovering, Andrew L.; Gleadall, Nicholas; Zadoks, Ruth; Peacock, Sharon J.; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Paterson, Gavin K.; Holmes, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    β-Lactam resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is mediated by the expression of an alternative penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) (encoded by mecA) with a low affinity for β-lactam antibiotics. Recently, a novel variant of mecA, known as mecC, was identified in MRSA isolates from both humans and animals. In this study, we demonstrate that mecC-encoded PBP2c does not mediate resistance to penicillin. Rather, broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance in MRSA strains carrying mecC (mecC-MRSA strains) is mediated by a combination of both PBP2c and the distinct β-lactamase encoded by the blaZ gene of strain LGA251 (blaZLGA251), which is part of mecC-encoding staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type XI. We further demonstrate that mecC-MRSA strains are susceptible to the combination of penicillin and the β-lactam inhibitor clavulanic acid in vitro and that the same combination is effective in vivo for the treatment of experimental mecC-MRSA infection in wax moth larvae. Thus, we demonstrate how the distinct biological differences between mecA- and mecC-encoded PBP2a and PBP2c have the potential to be exploited as a novel approach for the treatment of mecC-MRSA infections. PMID:26392513

  7. Experiencing racism in health care: the mental health impacts for Victorian Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Kelaher, Margaret A; Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin

    2014-07-07

    To examine experiences of racism in health settings and their impact on mental health among Aboriginal Australians. A cross-sectional survey of experiences of racism and mental health was conducted in two metropolitan and two rural Victorian local government areas (LGAs) between 1 December 2010 and 31 October 2011. Participants included 755 Aboriginal Australians aged over 18 years who had resided in the relevant LGA for at least a year. The response rate across all LGAs was 99%. Being above or below the threshold for high or very high psychological distress on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. 221 participants reported experiences of racism in health settings in the past 12 months. The results suggested that people experiencing racism in health settings (OR, 4.49; 95% CI, 2.28-8.86) and non-health settings (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.39-5.08) were more likely than people who did not experience racism to be above the threshold for high or very high psychological distress. Experiencing interpersonal racism in health settings is associated with increased psychological distress over and above what would be expected in other settings. This finding supports the rationale for improving cultural competency and reducing racism as a means of closing the health gap between Aboriginal and other Australians. Capitalising on this investment will require explicitly evaluating the impact of these initiatives on reducing patient experiences of racism.

  8. A comparison of various optimization algorithms of protein-ligand docking programs by fitness accuracy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liyong; Yan, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Xiliang; Hu, Liang; Yang, Yongliang; Wang, Jin

    2014-07-01

    In protein-ligand docking, an optimization algorithm is used to find the best binding pose of a ligand against a protein target. This algorithm plays a vital role in determining the docking accuracy. To evaluate the relative performance of different optimization algorithms and provide guidance for real applications, we performed a comparative study on six efficient optimization algorithms, containing two evolutionary algorithm (EA)-based optimizers (LGA, DockDE) and four particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based optimizers (SODock, varCPSO, varCPSO-ls, FIPSDock), which were implemented into the protein-ligand docking program AutoDock. We unified the objective functions by applying the same scoring function, and built a new fitness accuracy as the evaluation criterion that incorporates optimization accuracy, robustness, and efficiency. The varCPSO and varCPSO-ls algorithms show high efficiency with fast convergence speed. However, their accuracy is not optimal, as they cannot reach very low energies. SODock has the highest accuracy and robustness. In addition, SODock shows good performance in efficiency when optimizing drug-like ligands with less than ten rotatable bonds. FIPSDock shows excellent robustness and is close to SODock in accuracy and efficiency. In general, the four PSO-based algorithms show superior performance than the two EA-based algorithms, especially for highly flexible ligands. Our method can be regarded as a reference for the validation of new optimization algorithms in protein-ligand docking.

  9. Traditional medicinal plants in Nigeria--remedies or risks.

    PubMed

    Awodele, O; Popoola, T D; Amadi, K C; Coker, H A B; Akintonwa, A

    2013-11-25

    Soil pollution due to increasing industrialization is a reality that is taking its toll on mankind today. Considering the population of people that use herbal remedies especially in developing countries and the discharge of industrial waste on surrounding herbal vegetation, it is imperative to determine the heavy metals contamination in some commonly used medicinal plants. Representative samples of five medicinal plants Ageratum conyzoides, Aspilia africana, Alchornea cordifolia, Amaranthus brasiliensis and Chromolaena odorata were collected from Ikpoba-Okha L.G.A, Edo State Nigeria, around a paint company and another set of same plants were collected from a non-polluted source. Dried leaves and roots of collected plants were digested and analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) for the presence of Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn). Soil samples from polluted and non-polluted areas were also analyzed to ascertain the levels of these heavy metals in the environment. Results show that the concentrations of these heavy metals in the leaves and roots of plants collected from polluted soil were significantly higher than those obtained from unpolluted soil. Correspondingly heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher in polluted than in unpolluted soil samples. As part of continuing effort in the standardization of traditional remedies, environmental contamination control and abatement is evident. The source of medicinal plants/herbs should also be a cause for concern since the toxicity of medicinal plants is sometimes associated with environmental sources of the plants. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seroprevalence of Fowl Pox Antibody in Indigenous Chickens in Jos North and South Council Areas of Plateau State, Nigeria: Implication for Vector Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

    2012-01-01

    Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease. PMID:23762578

  11. Heterogeneity of prognostic profiles in non-small cell lung cancer: too many variables but a few relevant.

    PubMed

    Gomez de la Cámara, Agustín; López-Encuentra, Angel; Ferrando, Paloma

    2005-01-01

    Many prognostic factors, exceeding 150, for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are mentioned in the literature. The different statistical weight of the some variables at issue, their heterogeneity and their clinical uselessness is reviewed. Survival analysis of a cohort of NSCLC operated (n = 1730, 1993-1997) was carried out utilizing different statistical approaches: Cox proportional hazard analysis (CPHA), logistic regression (LRA), and recursive partitioning (CART). CPHA identified 13 prognostic variables and 11 LRA. Of the 17 possible variables, 10 are coincident. CART provided five different diagnostic groups but only three differentiated survival levels. Parsimonious models were constructed including only T and N cancer staging variables. Areas under the ROC curve of 0.68 and 0.68 were found for CPHA and LGA parsimonious models respectively, and 0.72 and 0.71 for complete models. Variables with a minimal impact on the respective models and thus with little or scarce predictive clinical repercussion were identified. Differences in the prognostic profile of survival can be caused by the different methodological approaches used. No relevant differences were found between the parsimonious and complete models. Although the amount of information managed is considerable, there continues to be a large predictive gap yet to be explained.

  12. Inhibitory mode of indole-2-carboxamide derivatives against HLGPa: molecular docking and 3D-QSAR analyses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guixia; Zhang, Zhenshan; Luo, Xiaomin; Shen, Jianhua; Liu, Hong; Shen, Xu; Chen, Kaixian; Jiang, Hualiang

    2004-08-01

    The interaction of a series of indole-2-carboxamide compounds with human liver glycogen phosphorylase a (HLGPa) have been studied employing molecular docking and 3D-QSAR approaches. The Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm (LGA) of AutoDock 3.0 was employed to locate the binding orientations and conformations of the inhibitors interacting with HLGPa. The binding models were demonstrated in the aspects of inhibitor's conformation, subsite interaction, and hydrogen bonding. The very similar binding conformations of these inhibitors show that they interact with HLGPa in a very similar way. Good correlations between the calculated interaction free energies and experimental inhibitory activities suggest that the binding conformations of these inhibitors are reasonable. The structural and energetic differences in inhibitory potencies of indole-2-carboxamide compounds were reasonably explored. Using the binding conformations of indole-2-carboxamides, consistent and highly predictive 3D-QSAR models were developed by CoMFA and CoMSIA analyses. The q2 values are 0.697 and 0.622 for CoMFA and CoMSIA models, respectively. The predictive ability of these models was validated by four compounds that were not included in the training set. Mapping these models back to the topology of the active site of HLGPa leads to a better understanding of the vital indole-2-carboxamide-HLGPa interactions. Structure-based investigations and the final 3D-QSAR results provide clear guidelines and accurate activity predictions for novel inhibitor design.

  13. Docking studies on monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors: estimation of inhibition constants (K(i)) of a series of experimentally tested compounds.

    PubMed

    Toprakçí, Mustafa; Yelekçi, Kemal

    2005-10-15

    Monoamine oxidase (EC1.4.3.4; MAO) is a mitochondrial outer membrane flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of biogenic amines. It has two distinct isozymic forms designated MAO-A and MAO-B, each displaying different substrate and inhibitor specificities. They are the well-known targets for antidepressant and neuroprotective drugs. Elucidation of the X-ray crystallographic structure of MAO-B has opened the way for molecular modeling studies. A series of experimentally tested (1-10) model compounds has been docked computationally to the active site of the MAO-B enzyme. The AutoDock 3.0.5 program was employed to perform automated molecular docking. The free energies of binding (DeltaG) and inhibition constants (K(i)) of the docked compounds were calculated by the Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm (LGA) of AutoDock 3.0.5. Excellent to good correlations between the calculated and experimental K(i) values were obtained.

  14. 3D-QSAR and molecular docking studies of selective agonists for the thyroid hormone receptor beta.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Qin, Jin; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun

    2008-09-01

    Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models were developed using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity analysis (CoMSIA) on a series of agonists of thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRbeta), which may lead to safe therapies for non-thyroid disorders while avoiding the cardiac side effects. The reasonable q(2) (cross-validated) values 0.600 and 0.616 and non-cross-validated r(2) values of 0.974 and 0.974 were obtained for CoMFA and CoMSIA models for the training set compounds, respectively. The predictive ability of two models was validated using a test set of 12 molecules which gave predictive correlation coefficients (r(pred)(2)) of 0.688 and 0.674, respectively. The Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm (LGA) of AutoDock 4.0 was employed to explore the binding mode of the compound at the active site of TRbeta. The results not only lead to a better understanding of interactions between these agonists and the thyroid hormone receptor beta but also can provide us some useful information about the influence of structures on the activity which will be very useful for designing some new agonist with desired activity.

  15. Molecular docking and 3D-QSAR studies on the binding mechanism of statine-based peptidomimetics with beta-secretase.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zhili; Luo, Xiaomin; Zhu, Weiliang; Shen, Jianhua; Shen, Xu; Jiang, Hualiang; Chen, Kaixian

    2005-03-15

    beta-Secretase is an important protease in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Some statine-based peptidomimetics show inhibitory activities to the beta-secretase. To explore the inhibitory mechanism, molecular docking and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies on these analogues were performed. The Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm (LGA) was applied to locate the binding orientations and conformations of the peptidomimetics with the beta-secretase. A good correlation between the calculated binding free energies and the experimental inhibitory activities suggests that the identified binding conformations of these potential inhibitors are reliable. Based on the binding conformations, highly predictive 3D-QSAR models were developed with q(2) values of 0.582 and 0.622 for CoMFA and CoMSIA, respectively. The predictive abilities of these models were validated by some compounds that were not included in the training set. Furthermore, the 3D-QSAR models were mapped back to the binding site of the beta-secretase, to get a better understanding of vital interactions between the statine-based peptidomimetics and the protease. Both the CoMFA and the CoMSIA field distributions are in well agreement with the structural characteristics of the binding groove of the beta-secretase. Therefore, the final 3D-QSAR models and the information of the inhibitor-enzyme interaction would be useful in developing new drug leads against Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Pregnancy outcomes in women aged 35 years or older with gestational diabetes - a registry-based study in Finland.

