Sample records for lh-rh

  1. [Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and delayed puberty: differential diagnosis using the LH-RH-infusion test].


    Vierhapper, H


    Serum concentrations of LH and FSH were determined during an intravenous infusion of LH-RH (200 micrograms, t = 4 hours) in 8 patients (age: 15 to 20 years) with delayed sexual maturation and retarded bone age. Four patients who by clinical criteria were later recognized as suffering from hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) presented during the infusion of LH-RH with only a small response of LH (and, in three cases, of FSH). In 3 patients with HH a deficiency of endogenous LH-RH due to a hypothalamic defect was suggested by an enhanced secretion of LH and FSH during a second LH-RH infusion test performed after priming of the pituitary by pulsatile, subcutaneous infusions of LH-RH (50 micrograms/night for 9 consecutive nights). The fourth patient with HH, who suffered from a pituitary adenoma, failed to display this enhanced secretion of gonadotropins following pituitary priming by intermittent administration of LH-RH. As compared with the patients with HH, 4 patients in whom puberty, although delayed, later occurred spontaneously (pubertas tarda, PT), presented with a considerably more pronounced secretion of LH and FSH during the infusion of LH-RH, and priming by intermittent subcutaneous LH-RH failed to achieve further enhancement of the secretion of LH and FSH during a second infusion test in these patients. The intravenous infusion of LH-RH in combination with a protocol of pituitary priming offers a possibility of distinguishing patients with delayed puberty from those with various forms of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. PMID:6417915

  2. Effects of an LH-RH agonist on reproductive responses and endocrinological parameters in landais ganders.


    Sellier, N; Do Thi, D X; Rousselot-Pailley, D; Péczely, P; de Reviers, M; Guémené, D


    Semen quantitative (sperm production) and qualitative parameters (percentage of live and normal spermatozoa, sperm motility, egg fertility and hatchability), as well as hormonal parameters (LH and testosterone plasma concentrations) were compared for landais ganders, which were treated or not, with an LH-RH agonist prior to being sexually active. Treatment with the LH-RH agonist at this physiological stage delayed the onset of sperm production in some of the treated males. Although, comparable data were obtained during the first half of the reproductive period, treatment with the LH-RH agonist maintained sperm output at higher levels during its second half. Although the percentage of normal and live spermatozoa, sperm motility and true hatchability did not differ, the LH-RH agonist treatment had a positive effect on gosling production because of the higher fertility of the treated birds during the second part of the reproductive period. Treatment induced a large short-term decrease in testosterone levels followed by a rebound, leading to higher levels during the second half of the reproductive period. We conclude that treatment of ganders with an LH-RH agonist partially prevented the naturally occurring decline in sperm production and induced an increase in the rate of fertility rates during the second half of the productive period.

  3. Serum LH and FSH Responses to Synthetic LH-RH in Normal Infants, Children and Patients With Turner's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suwa, Seizo; And Others


    Effects of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) on LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) release were studied in 26 normal children and six patients (from 1-to 14-years-old) with Turner's syndrome. (Author)

  4. Interleukin-1 beta inhibits the endogenous expression of the early gene c-fos located within the nucleus of LH-RH neurons and interferes with hypothalamic LH-RH release during proestrus in the rat.


    Rivest, S; Rivier, C


    The ability of central interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) administration to modulate the hypothalamic LH-RH release as well as the endogenous expression of the c-fos protein located within the nucleus of LH-RH neurons was examined during the afternoon of proestrus in rats. In a first series of experiments, 50 or 100 ng IL-1 beta were infused into the lateral ventricle of the rat brain at either 08.30, 12.00, 14.30, or 17.00 h of proestrus. The animals were then perfused transcardially with a solution of 4% paraformaldehyde from 17.30 and 18.00 h. In a second series of experiments, the rats were equipped with an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) cannula in the lateral ventricle and a push-pull cannula into the median eminence (ME), and LH-RH secretion was measured during the afternoon of proestrus. The third experiment investigated the putative role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in modulating the inhibitory effect of IL-1 beta on LH secretion by infusing CRF antagonists before the i.c.v. administration of the cytokine to gonadectomized male and female rats. The central infusion of 50 or 100 ng IL-1 beta at 12.00 h completely blocked the spontaneous expression of c-fos protein which normally occurs in the nucleus of LH-RH neurons between 17.30 and 18.00 h on proestrus. In contrast, 50 ng IL-1 beta was less effective (P < 0.05) when administered at 08.30 h, and totally without effect when infused at 14.30 h. Infusion of 50 ng IL-1 beta also markedly suppressed the hypothalamic release of LH-RH in proestrus rats bearing a push-pull cannula into the ME, and significantly decreased plasma LH levels in both gonadectomized male and female rats. Finally, we observed that the central administration of CRF antagonists did not modify the inhibitory effects of the cytokine on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. These results provide the first direct evidence that IL-1 beta is a potent inhibitor of LH-RH neuronal activity during the proestrus LH

  5. Double-stimulation with LH-RH in primary amenorrhea caused by chronic internal hydrocephylus: a case study.


    Moeslein, S; Dericks-Tan, J S; Lorenz, R; Taubert, H D


    A 19-year-old female patient with primary amenorrhea and pubertas tarda due to chronic internal hydrocephalus presented with normal hormonal findings except for low estradiol and a prepubertal type of reaction in the double-stimulation test with LH-RH. After successful operative treatment with a Spitz-Holter high-pressure valve, the intracranial decompression was promptly followed by pubertal development, she began to menstruate, and the LH-RH double-stimulation test showed an adult pattern of response. The results of the test support the view that a partial deficiency in the secretion of LH-RH is the cause of hypogonadism in such a case. PMID:3140582

  6. LH-RH agonists modulate amygdala response to visual sexual stimulation: a single case fMRI study in pedophilia.


    Habermeyer, Benedikt; Händel, Nadja; Lemoine, Patrick; Klarhöfer, Markus; Seifritz, Erich; Dittmann, Volker; Graf, Marc


    Pedophilia is characterized by a persistent sexual attraction to prepubescent children. Treatment with anti-androgen agents, such as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists, reduces testosterone levels and thereby sexual drive and arousal. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare visual erotic stimulation pre- and on-treatment with the LH-RH agonist leuprolide acetate in the case of homosexual pedophilia. The pre-treatment contrasts of the erotic pictures against the respective neutral pictures showed an activation of the right amygdala and adjacent parahippocampal gyrus that decreased significantly under treatment with leuprolide acetate. Our single case fMRI study supports the notion that anti-androgens may modify amygdala response to visual erotic stimulation, a hypothesis that should be further examined in larger studies.

  7. LH-RH agonists modulate amygdala response to visual sexual stimulation: a single case fMRI study in pedophilia.


    Habermeyer, Benedikt; Händel, Nadja; Lemoine, Patrick; Klarhöfer, Markus; Seifritz, Erich; Dittmann, Volker; Graf, Marc


    Pedophilia is characterized by a persistent sexual attraction to prepubescent children. Treatment with anti-androgen agents, such as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists, reduces testosterone levels and thereby sexual drive and arousal. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare visual erotic stimulation pre- and on-treatment with the LH-RH agonist leuprolide acetate in the case of homosexual pedophilia. The pre-treatment contrasts of the erotic pictures against the respective neutral pictures showed an activation of the right amygdala and adjacent parahippocampal gyrus that decreased significantly under treatment with leuprolide acetate. Our single case fMRI study supports the notion that anti-androgens may modify amygdala response to visual erotic stimulation, a hypothesis that should be further examined in larger studies. PMID:22136615

  8. Intracellular mechanism of the action of inhibin on the secretion of follicular stimulating hormone and of luteinizing hormone induced by LH-RH in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecomte-Yerna, M. J.; Hazee-Hagelstein, M. T.; Charlet-Renard, C.; Franchimont, P.


    The FSH secretion-inhibiting action of inhibin in vitro under basal conditions and also in the presence of LH-RH is suppressed by the addition of MIX, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. In the presence of LH-RH, inhibin reduces significantly the intracellular level of cAMP in isolated pituitary cells. In contrast, the simultaneous addition of MIX and inhibin raises the cAMP level, and this stimulation is comparable to the increase observed when MIX is added alone. These observations suggest that one mode of action of inhibin could be mediated by a reduction in cAMP within the pituitary gonadotropic cell.

  9. [Induction of ovulation and fertilization in vitro. Attempted optimization using an analog of LH-RH: D-Trp6-LP].


    Fenichel, P; Grimaldi, M; Greck, T; Olivero, J F; Donzeau, M; Tran, D K; Fiorentini, M; Harter, M; Gillet, J Y


    The authors report the results of LH-RH blocking by an analogue for the purpose of obtaining a more constant inducement of ovulation. It concerns a delayed action product, the inconvenience of which is a possible extended action beyond thirty days, which could have an unfavorable effect on the luteal phase.

  10. [Diagnostic significance of LH-RH two step test in women with normoestrogenic amenorrhea: analysis of the self-priming effect of the anterior pituitary glands].


    Takahashi, M; Makino, T; Yokokura, T; Nakayama, A; Takahashi, S; Lin, B L; Suekane, H; Iizuka, R


    To investigate the self-priming effect of gonadotropin on the anterior pituitary glands, the response of serum gonadotropins to the "LH-RH two step test" (two step administration of 100 micrograms of synthetic LH-RH at a 60 minute interval) was studied in 20 women with normoestrogenic amenorrhea who were responsive to the progesterone test. The patients were divided into two groups according to the results of the clomiphene test. Blood samples were collected before LH-RH stimulation and 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 minutes after the first stimulation, respectively. The P1P2 ratio (2nd peak level/1st peak level) and delta 1 delta 2 ratio (delta 2/delta 1 = 2nd peak level-60 min. level/1st peak level-0 min. level) of LH and FSH in the clomiphene-positive group were significantly higher than those in the clomiphene-negative group. These ratios are regarded as the degree of the self-priming effect, and at least partially reflect the capacity for the synthesis of pituitary gonadotropins. The results demonstrate that the self-priming effect is more restored in the clomiphene-positive group than in the clomiphene-negative group, and the data also indicate that the analysis of the self-priming effect with the "LH-RH two step test" is useful in developing new diagnostic criteria on ovarian dysfunction.

  11. Inhibition of serum androgen levels by chronic intranasal and subcutaneous administration of a potent luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist in adult men.


    Faure, N; Labrie, F; Lemay, A; Bélanger, A; Gourdeau, Y; Laroche, B; Robert, G


    The effect of chronic treatment with the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist Buserelin (Hoechst AG, Frankfurt/Main, West Germany) ([D-Ser(TBU)6,des-Gly-NH2(10)]LH-RH ethylamide) administrered by nasal spray (200 or 500 micrograms, twice daily) or subcutaneously (50 micrograms daily) for periods of 1 to 8 months was studied on serum sex steroids and LH levels in 18 patients with cancer of the prostate. Basal serum testosterone concentration decreases to 71.1 +/- 18.3 (NS) and 28.6 +/- 9.3%, (P less than 0.01) of control in patients receiving the 200-micrograms and 500-micrograms dose by nasal spray, respectively. In patients treated subcutaneously, a more rapid inhibition of serum testosterone levels to 19.6 +/- 6.4% of control (P less than 0.01) is observed. The finding of decreased levels of 17-OH-progesterone, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone in the presence of unchanged pregnenolone concentration indicates that the decrease in androgen biosynthesis induced by Buserelin treatment is due to a blockage at the level of 17-hydroxylase and 17,20-desmolase activities. The present data indicate that chronic administration of Buserelin could be a safe and effective means of reducing serum androgens in patients with cancer of the prostate.

  12. Efficacy of goserelin plus anastrozole in premenopausal women with advanced or recurrent breast cancer refractory to an LH-RH analogue with tamoxifen: results of the JMTO BC08-01 phase II trial.


    Nishimura, Reiki; Anan, Keisei; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Higaki, Kenji; Tanaka, Maki; Shibuta, Kenji; Sagara, Yasuaki; Ohno, Shinji; Tsuyuki, Shigeru; Mase, Takahiro; Teramukai, Satoshi


    The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogue plus an aromatase inhibitor following failure to respond to standard LH-RH analogue plus tamoxifen (TAM) in premenopausal patients. Premenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and/or progesterone-receptor positive, advanced or recurrent breast cancer refractory to an LH-RH analogue plus TAM received goserelin (GOS) in conjunction with anastrozole (ANA). The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), clinical benefit rate (CBR) and safety. Between September 2008 and November 2010, 37 patients were enrolled. Thirty-five patients (94.6%) had ER-positive tumors, and 36 (97.3%) had human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2-negative tumors. Thirty-six (97.3%) had measurable lesions and 1 (2.7%) had only bone metastasis. The ORR was 18.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 8.0-35.2%], the CBR was 62.2% (95% CI, 44.8-77.5%) and the median PFS was 7.3 months. Eight patients had adverse drug reactions but none resulted in discontinuation of treatment. GOS plus ANA is a safe effective treatment for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, recurrent or advanced breast cancer. The treatment may become viable treatment in the future, particularly when TAM is ineffective or contraindicated. Further studies and discussion are warranted.

  13. Motility, mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP content of rabbit spermatozoa stored in extender supplemented with GnRH analogue [des-Gly10, D-Ala6]-LH-RH ethylamide.


