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Sample records for lhcb rich photo-detectors

  1. Hybrid photon detectors for the LHCb RICH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhardt, Stephan

    2006-09-01

    The LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters use the pixel Hybrid Photon Detector (HPD) as a photo-sensitive device. Photo-electrons are produced in a semi-transparent multi-alkali photo-cathode (S20) and are accelerated by a voltage of 20 kV onto a pixelated silicon anode. The anode is bump-bonded to the LHCBPIX1 pixel readout chip which amplifies and digitises the anode signals at the LHC speed of 40 MHz. Using a demagnification of five, the effective pixel size at the HPD window is 2.5×2.5 mm2. Over the course of 18 months, 550 HPDs will undergo a quality-assurance programme to verify the specifications and to characterise the tubes. The tested parameters include the threshold and noise behaviour of the chip, the response to light emitting diode (LED) light, the demagnification of the electron optics, the leakage current and the depletion of the silicon sensor, the quality of the vacuum, the signal efficiency and the dark count rate. Results of tests of the first nine HPDs of the final design are presented and compared to the specifications.

  2. The upgraded LHCb RICH detector: Status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinale, R.

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb upgrade will take place during the second long shutdown of the LHC (LS2). The upgrade will enable the experiment to run at an instantaneous luminosity of 2 ×1033cm-2s-1 and will read out data at a rate of 40 MHz into a flexible software-based trigger. The two Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors (RICH), installed in the LHCb experiment, will be re-designed to comply with these new operating conditions. The status and perspective of the RICH upgrade project will be presented.

  3. The LHCb RICH system; detector description and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanestis, A.

    2014-12-01

    Two RICH detectors provide positive charged hadron identification in the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. RICH 1 covers the full acceptance of the spectrometer and contains two radiators: aerogel and C4F10. RICH 2 covers half the acceptance and uses CF4 as a Cherenkov radiator. Photon detection is performed by the Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs), with silicon pixel sensors and bump-bonded readout encapsulated in a vacuum tube for efficient, low-noise single photon detection. The LHCb RICH detectors form a complex system of three radiators, 120 mirrors and 484 photon detectors operating in the very challenging environment of the LHC. The high performance of the system in pion and kaon identification in the momentum range of 2-100 GeV/c is reached only after careful calibration of many parameters. Operational efficiency above 99% was achieved by a high level of automatization in the operation of the detectors, from switching-on to error recovery. The challenges of calibrating and operating such a system will be presented.

  4. Behavior of multi-anode photomultipliers in magnetic fields for the LHCb RICH upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambetta, S.

    2016-07-01

    A key feature of the LHCb upgrade, scheduled for 2019, is to remove the first level trigger and its data reduction from 40 MHz to 1 MHz, which is implemented in the on-detector readout electronics. The consequence for the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors is that the Hybrid Photon Detectors need to be replaced as the readout chip is inside the detector vacuum. The baseline for replacement are Multi-anode Photomultiplier tubes (MaPMT) and new readout electronics. The MaPMTs will be located in the fringe field of the LHCb dipole magnet with residual fields up to 25 G. Therefore, their behavior in magnetic fields is critical. Here we report about studies of the Hamamatsu model R11265 in a magnetic field in an effort to qualify it for use in the LHCb RICH upgrade. Comparisons to the known model R7600 are also made. Measurements of the collection efficiency and gain were performed for all three space directions as a function of the magnetic field strength. In addition to measurements with bare tubes, measurements with different mu-metal shielding configurations were performed to optimize the configuration. This is important input for the layout of the upgraded LHCb RICH detector.

  5. LHCb RICH Upgrade: an overview of the photon detector and electronic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassina, L.

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is one of the four large detectors operating at the LHC at CERN and it is mainly devoted to CP violation measurements and to the search for new physics in rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. The data from the two Ring Image Cherenkov (RICH-1 and RICH-2) detectors are essential to identify particles in a wide momentum range. From 2019 onwards 14 TeV collisions with luminosities reaching up to 2 × 1033 cm-2s-1 with 25 ns bunch spacing are planned, with the goal of collecting 5 fb-1 of data per year. In order to avoid degradation of the PID performance at such high rate (40 MHz), the RICH detector has to be upgraded. New photodetectors (Multi-anode photomultiplier tubes, MaPMTs) have been chosen and will be read out using an 8-channel chip, named CLARO, designed to sustain a photon counting rate up to 40 MHz, while minimizing the power consumption and the cross-talk. A 128-bit digital register allows selection of thresholds and attenuation values and provides features useful for testing and debugging. Photosensors and electronics are arranged in basic units, the first prototypes of which have been tested in charged particle beams in autumn 2014. An overview of the CLARO features and of the readout electronics is presented.

  6. Photo-Detectors Integrated with Resonant Tunneling Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Romeira, Bruno; Pessoa, Luis M.; Salgado, Henrique M.; Ironside, Charles N.; Figueiredo, José M. L.

    2013-01-01

    We report on photo-detectors consisting of an optical waveguide that incorporates a resonant tunneling diode (RTD). Operating at wavelengths around 1.55 μm in the optical communications C band we achieve maximum sensitivities of around 0.29 A/W which is dependent on the bias voltage. This is due to the nature of RTD nonlinear current-voltage characteristic that has a negative differential resistance (NDR) region. The resonant tunneling diode photo-detector (RTD-PD) can be operated in either non-oscillating or oscillating regimes depending on the bias voltage quiescent point. The oscillating regime is apparent when the RTD-PD is biased in the NDR region giving rise to electrical gain and microwave self-sustained oscillations Taking advantage of the RTD's NDR distinctive characteristics, we demonstrate efficient detection of gigahertz (GHz) modulated optical carriers and optical control of a RTD GHz oscillator. RTD-PD based devices can have applications in generation and optical control of GHz low-phase noise oscillators, clock recovery systems, and fiber optic enabled radio frequency communication systems. PMID:23881142

  7. Organic photo detectors for an integrated thin-film spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Sabine; Sui, Yunwu; Glöckler, Felix; Lemmer, Uli; Gerken, Martina

    2007-09-01

    We introduce a thin-film spectrometer that is based on the superprism effect in photonic crystals. While the reliable fabrication of two and three dimensional photonic crystals is still a challenge, the realization of one-dimensional photonic crystals as thin-film stacks is a relatively easy and inexpensive approach. Additionally, dispersive thin-film stacks offer the possibility to custom-design the dispersion profile according to the application. The thin-film stack is designed such that light incident at an angle experiences a wavelength-dependent spatial beam shift at the output surface. We propose the monolithic integration of organic photo detectors to register the spatial beam position and thus determine the beam wavelength. This thin-film spectrometer has a size of approximately 5 mm2. We demonstrate that the output position of a laser beam is determined with a resolution of at least 20 μm by the fabricated organic photo detectors. Depending on the design of the thin-film filter the wavelength resolution of the proposed spectrometer is at least 1 nm. Possible applications for the proposed thin-film spectrometer are in the field of absorption spectroscopy, e.g., for gas analysis or biomedical applications.

  8. Photo-detectors integrated with resonant tunneling diodes.

    PubMed

    Romeira, Bruno; Pessoa, Luis M; Salgado, Henrique M; Ironside, Charles N; Figueiredo, José M L

    2013-01-01

    We report on photo-detectors consisting of an optical waveguide that incorporates a resonant tunneling diode (RTD). Operating at wavelengths around 1.55 μm in the optical communications C band we achieve maximum sensitivities of around 0.29 A/W which is dependent on the bias voltage. This is due to the nature of RTD nonlinear current-voltage characteristic that has a negative differential resistance (NDR) region. The resonant tunneling diode photo-detector (RTD-PD) can be operated in either non-oscillating or oscillating regimes depending on the bias voltage quiescent point. The oscillating regime is apparent when the RTD-PD is biased in the NDR region giving rise to electrical gain and microwave self-sustained oscillations Taking advantage of the RTD's NDR distinctive characteristics, we demonstrate efficient detection of gigahertz (GHz) modulated optical carriers and optical control of a RTD GHz oscillator. RTD-PD based devices can have applications in generation and optical control of GHz low-phase noise oscillators, clock recovery systems, and fiber optic enabled radio frequency communication systems. PMID:23881142

  9. Development of large area fast microchannel plate photo-detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrum, Karen

    2011-05-01

    We report on a cross-disciplined, multi-institutional effort to develop large-scale 'frugal' photo-detectors capable of mm-scale space resolution and pico-second time resolution. This new R&D effort is being led by the High Energy Physics branch within DOE. The large-area fast photodetectors (LAPPD) being developed would have applications in many fields, including particle physics, astrophysics, nuclear sciences, and medical imaging. The basic approach uses novel inexpensive micro channel pores which have been functionalized using a technique called atomic layer deposition. A custom anode and fast electronics are used to readout the photodetector. High quantum efficiency photocathodes are also being explored. The R&D program includes detailed testing and end to end simulations.

  10. The lartge-area picosecond photo-detector (LAPPD) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varner, Gary

    2012-03-01

    The technological revolution that replaced the bulky Cathode Ray Tube with a wide variety of thin, reduced-cost display technologies, has yet to be realized for photosensors. Such a low-cost, robust and flexible photon detector, capable of efficient single photon measurement with good spatial and temporal resolution, would have numerous scientific, medical and industrial applications. To address the significant technological challenges of realizing such a disruptive technology, the Large Area Picosecond Photo-Detector (LAPPD) collaboration was formed, and has been strongly supported by the Department of Energy. This group leverages the inter-disciplinary capabilities and facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, the Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL), electronics expertise at the Universities of Chicago and Hawaii, and close work with industrial partners to extend the known technologies. Advances in theory-inspired design and in-situ photocathode characterization during growth, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) for revolutionizing micro-channel plate fabrication, and compact, wave-form sampling CMOS ASIC readout of micro striplines are key tools toward realizing a viable LAPPD device. Progress toward a first 8" x 8" demonstrator module will be presented.

  11. Photo-Detectors for Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography (ToF-PET)

    PubMed Central

    Spanoudaki, Virginia Ch.; Levin⋆, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    We present the most recent advances in photo-detector design employed in time of flight positron emission tomography (ToF-PET). PET is a molecular imaging modality that collects pairs of coincident (temporally correlated) annihilation photons emitted from the patient body. The annihilation photon detector typically comprises a scintillation crystal coupled to a fast photo-detector. ToF information provides better localization of the annihilation event along the line formed by each detector pair, resulting in an overall improvement in signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the reconstructed image. Apart from the demand for high luminosity and fast decay time of the scintillation crystal, proper design and selection of the photo-detector and methods for arrival time pick-off are a prerequisite for achieving excellent time resolution required for ToF-PET. We review the two types of photo-detectors used in ToF-PET: photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and silicon photo-multipliers (SiPMs) with a special focus on SiPMs. PMID:22163482

  12. Rare Decays at the LHCb Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescatore, L.

    2015-06-01

    Rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons offer a rich playground to make precise tests of the Standard Model and look for New Physics at the level of quantum corrections. A review of recent LHCb results will be presented.

  13. In-plane integration of VCSEL with photo-detector by using laterally coupled cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalir, Hamed; Koyama, Fumio

    2014-02-01

    A novel concept to form a photo-detector integrated VCSELs using transverse-coupled-cavity (TCC) scheme is demonstrated. In our configuration one cavity suppressed by the reverse bias voltage at 1volt, while the other cavity used as a laser. Proton-implantation was used in order to prevent the current leakage. The formation aperture diameter of each cavity gives us multimode and quasi-single mode condition. Our preliminary results on L-I indicate the possibility of continues tracking of photocurrent in the range of 0.7- 10 mA, which is limited by the threshold and saturation level of the laser side cavity.

  14. Remote Evaluation of Rotational Velocity Using a Quadrant Photo-Detector and a DSC Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiangkai; Zhu, Zhixiong; Chen, Yang

    2016-04-25

    This paper presents an approach to remotely evaluate the rotational velocity of a measured object by using a quadrant photo-detector and a differential subtraction correlation (DSC) algorithm. The rotational velocity of a rotating object is determined by two temporal-delay numbers at the minima of two DSCs that are derived from the four output signals of the quadrant photo-detector, and the sign of the calculated rotational velocity directly represents the rotational direction. The DSC algorithm does not require any multiplication operations. Experimental calculations were performed to confirm the proposed evaluation method. The calculated rotational velocity, including its amplitude and direction, showed good agreement with the given one, which had an amplitude error of ~0.3%, and had over 1100 times the efficiency of the traditional cross-correlation method in the case of data number N > 4800. The confirmations have shown that the remote evaluation of rotational velocity can be done without any circular division disk, and that it has much fewer error sources, making it simple, accurate and effective for remotely evaluating rotational velocity.

  15. Remote Evaluation of Rotational Velocity Using a Quadrant Photo-Detector and a DSC Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiangkai; Zhu, Zhixiong; Chen, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to remotely evaluate the rotational velocity of a measured object by using a quadrant photo-detector and a differential subtraction correlation (DSC) algorithm. The rotational velocity of a rotating object is determined by two temporal-delay numbers at the minima of two DSCs that are derived from the four output signals of the quadrant photo-detector, and the sign of the calculated rotational velocity directly represents the rotational direction. The DSC algorithm does not require any multiplication operations. Experimental calculations were performed to confirm the proposed evaluation method. The calculated rotational velocity, including its amplitude and direction, showed good agreement with the given one, which had an amplitude error of ~0.3%, and had over 1100 times the efficiency of the traditional cross-correlation method in the case of data number N > 4800. The confirmations have shown that the remote evaluation of rotational velocity can be done without any circular division disk, and that it has much fewer error sources, making it simple, accurate and effective for remotely evaluating rotational velocity. PMID:27120607

  16. Development of large area, pico-second resolution photo-detectors and associated readout electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Grabas, H.; Oberla, E.; Attenkoffer, K.; Bogdan, M.; Frisch, H. J.; Genat, J. F.; May, E. N.; Varner, G. S.; Wetstein, M.

    2011-07-01

    The Large Area Pico-second Photo-detectors described in this contribution incorporate a photo-cathode and a borosilicate glass capillary Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) pair functionalized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of separate resistive and electron secondary emitters materials. They may be used for biomedical imaging purposes, a remarkable opportunity to apply technologies developed in HEP having the potential to make major advances in the medical world, in particular for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). If daisy-chained and coupled to fast transmission lines read at both ends, they could be implemented in very large dimensions. Initial testing with matched pairs of small glass capillary test has demonstrated gains of the order of 105 to 106. Compared to other fast imaging devices, these photo-detectors are expected to provide timing resolutions in the 10-100 ps range, and two-dimension position in the sub-millimeter range. A 6-channel readout ASIC has been designed in 130 nm CMOS technology and tested. As a result, fast analog sampling up to 17 GS/s has been obtained, the intrinsic analog bandwidth being presently under evaluation. The digitization in parallel of several cells in two microseconds allows getting off-chip digital data read at a maximum rate of 40 MHz. Digital Signal Processing of the sampled waveforms is expected achieving the timing and space resolutions obtained with digital oscilloscopes. (authors)

  17. CdS-Nanowires Flexible Photo-detector with Ag-Nanowires Electrode Based on Non-transfer Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Yanli; Pei, Ruihan; Liang, Xiaoci; Wang, Yuhao; Liu, Ling; Chen, Haibiao; Liang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    In this study, UV-visible flexible resistivity-type photo-detectors were demonstrated with CdS-nanowires (NWs) percolation network channel and Ag-NWs percolation network electrode. The devices were fabricated on Mixed Cellulose Esters (MCE) membrane using a lithographic filtration method combined with a facile non-transfer process. The photo-detectors demonstrated strong adhesion, fast response time, fast decay time, and high photo sensitivity. The high performance could be attributed to the high quality single crystalline CdS-NWs, encapsulation of NWs in MCE matrix and excellent interconnection of the NWs. Furthermore, the sensing performance was maintained even the device was bent at an angle of 90°. This research may pave the way for the facile fabrication of flexible photo-detectors with high performances.

  18. CdS-Nanowires Flexible Photo-detector with Ag-Nanowires Electrode Based on Non-transfer Process

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yanli; Pei, Ruihan; Liang, Xiaoci; Wang, Yuhao; Liu, Ling; Chen, Haibiao; Liang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, UV-visible flexible resistivity-type photo-detectors were demonstrated with CdS-nanowires (NWs) percolation network channel and Ag-NWs percolation network electrode. The devices were fabricated on Mixed Cellulose Esters (MCE) membrane using a lithographic filtration method combined with a facile non-transfer process. The photo-detectors demonstrated strong adhesion, fast response time, fast decay time, and high photo sensitivity. The high performance could be attributed to the high quality single crystalline CdS-NWs, encapsulation of NWs in MCE matrix and excellent interconnection of the NWs. Furthermore, the sensing performance was maintained even the device was bent at an angle of 90°. This research may pave the way for the facile fabrication of flexible photo-detectors with high performances. PMID:26899726

  19. Mid/far-infrared photo-detectors based on graphene asymmetric quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Salem, E.; Chaabani, R.; Jaziri, S.

    2016-09-01

    We conducted a theoretical study on the electronic properties of a single-layer graphene asymmetric quantum well. Quantification of energy levels is limited by electron–hole conversion at the barrier interfaces and free-electron continuum. Electron–hole conversion at the barrier interfaces can be controlled by introducing an asymmetry between barriers and taking into account the effect of the interactions of the graphene sheet with the substrate. The interaction with the substrate induces an effective mass to carriers, allowing observation of Fabry–Pérot resonances under normal incidence and extinction of Klein tunneling. The asymmetry, between barriers creates a transmission gap between confined states and free-electron continuum, allowing the large graphene asymmetric quantum well to be exploited as a photo-detector operating at mid- and far-infrared frequency regimes.

  20. Mid/far-infrared photo-detectors based on graphene asymmetric quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Salem, E.; Chaabani, R.; Jaziri, S.

    2016-09-01

    We conducted a theoretical study on the electronic properties of a single-layer graphene asymmetric quantum well. Quantification of energy levels is limited by electron-hole conversion at the barrier interfaces and free-electron continuum. Electron-hole conversion at the barrier interfaces can be controlled by introducing an asymmetry between barriers and taking into account the effect of the interactions of the graphene sheet with the substrate. The interaction with the substrate induces an effective mass to carriers, allowing observation of Fabry-Pérot resonances under normal incidence and extinction of Klein tunneling. The asymmetry, between barriers creates a transmission gap between confined states and free-electron continuum, allowing the large graphene asymmetric quantum well to be exploited as a photo-detector operating at mid- and far-infrared frequency regimes.

  1. Excitability and optical pulse generation in semiconductor lasers driven by resonant tunneling diode photo-detectors.

    PubMed

    Romeira, Bruno; Javaloyes, Julien; Ironside, Charles N; Figueiredo, José M L; Balle, Salvador; Piro, Oreste

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate, experimentally and theoretically, excitable nanosecond optical pulses in optoelectronic integrated circuits operating at telecommunication wavelengths (1550 nm) comprising a nanoscale double barrier quantum well resonant tunneling diode (RTD) photo-detector driving a laser diode (LD). When perturbed either electrically or optically by an input signal above a certain threshold, the optoelectronic circuit generates short electrical and optical excitable pulses mimicking the spiking behavior of biological neurons. Interestingly, the asymmetric nonlinear characteristic of the RTD-LD allows for two different regimes where one obtain either single pulses or a burst of multiple pulses. The high-speed excitable response capabilities are promising for neurally inspired information applications in photonics. PMID:24103966

  2. Fabrication and properties of ultraviolet photo-detectors based on SiC nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Gang; Zhou, YingQiu; He, YanLan; Yu, XiaoYan; Li, GongYi

    2012-07-01

    A new type of ultraviolet photo-detectors (UVPDs) based on a bundle of highly aligned SiC nanowires was fabricated and the photo-electric properties of the UVPDs including I-V characteristics and time response were studied in this work. SiC nanowires were prepared by pyrolysis of a polymer precursor with ferrocene as the catalyst by a CVD route. The diameters of SiC nanowires varied from 100 to 200 nm while they were some centimeters long and the SiC nanowires were with zinc blended cubic form ( β-SiC) tested by X-ray diffraction. A bundle of nanowires was fixed onto two legs' base by conductive silver paste to form the UVPDs. The electrical measurement of the device showed a significant increase of current when the device was exposed to 254 nm UV light, and the rising time of the device is very short, but the falling time is relatively long. Our results show that the UVPDs based on SiC nanowires have excellent electrical and optical properties which can be potentially applied.

  3. Frequency Response Properties of Organic Photo-Detectors as Opto-Electrical Conversion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimune, Taichiro; Kajii, Hirotake; Ohmori, Yutaka

    2006-06-01

    Frequency performances and sensitivities for three types of organic photo-detector (OPD) were studied for an opto-electrical conversion device. A high efficiency of 19.4% of the external conversion efficiency and a high cutoff frequency response of 16 MHz were achieved using a mixed-layer between copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and N, N'-bis (2,5-di-tert- butylphenyl) 3,4,9,10-perylene dicarboximide (BPPC) at a reverse bias voltage of 8 V under red incident light. These results were achieved by increasing exciton dissociation and charge carrier generation and to reduce the number of trapped carriers at the interfaces between CuPc and BPPC. The transmission of a moving picture was successfully demonstrated using mixed-layer OPD as an opto-electrical conversion device. These results indicate that it is possible for an OPD to be used as an opto-electrical conversion device in high-speed optical transmission systems.

  4. Influence of reverse bias on the LEDs properties used as photo-detectors in VLC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, Marcin; Siuzdak, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    Continuous increasing share of light emitting diodes (LEDs) in a lighting market, which we observe during the last couple years, opens new possibilities. Especially, when we talk about practical realization the concept of visible light communications (VLC), which gains on popularity recently. The VLC concept presupposes utilization of illumination systems for a purpose of data transmission. It means, the emitters, in this case the LEDs, will not of a light source only, but also the data transmitters. Currently, most of the conducted researches in this area is concentrated on achievement of effective transmission methods. It means a transmission only in one direction. This is not enough, when we talk about the fully functional transmission system. Ensuring of feedback transmission channel is a necessary also. One of the ideas, which was postulated by authors of this article, is using for this purpose the LEDs in a double role. A utilization of LEDs as photo-detectors requires a reverse polarization, in contrast to a forward bias, which has a place when they work as light emitters. Ensuring of proper polarization get significant meaning. The article presents the investigations results on the influence of reverse bias on photo-receiving properties of LEDs used as light detectors. The conducted research proved that an improvement of sensitivity and bandwidth parameters are possible by application of appropriate value of the reverse voltage in a receiver.

  5. High-speed organic photo-detectors fabricated by vacuum and solution processes and application for optical transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, Yutaka; Hamasaki, Tatsunari; Morimune, Taichiro; Kajii, Hirotake

    2008-04-01

    Organic photo-detectors (OPDs) have been discussed as high-speed photo-detectors fabricated by vacuum and solution processes. By vacuum process, OPD was fabricated on an ITO-coated glass substrate by organic molecular beam deposition (OMBD). Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and N,N'-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl) 3,4,9,10-perylene dicarboximide (BPPC) were used as a p-type and an n-type material. The photo response of OPD was evaluated using a laser (λ=650 nm) and clear response signals at 100 MHz were observed. The imaging signals were successfully received using the OPDs. For solution processed OPDs, poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) and a phosphorescent iridium derivative were used as a host and a dopant material, respectively. A pulsed signal of 100MHz and amore than 40 MHz were observed by the OPDs fabricated by the vacuum processed and the solution processed devices, respectively.

  6. Gate Tuning of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer in a Graphene - Quantum Dot FET Photo-Detector

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruifeng; Schneider, Lorenz Maximilian; Heimbrodt, Wolfram; Wu, Huizhen; Koch, Martin; Rahimi-Iman, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Graphene photo-detectors functionalized by colloidal quantum dots (cQDs) have been demonstrated to show effective photo-detection. Although the transfer of charge carriers or energy from the cQDs to graphene is not sufficiently understood, it is clear that the mechanism and efficiency of the transfer depends on the morphology of the interface between cQDs and graphene, which is determined by the shell of the cQDs in combination with its ligands. Here, we present a study of a graphene field-effect transistor (FET), which is functionalized by long-ligand CdSe/ZnS core/shell cQDs. Time-resolved photo-luminescence from the cQDs as a function of the applied gate voltage has been investigated in order to probe transfer dynamics in this system. Thereby, a clear modification of the photo-luminescence lifetime has been observed, indicating a change of the decay channels. Furthermore, we provide responsivities under a Förster-like energy transfer model as a function of the gate voltage in support of our findings. The model shows that by applying a back-gate voltage to the photo-detector, the absorption can be tuned with respect to the photo-luminescence of the cQDs. This leads to a tunable energy transfer rate across the interface of the photo-detector, which offers an opportunity to optimize the photo-detection. PMID:27320182

  7. Gate Tuning of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer in a Graphene - Quantum Dot FET Photo-Detector.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruifeng; Schneider, Lorenz Maximilian; Heimbrodt, Wolfram; Wu, Huizhen; Koch, Martin; Rahimi-Iman, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Graphene photo-detectors functionalized by colloidal quantum dots (cQDs) have been demonstrated to show effective photo-detection. Although the transfer of charge carriers or energy from the cQDs to graphene is not sufficiently understood, it is clear that the mechanism and efficiency of the transfer depends on the morphology of the interface between cQDs and graphene, which is determined by the shell of the cQDs in combination with its ligands. Here, we present a study of a graphene field-effect transistor (FET), which is functionalized by long-ligand CdSe/ZnS core/shell cQDs. Time-resolved photo-luminescence from the cQDs as a function of the applied gate voltage has been investigated in order to probe transfer dynamics in this system. Thereby, a clear modification of the photo-luminescence lifetime has been observed, indicating a change of the decay channels. Furthermore, we provide responsivities under a Förster-like energy transfer model as a function of the gate voltage in support of our findings. The model shows that by applying a back-gate voltage to the photo-detector, the absorption can be tuned with respect to the photo-luminescence of the cQDs. This leads to a tunable energy transfer rate across the interface of the photo-detector, which offers an opportunity to optimize the photo-detection.