    PubMed

    Lamminpää, Reeta; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Gissler, Mika; Selander, Tuomas; Heinonen, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    To compare pregnancy outcomes of women ≥ 35 years to women <35 years with and without gestational diabetes. The data include 230,003 women <35 years and 53,321 women ≥ 35 years and their newborns from 2004 to 2008. In multivariate modeling, the main outcome measures were preterm delivery (<28, 28-31 and 32-36 weeks' gestation), Apgar scores <7 at 5 min, small for gestational age (SGA), fetal death, asphyxia, preeclampsia, admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), shoulder dystocia and large for gestational age (LGA). In comparison to women <35 with normal glucose tolerance, preeclampsia (OR 1.57, CI 1.30-1.88), admission to the NICU (OR 3.30, CI 2.94-3.69) and shoulder dystocia (OR 2.12, CI 1.05-4.30) were highest in insulin-treated women ≥ 35 years. In women ≥35, diet- and insulin-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increased the rates of preeclampsia, shoulder dystocia and admission to NICU (OR 3.07 CI 2.73-3.45). The effect of advanced maternal age was observed in very preterm delivery (<28 weeks), fetal death, preeclampsia and NICU. The increase in preeclampsia was statistically significant. GDM at advanced age is a high risk state and, more specifically, the risk caused by age and GDM appear to be increasing in preeclampsia.

  17. Exploring the options for alternative means of livelihood for Blind street beggars in Sokoto, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Balarabe, Aliyu H; Mahmoud, Abdulraheem O; Omolase, Charles O; Nasiru, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    To explore the readiness of and the options for alternative means of livelihood for Blind Street beggars in Sokoto, Nigeria, with a view to achieving the millennium development goals. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Local Government Area (LGA), in Sokoto State over a 6 weeks period (May/June, 2009). Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Committee of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. A list of blind persons in these areas was obtained from the local traditional head of the blind (Sarkin Makafi) who gave the general consent for the study and also assisted in mobilizing the subjects. Blind subjects who consented were examined and included in the study. Data were collected with a semistructured questionnaire. The desire for occupational change and the preferred alternative means of sustenance were explored. Data obtained were coded, analyzed, and summarized in form of frequency tables. A total of 216 (94.7%) subjects were examined out of the 228 subjects that were enumerated. However, only 202 of the registered persons that were actually found to be blind on ophthalmic examination were included in the analysis. Majority of the subjects, 201 (99.5%), wanted alternative means of livelihood. About half of the subjects, 100 (49.8%), wanted to be established in farming or trading. Most respondents expressed readiness for alternative means of livelihood.

  18. Perception and practice of female genital cutting in a rural community in southern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ofonime E; Okon, Rose D

    2012-12-01

    This study was carried out to determine the awareness and practice of FGC in a rural community in southern Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out among Ayadehe women in Itu, LGA Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using a semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Information obtained was analysed using SPSS version 17. A total of 218 respondents participated in the study. Majority, 215 (98.6%) were aware of the practice of FGC. Type 2 FGC was the commonest type reported by 71.2% of respondents. Prevalence of FGC was 92.7%. A total of 69.8% were circumcised at 6-12 years. Health complications experienced included excruciating pains, (36.6%), severe bleeding, (15.8%), and painful urination, (26.7%). Up to 53.5% were circumcised by traditional birth attendants. The belief that FGM should be discontinued increased with educational level. The practice of FGC was high in this community. Increased female education, community involvement and legislation are needed to reduce this practice.

  19. Genetic algorithm with a crossover elitist preservation mechanism for protein-ligand docking.

    PubMed

    Guan, Boxin; Zhang, Changsheng; Ning, Jiaxu

    2017-09-13

    Protein-ligand docking plays an important role in computer-aided pharmaceutical development. Protein-ligand docking can be defined as a search algorithm with a scoring function, whose aim is to determine the conformation of the ligand and the receptor with the lowest energy. Hence, to improve an efficient algorithm has become a very significant challenge. In this paper, a novel search algorithm based on crossover elitist preservation mechanism (CEP) for solving protein-ligand docking problems is proposed. The proposed algorithm, namely genetic algorithm with crossover elitist preservation (CEPGA), employ the CEP to keep the elite individuals of the last generation and make the crossover more efficient and robust. The performance of CEPGA is tested on sixteen molecular docking complexes from RCSB protein data bank. In comparison with GA, LGA and SODOCK in the aspects of lowest energy and highest accuracy, the results of which indicate that the CEPGA is a reliable and successful method for protein-ligand docking problems.

  20. Association between polycystic ovary syndrome and the risk of pregnancy complications: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai-Feng; Chen, Hong-Su; Rao, Da-Pang; Gong, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is inconsistently associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to summarize the evidence regarding the strength of the association between pregnancy in women with PCOS and pregnancy complications. We systematically searched PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library to identify observational studies up to January 2016. The primary focus was pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), preterm delivery, cesarean delivery, oligohydramnios, and polyhydramnios. Effect estimates were pooled using the random-effects model. The analysis was further stratified by factors that could affect these associations. We included 40 observational studies that reported data on a total of 17,816 pregnancies with PCOS and 123,756 pregnancies without PCOS. Overall, PCOS in pregnancy was associated with greater risk of GDM, preeclampsia, PIH, preterm delivery, cesarean delivery, miscarriage, hypoglycemia, and perinatal death. However, PCOS in pregnancy had little or no effect on oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios, large-for-gestational age (LGA), small-for-gestational-age (SGA), fetal growth restriction (FGR), preterm premature membrane rupture, fasting blood glucose (FBG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride, total cholesterol, congenital malformation, macrosomia, and respiratory distress syndrome. Subgroup analysis suggested that these associations might be influenced by study design and pre-BMI. PCOS in pregnancy is associated with a significantly increased risk of adverse pregnancy, fetal, and neonatal outcomes.

  1. Seroprevalence of fowl pox antibody in indigenous chickens in jos north and South council areas of plateau state, Nigeria: implication for vector vaccine.

    PubMed

    Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

    2012-01-01

    Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease.

  2. Effect of training programme on secondary schools teachers' knowledge and attitude towards reproductive health education in rural schools Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adegbenro, Caleb; Adeniyi, J D; Oladepo, O

    2006-12-01

    This study assessed the effect of training programme on teachers' knowledge of and attitude towards reproductive health education /sexuality education [RHE/SE] in five randomly selected rural schools in Ife-North local government area [IFLGA], Southwest, Nigeria. All the 84 teachers in the selected schools in the LGA were recruited for the study. They [84 teachers] were all given training in RHE/SE for one month. Their knowledge and attitude towards RHE/SE were assessed pre-and post-training programme. The results show a significant increase in percentage of those who had good knowledge in general areas of RHE/SE at post-training assessment compared with pre-training assessment[from 14.3% to 53.6%, p=0.0001].Also, pre-post attitudinal disposition assessments show that there was an increase in percentage of those who were favourably disposed to the teaching of RHE/SE in Nigeria Schools at post-training assessment [from 17.9% to 45.2%, p=0.0011]. The study suggests that RHE/SE should be included and made compulsory in all training programme for all teachers in Nigeria.

  3. Persistent mission home delivery in ibadan: attractive role of traditional birth attendants.

    PubMed

    Ayede, A I

    2012-12-01

    One of the major factors responsible for high maternal and neonatal deaths in Nigeria and other developing countries is the use of Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). The current study was carried out to evaluate the attractive roles of the TBAs that make pregnant mothers persistently use them. The study was conducted in Ido and Lagelu local government areas of Oyo State in Nigeria. TBA basic demographic data were collected and were then followed up for a period of six months by trained Nurses and Doctors targeting a total of ten direct observations made per TBA per ANC/delivery. There were a total of 146 TBAs out of which 134 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were recruited into the study. The Male to female ratio was 1/133 and age range was 22-68 years with 70.1 % above 40 years. Seventy two per cent of them had only elementary school and 72%, 30% and 38% had been re-trained by LGA, SMOH and National TBA associations respectively. Post- partum care, counseling services, tender care in labour, easy accessibility, accommodating other relations, installmental payment were observed in all TBAs while 60-98% of them did home visit, assisted in referral and arranged for USS and laboratory services. These good practices should be incorporated into formal health sector and attitudinal change in the current health workers across all health care levels should be encouraged. CHEWs should also be primarily involved in home visit in pregnancy and post-natal care services.

  4. Singleton pregnancy outcomes after in vitro fertilization with fresh or frozen-thawed embryo transfer and incidence of placenta praevia.

    PubMed

    Korosec, Sara; Ban Frangez, Helena; Verdenik, Ivan; Kladnik, Urska; Kotar, Vanja; Virant-Klun, Irma; Vrtacnik Bokal, Eda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the single pregnancy and neonate outcome after fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfer in the in vitro fertilization programme (IVF). The study focused on clinical and laboratory factors affecting the abnormal placentation, especially placenta praevia, in patients conceiving in the IVF programme. The results confirm that neonates born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer had significantly higher mean birth weight than after fresh embryo transfer (ET). Moreover, the birth weight distribution in singletons was found to shift towards "large for gestation" (LGA) after frozen-thawed ET. On the other hand, the pregnancies after fresh ET were characterized by a higher incidence of placenta praevia and 3rd trimester bleeding. Placenta praevia was more common in IVF patients with fresh ET in a stimulated cycle than in patients with ET in a spontaneous cycle. It occurred more frequently in patients with transfer of 2 embryos. From this point of view, single ET and ET in a spontaneous cycle should be encouraged in good prognosis patients in the future with more than two good quality embryos developed. An important issue arose of how the ovarian hormonal stimulation relates to abnormal placentation and if the serum hormone levels interfere with in the IVF treatment results.

  5. Medical waste management in Ibadan, Nigeria: obstacles and prospects.

    PubMed

    Coker, Akinwale; Sangodoyin, Abimbola; Sridhar, Mynepalli; Booth, Colin; Olomolaiye, Paul; Hammond, Felix

    2009-02-01

    Quantification and characterization of medical waste generated in healthcare facilities (HCFs) in a developing African nation has been conducted to provide insights into existing waste collection and disposal approaches, so as to provide sustainable avenues for institutional policy improvement. The study, in Ibadan city, Nigeria, entailed a representative classification of nearly 400 healthcare facilities, from 11 local government areas (LGA) of Ibadan, into tertiary, secondary, primary, and diagnostic HCFs, of which, 52 HCFs were strategically selected. Primary data sources included field measurements, waste sampling and analysis and a questionnaire, while secondary information sources included public and private records from hospitals and government ministries. Results indicate secondary HCFs generate the greatest amounts of medical waste (mean of 10,238 kg/day per facility) followed by tertiary, primary and diagnostic HCFs, respectively. Characterised waste revealed that only approximately 3% was deemed infectious and highlights opportunities for composting, reuse and recycling. Furthermore, the management practices in most facilities expose patients, staff, waste handlers and the populace to unnecessary health risks. This study proffers recommendations to include (i) a need for sustained cooperation among all key actors (government, hospitals and waste managers) in implementing a safe and reliable medical waste management strategy, not only in legislation and policy formation but also particularly in its monitoring and enforcement and (ii) an obligation for each HCF to ensure a safe and hygienic system of medical waste handling, segregation, collection, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal, with minimal risk to handlers, public health and the environment.

  6. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in low-income countries: a meta-analysis of effects on birth size and length of gestation.