    Gogol, P; Trzcińska, M; Bryła, M


    The present study was aimed to determine the effect of GnRH analogue [des-Gly10, D-Ala6]-LH-RH ethylamide on the quality of rabbit spermatozoa stored at 17°C for 3 days. Semen from 5 bucks (13 ejaculates) was used in the experiment. Ejaculates were divided and diluted at a 1:10 ratio with rabbit semen extender Galap (IMV, France) (Control) or with Galap extender supplemented with GnRH analogue [des-Gly10, D-Ala6]-LH-RH ethylamide (50 μg/ml) and stored for 3 days. Sperm motility parameters, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP content were as- sessed on each day of the experiment. Motility analysis was performed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. The following sperm motility parameters were recorded: total motile spermatozoa, progressively motile spermatozoa, curvilinear velocity, straight-line velocity, average path velocity, linearity, straightness and amplitude of lateral head displacement. MMP was evaluated using JC-1 fluorescent dye. ATP content was assessed using a bioluminescence method. The addition of GnRH analogue [des-Gly10, D-Ala6]-LH-RH ethylamide to Galap extender did not affect any of the quality parameters studied. However, in both groups (Control and GnRH), significant changes in motility parameters (except straight-line velocity) and proportion of spermatozoa showing high MMP and ATP content were observed throughout 3 days of storage. PMID:25638968

  14. Detection of catecholamine and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) containing nerve endings in the median eminence and the organon vasculosum laminae terminalis by fluorescence histochemistry and immunohistochemistry on the same microscopic sections.


    Ibata, Y; Watanabe, K; Kinoshita, H; Kubo, S; Sano, Y; Sin, S; Hashimura, E; Imagawa, K


    Distribution of catecholamine (CA) and LH-RH nerve endings in the median eminence (ME) and the organon vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) of the rat was investigated by application of fluorescence histochemistry and immunohistochemistry on the same sections of the tissue. In the ME, those two kinds of endings coexisted in the lateral portion of the middle part of ME, and in the wall of tuberoinfundibular sulcus, where they might be considered to have functional correlation. In the OVLT they were also distributed in fairly near distance, but they were not so closely associated as observed in the ME.

  15. Intercellular communications within the rat anterior pituitary. XVI: postnatal changes of distribution of S-100 protein positive cells, connexin 43 and LH-RH positive sites in the pars tuberalis of the rat pituitary gland. An immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study.


    Wada, Ikuo; Sakuma, Eisuke; Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Wakabayashi, Kenjiro; Otsuka, Takanobu; Hattori, Kazuki; Yashiro, Takashi; Herbert, Damon C; Soji, Tsuyoshi


    The architecture of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) nerve ends and the S-100 protein containing folliculo-stellate cells forming gap junctions in the pars tuberalis is basically important in understanding the regulation of the hormone producing mechanism of anterior pituitary glands. In this study, intact male rats 5-60 days old were prepared for immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. From immunostained sections, the S-100 containing cells in pars tuberalis were first detected on day 30 and increased in number to day 60; this was parallel to the immunohistochemical staining of gap junction protein, connexin 43. LH-RH positive sites were clearly observed on just behind the optic chiasm and on the root of pituitary stalk on day 30. On day 60, the width of layer increased, while follicles and gap junctions were frequently observed between agranular cells in 10 or more layers of pars tuberalis. In the present study, we investigated the sexual maturation of the anterior pituitary glands through the postnatal development of S-100 positive cells, connexin 43 and LH-RH nerves. It is suggested that the folliculo-stellate cell system including the LH-RH neurons in the pars tuberalis participates in the control of LH secretion along with the portal vein system. PMID:24216131

  16. 76 FR 26962 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, A300 B2-203, A300 B2K-3C, A300-B4-103, A300 B4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... through 3,000 flight cycles FR40) STGR11 LH/RH (FR27 through FR32) STGR13 LH/ RH (FR 26 through FR28, FR31 through FR40) STGR27 LH/RH (FR 27 through FR32) STGR43 LH/ RH (FR 26 through FR39) STGR49 RH (FR26 through... AD. Discussion On December 20, 1989, we issued AD 90-01-10, Amendment 39-6448 (55 FR 261, January...

  17. 76 FR 63177 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, A300 B2-203, A300 B2K-3C, A300-B4-103, A300 B4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ...); STGR13 LH/RH (FR 26 through FR28, FR31 through FR40); STGR27 LH/RH (FR 27 through FR32); STGR43 LH/RH (FR... to the specified products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on May 10, 2011 (76 FR 26962), and proposed to supersede AD 90-01-10, Amendment 39-6448 (55 FR 261, January 4, 1990). That...

  18. Paradoxical effects of D-Trp6-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in immature female rats.


    Vilchez-Martinez, J A; Pedroza, E; Arimura, A; Schally, A V


    The effect of administration of a superactive and long-acting analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH), D-Trp6-LH-RH, in doses of 0.05 or 1 microgram/day for 10 days on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis was studied in immature female rats. Treatment with a 0.05-microgram dose of analog produced few changes as compared with the control group. Treatment with 1 microgram of D-Trp6-LH-RH did not affect the body weight or the pituitary weight, but increased ovarian weight and decreased uterine weight; elevated serum gonadotropin levels; and lowered the pituitary LH content. This depletion of pituitary LH content was associated with a low pituitary responsiveness to LH-RH. Serum estradiol levels were not modified, suggesting that decreased uterine weight reflects a direct and extrapituitary effect of this analog. The hypothalamic LH-RH content was higher, indicating a possible inhibition of the release of endogenous LH-RH. A delay in vaginal opening was also observed. This indicates that large doses of D-Trp6-LH-RH may interfere with the process of puberty in rats. These findings extend other reports about the paradoxical antifertility effects of large doses of stimulatory analogs of LH-RH.

  19. Regulation of the hypothalamic--pituitary--ovarian axis in women.


    Yen, S S


    To account for the regulation of cyclic gonadotrophin release, the separate and interactive effects of the hormonal variable at the levels of CNS-hypothalamus, the pituitary and the ovary have been reviewed. The pituitary gonadotrophs, as target cells exhibited a remarkable cyclic change in their capacity which was correlated with the oestradiol levels. The ultimate release is determined by the relative size of the two pools' releasable gonadotrophins which are themselves regulated by the relative inputs of LH-RH and oestradiol, respectively. LH-RH appears to serve as a primary influence on the gonadotroph, stimulating gonadotrophin synthesis, storage and release. Oestradiol, for the most part, amplifies the action of LH-RH and induces the development of a self-priming effect of LH-RH, except that it impedes LH-RH-mediated gonadotrophin release. The pituitary capacity increases several-fold from the early to late follicular phase, and this is considered to be the prerequisite for the development of a mid-cycle surge. CNS-hypothalamic dopamine, norepinephrine, prostaglandins as well as LH-RH systems are involved in the negative and positive feedback effect of oestradiol. The possible steps and interactive elements in the triggering of LH-RH release for the initiation of the mid-cycle LH/FSH surge are considered.

  20. Radioimmunoassay for 6-D-tryptophan analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: measurement of serum levels after administration of long-acting microcapsule formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Mason-Garcia, M.; Vigh, S.; Comaru-Schally, A.M.; Redding, T.W.; Somogyvari-Vigh, A.; Horvath, J.; Schally, A.V.


    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for (6-D-tryptophan)luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ((D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH) was developed and used for following the rate of liberation of (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH from a long-acting delivery systems based on a microcapsule formulation. Rabbit antibodies were generated against (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH conjugated to bovine serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. Crossreactivity with LH-RH was less than 1%; there was no significant cross-reactivity with other peptides. The minimal detectable dose of (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH was 2 pg per tube. In tra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 8% and 10%, respectively. The radioimmunoassay was suitable for direct determination of (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH in serum, permitting the study of blood levels of the analog after single injections into normal men and after one-a-month administration of microcapsules to rats. In men, 90 min after subcutaneous injection of 250 of the peptide, serum (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH rose to 6-12 ng/ml. Luteinizing hormone was increased 90 min and 24 hr after the administration of the analog. Several batches of microcapsules were tested in rats and the rate of release of (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH was followed. The improved batch of microcapsules of (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH increased serum concentrations of the analog for 30 days or longer after intramuscular injection.

  1. A therapeutic response to a single diagnostic dose of luteinising hormone-releasing hormone.


    Distiller, L A; Sagel, J; Polakow, E S; Morley, J E


    Luteinising hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) administration is a useful provocative test for the evaluation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Seven cases with oligomenorrhoea or amenorrhoea are reported, in which a single diagnostic injection of LH-RH produced an apparent therapeutic response. Six patients converted to a regular normal menstrual cycle, and 4 of these had evidence of ovulation. The seventh patient conceived. It is postulated that in some cases of hypothalamic menstrual dysfunction the gonadotrophic imbalance may be corrected by a single intravenous dose of LH-RH.

  2. Localization of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in rat hypothalamus using radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    King, J C; Williams, T H; Arimura, A A


    Radioimmunoassays for LH-RH were performed on frozen rat brain sections cut serially in coronal, parasagittal and horizontal planes. In some of the assays, samples were pooled from corresponding areas in different animals. A clear pattern of distribution of LH-RH rich regions emerged. Two prominent components - a caudal high curve and a rostral smaller hump - were observed, and their variable characteristics discussed. The high curve represents the arcuate-medium eminence (ME) region. Our data suggest that this region is not homogeneous, and three different subdivisions of this arcuate-ME region can be distinguished on the basis of LH-RH content. High values were obtained consistently in the arcuate-ME region, except for females in the late afternoon of dioestrus day 2, at which stage the levels in this region dropped until they were little more than base line. The rostral hump of high LH-RH activity varies both in position and amplitude. These variations are associated with (1) the sex of the animal and (2) the stage of the female cycle. In males this hump appeared in the region of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, while in dioestrous females it appeared in the medial preoptic area, rostral to the male location. Some changes in LH-RH levels are thought to be related to the stage in the female sex cycle. During the afternoon of dioestrus, the caudal high curve representing the arcuate-ME region shrank, whereas the rostral smaller hump (preoptic region) showed much higher levels. Some feed-back take-off may occur from the LH-RH released by the arcuate-ME region. Instead of synthesizing its own LH-RH, the preoptic area may concentrate some of the LH-RH released from the arcuate-ME region, thereafter initiating sexual behaviour as suggested by Moss & McCann (1973). PMID:1104548

  3. [Role of sex hormones in realizing the monoamine effect on the luliberin content in the hypothalamus].


    Babichev, V N; Samsonova, V M; Markarian, R L


    Drastic decrease in the level of sex hormone in the blood of castrated male rats lessened the content of LH-RH in the arcuate nuclei and median eminence of the hypothalamus. Obviously, this area is the place affected by androgens within the system of the negative feedback mechanism. Intraventricular noradrenaline had a stimulating effect on the synthesis and secretion of LH-RH in both intact and castrated animals. Meanwhile in the absence of sex steroids that action was less powerful. Dopamine stimulated the release of LH-RH from the terminals of the median eminence in all the groups of the animals. In intact animals, serotonin had no effect on the content of LH-RH, while in the castrated animals, it produced an inhibitory action on the synthesis and secretion of LH-RH. The results indicate that the intensity and the line of the effects of monoamines under study may depend to a certain extent on the animals endocrine status. The effects of monoamines on LH-RH neurones is steroid-dependent.

  4. [Effect of blockade of opiate receptors by naloxone on lutropin (LH), follitropin (FSH) and testosterone secretion in patients after kidney transplantation].


    Grzeszczak, W; Zukowska-Szczechowska, E; Kokot, F


    The influence of opioid receptors blockade by naloxone on lutropin (LH), follitropin (FSH) and testosterone secretion induced by LH-RH was assessed in 12 male kidney transplant patients with stable graft function (KTP) treated by cyclosporine A and prednisone and in 15 healthy subjects. In KTP normal plasma levels of LH in spite of significantly reduced testosteronemia and a reduced response of LH to LH-RH was observed. After blockade of opioid receptors by naloxone normalization of the response of LH secretion to LH-RH was found and a higher increase of the plasma testosterone level was observed in KTP than in healthy subjects. Results obtained in this study suggest abnormal functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary--gonadal axis in KTP and participation of opioid receptors in its pathogenesis.

  5. Prognosis of sexual maturation in prepubertal boys with micropenis.


    Okuyama, A; Itatani, H; Aono, T; Matsumoto, K; Mizutani, S; Sonoda, T


    Long-term observations were made of the prognosis for sexual maturation (onset of puberty) in 15 prepubertal boys with micropenis. Testosterone levels before and after HCG administration and LH and FSH responses to LH-RH were measured at the first visit and a few years later. In the eight boys who showed significant responses to the LH-RH and HCG tests, onset of puberty occurred with the exception of one patient. The remaining seven boys who showed no positive response to either stimulation test were treated with injections of HCG. However, no signs of sexual maturation were observed. These data demonstrate clearly that both the HCG test and the LH-RH test are very useful for prognosis of sexual maturation in patients with micropenis.

  6. [Evaluation of pain reduction upon injecting goserelin acetate using an ice pack].