  8. Gate Tuning of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer in a Graphene - Quantum Dot FET Photo-Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruifeng; Schneider, Lorenz Maximilian; Heimbrodt, Wolfram; Wu, Huizhen; Koch, Martin; Rahimi-Iman, Arash

    2016-06-01

    Graphene photo-detectors functionalized by colloidal quantum dots (cQDs) have been demonstrated to show effective photo-detection. Although the transfer of charge carriers or energy from the cQDs to graphene is not sufficiently understood, it is clear that the mechanism and efficiency of the transfer depends on the morphology of the interface between cQDs and graphene, which is determined by the shell of the cQDs in combination with its ligands. Here, we present a study of a graphene field-effect transistor (FET), which is functionalized by long-ligand CdSe/ZnS core/shell cQDs. Time-resolved photo-luminescence from the cQDs as a function of the applied gate voltage has been investigated in order to probe transfer dynamics in this system. Thereby, a clear modification of the photo-luminescence lifetime has been observed, indicating a change of the decay channels. Furthermore, we provide responsivities under a Förster-like energy transfer model as a function of the gate voltage in support of our findings. The model shows that by applying a back-gate voltage to the photo-detector, the absorption can be tuned with respect to the photo-luminescence of the cQDs. This leads to a tunable energy transfer rate across the interface of the photo-detector, which offers an opportunity to optimize the photo-detection.

  9. Gate Tuning of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer in a Graphene - Quantum Dot FET Photo-Detector.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruifeng; Schneider, Lorenz Maximilian; Heimbrodt, Wolfram; Wu, Huizhen; Koch, Martin; Rahimi-Iman, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Graphene photo-detectors functionalized by colloidal quantum dots (cQDs) have been demonstrated to show effective photo-detection. Although the transfer of charge carriers or energy from the cQDs to graphene is not sufficiently understood, it is clear that the mechanism and efficiency of the transfer depends on the morphology of the interface between cQDs and graphene, which is determined by the shell of the cQDs in combination with its ligands. Here, we present a study of a graphene field-effect transistor (FET), which is functionalized by long-ligand CdSe/ZnS core/shell cQDs. Time-resolved photo-luminescence from the cQDs as a function of the applied gate voltage has been investigated in order to probe transfer dynamics in this system. Thereby, a clear modification of the photo-luminescence lifetime has been observed, indicating a change of the decay channels. Furthermore, we provide responsivities under a Förster-like energy transfer model as a function of the gate voltage in support of our findings. The model shows that by applying a back-gate voltage to the photo-detector, the absorption can be tuned with respect to the photo-luminescence of the cQDs. This leads to a tunable energy transfer rate across the interface of the photo-detector, which offers an opportunity to optimize the photo-detection. PMID:27320182

  10. Design and development of a ferroelectric micro photo detector for the bionic eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang

    Driven by no effective therapy for Retinitis Pigmentosa and Age Related Macular Degeneration, artificial vision through the development of an artificial retina that can be implanted into the human eye, is being addressed by the Bionic Eye. This dissertation focuses on the study of a photoferroelectric micro photo detector as an implantable retinal prosthesis for vision restoration in patients with above disorders. This implant uses an electrical signal to trigger the appropriate ocular cells of the vision system without resorting to wiring or electrode implantation. The research work includes fabrication of photoferroelectric thin film micro detectors, characterization of these photoferroelectric micro devices as photovoltaic cells, and Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling of the photoferroelectrics and their device-neuron interface. A ferroelectric micro detector exhibiting the photovoltaic effect (PVE) directly adds electrical potential to the neuron membrane outer wall at the focal adhesion regions. The electrical potential then generates a retinal cell membrane potential deflection through a newly developed Direct-Electric-Field-Coupling (DEFC) model. This model is quite different from the traditional electric current model because instead of current directly working on the cell membrane, the PVE current is used to generate a localized high electric potential in the focal adhesion region by working together with the anisotropic high internal impedance of ferroelectric thin films. General electrodes and silicon photodetectors do not have such anisotropy and high impedance, and thus they cannot generate DEFC. This mechanism investigation is very valuable, because it clearly shows that our artificial retina works in a way that is totally different from the traditional current stimulation methods.

  11. The LHCb Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsson, Richard

    2013-11-01

    With the demonstration that LHCb can successfully perform forward precision measurements with event pileup, the operation and trigger strategy evolved significantly during the LHC Run 1 allowing LHCb to collect over 3fb-1 at centre-of-mass energies of 7TeV and 8TeV. Increased bandwidth opened the door for LHCb to extend the physics program. The additional statistics and well managed systematic effects together with the stable trigger and data taking conditions have led to a very large number of world-class measurements and dominance in heavy flavour physics [1], in addition to a reputation of an excellent forward general purpose detector at the LHC. Long Shutdown (LS) 1 (2013-2014) will allow LHCb to fully explore the large statistics collected and prepare LHCb for Run 2 (2015 - 2017). However, even after an additional expected integrated luminosity of 5-6 fb-1 in Run 2, many of the LHCb precision measurements will remain limited by statistics, and some exploratory physics modes will not even be accessible yet. With the need for reconstructing the event topology in order to efficiently trigger on the beauty and the charm hadrons decays, the current 1 MHz readout limit is the main bottle neck to run at higher luminosity and with higher trigger efficiencies. LHCb will therefore undergo a major upgrade in LS 2 ( 2018 - 2019) aimed at collecting an order of magnitude more data by 2028. The upgrade consists of a full readout at the LHC bunch crossing rate ( 40 MHz) with the ultimate flexibility of only a software trigger. In order to increase the instantaneous luminosity up to 2x1033cm-2s-1, several sub-detector upgrades are also underway to cope with the higher occupancies and radiation dose.

  12. A Self-Synchronized Optoelectronic Oscillator based on an RTD Photo-Detector and a Laser Diode.

    PubMed

    Romeira, Bruno; Seunarine, Kris; Ironside, Charles N; Kelly, Anthony E; Figueiredo, José M L

    2011-08-15

    We propose and demonstrate a simple and stable low-phase noise optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) that uses a laser diode, an optical fiber delay line and a resonant tunneling diode (RTD) free-running oscillator that is monolithic integrated with a waveguide photo-detector. The RTD-OEO exhibits single-side band phase noise power below -100 dBc/Hz with more than 30 dB noise suppression at 10 kHz from the center free-running frequency for fiber loop lengths around 1.2 km. The oscillator power consumption is below 0.55 W, and can be controlled either by the injected optical power or the fiber delay line. The RTD-OEO stability is achieved without using other high-speed optical/optoelectronic components and amplification. PMID:23814452

  13. The LHCb Silicon Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to the study of heavy flavour physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The primary goal of the experiment is to search for indirect evidence of new physics via measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. The LHCb detector has a large-area silicon micro-strip detector located upstream of a dipole magnet, and three tracking stations with silicon micro-strip detectors in the innermost region downstream of the magnet. These two sub-detectors form the LHCb Silicon Tracker (ST). This paper gives an overview of the performance and operation of the ST during LHC Run 1. Measurements of the observed radiation damage are shown and compared to the expectation from simulation.

  14. The LHCb Turbo stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, A.

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses. This will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during 2015 with a selection of physics analyses. It is anticipated that the turbo stream will be adopted by an increasing number of analyses during the remainder of LHC Run II (2015-2018) and ultimately in Run III (starting in 2020) with the upgraded LHCb detector.

  15. SiC-based Photo-detectors for UV, VUV, EUV and Soft X-ray Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Feng

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing an ideal Silicon Carbide detector for ultraviolet, vacuum ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray detection is shown. The topics include: 1) An ideal photo-detector; 2) Dark current density of SiC photodiodes at room temperature; 3) Dark current in SiC detectors; 4) Resistive and capacitive feedback trans-impedance amplifier; 5) Avalanche gain; 6) Excess noise; 7) SNR in single photon counting mode; 8) Structure of SiC single photon counting APD and testing structure; 9) Single photon counting waveform and testing circuit; 10) Amplitude of SiC single photon counter; 11) Dark count of SiC APD photon counters; 12) Temperature-dependence of dark count rate; 13) Reduce the dark count rate by reducing the breakdown electric field; 14) Spectrum range for SiC detectors; 15) QE curves of Pt/4H-SiC photodiodes; 16) QE curve of SiC; 17) QE curves of SiC photodiode vs. penetration depth; 18) Visible rejection of SiC photodiodes; 19) Advantages of SiC photodiodes; 20) Competitors of SiC detectors; 21) Extraterrestrial solar spectra; 22) Visible-blind EUV detection; 23) Terrestrial solar spectra; and 24) Less than 1KeV soft x-ray detection.

  16. The LHCb Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akar, S.; Lhcb Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    The LHCb experiment is a high-precision spectrometer searching for New Physics via measurements of CP violation and rare decays in the b- and c-quark sector. The quality of the results obtained from the data collected during the first Run of the LHC has demonstrated the excellent performance and the robustness of the detector. In order to significantly increase the statistical precision on theoretically clean observables in the heavy flavor sector, the level of collected data by the LHCb detector must be increased much beyond 1 fb-1 per year. Therefore, it is planned to upgrade the detector, which will allow a 40 MHz readout with a much more flexible software-based triggering system and redesigned sub-detectors.

  17. Charmonia Production at Lhcb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artamonov, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    In this article we present a short review on measurements of charmonia production at the LHCb experiment carried out during 2010, 2011 and 2012 data taking periods. The review covers the production of J/ψ, ψ(2S), χc, J/ψJ/ψ, as well as J/ψ in association with open charm. We also review the measurement of J/ψ polarization. The results are compared to theoretical predictions.

  18. The LHCb detector upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, H.

    2013-12-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, with its installation scheduled for the second long shutdown (LS2) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will transform the data acquisition and processing architecture to a triggerless readout at 40 MHz with subsequent software-based event selection in a CPU farm. In this contribution, an overview of the detector technology options under consideration and the associated challenges is given and selected highlights of the ongoing R&D programme are presented.

  19. LHCb Silicon Tracker infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermoline, Yuri

    2004-02-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is a vital part of the experiment. It consists of four planar stations: one trigger and three inner tracking stations. The operation of the Silicon Tracker detectors and electronics is provided by its infrastructure: cooling system, high- and low-voltage power supply systems, temperature and radiation monitoring systems. Several components of these systems are located in the experimental hall and subjected to radiation. This paper mainly concentrates on the recent development: requirements definition, evaluation of possible implementation scenarios, component choice and component radiation tests.

  20. The LHCb Run Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Barandela, M. C.; Callot, O.; Duval, P.-Y.; Franek, B.; Frank, M.; Galli, D.; Gaspar, C.; Herwijnen, E. v.; Jacobsson, R.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.; Sambade, A.; Schwemmer, R.; Somogyi, P.

    2010-04-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provided to the developers, as well as the first experience with the usage of the Run Control will be presented

  1. The LHCb Trigger System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, E.; LHCb Collaboration

    2007-08-01

    The LHCb detector has been conceived to study with high precision CP violation and rare decays of b-flavoured hadrons produced at the LHC. The LHCb trigger is of crucial importance in selecting the collisions of interest for b-physics studies. The trigger is based on a two-level system. The first level, Level-0, is implemented in hardware and uses information from the calorimeter, muon and pile-up systems to select events containing particles with relatively large transverse momentum, typically above 1-2 GeV. The Level-0 trigger accepts events at a rate of 1 MHz. All the detector information is then read out and fed into the High Level Trigger. This software trigger runs in the event-filter farm composed of about 1800 CPU nodes. Events are selected at a rate of 2 kHz and sent for mass storage and subsequent offline reconstruction and analysis. The current status and expected performance of the trigger system are described.

  2. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so- called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all ’interesting” decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. Methods studied include cascading, ensembling and blending techniques. Furthermore, novel boosting techniques have been implemented that will help reduce systematic uncertainties in Run 2 measurements. We demonstrate that the reoptimized topological trigger is expected to significantly improve on the Run 1 performance for a wide range of b-hadron decays.

  3. Selection of LHCb Physics Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Burkhard

    2013-05-01

    LHCb is a dedicated flavour physics experiment at the LHC searching for physics beyond the Standard Model through precision measurements of CP-violating observables and the study of very rare decays of beauty- and charm-flavoured hadrons. In this article a selection of recent LHCb results is presented. Unless otherwise stated, the results are based on an integrated luminosity of 1 fb-1 accumulated during the year 2011 at √s = 7 TeV.

  4. Rare Decays at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Sam

    2014-04-01

    Rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons provide an effective method of testing the Standard Model and probing possible new physics scenarios. The LHCb experiment has published a variety of interesting results in this field, some of which are presented here. In particular the measurements of the branching fractions of B(s)0 → μ+μ- which, in combination with CMS, resulted in the first observation of the Bs0 → μ+μ- decay. Other topics include searches for the rare decay D0 → μ+μ-, the lepton flavour violating decays B(s)0 → e±μ∓, and the observation of the ψ(4160) resonance in the region of low recoil in B+ → K+μ+μ- decay. New results on the angular analysis of the decay B0 → K*0μ+μ- with form factor independent observables are also shown.

  5. The LHCb VELO upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosil Suárez, Álvaro

    2016-07-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2019, will transform the experiment to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm. The upgraded detector will run at luminosities of 2×1033 cm-2 s-1 and probe physics beyond the Standard Model in the heavy flavour sector with unprecedented precision. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The detector comprises silicon pixel sensors with 55×55 μm2 pitch, read out by the VeloPix ASIC, based on the TimePix/MediPix family. The hottest region will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s yielding a total data rate more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO. The detector modules are located in a separate vacuum, separated from the beam vacuum by a thin custom made foil. The detector halves are retracted when the beams are injected and closed at stable beams, positioning the first sensitive pixel at 5.1 mm from the beams. The material budget will be minimised by the use of evaporative CO2 coolant circulating in microchannels within 400 μm thick silicon substrates.

  6. First results with charmless two-body B-decays at LHCb, and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-22

    LHCb is an experiment which is designed to perform flavour physics measurements at the LHC. Charged two-body charmless B decays (e.g. B^0 -> Kpi, pipi, B_s->KK, etc) receive significant contributions from loop diagrams and are thus sensitive probes of New Physics. Study of these modes is therefore an important physics goal of LHCb. First results will be presented, using around 37 pb^{-1} of data collected at \\sqrt{s}=7 TeV in 2010. These results illustrate the power of the LHCb trigger system and particle identification capabilities of the RICH detectors in isolating clean samples of each final state, and include preliminary measurements of direct CP-violation in certain key modes. The prospects for these measurements in the coming run will be presented. A brief survey will also be given of results and prospect in other areas of the LHCb physics programme.

  7. First results with charmless two-body B-decays at LHCb, and future prospects

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    LHCb is an experiment which is designed to perform flavour physics measurements at the LHC. Charged two-body charmless B decays (e.g. B^0 -> Kpi, pipi, B_s->KK, etc) receive significant contributions from loop diagrams and are thus sensitive probes of New Physics. Study of these modes is therefore an important physics goal of LHCb. First results will be presented, using around 37 pb^{-1} of data collected at \\sqrt{s}=7 TeV in 2010. These results illustrate the power of the LHCb trigger system and particle identification capabilities of the RICH detectors in isolating clean samples of each final state, and include preliminary measurements of direct CP-violation in certain key modes. The prospects for these measurements in the coming run will be presented. A brief survey will also be given of results and prospect in other areas of the LHCb physics programme.

  8. The LHCb Data Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baud, J. P.; Charpentier, Ph; Ciba, K.; Graciani, R.; Lanciotti, E.; Màthè, Z.; Remenska, D.; Santana, R.

    2012-12-01

    The LHCb Data Management System is based on the DIRAC Grid Community Solution. LHCbDirac provides extensions to the basic DMS such as a Bookkeeping System. Datasets are defined as sets of files corresponding to a given query in the Bookkeeping system. Datasets can be manipulated by CLI tools as well as by automatic transformations (removal, replication, processing). A dynamic handling of dataset replication is performed, based on disk space usage at the sites and dataset popularity. For custodial storage, an on-demand recall of files from tape is performed, driven by the requests of the jobs, including disk cache handling. We shall describe the tools that are available for Data Management, from handling of large datasets to basic tools for users as well as for monitoring the dynamic behavior of LHCb Storage capacity.

  9. New Hadronic States at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blusk, Steven

    2015-04-01

    The LHCb experiment has enabled an unprecedentedly large sample of b-hadron decays to be collected and studied in great detail. These samples are being used not only to search for the presence of new physics in the decays of b-hadrons, but to probe the very nature of QCD. In particular, these samples provide a unique laboratory in which to study scalar mesons, such as the f0(980) and the σ, as well as more exotic states, such as the Z(4430) - . In addition, these samples have enabled searches for, and discoveries of, additional excited b-hadron states, such as the Ξb' - and Ξb* - . The speaker will review recent results on new hadronic states studied at LHCb. On behalf of the LHCb Collaboration.

  10. Design and implementation of the Photo-Detector Module electronics for the EUSO-Balloon, prototype of the JEM-EUSO telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, A.

    2015-08-01

    A key feature of the JEM-EUSO observatory for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) search is the electronics, and in particular the Photo-Detector Module (PDM) on the focal surface of an advanced diffractive optical system. As a pathfinder experiment for this space-based mission, over the last 3 years the EUSO-Balloon project has been developed to observe the ultraviolet background from the edge of the atmosphere on board a stratospheric balloon. August 2014, the EUSO Balloon was successfully operated 8-hour balloon flight over Timmins, Ontario, Canada. The EUSO-Balloon experiment uses a detector consisting of one Photo-Detector Module, identical to the 137 modules that will be present on the JEM-EUSO focal surface. UV light generated by ultra high-energy air showers passes the optics, UV filter, and impacts the Multi Anode Photo Multiplier Tubes (MAPMTs). UV photons are converted by the MAPMT photocathode into electrons, which are multiplied by the MAPMTs dynode and fed into a Elementary Cell - Application Specific Integrated Circuit (EC-ASIC) boards. These EC-ASIC boards in turn perform the photon counting and charge estimation, by counting the single photoelectron emitted during each Gate Time Unit (of 2.5 us each). The PDM board interfaces with these ASIC boards, providing them with power and configuration parameters as well as collecting data from the external trigger. In this paper, I will describe the details of the design and the fabrication of the PDM, as well as its EUSO-Balloon flight results.

  11. LHCb Upgrade: Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The evolution of the design since the Technical Design Report in 2014 and the latest R & D results are presented.

  12. Dark photons from charm mesons at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilten, Philip; Thaler, Jesse; Williams, Mike; Xue, Wei

    2015-12-01

    We propose a search for dark photons A' at the LHCb experiment using the charm meson decay D*(2007 )0→D0A'. At nominal luminosity, D*0→D0γ decays will be produced at about 700 kHz within the LHCb acceptance, yielding over 5 trillion such decays during Run 3 of the LHC. Replacing the photon with a kinetically mixed dark photon, LHCb is then sensitive to dark photons that decay as A'→e+e-. We pursue two search strategies in this paper. The displaced strategy takes advantage of the large Lorentz boost of the dark photon and the excellent vertex resolution of LHCb, yielding a nearly background-free search when the A' decay vertex is significantly displaced from the proton-proton primary vertex. The resonant strategy takes advantage of the large event rate for D*0→D0A' and the excellent invariant-mass resolution of LHCb, yielding a background-limited search that nevertheless covers a significant portion of the A' parameter space. Both search strategies rely on the planned upgrade to a triggerless-readout system at LHCb in Run 3, which will permit the identification of low-momentum electron-positron pairs online during data taking. For dark photon masses below about 100 MeV, LHCb can explore nearly all of the dark photon parameter space between existing prompt-A' and beam-dump limits.

  13. LHCb Online event processing and filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Barandela, C.; Brarda, L.; Frank, M.; Franek, B.; Galli, D.; Gaspar, C.; Herwijnen, E. v.; Jacobsson, R.; Jost, B.; Köstner, S.; Moine, G.; Neufeld, N.; Somogyi, P.; Stoica, R.; Suman, S.

    2008-07-01

    The first level trigger of LHCb accepts one million events per second. After preprocessing in custom FPGA-based boards these events are distributed to a large farm of PC-servers using a high-speed Gigabit Ethernet network. Synchronisation and event management is achieved by the Timing and Trigger system of LHCb. Due to the complex nature of the selection of B-events, which are the main interest of LHCb, a full event-readout is required. Event processing on the servers is parallelised on an event basis. The reduction factor is typically 1/500. The remaining events are forwarded to a formatting layer, where the raw data files are formed and temporarily stored. A small part of the events is also forwarded to a dedicated farm for calibration and monitoring. The files are subsequently shipped to the CERN Tier0 facility for permanent storage and from there to the various Tier1 sites for reconstruction. In parallel files are used by various monitoring and calibration processes running within the LHCb Online system. The entire data-flow is controlled and configured by means of a SCADA system and several databases. After an overview of the LHCb data acquisition and its design principles this paper will emphasize the LHCb event filter system, which is now implemented using the final hardware and will be ready for data-taking for the LHC startup. Control, configuration and security aspects will also be discussed.

  14. DIRAC: reliable data management for LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. C.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.

    2008-07-01

    DIRAC, LHCb's Grid Workload and Data Management System, utilizes WLCG resources and middleware components to perform distributed computing tasks satisfying LHCb's Computing Model. The Data Management System (DMS) handles data transfer and data access within LHCb. Its scope ranges from the output of the LHCb Online system to Grid-enabled storage for all data types. It supports metadata for these files in replica and bookkeeping catalogues, allowing dataset selection and localization. The DMS controls the movement of files in a redundant fashion whilst providing utilities for accessing all metadata. To do these tasks effectively the DMS requires complete self integrity between its components and external physical storage. The DMS provides highly redundant management of all LHCb data to leverage available storage resources and to manage transient errors in underlying services. It provides data driven and reliable distribution of files as well as reliable job output upload, utilizing VO Boxes at LHCb Tier1 sites to prevent data loss. This paper presents several examples of mechanisms implemented in the DMS to increase reliability, availability and integrity, highlighting successful design choices and limitations discovered.

  15. LHCb calorimeters high voltage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilitsky, Yu.; Golutvin, A.; Konoplyannikov, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Perret, P.; Schopper, A.; Soldatov, M.; Yakimchuk, V.

    2007-02-01

    The calorimeter system in LHCb aims to identify electrons, photons and hadrons. All calorimeters are equipped with Hamamatsu photo tubes as devices for light to signal conversion. Eight thousand R7899-20 tubes are used for electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and two hundred 64 channels multi-anode R7600-00-M64 for Scintillator-Pad/Preshower detectors. The calorimeter high voltage (HV) system is based on a Cockroft Walton (CW) voltage converter and a control board connected to the Experiment Control System (ECS) by serial bus. The base of each photomultiplier tube (PMT) is built with a high voltage converter and constructed on an individual printed circuit board, using compact surface mount components. The base is attached directly to the PMT. There are no HV cables in the system. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used on the control board as an interface between the ECS and the 200 control channels. The FPGA includes also additional functionalities allowing automated monitoring and ramp up of the high voltage values. This paper describes the HV system architecture, some technical details of the electronics implementation and summarizes the system performance. This safe and low power consumption HV electronic system for the photomultiplier tubes can be used for various biomedical apparatus too.

  16. Proposed Inclusive Dark Photon Search at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilten, Philip; Soreq, Yotam; Thaler, Jesse; Williams, Mike; Xue, Wei

    2016-06-01

    We propose an inclusive search for dark photons A' at the LHCb experiment based on both prompt and displaced dimuon resonances. Because the couplings of the dark photon are inherited from the photon via kinetic mixing, the dark photon A'→μ+μ- rate can be directly inferred from the off-shell photon γ*→μ+μ- rate, making this a fully data-driven search. For run 3 of the LHC, we estimate that LHCb will have sensitivity to large regions of the unexplored dark-photon parameter space, especially in the 210-520 MeV and 10-40 GeV mass ranges. This search leverages the excellent invariant-mass and vertex resolution of LHCb, along with its unique particle-identification and real-time data-analysis capabilities.

  17. The LHCb trigger and its upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziurda, A.

    2016-07-01

    The current LHCb trigger system consists of a hardware level, which reduces the LHC inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz, at which the entire detector is read out. In a second level, implemented in a farm of 20 k parallel-processing CPUs, the event rate is reduced to about 5 kHz. We review the performance of the LHCb trigger system during Run I of the LHC. Special attention is given to the use of multivariate analyses in the High Level Trigger. The major bottleneck for hadronic decays is the hardware trigger. LHCb plans a major upgrade of the detector and DAQ system in the LHC shutdown of 2018, enabling a purely software based trigger to process the full 30 MHz of inelastic collisions delivered by the LHC. We demonstrate that the planned architecture will be able to meet this challenge.