    PubMed

    Fall, Caroline H D; Fisher, David J; Osmond, Clive; Margetts, Barrie M

    2009-12-01

    Multiple micronutrient deficiencies are common among women in low-income countries and may adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. This meta-analysis reports the effects on newborn size and duration of gestation of multiple micronutrient supplementation mainly compared with iron plus folic acid during pregnancy in recent randomized, controlled trials. Original data from 12 randomized, controlled trials in Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, China, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Mexico, Nepal, Niger, Pakistan, and Zimbabwe, all providing approximately 1 recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of multiple micronutrients to presumed HIV-negative women, were included. Outcomes included birthweight, other birth measurements, gestation, and incidence of low birthweight (LBW) (< 2500 g), small-for-gestational age birth (SGA, birthweight below the within-each-population 10th percentile), large-for-gestational age birth (LGA, birthweight above the within-each-population 90th percentile), and preterm delivery (< 37 weeks). Compared with control supplementation (mainly with iron-folic acid), multiple micronutrient supplementation was associated with an increase in mean birthweight (pooled estimate: +22.4 g [95% CI, 8.3 to 36.4 g]; p = .002), a reduction in the prevalence of LBW (pooled OR = 0.89 [95% CI, 0.81 to 0.97]; p = .01) and SGA birth (pooled OR = 0.90 [95% CI, 0.82 to 0.99]; p = .03), and an increase in the prevalence of LGA birth (pooled OR = 1.13 [95% CI, 1.00 to 1.28]; p = .04). In most studies, the effects on birthweight were greater in mothers with higher body mass index (BMI). In the pooled analysis, the positive effect of multiple micronutrients on birthweight increased by 7.6 g (95% CI, 1.9 to 13.3 g) per unit increase in maternal BMI (p for interaction = .009). The intervention effect relative to the control group was + 39.0 g (95% CI, +22.0 to +56.1 g) in mothers with BMI of 20 kg/m2 or higher compared with -6.0 g (95% CI, -8.8 to +16.8 g) in mothers with BMI under 20 kg/m2

  7. Statistical Effects of Doppler Beaming and Malmquist Bias on Flux-limited Samples of Compact Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Matthew L.; Marscher, Alan P.

    1997-02-01

    We examine the effects of Doppler beaming on flux-limited samples of compact radio sources representative of relativistic jets found in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We expand upon past studies by incorporating a luminosity function and redshift distribution for the parent population and by allowing the unbeamed synchrotron luminosity L of a relativistic jet to be related to its bulk Lorentz factor (Γ). These enhancements allow us to compare observable parameters other than simply apparent velocity with the data. The predictions of L-Γ-independent (LGI) models are compared to those of a L-Γ-dependent (LGD) scenario in which the Lorentz factor and luminosity are related by the form L ~ Γξ. This is accomplished using Monte Carlo simulations, where we compare the predicted flux density, redshift, monochromatic emitted luminosity, and apparent velocity distributions of flux-limited samples to the Caltech-Jodrell Bank sample of bright, flat-spectrum, radio core-dominated AGNs (CJ-F). The LGI model predictions are consistent with the CJ-F data if we adopt parent Lorentz factor distributions of the form N(Γ) ~ Γa, where -1.5 <~ a <~ -1.75, or, alternatively N(Γ) ~ (Γ - 1)a, where -0.5 <~ a <~ -1. These models reproduce, via selection effects, a deficit of sources having both low apparent velocity (βapp) and high monochromatic emitted luminosity (P) seen in the CJ-F sample, as reported by Vermeulen in 1995. We examine two possible cases for the LGD scenario, the first of which employs a positive correlation between unbeamed synchrotron luminosity and Lorentz factor (the LGC model), and the second of which employs an anticorrelation (the LGA model). The LGA models do not predict enough low-P sources to be consistent with the CJ-F data and do not reproduce the P versus βapp envelope. The predictions of the best-fit LGC model, on the other hand, are very similar to our best-fit LGI models and provide as good fits to the CJ-F data, with the important exception that

  8. Differences in pregnancy outcomes and characteristics between insulin- and diet-treated women with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Benhalima, Katrien; Robyns, Karolien; Van Crombrugge, Paul; Deprez, Natascha; Seynhave, Bruno; Devlieger, Roland; Verhaeghe, Johan; Mathieu, Chantal; Nobels, Frank

    2015-10-23

    Our aim was to evaluate the difference in pregnancy outcomes and characteristics between insulin- and diet-treated women with gestational diabetes (GDM). Retrospective analysis of the medical files from 2010-2013 of women with GDM diagnosed with the Carpenter & Coustan criteria attending two clinics, one in a university and another in a non-university hospital. Characteristics associated with insulin use were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders. For women attending the university hospital, indices of insulin sensitivity such as the reciprocal of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (1/HOMA-IR) and an index of beta-cell function, the Insulin Secretion-Sensitivity Index-2 (ISSI-2) were calculated. Over a 4 year period, 601 women were identified with GDM of whom 22.9% were obese at first prenatal visit. 24.2% needed insulin. Insulin did not prevent adverse outcomes, as women on insulin had higher rates of large-for-gestational age infants (LGA) (28.5% vs. 13.1 %, p < 0.0001) and more cesarean sections (44.1% vs. 27.0%, p = 0.001), remaining significant after adjustment for confounders. Compared to diet-treated women, women on insulin more often had an ethnic minority background (33.3 % vs. 21.6%, p = 0.004), more often had a history of GDM (21.5% vs. 10.4%, p = 0.002), were more often multiparous (59.3% vs. 47.6%, p = 0.044) and were diagnosed with GDM earlier in pregnancy (weeks 25.3 ± 4.9 vs. 27.1 ± 3.7, p < 0.0001). When undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test, women treated with insulin had a higher fasting glycaemia (97.6 ± 18.8 vs.87.7 ± 10.3, p < 0.0001), a higher 1-hour glycaemia (197.7 ± 30.1 vs.184.5 ± 25.8, p < 0.0001), a higher 2-hour glycaemia (185.2 ± 28.5 vs. 175.0 ± 22.8, p < 0.0001), more often 3 and 4 abnormal values (58.1% vs. 37.8%, p < 0.0001 and 24.8% vs. 7.7%, p < 0.0001) and higher HbA1c levels (5.5

  9. Perception and utilization of traditional birth attendants by pregnant women attending primary health care clinics in a rural Local Government Area in Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ebuehi, Olufunke M; Akintujoye, IA

    2012-01-01

    Background In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. This situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal and neonatal health complications. The purpose of this study was to explore pregnant women’s perceptions and utilization of traditional birth attendant (TBA) services in a rural Local Government Area (LGA) in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria. Methods A quantitative design was used to obtain information using a structured questionnaire from 250 pregnant women attending four randomly selected primary health care clinics in the LGA. Data were analyzed using Epi Info (v 3.5.1) statistical software. Results Almost half (48.8%) of the respondents were in the age group 26–35 years, with a mean age of 29.4 ± 7.33 years. About two-thirds (65.6%) of the respondents had been pregnant 2–4 times before. TBA functions, as identified by respondents, were: “taking normal delivery” (56.7%), “providing antenatal services” (16.5%), “performing caesarean section” (13.0%), “providing family planning services” (8.2%), and “performing gynaecological surgeries” (5.6%). About 6/10 (61.0%) respondents believed that TBAs have adequate knowledge and skills to care for them, however, approximately 7/10 (69.7%) respondents acknowledged that complications could arise from TBA care. Services obtained from TBAs were: routine antenatal care (81.1%), normal delivery (36.1%), “special maternal bath to ward off evil spirits” (1.9%), “concoctions for mothers to drink to make baby strong” (15.1%), and family planning services (1.9%). Reasons for using TBA services were: “TBA services are cheaper” (50.9%), “TBA services are more culturally acceptable in my environment” (34.0%), “TBA services are closer to my house than hospital services” (13.2%), “TBAs provide more compassionate care than orthodox health workers” (43.4%), and “TBA service is the only

  10. Maternal obesity and perinatal oxidative stress: the strength of the association.

    PubMed

    Negro, S; Boutsikou, T; Briana, D D; Tataranno, M L; Longini, M; Proietti, F; Bazzini, F; Dani, C; Malamitsi-Puchner, A; Buonocore, G; Perrone, S

    2017-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a chronic inflammatory state, which has been shown to induce increased levels of free fatty acids, reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cells. Recent evidence reveals increased levels of lipid peroxidation products in the plasma of obese women during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that maternal overweight or obesity is associated with increased oxidative stress (OS) in offspring. Two hundred and forty-five pregnant women and their newborns were prospectively enrolled. Mothers were divided in two groups: lean control - LC (n=175, Group I); overweight or obese (n=70, Group II) according to BMI ≥ 25 before pregnancy. Cord blood F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs), as reliable markers of OS, were measured in all newborns. Lower 1 minute APGAR score and higher weight at discharge were found in Group II neonates, compared to those of Group I (p less than 0.05). Small for gestational age (SGA) newborns of both groups showed increased levels of F2-IsoPs than appropriate (AGA) or large (LGA) for gestational age (GA) (p less than 0.01). SGA newborns of Group II had higher F2-IsoPs levels compared to SGA of Group I (p less than 0.01), which were significantly correlated to maternal BMI at the end of pregnancy (r=0.451, p less than 0.01). Multivariate regression analysis corrected for confounding factors, showed that maternal overweight or obesity was significantly associated with high F2-IsoPs levels in SGA offspring (p less than 0.01). Maternal overweight or obesity is associated with increased OS in their SGA newborns. Data suggest the need of antioxidant protection for both mothers during pregnancy and infants soon after birth.

  11. Proposed data compression schemes for the Galileo S-band contingency mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Tong, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft is currently on its way to Jupiter and its moons. In April 1991, the high gain antenna (HGA) failed to deploy as commanded. In case the current efforts to deploy the HGA fails, communications during the Jupiter encounters will be through one of two low gain antenna (LGA) on an S-band (2.3 GHz) carrier. A lot of effort has been and will be conducted to attempt to open the HGA. Also various options for improving Galileo's telemetry downlink performance are being evaluated in the event that the HGA will not open at Jupiter arrival. Among all viable options the most promising and powerful one is to perform image and non-image data compression in software onboard the spacecraft. This involves in-flight re-programming of the existing flight software of Galileo's Command and Data Subsystem processors and Attitude and Articulation Control System (AACS) processor, which have very limited computational and memory resources. In this article we describe the proposed data compression algorithms and give their respective compression performance. The planned image compression algorithm is a 4 x 4 or an 8 x 8 multiplication-free integer cosine transform (ICT) scheme, which can be viewed as an integer approximation of the popular discrete cosine transform (DCT) scheme. The implementation complexity of the ICT schemes is much lower than the DCT-based schemes, yet the performances of the two algorithms are indistinguishable. The proposed non-image compression algorith is a Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) variant, which is a lossless universal compression algorithm based on a dynamic dictionary lookup table. We developed a simple and efficient hashing function to perform the string search.

  12. The Yoruba farm market as a communication channel in guinea worm disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Kendall, C

    1996-01-01

    Disease eradication programmes are by definition time bound and require strategies that facilitate timely intervention. Surveillance, which undergirds eradication, also requires timely strategies. Finding such strategies is especially challenging when the target disease is endemic in remote areas, e.g. guinea worm disease, the focus of this study. A strategy of market based surveillance was pilot tested in Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) of Oyo State, Nigeria. The project goal was to design a surveillance system that both fit into the natural communication network of rural people, and also enlisted their active involvement. Ethnographic research methods were employed to learn about market location, structure, catchment area and attendance pattern. Four larger farm markets (serving 164 hamlets with 17,000 population) were chosen. Each hamlet was visited and a volunteer 'reporter' was recruited. Reporters were trained on case recognition and detection, first aid and prevention, with a sensitivity to distinguishing indigenous and clinical perceptions of guinea worm. The market cycle was based on the traditional four-day week. Field workers visited every second market 16 times between October 1990 and February 1991. The reporter was expected to identify correctly the first case of the season and thus label the village as endemic for the season. Reporters gave oral reports, and positive indications were followed up within 48 hr by field workers, who verified the case and administered first aid. All hamlets were visited once a month to verify negative reports. Reporter attendance was monitored. Those who had a formal role in the market, e.g. sales agents, had better attendance than ordinary farmers who came only to sell their own produce. Knowledge of market structure and attender roles offers a guide for adapting this surveillance approach to other cultural systems and health issues.