    Ikeda, Katsumi; Ogawa, Yoshinori; Nagahara, Hisashi; Xiang, Zhang; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Fukuoka, Tatsunari; Tokunaga, Shinya; Nishiguchi, Yukio


    LH-RH agonist is the key drug in hormonal therapy for premenopausal patients with breast cancer. It is important to reduce the pain related to injecting the LH-RH agonist, because patients must continue the medication for several years. We developed a way to reduce the pain by cooling the needle injecting site with a frozen ice pack. 18 premenopausal postoperated women filled out a questionnaire on the severity of pain upon injecting Goserelin acetate compared with the pain without this cooling method and pretreatment. We estimated the pain by a Numerical Rating Scale(NRS). The NRS scores of this cooling method revealed the pain to be significantly less than by control method(p<0. 005). This cooling method could be useful for the reduction of pain upon injecting the LH-RH agonist.

  7. Inhibition of growth of OV-1063 human epithelial ovarian cancer xenografts in nude mice by treatment with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist SB-75.

    PubMed Central

    Yano, T; Pinski, J; Halmos, G; Szepeshazi, K; Groot, K; Schally, A V


    Female athymic nude mice bearing xenografts of OV-1063 human epithelial ovarian cancer cell line were treated with potent luteinizing hormone (LH)-releasing hormone (LH-RH) antagonist SB-75 (Cetrorelix; [Ac-D-Nal(2)1, D-Phe(4 CI)2, D-Pal(3)3, D-Cit6, D-Ala10]LH-RH in which Ac-D-Nal(2) = N-acetyl-3-(2-naphthyl)-D-alanine, D-Phe(4CI) = 4-chloro-D-phenylalanine, D-Pal(3) = 3-(3-pyridyl)-D-alanine, and D-Cit = D-Citrulline) or with the agonist [D-Trp6]LH-RH. In the first experiment, SB-75 and [D-Trp6]LH-RH were administered in the form of microcapsules releasing 60 and 25 micrograms/day, respectively. In the second study, the analogs were given by daily s.c. injections in doses of 100 micrograms/day. In both experiments, tumor growth, as measured by reduction in tumor volume, percentage change in tumor volume, tumor burden, and increase in tumor doubling time, was significantly inhibited by treatment with SB-75 but not with [D-Trp6]LH-RH. Uterine and ovarian weights were reduced and serum LH levels decreased by administration of either analog. Chronic treatment with SB-75 greatly reduced the concentration of receptors for epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I in tumor cell membranes, a phenomenon that might be related to tumor growth inhibition. It is possible that the antitumoral effects of SB-75 on OV-1063 ovarian cancers are exerted not only through the suppression of the pituitary-gonadal axis, but also directly. In view of its strong inhibitory effect on the growth of OV-1063 ovarian cancers in vivo, the potent LH-RH antagonist SB-75 might be considered for possible hormonal therapy of advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID:7518926

  8. Highly potent analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing D-phenylalanine nitrogen mustard in position 6

    SciTech Connect

    Bajusz, S.; Janaky, T.; Csernus, V.J.; Bokser, L.; Fekete, M.; Srkalovic, G.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V. )


    The nitrogen mustard derivatives of 4-phenylbutyric acid and L-phenylalanine, called chlorambucil (Chl) and melphalan (Mel), respectively, have been incorporated into several peptide hormones, including luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). The alkylating analogues of LH-RH were prepared by linking Chl, as an N-acyl moiety, to the complete amino acid sequence of agonistic and antagonistic analogues. These compounds, in particular the antagonistic analogues, showed much lower potency than their congeners carrying other acyl groups. To obtain highly potent alkylating analogues of LH-RH, the D enantiomer of Mel was incorporated into position 6 of the native hormone and some of its antagonistic analogues. Of the peptides prepared, (D-Mel{sup 6})LH-RH (SB-05) and (Ac-D-Nal(2){sup 1},D-Phe(pCl){sup 2},D-Pal(3){sup 3},Arg{sup 5},D-Mel{sup 6},D-Ala{sup 10})LH-RH (SB-86, where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine and Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine) possessed the expected high agonistic and antagonistic activities, respectively, and also showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary cells, human breast cancer cells, human prostate cancer cells, and rat Dunning R-3327 prostate tumor cells. These two analogues exerted cytotoxic effects on human and rat mammary cancer cells in vitro. Thus these two D-Mel{sup 6} analogues seem to be particularly suitable for the study of how alkylating analogues of LH-RH could interfere with intracellular events in certain cancer cells.

  9. 77 FR 40485 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... was published in the Federal Register on February 6, 2012 (77 FR 5728). That NPRM proposed to correct... of the wires located between LH/RH engines Hydraulic FSOV and wing rear spar in the zones 575/675... AD 2011-0084, dated May 24, 2011, and was inadvertently omitted from the NPRM (77 FR 5728, February...

  10. Distribution of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in the upper brainstem and diencephalon of the cat: an immunocytochemical study.


    Belda, M; Coveñas, R; Narváez, J A; Aguirre, J A; Tramu, G


    The distribution of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH)-immunostained cell bodies and fibres was studied in the brainstem and diencephalon of the cat using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. The brainstem and the thalamus were devoid of immunostained cell bodies, whereas in the hypothalamus immunopositive perikarya were observed in the supraoptic nucleus, the anterior hypothalamus, the preoptic region and in the arcuate nucleus. Our findings also showed that the hypothalamus is richer in immunostained fibres, and that in this region such fibres are more widely distributed than in the thalamus and upper brainstem. No immunopositive fibres were observed in the lower brainstem. Our results point to a more widespread distribution of LH-RH-immunostained perikarya in the cat hypothalamus than that previously reported in the cat; a similar distribution to that found in the rat, and a more restricted distribution than in primates. Additionally, our study shows a more widespread distribution of immunostained fibres in the cat brainstem and diencephalon than that previously described for other mammals. In this context, our results describe for the first time in the mammals central nervous system fibres containing LH-RH located in the stria medullaris of the thalamus, the supramammillary decussation, the laterodorsal and lateroposterior thalamic nuclei, the nucleus reuniens, the supraoptic nucleus, and the optic chiasm. Thus, our findings reveal that LH-RH-immunostained structures are widely distributed in the upper brainstem and in the diencephalon of the cat, suggesting that the peptide may be involved in several physiological functions.

  11. Oestrous and ovarian activity in a female jaguar (Panthera onca).


    Wildt, D E; Platz, C C; Chakraborty, P K; Seager, S W


    The mean +/- s.e.m. duration of oestrus was 12.0 +/- 1.0 days (n = 7) and the oestrous cycle length was 47.2 +/- 5.4 days (n = 6) for a captive jaguar. Ovulation did not occur spontaneously, but was induced by treatment with hCG or LH-RH.

  12. Suppression of meiosis of male germ cells by an antagonist of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Szende, B; Redding, T W; Schally, A V


    Male nude mice were implanted with osmotic minipumps releasing 50 micrograms of a potent antagonist of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) per day [N-Ac-[D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2,D-Pal(3)3,D-Cit6,D-Ala10]LH-RH] (SB-75) [Nal(2), 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine; Phe(pCl), 4-chlorophenylalanine; Pal(3), 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine; Cit, citrulline], or they were treated with s.c. injections of SB-75 (25 micrograms twice a day). Another group of nude mice received an injection of microcapsules of the agonist [D-Trp6]LH-RH liberating 25 micrograms/day. One month after the initiation of treatment, the testicular weights were significantly reduced and the blood testosterone values were at castration levels in all treated groups. Histologically, only the testicles of the mice treated with SB-75 released from minipumps showed a significant decrease of meiosis. The most advanced forms of germ cells were spermatogonia in 26%, spermatocytes in 17%, and round spermatids in 35% of the seminiferous tubules. Only 22% of the tubules contained elongated spermatids. The suppression of meiotic activity by this modern LH-RH antagonist can possibly be used for the development of methods for male contraception and for the protection of germ cells against the damage caused by cytotoxic drugs and x-radiation. Images PMID:2405399

  13. Luteinizing hormone (LH)-releasing hormone agonist reduces serum adrenal androgen levels in prostate cancer patients: implications for the effect of LH on the adrenal glands.


    Nishii, Masahiro; Nomura, Masashi; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Koike, Hidekazu; Matsui, Hiroshi; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Ito, Kazuto; Oyama, Tetsunari; Suzuki, Kazuhiro


    Recently, adrenal androgens have been targeted as key hormones for the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer therapeutics. Although circulating adrenal androgens originate mainly from the adrenal glands, the testes also supply about 10%. Although widely used in androgen deprivation medical castration therapy, the effect of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist on adrenal androgens has not been fully studied. In this study, changes in testicular and adrenal androgen levels were measured and compared to adrenocorticotropic hormone levels. To assess the possible role of LH in the adrenal glands, immunohistochemical studies of the LH receptor in normal adrenal glands were performed. Forty-seven patients with localized or locally progressive prostate cancer were treated with LH-RH agonist with radiotherapy. Six months after initiation of treatment, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol levels were decreased by 90%-95%, and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione levels were significantly decreased by 26%-40%. The suppressive effect of LH-RH agonist at 12 months was maintained. Adrenocorticotropic hormone levels showed an increasing trend at 6 months and a significant increase at 12 months. LH receptors were positively stained in the cortex cells of the reticular layer of the adrenal glands. The long-term LH-RH agonist treatment reduced adrenal-originated adrenal androgens. LH receptors in the adrenal cortex cells of the reticular layer might account for the underlying mechanism of reduced adrenal androgens.

  14. Highly potent antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone free of edematogenic effects.

    PubMed Central

    Bajusz, S; Kovacs, M; Gazdag, M; Bokser, L; Karashima, T; Csernus, V J; Janaky, T; Guoth, J; Schally, A V


    To eliminate the undesirable edematogenic effect of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) antagonists containing basic D amino acids at position 6, exemplified by [Ac-D-Phe(pCl)1,2,D-Trp3,D-Arg6,D-Ala10]LH-RH [Phe(pCl) indicates 4-chlorophenylalanine], analogs with D-ureidoalkyl amino acids such as D-citrulline (D-Cit) or D-homocitrulline (D-Hci) at position 6 were synthesized and tested in several systems in vitro and in vivo. HPLC analysis revealed that the overall hydrophobicity of the D-Cit/D-Hci6 analogs was similar to that of the basic D-Arg6 antagonists. In vitro, most of the analogs completely inhibited LH-RH-mediated luteinizing hormone release in perfused rat pituitary cell systems at an antagonist to LH-RH molar ratio of 5:1. In vivo, the most active peptides, [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2,D-Trp3,D-Cit6,D-Ala10]LH-RH [Nal(2) indicates 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine] and its D-Hci6 analog, caused 100% inhibition of ovulation in cycling rats in doses of 3 micrograms and suppressed the luteinizing hormone level in ovariectomized female rats for 47 hr when administered at doses of 25 micrograms. Characteristically, these peptides did not exert any edematogenic effects even at 1.5 mg/kg. These properties of the D-Cit/D-Hci6 antagonists may make them useful clinically. PMID:3278323

  15. Negative feedback effects of chlormadinone acetate and ethynylestradiol on gonadotropin secretion in patients with prostatic cancer and male rats.


    Noguchi, K; Nishimura, R; Takai, S; Arita, J; Higuchi, T; Kawakami, M


    Serum LH and FSH levels were determined before and after LH-RH injection (100 micrograms, i.m.) in patients with prostatic cancer who were chronically treated with either chlormadinone acetate (CMA, 100 mg/day) or ethynylestradiol (EE, 1 mg/day). In patients treated with EE, the levels of serum LH and FSH before and after injection of LH-RH were significantly lower than those in controls. On the other hand in patients treated with CMA, the basal levels of serum gonadotropins did not differ from those in controls, and the increase in gonadotropin after LH-RH injection was comparable to that in controls. To examine the effects of these steroids on the hypothalamo-hypophysial axis in the regulation of gonadotropin secretion, CMA or EE was implanted in castrated male rats. CMA, EE or cholesterol (control) was implanted in the hypothalamic median eminence-arcuate nucleus region through a stainless doublecannula. EE implantation resulted in a 75% decrease in serum LH (p < 0.001) and a 38% decrease in serum FSH (p < 0.05) from the control levels on day 5 of implantation. On the other hand, CMA implantation induced a 33% decrease in serum LH (p < 0.05) from the control level on day 3 of implantation, but no significant change in serum FSH levels. The injection of 2 micrograms/kg of LH-RH on day 7 of implantation induced significant lowering of LH and FSH levels. There was no significant difference between serum levels of the hormones 20 min after LH-RH injection for these two groups and those for the control group. These studies suggest that EE has a potent negative feedback effect on both LH and FSH secretion, and that CMA has a mild negative feedback effect on LH secretion.

  16. Combination of a long-acting delivery system for luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist with Novantrone chemotherapy: increased efficacy in the rat prostate cancer model.