  18. Rare decays at the LHCb experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanfranchi, G.

    2015-01-01

    Rare flavour-changing neutral-current (FCNC) decays of beauty and charm quarks, lepton flavour- and lepton-number-violating decays can provide a powerful probe for as yet unobserved virtual particles. Recent results on these topics from the LHCb experiment are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the angular distribution of the B^0 → K^{*0}μ^+μ^- decay, where a measurement performed by LHCb shows a local discrepancy of 3.7 standard deviations with respect to the SM prediction. Using the decay B+ → K+ π+π- γ , LHCb have also been able to demonstrate the polarisation of photons produced in b → s transitions. An update for the studies dedicated to decays τ+ → μ+ μ- μ+ and B^0_{(s)} → μ^{±} e^{∓} and to the on-shell Majorana neutrinos coupling to muons in the B+ → π- μ+ μ+ decay channel are also presented.

  19. The upstream tracker for the LHCb upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkamp, Olaf

    2016-09-01

    The LHCb collaboration is planning a comprehensive upgrade of the experiment for the long shutdown of the LHC in 2019/20. As part of this upgrade, the tracking station in front of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by a new planar four-layer silicon micro-strip detector with 40 MHz readout and silicon sensors with finer granularity and improved radiation hardness. Key design aspects of this new Upstream Tracker are described and a brief overview of the status of the project is given.

  20. A New Nightly Build System for LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemencic, M.; Couturier, B.

    2014-06-01

    The nightly build system used so far by LHCb has been implemented as an extension of the system developed by CERN PH/SFT group (as presented at CHEP2010). Although this version has been working for many years, it has several limitations in terms of extensibility, management and ease of use, so that it was decided to develop a new version based on a continuous integration system. In this paper we describe a new implementation of the LHCb Nightly Build System based on the open source continuous integration system Jenkins and report on the experience of configuring a complex build workflow in Jenkins.

  1. LHCb Physics and 2010-11 prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Perazzini, Stefano

    2011-10-24

    LHCb is one of the four major experiments operating at the Large Hadron Collider, and is specifically dedicated to the measurement of CP-violation and rare decays in the beauty and charm quark sectors. By employing data from early LHC runs it is possible to assess the performance of the detector and to better understand the potential of the LHCb flavour programme. After a brief introduction of the motivations and of the relevant physics goals, the prospects about key CP-violation and rare decay measurements will be presented. Emphasis will be given to those topics where results with particular sensitivity to New Physics are expected during the 2010-11 run.

  2. The LHCb Detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LHCb Collaboration; Alves, A. Augusto, Jr.; Filho, L. M. Andrade; Barbosa, A. F.; Bediaga, I.; Cernicchiaro, G.; Guerrer, G.; Lima, H. P., Jr.; Machado, A. A.; Magnin, J.; Marujo, F.; de Miranda, J. M.; Reis, A.; Santos, A.; Toledo, A.; Akiba, K.; Amato, S.; de Paula, B.; de Paula, L.; da Silva, T.; Gandelman, M.; Lopes, J. H.; Maréchal, B.; Moraes, D.; Polycarpo, E.; Rodrigues, F.; Ballansat, J.; Bastian, Y.; Boget, D.; DeBonis, I.; Coco, V.; David, P. Y.; Decamp, D.; Delebecque, P.; Drancourt, C.; Dumont-Dayot, N.; Girard, C.; Lieunard, B.; Minard, M. N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Rambure, T.; Rospabe, G.; T'Jampens, S.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bohner, G.; Bonnefoy, R.; Borras, D.; Carloganu, C.; Chanal, H.; Conte, E.; Cornat, R.; Crouau, M.; Delage, E.; Deschamps, O.; Henrard, P.; Jacquet, P.; Lacan, C.; Laubser, J.; Lecoq, J.; Lefèvre, R.; Magne, M.; Martemiyanov, M.; Mercier, M.-L.; Monteil, S.; Niess, V.; Perret, P.; Reinmuth, G.; Robert, A.; Suchorski, S.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Babel, J.; Benchouk, C.; Cachemiche, J.-P.; Cogan, J.; Derue, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Duval, P.-Y.; Garonne, V.; Favard, S.; LeGac, R.; Leon, F.; Leroy, O.; Liotard, P.-L.; Marin, F.; Menouni, M.; Ollive, P.; Poss, S.; Roche, A.; Sapunov, M.; Tocco, L.; Viaud, B.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Amhis, Y.; Barrand, G.; Barsuk, S.; Beigbeder, C.; Beneyton, R.; Breton, D.; Callot, O.; Charlet, D.; D'Almagne, B.; Duarte, O.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jean-Marie, B.; Lefrancois, J.; Machefert, F.; Robbe, P.; Schune, M.-H.; Tocut, V.; Videau, I.; Benayoun, M.; David, P.; DelBuono, L.; Gilles, G.; Domke, M.; Futterschneider, H.; Ilgner, Ch; Kapusta, P.; Kolander, M.; Krause, R.; Lieng, M.; Nedos, M.; Rudloff, K.; Schleich, S.; Schwierz, R.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Warda, K.; Agari, M.; Bauer, C.; Baumeister, D.; Bulian, N.; Fuchs, H. P.; Fallot-Burghardt, W.; Glebe, T.; Hofmann, W.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Löchner, S.; Ludwig, A.; Maciuc, F.; Sanchez Nieto, F.; Schmelling, M.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Sexauer, E.; Smale, N. J.; Trunk, U.; Voss, H.; Albrecht, J.; Bachmann, S.; Blouw, J.; Deissenroth, M.; Deppe, H.; Dreis, H. B.; Eisele, F.; Haas, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Hennenberger, S.; Knopf, J.; Moch, M.; Perieanu, A.; Rabenecker, S.; Rausch, A.; Rummel, C.; Rusnyak, R.; Schiller, M.; Stange, U.; Uwer, U.; Walter, M.; Ziegler, R.; Avoni, G.; Balbi, G.; Bonifazi, F.; Bortolotti, D.; Carbone, A.; D'Antone, I.; Galli, D.; Gregori, D.; Lax, I.; Marconi, U.; Peco, G.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vecchi, S.; Bonivento, W.; Cardini, A.; Cadeddu, S.; DeLeo, V.; Deplano, C.; Furcas, S.; Lai, A.; Oldeman, R.; Raspino, D.; Saitta, B.; Serra, N.; Baldini, W.; Brusa, S.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Evangelisti, F.; Franconieri, A.; Germani, S.; Gianoli, A.; Guoming, L.; Landi, L.; Malaguti, R.; Padoan, C.; Pennini, C.; Savriè, M.; Squerzanti, S.; Zhao, T.; Zhu, M.; Bizzeti, A.; Graziani, G.; Lenti, M.; Lenzi, M.; Maletta, F.; Pennazzi, S.; Passaleva, G.; Veltri, M.; Alfonsi, M.; Anelli, M.; Balla, A.; Battisti, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Campana, P.; Carletti, M.; Ciambrone, P.; Corradi, G.; Dané, E.; Di Virgilio, A.; DeSimone, P.; Felici, G.; Forti, C.; Gatta, M.; Lanfranchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Pistilli, M.; Poli Lener, M.; Rosellini, R.; Santoni, M.; Saputi, A.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Zossi, A.; Ameri, M.; Cuneo, S.; Fontanelli, F.; Gracco, V.; Miní, G.; Parodi, M.; Petrolini, A.; Sannino, M.; Vinci, A.; Alemi, M.; Arnaboldi, C.; Bellunato, T.; Calvi, M.; Chignoli, F.; DeLucia, A.; Galotta, G.; Mazza, R.; Matteuzzi, C.; Musy, M.; Negri, P.; Perego, D.; Pessina, G.; Auriemma, G.; Bocci, V.; Buccheri, A.; Chiodi, G.; Di Marco, S.; Iacoangeli, F.; Martellotti, G.; Nobrega, R.; Pelosi, A.; Penso, G.; Pinci, D.; Rinaldi, W.; Rossi, A.; Santacesaria, R.; Satriano, C.; Carboni, G.; Iannilli, M.; Massafferri Rodrigues, A.; Messi, R.; Paoluzzi, G.; Sabatino, G.; Santovetti, E.; Satta, A.; Amoraal, J.; van Apeldoorn, G.; Arink, R.; van Bakel, N.; Band, H.; Bauer, Th; Berkien, A.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bos, E.; Bron, Ch; Ceelie, L.; Doets, M.; van der Eijk, R.; Fransen, J.-P.; de Groen, P.; Gromov, V.; Hierck, R.; Homma, J.; Hommels, B.; Hoogland, W.; Jans, E.; Jansen, F.; Jansen, L.; Jaspers, M.; Kaan, B.; Koene, B.; Koopstra, J.; Kroes, F.; Kraan, M.; Langedijk, J.; Merk, M.; Mos, S.; Munneke, B.; Palacios, J.; Papadelis, A.; Pellegrino, A.; van Petten, O.; du Pree, T.; Roeland, E.; Ruckstuhl, W.; Schimmel, A.; Schuijlenburg, H.; Sluijk, T.; Spelt, J.; Stolte, J.; Terrier, H.; Tuning, N.; Van Lysebetten, A.; Vankov, P.; Verkooijen, J.; Verlaat, B.; Vink, W.; de Vries, H.; Wiggers, L.; Ybeles Smit, G.; Zaitsev, N.; Zupan, M.; Zwart, A.; van den Brand, J.; Bulten, H. J.; de Jong, M.; Ketel, T.; Klous, S.; Kos, J.; M'charek, B.; Mul, F.; Raven, G.; Simioni, E.; Cheng, J.; Dai, G.; Deng, Z.; Gao, Y.; Gong, G.; Gong, H.; He, J.; Hou, L.; Li, J.; Qian, W.; Shao, B.; Xue, T.; Yang, Z.; Zeng, M.; Muryn, B.; Ciba, K.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Blocki, J.; Galuszka, K.; Hajduk, L.; Michalowski, J.; Natkaniec, Z.; Polok, G.; Stodulski, M.; Witek, M.; Brzozowski, K.; Chlopik, A.; Gawor, P.; Guzik, Z.; Nawrot, A.; Srednicki, A.; Syryczynski, K.; Szczekowski, M.; Anghel, D. V.; Cimpean, A.; Coca, C.; Constantin, F.; Cristian, P.; Dumitru, D. D.; Dumitru, D. T.; Giolu, G.; Kusko, C.; Magureanu, C.; Mihon, Gh; Orlandea, M.; Pavel, C.; Petrescu, R.; Popescu, S.; Preda, T.; Rosca, A.; Rusu, V. L.; Stoica, R.; Stoica, S.; Tarta, P. D.; Filippov, S.; Gavrilov, Yu; Golyshkin, L.; Gushchin, E.; Karavichev, O.; Klubakov, V.; Kravchuk, L.; Kutuzov, V.; Laptev, S.; Popov, S.; Aref'ev, A.; Bobchenko, B.; Dolgoshein, V.; Egorychev, V.; Golutvin, A.; Gushchin, O.; Konoplyannikov, A.; Korolko, I.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Machikhiliyan, I.; Malyshev, S.; Mayatskaya, E.; Prokudin, M.; Rusinov, D.; Rusinov, V.; Shatalov, P.; Shchutska, L.; Tarkovskiy, E.; Tayduganov, A.; Voronchev, K.; Zhiryakova, O.; Bobrov, A.; Bondar, A.; Eidelman, S.; Kozlinsky, A.; Shekhtman, L.; Beloous, K. S.; Dzhelyadin, R. I.; Gelitsky, Yu V.; Gouz, Yu P.; Kachnov, K. G.; Kobelev, A. S.; Matveev, V. D.; Novikov, V. P.; Obraztsov, V. F.; Ostankov, A. P.; Romanovsky, V. I.; Rykalin, V. I.; Soldatov, A. P.; Soldatov, M. M.; Tchernov, E. N.; Yushchenko, O. P.; Bochin, B.; Bondar, N.; Fedorov, O.; Golovtsov, V.; Guets, S.; Kashchuk, A.; Lazarev, V.; Maev, O.; Neustroev, P.; Sagidova, N.; Spiridenkov, E.; Volkov, S.; Vorobyev, An; Vorobyov, A.; Aguilo, E.; Bota, S.; Calvo, M.; Comerma, A.; Cano, X.; Dieguez, A.; Herms, A.; Lopez, E.; Luengo, S.; Garra, J.; Garrido, Ll; Gascon, D.; Gaspar de Valenzuela, A.; Gonzalez, C.; Graciani, R.; Grauges, E.; Perez Calero, A.; Picatoste, E.; Riera, J.; Rosello, M.; Ruiz, H.; Vilasis, X.; Xirgu, X.; Adeva, B.; Cid Vidal, X.; MartÉnez Santos, D.; Esperante Pereira, D.; Fungueiriño Pazos, J. L.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Gómez, C. Lois; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pérez Trigo, E.; Pló Casasús, M.; Rodriguez Cobo, C.; Rodríguez Pérez, P.; Saborido, J. J.; Seco, M.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; Blanc, F.; Borel, J.; Carron, B.; Currat, C.; Conti, G.; Dormond, O.; Ermoline, Y.; Fauland, P.; Fernandez, L.; Frei, R.; Gagliardi, G.; Gueissaz, N.; Haefeli, G.; Hicheur, A.; Jacoby, C.; Jalocha, P.; Jimenez-Otero, S.; Hertig, J.-P.; Knecht, M.; Legger, F.; Locatelli, L.; Moser, J.-R.; Needham, M.; Nicolas, L.; Perrin-Giacomin, A.; Perroud, J.-P.; Potterat, C.; Ronga, F.; Schneider, O.; Schietinger, T.; Steele, D.; Studer, L.; Tareb, M.; Tran, M. T.; van Hunen, J.; Vervink, K.; Villa, S.; Zwahlen, N.; Bernet, R.; Büchler, A.; Gassner, J.; Lehner, F.; Sakhelashvili, T.; Salzmann, C.; Sievers, P.; Steiner, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Straumann, U.; van Tilburg, J.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Ziegler, M.; Dovbnya, A.; Ranyuk, Yu; Shapoval, I.; Borisova, M.; Iakovenko, V.; Kyva, V.; Kovalchuk, O.; Okhrimenko, O.; Pugatch, V.; Pylypchenko, Yu; Adinolfi, M.; Brook, N. H.; Head, R. D.; Imong, J. P.; Lessnoff, K. A.; Metlica, F. C. D.; Muir, A. J.; Rademacker, J. H.; Solomin, A.; Szczypka, P. M.; Barham, C.; Buszello, C.; Dickens, J.; Gibson, V.; Haines, S.; Harrison, K.; Jones, C. R.; Katvars, S.; Kerzel, U.; Lazzeroni, C.; Li, Y. Y.; Rogers, G.; Storey, J.; Skottowe, H.; Wotton, S. A.; Adye, T. J.; Densham, C. J.; Easo, S.; Franek, B.; Loveridge, P.; Morrow, D.; Morris, J. V.; Nandakumar, R.; Nardulli, J.; Papanestis, A.; Patrick, G. N.; Ricciardi, S.; Woodward, M. L.; Zhang, Z.; Chamonal, R. J. U.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, P.; Eisenhardt, S.; Gilardi, N.; Khan, A.; Kim, Y. M.; Lambert, R.; Lawrence, J.; Main, A.; McCarron, J.; Mclean, C.; Muheim, F.; Osorio-Oliveros, A. F.; Playfer, S.; Styles, N.; Xie, Y.; Bates, A.; Carson, L.; da Cunha Marinho, F.; Doherty, F.; Eklund, L.; Gersabeck, M.; Haddad, L.; Macgregor, A. A.; Melone, J.; McEwan, F.; Petrie, D. M.; Paterson, S. K.; Parkes, C.; Pickford, A.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rodrigues, E.; Saavedra, A. F.; Soler, F. J. P.; Szumlak, T.; Viret, S.; Allebone, L.; Awunor, O.; Back, J.; Barber, G.; Barnes, C.; Cameron, B.; Clark, D.; Clark, I.; Dornan, P.; Duane, A.; Eames, C.; Egede, U.; Girone, M.; Greenwood, S.; Hallam, R.; Hare, R.; Howard, A.; Jolly, S.; Kasey, V.; Khaleeq, M.; Koppenburg, P.; Miller, D.; Plackett, R.; Price, D.; Reece, W.; Savage, P.; Savidge, T.; Simmons, B.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Websdale, D.; Affolder, A.; Anderson, J. S.; Biagi, S. F.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Carroll, J. L.; Casse, G.; Cooke, P.; Donleavy, S.; Dwyer, L.; Hennessy, K.; Huse, T.; Hutchcroft, D.; Jones, D.; Lockwood, M.; McCubbin, M.; McNulty, R.; Muskett, D.; Noor, A.; Patel, G. D.; Rinnert, K.; Shears, T.; Smith, N. A.; Southern, G.; Stavitski, I.; Sutcliffe, P.; Tobin, M.; Traynor, S. M.; Turner, P.; Whitley, M.; Wormald, M.; Wright, V.; Bibby, J. H.; Brisbane, S.; Brock, M.; Charles, M.; Cioffi, C.; Gligorov, V. V.; Handford, T.; Harnew, N.; Harris, F.; John, M. J. J.; Jones, M.; Libby, J.; Martin, L.; McArthur, I. A.; Muresan, R.; Newby, C.; Ottewell, B.; Powell, A.; Rotolo, N.; Senanayake, R. S.; Somerville, L.; Soroko, A.; Spradlin, P.; Sullivan, P.; Stokes-Rees, I.; Topp-Jorgensen, S.; Xing, F.; Wilkinson, G.; Artuso, M.; Belyaev, I.; Blusk, S.; Lefeuvre, G.; Menaa, N.; Menaa-Sia, R.; Mountain, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Abadie, L.; Aglieri-Rinella, G.; Albrecht, E.; André, J.; Anelli, G.; Arnaud, N.; Augustinus, A.; Bal, F.; Barandela Pazos, M. C.; Barczyk, A.; Bargiotti, M.; Batista Lopes, J.; Behrendt, O.; Berni, S.; Binko, P.; Bobillier, V.; Braem, A.; Brarda, L.; Buytaert, J.; Camilleri, L.; Cambpell, M.; Castellani, G.; Cataneo, F.; Cattaneo, M.; Chadaj, B.; Charpentier, P.; Cherukuwada, S.; Chesi, E.; Christiansen, J.; Chytracek, R.; Clemencic, M.; Closier, J.; Collins, P.; Colrain, P.; Cooke, O.; Corajod, B.; Corti, G.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Damodaran, B.; David, C.; de Capua, S.; Decreuse, G.; Degaudenzi, H.; Dijkstra, H.; Droulez, J.-P.; Duarte Ramos, D.; Dufey, J. P.; Dumps, R.; Eckstein, D.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Flegel, W.; Forty, R.; Fournier, C.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Gaidioz, B.; Gaspar, C.; Gayde, J.-C.; Gavillet, P.; Go, A.; Gracia Abril, G.; Graulich, J.-S.; Giudici, P.-A.; Guirao Elias, A.; Guglielmini, P.; Gys, T.; Hahn, F.; Haider, S.; Harvey, J.; Hay, B.; Hernando Morata, J.-A.; Herranz Alvarez, J.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hilke, H. J.; von Holtey, G.; Hulsbergen, W.; Jacobsson, R.; Jamet, O.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Kanaya, N.; Knaster Refolio, J.; Koestner, S.; Koratzinos, M.; Kristic, R.; Lacarrère, D.; Lasseur, C.; Lastovicka, T.; Laub, M.; Liko, D.; Lippmann, C.; Lindner, R.; Losasso, M.; Maier, A.; Mair, K.; Maley, P.; Mato Vila, P.; Moine, G.; Morant, J.; Moritz, M.; Moscicki, J.; Muecke, M.; Mueller, H.; Nakada, T.; Neufeld, N.; Ocariz, J.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Parzefall, U.; Patel, M.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Piedigrossi, D.; Pivk, M.; Pokorski, W.; Ponce, S.; Ranjard, F.; Riegler, W.; Renaud, J.; Roiser, S.; Rossi, A.; Roy, L.; Ruf, T.; Ruffinoni, D.; Saladino, S.; Sambade Varela, A.; Santinelli, R.; Schmelling, S.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, T.; Schöning, A.; Schopper, A.; Seguinot, J.; Snoeys, W.; Smith, A.; Smith, A. C.; Somogyi, P.; Stoica, R.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, E.; Toledo Alarcon, J.; Ullaland, O.; Valassi, A.; Vannerem, P.; Veness, R.; Wicht, P.; Wiedner, D.; Witzeling, W.; Wright, A.; Wyllie, K.; Ypsilantis, T.

    2008-08-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva). The initial configuration and expected performance of the detector and associated systems, as established by test beam measurements and simulation studies, is described.

  3. The LHCb silicon tracker: running experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saornil Gamarra, S.

    2013-02-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is part of the main tracking system of the LHCb detector at the LHC. It measures very precisely the particle trajectories coming from the interaction point in the region of high occupancies around the beam axis. It covers the full acceptance angle in front of the dipole magnet in the Tracker Turicensis station and the innermost part around the beam axis in the three Inner Tracker stations downstream of the magnet. The Silicon Tracker covers a sensitive area of 12 m2 using silicon micro-strip sensors with very long readout strips. We report on running experience for the experiment. Focussing on electronic and hardware issues we describe some of the lessons learned and pitfalls encountered after three years of successful operation.

  4. The LHCb DAQ interface board TELL1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefeli, G.; Bay, A.; Gong, A.; Gong, H.; Muecke, M.; Neufeld, N.; Schneider, O.

    2006-05-01

    We have developed an electronic board (TELL1) to interface the DAQ system of the LHCb experiment at CERN. 289 TELL1 boards are needed to read out the different subdetectors. Each board can handle either 64 analog or 24 digital optical links. The TELL1 mother board provides common mode correction, zero suppression, data formatting, and a large network interface buffer. To satisfy the different requirements we have adopted a flexible FPGA design and made use of mezzanine cards. Mezzanines are used for data input from digital optical and analog copper links as well as for the Gigabit Ethernet interface to DAQ. The LHCb timing and trigger control signals are transported by a dedicated optical link, while the board slow-control is provided by an embedded PC running a Linux kernel.

  5. Upgrade of the Upstream Tracker at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Jason; LHCb Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded to allow it operate at higher collider luminosity without the need for a hardware trigger stage. Flavor enriched events will be selected in a software based, high level trigger, using fully reconstructed events. This presentation will describe the design, optimization and the expected performance of the Upstream Tracker (UT), which has a critical role in high level trigger scheme.

  6. Pentaquarks and possible anomalies at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafferty, G.

    2016-07-01

    With the LHC Run 1 data, the LHCb experiment discovered two pentaquark states and has evidence for a number of possible anomalies in the flavour sector. The possible anomalies include indications of violations of lepton flavour universality, deviations from Standard Model predictions in several B-meson decay modes that are mediated by flavour-changing neutral currents, and further evidence for a discrepancy between inclusive and exclusive measurements of the CKM matrix element |Vub|.

  7. Overview of the Lhcb Calorimeter Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machefert, Frédéric

    2005-02-01

    The goal of the LHCb calorimeter electronics is twofold. It provides a fast response for the first level trigger on the nature and characteristics of the particles produced in the B meson decay and gives precision measurements for the offline analysis. Stringent constraints are imposed on the electronics whose noise and pile-up effect must remain low, in spite of the high data sample rate and of its location (just above the detector), in a high radiation level area.

  8. DAQ Architecture for the LHCb Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoming; Neufeld, Niko

    2014-06-01

    LHCb will have an upgrade of its detector in 2018. After the upgrade, the LHCb experiment will run at a high luminosity of 2 × 1033 cm-2s-1. The upgraded detector will be read out at 40 MHz with a highly flexible software-based triggering strategy. The Data Acquisition (DAQ) system of LHCb reads out the data fragments from the Front-End Electronics and transports them to the High-Lever Trigger farm at an aggregate throughput of ~ 32 Tbit/s. The DAQ system will be based on high speed network technologies such as InfiniBand and/or 10/40/100 Gigabit Ethernet. Independent of the network technology, there are different possible architectures for the DAQ system. In this paper, we present our studies on the DAQ architecture, where we analyze size, complexity and relative cost. We evaluate and compare several data-flow schemes for a network-based DAQ: push, pull and push with barrel-shifter traffic shaping. We also discuss the requirements and overall implications of the data-flow schemes on the DAQ system.

  9. ARIADNE: a Tracking System for Relationships in LHCb Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoval, I.; Clemencic, M.; Cattaneo, M.

    2014-06-01

    The data processing model of the LHCb experiment implies handling of an evolving set of heterogeneous metadata entities and relationships between them. The entities range from software and databases states to architecture specificators and software/data deployment locations. For instance, there is an important relationship between the LHCb Conditions Database (CondDB), which provides versioned, time dependent geometry and conditions data, and the LHCb software, which is the data processing applications (used for simulation, high level triggering, reconstruction and analysis of physics data). The evolution of CondDB and of the LHCb applications is a weakly-homomorphic process. It means that relationships between a CondDB state and LHCb application state may not be preserved across different database and application generations. These issues may lead to various kinds of problems in the LHCb production, varying from unexpected application crashes to incorrect data processing results. In this paper we present Ariadne - a generic metadata relationships tracking system based on the novel NoSQL Neo4j graph database. Its aim is to track and analyze many thousands of evolving relationships for cases such as the one described above, and several others, which would otherwise remain unmanaged and potentially harmful. The highlights of the paper include the system's implementation and management details, infrastructure needed for running it, security issues, first experience of usage in the LHCb production and potential of the system to be applied to a wider set of LHCb tasks.