  13. [Problems of excretors on the future of public health].

    PubMed

    Steuer, W

    1993-02-01

    Analyses of 216.000 fecal specimens performed in the LGA Baden-Württemberg in 1991 showed results that allow a survey of salmonella carriers in the FRG. Following facts could be obtained: 0.36% Salmonella positive findings in persons who intended to start their occupation in a food processing plant. The proportion of carriers increased in summer up to 0.67%. There was a change from S. typhymurium to S. enteritidis since 1980. The trend of increasing isolation rates of S. enteritidis is obvious: 1985 2.600 new isolates 1991 11.000 new isolates (322%) Taking the above mentioned findings into account, about 3 million persons are carriers during several days or weeks per year. The following consequences should be drawn, especially with regard to the dramatic increase of outbreaks during the last year: 1. A more consistent report relating to the demands of the BSeuchG section 3 is mandatory. 2. Increasing research efforts relating to cause and route of infection carried out by government health authorities (epidemiology of infection). 3. Specific examination of the family and other contacts. 4. Cration of working capacities by dropping the medical check-ups relating to sections 17/18 BSeuchG. 5. Intensifying initiative to prevent infections is required of all food processing plants by means of hygiene order supervised by competent authorities. 6. Increasing microbiologic controls of food of animal origin. 7. Consistent microbiologic controls of feeding stuff to avoid transmission as cause of infection. 8. Increasing instruction and information of the general population and the personnel in food processing plants.

  14. A Look into the Melting Pot: The mecC-Harboring Region Is a Recombination Hot Spot in Staphylococcus stepanovicii

    PubMed Central

    Semmler, Torsten; Harrison, Ewan M.; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Wieler, Lothar H.; Guenther, Sebastian; Stamm, Ivonne; Hanssen, Anne-Merethe; Holmes, Mark A.; Vincze, Szilvia; Walther, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is an important driver for resistance- and virulence factor accumulation in pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. Methods Here, we have investigated the downstream region of the bacterial chromosomal attachment site (attB) for the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element of a commensal mecC-positive Staphylococcus stepanovicii strain (IMT28705; ODD4) with respect to genetic composition and indications of HGT. S. stepanovicii IMT28705 was isolated from a fecal sample of a trapped wild bank vole (Myodes glareolus) during a screening study (National Network on “Rodent-Borne Pathogens”) in Germany. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of IMT28705 together with the mecC-negative type strain CM7717 was conducted in order to comparatively investigate the genomic region downstream of attB (GenBank accession no. KR732654 and KR732653). Results The bank vole isolate (IMT28705) harbors a mecC gene which shares 99.2% nucleotide (and 98.5% amino acid) sequence identity with mecC of MRSA_LGA251. In addition, the mecC-encoding region harbors the typical blaZ-mecC-mecR1-mecI structure, corresponding with the class E mec complex. While the sequences downstream of attB in both S. stepanovicii isolates (IMT28705 and CM7717) are partitioned by 15 bp direct repeats, further comparison revealed a remarkable low concordance of gene content, indicating a chromosomal “hot spot” for foreign DNA integration and exchange. Conclusion Our data highlight the necessity for further research on transmission routes of resistance encoding factors from the environmental and wildlife resistome. PMID:26799070

  15. The long walk to universal health coverage: patterns of inequities in the use of primary healthcare services in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoronkwo, Ijeoma L; Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Ani, Francis O

    2014-03-21

    Knowledge and understanding of health service usage are necessary for health resource allocation, planning and monitoring the achievement of universal coverage (UHC). There is limited information on patterns of utilization among adult users of primary health care (PHC) services. Lack of understanding of current and past utilization patterns of health services often hinders the improvement of future Primary Health Care (PHC) delivery in the remote areas of developing countries. This paper presents new knowledge on the patterns of utilization of PHC services among adults in Enugu metropolis southeast Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 PHC facilities of Enugu North Local Government Area (LGA) from June to July 2012. A total of 360 consenting adult users aged 18 years and above were consecutively recruited as they attended the health facilities. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. A modified Likert scale questionnaire was used to analyze data on patterns of utilization. Utilization of PHC services was compared by gender, socio-economic status (SES) and level of education. Out of the 360 respondents, (46.9%) utilized PHC services regularly. The components of PHC mostly utilized by respondents were immunization with a mean score of 3.05, treatment of common ailments (2.99) and maternal and child health (2.64). The least poor SES group utilized PHC services the most while the very poor and poor SES groups used PHC services least. There were statistically significant relationships between utilization of PHC services and gender (p = 0.0084), level of education (p=0.0366) and income (p =0.0001). Most adult users in this study did not utilize the health facilities regularly and there were gender, educational and SES inequities in the use of PHC services. These inequities will negate the achievement of universal health coverage with PHC services and should be remedied using appropriate interventions.

  16. System-in-package solution for a low-power active electrode module.

    PubMed

    Gaio, Nikolas; Gao, Linping; Cai, Jinhe; Zhang, Jinyong; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of system in package for a low-power active electrode module. The main aim of this research is to provide a low-cost, high-density, and high-quality module, exploiting the features of a System-in-Package (SiP) solution. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first time that SiP technology has been used in the development of a modular active electrode. Two SiPs have been designed and one of them has been fabricated and tested. The dimensions of the latter are 7×7×1 mm and it was designed taking in account the necessity of soldering it by hand. On the contrary, the other package dimensions are 4.5×4.5×1 mm and it was designed for fully exploiting the latest technologies available to authors. The SiPs have been designed to be reused in different electrocardiogram (ECG) systems and are easy to solder using ball grids arrays (BGA) and land grids arrays (LGA) as second level interconnection; both these features allow to reduce the time to market of the supra-system including the module. The active electrode presents a bandwidth which ranges from 7.9 mHz to 300 Hz and it has a mid-band gain which can be set to a maximum value of 40 dB. The fabricated SiP has been tested on a printed circuit board (PCB), with an input signal generated by a Dimetek iBUSS-P biomedical signal simulator showing a satisfying functioning of the SiP.

  17. Customized nutritional enhancement for pregnant women appears to lower incidence of certain common maternal and neonatal complications: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Stone, Leslie P; Stone, P Michael; Rydbom, Emily A; Stone, Lucas A; Stone, T Elliot; Wilkens, Lindsey E; Reynolds, Kathryn

    2014-11-01

    A retrospective chart review analyzed the effect of customized nutrition on the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes (GDM), and small- and large-for-gestational-age (SGA, LGA) neonates, examining consecutive deliveries between January 1, 2011, and Decem ber 31, 2012, at a low-risk community hospital. The population was divided into 3 groups: (1) study group (SG), (2) private practice (PP), and (3) community healthcare clinic (CHCC). All groups received standard perinatal management, but additionally the study group was analyzed for serum zinc, carnitine, total 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25 OH-D), methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and catechol-O-methyl transferase polymorphisms in the first trimester prior to intervention, with subsequent second trimester and postpartum assessment of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D after intervention. Intervention consisted of trimesterby-trimester nutrition and lifestyle education, supplementation of L-methyl folate, magnesium, essential fatty acids, and probiotics for all SG patients, with targeted supplementation of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D. Because of small case occurrence rates of individual conditions in the study group, unreportable reductions were found, except GDM (SG vs CHCC, P value .046 with 95.38% confidence interval [CI]), and PIH (SG vs PP, P value .0505 with 94.95% CIl). The aggregated occurrence rate of the four conditions, however, was significantly lower in the study population than in either comparison population (PP P value .0154 with 98.46% CI, and CHCC P value .0265 with 97.35% CI). Customized nutritional intervention appears to have significantly reduced adverse perinatal outcomes. Prospective study within larger, at-risk populations is needed to determine whether customized nutrition improves conditions individually.

  18. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status of pregnant rural women in north-west Nigeria: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ugwa, Emmanuel; Gwarzo, Mohammed; Ashimi, Adewale

    2015-03-01

    This research was undertaken to determine the oxidative stress and antioxidant status of pregnant northern Nigerian women. Prospective cohort study. The study was done at General Hospital, Dawakin Kudu LGA, Kano. Kano has a population of 9.2 million and predominantly Muslims. Two hundred consecutive women presenting for antenatal care and 100 apparently normal controls. Ethical approval was obtained. Socio-demographic and clinical information were obtained via interviewer-administered questionnaires from 200 consecutive pregnant women who presented for antenatal care. Serum levels of vitamins A, C, E and malondialdehyde were determined. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 statistical software. Descriptive statistics was used. Means were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Associations between trimesters and oxidative stress/antioxidant status were tested using chi-square test and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean serum vitamin A, E and C levels were 13.39 ± 9.44 µg/dl, 0.35 ± 0.51 mg/dl and 5.99 ± 3.95 µ/dl respectively (below normal limits). The prevalence of vitamins A, C and E deficiency were 65.5%, 79.5% and 51% respectively. The mean serum levels of malondialdehyde was 4.04 ± 0.91 nmol/l (pregnant) and 1.84 ± 0.40 nmol/l (non-pregnant) (p = 0.001). There was strong negative correlation between serum levels of malondialdehyde and vitamins A, C and E. Vitamins A, C, E deficiency and oxidative stress is a problem among Northern Nigeria pregnant women, therefore the value of antioxidant vitamin supplementation should be explored.

  19. The Effectiveness of a Route Crossing Tool in a Simulated New York Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, Bonny; Chevalley, Eric; Bienert, Nancy; Lee, Paul; Gonter, Kari; Omar, Faisal; Kraut, Joshua; Yoo, Hyo-Sang; Borade, Abhay; Gabriel, Conrad; Rein-Weston, Daphne; Palmer, Everett

    2015-01-01

    Congested airspace is the cause of many delays in the terminal area and these delays can have a ripple effect on the rest of a nation's airspace. The New York terminal area is an example of where this happens in the U. S. An important goal, therefore, is to increase the efficiency of operations in congested terminal airspace where possible. Modeling studies of arrival and departure flows have shown that sharing of arrival and departure airspace increases efficiency in terminal operations. One source of inefficiency in terminal operations is that departure aircraft are frequently held level under arrival flows when it would be more efficient to climb the departure aircraft earlier. A Route Crossing Tool was developed to help controllers climb Newark (EWR) departures to the south earlier by temporarily sharing airspace with arrivals coming into LaGuardia (LGA) from the south. Instead of flying under the arrivals, a departure to the south could climb earlier by flying through the arrival airspace if there was a suitable gap between arrivals. A Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) simulation was conducted in this environment which compared three tool conditions: Baseline (no tool), a Single Route Crossing tool in which one route through the arrival flow was evaluated for crossing, and a Multi-Route Crossing tool in which five parallel routes were evaluated. In all conditions, the departures could be held level under the arrival flow. The results showed that controllers climbed a higher proportion of departures in the Multi-Route tool condition than in the other two conditions, with a higher proportion of departures climbed in smaller gaps and in front of trailing arrivals. The controllers indicated that the Multi-Route and Single Route tools helped them estimate distances more accurately and rated safety, workload, and coordination in the simulation as acceptable.

  20. Awareness of anti-malarial policy and malaria treatment practices of patent medicine vendors in three Nigerian states.