    PubMed Central

    Schally, A V; Kook, A I; Monje, E; Redding, T W; Paz-Bouza, J I


    The combination of hormonal treatment based on a long-acting delivery system for the agonist [6-D-tryptophan]luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ([D-Trp6]-LH-RH) with the chemotherapeutic agent Novantrone (mitoxantrone dihydrochloride) was studied in the Dunning R3327H rat prostate cancer model. Microcapsules of [D-Trp6]-LH-RH formulated from poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and calculated to release a controlled dose of 25 micrograms/day were injected intramuscularly once a month. Novantrone (0.25 mg/kg) was injected intravenously once every 3 weeks. Three separate experiments were carried out. When the therapy was started 45 days after transplantation and continued for 70 days, tumor volume in the presence of the microcapsules (966 +/- 219 mm3) or Novantrone (3606 +/- 785 mm3) given alone was significantly decreased compared to controls (14,476 +/- 3045 mm3). However, the combination of microcapsules and Novantrone caused a greater inhibition of tumor growth (189 +/- 31 mm3) than the single agents. Similar effects were seen when the percent increase in tumor volume was examined. Tumor volume increased 10,527 +/- 1803% for the control group. The inhibition of growth caused by the [D-Trp6]LH-RH microcapsules alone (672 +/- 153% increase in volume) was again greater than that caused by Novantrone alone (2722 +/- 421% increase). The combination of the two agents was again the most effective, resulting in an increase in tumor volume of only 105 +/- 29%. Control tumors weighed 30.0 +/- 6.5 g. Tumor weights were much less in the groups treated with either microcapsules (3.28 +/- 0.69 g) or Novantrone (19.53 +/- 3.3 g) alone. The lowest tumor weights after 70 days of treatment were obtained in the group that received the combination of [D-Trp6]LH-RH microcapsules and Novantrone (1.02 +/- 0.2 g). Testes and ventral prostate weights were significantly diminished by the administration of microcapsules of [D-Trp6]LH-RH alone or in combination with Novantrone. In both of these

  17. Treatment of nitrosamine-induced pancreatic tumors in hamsters with analogs of somatostatin and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Paz-Bouza, J.I.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V.


    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma was induced in female Syrian golden hamsters by injecting N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) once a week at a dose of 10 mg per kg of body weight for 18 weeks. Hamsters were then treated with somatostatin analog (RC-160) or with (6-D-tryptophan)luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ((D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH) delayed delivery systems. After 18 weeks of BOP administration, the hamsters were divided into three groups of 10-20 animals each. Group I consisted of untreated controls, group II was injected with RC-160, and group III was injected with (D-Trp/sub 2/)LH-RH. A striking decrease in tumor weight and volume was obtained in animals treated with (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH or with the somatostatin analog RC-160. After 45 days of treatment with either analog, the survival rate was significantly higher in groups II and III (70%), as compared with the control group (35%). The studies, done by light microscopy, high-resolution microscopy, and electron microscopy, showed a decrease in the total number of cancer cells and changes in the epithelium, connective tissue, and cellular organelles in groups II and III treated with the hypothalamic analogs as compared to controls. These results in female hamsters with induced ductal pancreatic tumors confirm and extend the authors findings, obtained in male animals with transplanted tumors, that (D-Trp/sub 6/)LH-RH and somatostatin analogs inhibit the growth of pancreatic cancers.

  18. Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters in human placental villi.


    Zhang, C L; Cheng, L R; Wang, H; Zhuang, L Z; Huang, W Q


    The human placenta contains many kinds of bioactive substances which are more or less similar to those from the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Most of the studies were carried out mainly with term placenta. The present study, therefore, was attempted to identify, quantify and characterize these substances in the human placenta at the early pregnancy. Using the RIA, immunohistochemistry, HPLC, tissue culture and intrauterine injection methods, we have found that: (1) many kinds of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters are present in the placental villi; (2) LH-RH, NT and SRIF positive immunoreactive granules are localized in the cytotrophoblast and those of beta-EP, 5-HT positive granules in the syncytiotrophoblast; (3) synthetic LH-RH and dynorphin (Dyn) stimulate the hCG secretion of the early placental villi in vitro, and (4) the antisera of LH-RH, NT, Dyn and NE antagonist-alpha-MPT significantly reduced the number of blastocyst implantations in the early pregnant rat. These results indicate that in the human placenta there possibly exists a self-regulation mechanism for the synthesis and secretion of placental hormones and neurotransmitters. Therefore, the human placenta can be regarded as a neuroendocrine organ.

  19. Correlation study between prolactin and androgens in male patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.


    Lavalle, C; Loyo, E; Paniagua, R; Bermudez, J A; Herrera, J; Graef, A; Gonzalez-Barcena, D; Fraga, A


    The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis was studied in 8 male patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), both before and after intravenous administration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). We provide evidence herein that resting serum levels of estrone are increased and that resting serum testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels are decreased in male patients with SLE. The decreased serum T levels were observed even after the IV administration of 25 micrograms of LH-RH. The high basal serum prolactin (PRL) levels observed in these patients with SLE is a novel finding not previously reported that could explain why serum T and DHT levels are low in this syndrome. We observed a decrease in the pituitary response to LH-RH stimulation; this low response could also be a hormonal manifestation of hyperprolactinemia. Furthermore, it has been suggested that PRL plays a role in immunocompetence, and therefore it could have influence either directly or indirectly in the altered immunoregulation observed in SLE.

  20. [Effect of epidural anesthesia on the function of hormonal regulation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis].


    Nagata, A; Yoshida, H; Imamura, K; Masuda, Y; Hosoyamada, A


    To evaluate the effects of epidural anesthesia on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, we examined the concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T). The effects of epidural anesthesia on plasma levels of LH, FSH and T were investigated in 8 men aged from 64 to 87 years, suffering from untreated prostate cancer. There were no significant differences in plasma levels of LH, FSH or T between patients under epidural anesthesia and patients under no anesthesia. The effects of epidural anesthesia on plasma levels of LH, FSH and T after LH releasing hormone (LH-RH) administration were studied in 10 men between 65 and 84 years with diagnoses of untreated prostate cancer. Plasma LH and FSH levels increased significantly after LH-RH administration under epidural anesthesia or no anesthesia. Plasma LH and FSH were lower under epidural anesthesia than under no anesthesia. No change in plasma T level was observed after LH-RH administration under epidural anesthesia. We conclude that there is no effect of epidural anesthesia on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis.



    Bayunova, L V


    Sex steroids and corticol levels in Leibovitz's L-15 media samples after incubation of intact female and male sterlet (Acipenser rhutenus L.) tissue fragments and those if fishes treated with a superactive analogue of mammalian luteinising hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH-A) were compared. 17,20β,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20βS) levels were significantly higher in the media samples after incubation of ovarian follicles taken from females 5 h after treatment with LH-RH-A in comparison with 20βS levels in intact female samples. 20βS levels also increased after 1 μM progesterone (P4) adding to the media before incubation of ovarian follicles. Cortisol and testosterone levels in the media samples demonstrated the same tendency. Significant elevation of cortisol levels was observed in the blood serum samples of females 5 h after LH-RH-A treatment. The androgens (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone) levels after incubation of testicular and liver fragments were high in the media samples in males who had high serum levels of these androgens before hormonal stimulation. Sex steroids and cortisol production was stimulated by P4 adding to the media before incubation of gonad fragments. 20βS media levels increased after P4 adding before incubation of liver fragments. PMID:27220236

  2. Analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing cytotoxic groups.

    PubMed Central

    Janáky, T; Juhász, A; Bajusz, S; Csernus, V; Srkalovic, G; Bokser, L; Milovanovic, S; Redding, T W; Rékási, Z; Nagy, A


    In an attempt to produce better cytotoxic analogues, chemotherapeutic antineoplastic radicals including an alkylating nitrogen mustard derivative of D-phenylalanine (D-melphalan), reactive cyclopropane, anthraquinone derivatives [2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone and the anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin], and an antimetabolite (methotrexate) were coupled to suitably modified agonists and antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). Analogues with D-lysine6 and D-ornithine6 or N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine and N delta-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-ornithine were used as carriers for one or two cytotoxic moieties. The enhanced biological activities produced by the incorporation of D amino acids into position 6 of the agonistic analogues were further increased by the attachment of hydrophobic cytotoxic groups, resulting in compounds with 10-50 times higher activity than LH-RH. Most of the monosubstituted agonistic analogues showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of human breast cancer cells, while the receptor binding affinities of peptides containing two cytotoxic side chains were lower. Antagonistic carriers [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,D-Lys6,D-Ala10] LH-RH [where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine], [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, and their D-Pal(3)3 homologs [Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine] as well as [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Pal(3)3,Tyr5,N epsilon-(2,3-diamino-propionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH were linked to cytotoxic compounds. The hybrid molecules inhibited ovulation in rats at doses of 10 micrograms and suppressed LH release in vitro. The receptor binding of cytotoxic analogues was decreased compared to the precursor peptides, although analogues with 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone hemiglutarate had high affinities. All of the cytotoxic analogues tested inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in cultures of human breast and prostate cancer cell lines

  3. Combination of long-acting microcapsules of the D-tryptophan-6 analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone with chemotherapy: investigation in the rat prostate cancer model.

    PubMed Central

    Schally, A V; Redding, T W


    The effect of combining hormonal treatment consisting of long-acting microcapsules of the agonist [D-Trp6]LH-RH (the D-tryptophan-6 analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) with the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide was investigated in the Dunning R-3327H rat prostate cancer model. Microcapsules of [D-Trp6]LH-RH formulated from poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and calculated to release a controlled dose of 25 micrograms/day were injected intramuscularly once a month. Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) (5 mg/kg of body weight) was injected intraperitoneally twice a week. When the therapy was started 90 days after tumor transplantation--at the time that the cancers were well developed-and was continued for 2 months, tumor volume was significantly reduced by the microcapsules or Cytoxan given alone. The combination of these two agents similarly inhibited tumor growth but did not show a synergistic effect. In another study, the treatment was started 2 months after transplantation, when the developing tumors measured 60-70 mm3. Throughout the treatment period of 100 days, the microcapsules of [D-Trp6]LH-RH reduced tumor volume more than Cytoxan did, and the combination of the two drugs appeared to completely arrest tumor growth. Tumor weights also were diminished significantly in all experimental groups, the decrease in weight being smaller in the Cytoxan-treated group than in rats that received the microcapsules. The combination of Cytoxan plus the microcapsules was 10-100 times more effective than the single agents in reducing tumor weights. In both experiments, testes and ventral prostate weights were significantly diminished, serum testosterone was suppressed to undetectable levels, and prolactin values were reduced by administration of microcapsules of [D-Trp6]LH-RH alone or in combination with Cytoxan. These results in rats suggest that combined administration of long acting microcapsules of [D-Trp6]LH-RH with a chemotherapeutic agent, started soon after the

  4. Effect of portacaval anastomosis and chronic underfeeding on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the rat.


    Milligan, S R; Sarna, G S


    Portacaval anastomosis (PCA) in the rat may be a useful experimental model for examining endocrine changes that occur during cirrhosis of the liver. A marked reduction in diet intake and body weight occurs in rats after establishing the shunt and studies were undertaken to determine the relationship of these effects to the testicular atrophy that also follows PCA. Control, sham-operated animals, experiencing a reduction in food intake similar to that of the animals with a PCA, showed reduced plasma levels of LH and testosterone but also exhibited a marked testicular response to LH. This was consistent with increased sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to the negative feedback of gonadal steroids in chronically underfed animals. Male rats with a PCA exhibited similarly reduced levels of LH and testosterone, but showed poor secretory responses of the pituitary gland to LH releasing hormone (LH-RH) and of the testis to LH. Testicular atrophy and cessation of spermatogenesis occurred in the animals with a PCA. These results suggested that the effects of PCA on the pituitary-gonadal axis cannot simply be explained as a consequence of the restricted intake of diet. This was confirmed by the responses to castration. In both fed and underfed sham-operated rats, castration resulted in a rapid and sustained increase in plasma LH and both groups showed a marked LH secretory response to LH-RH. In contrast, in animals with a PCA castration had little effect on plasma LH and the pituitary response to LH-RH was still poor. The effects of PCA cannot be simply explained by impeded metabolism of gonadal steroids causing increased negative feedback on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

  5. Hypothalamic-pituitary function in myotonic dystrophy.


    Mahler, C; Parizel, G


    Function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis was investigated in seven patients with myotonic dystrophy (MD). HGH and ACTH secretion were normal. TSH response to TRH was impaired in about half the cases, without concomitant thyroid dysfunction. LH and FSH levels were often elevated, with inconsistent response to LH-RH stimulation, Gonadotrophin disturbances in MD have previously been attributed to a primary gonadal lesion, characteristically seen in this disease. High prolactin levels in six of our seven patients however suggest that gonadal failure may be also be due to hyperprolactinemia through the direct anti-gonadal effect of prolactin and its interference with hypothalamic-pituitary regulation of gonadotrophin secretion.

  6. Melatonin and pituitary-gonadal function in disorders of eating behavior.


    Ferrari, E; Foppa, S; Bossolo, P A; Comis, S; Esposti, G; Licini, V; Fraschini, F; Brambilla, F


    In order to study the possible relationships between melatonin secretion and pituitary-gonadal function, the circadian rhythm of plasma melatonin, the basal levels of estradiol-17beta and testosterone and the luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) response to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) stimulation were evaluated in normally cycling healthy women and in two groups of women with menstrual dysfunctions related to eating disorders (19 patients with anorexia nervosa and 16 with primary obesity). The circadian rhythm of plasma melatonin reached statistical significance in anorectic patients but not in obese patients. The mean 24 h melatonin level was significantly higher in anorectic than in obese patients and in control subjects. However, both groups of patients shared some abnormalities of melatonin circadian pattern, such as increased ratio between day and night melatonin levels, abnormal secretory peaks during the light hours and great interindividual variability for timing, amplitude, and duration of melatonin nocturnal peak. A selective impairment of LH secretion was observed in both anorectic and obese patients. By considering together the two groups of patients and controls, a linear inverse correlation between the circadian mesor of plasma melatonin and the basal and LH-RH stimulated LH levels was found. The persistence of a certain melatonin secretion during the light hours in both anorectic and obese patients could play an inhibitory role on the pituitary gonadal function in these subjects.