  10. RICH upgrade: Current status and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistone, A.; LHCb RICH Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva). The second long shutdown of the LHC is currently scheduled to begin in 2018. During this period the LHCb experiment with all its sub-detectors will be upgraded in order to run at an instantaneous luminosity of 2 × 10^{33} cm-2s-1 and to read out data at a rate of 40MHz into a flexible software-based trigger. The Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) system will require new photon detectors and modifications of the optics of the upstream detector. Tests of the prototype of the smallest constituent of the new RICH system have been performed during testbeam sessions at the Test Beam Facility SPS North Area (CERN) in Autumn 2014.

  11. SIMD studies in the LHCb reconstruction software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cámpora Pérez, Daniel Hugo; Couturier, Ben

    2015-12-01

    During the data taking process in the LHC at CERN, millions of collisions are recorded every second by the LHCb Detector. The LHCb Online computing farm, counting around 15000 cores, is dedicated to the reconstruction of the events in real-time, in order to filter those with interesting Physics. The ones kept are later analysed Offline in a more precise fashion on the Grid. This imposes very stringent requirements on the reconstruction software, which has to be as efficient as possible. Modern CPUs support so-called vector-extensions, which extend their Instruction Sets, allowing for concurrent execution across functional units. Several libraries expose the Single Instruction Multiple Data programming paradigm to issue these instructions. The use of vectorisation in our codebase can provide performance boosts, leading ultimately to Physics reconstruction enhancements. In this paper, we present vectorisation studies of significant reconstruction algorithms. A variety of vectorisation libraries are analysed and compared in terms of design, maintainability and performance. We also present the steps taken to systematically measure the performance of the released software, to ensure the consistency of the run-time of the vectorised software.

  12. Upgrade of the LHCb Vertex Locator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leflat, A.

    2014-08-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2018, will transform the entire readout to a trigger-less system operating at 40 MHz. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm, with access to all event information. This will enable the detector to run at luminosities of 1-2 × 1033/cm2/s and probe physics beyond the Standard Model in the heavy sector with unprecedented precision. The upgraded VELO must be low mass, radiation hard and vacuum compatible. It must be capable of fast pattern recognition and track reconstruction and will be required to drive data to the outside world at speeds of up to 2.5 Tbit/s. This challenge is being met with a new Vertex Locator (VELO) design based on hybrid pixel detectors positioned to within 5 mm of the LHC colliding beams. The sensors have 55 × 55 μm square pixels and the VELOPix ASIC which is being developed for the readout is based on the Timepix/Medipix family of chips. The hottest ASIC will have to cope with pixel hit rates of up to 900 MHz. The material budget will be optimised with the use of evaporative CO2 coolant circulating in microchannels within a thin silicon substrate. Microchannel cooling brings many advantages: very efficient heat transfer with almost no temperature gradients across the module, no CTE mismatch with silicon components, and low material contribution. This is a breakthrough technology being developed for LHCb. LHCb is also focussing effort on the construction of a lightweight foil to separate the primary and secondary LHC vacua, the development of high speed cables and radiation qualification of the module. The 40 MHz readout will also bring significant conceptual changes to the way in which the upgrade trigger is operated. Work is in progress to incorporate momentum and impact parameter information into the trigger at the earliest possible stage, using the fast pattern recognition capabilities of the upgraded detector. The current status of the VELO upgrade will

  13. Performance of the LHCb Outer Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Outer Tracker is a gaseous detector covering an area of 5 × 6 m2 with 12 double layers of straw tubes. The detector with its services are described together with the commissioning and calibration procedures. Based on data of the first LHC running period from 2010 to 2012, the performance of the readout electronics and the single hit resolution and efficiency are presented. The efficiency to detect a hit in the central half of the straw is estimated to be 99.2%, and the position resolution is determined to be approximately 200 μm. The Outer Tracker received a dose in the hottest region corresponding to 0.12 C/cm, and no signs of gain deterioration or other ageing effects are observed.

  14. Performance of the Muon Identification at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archilli, F.; Baldini, W.; Bencivenni, G.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Cadeddu, S.; Campana, P.; Cardini, A.; Ciambrone, P.; Cid Vidal, X.; Deplano, C.; De Simone, P.; Falabella, A.; Frosini, M.; Furcas, S.; Furfaro, E.; Gandelman, M.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Graziani, G.; Lai, A.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lopes, J. H.; Maev, O.; Manca, G.; Martellotti, G.; Massafferri, A.; Milanes, D.; Oldeman, R.; Palutan, M.; Passaleva, G.; Pinci, D.; Polycarpo, E.; Santacesaria, R.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satta, A.; Schmidt, B.; Sciascia, B.; Soomro, F.; Sciubba, A.; Vecchi, S.

    2013-10-01

    The performance of the muon identification in LHCb is extracted from data using muons and hadrons produced in J/ψ → μ+μ-, Λ0 → pπ- and Dstar+→π+D0(K-π+) decays. The muon identification procedure is based on the pattern of hits in the muon chambers. A momentum dependent binary requirement is used to reduce the probability of hadrons to be misidentified as muons to the level of 1%, keeping the muon efficiency in the range of 95-98%. As further refinement, a likelihood is built for the muon and non-muon hypotheses. Adding a requirement on this likelihood that provides a total muon efficiency at the level of 93%, the hadron misidentification probabilities are below 0.6%.

  15. Tracking system of the upgraded LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obłąkowska-Mucha, A.; Szumlak, T.

    2016-07-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment will run at an instantaneous luminosity up to 2 ×1033cm-2s-1 with a fully software based trigger, allowing us to read out the detector at a rate of 40 MHz. For this purpose, the full tracking system will be newly developed: the vertex locator (VELO) will be replaced by a pixel-based detector providing an excellent track reconstruction with an efficiency of above 99%. Upstream of the magnet, a silicon micro-strip detector with a high granularity and an improved acceptance, called the Upstream Tracker (UT) will be placed. The tracking system downstream of the magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre tracker (SciFi), which will consist of 12 layers using 2.5 m long scintillating fibres read out by silicon photo-multipliers.

  16. Developments towards the LHCb VELO upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid Vidal, Xabier

    2016-09-01

    The Vertex Locator (VELO) is a silicon strip detector surrounding the interaction region of the LHCb experiment. The upgrade of the VELO is planned to be installed in 2019-2020, and the current detector will be replaced by a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at a rate of 40 MHz. The new detector is designed to withstand the radiation dose expected at an integrated luminosity of 50 fb-1. The detector will be composed of silicon pixel sensors, read out by the VeloPix ASIC that is being developed based on the TimePix/MediPix family. The prototype sensors for the VELO upgrade are being irradiated in five different facilities and the post-irradiation performance is being measured with testbeams, and in the lab. These proceedings present the VELO upgrade and briefly discuss the results of the sensor testing campaign.

  17. The light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding proteins Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 play complementary roles during state transitions in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pietrzykowska, Malgorzata; Suorsa, Marjaana; Semchonok, Dmitry A; Tikkanen, Mikko; Boekema, Egbert J; Aro, Eva-Mari; Jansson, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    Photosynthetic light harvesting in plants is regulated by phosphorylation-driven state transitions: functional redistributions of the major trimeric light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) to balance the relative excitation of photosystem I and photosystem II. State transitions are driven by reversible LHCII phosphorylation by the STN7 kinase and PPH1/TAP38 phosphatase. LHCII trimers are composed of Lhcb1, Lhcb2, and Lhcb3 proteins in various trimeric configurations. Here, we show that despite their nearly identical amino acid composition, the functional roles of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 are different but complementary. Arabidopsis thaliana plants lacking only Lhcb2 contain thylakoid protein complexes similar to wild-type plants, where Lhcb2 has been replaced by Lhcb1. However, these do not perform state transitions, so phosphorylation of Lhcb2 seems to be a critical step. In contrast, plants lacking Lhcb1 had a more profound antenna remodeling due to a decrease in the amount of LHCII trimers influencing thylakoid membrane structure and, more indirectly, state transitions. Although state transitions are also found in green algae, the detailed architecture of the extant seed plant light-harvesting antenna can now be dated back to a time after the divergence of the bryophyte and spermatophyte lineages, but before the split of the angiosperm and gymnosperm lineages more than 300 million years ago. PMID:25194026

  18. The Light-Harvesting Chlorophyll a/b Binding Proteins Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 Play Complementary Roles during State Transitions in Arabidopsis[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pietrzykowska, Malgorzata; Suorsa, Marjaana; Semchonok, Dmitry A.; Tikkanen, Mikko; Boekema, Egbert J.; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic light harvesting in plants is regulated by phosphorylation-driven state transitions: functional redistributions of the major trimeric light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) to balance the relative excitation of photosystem I and photosystem II. State transitions are driven by reversible LHCII phosphorylation by the STN7 kinase and PPH1/TAP38 phosphatase. LHCII trimers are composed of Lhcb1, Lhcb2, and Lhcb3 proteins in various trimeric configurations. Here, we show that despite their nearly identical amino acid composition, the functional roles of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 are different but complementary. Arabidopsis thaliana plants lacking only Lhcb2 contain thylakoid protein complexes similar to wild-type plants, where Lhcb2 has been replaced by Lhcb1. However, these do not perform state transitions, so phosphorylation of Lhcb2 seems to be a critical step. In contrast, plants lacking Lhcb1 had a more profound antenna remodeling due to a decrease in the amount of LHCII trimers influencing thylakoid membrane structure and, more indirectly, state transitions. Although state transitions are also found in green algae, the detailed architecture of the extant seed plant light-harvesting antenna can now be dated back to a time after the divergence of the bryophyte and spermatophyte lineages, but before the split of the angiosperm and gymnosperm lineages more than 300 million years ago. PMID:25194026

  19. A natural origin for the LHCb anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megías, Eugenio; Panico, Giuliano; Pujolàs, Oriol; Quirós, Mariano

    2016-09-01

    The anomalies recently found by the LHCb collaboration in B-meson decays seem to point towards the existence of new physics coupled non-universally to muons and electrons. We show that a beyond-the-Standard-Model dynamics with these features naturally arises in models with a warped extra-dimension that aim to solve the electroweak Hierarchy Problem. The attractiveness of our set-up is the fact that the dynamics responsible for generating the flavor anomalies is automatically present, being provided by the massive Kaluza-Klein excitations of the electroweak gauge bosons. The flavor anomalies can be easily reproduced by assuming that the bottom and muon fields have a sizable amount of compositeness, while the electron is almost elementary. Interestingly enough, this framework correlates the flavor anomalies to a pattern of corrections in the electroweak observables and in flavor-changing processes. In particular the deviations in the bottom and muon couplings to the Z-boson and in Δ F = 2 flavor-changing observables are predicted to be close to the present experimental bounds, and thus potentially testable in near-future experiments.

  20. LHCb Build and Deployment Infrastructure for run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemencic, M.; Couturier, B.

    2015-12-01

    After the successful run 1 of the LHC, the LHCb Core software team has taken advantage of the long shutdown to consolidate and improve its build and deployment infrastructure. Several of the related projects have already been presented like the build system using Jenkins, as well as the LHCb Performance and Regression testing infrastructure. Some components are completely new, like the Software Configuration Database (using the Graph DB Neo4j), or the new packaging installation using RPM packages. Furthermore all those parts are integrated to allow easier and quicker releases of the LHCb Software stack, therefore reducing the risk of operational errors. Integration and Regression tests are also now easier to implement, allowing to improve further the software checks.

  1. Performance and upgrade plans of the LHCb trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gligorov, V. V.; LHCb Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The trigger of the LHCb experiment consists of two stages: an initial hardware trigger, and a high-level trigger implemented in a farm of parallel-processing CPUs. It reduces the event rate from an input of 15 MHz to an output rate of around 4 kHz. In order to maximize efficiencies and minimize biases, the trigger is designed around inclusive selection algorithms, culminating in a novel boosted decision tree which enables the efficient selection of beauty hadron decays based on a robust partial reconstruction of their decay products. In order to improve performance, the LHCb upgrade aims to significantly increase the rate at which the detector will be read out, and hence shift more of the workload onto the high-level trigger. It is demonstrated that the current high-level trigger architecture will be able to meet this challenge, and the expected efficiencies in several key channels are discussed in context of the LHCb upgrade.

  2. B-physics prospects with the LHCb experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Harnew, N.

    2008-04-15

    This paper summarizes the B-physics prospects of the LHCb experiment. Firstly, a brief introduction to the CKM matrix and the mechanism of CP violation in the Standard Model is given. The advantages of the LHCb experiment for B-physics exploitation will then be described, together with a short description of the detector components. Finally, the LHCb physics aims and prospects will be summarized, focusing on the measurements of sin(2{beta}) in tree and gluonic penguin diagrams, sin(2{alpha}) in B{sub d}{sup 0} {sup {yields}} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, neutral B-meson oscillations and the B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing phase, and the measurement of {gamma} using a variety of complementary methods.

  3. CP violation in charm and beauty decays at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe Altarelli, M.

    2013-08-01

    LHCb is a dedicated heavy flavour physics precision experiment at the LHC searching for New Physics (NP) beyond the Standard Model (SM) through the study of very rare decays of beauty and charm-flavoured hadrons and precision measurements of CP-violating observables. In this review I will present a selection of recent precision measurements of CP-violating observables in the decays of beauty and charm-flavoured hadrons. These measurements are based on an integrated luminosity of up to 1.0 fb collected by LHCb in 2011.

  4. Performance of the LHCb Vertex Locator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Affolder, A.; Akiba, K.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Appleby, R. B.; Artuso, M.; Bates, A.; Bay, A.; Behrendt, O.; Benton, J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Bogdanova, G.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; van den Brand, J.; Brown, H.; Buytaert, J.; Callot, O.; Carroll, J.; Casse, G.; Collins, P.; De Capua, S.; Doets, M.; Donleavy, S.; Dossett, D.; Dumps, R.; Eckstein, D.; Eklund, L.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Frei, R.; Garofoli, J.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Gong, A.; Gong, H.; Gordon, H.; Haefeli, G.; Harrison, J.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Hulsbergen, W.; Huse, T.; Hutchcroft, D.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, P.; Jans, E.; John, M.; Keaveney, J.; Ketel, T.; Korolev, M.; Kraan, M.; Laštovička, T.; Lafferty, G.; Latham, T.; Lefeuvre, G.; Leflat, A.; Liles, M.; van Lysebetten, A.; MacGregor, G.; Marinho, F.; McNulty, R.; Merkin, M.; Moran, D.; Mountain, R.; Mous, I.; Mylroie-Smith, J.; Needham, M.; Nikitin, N.; Noor, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Papadelis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Patel, G. D.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Redford, S.; Reid, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rodrigues, E.; Saavedra, A. F.; Schiller, M.; Schneider, O.; Shears, T.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Smith, N. A.; Szumlak, T.; Thomas, C.; van Tilburg, J.; Tobin, M.; Velthuis, J.; Verlaat, B.; Viret, S.; Volkov, V.; Wallace, C.; Wang, J.; Webber, A.; Whitehead, M.; Zverev, E.

    2014-09-01

    The Vertex Locator (VELO) is a silicon microstrip detector that surrounds the proton-proton interaction region in the LHCb experiment. The performance of the detector during the first years of its physics operation is reviewed. The system is operated in vacuum, uses a bi-phase CO2 cooling system, and the sensors are moved to 7 mm from the LHC beam for physics data taking. The performance and stability of these characteristic features of the detector are described, and details of the material budget are given. The calibration of the timing and the data processing algorithms that are implemented in FPGAs are described. The system performance is fully characterised. The sensors have a signal to noise ratio of approximately 20 and a best hit resolution of 4 μm is achieved at the optimal track angle. The typical detector occupancy for minimum bias events in standard operating conditions in 2011 is around 0.5%, and the detector has less than 1% of faulty strips. The proximity of the detector to the beam means that the inner regions of the n+-on-n sensors have undergone space-charge sign inversion due to radiation damage. The VELO performance parameters that drive the experiment's physics sensitivity are also given. The track finding efficiency of the VELO is typically above 98% and the modules have been aligned to a precision of 1 μm for translations in the plane transverse to the beam. A primary vertex resolution of 13 μm in the transverse plane and 71 μm along the beam axis is achieved for vertices with 25 tracks. An impact parameter resolution of less than 35 μm is achieved for particles with transverse momentum greater than 1 GeV/c.

  5. Virtualization for the LHCb Online system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, Enrico; Brarda, Loic; Moine, Gary; Neufeld, Niko

    2011-12-01

    Virtualization has long been advertised by the IT-industry as a way to cut down cost, optimise resource usage and manage the complexity in large data-centers. The great number and the huge heterogeneity of hardware, both industrial and custom-made, has up to now led to reluctance in the adoption of virtualization in the IT infrastructure of large experiment installations. Our experience in the LHCb experiment has shown that virtualization improves the availability and the manageability of the whole system. We have done an evaluation of available hypervisors / virtualization solutions and find that the Microsoft HV technology provides a high level of maturity and flexibility for our purpose. We present the results of these comparison tests, describing in detail, the architecture of our virtualization infrastructure with a special emphasis on the security for services visible to the outside world. Security is achieved by a sophisticated combination of VLANs, firewalls and virtual routing - the cost and benefits of this solution are analysed. We have adapted our cluster management tools, notably Quattor, for the needs of virtual machines and this allows us to migrate smoothly services on physical machines to the virtualized infrastructure. The procedures for migration will also be described. In the final part of the document we describe our recent R&D activities aiming to replacing the SAN-backend for the virtualization by a cheaper iSCSI solution - this will allow to move all servers and related services to the virtualized infrastructure, excepting the ones doing hardware control via non-commodity PCI plugin cards.

  6. Onia and onia-like states at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passaleva, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    We present recent LHCb results of studies on the production of J/ψ and χc charmonium states, of Υ bottomonia and on J/ψ polarization in proton-proton collisions at √s. Results on J/ψ production in proton-lead collisions are also presented.

  7. On the anomalies in the latest LHCb data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurth, T.; Mahmoudi, F.; Neshatpour, S.

    2016-08-01

    Depending on the assumptions on the power corrections to the exclusive b → sℓ+ℓ- decays, the latest data of the LHCb Collaboration - based on the 3 fb-1 data set and on two different experimental analysis methods - still shows some tensions with the Standard Model predictions. We present a detailed analysis of the theoretical inputs and various global fits to all the available b → sℓ+ℓ- data. This constitutes the first global analysis of the new data of the LHCb Collaboration based on the hypothesis that these tensions can be at least partially explained by new physics contributions. In our model-independent analysis we present one-, two-, four-, and also five-dimensional global fits in the space of Wilson coefficients to all available b → sℓ+ℓ- data. We also compare the two different experimental LHCb analyses of the angular observables in B →K*μ+μ-. We explicitly analyse the dependence of our results on the assumptions about power corrections, but also on the errors present in the form factor calculations. Moreover, based on our new global fits we present predictions for ratios of observables which may show a sign of lepton non-universality. Their measurements would crosscheck the LHCb result on the ratio RK = BR (B+ →K+μ+μ-) / BR (B+ →K+e+e-) in the low-q2 region which deviates from the SM prediction by 2.6σ.

  8. Integration of Cloud resources in the LHCb Distributed Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Úbeda García, Mario; Méndez Muñoz, Víctor; Stagni, Federico; Cabarrou, Baptiste; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Charpentier, Philippe; Closier, Joel

    2014-06-01

    This contribution describes how Cloud resources have been integrated in the LHCb Distributed Computing. LHCb is using its specific Dirac extension (LHCbDirac) as an interware for its Distributed Computing. So far, it was seamlessly integrating Grid resources and Computer clusters. The cloud extension of DIRAC (VMDIRAC) allows the integration of Cloud computing infrastructures. It is able to interact with multiple types of infrastructures in commercial and institutional clouds, supported by multiple interfaces (Amazon EC2, OpenNebula, OpenStack and CloudStack) - instantiates, monitors and manages Virtual Machines running on this aggregation of Cloud resources. Moreover, specifications for institutional Cloud resources proposed by Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), mainly by the High Energy Physics Unix Information Exchange (HEPiX) group, have been taken into account. Several initiatives and computing resource providers in the eScience environment have already deployed IaaS in production during 2013. Keeping this on mind, pros and cons of a cloud based infrasctructure have been studied in contrast with the current setup. As a result, this work addresses four different use cases which represent a major improvement on several levels of our infrastructure. We describe the solution implemented by LHCb for the contextualisation of the VMs based on the idea of Cloud Site. We report on operational experience of using in production several institutional Cloud resources that are thus becoming integral part of the LHCb Distributed Computing resources. Furthermore, we describe as well the gradual migration of our Service Infrastructure towards a fully distributed architecture following the Service as a Service (SaaS) model.

  9. Evolutionary loss of light-harvesting proteins Lhcb6 and Lhcb3 in major land plant groups--break-up of current dogma.

    PubMed

    Kouřil, Roman; Nosek, Lukáš; Bartoš, Jan; Boekema, Egbert J; Ilík, Petr

    2016-05-01

    Photosynthesis in plants and algae relies on the coordinated function of photosystems (PS) I and II. Their efficiency is augmented by finely-tuned light-harvesting proteins (Lhcs) connected to them. The most recent Lhcs (in evolutionary terms), Lhcb6 and Lhcb3, evolved during the transition of plants from water to land and have so far been considered to be an essential characteristic of land plants. We used single particle electron microscopy and sequence analysis to study architecture and composition of PSII supercomplex from Norway spruce and related species. We have found that there are major land plant families that lack functional lhcb6 and lhcb3 genes, which notably changes the organization of PSII supercomplexes. The Lhcb6 and Lhcb3 proteins have been lost in the gymnosperm genera Picea and Pinus (family Pinaceae) and Gnetum (Gnetales). We also revealed that the absence of these proteins in Norway spruce modifies the PSII supercomplex in such a way that it resembles its counterpart in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, an evolutionarily older organism. Our results break a deep-rooted concept of Lhcb6 and Lhcb3 proteins being the essential characteristic of land plants, and beg the question of what the evolutionary benefit of their loss could be. PMID:27001142

  10. Automated wire tension measurement system for LHCb muon chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciambrone, P.; Dané, E.; Dumps, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Felici, G.; Forti, C.; Frenkel, A.; Graulich, J.-S.; Kachtchouk, A.; Kulikov, V. V.; Martellotti, G.; Medvedkov, A.; Nedosekin, A. A.; Penso, G.; Pinci, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Schmidt, B.; Shubin, V.

    2005-06-01

    A wire tension meter has been developed for the multi-wire proportional chambers of the LHCb muon detector. The wire tension is deduced from its mechanical resonance frequency. In the LHCb muon chambers, the wires are 2 mm apart and electrically connected in groups of 3-32, so that the wire excitation system must be precisely positioned with respect to the wire to be tested. This wire is forced to oscillate by a periodic high voltage applied between that wire and a non-oscillating "sense wire" placed parallel and close to it. This oscillation produces a variation of the capacitance between these two wires which is measured by a high precision digital electronic circuit. At the resonance frequency this capacitance variation is maximum. The system has been systematically investigated and its parameters were optimized. In the range 0.4-1 N a good agreement is found between the mechanical tension measured by this system and by a dynamometer.

  11. Search for New Physics in rare decays at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Johannes

    2013-08-01

    Rare heavy flavor decays provide stringent tests of the Standard Model of particle physics and allow to test for possible new Physics scenarios. The LHCb experiment at CERN is the ideal place for these searches as it has recorded the worlds largest sample of beauty mesons. The status of the rare decay analyses with 1 fb of √{s}=7 TeV of pp-collisions collected by the LHCb experiment in 2011 is reviewed. The worlds most precise measurements of the angular structure of B0→K*0μ+μ- decays is discussed, as well as the isospin asymmetry measurement in B→Kμ+μ- decays. The most stringent upper exclusion limit on the branching fraction of Bs0→μ+μ- decays is shown, as well as searches for lepton number and lepton flavor violating processes.

  12. Comparative Investigation of Shared Filesystems for the LHCb Online Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijay Kartik, S.; Neufeld, Niko

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes the investigative study undertaken to evaluate shared filesystem performance and suitability in the LHCb Online environment. Particular focus is given to the measurements and field tests designed and performed on an in-house OpenAFS setup; related comparisons with NFSv4 and GPFS (a clustered filesystem from IBM) are presented. The motivation for the investigation and the test setup arises from the need to serve common user-space like home directories, experiment software and control areas, and clustered log areas. Since the operational requirements on such user-space are stringent in terms of read-write operations (in frequency and access speed) and unobtrusive data relocation, test results are presented with emphasis on file-level performance, stability and “high-availability” of the shared filesystems. Use cases specific to the experiment operation in LHCb, including the specific handling of shared filesystems served to a cluster of 1500 diskless nodes, are described. Issues of prematurely expiring authenticated sessions are explicitly addressed, keeping in mind long-running analysis jobs on the Online cluster. In addition, quantitative test results are also presented with alternatives including NFSv4. Comparative measurements of filesystem performance benchmarks are presented, which are seen to be used as reference for decisions on potential migration of the current storage solution deployed in the LHCb online cluster.