    PubMed

    Oladepo, O; Brieger, W; Adeoye, B; Lawal, B; Peters, D H

    2011-12-01

    This paper assesses Patent Medicine Vendors' (PMVs) practices, awareness of new Nigerian Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) policy, the anti-malarial drugs in stock and how the PMVs identify fake drugs. PMVs and medicine shops were selected through a multi-stage random sampling process, beginning with the purposive selection of three states that reflect major geographic and ethnolinguistic areas of Nigeria: Oyo (Southwest-Yoruba), Kaduna (Northcentral-Hausa), and Enugu (Southeast-Igbo). Local Government Areas (LGAs) in selected states were stratified into urban and rural strata, with two LGAs randomly sampled from each stratum in each state, and one ward (urban LGAs) or community (rural LGAs) randomly sampled from a list in each LGA. A complete listing of PMVs and drug shops was constructed at each site, yielding 111 PMVs and 106 medicine shops. Out of this number, a total of 110 PMVs consented to be interviewed. Some PMVs (43.1%) were aware of the 2005 government policy that changed the recommended first-line treatment for malaria from chloroquine (CQ) to ACT, but significant differences were found between states (p < 0.001). PMV shops stocked many brands of anti-malarial drugs (average 5.5 brands), with ACTs stocked in only 8.5% of the stores at a mean price of N504 ($4) per treatment, compared to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (92% of shops, mean price of N90 ($0.7) and even monotherapy artesunates (32% of shops, mean price of N39 ($0.3). The PMVs identify a drug not bearing the National Agency for Food & Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) identification number as being fake or counterfeit. PMVs need to be a part of the strategy to change treatment to ACTs if there are to be meaningful changes in the anti-malarial drugs that Nigerians receive.

  1. A Qualitative Study of Intimate Partner Violence Among Women in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Mary O; John-Akinola, Yetunde O

    2015-09-01

    Negative health outcomes caused by intimate partner violence (IPV) have been recognized as a public health problem with extensive effects on the society. Cultural and traditional beliefs that reinforce IPV in Nigeria need to be understood to guide public health approaches aimed at preventing IPV. The purpose of this study was to determine women's attitudes and societal norms that support IPV, causes and consequences of IPV, and coping strategies, and to document suggested measures to prevent it. Six focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted among 56 women aged 15 to 49 years purposively selected from rural and urban communities in Akinyele Local Government Area (LGA) of Oyo State, Nigeria. The FGDs were conducted in Yoruba language, translated to English, and analyzed using thematic approach. Findings were grouped into six major themes: triggers, societal norms, attitude, consequences, coping strategies, and preventive measures. Women reported experience of physical, psychological, and sexual violence and controlling behavior. Major causes of IPV reported by the women were having more money than partner, and building a house or having a business without partner's knowledge. Most participants reported that social norms dictate that a woman should have full regard for in-laws, and submit to and agree with all that the partner says and does. Most of the discussants in both the urban and rural areas reported that violence in any form is not justifiable or acceptable. Participants mentioned various ways through which IPV negatively impacted on women's health such as depression, hypertension, and damage to the reproductive system. They were however willing to endure suffering because of their children. Women who experienced IPV reported to close relatives but did not seek legal redress because these were unavailable. Ending IPV requires long-term commitment and strategies involving contributions from the government, community, and the family. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Fetal and childhood growth patterns associated with bone mass in school-age children: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Heppe, Denise Hm; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; de Jongste, Johan C; Raat, Hein; Steegers, Eric Ap; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv

    2014-12-01

    Low birth weight is associated with lower bone accrual in children and peak bone mass in adults. We assessed how different patterns of longitudinal fetal and early childhood growth influence bone properties at school age. In 5431 children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study, we measured fetal growth by ultrasound at 20 and 30 weeks gestation, and childhood growth at birth, 1, 2, 3, and 4 years of age. We analyzed these growth measurements in relation to total body (less head) BMD measured by DXA at age 6. We used conditional growth modeling; a technique which takes into account correlation between repeatedly measured growth measures. Our results showed that estimated fetal weight gain, femur length growth between 20 and 30 weeks of gestation, femur length growth between 30 weeks and birth, as well as all height and weight growth measurements from birth to 4 years of age were all positively associated with BMC, bone area (BA), and BMD (all p < 0.01). Fetal femur length growth between 30 weeks and birth was positively associated with BMC and BA (both p < 0.001), but not with BMD. Overall, childhood growth measurements exerted a larger influence on bone measures than fetal growth measures. The strongest effect estimate was observed during the first year of life. Children born small (<10th percentile) for gestational age (SGA) had lower BMC and BA, but not BMD, than children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA), whereas children born large (>90th percentile) for gestational age (LGA) had higher BMC and BA (all p < 0.001). These differences were no longer present in children showing subsequent accelerated and decelerated infant growth, respectively. We conclude that both fetal and childhood growth patterns are associated with bone mineral accrual, showing the strongest effect estimates in infancy. Compensatory infant growth counteracts the adverse consequences of fetal growth restriction on bone development. © 2014 American

  3. Acinetobacter baumannii K27 and K44 capsular polysaccharides have the same K unit but different structures due to the presence of distinct wzy genes in otherwise closely related K gene clusters.

    PubMed

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Kenyon, Johanna J; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Shneider, Mikhail M; Popova, Anastasiya V; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Volozhantsev, Nikolay V; Hall, Ruth M; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-05-01

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPSs), from Acinetobacter baumannii isolates 1432, 4190 and NIPH 70, which have related gene content at the K locus, were examined, and the chemical structures established using 2D(1)H and(13)C NMR spectroscopy. The three isolates produce the same pentasaccharide repeat unit, which consists of 5-N-acetyl-7-N-[(S)-3-hydroxybutanoyl] (major) or 5,7-di-N-acetyl (minor) derivatives of 5,7-diamino-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonic (legionaminic) acid (Leg5Ac7R), D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. However, the linkage between repeat units in NIPH 70 was different to that in 1432 and 4190, and this significantly alters the CPS structure. The KL27 gene cluster in 4190 and KL44 gene cluster in NIPH 70 are organized identically and contain lga genes for Leg5Ac7R synthesis, genes for the synthesis of the common sugars, as well as anitrA2 initiating transferase and four glycosyltransferases genes. They share high-level nucleotide sequence identity for corresponding genes, but differ in the wzy gene encoding the Wzy polymerase. The Wzy proteins, which have different lengths and share no similarity, would form the unrelated linkages in the K27 and K44 structures. The linkages formed by the four shared glycosyltransferases were predicted by comparison with gene clusters that synthesize related structures. These findings unambiguously identify the linkages formed by WzyK27 and WzyK44, and show that the presence of different wzy genes in otherwise closely related K gene clusters changes the structure of the CPS. This may affect its capacity as a protective barrier for A. baumannii.

  4. Application of physical optics to ocean surface radar scattering with CUDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling-Hu, Long-xiang; Wu, Zhen-sen; Guo, Xing

    2013-09-01

    The problem of electromagnetic waves scattering at rough boundaries is of practical interest and has been addressed many times in different papers. Theories for investigation of rough surface scattering primarily two kinds of methods: numerical method and approximate method. As the classic analytical methods cannot calculate the electromagnetic scattering characteristics at Low Grazing Angle (LGA) accurately, in this paper, a novel method is presented by utilizing the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of the low grazing two-dimensional sea surface based on the triangles-based Physical Optics (PO) method. Firstly, the Monte Carlo method is applied to simulate the two-dimension rough sea surface in different wind speeds based on the PM sea spectrum. Then, the sea surface is generally meshed by 1/8~1/10 length of the incident wave. Secondly, the complex permittivity of the sea surface is calculated by two-Debye method and compared with the experiment. The physical optical is used to calculate the backscattering coefficient of the random rough sea surface. Considering the problem of low grazing, it is especially sampled more densely between the scattering angles 70°~90°. Then the self-shadow and inter-shadow of the sea surface at low grazing angle is taken into account, the Z-BUFFER method is used to judgment of the shadow effect. The numerical result is compared with the FEKO and good agreement is obtained. As the frequency increasing, the sea surface will have more triangles to be calculated, it will take more time. Finally, we propose a novel graphic processing unit (GPU)-accelerated decoding system. The result is 68.96 faster than its CPU counterpart.

  5. The self-administration of rapidly delivered cocaine promotes increased motivation to take the drug: contributions of prior levels of operant responding and cocaine intake.

    PubMed

    Bouayad-Gervais, Karim; Minogianis, Ellie-Anna; Lévesque, Daniel; Samaha, Anne-Noël

    2014-10-01

    Rapid drug delivery to the brain might increase the risk for developing addiction. In rats, increasing the speed of intravenous cocaine delivery (5 vs. 90 s) increases drug intake and the subsequent motivation to self-administer cocaine. Increased motivation for cocaine could result not only from more extensive prior drug intake and operant responding for drug, but also from neuroplasticity evoked by rapid drug uptake. We determined the contributions of prior drug intake and operant responding to the increased motivation for cocaine evoked by rapid delivery. We also investigated the effects of cocaine delivery speed on corticostriatal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) mRNA. Rats self-administered cocaine (0.25 mg/kg/infusion) delivered over 5 or 90 s during short-access (1 h/session; ShA) or long-access (6 h; LgA) sessions. Motivation for cocaine was then assessed by measuring responding under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Next, BDNF and TrkB mRNA levels were measured in 5- and 90-s rats. Five-second ShA and 5-s-LgA rats were more motivated for cocaine than their 90-s counterparts. This effect was dissociable from previous levels of drug intake or of operant responding for cocaine. In parallel, only rats self-administering rapid cocaine injections had altered BDNF and TrkB mRNA levels in corticostriatal regions. Rapid drug delivery augments the motivation for cocaine independently of effects on the levels of drug intake or operant responding for drug. We suggest that rapid delivery might increase the motivation for drug by promoting neuroplasticity within reward pathways. This neuroplasticity could involve increased regulation of BDNF/TrkB.

  6. Testing-adjusted chlamydia notification trends in New South Wales, Australia, 2000 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Cretikos, Michelle; Mayne, Darren; Reynolds, Roderick; Spokes, Paula; Madeddu, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2010, Australian notification rates for chlamydia infection increased by 64% from 203 to 333 per 100 000 population. Interpreting this trend is difficult without examining rates and local patterns of testing. We examined the effect of adjusting for local testing rates on chlamydia notification trends in New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2000 to 2010. We used testing data for NSW residents for Medicare Benefits Schedule items for chlamydia from 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2005 and 1 July 2007 to 30 June 2010. This data set excluded testing by public sector laboratories. We also obtained laboratory-confirmed genital chlamydia notifications in NSW residents for 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2010 and excluded notifications from public laboratories. We used negative binomial regression to assess trends in chlamydia notification rates by age and sex after adjusting for local government area (LGA)-level Medicare-funded testing rates, socioeconomic disadvantage, remoteness and Medicare provider density. Testing-adjusted rates of chlamydia notifications declined by 5.2% per annum (rate ratio [RR] = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-0.96) for women overall, and 2.3% (RR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96-1.00) and 5.0% per annum (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.93-0.98) for men in LGAs with moderate and high densities of Medicare providers, respectively. Notification rates remained stable for men in low Medicare provider density LGAs (RR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.96-1.07). It is likely that increased testing for chlamydia has driven increases in chlamydia notification in NSW over the last decade. Notification data provide no evidence for a general increase in the prevalence of chlamydia in the NSW community for this period. Notification-based chlamydia surveillance should be routinely adjusted for local testing rates.