  7. Efficacy of Immediate Switching from Bicalutamide to Flutamide as Second-Line Combined Androgen Blockade.


    Yokomizo, Yumiko; Kawahara, Takashi; Miyoshi, Yasuhide; Otani, Masako; Yamanaka, Shoji; Teranishi, Jun-Ichi; Noguchi, Kazumi; Yao, Masahiro; Uemura, Hiroji


    We determined whether prostate specific antigen (PSA) would decrease with immediate antiandrogen switching from bicalutamide (BCL) to flutamide (FLT) in patients receiving combined androgen blockade for advanced prostate cancer. From 2002 to 2006, 20 patients who showed PSA failure after first-line hormonal therapy with a luteinizing hormone-release hormone (LH-RH) agonist and BCL were enrolled. All patients were immediately switched from BCL to FLT, administered with an LH-RH agonist, as second-line combined androgen blockade (CAB). We evaluated the PSA response to second-line CAB. Eight patients (40%) were responsive, showing PSA decreases of at least 50%. The median (range) duration of the PSA response was 18.4 (3-26) months. Second-line CAB using FLT was effective in 40% of patients who received first-line CAB using BCL. The lower Gleason scores at the initial prostate biopsy probably reflect the response to second-line CAB. Responders showed significantly better OS and CSS in the determination of any PSA decline and 40% PSA decline. The median OS duration in nonresponders and responders (40% PSA decline) was 1433 days versus 3617 days. It is concluded that an immediate switch from BCL to FLT is effective for some CRPC patients after first-line CAB using BCL. PMID:27493956

  8. [GnRH antagonists and benign prostatic hyperplasia].


    Comaru-Schally, d'Ana Maria


    Early treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) helps to decrease the need for surgery and thus places the medical treatment at the forefront which implies, optimising its efficacy and tolerance. Alpha-blockers and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors are the two main classes of currently used drugs. The role in the growth of glandular, muscular and fibroblastic tissues of the prostate of androgens, testosterone and especially intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone was properly established. These physiopathological data prompted to evaluate the efficacy of inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, by means of LH-RH analogues. The agonists lead to a biological castration associated with a significant improvement of BPH symptoms. Unfortunately clinical relapse is systematic when treatment is discontinued. The antagonists, particulary cetrorelix, improve BPH symptoms, with a persistant benefit after treatment, discontinuation, although the effect on the prostate volume reduction is transitory. It can be suggested that beside the well known hormonal action, there is a direct apoptic effect cells as well as inhibition of the intratissue growth factors. The LH-RH antagonists could thus become an alternative to the current drugs by offering a relatively short treatment with a prolonged benefit.

  9. Tests of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis.


    Shaw, R W


    The availability of RIA to measure the pituitary gonadotropins and ovarian sex steroids has greatly helped in the development of tests of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian function. The use of estimates of basal gonadotrophin and sex steroid hormones together with dynamic tests such as the LH-RH test, oestrogen provocation test, clomiphene tests and exogenous gonadotrophins can now test the integrity and functional capacity of each of the components of the HPO axis. Figure 4 demonstrates how these tests can be used in a logical sequence to investigate patients with a disorder of the HPO axis after having first excluded any other endocrine abnormality. Screening of serum for elevated levels of gonadotrophins, prolactin and progesterone is an important initial step. Interpretation of the oestrogen provocation and clomiphene tests requires a normally functioning pituitary gland and hence the response to an LH-RH test also plays a ket role. The flow chart also demonstrates the points at which specific ovulation induction treatment can be instituted and should be useful in saving patient and doctor investigative time. Using these types of tests it should be possible to reclassify disorders of the HPO axis on the basis of their underlying pathology.

  10. Precocious puberty in children with neurofibromatosis type 1.


    Habiby, R; Silverman, B; Listernick, R; Charrow, J


    We undertook a comprehensive study of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) cared for in a large multidisciplinary clinic to determine the prevalence of precocious puberty and its relationship to optic pathway tumors (OPTs). Precocious puberty was diagnosed in 7 of 219 children with NF-1 (5 boys and 2 girls) examined between Jan. 1, 1985, and April 20, 1993. All seven children had OPTs involving the optic chiasm; they represented 39% of children with NF-1 and chiasmal tumors (95% confidence interval, 17% to 64%). Eleven prepubertal children (aged 2 to 10 years) with NF-1 and OPTs, and age- and sex-matched NF-1 control subjects without OPTs, underwent luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) stimulation tests. Two boys with OPTs had pubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) responses, and testosterone levels > 10 ng/dl. Basal LH levels were also elevated in these two boys when tested with a very sensitive immunochemiluminometric assay. None of the children without an OPT had either a pubertal response to LH-RH or an elevated basal LH level. We conclude that precocious puberty in children with NF-1 is found exclusively in those who have OPTs involving the optic chiasm; it is a common complication in those children. With the use of a highly sensitive LH assay, biochemical evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis activation may be demonstrated, even without provocative testing.

  11. [Pubertas praecox in McCune-Albright syndrome--case report and review of the literature].


    Stier, B; Ranke, M B


    A patient is presented with the syndrome of polyostatic fibrous dysplasia and precocious puberty (PP). The endocrinopathy in McCune-Albright-syndrome (MAS) has formerly been ascribed to a central (hypothalamic) origin. In this patient the PP was caused by a luteinized follicular cyst, suggesting autonomous hyperfunction of this gland. High serum estradiol levels returned to normal after cystectomie. The review of the literature suggests the peripheral origin of PP to be more frequent in younger age groups (under 6 years). It appears possible that peripheral hypersecretion of sexual steroids may cause a rise of gonadotropins secondarily followed by true PP in older children provided such longstanding hypersecretion leads to a generalized maturation of the body including skeletal maturation. Treatment in pseudoprecocious puberty seems to be not effective with LH-RH-analogues. Cyproteroneacetate alone or in combination with a LH-RH analogue gave the impression of being more successful. Cystectomy can lead to a cure but a recurrence of ovarian cysts is possible. A combination of surgical and drug therapy may be beneficial under these circumstances. Until now there is no sufficient treatment for polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. PMID:3316827

  12. Use of luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist (leuprorelin) in advanced post-menopausal breast cancer: clinical and endocrine effects.

    PubMed Central

    Crighton, I. L.; Dowsett, M.; Lal, A.; Man, A.; Smith, I. E.


    Fifteen post-menopausal patients with advanced breast cancer were treated with the LH-RH agonist leuprorelin (D-leu6-des-gly10-Gn-RH-ethylamide) given in a dosage of 7.5 mg as a monthly subcutaneous depot injection, to assess the clinical activity and endocrine response to treatment. None of the 15 patients showed an objective response to treatment, although four patients had stable disease for at least 6 months. No toxicity was demonstrated. Endocrine effects after 4 weeks' treatment were as follows: mean levels of serum gonadotrophins fell to 10% of their pretreatment values; there were no significant changes in the levels of prolactin on treatment; there was a significant decrease in the levels of serum testosterone in 12 out of 14 patients; there were no significant changes in the levels of oestradiol, androstenedione and oestrone. The lowering of serum testosterone suggests that androgens in post-menopausal women may be partly produced by the ovaries, stimulated by LH and FSH. This fall in testosterone may explain why some post-menopausal breast cancer patients in other studies have been reported to respond to treatment with LH-RH agonists, as it would decrease the substrate for the peripheral synthesis of oestrogens. PMID:2508735

  13. Decrease in the AgNOR number in Dunning R3327 prostate cancers after treatment with an agonist and antagonist of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Szepeshazi, K.; Korkut, E.; Schally, A. V.


    The argyrophilic staining of the nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) in cells of Dunning R3327 rat prostate tumors was studied and the effect of hormonal treatments on their appearance was analyzed. The nuclei of the control tumor cells contained 4.1 +/- 0.17 AgNOR granules. Treatment of rats for 8 weeks with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist (D-Trp-6-LH-RH) and antagonist SB-75 induced a marked inhibition of tumor growth and decreased significantly (P less than 0.01) the number of Ag-NORs in the tumors to 2.89 +/- 0.10 AgNOR granules/cell in the group given the agonist and to 2.82 +/- 0.10 after therapy with the highest dose of the antagonist. A reduced AgNOR number (3.14 +/- 0.16) also was found after 3 days of treatment with SB-75 (P less than 0.05), but the AgNORs returned to near control values 1 week after the short-term therapy, showing the reversibility of these changes. These results suggest that the AgNOR method, which was widely tested on human tumors in the past few years, can be a valuable technique in experimental tumor pathology and useful in the evaluation of the effects of various treatments. Images Figure 1 PMID:1827237

  14. Efficacy of Immediate Switching from Bicalutamide to Flutamide as Second-Line Combined Androgen Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Yokomizo, Yumiko; Kawahara, Takashi; Miyoshi, Yasuhide; Otani, Masako; Yamanaka, Shoji; Teranishi, Jun-ichi; Noguchi, Kazumi; Yao, Masahiro


    We determined whether prostate specific antigen (PSA) would decrease with immediate antiandrogen switching from bicalutamide (BCL) to flutamide (FLT) in patients receiving combined androgen blockade for advanced prostate cancer. From 2002 to 2006, 20 patients who showed PSA failure after first-line hormonal therapy with a luteinizing hormone-release hormone (LH-RH) agonist and BCL were enrolled. All patients were immediately switched from BCL to FLT, administered with an LH-RH agonist, as second-line combined androgen blockade (CAB). We evaluated the PSA response to second-line CAB. Eight patients (40%) were responsive, showing PSA decreases of at least 50%. The median (range) duration of the PSA response was 18.4 (3–26) months. Second-line CAB using FLT was effective in 40% of patients who received first-line CAB using BCL. The lower Gleason scores at the initial prostate biopsy probably reflect the response to second-line CAB. Responders showed significantly better OS and CSS in the determination of any PSA decline and 40% PSA decline. The median OS duration in nonresponders and responders (40% PSA decline) was 1433 days versus 3617 days. It is concluded that an immediate switch from BCL to FLT is effective for some CRPC patients after first-line CAB using BCL. PMID:27493956

  15. Endocrine evaluation in a patient with MURCS association and ovarian agenesis.


    Mendez, J P; Ulloa-Aguirre, A; Sánchez, F J; Mutchinick, O; Pérez-Palacios, G


    A new case of Mullerian duct aplasia, renal aplasia, and cervicothoracic somite dysplasia (MURCS association) in a 16-yr-old female patient is reported. In addition, agenesis of the right ovary plus hypoplasia of the right craniofacial bones were also present. Dynamic tests of anterior pituitary reserve (LH-RH, TRH and hypoglycemia) showed normal responsiveness of this gland in terms of LH, FSH, TSH, prolactin and growth hormone secretion, whilst a subnormal plasma cortisol response to hypoglycemia and exogenous ACTH (in the presence of unilateral adrenal agenesis) was found. Functional integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis was also documented. The presence of two additional and previously unreported congenital anomalies in this patient with MURCS association underlines the wide spectrum of the syndrome.

  16. [Abnormal hypothalamic-hypophyseal regulation as a new endocrine sign in the testicular feminisation syndrome (author's transl)].


    Tharandt, L; Langrock, J; Zäh, W; Hackenberg, K; Reinwein, D


    In a 38-year-old woman with the testicular feminisation syndrome (TFS) there were increased serum levels of LH and FSH, despite normal testosterone levels, ranging from 808 to 1330 ng/dl. The patient exhibited complete end-organ resistance to androgens, as well as decreased free testosterone fraction of 1.5 percent. On stimulation with LH-RH there was enhanced LH reaction to 15 ng/ml, while FSH levels remained unchanged. Fluoxymesterone did not suppress LH and testosterone, as it did in normal controls. But the functional Leydig-cell reserve could be normally stimulated with HCG. Our results apparently confirm the suspected reduction in sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to androgens and suggest that this plays an important part in the pathogenesis of TES.

  17. Specialized ependymal ridges in the cerebral aqueduct of the rat.


    Welsh, M G; Beitz, A J


    Novel paired ependymal ridges (EPRS) have been identified in the ventrolateral wall of the cerebral aqueduct of the rat. Scanning electron microscopic techniques revealed that the dorsolateral and ventromedial ridges differ from each other in surface morphology. Using the PAP immunohistochemical technique, the EPRS demonstrate a dense innervation of both serotonin and LH-RH fibers when compared to the surrounding midbrain periaqueductal gray and the "non-ridge" ependyma of the aqueduct. Each ridge is composed of a single layer of ependymal cells with a central core of subependymal cells and numerous blood vessels. Ependymal cells resembling tanycytes extend between the lumen of the aqueduct and the subependymal capillaries. It is suggested that the EPRS may serve as sites for the release of neurochemicals into the cerebrospinal fluid.

  18. [Effect of proton irradiation of the hypophysis on its gonadotropic and thyrotropic functions in patients with prolactinoma].