  13. Jobs masonry in LHCb with elastic Grid Jobs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagni, F.; Charpentier, Ph

    2015-12-01

    In any distributed computing infrastructure, a job is normally forbidden to run for an indefinite amount of time. This limitation is implemented using different technologies, the most common one being the CPU time limit implemented by batch queues. It is therefore important to have a good estimate of how much CPU work a job will require: otherwise, it might be killed by the batch system, or by whatever system is controlling the jobs’ execution. In many modern interwares, the jobs are actually executed by pilot jobs, that can use the whole available time in running multiple consecutive jobs. If at some point the available time in a pilot is too short for the execution of any job, it should be released, while it could have been used efficiently by a shorter job. Within LHCbDIRAC, the LHCb extension of the DIRAC interware, we developed a simple way to fully exploit computing capabilities available to a pilot, even for resources with limited time capabilities, by adding elasticity to production MonteCarlo (MC) simulation jobs. With our approach, independently of the time available, LHCbDIRAC will always have the possibility to execute a MC job, whose length will be adapted to the available amount of time: therefore the same job, running on different computing resources with different time limits, will produce different amounts of events. The decision on the number of events to be produced is made just in time at the start of the job, when the capabilities of the resource are known. In order to know how many events a MC job will be instructed to produce, LHCbDIRAC simply requires three values: the CPU-work per event for that type of job, the power of the machine it is running on, and the time left for the job before being killed. Knowing these values, we can estimate the number of events the job will be able to simulate with the available CPU time. This paper will demonstrate that, using this simple but effective solution, LHCb manages to make a more efficient use of

  14. VeloPix: the pixel ASIC for the LHCb upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poikela, T.; De Gaspari, M.; Plosila, J.; Westerlund, T.; Ballabriga, R.; Buytaert, J.; Campbell, M.; Llopart, X.; Wyllie, K.; Gromov, V.; van Beuzekom, M.; Zivkovic, V.

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb Vertex Detector (VELO) will be upgraded in 2018 along with the other subsystems of LHCb in order to enable full readout at 40 MHz, with the data fed directly to the software triggering algorithms. The upgraded VELO is a lightweight hybrid pixel detector operating in vacuum in close proximity to the LHC beams. The readout will be provided by a dedicated front-end ASIC, dubbed VeloPix, matched to the LHCb readout requirements and the 55 × 55 μm VELO pixel dimensions. The chip is closely related to the Timepix3, from the Medipix family of ASICs. The principal challenge that the chip has to meet is a hit rate of up to 900 Mhits/s, resulting in a required output bandwidth of more than 16 Gbit/s. The occupancy across the chip is also very non-uniform, and the radiation levels reach an integrated 400 Mrad over the lifetime of the detector.VeloPix is a binary pixel readout chip with a data driven readout, designed in 130 nm CMOS technology. The pixels are combined into groups of 2 × 4 super pixels, enabling a shared logic and a reduction of bandwidth due to combined address and time stamp information. The pixel hits are combined with other simultaneous hits in the same super pixel, time stamped, and immediately driven off-chip. The analog front-end must be sufficiently fast to accurately time stamp the data, with a small enough dead time to minimize data loss in the most occupied regions of the chip. The data is driven off chip with a custom designed high speed serialiser. The current status of the ASIC design, the chip architecture and the simulations will be described.

  15. Measurements of the LHCb software stack on the ARM architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijay Kartik, S.; Couturier, Ben; Clemencic, Marco; Neufeld, Niko

    2014-06-01

    The ARM architecture is a power-efficient design that is used in most processors in mobile devices all around the world today since they provide reasonable compute performance per watt. The current LHCb software stack is designed (and thus expected) to build and run on machines with the x86/x86_64 architecture. This paper outlines the process of measuring the performance of the LHCb software stack on the ARM architecture - specifically, the ARMv7 architecture on Cortex-A9 processors from NVIDIA and on full-fledged ARM servers with chipsets from Calxeda - and makes comparisons with the performance on x86_64 architectures on the Intel Xeon L5520/X5650 and AMD Opteron 6272. The paper emphasises the aspects of performance per core with respect to the power drawn by the compute nodes for the given performance - this ensures a fair real-world comparison with much more 'powerful' Intel/AMD processors. The comparisons of these real workloads in the context of LHCb are also complemented with the standard synthetic benchmarks HEPSPEC and Coremark. The pitfalls and solutions for the non-trivial task of porting the source code to build for the ARMv7 instruction set are presented. The specific changes in the build process needed for ARM-specific portions of the software stack are described, to serve as pointers for further attempts taken up by other groups in this direction. Cases where architecture-specific tweaks at the assembler lever (both in ROOT and the LHCb software stack) were needed for a successful compile are detailed - these cases are good indicators of where/how the software stack as well as the build system can be made more portable and multi-arch friendly. The experience gained from the tasks described in this paper are intended to i) assist in making an informed choice about ARM-based server solutions as a feasible low-power alternative to the current compute nodes, and ii) revisit the software design and build system for portability and generic improvements.

  16. Prospects for studying penguin decays in LHCb experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barsuk, S. Ya. Pakhlova, G. V. Belyaev, I. M.

    2006-04-15

    Investigation of loop penguin decays of beauty hadrons seems promising in testing the predictions of the Standard Model of electroweak and strong interactions and in seeking new phenomena beyond the Standard Model. The possibility of studying the radiative penguin decays B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} K*{sup 0}{gamma}, B{sup 0}{sub s} {sup {yields}} {phi}{gamma}, and B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} {omega}{gamma} and the gluonic penguin decays B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} {phi}K{sup 0}{sub S} and B{sup 0}{sub s} {sup {yields}} {phi}{phi} in LHCb experiments is discussed.

  17. Measurement of the CP-violating phase γ at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopman, R. F.; LHCb Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The CKM phase γ is the angle of the unitarity triangle which is least well known. To reach the highest sensitivity to its value, all currently available measurements using hadronic tree decays by LHCb are combined, resulting in γ=(73 ^{+9}_{-10})°. The combination includes results from measurements of time-integrated CP violation in B^{±}→ Dh^{±} and B0→ DK^{*0} decays, with h a pion or kaon, and from a time-dependent measurement of CP violation using Bs0→ Ds^{±}K^{∓} decays.

  18. A Review of Recent Results on Quarkonium Production at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe Altarelli, Monica

    2014-04-01

    A selection of LHCb results is presented on the production of heavy quarkonium states in pp collisions, including results on J/ψ and ϓ production at √s = 8 TeV, the measurement of prompt J/ψ polarisation, the production of χc mesons from converted photons, exclusive charmonium production, double J/ψ production, as well as recent results on J/ψ production in proton-lead collisions at √sNN = 5 TeV.

  19. Disk storage management for LHCb based on Data Popularity estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hushchyn, Mikhail; Charpentier, Philippe; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an algorithm providing recommendations for optimizing the LHCb data storage. The LHCb data storage system is a hybrid system. All datasets are kept as archives on magnetic tapes. The most popular datasets are kept on disks. The algorithm takes the dataset usage history and metadata (size, type, configuration etc.) to generate a recommendation report. This article presents how we use machine learning algorithms to predict future data popularity. Using these predictions it is possible to estimate which datasets should be removed from disk. We use regression algorithms and time series analysis to find the optimal number of replicas for datasets that are kept on disk. Based on the data popularity and the number of replicas optimization, the algorithm minimizes a loss function to find the optimal data distribution. The loss function represents all requirements for data distribution in the data storage system. We demonstrate how our algorithm helps to save disk space and to reduce waiting times for jobs using this data.

  20. New mechanisms for double charmed meson production at the LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciuła, Rafał; Saleev, Vladimir A.; Shipilova, Alexandra V.; Szczurek, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    We discuss production of D0D0 (and Dbar0Dbar0) pairs related to the LHCb Collaboration results for √{ s} = 7 TeV in proton-proton scattering. We consider double-parton scattering (DPS) mechanisms of double c c bar production and subsequent cc →D0D0 hadronization as well as double g and mixed gc c bar production with gg →D0D0 and gc →D0D0 hadronization calculated with the help of the scale-dependent hadronization functions of Kniehl et al. Single-parton scattering (SPS) mechanism of digluon production is also taken into account. We compare our results with several correlation observables in azimuthal angle φD0D0 between D0 mesons or in dimeson invariant mass MD0D0. The inclusion of new mechanisms with g →D0 fragmentation leads to larger cross sections, than when including only DPS mechanism cc →D0D0 with standard scale-independent fragmentation functions. Some consequences of the presence of the new mechanisms are discussed. In particular a larger σeff is needed to describe the LHCb data. There is a signature that σeff may depend on transverse momentum of c quarks and/or c bar antiquarks.

  1. VeloPix ASIC development for LHCb VELO upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beuzekom, M.; Buytaert, J.; Campbell, M.; Collins, P.; Gromov, V.; Kluit, R.; Llopart, X.; Poikela, T.; Wyllie, K.; Zivkovic, V.

    2013-12-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2018, will transform the readout of the entire experiment to a triggerless system operating at 40 MHz. All data reduction algorithms will be run in a high level software farm, and will have access to event information from all subdetectors. This approach will give great power and flexibility in accessing the physics channels of interest in the future, in particular the identification of flavour tagged events with displaced vertices. The data acquisition and front end electronics systems require significant modification to cope with the enormous throughput of data. For the silicon vertex locator (VELO) a dedicated development is underway for a new ASIC, VeloPix, which will be a derivative of the Timepix/Medipix family of chips. The chip will be radiation hard and be able to cope with pixel hit rates of above 500 MHz, highly non-uniformly distributed over the 2 cm2 chip area. The chip will incorporate local intelligence in the pixels for time-over-threshold measurements, time-stamping and sparse readout. It must in addition be low power, radiation hard, and immune to single event upsets. In order to cope with the datarates and use the pixel area most effectively, an on-chip data compression scheme will integrated. This paper will describe the requirements of the LHCb VELO upgrade, and give an overview of the digital architecture being developed specifically for the readout chip.

  2. LHCb experience with running jobs in virtual machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, A.; Stagni, F.; Luzzi, C.

    2015-12-01

    The LHCb experiment has been running production jobs in virtual machines since 2013 as part of its DIRAC-based infrastructure. We describe the architecture of these virtual machines and the steps taken to replicate the WLCG worker node environment expected by user and production jobs. This relies on the uCernVM system for providing root images for virtual machines. We use the CernVM-FS distributed filesystem to supply the root partition files, the LHCb software stack, and the bootstrapping scripts necessary to configure the virtual machines for us. Using this approach, we have been able to minimise the amount of contextualisation which must be provided by the virtual machine managers. We explain the process by which the virtual machine is able to receive payload jobs submitted to DIRAC by users and production managers, and how this differs from payloads executed within conventional DIRAC pilot jobs on batch queue based sites. We describe our operational experiences in running production on VM based sites managed using Vcycle/OpenStack, Vac, and HTCondor Vacuum. Finally we show how our use of these resources is monitored using Ganglia and DIRAC.

  3. More lepton flavor violating observables for LHCb's run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagnoli, Diego; Melikhov, Dmitri; Reboud, Méril

    2016-09-01

    The RK measurement by LHCb suggests non-standard lepton non-universality (LNU) to occur in b → sℓ+ℓ- transitions, with effects in muons rather than electrons. A number of other measurements of b → sℓ+ℓ- transitions by LHCb and B-factories display disagreement with the SM predictions and, remarkably, these discrepancies are consistent in magnitude and sign with the RK effect. Non-standard LNU suggests non-standard lepton flavor violation (LFV) as well, for example in B → Kℓℓ‧ and Bs → ℓℓ‧. There are good reasons to expect that the new effects may be larger for generations closer to the third one. In this case, the Bs → μe decay may be the most difficult to reach experimentally. We propose and study in detail the radiative counterpart of this decay, namely Bs → μeγ, whereby the chiral-suppression factor is replaced by a factor of order α / π. A measurement of this mode would be sensitive to the same physics as the purely leptonic LFV decay and, depending on experimental efficiencies, it may be more accessible. A realistic expectation is a factor of two improvement in statistics for either of the Bd,s modes.

  4. The LHCb Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger Processing Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Gaspar, C.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.

    2015-12-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN collects collisions of particle bunches at 40 MHz. After a first level of hardware trigger with an output rate of 1 MHz, the physically interesting collisions are selected by running dedicated trigger algorithms in the High Level Trigger (HLT) computing farm. This farm consists of up to roughly 25000 CPU cores in roughly 1750 physical nodes each equipped with up to 4 TB local storage space. This work describes the LHCb online system with an emphasis on the developments implemented during the current long shutdown (LS1). We will elaborate the architecture to treble the available CPU power of the HLT farm and the technicalities to determine and verify precise calibration and alignment constants which are fed to the HLT event selection procedure. We will describe how the constants are fed into a two stage HLT event selection facility using extensively the local disk buffering capabilities on the worker nodes. With the installed disk buffers, the CPU resources can be used during periods of up to ten days without beams. These periods in the past accounted to more than 70% of the total time.

  5. Time Structure Analysis of the LHCb DAQ Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antichi, G.; Bruyere, M.; Cámpora Pérez, D. H.; Liu, G.; Neufeld, N.; Giordano, S.; Owezarski, P.; Moore, A. W.

    2014-06-01

    The LHCb DAQ Network is a real time high performance network, in which 350 data sources send data over a Gigabit Ethernet LAN to more than 1500 receiving nodes. The aggregated throughput of the application, called Event Building, is more than 60 Gbps. The protocol employed by LHCb makes the sending nodes transmit simultaneously portions of events to one receiving node at a time, which is selected using a credit-token scheme. The resulting traffic is very bursty and sensitive to irregularities in the temporal distribution of packet-bursts to the same destination or region of the network. In order to study the relevant properties of such a dataflow, a non-disruptive monitoring setup based on a networking capable FPGA (Netfpga) has been deployed. The Netfpga allows order of hundred nano-second precise time-stamping of packets. We study in detail the timing structure of the Event Building communication, and we identify potential effects of micro-bursts like buffer packet drops or jitter.

  6. Time-dependent C P violation measurements with B decays at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perazzini, S.

    2016-01-01

    LHCb is one of the four major experiments operating at the Large Hadron Collider, and is specifically dedicated to the measurement of CP violation and rare decays in the beauty and charm quark sectors. In this report we present some of the latest and most relevant measurements of time-dependent CP violation in B hadron decays, performed by LHCb using the data sample collected during 2011 and 2012.

  7. Detailed performance of the Outer Tracker at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuning, N.

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Outer Tracker is a gaseous detector covering an area of 5 × 6 m2 with 12 double layers of straw tubes. Based on data of the first LHC running period from 2010 to 2012, the performance in terms of the single hit resolution and efficiency are presented. Details on the ionization length and subtle effects regarding signal reflections and the subsequent time-walk correction are given. The efficiency to detect a hit in the central half of the straw is estimated to be 99.2%, and the position resolution is determined to be approximately 200 μm, depending on the detailed implementation of the internal alignment of individual detector modules. The Outer Tracker received a dose in the hottest region corresponding to 0.12 C/cm, and no signs of gain deterioration or other ageing effects are observed.

  8. Identification of beauty and charm quark jets at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The LHCb Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    Identification of jets originating from beauty and charm quarks is important for measuring Standard Model processes and for searching for new physics. The performance of algorithms developed to select b- and c-quark jets is measured using data recorded by LHCb from proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV in 2011 and at √s = 8 TeV in 2012. The efficiency for identifying a b(c) jet is about 65%(25%) with a probability for misidentifying a light-parton jet of 0.3% for jets with transverse momentum pT > 20GeV and pseudorapidity 2.2 < η < 4.2. The dependence of the performance on the pT and η of the jet is also measured.

  9. A History-based Estimation for LHCb job requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauschmayr, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    The main goal of a Workload Management System (WMS) is to find and allocate resources for the given tasks. The more and better job information the WMS receives, the easier will be to accomplish its task, which directly translates into higher utilization of resources. Traditionally, the information associated with each job, like expected runtime, is defined beforehand by the Production Manager in best case and fixed arbitrary values by default. In the case of LHCb's Workload Management System no mechanisms are provided which automate the estimation of job requirements. As a result, much more CPU time is normally requested than actually needed. Particularly, in the context of multicore jobs this presents a major problem, since single- and multicore jobs shall share the same resources. Consequently, grid sites need to rely on estimations given by the VOs in order to not decrease the utilization of their worker nodes when making multicore job slots available. The main reason for going to multicore jobs is the reduction of the overall memory footprint. Therefore, it also needs to be studied how memory consumption of jobs can be estimated. A detailed workload analysis of past LHCb jobs is presented. It includes a study of job features and their correlation with runtime and memory consumption. Following the features, a supervised learning algorithm is developed based on a history based prediction. The aim is to learn over time how jobs’ runtime and memory evolve influenced due to changes in experiment conditions and software versions. It will be shown that estimation can be notably improved if experiment conditions are taken into account.

  10. The LHCb DIRAC-based production and data management operations systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagni, F.; Charpentier, P.; LHCb Collaboration

    2012-06-01

    The LHCb computing model was designed in order to support the LHCb physics program, taking into account LHCb specificities (event sizes, processing times etc...). Within this model several key activities are defined, the most important of which are real data processing (reconstruction, stripping and streaming, group and user analysis), Monte-Carlo simulation and data replication. In this contribution we detail how these activities are managed by the LHCbDIRAC Data Transformation System. The LHCbDIRAC Data Transformation System leverages the workload and data management capabilities provided by DIRAC, a generic community grid solution, to support data-driven workflows (or DAGs). The ability to combine workload and data tasks within a single DAG allows to create highly sophisticated workflows with the individual steps linked by the availability of data. This approach also provides the advantage of a single point at which all activities can be monitored and controlled. While several interfaces are currently supported (including python API and CLI), we will present the ability to create LHCb workflows through a secure web interface, control their state in addition to creating and submitting jobs. To highlight the versatility of the system we present in more detail experience with real data of the 2010 and 2011 LHC run.

  11. The LHCb Experience on the Grid from the DIRAC Accounting Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casajús, Adrian; Graciani, Ricardo; Puig, Albert; Vázquez, Ricardo; LHCb Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    DIRAC is the software framework developed by LHCb to manage all its computing operations on the Grid. Since 2003 it has been used for large scale Monte Carlo simulation productions and for user analysis of these data. Since the end of 2009, with the start-up of LHC, DIRAC also takes care of the distribution, reconstruction, selection and analysis of the physics data taken by the detector apparatus. During 2009, DIRAC executed almost 5 million jobs for LHCb. In order to execute this workload slightly over 6 million of pilot jobs were submitted, out of which approximately one third were aborted by the Grid infrastructure. In 2010, thanks to their improved efficiency, DIRAC pilots are able, on average, to match and execute between 2 and 3 LHCb jobs during their lifetime, largely reducing the load on the Grid infrastructure. Given the large amount of submitted jobs and used resources, it becomes essential to store detailed information about their execution to track the behaviour of the system. The DIRAC Accounting system takes care, among other things, to collect and store data concerning the execution of jobs and pilots, making it available to everyone via the public interface of the LHCb DIRAC web portal in the form of time-binned accumulated distributions. The analysis of the raw accounting data stored allow us to improve and debug the system performance, as well as, to give a detailed picture on how LHCb uses its Grid resources. A new tool has been developed to extract the raw records from the DIRAC Accounting database and to transform them into ROOT files for subsequent study. This contribution presents an analysis of such data both for LHCb jobs and the corresponding pilots, including resource usage, number of pilots per job, job efficiency and other relevant variables that will help to further improving the LHCb Grid experience.

  12. An LHCb general-purpose acquisition board for beam and background monitoring at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Guzik, Z.; Jacobsson, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we will present an LHCb custom-made acquisition board which was developed for a continuous beam and background monitoring during LHC operations at CERN. The paper describes both the conceptual design and its performance, and concludes with results from the first period of beam operations at the LHC. The main purpose of the acquisition board is to process signals from a pair of beam pickups to continuously monitor the intensity of each bunch, and to monitor the phase of the arrival time of each proton bunch with respect to the LHC bunch clock. The extreme versatility of the board also allowed the LHCb experiment to build a high-speed and high-sensitivity readout system for a fast background monitor based on a pair of plastic scintillators. The board has demonstrated very good performance and proved to be conceptually valid during the first months of operations at the LHC. Connected to the beam pickups, it provides the LHCb experiment with a real-time measurement of the total intensity of each beam and of the arrival time of each beam at the LHCb Interaction Point. It also monitors the LHC filling scheme and the beam current per bunch at a continuous rate of 40 MHz, and assures a proper global timing of LHCb. The continuous readout of the scintillators at bunch clock speed provides the LHCb experiment with high-resolution information about the beam halo and fast losses during both injection and circulating beam. It has also provided valuable information to the LHC during machine commissioning with beam. Recent results also shows that it could contribute as a luminosity monitor independent from the LHCb experiment readout system. Beam, background and luminosity measurements are continuously fed back to the LHC in the data exchange framework between the experiments and the LHC machine aimed at improving efficiently the experimental conditions real-time.

  13. A new readout control system for the LHCb upgrade at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Jacobsson, R.

    2012-11-01

    The LHCb experiment has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity. The entire readout architecture will be upgraded in order to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate and higher network load. In this paper, we describe the architecture, functionalities and a first hardware implementation of a new fast Readout Control system for the LHCb upgrade, which will be entirely based on FPGAs and bi-directional links. We also outline the real-time implementations of the new Readout Control system, together with solutions on how to handle the synchronous distribution of timing and synchronous information to the complex upgraded LHCb readout architecture. One section will also be dedicated to the control and usage of the newly developed CERN GBT chipset to transmit fast and slow control commands to the upgraded LHCb Front-End electronics. At the end, we outline the plans for the deployment of the system in the global LHCb upgrade readout architecture.

  14. Optimization of Large Scale HEP Data Analysis in LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remenska, Daniela; Aaij, Roel; Raven, Gerhard; Merk, Marcel; Templon, Jeff; Bril, Reinder J.; LHCb Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    Observation has lead to a conclusion that the physics analysis jobs run by LHCb physicists on a local computing farm (i.e. non-grid) require more efficient access to the data which resides on the Grid. Our experiments have shown that the I/O bound nature of the analysis jobs in combination with the latency due to the remote access protocols (e.g. rfio, dcap) cause a low CPU efficiency of these jobs. In addition to causing a low CPU efficiency, the remote access protocols give rise to high overhead (in terms of amount of data transferred). This paper gives an overview of the concept of pre-fetching and caching of input files in the proximity of the processing resources, which is exploited to cope with the I/O bound analysis jobs. The files are copied from Grid storage elements (using GridFTP), while concurrently performing computations, inspired from a similar idea used in the ATLAS experiment. The results illustrate that this file staging approach is relatively insensitive to the original location of the data, and a significant improvement can be achieved in terms of the CPU efficiency of an analysis job. Dealing with scalability of such a solution on the Grid environment is discussed briefly.

  15. The LHCb Simulation Application, Gauss: Design, Evolution and Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemencic, M.; Corti, G.; Easo, S.; Jones, C. R.; Miglioranzi, S.; Pappagallo, M.; Robbe, P.; LHCb Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The LHCb simulation application, Gauss, is based on the Gaudi framework and on experiment basic components such as the Event Model and Detector Description. Gauss also depends on external libraries for the generation of the primary events (PYTHIA 6, EvtGen, etc.) and on GEANT4 for particle transport in the experimental setup. The application supports the production of different types of events from minimum bias to B physics signals and particle guns. It is used for purely generator-level studies as well as full simulations. Gauss is used both directly by users and in massive central productions on the grid. The design and implementation of the application and its evolution due to evolving requirements will be described as in the case of the recently adopted Python-based configuration or the possibility of taking into account detectors conditions via a Simulation Conditions database. The challenge of supporting at the same time the flexibililty needed for the different tasks for which it is used, from evaluation of physics reach to background modeling, together with the stability and reliabilty of the code will also be described.

  16. TORCH - Cherenkov and Time-of-Flight PID Detector for the LHCb Upgrade at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föhl, K.; Brook, N.; Castillo García, L.; Conneely, T.; Cussans, D.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gao, R.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Milnes, J.; Piedigrossi, D.; Rademacker, J.; Ros Garcì a, A.; van Dijk, M.

    2016-05-01

    TORCH is a large-area precision time-of-flight detector, based on Cherenkov light production and propagation in a quartz radiator plate, which is read out at its edges. TORCH is proposed for the LHCb experiment at CERN to provide positive particle identification for kaons, and is currently in the Research-and-Development phase. A brief overview of the micro-channel plate photon sensor development, the custom-made electronics, and an introduction to the current test beam activities is given. Optical readout solutions are presented for the potential use of BaBar DIRC bar boxes as part of the TORCH configuration in LHCb.

  17. Preparation and commissioning of LHCb for the Run II of LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, A.

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb experiment has performed very well during the Run I of the LHC, producing a large number of relevant physics results on a wide range of topics. The preparation and commissioning of the LHCb experiment for Run II is discussed here, with special emphasis on the changes in the trigger strategy and the addition of a new sub-detector to improve the physics reach of the experiment. An overview of the commissioning with the first collisions delivered by the LHC is also included.

  18. An Information System to Access Status Information of the LHCb Online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Gaspar, C.