  7. Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Kaduna State, Nigeria: first evidence of the potential for elimination in the operational area of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis can be effectively controlled as a public health problem by annual mass drug administration of ivermectin, but it was not known if ivermectin treatment in the long term would be able to achieve elimination of onchocerciasis infection and interruption of transmission in endemic areas in Africa. A recent study in Mali and Senegal has provided the first evidence of elimination after 15-17 years of treatment. Following this finding, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has started a systematic evaluation of the long-term impact of ivermectin treatment projects and the feasibility of elimination in APOC supported countries. This paper reports the first results for two onchocerciasis foci in Kaduna, Nigeria. Methods In 2008, an epidemiological evaluation using skin snip parasitological diagnostic method was carried out in two onchocerciasis foci, in Birnin Gwari Local Government Area (LGA), and in the Kauru and Lere LGAs of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The survey was undertaken in 26 villages and examined 3,703 people above the age of one year. The result was compared with the baseline survey undertaken in 1987. Results The communities had received 15 to 17 years of ivermectin treatment with more than 75% reported coverage. For each surveyed community, comparable baseline data were available. Before treatment, the community prevalence of O. volvulus microfilaria in the skin ranged from 23.1% to 84.9%, with a median prevalence of 52.0%. After 15 to 17 years of treatment, the prevalence had fallen to 0% in all communities and all 3,703 examined individuals were skin snip negative. Conclusions The results of the surveys confirm the finding in Senegal and Mali that ivermectin treatment alone can eliminate onchocerciasis infection and probably disease transmission in endemic foci in Africa. It is the first of such evidence for the APOC operational area. PMID:22313631

  8. Marijuana smoking among secondary school students in Zaria, Nigeria: factors responsible and effects on academic performance.

    PubMed

    Shehu, A U; Idris, S H

    2008-12-01

    The use of Marijuana is on the increase worldwide especially among adolescents and youths. Marijuana smoking has gained a foothold in our environment because of peer group influence, accessibility and availability. Its medico-social effects could ruin the life and future of our youths. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and the factors that influence secondary school students in Zaria LGA to smoke and the effects on academic performance. A cross-sectional descriptive study was employed to generate data among secondary school students. A multi-stage sampling technique was used. Data was collected with the use of a structured, pre tested self-administered questionnaire. F2 test was used to test for significance of association between categorical variables. Of the 350 respondents, 262 (74.9%) were males, while 88 (25.1%) were females. The study shows that 33 of the students smoke marijuana giving a prevalence of 9.4%. There were more smokers in the age group 15-19 years (54.6%). Other factors that influence marijuana smoking include family background, peer pressure and attendance of social functions. There was better academic performance (51.1%) among non smokers as compared to smokers (27.2%), and this was found to be statistically significant (chi2 = 11.73, df = 5, P < .05) There was also statistically significant association between age and marijuana smoking (chi2 = 24, df = 2, P < .05). The prevalence of marijuana smoking is high. Age, family background, peer pressure and attendance of social function influence marijuana smoking. A comprehensive school health education program should be instituted to curtail this menace.

  9. The Reinforcing and Rewarding Effects of Methylone, a Synthetic Cathinone Commonly Found in "Bath Salts"

    PubMed

    Watterson, Lucas R; Hood, Lauren; Sewalia, Kaveish; Tomek, Seven E; Yahn, Stephanie; Johnson, Craig Trevor; Wegner, Scott; Blough, Bruce E; Marusich, Julie A; Olive, M Foster

    2012-12-01

    Methylone is a member of the designer drug class known as synthetic cathinones which have become increasingly popular drugs of abuse in recent years. Commonly referred to as "bath salts", these amphetamine-like compounds are sold as "legal" alternatives to illicit drugs such as cocaine, methamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy). Following their dramatic rise in popularity along with numerous reports of toxicity and death, several of these drugs were classified as Schedule I drugs in the United States in 2012. Despite these bans, these drugs and other new structurally similar analogues continue to be abused. Currently, however, it is unknown whether these compounds possess the potential for compulsive use and addiction. The present study sought to determine the relative abuse liability of methylone by employing intravenous self-administration (IVSA) and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) paradigms in rats. We demonstrate that methylone (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 mg/kg/infusion) dose-dependently functions as a reinforcer, and that there is a significant positive relationship between methylone dose and reinforcer efficacy. Furthermore, responding during short access sessions (ShA, 2 hr/day) appeared more robust than previous IVSA studies with MDMA. However, unlike previous findings with abused stimulants such as cocaine or methamphetamine, long access sessions (LgA, 6 hr/day) did not lead to escalated drug intake or increased reinforcer efficacy. Finally, methylone produced a dose-dependent, but statistically non-significant, trend towards reductions in ICSS thresholds. Together these results reveal that methylone may possess an addiction potential similar to or greater than MDMA, yet patterns of self-administration and effects on brain reward function suggest that this drug may have a lower potential for abuse and compulsive use than prototypical psychostimulants.

  10. Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Kaduna State, Nigeria: first evidence of the potential for elimination in the operational area of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control.

    PubMed

    Tekle, Afework Hailemariam; Elhassan, Elizabeth; Isiyaku, Sunday; Amazigo, Uche V; Bush, Simon; Noma, Mounkaila; Cousens, Simon; Abiose, Adenike; Remme, Jan H

    2012-02-07

    Onchocerciasis can be effectively controlled as a public health problem by annual mass drug administration of ivermectin, but it was not known if ivermectin treatment in the long term would be able to achieve elimination of onchocerciasis infection and interruption of transmission in endemic areas in Africa. A recent study in Mali and Senegal has provided the first evidence of elimination after 15-17 years of treatment. Following this finding, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has started a systematic evaluation of the long-term impact of ivermectin treatment projects and the feasibility of elimination in APOC supported countries. This paper reports the first results for two onchocerciasis foci in Kaduna, Nigeria. In 2008, an epidemiological evaluation using skin snip parasitological diagnostic method was carried out in two onchocerciasis foci, in Birnin Gwari Local Government Area (LGA), and in the Kauru and Lere LGAs of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The survey was undertaken in 26 villages and examined 3,703 people above the age of one year. The result was compared with the baseline survey undertaken in 1987. The communities had received 15 to 17 years of ivermectin treatment with more than 75% reported coverage. For each surveyed community, comparable baseline data were available. Before treatment, the community prevalence of O. volvulus microfilaria in the skin ranged from 23.1% to 84.9%, with a median prevalence of 52.0%. After 15 to 17 years of treatment, the prevalence had fallen to 0% in all communities and all 3,703 examined individuals were skin snip negative. The results of the surveys confirm the finding in Senegal and Mali that ivermectin treatment alone can eliminate onchocerciasis infection and probably disease transmission in endemic foci in Africa. It is the first of such evidence for the APOC operational area.

  11. [Influence of growth hormone (GH) and nutrition on neonatal growth].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gómez, N M; Doménech Martínez, E; Barroso Guerrero, F; Cortabarria Bayona, C; Rico Sevillano, J

    1997-01-01

    At present, growth regulating factors in the transition from fetal to postnatal life remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of GH and nutrition on neonatal growth. Serum and 24-hour urine GH levels, various anthopometric variables and daily energy and nutrient intake were measured in appropriate (AGA), large (LGA) and small for gestational age (SGA) newborn infants. These variables were measured at 1 (n = 98), 3 (n = 41) and 5 weeks of postnatal age (n = 8). The highest GH levels at the 1st week of postnatal life were obtained in preterm SGA infants (GHs: 61.4 +/- 20.0 microUI/m; GHu: 18.6 +/- 10.3 ng/kg/24 h). GH levels decreased in preterm infants, so that differences between groups failed to be significant at the third and fifth weeks of postnatal life. Urinary GH excretion did not show significant variations in the control group during the study (1st wk 3.0 +/- 3.5; 3rd wk 2.3 +/- 2.7; 5th wk 3.2 +/- 4.7 ng/kg/24 h). Daily protein intake had a direct relationship with both triceps skinfold and weight and head perimeter increase. SGA preterm infants showed a higher fat increase compared to AGA preterm infants. Serum and urinary GH levels were not related to the anthopometric variables studied. There are differences in GH secretion and body composition between SGA and AGA preterm infants. GH probably does not contribute to neonatal growth.

  12. The obese woman with gestational diabetes: effects of body mass index and weight gain in pregnancy on obstetric and glycaemic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Flora; Bradford, Jennifer; Hng, Tien-Ming; Hendon, Susan; McLean, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Background Obese women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) represent a high-risk group in pregnancy, although the effects of increasing degrees of obesity and weight gain in pregnancy in this group is poorly defined. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 375 singleton pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity and GDM. Women with a body mass index (BMI) of 30–35 kg/m2 were compared with those with a BMI of ≥ 35 kg/m2. Additionally, women were categorized according to weight gain in pregnancy: Group A (<0.18 kg/week), Group B (0.18–0.27 kg/week), Group C (>0.27 kg/week). Results Obstetric outcomes did not differ between the groups; however, postpartum dysglycaemia was more likely in women with a BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 (odds ratio [OR] 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–8.9). Group B and Group C had higher odds of LGA (OR 3.8, 95% CI: 1.3–11.3; OR 5.0, 95% CI: 2.0–12.1, respectively) compared with Group A. Group C also had a lower risk of SGA (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2–1.0) and a higher risk of postpartum dysglycaemia (OR 6.8, 95% CI: 1.7–26.9) compared with Group A. Conclusion Greater degrees of obesity are associated with higher risk of abnormal metabolic outcomes after pregnancy. Excessive weight gain in pregnancy in obese women increases adverse obstetric and glycaemic outcomes. Our findings suggest that targets for weight gain in pregnancy for obese women should be reduced from current recommendations. PMID:27579138

  13. Impact of Restricted Maternal Weight Gain on Fetal Growth and Perinatal Morbidity in Obese Women With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ásbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Rasmussen, Signe S.; Kelstrup, Louise; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Since January 2008, obese women with type 2 diabetes were advised to gain 0–5 kg during pregnancy. The aim with this study was to evaluate fetal growth and perinatal morbidity in relation to gestational weight gain in these women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A retrospective cohort comprised the records of 58 singleton pregnancies in obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) with type 2 diabetes giving birth between 2008 and 2011. Birth weight was evaluated by SD z score to adjust for gestational age and sex. RESULTS Seventeen women (29%) gained ≤5 kg, and the remaining 41 gained >5 kg. The median (range) gestational weight gains were 3.7 kg (−4.7 to 5 kg) and 12.1 kg (5.5–25.5 kg), respectively. Prepregnancy BMI was 33.5 kg/m2 (30–53 kg/m2) vs. 36.8 kg/m2 (30–48 kg/m2), P = 0.037, and median HbA1c was 6.7% at first visit in both groups and decreased to 5.7 and 6.0%, P = 0.620, in late pregnancy, respectively. Gestational weight gain ≤5 kg was associated with lower birth weight z score (P = 0.008), lower rates of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants (12 vs. 39%, P = 0.041), delivery closer to term (268 vs. 262 days, P = 0.039), and less perinatal morbidity (35 vs. 71%, P = 0.024) compared with pregnancies with maternal weight gain >5 kg. CONCLUSIONS In this pilot study in obese women with type 2 diabetes, maternal gestational weight gain ≤5 kg was associated with a more proportionate birth weight and less perinatal morbidity. PMID:23248191