    Isakov, A V; Konnov, B A; Potin, V V; Svechnikova, F A; Tkachenko, N N


    In order to study the effect of proton beam irradiation on prolactinoma cells and hypophyseal intact cells tests with i.v. administration of TRH (200 micrograms) and LH-RH (100 micrograms) were performed in 16 women with prolactin-secreting adenomas before and in 2 mos.-2 years after irradiation of the pituitary body with a high energy narrow proton beam (1000 MeV) at a dose of 40-120 Gy. A curative therapeutic effect of proton therapy which was low with respect to reproductive function recovery, was combined with lowered functional reserves of hypophyseal thyrotrophs and gonadotrophs. The informative value of the tests with the releasing hormones was shown for the determination of damage of hypophyseal intact cells. The results suggest refractivity of adenomatous lactotrophs to radiation exposure and the hypothalamic level of disorder of ovarian function regulation in this pathology.

  19. Nanomedicine and its applications to the treatment of prostate cancer.


    Ouvinha de Oliveira, R; de Santa Maria, L C; Barratt, G


    In recent years, nanotechnology has been the focus of considerable attention in medicine due to the facility with which nanostructures interact with the body at the molecular scale. New therapies in cancer research using nanomedicine are being developed in order to improve the specificity and efficacy of drug delivery, thus reaching maximal effectiveness with minimal side effects. This literature review presents cases of prostate cancer in antiquity as well as the first modern reports before discussing how nanotechnology can contribute to the management of this disease. Three major nanoparticle-based platforms are described: liposomal, polymeric and metallic. Published results, including therapies in current clinical trials, are discussed. In addition, several formulations of microparticles containing LH-RH analogues approved by the authorities are listed in this document. A critical analysis of the health and environmental impact is made to highlight the need for precise control of the utilization of nanomaterials.

  20. Effects of carbamazepine on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in male patients with epilepsy: a prospective study.


    Isojärvi, J I; Pakarinen, A J; Myllylä, V V


    The effects of carbamazepine (CBZ) monotherapy on serum sex hormone levels and on pituitary responsiveness to various stimuli were evaluated in a prospective study with 21 male patients with epilepsy. The serum levels of testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin (PRL), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were assayed, and the free androgen index (FAI) values were calculated for each patient before and after 2-month CBZ treatment. The pituitary PRL, LH, and FSH responses to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), and metoclopramide (MC) were also measured before and after CBZ treatment. The baseline serum hormone and SHBG levels were measured and the FAI values calculated in 16 healthy male control subjects of similar age. The mean E2 level was higher in patients before CBZ treatment than in control subjects, and untreated patients had greater variances for FAI values, PRL levels, and LH levels than control subjects. No other significant differences were found between untreated patients and control subjects. The FAI values and DHEAS levels of patients decreased during 2-month treatment with CBZ. The PRL response to MC was higher after CBZ treatment than before. The baseline levels of other hormones and SHBG, as well as the LH and FSH responses to LH-RH, remained unaltered. The results indicate that during the first 2 months of CBZ treatment the androgen balance in male epileptic patients changes: Serum DHEAS levels and FAI values decrease, although FT levels remain unchanged. The clinical relevance of these hormonal changes is obscure.

  1. Modulation of ovarian function in female dogs immunized with bovine luteinizing hormone receptor.


    Saxena, B B; Clavio, A; Singh, M; Rathnam, P; Bukharovich, Y; Reimers, T; Saxena, A; Perkins, Scott


    Adult female dogs were immunized with 0.5 mg bovine luteinizing hormone receptor (LH-R) encapsulated in a silastic subdermal implant and subsequently with four intramuscular booster injections of 0.1 mg LH-R each. Circulating LH-R antibody was detected in the sera 3 weeks post-implant. The appearance of LH-R antibody was associated with a decline in the serum progesterone concentrations to a range of 0-0.5 ng/ml until day 365 in the immunized dogs in comparison with a range of 5-10 ng in the control animals, suggesting a lack of ovulation and corpus luteum function in immunized dogs. The immunized dogs did not show signs of 'standing heat' and failed to ovulate when induced by LH-RH challenge. Serum oestradiol levels, however, remained in the range of 30-40 pg/ml in both the immunized and the control dogs. With the decline in the antibody titres, the hormonal profile and vaginal cytology returned to a fertile state and the dogs exhibited signs of 'standing heat', as well as vaginal bleeding. Dogs immunized with LH-R did not show any serious metabolic, local or systemic adverse effects. The hypothalamic--pituitary gonadal axis remained intact as indicated by little difference in pituitary LH levels between control and immunized animals, and by the release of LH by LH-RH challenge. These studies demonstrate that active immunization of female dogs with LH-R could immunomodulate ovarian function to cause a reversible state of infertility. It may be postulated that, due to extensive interspecies homology, a recombinant LH receptor-based immunocontraceptive vaccine may also be effective in other vertebrates.

  2. Effects of repeated ether stress on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testes axis in adult rats with special reference to inhibin secretion.


    Tohei, A; Tomabechi, T; Mamada, M; Akai, M; Watanabe, G; Taya, K


    Effects of ether stress on the hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis in adult male rats were examined. To clarify the role of adrenal glucocorticoids in gonadal function, the effects of adrenalectomy and Dexamethasone treatment were also investigated. Ether stress increased the plasma concentrations of ACTH and corticosterone, but decreased the plasma concentrations of LH, FSH, inhibin and testosterone. The pituitary responsiveness to LH-RH for LH release and testicular responsiveness to the endogenous LH for testosterone release were maintained in stressed rats. Adrenalectomy caused an increase in the plasma concentrations of ACTH, but decreased the plasma concentrations of LH, FSH and testosterone. Dexamethasone treatment in adrenalectomized rats recovered the levels of plasma gonadotropins to control levels. The concentration of plasma inhibin did not change in adrenalectomized rats, but it was decreased compared to control rats by Dexamethasone treatment. Treatments of Dexamethasone in intact male rats resulted in a decline in plasma levels of testosterone and inhibin without a decrease in the levels of LH and FSH, indicating the direct effect of Dexamethasone on the testes. These results indicate that increased ACTH secretion in stressed rats is probably due to hypersecretion of CRH from the hypothalamus, which suppresses gonadotropin secretion via the inhibition of LH-RH. The decreased levels of testosterone may be caused by a stress-induced decrease in plasma LH concentrations and increased secretion of corticosterone in the ether stressed rats. The low levels of plasma inhibin in stressed rats was also probably due to the direct effect of corticosterone on the Sertoli cells.

  3. [Bio- and immunoactive luteinizing hormone in negative feedback action of gonadal steroids].


    Takahashi, A


    To clarify the possible intervention of gonadal steroids on the secretion of bioactive LH from the pituitary, the levels of plasma LH were measured by in vitro bioassay as well as radioimmunoassay, and their changes in specific endocrine conditions were investigated. The ratio of bioactivity to immunoactivity (B/I ratio) of LH in patients with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and in postmenopausal women was significantly greater than that in women during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and estradiol levels in the former groups were significantly lower than those of the latter group. In cases of gonadotropin-secreting pituitary tumor with high LH and normal estradiol levels, B/I ratio was found at a level similar to that during the follicular phase. The administration of combined pills decreased the high B/I ratio of oophorectomized women to levels comparable to those in the normal follicular phase. Although bioactive LH responded in all groups to LH-RH with a similar pattern to that observed with immunoactive LH with a peak value 15 approximately 30 min. after the stimulation, followed by a gradual decrease thereafter, the B/I ratio of women during the follicular phase was the lowest at 15 min. and returned up to the initial value within 60 min. after the injection of LH-RH. In contrast, this drop of the B/I ratio did not occur in 7 out of 15 cases composed either of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism or postmenopausal women. The peak values of LH in patients without decrease in B/I ratios were higher than those of women showing decreased B/I ratios. In addition, circulating levels of gonadotropin alpha-subunit did not affect the B/I ratio. These results suggest that circulating levels of gonadal steroids regulate the secretion and synthesis of LH quantitatively as well as qualitatively.

  4. Multicolored two-photon fluorescent microscopy and localized two-photon fluorescent spectroscopy in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergey, Earl J.; Wang, Xiaopeng; Krebs, Linda J.; Pudavar, Haridas E.; Kapoor, Rakesh; Friend, Christopher S.; Liebow, Charles; Prasad, Paras N.


    Imaging in biological systems has become one of the most relied upon tools in the study of human disease. Two-photon excitation methodology in laser scanning microscopy has resulted in 3D-imaging capability not easily achieved in one- photon systems. Our Institute, in conjunction with Andrew Schally (Noble Laureate, Tulane University), has used two- photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) to understand the real time cellular transport of the chemotherapeutic agent, Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone-Doxorubicin (AN152) covalently coupled to a novel two-photon fluorophore (C625). At the Institute, new and highly efficient two-photon fluorophores that fluoresce at different wavelengths have been developed. The coupling of LH-RH and AN152 with two-photon fluorophores having different spectroscopic profiles allows for the simultaneous determination of their cellular compartmentalization. Coupled with the two-photon microspectrofluorometer, we acquired localized fluorescence spectra from the inside of living cells to differentiate the cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of the LH-RH and AN152 respectively. The ability of these new dyes to fluoresce at different wavelengths using the same excitation wavelength provides a major advantage over single photon dyes. This technology has great promise in imaging the dynamic changes or events occurring in living cells over short periods of time. Another approach to bioimaging at the Institute is the integration of two-photon and nanosized technologies. Nanoclinics (20 - 30 nm silica bubbles) can be fabricated to contain these two photon fluorophores and the surface functionalized with biological agents which can target specific cells. These highly fluorescent nanoclinics are sufficiently small in size to allow for tissue penetration, allowing for the multiple probing for different cellular functions in normal and cancerous tissues.

  5. Disruption of the rainbow trout reproductive endocrine axis by the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene.


    Kennedy, Christopher J; Smyth, Kevin R


    Successful reproduction in salmonids depends on a complex and highly regulated interplay between the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of naturally circulating sex steroids. The effects of a single intraperitoneal administration of the model PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) on the kinetics of circulating levels of estradiol and testosterone through 7d post-injection in mature male and female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in pre-spawning and spawning condition were investigated. Detailed measurements of the time course of injected E2 and excretion into the bile followed by pharmacokinetic modeling techniques were used to aid in identifying the potential mechanism of ED caused by B[a]P exposure. Plasma E2 and T concentrations were reduced significantly in both male and female trout. Administration of the GnRH analogue des-Gly(10)[D-Ala(6)]LH-RH-ethylamide, to induce spawning steroid profiles increased plasma E2 concentrations in control females, but not in B[a]P-treated fish. The mechanism underlying reductions in sex steroids in pre-spawning and spawning salmonids appears to be unrelated to the induction of P450 and related biotransformation enzymes by B[a]P. Induced biotransformation enzyme activities did not result in altered [(3)H]estradiol pharmacokinetics (e.g. terminal half-life) or elimination of steroid in bile, suggesting that B[a]P alters plasma E2 and T concentrations by other ED mechanisms in an anti-estrogenic manner.

  6. Effects of exogenous and endogenous opiates on the hypothalamic--pituitary--gonadal axis in the male.


    Cicero, T J


    Narcotics acutely depress serum testosterone levels in the male. Three mechanisms could be involved: an enhancement of the degradation of testosterone; a direct inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis; or, finally, an inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-luteinizing hormone (LH) axis resulting in a reduction in LH-dependent testicular steroidogenesis. The currently available evidence indicates that narcotics do not affect the catabolism of testosterone by the liver or testicular steroidogenesis. Rather, the data favor a direct action on the hypothalamic--pituitary--LH axis, probably by inhibiting the secretion of LH-releasing hormone (LH-RH) from the hypothalamus. The effects of narcotics on serum LH appear to be mediated via specific opioid receptors, suggesting that a naturally occurring opioid-like substance exists that normally inhibits LH. In support of this conclusion, opiate receptor blockers markedly increase serum LH levels shortly after their subcutaneous administration. In addition, endogenous opioids also seem to participate in testosterone's negative feedback control of the hypothalamic--pituitary--LH axis. Thus, it appears that opiate drugs inhibit the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by occupying opiate receptors in the hypothalamus and, moreover, that endogenous opioids exist that normally bind to these receptors and regulate activity in this axis.

  7. Hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis in uremic women.


    Swamy, A P; Woolf, P D; Cestero, R V


    Menstrual abnormalities are common with decreasing renal function and uremia. Maintenance hemodialysis therapy partially corrects some of the abnormalities. Since the pathophysiology of the menstural irregularities is unknown, the secretion of LH, FSH, estrogen, and PRL was studied under basal conditions and after provocative testing in 13 women undergoing chronic maintenance hemodialysis. Elevated LH concentrations were found in all six premenopausal (44.1 +/- 26.4 mlU/ml, normal follicular phase 4 to 30) and seven postmenopausal (246.1 +/- 171.4 mlU/ml, normal 35 to 200) women studied. FSH values were normal both in the premenopausal women (7.9 +/- 4.1 mlU/ml, normal 2 to 20) and in postmenopausal women (88.0 +/- 69.0 mlU/ml, normal 40 to 200). FSH and LH levels did not show typical ovulatory spikes in three of four women studied. Pulsatile hormonal release was absent. The pituitary response to LH-RH was adequate and prolonged, but the response to clomiphene citrate was variable. The study documents the existence of abnormalities at various levels of the hypothalamic-putuitary-ovarian axis.

  8. [Mechanism of inhibition of hypothalamic pituitary-ovarian function in streptozotocin-diabetic mature female rats].