    2012-12-01

    The LHCb collaboration consists of roughly 700 physicists from 52 institutes and universities. Most of the collaborating physicists - including subdetector experts - are not permanently based at CERN. This paper describes the architecture used to publish data internal to the LHCb experiment control- and data acquisition system to the World Wide Web. Collaborators can access the online (sub-) system status and the system performance directly from the institute abroad, from home or from a smart phone without the need of direct access to the online computing infrastructure.

  19. Interpretation of axial resonances in J /ψ -ϕ at the LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiani, L.; Polosa, A. D.; Riquer, V.

    2016-09-01

    We suggest that the J /ψ ϕ structures observed by LHCb can be fitted in two tetraquak multiplets, the S -wave ground state and the first radial excitation, with composition [c s ][c ¯s ¯]. When compared to the previously identified [c q ][c ¯q ¯] multiplet, the observed masses agree with that expected for a multiplet with q →s . We propose the X (4274 ) , fitted by LHCb with a single 1++ resonance, to correspond rather to two, almost degenerate, unresolved lines with JP C=0++,2++ . Masses of missing particles in the 1 S and 2 S multiplets are predicted.

  20. Implementing a Domain Specific Language to configure and run LHCb Continuous Integration builds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemencic, M.; Couturier, B.

    2015-12-01

    The new LHCb nightly build system described at CHEP 2013 was limited by the use of JSON files for its configuration. JSON had been chosen as a temporary solution to maintain backward compatibility towards the old XML format by means of a translation function. Modern languages like Python leverage on meta-programming techniques to enable the development of Domain Specific Languages (DSLs). In this contribution we will present the advantages of such techniques and how they have been used to implement a DSL that can be used to both describe the configuration of the LHCb Nightly Builds and actually operate them.

  1. The Next Generation of Photo-Detectors for Particle Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Robert G.; Byrum, Karen L.; Sanchez, Mayly; Vaniachine, Alexandre V.; Siegmund, Oswald; Otte, Nepomuk A.; Ramberg, Erik; Hall, Jeter; Buckley, James

    2009-04-01

    We advocate support of research aimed at developing alternatives to the photomultiplier tube for photon detection in large astroparticle experiments such as gamma-ray and neutrino astronomy, and direct dark matter detectors. Specifically, we discuss the development of large area photocathode microchannel plate photomultipliers and silicon photomultipliers. Both technologies have the potential to exhibit improved photon detection efficiency compared to existing glass vacuum photomultiplier tubes.

  2. The next generation of photo-detector for particle astrophysics.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R. G.; Byrum, K. L.; Sanchez, M.; Vaniachine, A. V.; Siegmund, O.; Otte, N.A.; Ramberg, E.; Hall, J.; Buckley, J.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of California at Berkeley; FNAL; Washington Univ.

    2009-06-02

    We advocate support of research aimed at developing alternatives to the photomultiplier tube for photon detection in large astroparticle experiments such as gamma-ray and neutrino astronomy, and direct dark matter detectors. Specifically, we discuss the development of large area photocathode microchannel plate photomultipliers and silicon photomultipliers. Both technologies have the potential to exhibit improved photon detection efficiency compared to existing glass vacuum photomultiplier tubes.

  3. SCD's cooled and uncooled photo detectors for NIR SWIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraenkel, Rami; Aronov, Daniel; Benny, Yael; Berkowicz, Eyal; Bykov, Leonid; Calahorra, Zipi; Fishman, Tal; Giladi, Avihoo; Ilan, Elad; Klipstein, Philip; Langof, Lidia; Lukomsky, Inna; Mistele, David; Mizrahi, Udi; Nussinson, Dan; Twitto, Avi; Yassen, Michael; Zemel, Ami

    2012-06-01

    Short wavelength Infra Red (SWIR) imaging has gained considerable interest in recent years. The main applications among others are: active imaging and LADAR, enhanced vision systems, low light level imaging and security surveillance systems. In this paper we will describe SCD's considerable efforts in this spectral region, addressing several platforms: 1. Extension of the mature InSb MWIR product line operating at 80K (cut-off wavelength of 5.4μm). 2. Extension of our new XBnn InAsSb "bariode" technology operating at 150K (cut-off of 4.1μm). 3. Development of InGaAs detectors for room temperature operation (cut-off of 1.7μm) 4. Development of a SNIR ROIC with a low noise imaging mode and unique laser-pulse detection modes. In the first section we will present our latest achievements for the cooled detectors where the SWIR region is combined with MWIR response. Preliminary results for the NIR-VIS region are presented where advanced substrate removal techniques are implemented on flip-chip hybridized focal plane arrays. In the second part we will demonstrate our VGA, 15μm pitch, InGaAs arrays with dark current density below 1.5nA/cm2 at 280K. The InGaAs array is hybridized to the SNIR ROIC, thus offering the capability of low SWaP systems with laser-pulse detection modes.

  4. The PCIe-based readout system for the LHCb experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachemiche, J. P.; Duval, P. Y.; Hachon, F.; Le Gac, R.; Réthoré, F.

    2016-02-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to study differences between particles and anti-particles as well as very rare decays in the beauty and charm sector at the LHC. The detector will be upgraded in 2019 in order to significantly increase its efficiency, by removing the first-level hardware trigger. The upgrade experiment will implement a trigger-less readout system in which all the data from every LHC bunch-crossing are transported to the computing farm over 12000 optical links without hardware filtering. The event building and event selection are carried out entirely in the farm. Another original feature of the system is that data transmitted through these fibres arrive directly to computers through a specially designed PCIe card called PCIe40. The same board handles the data acquisition flow and the distribution of fast and slow controls to the detector front-end electronics. It embeds one of the most powerful FPGAs currently available on the market with 1.2 million logic cells. The board has a bandwidth of 480 Gbits/s in both input and output over optical links and 100 Gbits/s over the PCI Express bus to the CPU. We will present how data circulate through the board and in the PC server for achieving the event building. We will focus on specific issues regarding the design of such a board with a very large FPGA, in particular in terms of power supply dimensioning and thermal simulations. The features of the board will be detailed and we will finally present the first performance measurements.

  5. The specific localizations of phosphorylated Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 isoforms reveal the role of Lhcb2 in the formation of the PSI-LHCII supercomplex in Arabidopsis during state transitions.

    PubMed

    Crepin, Aurelie; Caffarri, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    State transitions are an important photosynthetic short-term response that maintains the excitation balance between photosystems I (PSI) and II (PSII). In plants, when PSII is preferentially excited, LHCII, the main heterotrimeric light harvesting complex of PSII, is phosphorylated by the STN7 kinase, detaches from PSII and moves to PSI to equilibrate the relative absorption of the two photosystems (State II). When PSI is preferentially excited LHCII is dephosphorylated by the PPH1 (TAP38) phosphatase, and returns to PSII (State I). Phosphorylation of LHCII that remain bound to PSII has also been observed. Although the kinetics of LHCII phosphorylation are well known from a qualitative standpoint, the absolute phosphorylation levels of LHCII (and its isoforms) bound to PSI and PSII have been little studied. In this work we thoroughly investigated the phosphorylation level of the Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 isoforms that compose LHCII in PSI-LHCII and PSII-LHCII supercomplexes purified from WT and state transition mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that, at most, 40% of the monomers that make up PSI-bound LHCII trimers are phosphorylated. Phosphorylation was much lower in PSII-bound LHCII trimers reaching only 15-20%. Dephosphorylation assays using a recombinant PPH1 phosphatase allowed us to investigate the role of the two isoforms during state transitions. Our results strongly suggest that a single phosphorylated Lhcb2 is sufficient for the formation of the PSI-LHCII supercomplex. These results are a step towards a refined model of the state transition phenomenon and a better understanding of the short-term response to changes in light conditions in plants. PMID:26392145

  6. The specific localizations of phosphorylated Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 isoforms reveal the role of Lhcb2 in the formation of the PSI-LHCII supercomplex in Arabidopsis during state transitions.

    PubMed

    Crepin, Aurelie; Caffarri, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    State transitions are an important photosynthetic short-term response that maintains the excitation balance between photosystems I (PSI) and II (PSII). In plants, when PSII is preferentially excited, LHCII, the main heterotrimeric light harvesting complex of PSII, is phosphorylated by the STN7 kinase, detaches from PSII and moves to PSI to equilibrate the relative absorption of the two photosystems (State II). When PSI is preferentially excited LHCII is dephosphorylated by the PPH1 (TAP38) phosphatase, and returns to PSII (State I). Phosphorylation of LHCII that remain bound to PSII has also been observed. Although the kinetics of LHCII phosphorylation are well known from a qualitative standpoint, the absolute phosphorylation levels of LHCII (and its isoforms) bound to PSI and PSII have been little studied. In this work we thoroughly investigated the phosphorylation level of the Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 isoforms that compose LHCII in PSI-LHCII and PSII-LHCII supercomplexes purified from WT and state transition mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that, at most, 40% of the monomers that make up PSI-bound LHCII trimers are phosphorylated. Phosphorylation was much lower in PSII-bound LHCII trimers reaching only 15-20%. Dephosphorylation assays using a recombinant PPH1 phosphatase allowed us to investigate the role of the two isoforms during state transitions. Our results strongly suggest that a single phosphorylated Lhcb2 is sufficient for the formation of the PSI-LHCII supercomplex. These results are a step towards a refined model of the state transition phenomenon and a better understanding of the short-term response to changes in light conditions in plants.

  7. Excitation energy transfer and charge separation are affected in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein Lhcb3.

    PubMed

    Adamiec, Małgorzata; Gibasiewicz, Krzysztof; Luciński, Robert; Giera, Wojciech; Chełminiak, Przemysław; Szewczyk, Sebastian; Sipińska, Weronika; van Grondelle, Rienk; Jackowski, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    The composition of LHCII trimers as well as excitation energy transfer and charge separation in grana cores of Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lacking chlorophyll a/b binding protein Lhcb3 have been investigated and compared to those in wild-type plants. In grana cores of lhcb3 plants we observed increased amounts of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 apoproteins per PSII core. The additional copies of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 are expected to substitute for Lhcb3 in LHCII trimers M as well as in the LHCII "extra" pool, which was found to be modestly enlarged as a result of the absence of Lhcb3. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements reveal a deceleration of the fast phase of excitation dynamics in grana cores of the mutant by ~15 ps, whereas the average fluorescence lifetime is not significantly altered. Monte Carlo modeling predicts a slowing down of the mean hopping time and an increased stabilization of the primary charge separation in the mutant. Thus our data imply that absence of apoprotein Lhcb3 results in detectable differences in excitation energy transfer and charge separation.

  8. Search for long-lived heavy charged particles using a ring imaging Cherenkov technique at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A., Jr.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casanova Mohr, R.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S. F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M. H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.

    2015-12-01

    A search is performed for heavy long-lived charged particles using 3.0 fb^{-1} of proton-proton collisions collected at √{s} = 7 and 8 TeV with the LHCb detector. The search is mainly based on the response of the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors to distinguish the heavy, slow-moving particles from muons. No evidence is found for the production of such long-lived states. The results are expressed as limits on the Drell-Yan production of pairs of long-lived particles, with both particles in the LHCb pseudorapidity acceptance, 1.8 < η < 4.9. The mass-dependent cross-section upper limits are in the range 2-4 fb (at 95 % CL) for masses between 14 and 309 { GeV/c^2}.

  9. Beauty-quark and charm-quark pair production asymmetries at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauld, Rhorry; Haisch, Ulrich; Pecjak, Ben D.; Re, Emanuele

    2015-08-01

    The LHCb Collaboration has recently performed a first measurement of the angular production asymmetry in the distribution of beauty quarks and antiquarks at a hadron collider. We calculate the corresponding standard model prediction for this asymmetry at fixed order in perturbation theory. Our results show good agreement with the data, which are provided differentially for three bins in the invariant mass of the b b ¯ system. We also present similar predictions for both beauty-quark and charm-quark final states within the LHCb acceptance for a collision energy of √{s }=13 TeV . We finally point out that a measurement of the ratio of the b b ¯ and c c ¯ cross sections may be useful for experimentally validating charm-tagging efficiencies.

  10. Improvements to the User Interface for LHCb's Software continuous integration system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemencic, M.; Couturier, B.; Kyriazi, S.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify a set of steps leading to an improved interface for LHCb's Nightly Builds Dashboard. The goal is to have an efficient application that meets the needs of both the project developers, by providing them with a user friendly interface, as well as those of the computing team supporting the system, by providing them with a dashboard allowing for better monitoring of the build job themselves. In line with what is already used by LHCb, the web interface has been implemented with the Flask Python framework for future maintainability and code clarity. The Database chosen to host the data is the schema-less CouchDB[7], serving the purpose of flexibility in document form changes. To improve the user experience, we use JavaScript libraries such as JQuery[11].

  11. Mixing and CP violation in the beauty and charm sectors at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López March, Neus

    2014-04-01

    The LHCb detector is a dedicated heavy flavour experiment operating at the Large Hadron Collider designed to pursue an extensive study of CP violation in the beauty and charm sectors. In the first part of this contribution, important milestones towards the measurement of CP violation in the beauty sector using B± and Bs0 decays are presented. In the second part, highlights of the searches of CP violation in the charm sector are reported.

  12. Calibration of the LHCb electromagnetic calorimeter via reconstructing the neutral-pion invariant mass

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, I. M. Golubkov, D. Yu. Egorychev, V. Yu. Polikarpov, S. M. Savrina, D. V.

    2015-12-15

    The calibration of the LHCb electromagnetic calorimeter is a multistep procedure aimed at reconstructing photon and electron energies to a precision not poorer than 2%. A method based on measuring the neutral-pion invariantmass is applied at the last step of this procedure. A regular application of this method makes it possible to improve substantially the resolution for particles that decay through channels featuring electrons and photons in the final state.

  13. Studies of charmed hadronic B decays with the early LHCb data and prospects for {gamma} measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Nardulli, J.

    2010-12-22

    We present the first studies of decays of the type B{yields}DX, where D represents a charmed meson (D{sup 0}, D{sup (*)+}, or D{sub s}) from the LHCb experiment at CERN. Our studies use data accumulated during the 2010 run of the LHC. This work represents the first steps on a programme towards a precision measurement of the angle {gamma} of the CKM Unitarity Triangle. The prospects for this {gamma} measurement will be reviewed.

  14. Evaporative CO2 microchannel cooling for the LHCb VELO pixel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Aguiar Francisco, O. A.; Buytaert, J.; Collins, P.; Dumps, R.; John, M.; Mapelli, A.; Romagnoli, G.

    2015-05-01

    The LHCb Vertex Detector (VELO) will be upgraded in 2018 to a lightweight pixel detector capable of 40 MHz readout and operation in very close proximity to the LHC beams. The thermal management of the system will be provided by evaporative CO2 circulating in microchannels embedded within thin silicon plates. This solution has been selected due to the excellent thermal efficiency, the absence of thermal expansion mismatch with silicon ASICs and sensors, the radiation hardness of CO2, and very low contribution to the material budget. Although microchannel cooling is gaining considerable attention for applications related to microelectronics, it is still a novel technology for particle physics experiments, in particular when combined with evaporative CO2 cooling. The R&D effort for LHCb is focused on the design and layout of the channels together with a fluidic connector and its attachment which must withstand pressures up to 170 bar. Even distribution of the coolant is ensured by means of the use of restrictions implemented before the entrance to a race track like layout of the main cooling channels. The coolant flow and pressure drop have been simulated as well as the thermal performance of the device. This proceeding describes the design and optimization of the cooling system for LHCb and the latest prototyping results.

  15. Light-dependent reversible phosphorylation of the minor photosystem II antenna Lhcb6 (CP24) occurs in lycophytes.

    PubMed

    Ferroni, Lorenzo; Angeleri, Martina; Pantaleoni, Laura; Pagliano, Cristina; Longoni, Paolo; Marsano, Francesco; Aro, Eva-Mari; Suorsa, Marjaana; Baldisserotto, Costanza; Giovanardi, Martina; Cella, Rino; Pancaldi, Simonetta

    2014-03-01

    Evolution of vascular plants required compromise between photosynthesis and photodamage. We analyzed representative species from two divergent lineages of vascular plants, lycophytes and euphyllophytes, with respect to the response of their photosynthesis and light-harvesting properties to increasing light intensity. In the two analyzed lycophytes, Selaginella martensii and Lycopodium squarrosum, the medium phase of non-photochemical quenching relaxation increased under high light compared to euphyllophytes. This was thought to be associated with the occurrence of a further thylakoid phosphoprotein in both lycophytes, in addition to D2, CP43 and Lhcb1-2. This protein, which showed light intensity-dependent reversible phosphorylation, was identified in S. martensii as Lhcb6, a minor LHCII antenna subunit of PSII. Lhcb6 is known to have evolved in the context of land colonization. In S. martensii, Lhcb6 was detected as a component of the free LHCII assemblies, but also associated with PSI. Most of the light-induced changes affected the amount and phosphorylation of the LHCII assemblies, which possibly mediate PSI-PSII connectivity. We propose that Lhcb6 is involved in light energy management in lycophytes, participating in energy balance between PSI and PSII through a unique reversible phosphorylation, not yet observed in other land plants.

  16. Light-harvesting complex Lhcb9 confers a green alga-type photosystem I supercomplex to the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Masakazu; Yokono, Makio; Kono, Masaru; Noguchi, Ko; Akimoto, Seiji; Nakano, Akihiko

    2015-01-19

    Light-harvesting complex (LHC) proteins in chloroplast thylakoid membranes not only transfer absorbed light energy to the two photosystems but also regulate the rate of energy transfer to avoid photodamage. Here we demonstrate that Lhcb9, a recently discovered LHC protein in the moss Physcomitrella patens, functions to connect LHC proteins with photosystem I (PSI), resulting in the formation of two different types of PSI supercomplexes in thylakoid membranes. We observed that the Lhcb9-containing PSI supercomplex is disassembled in response to excess light conditions. On the basis of our phylogenetic analysis, it appears that P. patens acquired Lhcb9 by horizontal gene transfer from the earlier green algal lineage, leading to the presence of both green alga-type and vascular plant-type PSI supercomplexes, which would have been crucial for conquering the dynamic environmental interface between aquatic and terrestrial conditions it faced during evolution.

  17. Hydrogen rich gas generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A process and apparatus is described for producing a hydrogen rich gas by introducing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel in the form of a spray into a partial oxidation region and mixing with a mixture of steam and air that is preheated by indirect heat exchange with the formed hydrogen rich gas, igniting the hydrocarbon fuel spray mixed with the preheated mixture of steam and air within the partial oxidation region to form a hydrogen rich gas.

  18. Rich catalytic injection

    DOEpatents

    Veninger, Albert

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  19. Research: Rags to Rags? Riches to Riches?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    Everyone has read about what might be called the "gold gap"--how the rich in this country are getting richer and controlling an ever-larger share of the nation's wealth. The Century Foundation has started publishing "Reality Check", a series of guides to campaign issues that sometimes finds gaps in these types of cherished delusions. The guides…

  20. The 40 MHz trigger-less DAQ for the LHCb Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campora Perez, D. H.; Falabella, A.; Galli, D.; Giacomini, F.; Gligorov, V.; Manzali, M.; Marconi, U.; Neufeld, N.; Otto, A.; Pisani, F.; Vagnoni, V. M.

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown (2018-2019), aiming to let LHCb collect an order of magnitude more data with respect to Run 1 and Run 2. The maximum readout rate of 1 MHz is the main limitation of the present LHCb trigger. The upgraded detector, apart from major detector upgrades, foresees a full read-out, running at the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz, using an entirely software based trigger. A new high-throughput PCIe Generation 3 based read-out board, named PCIe40, has been designed for this purpose. The read-out board will allow an efficient and cost-effective implementation of the DAQ system by means of high-speed PC networks. The network-based DAQ system reads data fragments, performs the event building, and transports events to the High-Level Trigger at an estimated aggregate rate of about 32 Tbit/s. Different architecture for the DAQ can be implemented, such as push, pull and traffic shaping with barrel-shifter. Possible technology candidates for the foreseen event-builder under study are InfiniBand and Gigabit Ethernet. In order to define the best implementation of the event-builder we are performing tests of the event-builder on different platforms with different technologies. For testing we are using an event-builder evaluator, which consists of a flexible software implementation, to be used on small size test beds as well as on HPC scale facilities. The architecture of DAQ system and up to date performance results will be presented.

  1. ECFS: A decentralized, distributed and fault-tolerant FUSE filesystem for the LHCb online farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybczynski, Tomasz; Bonaccorsi, Enrico; Neufeld, Niko

    2014-06-01

    The LHCb experiment records millions of proton collisions every second, but only a fraction of them are useful for LHCb physics. In order to filter out the "bad events" a large farm of x86-servers (~2000 nodes) has been put in place. These servers boot from and run from NFS, however they use their local disk to temporarily store data, which cannot be processed in real-time ("data-deferring"). These events are subsequently processed, when there are no live-data coming in. The effective CPU power is thus greatly increased. This gain in CPU power depends critically on the availability of the local disks. For cost and power-reasons, mirroring (RAID-1) is not used, leading to a lot of operational headache with failing disks and disk-errors or server failures induced by faulty disks. To mitigate these problems and increase the reliability of the LHCb farm, while at same time keeping cost and power-consumption low, an extensive research and study of existing highly available and distributed file systems has been done. While many distributed file systems are providing reliability by "file replication", none of the evaluated ones supports erasure algorithms. A decentralised, distributed and fault-tolerant "write once read many" file system has been designed and implemented as a proof of concept providing fault tolerance without using expensive - in terms of disk space - file replication techniques and providing a unique namespace as a main goals. This paper describes the design and the implementation of the Erasure Codes File System (ECFS) and presents the specialised FUSE interface for Linux. Depending on the encoding algorithm ECFS will use a certain number of target directories as a backend to store the segments that compose the encoded data. When target directories are mounted via nfs/autofs - ECFS will act as a file-system over network/block-level raid over multiple servers.

  2. Observation of Z production in proton-lead collisions at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H.-M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, RF; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gavrilov, G.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani', S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Moggi, N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A.-B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Muresan, R.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, G.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perez Trigo, E.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Romero, D. A. Roa; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Subbiah, V. K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szilard, D.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2014-09-01

    The first observation of Z boson production in proton-lead collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per proton-nucleon pair of = 5 TeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 1 .6 nb-1 collected with the LHCb detector. The Z candidates are reconstructed from pairs of oppositely charged muons with pseudorapidities between 2.0 and 4.5 and transverse momenta above 20 GeV /c. The invariant dimuon mass is restricted to the range 60 - 120 GeV /c. The Z production cross-section is measured to be

  3. Optimising query execution time in LHCb Bookkeeping System using partition pruning and Partition-Wise joins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathe, Zoltan; Charpentier, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The LHCb experiment produces a huge amount of data which has associated metadata such as run number, data taking condition (detector status when the data was taken), simulation condition, etc. The data are stored in files, replicated on the Computing Grid around the world. The LHCb Bookkeeping System provides methods for retrieving datasets based on their metadata. The metadata is stored in a hybrid database model, which is a mixture of Relational and Hierarchical database models and is based on the Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The database access has to be reliable and fast. In order to achieve a high timing performance, the tables are partitioned and the queries are executed in parallel. When we store large amounts of data the partition pruning is essential for database performance, because it reduces the amount of data retrieved from the disk and optimises the resource utilisation. This research presented here is focusing on the extended composite partitioning strategy such as range-hash partition, partition pruning and usage of the Partition-Wise joins. The system has to serve thousands of queries per minute, the performance and capability of the system is measured when the above performance optimization techniques are used.

  4. A new algorithm for identifying the flavour of B0s mesons at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellán Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A., Jr.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Fazzini, D.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusardi, N.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Navarro, A. Puig; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-05-01

    A new algorithm for the determination of the initial flavour of B0s mesons is presented. The algorithm is based on two neural networks and exploits the b hadron production mechanism at a hadron collider. The first network is trained to select charged kaons produced in association with the B0s meson. The second network combines the kaon charges to assign the B0s flavour and estimates the probability of a wrong assignment. The algorithm is calibrated using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1 collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV centre-of-mass energies. The calibration is performed in two ways: by resolving the B0s-bar B0s flavour oscillations in B0s → D-sπ+ decays, and by analysing flavour-specific B*s2(5840)0 → B+K- decays. The tagging power measured in B0s → D-sπ+ decays is found to be (1.80 ± 0.19 (stat) ± 0.18 (syst))%, which is an improvement of about 50% compared to a similar algorithm previously used in the LHCb experiment.

  5. A new algorithm for identifying the flavour of B0s mesons at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellán Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A., Jr.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Fazzini, D.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusardi, N.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Navarro, A. Puig; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-05-01

    A new algorithm for the determination of the initial flavour of B0s mesons is presented. The algorithm is based on two neural networks and exploits the b hadron production mechanism at a hadron collider. The first network is trained to select charged kaons produced in association with the B0s meson. The second network combines the kaon charges to assign the B0s flavour and estimates the probability of a wrong assignment. The algorithm is calibrated using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb‑1 collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV centre-of-mass energies. The calibration is performed in two ways: by resolving the B0s–bar B0s flavour oscillations in B0s → D‑sπ+ decays, and by analysing flavour-specific B*s2(5840)0 → B+K‑ decays. The tagging power measured in B0s → D‑sπ+ decays is found to be (1.80 ± 0.19 (stat) ± 0.18 (syst))%, which is an improvement of about 50% compared to a similar algorithm previously used in the LHCb experiment.