  14. An evaluation of community perspectives and contributing factors to missed children during an oral polio vaccination campaign--Katsina State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Michael, Charles A; Ashenafi, Samra; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu U; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Sule, Adamu; Corkum, Melissa; Mackay, Susan; Storms, Aaron D; Achari, Panchanan; Biya, Oladayo; Nguku, Patrick; Newberry, David; Bwaka, Ado; Mahoney, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Unvaccinated children contribute to accumulation of susceptible persons and the continued transmission of wild poliovirus in Nigeria. In September 2012, the Expert Review Committee (ERC) on Polio Eradication and Routine Immunization in Nigeria recommended that social research be conducted to better understand why children are missed during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), also known as "immunization plus days (IPDs)" in Nigeria. Immediately following the SIA in October 2012, polio eradication partners and the government of Nigeria conducted a study to assess why children are missed. We used semistructured questionnaires and focus group discussions in 1 rural and 1 urban local government area (LGA) of Katsina State. Participants reported that 61% of the children were not vaccinated because of poor vaccination team performance: either the teams did not visit the homes (25%) or the children were reported absent and not revisited (36%). This lack of access to vaccine was more frequently reported by respondents from scattered/nomadic communities (85%). In 1 out of 4 respondents (25%), refusal was the main reason their child was not vaccinated. The majority of respondents reported they would have consented to their children being vaccinated if the vaccine had been offered. Poor vaccination team performance is a major contributor to missed children during IPD campaigns. Addressing such operational deficiencies will help close the polio immunity gap and eradicate polio from Nigeria. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Nutritional status and risk factors of overweight and obesity for children aged 9-15 years in Chengdu, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Yang, Fan; Xiong, Fei; Huo, Tingzhu; Tong, Yu; Yang, Sufei; Mao, Meng

    2012-08-10

    Obesity is widespread in the world including developing countries. However malnutrition in poor areas is still a serious problem. Few investigations, especially in a large sample, have been performed in Western area of China. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of school children aged 9-15 years in large Southwest city of China, and identify the differential impact of aberrant birth categories and family history of obesity related disease on childhood overweight and obesity development. A multistage random cluster sampling was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity, which were defined by the new age-, sex-, specific BMI reference developed by World Health Organization (WHO) (2007). And then a frequency matched case-control study was performed to identify the risk factors of overweight and obesity. 7,194 children (3,494 boys, 3,700 girls) were recruited, and 1,282 (17.8%) had excess bodyweight (14.5% overweight, 3.3% obesity). The combined prevalence gradually decreased with age, and were more prevalent among boys than girls (P <0.05). Meanwhile 6.3% were found thinness and there were little differences in genders (P >0.05). Preterm large for gestational age (OR = 2.746), maternal history of obesity related disease (OR = 1.713), paternal history of obesity related disease (OR = 1.583), preterm appropriate for gestational age (OR = 1.564), full term small for gestational age (OR = 1.454) and full term large for gestational age (OR = 1.418) were recognized as significant risk factors in the multivariate regression analysis (P <0.05). While overweight and obesity was dramatically spreading, malnutrition still remained a serious problem. This unmatched nutritional status should be emphasized in backward cities of China. Children born of both preterm and LGA, whose parents particularly mothers had a history of obesity related disease, should be emphatically intervened as early as possible.

  16. Hypercholesterolaemia in schoolchildren in Lagos, Nigeria: an indication of a growing threat of cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Awogbemi, O T; Okoromah, C A N; Roberts, A A

    2013-01-01

    There is growing burden of cardiovascular disease in developing countries and the pathogenesis of artherosclerotic damage starts in childhood The study is to examine the prevalence of hyperlipidaemia in schoolchildren in Lagos, as it relates to both socio-demographic and anthropometric correlates A cross-sectional study was carried out among urban and rural adolescent schoolchildren aged between 10 and 19 years in Eti-Osa Local Government Area (EOLGA) of Lagos State. A structured questionnaire was used to get information relating to socio-demographic characteristics, family history of cardiovascular disease, lifestyle habits and socio-economic class, and the students were examined for height, weight and cholesterol levels. Two hundred and eighty eight subjects in the urban region and 72 subjects in the rural region of Eti-Osa LGA participated in the study. The mean age was 15.6 +/- 2.2 years with a range of 10 to 18.9 years. The mean serum total cholesterol was 148.1 mg/dl with a range of 100 to 254 mg/dl. There was significant correlation between serum cholesterol and gender only in the 12-13.9 year group. Neither place of residence nor age had any significant correlation to serum cholesterol. Thirteen (3.6%) students had elevated serum total cholesterol of e"200 mg/dl. Four subjects had BMls above the 95th centile, giving a prevalence rate of 1.1%. They were females, living and schooling in the urban area and three-quarters were of high socio-economic class. Strengthening pre-enrollment medical and physical examinations, regular measurement of weight, height and BMI and laying emphasis on important lifestyle modifications early in the formative years are important to prevent development of non-communicable disease later in life.

  17. Epidemiological and entomological evaluations after six years or more of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Richards, Frank O; Eigege, Abel; Miri, Emmanuel S; Kal, Alphonsus; Umaru, John; Pam, Davou; Rakers, Lindsay J; Sambo, Yohanna; Danboyi, Jacob; Ibrahim, Bako; Adelamo, Solomon E; Ogah, Gladys; Goshit, Danjuma; Oyenekan, O Kehinde; Mathieu, Els; Withers, P Craig; Saka, Yisa A; Jiya, Jonathan; Hopkins, Donald R

    2011-10-01

    The current strategy for interrupting transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is annual mass drug administration (MDA), at good coverage, for 6 or more years. We describe our programmatic experience delivering the MDA combination of ivermectin and albendazole in Plateau and Nasarawa states in central Nigeria, where LF is caused by anopheline transmitted Wuchereria bancrofti. Baseline LF mapping using rapid blood antigen detection tests showed mean local government area (LGA) prevalence of 23% (range 4-62%). MDA was launched in 2000 and by 2003 had been scaled up to full geographic coverage in all 30 LGAs in the two states; over 26 million cumulative directly observed treatments were provided by community drug distributors over the intervention period. Reported treatment coverage for each round was ≥85% of the treatment eligible population of 3.7 million, although a population-based coverage survey in 2003 showed lower coverage (72.2%; 95% CI 65.5-79.0%). To determine impact on transmission, we monitored three LF infection parameters (microfilaremia, antigenemia, and mosquito infection) in 10 sentinel villages (SVs) serially. The last monitoring was done in 2009, when SVs had been treated for 7-10 years. Microfilaremia in 2009 decreased by 83% from baseline (from 4.9% to 0.8%); antigenemia by 67% (from 21.6% to 7.2%); mosquito infection rate (all larval stages) by 86% (from 3.1% to 0.4%); and mosquito infectivity rate (L3 stages) by 76% (from 1.3% to 0.3%). All changes were statistically significant. Results suggest that LF transmission has been interrupted in 5 of the 10 SVs, based on 2009 finding of microfilaremia ≥1% and/or L3 stages in mosquitoes. Four of the five SVs where transmission persists had baseline antigenemia prevalence of >25%. Longer or additional interventions (e.g., more frequent MDA treatments, insecticidal bed nets) should be considered for 'hot spots' where transmission is ongoing.

  18. Regions of High Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Incidence and Low Bystander CPR Rates in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Straney, Lahn D.; Bray, Janet E.; Beck, Ben; Finn, Judith; Bernard, Stephen; Dyson, Kylie; Lijovic, Marijana; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains a major public health issue and research has shown that large regional variation in outcomes exists. Of the interventions associated with survival, the provision of bystander CPR is one of the most important modifiable factors. The aim of this study is to identify census areas with high incidence of OHCA and low rates of bystander CPR in Victoria, Australia Methods We conducted an observational study using prospectively collected population-based OHCA data from the state of Victoria in Australia. Using ArcGIS (ArcMap 10.0), we linked the location of the arrest using the dispatch coordinates (longitude and latitude) to Victorian Local Government Areas (LGAs). We used Bayesian hierarchical models with random effects on each LGA to provide shrunken estimates of the rates of bystander CPR and the incidence rates. Results Over the study period there were 31,019 adult OHCA attended, of which 21,436 (69.1%) cases were of presumed cardiac etiology. Significant variation in the incidence of OHCA among LGAs was observed. There was a 3 fold difference in the incidence rate between the lowest and highest LGAs, ranging from 38.5 to 115.1 cases per 100,000 person-years. The overall rate of bystander CPR for bystander witnessed OHCAs was 62.4%, with the rate increasing from 56.4% in 2008–2010 to 68.6% in 2010–2013. There was a 25.1% absolute difference in bystander CPR rates between the highest and lowest LGAs. Conclusion Significant regional variation in OHCA incidence and bystander CPR rates exists throughout Victoria. Regions with high incidence and low bystander CPR participation can be identified and would make suitable targets for interventions to improve CPR participation rates. PMID:26447844

  19. Customized Nutritional Enhancement for Pregnant Women Appears to Lower Incidence of Certain Common Maternal and Neonatal Complications: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Stone, P. Michael; Rydbom, Emily A.; Stone, Lucas A.; Stone, T. Elliot; Wilkens, Lindsey E.; Reynolds, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective chart review analyzed the effect of customized nutrition on the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes (GDM), and small- and large-for-gestational-age (SGA, LGA) neonates, examining consecutive deliveries between January 1, 2011, and Decem ber 31, 2012, at a low-risk community hospital. The population was divided into 3 groups: (1) study group (SG), (2) private practice (PP), and (3) community healthcare clinic (CHCC). All groups received standard perinatal management, but additionally the study group was analyzed for serum zinc, carnitine, total 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25 OH-D), methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and catechol-O-methyl transferase polymorphisms in the first trimester prior to intervention, with subsequent second trimester and postpartum assessment of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D after intervention. Intervention consisted of trimesterby-trimester nutrition and lifestyle education, supplementation of L-methyl folate, magnesium, essential fatty acids, and probiotics for all SG patients, with targeted supplementation of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D. Because of small case occurrence rates of individual conditions in the study group, unreportable reductions were found, except GDM (SG vs CHCC, P value .046 with 95.38% confidence interval [CI]), and PIH (SG vs PP, P value .0505 with 94.95% CIl). The aggregated occurrence rate of the four conditions, however, was significantly lower in the study population than in either comparison population (PP P value .0154 with 98.46% CI, and CHCC P value .0265 with 97.35% CI). Customized nutritional intervention appears to have significantly reduced adverse perinatal outcomes. Prospective study within larger, at-risk populations is needed to determine whether customized nutrition improves conditions individually. PMID:25568832

  20. Protective Effect of Lactobacillus casei Strain Shirota on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infection in Infant Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Michinaga; Shimizu, Kensuke; Nomoto, Koji; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Watanuki, Masaaki; Tanaka, Ryuichiro; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Hamabata, Takashi; Yamasaki, Shinji; Takeda, Yoshifumi

    2001-01-01

    We examined colonization patterns of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), concentrations of Shiga toxins (Stxs) and specific immunoglobulin A (lgA) against Stxs and STEC bacterial cell surface antigen in various portions of the gastrointestinal tract in an infant rabbit infection model. After inoculation of 3-day-old infant rabbits with STEC strain 89020087 at low doses (∼103 CFU/body), numbers of colonizing STEC bacteria and concentrations of Stxs in the intestine increased dramatically and the animals developed diarrhea within a couple of days after infection. Daily administration of Lactobacillus casei from the day of birth dramatically decreased the severity of diarrhea and lowered STEC colonization levels in the gastrointestinal tract 100-fold day 7 after infection. Both Stx1 and Stx2 concentrations in the intestines and histological damage to the intestinal mucus induced by STEC infection were decreased by the administration of L. casei. Examination of the concentrations of volatile fatty acids and pH of the intestinal contents revealed that the protective effect of L. casei administration against STEC infection was not due to fermented products such as lactic acid in the gastrointestinal tract. Administration of L. casei increased levels of lgAs against Stx1, Stx2, and formalin-killed STEC cells in the colon approximately two-, four-, and threefold, respectively, compared with those of the untreated controls by day 7 after infection. These results suggest that administration of L. casei strain Shirota enhances the local immune responses to STEC cells and Stxs and leads to elimination of STEC and thus decreases Stx concentrations in the intestines. PMID:11160007

  1. The inhibition of apoptosis by melatonin in VSC4.1 motoneurons exposed to oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, or TNF-α toxicity involves membrane melatonin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Das, Arabinda; McDowell, Misty; Pava, Matthew J; Smith, Joshua A.; Reiter, Russel J.; Woodward, John J.; Varma, Abhay K.; Ray, Swapan K.; Banik, Naren L.