    Taniguchi, Y; Hasegawa, Y; Igarashi, M


    In order to clarify the mechanism of the failure of reproductive function in diabetic rats, the hypothalamic pituitary-ovarian function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mature female rats was investigated. Estrous cycle patterns were disturbed in diabetic rats and these rats showed constant diestrus. In diabetic rats no preovulatory LH or FSH-surge were observed on presumed proestrus, and the number of ovulated ova and the weights of ovary and uterus were significantly less than those seen in control rats on presumed estrus. The response of the pituitary gland to LH-RH in diabetic rats and diabetic castrated rats was not significantly different from that in control rats on diestrous day and castrated control rats, respectively. However, the response of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to steroidal feedback in diabetic castrated rats was significantly less than that in castrated control rats. The number of ovulated ova and ovarian growth induced by hCG in diabetic rats were also significantly lower than those in control rats. These results indicate that the impaired site in streptozotocin diabetic rats is not the pituitary gland, but the ovary and hypothalamic-pituitary function.

  9. Cryptorchidism: isolated and associated with other genitourinary defects.


    Elder, J S


    Cryptorchidism is the most common disorder of sexual differentiation in male children, with an incidence of 3.4 per cent in the term newborn, decreasing to 0.8 per cent at 1 year of age. The mechanisms of normal testicular descent are multifactorial and include an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, as well as a normal gubernaculum and epididymis. In boys with cryptorchidism, the testes demonstrate degenerative changes histologically as early as 1 to 2 years of age. Both testes may be affected, even with a unilateral undescended testis. The most important long-term complications of cryptorchidism include infertility and testicular cancer. The risk of malignancy is approximately 40 times higher in male subjects with cryptorchidism than in normal men, and is highest in male subjects who have had an intra-abdominal testis and in certain intersex conditions. Orchiopexy does not appear to lessen this risk. Hormonal therapy with HCG or LH-RH has remained unproven in clinical trials in the United States; therefore, orchiopexy remains standard treatment. HCG is recommended if the clinician suspects that a testis is retractile, however. Orchiopexy should be performed between 12 and 18 months of age to prevent the degenerative changes that are demonstrable by 2 years.

  10. Further studies on hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular function in old rats.


    Pirke, K M; Krings, B; Vogt, H J


    The dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in old age was studied in 24-month old male Wistar rats which were compared with 3-month old animals. The hypothalamic LH-RH content and the pituitary LH were significantly lower in the old than in the young adult animals. The plasma concentrations of LH and testosterone were significantly higher in the young rats. The primary cause of these age-dependent changes probably is a hypothalamic dysfunction. When isolated Leydig cells of young and old rats were incubated in vitro, the testosterone secretion per cell was significantly smaller in old than in young cells with as well as without HCG stimulation. In vivo stimulation of rats by iv injection of biologically active iodinated hCG revealed that the intratesticular uptake of the gonadotrophin was not different in young and old rats. The testosterone response, however, was significantly reduced in old age. An in vitro "desensitisation" experiment in which the LH receptor capacity was artificially reduced demonstrated that the 40% reduction of receptor capacity in old testes as described earlier will not impair the testicular uptake of gonadotrophin from blood. Repeated injection of hCG results in equally elevated testosterone concentrations in young and old rats.

  11. [ Study of prolactin and blood gonadotropins in amenorrheas-galactorrhea. Dynamic exploation in 13 cases].


    Schaison, G; Nathan, C; L'Hermite, M; Gilbert-Dreyfus


    A study of the secretion of prolactin and plasma gonadotrophins was carried out comparatively in 3 groups of patients: histologically confirmed prolactin adenoma (group 1), idiopathic or iatrogenic amenorrhoea/galactorrhoea syndrome (group 2), empty sella turcica syndrome (group 3). The last group differs fundamentally from the two previous by the presence of a normal basal LH and FSH levels and normal LH-RH stimulation. Prolactin is not increased. It may be suppressed by L-dopa and stimulated by TRH. There exist no differences, apart from neuroradiological criteria, between the other two groups. The level of LH is slightly decreased but the response to LRH is positive, this effect often being more clear on FSH. Prolactin levels are raised, this no doubt explaining the negative response to TRH and chlorpromazine stimulation. Suppression by L-dopa is positiive, reflecting the absence of autonomy of prolactin adenomata. The water load test is unsatisfactory. There exists at the present time no method sufficiently discriminating to exclude the presence of a tumour at the origin of an amenorrhoea-galactorrhoea syndrome.

  12. [A phase II pharmacological study of leuprolide acetate 6-month depot, TAP-144-SR (6M), in treatment-Nazve patients with prostatic cancer who received a single subcutaneous or intramuscular injection].


    Komura, Emiko; Fujimoto, Tsukasa; Takabayashi, Nobuyoshi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Akaza, Hideyuki


    The aim of this phase II study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of a 6- month depot formulation of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist, TAP-144-SR (6M), in Japanese treatment-naÏve patients with prostatic cancer. Each subject received a single subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of TAP- 144-SR (6M) and was monitored for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in serum testosterone levels. The serum testosterone level in six subjects who received 22.5 mg of TAP-144 (SR) subcutaneously decreased below the castrate level after 4 weeks and remained suppressed during the 24 weeks of follow-up. With regard to safety, TAP-144-SR (6M)was not associated with any additional concerns compared to those reported for the approved 1-month and 3-month depot formulations of TAP-144-SR. In addition, 30 mg of TAP-144-SR (6M) was administered subcutaneously to six subjects, and, on the basis of the results, the optimal clinical dosage of TAP-144-SR (6M) in Japan was considered to be 22.5 mg. Outcomes with 22.5mg TAP-144-SR (6M) administered intramuscularly were similar to those with TAP-144-SR (6M) administered subcutaneously.

  13. Interhemispheric communication influences reading behavior.


    Van der Haegen, Lise; Cai, Qing; Stevens, Michaël A; Brysbaert, Marc


    We can read words at an amazing speed, with the left hemisphere taking the burden of the processing in most readers (i.e., over 95% of right-handers and about 75% of left-handers). Yet, it is a long-standing question whether word reading in central vision is possible without information transfer between the left and right hemispheres (LH/RH). Here we show that such communication is required by comparing word naming latencies and eye movement data of people with LH language dominance and a unique sample of healthy RH dominant people. The results reveal that individuals with LH speech dominance name words faster when they are allowed to fixate at the word beginning, whereas RH dominants are faster for fixations toward the end. In text reading, the eyes of LH dominants land more to the left than the eyes of RH dominants, making more information directly available to the dominant hemisphere. We conclude that the traditional view of bilateral projections in central vision is incorrect. In contrast, interhemispheric communication is needed in central vision, and eye movements are adjusted to optimize information uptake. Our findings therefore call into question the explanation of macular sparing in hemianopia based on a bilaterally projecting fovea. In addition, these results are in line with the increase of white matter in the splenium of the corpus callosum when people learn to read. PMID:23647517

  14. Recursive approach of EEG-segment-based principal component analysis substantially reduces cryogenic pump artifacts in simultaneous EEG-fMRI data.


    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Lee, Jong-Hwan


    Electroencephalography (EEG) data simultaneously acquired with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data are preprocessed to remove gradient artifacts (GAs) and ballistocardiographic artifacts (BCAs). Nonetheless, these data, especially in the gamma frequency range, can be contaminated by residual artifacts produced by mechanical vibrations in the MRI system, in particular the cryogenic pump that compresses and transports the helium that chills the magnet (the helium-pump). However, few options are available for the removal of helium-pump artifacts. In this study, we propose a recursive approach of EEG-segment-based principal component analysis (rsPCA) that enables the removal of these helium-pump artifacts. Using the rsPCA method, feature vectors representing helium-pump artifacts were successfully extracted as eigenvectors, and the reconstructed signals of the feature vectors were subsequently removed. A test using simultaneous EEG-fMRI data acquired from left-hand (LH) and right-hand (RH) clenching tasks performed by volunteers found that the proposed rsPCA method substantially reduced helium-pump artifacts in the EEG data and significantly enhanced task-related gamma band activity levels (p=0.0038 and 0.0363 for LH and RH tasks, respectively) in EEG data that have had GAs and BCAs removed. The spatial patterns of the fMRI data were estimated using a hemodynamic response function (HRF) modeled from the estimated gamma band activity in a general linear model (GLM) framework. Active voxel clusters were identified in the post-/pre-central gyri of motor area, only from the rsPCA method (uncorrected p<0.001 for both LH/RH tasks). In addition, the superior temporal pole areas were consistently observed (uncorrected p<0.001 for the LH task and uncorrected p<0.05 for the RH task) in the spatial patterns of the HRF model for gamma band activity when the task paradigm and movement were also included in the GLM.

  15. Lateralized implicit sequence learning in uni- and bi-manual conditions.


    Schmitz, Rémy; Pasquali, Antoine; Cleeremans, Axel; Peigneux, Philippe


    It has been proposed that the right hemisphere (RH) is better suited to acquire novel material whereas the left hemisphere (LH) is more able to process well-routinized information. Here, we ask whether this potential dissociation also manifests itself in an implicit learning task. Using a lateralized version of the serial reaction time task (SRT), we tested whether participants trained in a divided visual field condition primarily stimulating the RH would learn the implicit regularities embedded in sequential material faster than participants in a condition favoring LH processing. In the first study, half of participants were presented sequences in the left (vs. right) visual field, and had to respond using their ipsilateral hand (unimanual condition), hence making visuo-motor processing possible within the same hemisphere. Results showed successful implicit sequence learning, as indicated by increased reaction time for a transfer sequence in both hemispheric conditions and lack of conscious knowledge in a generation task. There was, however, no evidence of interhemispheric differences. In the second study, we hypothesized that a bimanual response version of the lateralized SRT, which requires interhemispheric communication and increases computational and cognitive processing loads, would favor RH-dependent visuospatial/attentional processes. In this bimanual condition, our results revealed a much higher transfer effect in the RH than in the LH condition, suggesting higher RH sensitivity to the processing of novel sequential material. This LH/RH difference was interpreted within the framework of the Novelty-Routinization model [Goldberg, E., & Costa, L. D. (1981). Hemisphere differences in the acquisition and use of descriptive systems. Brain and Language, 14(1), 144-173] and interhemispheric interactions in attentional processing [Banich, M. T. (1998). The missing link: the role of interhemispheric interaction in attentional processing. Brain and Cognition, 36

  16. Reappraisal generation after acquired brain damage: The role of laterality and cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Christian E.; Gross, James J.; Turnbull, Oliver H.


    In the past decade, there has been growing interest in the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal. Findings suggest that reappraisal activates a set of areas in the left hemisphere (LH), which are commonly associated with language abilities and verbally mediated cognitive control. The main goal of this study was to investigate whether individuals with focal damage to the LH (n = 8) were more markedly impaired on a reappraisal generation task than individuals with right hemisphere lesions (RH, n = 8), and healthy controls (HC, n = 14). The reappraisal generation task consisted of a set of ten pictures from the IAPS, depicting negative events of different sorts. Participants were asked to quickly generate as many positive reinterpretations as possible for each picture. Two scores were derived from this task, namely difficulty and productivity. A second goal of this study was to explore which cognitive control processes were associated with performance on the reappraisal task. For this purpose, participants were assessed on several measures of cognitive control. Findings indicated that reappraisal difficulty – defined as the time taken to generate a first reappraisal – did not differ between LH and RH groups. However, differences were found between patients with brain injury (LH + RH) and HC, suggesting that brain damage in either hemisphere influences reappraisal difficulty. No differences in reappraisal productivity were found across groups, suggesting that neurological groups and HC are equally productive when time constraints are not considered. Finally, only two cognitive control processes inhibition and verbal fluency- were inversely associated with reappraisal difficulty. Implications for the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal generation are discussed, and implications for neuro-rehabilitation are considered. PMID:24711799

  17. Reappraisal generation after acquired brain damage: The role of laterality and cognitive control.


    Salas, Christian E; Gross, James J; Turnbull, Oliver H


    In the past decade, there has been growing interest in the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal. Findings suggest that reappraisal activates a set of areas in the left hemisphere (LH), which are commonly associated with language abilities and verbally mediated cognitive control. The main goal of this study was to investigate whether individuals with focal damage to the LH (n = 8) were more markedly impaired on a reappraisal generation task than individuals with right hemisphere lesions (RH, n = 8), and healthy controls (HC, n = 14). The reappraisal generation task consisted of a set of ten pictures from the IAPS, depicting negative events of different sorts. Participants were asked to quickly generate as many positive reinterpretations as possible for each picture. Two scores were derived from this task, namely difficulty and productivity. A second goal of this study was to explore which cognitive control processes were associated with performance on the reappraisal task. For this purpose, participants were assessed on several measures of cognitive control. Findings indicated that reappraisal difficulty - defined as the time taken to generate a first reappraisal - did not differ between LH and RH groups. However, differences were found between patients with brain injury (LH + RH) and HC, suggesting that brain damage in either hemisphere influences reappraisal difficulty. No differences in reappraisal productivity were found across groups, suggesting that neurological groups and HC are equally productive when time constraints are not considered. Finally, only two cognitive control processes inhibition and verbal fluency- were inversely associated with reappraisal difficulty. Implications for the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal generation are discussed, and implications for neuro-rehabilitation are considered.

  18. Genetic identification of GnRH receptor neurons: a new model for studying neural circuits underlying reproductive physiology in the mouse brain.