  6. Performance of the LHCb tracking system in Run I of the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Adam C. S.

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb tracking system consists of a Vertex Locator around the interaction point, a tracking station with four layers of silicon strip detectors in front of the magnet, and three straw-tube and silicon strip tracking stations behind the magnet. This system allows reconstruction of charged particles with a high efficiency (> 95 % for particles with momentum p > 5 GeV) and excellent momentum resolution (0.5% for particles with p < 20 GeV). The high momentum resolution results in narrow mass peaks, leading to a high signal-to-background ratio in such key channels as Bs0 → μμ. The excellent performance of the tracking system yields a decay time resolution of ~50 fs, allowing to resolve the fast B0s oscillation with a mixing frequency of 17.7 ps-1. Such a decay time resolution is an essential element in studies of time dependent CP violation. I present an overview of the track reconstruction in LHCb and its performance in Run I of the LHC. I highlight the challenges and improvements of the track reconstruction from Run II onward, including efforts to improve the timing of the online reconstruction and approaches to unify the online and offline reconstruction.

  7. Identification of the chromophores involved in aggregation-dependent energy quenching of the monomeric photosystem II antenna protein Lhcb5.

    PubMed

    Ballottari, Matteo; Girardon, Julien; Betterle, Nico; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bassi, Roberto

    2010-09-01

    Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of excess absorbed light energy is a fundamental process that regulates photosynthetic light harvesting in higher plants. Among several proposed NPQ mechanisms, aggregation-dependent quenching (ADQ) and charge transfer quenching have received the most attention. In vitro spectroscopic features of both mechanisms correlate with very similar signals detected in more intact systems and in vivo, where full NPQ can be observed. A major difference between the models is the proposed quenching site, which is predominantly the major trimeric light-harvesting complex II in ADQ and exclusively monomeric Lhcb proteins in charge transfer quenching. Here, we studied ADQ in both monomeric and trimeric Lhcb proteins, investigating the activities of each antenna subunit and their dependence on zeaxanthin, a major modulator of NPQ in vivo. We found that monomeric Lhcb proteins undergo stronger quenching than light-harvesting complex II during aggregation and that this is enhanced by binding to zeaxanthin, as occurs during NPQ in vivo. Finally, the analysis of Lhcb5 mutants showed that chlorophyll 612 and 613, in close contact with lutein bound at site L1, are important facilitators of ADQ.

  8. The lepton flavor violating decay {tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup Minus-Or-Plus-Sign} at LHCb

    SciTech Connect

    Keune, A.

    2012-09-15

    The possibility of improving the limit on the branching fraction of the lepton flavor violating decay {tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup Minus-Or-Plus-Sign} at LHCb is discussed. It is shown that a simple, cut-based analysis is sufficient to improve the upper limit on this branching fraction within the lifetime of LHCb.

  9. The CBM RICH detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J.; Akishin, P.; Becker, K.-H.; Belogurov, S.; Bendarouach, J.; Boldyreva, N.; Chernogorov, A.; Deveaux, C.; Dobyrn, V.; Dürr, M.; Eschke, J.; Förtsch, J.; Heep, J.; Höohne, C.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kochenda, L.; Kopfer, J.; Kravtsov, P.; Kres, I.; Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E.; Leonova, E.; Linev, S.; Mahmoud, T.; Michel, J.; Miftakhov, N.; Niebur, W.; Ovcharenko, E.; Pauly, C.; Pfeifer, D.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Reinecke, S.; Riabov, Y.; Roshchin, E.; Samsonov, V.; Tarasenkova, O.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Vznuzdaev, M.

    2016-05-01

    The CBM RICH detector will use CO2 as radiator gas, focussing glass mirrors with Al+MgF2 reflective and protective coating and Hamamatsu H12700 MAPMTs as photon detectors. The detector will serve for electron to pion separation up to momenta of 8 GeV/c and thus enable in CBM the measurement of electromagnetic radiation from the early and dense fireball in A+A collisions at SIS 100. In this article, the current status of the CBM RICH development will be presented including new measurements of the radiation hardness of the H12700 MAPMT and WLS coatings with p-terphenyl, the new concept for the readout electronics, and optimizations ongoing with respect to the mirror mount structure and overall geometry. Prior to the usage in CBM, part of the already ordered MAPMTs will be used to upgrade the HADES RICH detector for a new measurement campaign at SIS 18 from 2018-2020.

  10. Gas gain uniformity tests performed on multiwire proportional chambers for the LHCb muon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, A.; de Andrade Filho, L. M.; Barbosa, A. F.; Graulich, J. S.; Guerrer, G.; Lima, H. P.; Mair, K.; Polycarpo, E.; Reis, A.; Rodrigues, F.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, T.; Schoch Vianna, C.

    2008-06-01

    We present the experimental setup and the results of the gas gain uniformity tests performed as part of the quality control of the multiwire proportional chambers produced at CERN for the LHCb muon system. The test provides a relative gas gain measurement over the whole chamber sensitive area. It is based on the analysis of the pulse height spectrum obtained when the chamber is exposed to a 241Am radioactive source. Since the measurement is normalized to the peak of a precise pulse generator, the gain uniformity can also be evaluated among different gas gaps and different chambers. In order to cope with the specific requirements related to the relatively high number of chambers and to their varying geometry, a standalone and compact data acquisition system has been developed which is programmable at the hardware level and may be applied to many other applications requiring precise time-to-digital and analog-to-digital conversion, in correlated or non-correlated mode.

  11. SALT, a dedicated readout chip for high precision tracking silicon strip detectors at the LHCb Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugiel, Sz.; Dasgupta, R.; Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Kuczynska, M.; Moron, J.; Swientek, K.; Szumlak, T.

    2016-02-01

    The Upstream Tracker (UT) silicon strip detector, one of the central parts of the tracker system of the modernised LHCb experiment, will use a new 128-channel readout ASIC called SALT. It will extract and digitise analogue signals from the UT sensors, perform digital signal processing and transmit a serial output data. The SALT is being designed in CMOS 130 nm process and uses a novel architecture comprising of analog front-end and fast (40 MSps) ultra-low power (<0.5 mW) 6-bit ADC in each channel. The prototype ASICs of important functional blocks, like analogue front-end, 6-bit SAR ADC, PLL, and DLL, were designed, fabricated and tested. A prototype of an 8-channel version of the SALT chip, comprising all important functionalities was also designed and fabricated. The architecture and design of the SALT, together with the selected preliminary tests results, are presented.

  12. FPGA-based signal processing for the LHCb silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefeli, G.; Bay, A.; Gong, A.

    2006-12-01

    We have developed an electronic board (TELL1) to interface the DAQ system of the LHCb experiment at CERN. Two hundred and eighty-nine TELL1 boards are needed to read out the different subdetectors including the silicon VEertex LOcator (VELO) (172 k strips), the Trigger Tracker (TT) (147 k strips) and the Inner Tracker (129 k strips). Each board can handle either 64 analog or 24 digital optical links. The TELL1 mother board provides common mode correction, zero suppression, data formatting, and a large network interface buffer. To satisfy the different requirements we have adopted a flexible FPGA design and made use of mezzanine cards. Mezzanines are used for data input from digital optical and analog copper links as well as for the Gigabit Ethernet interface to DAQ.

  13. Hydrogen rich gas generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Rupe, J. H.; Kushida, R. O. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A process and apparatus is described for producing a hydrogen rich gas by injecting air and hydrocarbon fuel at one end of a cylindrically shaped chamber to form a mixture and igniting the mixture to provide hot combustion gases by partial oxidation of the hydrocarbon fuel. The combustion gases move away from the ignition region to another region where water is injected to be turned into steam by the hot combustion gases. The steam which is formed mixes with the hot gases to yield a uniform hot gas whereby a steam reforming reaction with the hydrocarbon fuel takes place to produce a hydrogen rich gas.

  14. LHCb Vertex Locator: Performance and radiation damage in LHC Run 1 and preparation for Run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumlak, T.; Obła˛kowska-Mucha, A.

    2016-07-01

    LHCb is a dedicated experiment to study New Physics in the decays of heavy hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Heavy hadrons are identified through their flight distance in the Vertex Locator (VELO). The VELO comprises 42 modules made of two n+-on-n 300 μm thick half-disc silicon sensors with R- and Φ-measuring micro-strips. In order to allow retracting the detector, the VELO is installed as two movable halves containing 21 modules each. The detectors are operated in a secondary vacuum and are cooled by a bi-phase CO2 cooling system. During data taking in LHC Run 1 the LHCb VELO has operated with an extremely high efficiency and excellent performance. The track finding efficiency is typically greater than 98%. An impact parameter resolution of less than 35 μm is achieved for particles with transverse momentum greater than 1 GeV/c. An overview of all important performance parameters will be given. The VELO sensors have received a large and non-uniform radiation dose of up to 1.2 ×1014 1 MeV neutron equivalent cm-2 during the first LHC run. Silicon type-inversion has been observed in regions close to the interaction point. The preparations for LHC Run 2 are well under way and the VELO has already recorded tracks from injection line tests. The current status and plans for new operational procedures addressing the non-uniform radiation damage are shortly discussed.

  15. PACIFIC: the readout ASIC for the SciFi Tracker of the upgraded LHCb detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazorra, J.; Chanal, H.; Comerma, A.; Gascón, D.; Gómez, S.; Han, X.; Pillet, N.; Vandaele, R.

    2016-02-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and will switch to a 40 MHz readout rate using a trigger-less software based system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with the higher detector occupancy and radiation damage. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed and a custom ASIC, called the low-Power ASIC for the sCIntillating FIbres traCker (PACIFIC), will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. This article presents an overview of the R&D for the PACIFIC. It is a 64-channel ASIC implemented in 130 nm CMOS technology, aiming at a radiation tolerant design with a power consumption below 10 mW per channel. It interfaces directly with the SiPM anode through a current mode input, and provides a configurable non-linear 2-bit per channel digital output. The SiPM signal is acquired by a current conveyor and processed with a fast shaper and a gated integrator. The digitization is performed using a three threshold non-linear flash ADC operating at 40 MHz. Simulation and test results show the PACIFIC chip prototypes functioning well.

  16. Central FPGA-based destination and load control in the LHCb MHz event readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsson, R.

    2012-10-01

    The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz. A set of 320 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at total rate of 24.6 MHz at a bandwidth usage of up to 70 GB/s over a commercial switching network based on Gigabit Ethernet to a distributed event building and high-level trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes. In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. An FPGA-based central master module, partly operating at the LHC bunch clock frequency of 40.08 MHz and partly at a double clock speed, is in charge of the entire trigger and readout control from the front-end electronics up to the high-level trigger farm. One FPGA is dedicated to controlling the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load control and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also allows the vital task of fast central monitoring and automatic recovery in-flight of failing nodes while maintaining dead-time and event loss at a minimum. This paper demonstrates the strength and suitability of implementing this real-time task for a very large distributed system in an FPGA where no random delays are introduced, and where extreme reliability and accurate event accounting are fundamental requirements. It was in use during the entire commissioning phase of LHCb and has been in faultless operation during the first two years of physics luminosity data taking.

  17. Lhcb2 gene expression analysis in two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii subjected to Zn/Cd treatments with functional analysis of SaLhcb2 isolated from a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Senoura, Takeshi; Yang, Xiaoe; Chao, Yueen; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2011-09-01

    The Lhcb2 gene from hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii was up-regulated more than three-fold while the non-hyperaccumulator accumulated one or two-fold higher amount of the mRNA than control plants under different concentrations of Cd(2+) for 24 h. Lhcb2 expression was up-regulated more than five-fold in a non-hyperaccumulator S. alfredii when exposed to 2 μM Cd(2+) or 50 μM Zn(2+) for 8 d and the hyperaccumulator had over two-fold more mRNA abundance than the control plants. Over-expression of SaLhcb2 increased the shoot biomass by 14-41% and the root biomass by 21-57% without Cd(2+) treatment. Four transgenic tobacco lines (L5, L7, L10 and L11) possessed higher shoot biomass than WT plants with Cd(2+). Four transgenic lines (L7, L8, L10 and L11) accumulated 6-35% higher Cd(2+) amounts in shoots than the wild type plants. PMID:21516315

  18. Impact of heavy-flavour production cross sections measured by the LHCb experiment on parton distribution functions at low x

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zenaiev, O.; Geiser, A.; Lipka, K.; Blumlein, J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.; Garzelli, M. -V.; Guzzi, M.; Kuprash, O.; Moch, S. -O.; Nadolsky, P.; et al

    2015-08-01

    The impact of recent measurements of heavy-flavour production in deep inelastic ep scattering and in pp collisions on parton distribution functions is studied in a QCD analysis in the fixed-flavour number scheme at next-to-leading order. Differential cross sections of charm- and beauty-hadron production measured by LHCb are used together with inclusive and heavy-flavour production cross sections in deep inelastic scattering at HERA. The heavy-flavour data of the LHCb experiment impose additional constraints on the gluon and the sea-quark distributions at low partonic fractions x of the proton momentum, down to x~5×10-6. This kinematic range is currently not covered by othermore » experimental data in perturbative QCD fits.« less

  19. Study of response nonuniformity for the LHCb calorimeter module and the prototype of the CBM calorimeter module

    SciTech Connect

    Korolko, I. E.; Prokudin, M. S.

    2009-02-15

    A spatial nonuniformity of the response to high-energy muons is studied in the modules of the LHCb electromagnetic calorimeter and the prototype of the calorimeter module with lead plates and scintillator tiles 0.5 mm thick. The nonuniformity of the response of the inner LHCb modules to 50-GeV electrons is also measured. Software is developed for a thorough simulation of light collection in scintillator plates of a shashlik calorimeter. A model is elaborated to describe light transmission from the initial scintillation to the wavelength-shifting fiber with a subsequent reradiation and propagation of light over the fiber to the photodetector. The results of the simulation are in good agreement with data.

  20. Impact of heavy-flavour production cross sections measured by the LHCb experiment on parton distribution functions at low x

    SciTech Connect

    Zenaiev, O.; Geiser, A.; Lipka, K.; Blumlein, J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.; Garzelli, M. -V.; Guzzi, M.; Kuprash, O.; Moch, S. -O.; Nadolsky, P.; Placakyte, R.; Rabbertz, K.; Schienbein, I.; Starovoitov, P.

    2015-08-01

    The impact of recent measurements of heavy-flavour production in deep inelastic ep scattering and in pp collisions on parton distribution functions is studied in a QCD analysis in the fixed-flavour number scheme at next-to-leading order. Differential cross sections of charm- and beauty-hadron production measured by LHCb are used together with inclusive and heavy-flavour production cross sections in deep inelastic scattering at HERA. The heavy-flavour data of the LHCb experiment impose additional constraints on the gluon and the sea-quark distributions at low partonic fractions x of the proton momentum, down to x~5×10-6. This kinematic range is currently not covered by other experimental data in perturbative QCD fits.

  1. Data Rich, Information Poor

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, P.G.; Rautman, C.A.

    1998-11-09

    Surviving in a data-rich environment means understanding the difference between data and information. This paper reviews an environmental case study that illustrates that understanding and shows its importance. In this study, a decision problem was stated in terms of au economic-objective fimction. The function contains a term that defines the stochastic relationship between the decision and the information obtained during field chamctetition for an environmental contaminant. Data is defied as samples drawn or experimental realizations of a mudom fimction. Information is defined as the quantitative change in the value of the objective fiction as a result of the sample.

  2. Deferred High Level Trigger in LHCb: A Boost to CPU Resource Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Gaspar, C.; Herwijnen, E. v.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.

    2014-06-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN collects collisions of particle bunches at 40 MHz. After a first level of hardware trigger with output of 1 MHz, the physically interesting collisions are selected by running dedicated trigger algorithms in the High Level Trigger (HLT) computing farm. This farm consists of up to roughly 25000 CPU cores in roughly 1600 physical nodes each equipped with at least 1 TB of local storage space. This work describes the architecture to treble the available CPU power of the HLT farm given that the LHC collider in previous years delivered stable physics beams about 30% of the time. The gain is achieved by splitting the event selection process in two, a first stage reducing the data taken during stable beams and buffering the preselected particle collisions locally. A second processing stage running constantly at lower priority will then finalize the event filtering process and benefits fully from the time when LHC does not deliver stable beams e.g. while preparing a new physics fill or during periods used for machine development.

  3. LHCb pentaquark as a D¯ *Σc-D¯ *Σc* molecular state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, L.; Nieves, J.; Oset, E.

    2015-11-01

    We perform a theoretical analysis of the Λb→J /ψ K-p reaction from where a recent LHCb experiment extracts a Λ (1405 ) contribution in the K-p spectrum close to threshold and two baryon states of hidden charm in the J /ψ p spectrum. We recall that baryon states of this type have been theoretically predicted matching the mass, width and JP of the experiment; concretely some states built up from the J /ψ N , D¯*Λc, D¯*Σc, D ¯Σc* and D¯*Σc* coupled channels. We assume that the observed narrow state around 4450 MeV has this nature and we are able to describe simultaneously the shapes and relative strength of the the K-p mass distribution close to threshold and the peak of the J /ψ p distribution, with values of the J /ψ p coupling to the resonance in line with the theoretical ones. The nontrivial matching of many properties gives support to a JP=3 /2- assignment to this state and to its nature as a molecular state mostly made of D¯*Σc and D¯*Σc*.

  4. Measurement of C P violation in B → J/ ψ KS0 decays at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, F.; LHCb Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Analysing a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1 of pp collisions collected by the LHCb detector at the LHC CP violation in B0→J/ψK0S and B0s→J/ψK0S is measured. The results S(B0→J/ψK0S) = -0.038 ± 0.035 {(stat)} ± 0.020 {(syst)} are consistent with the current world averages and with the Standard Model expectations. In B0s→J/ψK0s the results A_{ΔΓ(B0s→J/ψK0s) = 0.49 ±^{0.77}_{0.65} {(stat)} ± 0.06 {(syst)}, S(B0s→J/ψK0s) = -0.08 ± 0.40 {(stat)} ± 0.08 {(syst)}, C(B0s→J/ψK0s) = - 0.28 ± 0.41 {(stat)} ± 0.08 {(syst)} reflect the first determination of these C P observables paving a new way towards the control of penguin pollutions in the determination of sin 2β.

  5. Electroweak Physics in the forward region and b bar{{b}} resonances search at the LHCb experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sestini, L.

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment offers a complementary phase space region with respect to ATLAS and CMS to study electroweak processes, thanks to the unique acceptance and the large bandwidth trigger at low energy threshold. Here, the latest measurements performed during the LHC Run-I data taking are presented, setting the scene for the future. Possible developments in this sector are discussed, in particular the search for b bar{{b}} resonances, considered preferred channels in the observation of new exotic states and New Physics.

  6. Production and performance of LHCb triple-GEM detectors equipped with the dedicated CARDIAC-GEM front-end electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonsi, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bonivento, W.; Cardelli, E.; Cardini, A.; de Simone, P.; Domenici, D.; Murtas, F.; Pinci, D.; Poli Lener, M.; Raspino, D.; Saitta, B.

    2007-03-01

    The production of the triple-GEM detectors for the innermost region of the first muon station of the LHCb experiment has started in February 2006, and is foreseen to be completed by the end of July. The final design of the detector and the construction procedure and tools, as well as the quality controls are defined. The performances of each detector, composed by two triple-GEM chambers equipped with dedicated CARDIAC-GEM front-end electronics, are studied with a cosmic ray telescope. The cosmic ray telescope has been set up including all the final off-detector components.

  7. Low noise 4-channel front end ASIC with on-chip DLL for the upgrade of the LHCb Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picatoste, E.; Bigbeder-Beau, C.; Duarte, O.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Grauges, E.; Lefrançois, J.; Machefert, F.; Mauricio, J.; Vilasis, X.

    2015-04-01

    An integrated circuit for the Upgrade of the LHCb Calorimeter front end electronics is presented. It includes four analog channels, a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) for signal phase synchronization for all channels and an SPI communication protocol based interface. The analog circuit is based on two fully differential interleaved channels with a switched integrator to avoid dead time and it incorporates dedicated solutions to achieve low noise, linearity and spill-over specifications. The included DLL is capable of shifting the phase of the LHC clock (25 ns) in steps of 1 ns. The selected technology is AMS SiGe BiCMOS 0.35 um.

  8. The Front-End Electronics of the straw tube tracker for the LHCb experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrino, Antonio

    2010-11-01

    The LHCb experiment is a single-arm spectrometer, designed to study CP violation in B-decays at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is crucial to accurately and efficiently track the charged decay products, in the high-density particle environment of the LHC. For this, the Outer Tracker has been constructed, consisting of ˜55,000 straw tubes, distributed over a sensitive area of 12 double layers of 6×5 m 2 each. The detector is foreseen to operate up to 100 kHz/cm per straw in the region closest to the beam. The task of the Front-End Electronics is to provide the precise (0.5 ns) drift-time measurement, at an average occupancy of 5% and at a 1 MHz trigger rate. The tracking procedure requires high-efficiency (low thresholds), while at the same time putting stringent limits on the noise level. The modular detector structure reflects on the FE electronics: 128 channels are read out by one FE "Box". The mass production and installation of 450 FE-Boxes is completed. Quality checks have been performed in several stages, at the level of individual boards and at the global level with dedicated test systems mimicking the real detector and capable of simulating all the readout functionalities. At the time of the conference, all FE electronics has been commissioned in situ with test-pulses, cosmic rays and the with first beam events from LHC. No dead channels and very few noisy channels have been found. An upgrade is currently under study, aiming at digitizing and reading out events at each beam-crossing.

  9. Platelet-Rich Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Brian J.; Seroyer, Shane T.; Filardo, Giuseppe; Bajaj, Sarvottam; Fortier, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may affect soft tissue healing via growth factors released after platelet degranulation. Because of this potential benefit, clinicians have begun to inject PRP for the treatment of tendon, ligament, muscle, and cartilage injuries and early osteoarthritis. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed search was performed for studies relating to PRP, growth factors, and soft tissue injuries from 1990 to 2010. Relevant references from these studies were also retrieved. Results: Soft tissue injury is a major source of disability that may often be complicated by prolonged and incomplete recovery. Numerous growth factors may potentiate the healing and regeneration of tendons and ligaments. The potential benefits of biologically enhanced healing processes have led to a recent interest in the use of PRP in orthopaedic sports medicine. There has been widespread anecdotal use of PRP for muscle strains, tendinopathy, and ligament injuries and as a surgical adjuvant to rotator cuff repair, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and meniscal or labral repairs. Although the fascination with this emerging technology has led to a dramatic increase in its use, scientific data supporting this use are still in their infancy. Conclusions: The literature is replete with studies on the basic science of growth factors and their relation to the maintenance, proliferation, and regeneration of various tissues and tissue-derived cells. Despite the promising results of several animal studies, well-controlled human studies are lacking. PMID:23015939

  10. What Makes a Rich Task?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Pete

    2009-01-01

    A common view seems to be emerging in the mathematics education world at the moment that the development and use of "rich tasks" is a good thing; a "right thing" to do. There are many examples of these "rich tasks" and teachers are encouraged to use them whenever they can. Professional learners don't just accept this uncritically, but question…

  11. Final Scientific/Technical Report Development of Large-Area Photo-Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, Henry J.

    2013-07-15

    This proposal requested ADR funds for two years to make measurements and detector proto-types in the context of planning a program in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory to develop very large-area planar photodetectors. The proposed detectors have integrated transmission-line readout and sampling electronics able to achieve timing and position resolutions in the range of 1-50 psec and 1-10 mm, respectively. The capability for very precise time measurements is inherent in the design, and provides a third coordinate, orthogonal to the two in the plane, for the point of origin of photons or charged particles, allowing tomographic reconstruction in 3-dimensions inside a volume.

  12. Comparison of photo detectors and operating conditions for decay time determination in phosphor thermometry.

    PubMed

    Knappe, C; Abou Nada, F; Richter, M; Aldén, M

    2012-09-01

    This work compares the extent of linear response regions from standard time-resolving optical detectors for phosphor thermometry. Different types of photomultipliers (ordinary and time-gated) as well as an avalanche photodiode were tested and compared using the phosphorescence decay time of cadmium tungstate (CdWO(4)). Effects originating from incipient detector saturation are revealed as a change in evaluated phosphorescence decay time, which was found to be a more sensitive measure for saturation than the conventional signal strength comparison between in- and output. Since the decay time of thermographic phosphors is used for temperature determination systematic temperature errors in the order of several tens of Kelvins may be introduced. Saturation from the initial intensity is isolated from temporally developed saturation by varying the CdWO(4) decay time over the microsecond to nanosecond range, resultant of varying the temperature from 290 to 580 K. A detector mapping procedure is developed in order to identify linear response regions where the decay-to-temperature evaluations are unbiased. In addition, this mapping procedure generates a library of the degree of distortion for operating points outside of linear response regions. Signals collected in the partly saturated regime can thus be corrected to their unbiased value using this library, extending the usable detector operating range significantly. PMID:23020402

  13. Comparison of photo detectors and operating conditions for decay time determination in phosphor thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappe, C.; Nada, F. Abou; Richter, M.; Aldén, M.