    2009-01-01

    Loss of motoneurons may underlie some of the deficits in motor function associated with CNS injuries and diseases. We tested whether melatonin, a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger, would prevent motoneuron apoptosis following exposure to toxins and whether this neuroprotection is mediated by melatonin receptors. Exposure of VSC4.1 motoneurons to either 50 μM H2O2, 25 μM glutamate (LGA), or 50 ng/ml tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) for 24 h caused significant increases in apoptosis, as determined by Wright staining and ApopTag assay. Analyses of mRNA and proteins showed increased expression and activities of stress kinases and cysteine proteases and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential during apoptosis. These insults also caused increases in intracellular free [Ca2+] and activities of calpain and caspases. Cells exposed to stress stimuli for 15 min were then treated with 200 nM melatonin. Post-treatment of cells with melatonin attenuated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phosphorylation of p38, MAPK, and JNK1, prevented cell death, and maintained whole-cell membrane potential, indicating functional neuroprotection. Melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) were upregulated following treatment with melatonin. To confirm the involvement of MT1 and MT2 in providing neuroprotection, cells were post-treated (20 min) with 10 μM luzindole (melatonin receptor antagonist). Luzindole significantly attenuated melatonin-induced neuroprotection, suggesting that melatonin worked, at least in part, via its receptors to prevent VSC4.1 motoneuron apoptosis. Results suggest that neuroprotection rendered by melatonin to motoneurons is receptor mediated and melatonin may be an effective neuroprotective agent to attenuate motoneuron death in CNS injuries and diseases. PMID:20082663

  2. Maternal Snoring May Predict Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Cohort Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xing; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of snoring during pregnancy and its effects on key pregnancy outcomes. Methods Pregnant women were consecutively recruited in their first trimester. Habitual snoring was screened by using a questionnaire in the 1st and 3rd trimester, respectively. According to the time of snoring, participants were divided into pregnancy onset snorers, chronic snorers and non-snorers. Logistic regressions were performed to examine the associations between snoring and pregnancy outcomes. Results Of 3 079 pregnant women, 16.6% were habitual snorers, with 11.7% were pregnancy onset snorers and 4.9% were chronic snorers. After adjusting for potential confounders, chronic snorers were independently associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (RR 1.66, 95%CI 1.09–2.53). Both pregnancy onset and chronic snorers were independently associated with placental adhesion (RR 1.96, 95%CI 1.17–3.27, and RR 2.33, 95%CI 1.22–4.46, respectively). Pregnancy onset snorers were at higher risk of caesarean delivery (RR 1.37, 95%CI 1.09–1.73) and having macrosomia (RR 1.54, 95%CI 1.05–2.27) and large for gestational age (LGA) (RR 1.71, 95%CI 1.31–2.24) infants. In addition, being overweight or obese before pregnancy plays an important role in mediating snoring and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Conclusions Maternal snoring may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and being overweight or obese before pregnancy with snoring is remarkable for researchers. Further studies are still needed to confirm our results. PMID:26871434

  3. First trimester fetal heart rate as a predictor of newborn sex.

    PubMed

    Bracero, L A; Seybold, D J; Witsberger, S; Rincon, L; Modak, A; Baxi, L V

    2016-03-01

    To predict the sex of newborns using first trimester fetal heart rate (FHR). This was a retrospective review of medical records and ultrasounds performed between 8 and 13 weeks of gestation. Continuous variables were compared using Student's t-tests while categorical variables were compared using Chi-square test. We found no significant differences between 332 (50.7%) female and 323 (49.3%) male FHRs during the first trimester. The mean FHR for female fetuses was 167.0 ± 9.1 bpm and for male fetuses 167.3 ± 10.1 bpm (p = 0.62). There was no significant difference in crown rump length between female and male fetuses (4.01 ± 1.7 versus 3.98 ± 1.7 cm; p = 0.78) or in gestational age at birth (38.01 ± 2.1 versus 38.08 ± 2.1 weeks; p = 0.67). The males were significantly heavier than females (3305.3 ± 568.3 versus 3127.5 ± 579.8 g; p < 0.0001) but there were no differences in the proportion of small for gestational age (SGA), average for gestational age (AGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) infants. We found no significant difference between the female and male FHR during the first trimester in contrast to the prevailing lay view of females having a faster FHR. The only statistically significant difference was that males weighed more than female newborns.

  4. Risk factor analysis and spatiotemporal CART model of cryptosporidiosis in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenbiao; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2010-10-28

    It remains unclear whether it is possible to develop a spatiotemporal epidemic prediction model for cryptosporidiosis disease. This paper examined the impact of social economic and weather factors on cryptosporidiosis and explored the possibility of developing such a model using social economic and weather data in Queensland, Australia. Data on weather variables, notified cryptosporidiosis cases and social economic factors in Queensland were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Department of Health, and Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. Three-stage spatiotemporal classification and regression tree (CART) models were developed to examine the association between social economic and weather factors and monthly incidence of cryptosporidiosis in Queensland, Australia. The spatiotemporal CART model was used for predicting the outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Queensland, Australia. The results of the classification tree model (with incidence rates defined as binary presence/absence) showed that there was an 87% chance of an occurrence of cryptosporidiosis in a local government area (LGA) if the socio-economic index for the area (SEIFA) exceeded 1021, while the results of regression tree model (based on non-zero incidence rates) show when SEIFA was between 892 and 945, and temperature exceeded 32°C, the relative risk (RR) of cryptosporidiosis was 3.9 (mean morbidity: 390.6/100,000, standard deviation (SD): 310.5), compared to monthly average incidence of cryptosporidiosis. When SEIFA was less than 892 the RR of cryptosporidiosis was 4.3 (mean morbidity: 426.8/100,000, SD: 319.2). A prediction map for the cryptosporidiosis outbreak was made according to the outputs of spatiotemporal CART models. The results of this study suggest that spatiotemporal CART models based on social economic and weather variables can be used for predicting the outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Queensland, Australia.

  5. [Construction of model for calculating and recording neonatal weight percentiles].

    PubMed

    González González, N L; González Dávila, E; García Hernández, J A; Cabrera Morales, F; Padrón, E; Domenech, E

    2014-02-01

    To construct a model for calculating optimal foetal and neonatal weight curves with a method that allows automatic calculation of the percentile and sequential recording of results. A model was constructed for calculating optimal weight and the corresponding percentiles for gestational age and sex from a sample of 23,578 newborns, after excluding cases with diseases. Birth weight was modelled using stepwise multiple regression analysis. Newborns were classified as small or large for gestational age (SGA or LGA) using the proposed model. The resulting classification was compared with those derived from other models designed for Spanish children. Optimal weight model: 3,311.062+68.074 *sex+143.267 *GE40 -13.481 *GE40(2) - 0.797 *GE40(3)+sex* (5.528 *GE40 - 0.674 *GE40(2) - 0.064 *GE40(3)). (GE, gestational age). Weight percentiles were obtained from standardized data using the coefficient of variation of the optimal weight. The degree of agreement between our model classification and those of the Carrascosa model and Ramos model, with empirical and smooth percentiles, was "almost perfect" (κ=0.866, κ=0.872, and κ=0.876 (P<.001), respectively), and between our model and that proposed by Figueras it was "substantial" (κ=0.720, P<.001). The new model is comparable to those used for Spanish children and allows accurate, updated automatic percentile calculation for gestational age and sex. The results can be digitally stored to track longitudinal foetal growth. Free access to the model is offered, together with the possibility of automatic calculation of foetal and neonatal weight percentiles. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Type XI Carrying Highly Divergent mecA, mecI, mecR1, blaZ, and ccr Genes in Human Clinical Isolates of Clonal Complex 130 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿†

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Anna C.; Deasy, Emily C.; Slickers, Peter; Brennan, Grainne; O'Connell, Brian; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; Coleman, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin resistance in staphylococci is mediated by penicillin binding protein 2a (PBP 2a), encoded by mecA on mobile staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements. In this study, two clonal complex 130 (CC130) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from patients in Irish hospitals were identified that were phenotypically PBP 2a positive but lacked mecA by conventional PCR and by DNA microarray screening. The isolates were identified as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus using the GeneXpert real-time PCR assay. Whole-genome sequencing of one isolate (M10/0061) revealed a 30-kb SCCmec element encoding a class E mec complex with highly divergent blaZ-mecA-mecR1-mecI, a type 8 cassette chromosome recombinase (ccr) complex consisting of ccrA1-ccrB3, an arsenic resistance operon, and flanking direct repeats (DRs). The SCCmec element was almost identical to that of SCCmec type XI (SCCmec XI) identified by the Sanger Institute in sequence type 425 bovine MRSA strain LGA251 listed on the website of the International Working Group on the Classification of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Elements. The open reading frames (ORFs) identified within SCCmec XI of M10/0061 exhibited 21 to 93% amino acid identity to ORFs in GenBank. A third DR was identified ca. 3 kb downstream of SCCmec XI, indicating the presence of a possible SCC remnant. SCCmec XI was also identified in the second CC130 MRSA isolate by PCR and sequencing. The CC130 MRSA isolates may be of animal origin as previously reported CC130 S. aureus strains were predominantly from bovine sources. The highly divergent nature of SCCmec XI relative to other SCCmec elements indicates that it may have originated in another taxon. PMID:21636525

  7. New method of indocyanine green fluorescence sentinel node mapping for early gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ohdaira, Hironori; Yoshida, Masashi; Okada, Shinya; Tsutsui, Nobuhiro; Kitajima, Masaki; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2017-08-01

    The present study describes the retrospective feasibility study of ICG fluorescence SN mapping in back-table for early gastric cancer using PINPOINT(®). SN mapping were performed as following; the day before surgery, 0.5 ml ICG was injected endoscopically in four quadrants of the submucosa surrounding the gastric cancer using an endoscopic puncture. Intraoperatively, the gastrocolic ligament was divided to visualize all possible directions of lymphatic flow from the stomach. PINPOINT(®) (NOVADAQ, Canada) was used to illuminate regional lymph nodes from the serosal side. Positive staining was confirmed by at least 3 surgeons and an endoscopist during surgery (Figure 1). Lymph node dissection and gastrectomy were performed according to the criteria of gastric cancer treatment guidelines of JGCA. All 6 patients had gastrectomy with laparoscopic approach. ICG positive lymphatic flow and lymph nodes were able to be observed in all the patients. Final pathological diagnosis was all StageI and curative resection. All the patients had ICG positive lymphatic area in left gastric artery (LGA) area. Two patients with tumor located in L area had ICG positive flow to right gastroepipoloic artery (RGEA) area. The mean of ICG positive lymph nodes was 8.6. One patient had a metastatic lymph node in station No.4, which was positive for ICG. Our method made identification of ICG positive lymph nodes easy in SN mapping in back-table under room light. Although further accumulation and analysis are necessary, we may be able to apply this method for intraoperative SN mapping of laparoscopic gastric cancer surgey.

  8. Identifying Multi-Dimensional Co-Clusters in Tensors Based on Hyperplane Detection in Singular Vector Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyu; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Co-clustering, often called biclustering for two-dimensional data, has found many applications, such as gene expression data analysis and text mining. Nowadays, a variety of multi-dimensional arrays (tensors) frequently occur in data analysis tasks, and co-clustering techniques play a key role in dealing with such datasets