    Wen, Shuping; Götze, Iris N; Mai, Oliver; Schauer, Christian; Leinders-Zufall, Trese; Boehm, Ulrich


    GnRH signaling regulates reproductive physiology in vertebrates via the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In addition, GnRH signaling has been postulated to act on the brain. However, elucidating its functional role in the central nervous system has been hampered because of the difficulty in identifying direct GnRH signaling targets in live brain tissue. Here we used a binary genetic strategy to visualize GnRH receptor (GnRHR) neurons in the mouse brain and started to characterize these cells. First, we expressed different fluorescent proteins in GnRHR neurons and mapped their precise distribution throughout the brain. Remarkably, neuronal GnRHR expression was only initiated after postnatal day 16, suggesting peri- and postpubertal functions of GnRH signaling in this organ. GnRHR neurons were found in different brain areas. Many GnRHR neurons were identified in areas influencing sexual behaviors. Furthermore, GnRHR neurons were detected in brain areas that process olfactory and pheromonal cues, revealing one efferent pathway by which the neuroendocrine hypothalamus may influence the sensitivity towards chemosensory cues. Using confocal Ca(2+) imaging in brain slices, we show that GnRHR neurons respond reproducibly to extracellular application of GnRH or its analog [D-TRP(6)]-LH-RH, indicating that these neurons express functional GnRHR. Interestingly, the duration and shape of the Ca(2+) responses were similar within and different between brain areas, suggesting that GnRH signaling may differentially influence brain functions to affect reproductive success. Our new mouse model sets the stage to analyze the next level of GnRH signaling in reproductive physiology and behavior.

  19. Circulating hormones and pituitary responsiveness in young epileptic men receiving long-term antiepileptic medication.


    Macphee, G J; Larkin, J G; Butler, E; Beastall, G H; Brodie, M J


    Impairment of libido and sexual potency are commonly reported by male epileptic patients. This may be partly a consequence of medication. Circulating hormones were measured in 53 postpubertal male epileptic patients less than 45 years of age and in an age-matched control group (n = 40), consisting of 14 untreated epileptic patients and 26 unmedicated healthy subjects. A subgroup also underwent a combined gonadotrophin- and thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (LH-RH/TRH) pituitary stimulation test. Untreated patients did not differ from healthy subjects for any parameter, and their data were combined for comparison with the treated epileptic patients. Total testosterone (T), androstenedione, and basal follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations were similar in all patient groups. Patients receiving more than one drug had higher sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) (p less than 0.01) and lower free T and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHAS) levels (both p less than 0.001) than controls. Carbamazepine (CBZ) monotherapy also reduced free T (p less than 0.05) and DHAS (p less than 0.001) and increased basal prolactin (p less than 0.01). In these two groups of patients, basal luteinising hormone (LH) was elevated (p less than 0.01), presumably as a pituitary response to increased T catabolism. There was a negative correlation between free T and circulating CBZ (r = -0.54, p less than 0.05) in the monotherapy patients. Phenytoin (PHT) was associated with a rise in SHBG (p less than 0.01) and a fall in DHAS (p less than 0.001). Basal LH was also elevated, but this just failed to reach statistical significance (p less than 0.1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Antiandrogens: clinical applications.


    Sciarra, F; Toscano, V; Concolino, G; Di Silverio, F


    Antiandrogens, preventing androgen action at target tissue level, are used in the treatment of various androgen-dependent diseases. Pharmacologically these substances have either a steroidal structure, like cyproterone acetate (CPA) and spironolactone (SPL), or a non-steroidal structure, like flutamide (FLU). In women with hyperandrogenism (PCO syndrome, idiopathic hirsutism, acne), clinical benefit may be obtained with CPA, which also displays a progestational activity and an antigonadotropic effect. CPA (25-50 mg/day) is used in combination with ethinyl-estradiol (EE) (20-30 micrograms/day) in reversed sequential regimen. SPL, less effective than CPA may be employed in moderate hirsutism and acne at dosages of 100-200 mg/day. During SPL treatment menstrual irregularities are frequent: in this case an association with oral contraceptives is indicated. SPL + bromocriptine (2.5-5 mg/day) has been experienced with success in PCO syndrome. The pure antiandrogen FLU, inducing progressive increase in LH and testosterone secretion, may be used only in combination with oral contraceptives. In men antiandrogens have been tested in BPH and prostatic carcinoma. In BPH the decrease in nuclear receptors and DHT nuclear content during CPA or FLU may represent the rational base of the medical treatment. An improvement in urinary obstructive manifestation has been observed with CPA alone or associated with tamoxifen (100 mg + 100 mg day). In advanced prostatic carcinoma antiandrogens represent a good alternative to estrogen therapy with less side effects and in combination with surgical or medical castration (LH-RH analogues) achieve a complete androgen blockade. An increase in the percentage of remissions and survival has been reported. PMID:2147859

  1. Effect of oral contraceptives on the rat brain and pituitary beta-endorphin.


    Tejwani, G A; Vaswani, K K; Barbacci, J C; Richard, C W; Bianchine, J R


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of oral administration of progesterone (15 micrograms norethindrone, NE) in presence and absence of estradiol (1 microgram ethinyl estradiol, EE2) on the CNS levels of beta-endorphin like immunoreactivity (beta-EI) in female rats. In acute study (5 days), NE alone did not change beta-EI significantly in pituitary. NE and EE2 together decreased beta-EI by 37% (47% at 10X dose). In chronic study (7 weeks), 2NE had no significant effect on pituitary beta-EI, however, NE and EE2 together at 10X dose decreased it by 14%. In the hypothalamus, NE alone or in presence of EE2 had no significant effect on beta-EI, but 10X dose of NE+ EE2 caused 50 and 76% decrease in beta-EI in acute and chronic study. Striatum was the only tissue where NE alone caused a decrease of 82% in beta-EI when given acutely and 52% when given chronically. EE2 had some protective effect on this decrease since when given together (NE+EE2) the decrease in beta-EI was 21% in acute and 43% in chronic study. Thus our results, along with other studies on the regulation of gonadotropin levels by opioids, suggest that oral contraceptives alter the level of beta-EI and in turn may regulate the release of gonadotropins. Morphine and endogenous opioids have been shown to decrease gonadotropin secretion in various species including humans, apparently by suppressing the release of LH-RH from the hypothalamus (1-5). The opiate antagonist naloxone not only causes up to 10-fold increase in the secretion of gonadotropins (1,3, 6-9) but also opposes the negative feedback effect of steroids on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadotropin axis (8), suggesting a regulatory interaction between the endogenous opioids, gonadotropins and gonadal steroids. Like ACTH, the secretion of beta-endorphin is inhibited by glucocorticoids (10). Naloxone induced release of LH is facilitated by estradiol in humans (11) suggesting an antagonistic effect of estradiol on the endogenous

  2. New pathways in animal reproductive physiology frontiers and perspectives.


    Krzymowski, T


    With the inrush of new data the recent clear division of neural, hormonal and immunological regulation has been seriously complicated. Both central and peripheral neural tissue produce over 30 neuropeptides, among which are many classic peptide hormones. A steroid biosynthetic pathway has been demonstrated in oligodendrocytes. However, the distribution and role of peptydoergic neurons within the reproductive system are only superficially known among farm animals. Neurons have receptors for many hormones and interleukins. Cells of the immune system, in addition to secretion of many interleukins and interferons, produce neuropeptides locally and they possess specific receptors for them as well. Till now, the interaction between the nervous, hormonal and immunological systems has not been taken into account while investigating the functions of ovarian follicles, the corpus luteum, oviduct and uterus. The penetration of blood and lymphatic vessels by hormones, neuropeptides and cytokins has not been taken into consideration also. The counter current transfer of many steroid and peptide hormones from ovarian venous and lymphatic effluent to arterial blood supplying the ovary and through arterial anastomoses of the oviduct and uterus has been hithero shown. It has been demonstrated that thanks to this system, arterial blood supplying the uterus and oviduct has, in physiological conditions, a much higher level of some steroid hormones such as progesterone and androstendione, 37% and 36% respectively, than in systemic blood. Recently, a powerful exchange system for resupplying hormones to the brain which is dependent on the phase of the estrous cycle, has been discovered. It has also been demonstrated that neuropeptides LH-RH, beta-endorphin and oxytocin as well as the steroid hormone progesterone, were counter current transferred from venous to arterial blood at the perihypophyseal cavernous sinus and carotid rete in sheep and gilts, but only during specific periods of

  3. [Three-year follow-up of 12 patients with prostate cancer treated with monthly degarelix in a phase II clinical trial].


    Hoshi, Senji; Hayashi, Natsuho; Yagi, Mayu; Ookubo, Teppei; Muto, Akinori; Sugano, Osamu; Numahata, Kenji; Bilim, Vladimir; Hoshi, Kiyotugu; Sasagawa, Isoji


    The efficacy and safety of degarelix, a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone(LH-RH)antagonist, in patients with prostate cancer(PCa)were evaluated in a phase II, open-label, multicenter clinical trial. In this trial, a total of 13 patients were accrued at the Yamagata Prefectural Central Hospital from 2007 to 2008. The median age was 80 years(range, 65-85 years), and clinical stages were T1c, T2, T3, and T4 in 1, 4, 6, and 2 patients, respectively. Nodal(N)status was N0 in 9 patients and N1 in 4 patients. Distant metastases were absent(M0)in 12 patients and present(M1b)in 1 patient. The median prostate- specific antigen(PSA)level was 29.1 ng/mL(range, 6.3-427 ng/mL). All but one patient, who died of an unrelated cause, received a monthly dose(80 or 160mg)of degarelix for 12 months and were followed-up for 3 years. The PSA level declined in all patients. One patient died of an unrelated cause during the phase II trial. After completion of the phase II trial, 5 patients were treated with combined and rogen blockade(CAB)(leuprolide plus anti-androgen therapy), 2 patients were treated with single-agent leuprolide, 2 patients received single-agent bicalutamide, and 1 patient was followed-up without additional treatment. Radical prostatectomy was performed in 2 patients. Among the 5 patients treated with CAB, 2 died of metastatic cancer. CAB was effective in suppressing PSA levels in 3 patients. In 1 patient with T3aN1M1b PCa, colon cancer with lung metastases was detected during the follow-up period. Treatment with chemotherapy for colon cancer was effective in suppressing PSA levels for 12 months. In 1 patient with cT3aN1M0 PCa, the PSA level declined to <0.02 ng/mL, and a reduction in size of the prostate gland and metastatic lymph nodes was observed. This effect persisted for 3.5 years after the completion of the 12-month degarelix regimen, and no additional treatment was required.

  4. [An unusual association of transient resolving thyrotoxicosis due to painless thyroiditis, hypopituitarism and central diabetes insipidus associated with spontaneous pituitary apoplexy].


    Sasaki, H; Ohnishi, O; Maehara, F; Akiyoshi, K; Kan, K; Katakabe, K; Yamamoto, T; Okumura, M


    Pituitary apoplexy is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical features. A quite rare case of painless thyroiditis, hypopituitarism and central diabetes insipidus (DI) followed by pituitary apoplexy was presented. A 61-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital in May, 1986 because of marked general malaise, polydipsia and weight loss which became progressively worse. Four months earlier she had experienced episodes of abrupt onset of severe headache associated with nausea and blurring vision. Physical examinations revealed a fine tremor, dry skin and nervousness. The thyroid gland was not palpable. Visual fields were intact. Her blood pressure was 105/64 mmHg with variable tachycardia. The routine laboratory studies were normal or negative except for hypoalbuminemia, hypocholesterolemia and hypernatremia. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 12 mm/hr. An impairment in corticotropin secretion was suspected from the low plasma cortisol and the low urinary excretion of 17-OHCS and the sufficient response to ACTH. Basal levels of GH and gonadotropin were also low, and responses to the stimulation tests (Insulin-stress, L-DOPA, and LH-RH) were all blunted. Brain computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a suprasellar mass that, after infusion, developed peripheral ring-like enhancement and large hyperintense pituitary mass, respectively. A diagnosis of pituitary apoplexy with anterior pituitary failure was made. However, the initial levels of thyroid hormones showed elevated as follows: Free T3 7.6 pg/ml, Free T4 3.3 ng/dl and T3-resin uptake 41.1%. TSH responses to TRH were all suppressed. TSH receptor antibody (TBII) was negative. Both antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal antibodies were repeatedly positive. A thyroid scan with 99mTc revealed no uptake in the thyroid area. These findings led us to the diagnosis of "painless autoimmune thyroiditis". She had become hypothyroid without any medication. At that time radioactive 99mTc and 123

  5. Interrelationship between excessive levels of circulating androgens in blood and ovulatory failure.


    Parker, C R; Mahesh, V B


    receded. The replenishment occurred only after the circulating levels of androstenedione, DNA and progesterone were reduced. Receptor replenishment in the hypothalamus and pituitary was followed by increases in the levels of circulating gonadotropins, particularly LH, with subsequent restoration of cyclic ovulatory function. The ovaries in the acyclic androgen-treated rat were responsive to gonadotropins. The pituitary responded to LH-RH administration, but the sensitivity was reduced. In the adult rat, ovulatory failure and the formation of polycystic ovaries took place with doses of DHA as low as 7.5 mg per kg of body weight. Attempts are being made to obtain further insights into the mechanism of androgen-induced ovulatory failure by studying the effect of androgens and progesterone on the steroid receptors and their function in the hypothalamus and the pituitary. Furthermore, a direct effect of DHA on the ovary, causing follicular atresia and cystic changes, is also being explored.