    2012-09-01

    This work compares the extent of linear response regions from standard time-resolving optical detectors for phosphor thermometry. Different types of photomultipliers (ordinary and time-gated) as well as an avalanche photodiode were tested and compared using the phosphorescence decay time of cadmium tungstate (CdWO4). Effects originating from incipient detector saturation are revealed as a change in evaluated phosphorescence decay time, which was found to be a more sensitive measure for saturation than the conventional signal strength comparison between in- and output. Since the decay time of thermographic phosphors is used for temperature determination systematic temperature errors in the order of several tens of Kelvins may be introduced. Saturation from the initial intensity is isolated from temporally developed saturation by varying the CdWO4 decay time over the microsecond to nanosecond range, resultant of varying the temperature from 290 to 580 K. A detector mapping procedure is developed in order to identify linear response regions where the decay-to-temperature evaluations are unbiased. In addition, this mapping procedure generates a library of the degree of distortion for operating points outside of linear response regions. Signals collected in the partly saturated regime can thus be corrected to their unbiased value using this library, extending the usable detector operating range significantly.

  14. 4H-SiC UV Photo Detector with Large Area and Very High Specific Detectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Feng; Shahid, Aslam; Franz, David; Xin, Xiaobin; Zhao, Jian H.; Zhao, Yuegang; Winer, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    Pt/4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes have been fabricated with the device areas up to 1 sq cm. The I-V characteristics and photo-response spectra have been measured and analyzed. For a 5 mm x 5 mm area device leakage current of 1 x 10(exp 15)A at zero bias and 1.2 x 10(exp 14)A at -IV have been established. The quantum efficiency is over 30% from 240nm to 320nm. The specific detectivity, D(sup *), has been calculated from the directly measured leakage current and quantum efficiency data and are shown to be higher than 10(exp 15) cmHz(sup 1/2)/W from 210nm to 350nm with a peak D(sup *) of 3.6 x 10(exp 15)cmH(sup 1/2)/W at 300nm.

  15. Single layered flexible photo-detector based on perylene/graphene composite through printed technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shawkat; Bae, Jinho; Lee, Chong Hyun

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a single layered passive photo sensor based on perylene/graphene composite is proposed, which is deposited in comb type silver electrodes separated as 50 μm spacing. To increase an electrical conductivity of the proposed sensor, perylene and graphene are blended. Photo sensing layer (120nm thick) and Silver electrodes (50 μm width, 350 nm thick) are deposited on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate through electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) system. The proposed photo sensor detects a terminal resistance inversely varied by an incident light in the range between 78 GΩ in dark and 25 GΩ at light intensity of 400lux. The device response is maximum at 465 nm ~ 535 nm wavelength range at blue light. The device exhibited bendability up to 4mm diameter for 1000 endurance cycles. The surface morphology analysis is carried out with FE-SEM and microscope.

  16. Perceptual presence without counterfactual richness.

    PubMed

    Madary, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, I suggest that non-visual perceptual modalities provide counterexamples to Seth's claim that perceptual presence depends on counterfactual richness. Then I suggest a modification to Seth's view that is not vulnerable to these counterexamples. PMID:24739124

  17. An Improved Cluster Richness Estimator

    SciTech Connect

    Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli S.; Koester, Benjamin P.; McKay, Timothy; Hao, Jiangang; Evrard, August; Wechsler, Risa H.; Hansen, Sarah; Sheldon, Erin; Johnston, David; Becker, Matthew R.; Annis, James T.; Bleem, Lindsey; Scranton, Ryan; /Pittsburgh U.

    2009-08-03

    Minimizing the scatter between cluster mass and accessible observables is an important goal for cluster cosmology. In this work, we introduce a new matched filter richness estimator, and test its performance using the maxBCG cluster catalog. Our new estimator significantly reduces the variance in the L{sub X}-richness relation, from {sigma}{sub lnL{sub X}}{sup 2} = (0.86 {+-} 0.02){sup 2} to {sigma}{sub lnL{sub X}}{sup 2} = (0.69 {+-} 0.02){sup 2}. Relative to the maxBCG richness estimate, it also removes the strong redshift dependence of the richness scaling relations, and is significantly more robust to photometric and redshift errors. These improvements are largely due to our more sophisticated treatment of galaxy color data. We also demonstrate the scatter in the L{sub X}-richness relation depends on the aperture used to estimate cluster richness, and introduce a novel approach for optimizing said aperture which can be easily generalized to other mass tracers.

  18. Characterisation of a radiation hard front-end chip for the vertex detector of the LHCb experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bakel, N.; Baumeister, D.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bulten, H. J.; Feuerstack-Raible, M.; Jans, E.; Ketel, T.; Klous, S.; Löchner, S.; Sexauer, E.; Smale, N.; Snoek, H.; Trunk, U.; Verkooijen, H.

    2003-08-01

    The Beetle is a 128 channel analog pipelined readout chip which is intended for use in the silicon vertex locator (VELO) of the LHCb experiment at CERN. The Beetle chip is specially designed to withstand high radiation doses. Two Beetle1.1 chips bonded to a silicon strip detector have been tested with minimum ionizing particles. The main goal was to measure the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of the Beetle1.1 connected to a prototype VELO detector. Furthermore we investigated the general behaviour of the Beetle1.1. In this note we present the chip architecture, the measured (S/N) numbers as well as some characteristics (e.g. risetime, spillover) of the Beetle1.1 chip. Results from a total ionizing dose irradiation test are reported.

  19. Time-dependent measurement of the γ angle in the B0s↦ Ds± K± decay at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellarini, G.

    2015-03-01

    This document describes the measurement of the weak phase γ in the B0sto Ds^{±} K^{∓} decay performed by the LHCb experiment. The γ angle is the worst measured among the CKM unitarity triangle angles. The B0sto Ds^{±} K^{∓} mode allows to measure γ in a very clean way since it decays through tree-level diagram avoiding the problem of the penguin pollution. The analysis is performed on the 2011 data sample collected by LHCb at the center of mass energy of 7TeV, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 1fb-1. The relevant observables to be measured through the decay time dependence are the CP -violating coefficients Cf , Sf , S_{bar{f}} , A^{Δ Γ}f , A^{Δ Γ}_{bar{f}} since they depend on the γ angle. We find the CP observables to be: Cf=0.53± 0.25± 0.04 , Sf=-1.09± 0.33± 0.08 , S_{bar{f}}=-0.36± 0.34± 0.08 , A^{Δ Γ}f=0.37± 0.42± 0.20 , A^{ΔΓ}_{bar{f}}=0.20± 0.41± 0.20 , where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. We use these observables to perform the first measurement of γ in the B0sto Ds^{±} K^{∓} decay mode, finding γ=(115^{+28}_{-43})° modulo 180° at 68% CL where both the statistical and systematic uncertainties are included.

  20. Hydrogen-rich gas generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Cerini, D. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A process and apparatus are described for producing hydrogen-rich product gases. A spray of liquid hydrocarbon is mixed with a stream of air in a startup procedure and the mixture is ignited for partial oxidation. The stream of air is then heated by the resulting combustion to reach a temperature such that a signal is produced. The signal triggers a two way valve which directs liquid hydrocarbon from a spraying mechanism to a vaporizing mechanism with which a vaporized hydrocarbon is formed. The vaporized hydrocarbon is subsequently mixed with the heated air in the combustion chamber where partial oxidation takes place and hydrogen-rich product gases are produced.

  1. The NA62 RICH detector

    SciTech Connect

    Cassese, A.

    2011-07-01

    The NA62 experiment is designed to measure the very rare kaon decay K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} at the CERN SPS with a 10% accuracy. The Standard Model prediction for the Branching Ratio is (8.5 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -11}. One of the challenging aspect of the experiment is the suppression of the K{sup +} {yields} {mu}{sup +} v{sub {mu}} background at the 10{sup -12} level. To satisfy this requirement a Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector (RICH), able to separate {pi}{sup {+-}} from {mu}{sup {+-}} in the momentum range between 15 and 35 GeV/c, with a {mu}, rejection factor better than 10{sup -2}, is needed. The RICH must also have a time resolution of about 100 ps to disentangle accidental time associations of beam particles with pions. The RICH will have a very long focal length (17 m) and will be filled with Ne gas at atmospheric pressure. Two test beams were held at CERN in 2007 and 2009 with a RICH prototype. The results of the two test beams will be presented: the {mu}, mis-identification probability is found to be about 0.7% and the time resolution better than 100 ps in the whole momentum range. (authors)

  2. Rich-Cores in Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Athen; Mondragón, Raúl J.

    2015-01-01

    A core comprises of a group of central and densely connected nodes which governs the overall behaviour of a network. It is recognised as one of the key meso-scale structures in complex networks. Profiling this meso-scale structure currently relies on a limited number of methods which are often complex and parameter dependent or require a null model. As a result, scalability issues are likely to arise when dealing with very large networks together with the need for subjective adjustment of parameters. The notion of a rich-club describes nodes which are essentially the hub of a network, as they play a dominating role in structural and functional properties. The definition of a rich-club naturally emphasises high degree nodes and divides a network into two subgroups. Here, we develop a method to characterise a rich-core in networks by theoretically coupling the underlying principle of a rich-club with the escape time of a random walker. The method is fast, scalable to large networks and completely parameter free. In particular, we show that the evolution of the core in World Trade and C. elegans networks correspond to responses to historical events and key stages in their physical development, respectively. PMID:25799585

  3. Rich-cores in networks.

    PubMed

    Ma, Athen; Mondragón, Raúl J

    2015-01-01

    A core comprises of a group of central and densely connected nodes which governs the overall behaviour of a network. It is recognised as one of the key meso-scale structures in complex networks. Profiling this meso-scale structure currently relies on a limited number of methods which are often complex and parameter dependent or require a null model. As a result, scalability issues are likely to arise when dealing with very large networks together with the need for subjective adjustment of parameters. The notion of a rich-club describes nodes which are essentially the hub of a network, as they play a dominating role in structural and functional properties. The definition of a rich-club naturally emphasises high degree nodes and divides a network into two subgroups. Here, we develop a method to characterise a rich-core in networks by theoretically coupling the underlying principle of a rich-club with the escape time of a random walker. The method is fast, scalable to large networks and completely parameter free. In particular, we show that the evolution of the core in World Trade and C. elegans networks correspond to responses to historical events and key stages in their physical development, respectively.

  4. Be Bold ... Be Enrollment Rich

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Mark C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, marketing specialist Mark Perna offers advice on how career and technical schools can market themselves and their programs. To become "enrollment rich," he suggests the following: (1) develop a brand plan--something that separates your organization from competitors in the mind of the community; (2) deliver the message--the community…

  5. Technology-Rich Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thach, Kim J.; Norman, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    This article uses one of the authors' classroom experiences to explore how teachers can create technology-rich learning environments that support upper elementary students' mathematical understanding of algebra and number and operations. They describe a unit that presents a common financial problem (the use of credit cards) to engage sixth graders…

  6. Interplay between IR-improved DGLAP-CS theory and the precision of an NLO ME matched parton shower MC in relation to LHCb data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.; Ward, B. F. L.

    2016-03-01

    We use comparison with recent LHCb data on single Z/γ∗ production and decay to lepton pairs as a vehicle to study the current status of the application of our approach of exact amplitude-based resummation in quantum field theory to precision quantum chromodynamics (QCD) calculations, by realistic MC event generator methods, as needed for precision large hadron collider (LHC) physics. This represents an extension of the phase space of our previous studies based on comparison with CMS and ATLAS data, as the pseudo-rapidity range measured by the LHCb for leptons in the data we study is 2.0 < η < 4.5 to be compared with |η| < 4.6(2.4) in our previous CMS(ATLAS) data comparison for the same processes. To be precise, for μ+μ- decays, the CMS data had |η| < 2.1 while, for e+e- decays, the CMS data had |η| < 2.1 for both leptons for the Zγ∗pT spectrum and had one lepton with |η| < 2.5 and one with |η| < 4.6 for the Z/γ∗ rapidity spectrum. The analyses we present here with the LHCb data thus represent an important addition to our previous results, as it is essential that theoretical predictions be able to control all of the measured phase space at LHC. The level of agreement between the new theory and the data continues to be a reason for optimism.

  7. Orthobiologics and platelet rich plasma

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Mandeep S; Behera, Prateek; Patel, Sandeep; Shetty, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Orthobiologics have evolved to the extent that they significantly influence modern orthopedic surgical practice. A better understanding of the role of various growth factors and cells in the process of tendon healing, ligament repair, cartilage regeneration and bone formation has stimulated focused research in many chronic musculoskeletal ailments. Investigators have published results of laboratory as well as clinical studies, using orthobiologics like platelet rich plasma, stem cells, autologous conditioned serum etc., with variable results. However, a clear consensus over the best orthobiologic substance and the method of preparation and usage of these substances is lacking. Much of the confusion is due to the fact that studies ranging from RCTs to case reports present variable results, and the interpretations are wide-ranging. We have reviewed the available orthobiologics related data with a focus on platelet rich plasma in orthopedic conditions. PMID:24600055

  8. Fuel-Rich Catalytic Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Olson, Sandra L.

    1987-01-01

    Two-stage combustion system reduces particulate emissions. Program on catalytic oxidation of iso-octane demonstrates feasibility of two-stage combustion system for reducing particulate emissions. With fuel-rich (fuel/air equivalence ratios of 4.8 to 7.8) catalytic-combustion preburner as first stage, combustion process free of soot at reactor-outlet temperatures of 1,200 K or less.

  9. Richness-based masses of rich and famous galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreon, S.

    2016-03-01

    We present a catalog of galaxy cluster masses derived by exploiting the tight correlation between mass and richness, i.e., a properly computed number of bright cluster galaxies. The richness definition adopted in this work is properly calibrated, shows a small scatter with mass, and has a known evolution, which means that we can estimate accurate (0.16 dex) masses more precisely than by adopting any other richness estimates or X-ray or SZ-based proxies based on survey data. We measured a few hundred galaxy clusters at 0.05 < z < 0.22 in the low-extinction part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey footprint that are in the 2015 catalog of Planck-detected clusters, that have a known X-ray emission, that are in the Abell catalog, or that are among the most most cited in the literature. Diagnostic plots and direct images of clusters are individually inspected and we improved cluster centers and, when needed, we revised redshifts. Whenever possible, we also checked for indications of contamination from other clusters on the line of sight, and found ten such cases. All this information, with the derived cluster mass values, are included in the distributed value-added cluster catalog of the 275 clusters with a derived mass larger than 1014M⊙. Finally, in a technical appendix we illustrate with Planck clusters how to minimize the sensitivity of comparisons between masses listed in different catalogs to the specific overlapping of the considerd subsamples, a problem recognized but not solved in the literature. Full Table 1 is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A158A web front-end is available at the URL http://www.brera.mi.astro.it/~andreon/famous.html

  10. Sulfate-rich Archean Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainard, J. L.; Choney, A. P.; Ohmoto, H.

    2012-12-01

    There is a widely held belief that prior to 2.4 Ga, the Archean oceans and atmosphere were reducing, and therefore sulfate poor (concentrations <0.1 mmol). However, there is mounting evidence from diverse rock types of Archean ages that sulfate concentrations were likely similar to those in the modern ocean (~28 mmol). In this study we demonstrate that in different lithologies, representing a wide range of marine environments, there is ubiquitous evidence for abundant seawater sulfate. One of the more apparent lines of evidence for sulfate rich Archean waters are bedded barite (BaSO4) deposits, such as those in the ~3.4 Ga Fig Tree Group, South Africa and ~3.5 Ga Dresser Formation, Western Australia (WA). These deposits are thick (>100 m), widely distributed (> km2), and contain only minor amounts of sulfides. These barite beds may have developed from reactions between Ba-rich hydrothermal fluids and evaporate bodies. Simple mass balance calculations suggest that the sulfate contents of the pre-evaporitic seawater must have been greater than ~1 mM. Some researchers have suggested that the SO4 for these beds was derived from the hydrolysis of SO2-rich magmatic fluids. However, this was unlikely as the reaction, 4SO2 + 4H2O → 3H2SO4 + H2S would have produced large amounts of sulfide, as well as sulfate minerals. Many Archean-aged volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, much like those of the younger ages, record evidence for abundant seawater sulfate. As VMS deposits are most likely formed by submarine hydrothermal fluids that developed from seawater circulating through the seafloor rock, much of the seawater sulfate is reduced to from sulfides at depths. However, some residual sulfate in the hydrothermal fluids, with or without the addition of sulfate from the local seawater, can form sulfate minerals such as barite at near the seafloor. The d34S relationships between barites and pyrites in the Archean VMS deposits are similar to those of the younger VMS

  11. Lhcb transcription is coordinated with cell size and chlorophyll accumulation. Studies on fluorescence-activated, cell-sorter-purified single cells from wild-type and immutans Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Meehan, L.; Harkins, K.; Rodermel, S.

    1996-11-01

    To study the mechanisms that integrate pigment and chlorophyll a/b-binding apoprotein biosynthesis during light-harvesting complex II assembly, we have examined {beta}-glucuronidase (GUS) enzyme activities, cell-sorting-separated single cells sizes in fluorescence activated, cell-sorting-separated single cells from transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and immutans variegation mutant plants that express an Lhcb (photosystem II chlorophyll a/b-binding polypeptide gene)/GUS promoter fusion. We found that GUS activities are positively correlated with chlorophyll content and cell size in green cells from the control and immutans plants, indicating that Lhcb gene transcription is coordinated with cell size in this species. Compared with the control plants, however, chlorophyll production is enhanced in the green cells of immutans; this may represent part of a strategy to maximize photosynthesis in the white sectors of the mutant. Lhcb transcription is significantly higher in pure-white cells of the transgenic immutans plants than in pure-white cells from norflurazon-treated, photooxidized A. thaliana leaves. This suggests that immutans partially uncouples Lhcb transcription from its normal dependence on chlorophyll accumulation and chloroplast development. We conclude that immutans may play a role in regulating Lhcb transcription, and may be a key component in the signal transduction pathways that control chloroplast biogenesis. 58 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. First observation of the decay B s 0 → K S 0 K ∗(892)0 at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casanova Mohr, R.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthieu, K.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Ninci, D.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.

    2016-01-01

    A search for B ( s) 0 → K S 0 K ∗(892)0 decays is performed using pp collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 .0 fb-1, collected with the LHCb detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The B s 0 → K S 0 K ∗(892)0 decay is observed for the first time, with a significance of 7.1 standard deviations. The branching fraction is measured to be B({B}_s^0to {overline{K}}^0{K}^{ast }{(892)}^0)+B({B}_s^0to {K}^0{overline{K}}^{ast }{(892)}^0)=(16.4± 3.4± 2.3)× 1{0}^{-6}, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. No evidence is found for the decay B 0 → K S 0 K ∗(892)0 and an upper limit is set on the branching fraction, B({B}^0to {overline{K}}^0{K}^{ast }{(892)}^0)+B({B}^0to {K}^0{overline{K}}^{ast }{(892)}^0)<0.96× 1{0}^{-6} , at 90 % confidence level. All results are consistent with Standard Model predictions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Proline-rich Sequence Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Schlundt, Andreas; Sticht, Jana; Piotukh, Kirill; Kosslick, Daniela; Jahnke, Nadin; Keller, Sandro; Schuemann, Michael; Krause, Eberhard; Freund, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The tumor maintenance protein Tsg101 has recently gained much attention because of its involvement in endosomal sorting, virus release, cytokinesis, and cancerogenesis. The ubiquitin-E2-like variant (UEV) domain of the protein interacts with proline-rich sequences of target proteins that contain P(S/T)AP amino acid motifs and weakly binds to the ubiquitin moiety of proteins committed to sorting or degradation. Here we performed peptide spot analysis and phage display to refine the peptide binding specificity of the Tsg101 UEV domain. A mass spectrometric proteomics approach that combines domain-based pulldown experiments, binding site inactivation, and stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was then used to delineate the relative importance of the peptide and ubiquitin binding sites. Clearly “PTAP” interactions dominate target recognition, and we identified several novel binders as for example the poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PABP1), Sec24b, NFκB2, and eIF4b. For PABP1 and eIF4b the interactions were confirmed in the context of the corresponding full-length proteins in cellular lysates. Therefore, our results strongly suggest additional roles of Tsg101 in cellular regulation of mRNA translation. Regulation of Tsg101 itself by the ubiquitin ligase TAL (Tsg101-associated ligase) is most likely conferred by a single PSAP binding motif that enables the interaction with Tsg101 UEV. Together with the results from the accompanying article (Kofler, M., Schuemann, M., Merz, C., Kosslick, D., Schlundt, A., Tannert, A., Schaefer, M., Lührmann, R., Krause, E., and Freund, C. (2009) Proline-rich sequence recognition: I. Marking GYF and WW domain assembly sites in early spliceosomal complexes. Mol. Cell. Proteomics 8, 2461–2473) on GYF and WW domain pathways our work defines major proline-rich sequence-mediated interaction networks that contribute to the modular assembly of physiologically relevant protein complexes. PMID:19542561

  14. Species richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: associations with grassland plant richness and biomass.

    PubMed

    Hiiesalu, Inga; Pärtel, Meelis; Davison, John; Gerhold, Pille; Metsis, Madis; Moora, Mari; Öpik, Maarja; Vasar, Martti; Zobel, Martin; Wilson, Scott D

    2014-07-01

    Although experiments show a positive association between vascular plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) species richness, evidence from natural ecosystems is scarce. Furthermore, there is little knowledge about how AMF richness varies with belowground plant richness and biomass. We examined relationships among AMF richness, above- and belowground plant richness, and plant root and shoot biomass in a native North American grassland. Root-colonizing AMF richness and belowground plant richness were detected from the same bulk root samples by 454-sequencing of the AMF SSU rRNA and plant trnL genes. In total we detected 63 AMF taxa. Plant richness was 1.5 times greater belowground than aboveground. AMF richness was significantly positively correlated with plant species richness, and more strongly with below- than aboveground plant richness. Belowground plant richness was positively correlated with belowground plant biomass and total plant biomass, whereas aboveground plant richness was positively correlated only with belowground plant biomass. By contrast, AMF richness was negatively correlated with belowground and total plant biomass. Our results indicate that AMF richness and plant belowground richness are more strongly related with each other and with plant community biomass than with the plant aboveground richness measures that have been almost exclusively considered to date.

  15. Robust Optical Richness Estimation with Reduced Scatter

    SciTech Connect

    Rykoff, E.S.; Koester, B.P.; Rozo, E.; Annis, J.; Evrard, A.E.; Hansen, S.M.; Hao, J.; Johnston, D.E.; McKay, T.A.; Wechsler, R.H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2012-06-07

    Reducing the scatter between cluster mass and optical richness is a key goal for cluster cosmology from photometric catalogs. We consider various modifications to the red-sequence matched filter richness estimator of Rozo et al. (2009b), and evaluate their impact on the scatter in X-ray luminosity at fixed richness. Most significantly, we find that deeper luminosity cuts can reduce the recovered scatter, finding that {sigma}{sub ln L{sub X}|{lambda}} = 0.63 {+-} 0.02 for clusters with M{sub 500c} {approx}> 1.6 x 10{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The corresponding scatter in mass at fixed richness is {sigma}{sub ln M|{lambda}} {approx} 0.2-0.3 depending on the richness, comparable to that for total X-ray luminosity. We find that including blue galaxies in the richness estimate increases the scatter, as does weighting galaxies by their optical luminosity. We further demonstrate that our richness estimator is very robust. Specifically, the filter employed when estimating richness can be calibrated directly from the data, without requiring a-priori calibrations of the red-sequence. We also demonstrate that the recovered richness is robust to up to 50% uncertainties in the galaxy background, as well as to the choice of photometric filter employed, so long as the filters span the 4000 {angstrom} break of red-sequence galaxies. Consequently, our richness estimator can be used to compare richness estimates of different clusters, even if they do not share the same photometric data. Appendix A includes 'easy-bake' instructions for implementing our optimal richness estimator, and we are releasing an implementation of the code that works with SDSS data, as well as an augmented maxBCG catalog with the {lambda} richness measured for each cluster.

  16. Structural Mechanism Underlying the Specific Recognition between the Arabidopsis State-Transition Phosphatase TAP38/PPH1 and Phosphorylated Light-Harvesting Complex Protein Lhcb1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xuepeng; Guo, Jiangtao; Li, Mei; Liu, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    During state transitions, plants regulate energy distribution between photosystems I and II through reversible phosphorylation and lateral migration of the major light-harvesting complex LHCII. Dephosphorylation of LHCII and the transition from state 2 to state 1 requires a thylakoid membrane-associated phosphatase named TAP38 or PPH1. TAP38/PPH1 specifically targets LHCII but not the core subunits of photosystem II, whereas the underlying molecular mechanism of their mutual recognition is currently unclear. Here, we present the structures of Arabidopsis thaliana TAP38/PPH1 in the substrate-free and substrate-bound states. The protein contains a type 2C serine/threonine protein phosphatase (PP2C) core domain, a Mn2+ (or Mg2+) binuclear center and two additional motifs contributing to substrate recognition. A 15-mer phosphorylated N-terminal peptide of Lhcb1 binds to TAP38/PPH1 on two surface clefts enclosed by the additional motifs. The first segment of the phosphopeptide is clamped by a pair of tooth-like arginine residues at Cleft 1 site. The binding adopts the lock-and-key mechanism with slight rearrangement of the substrate binding residues on TAP38/PPH1. Meanwhile, a more evident substrate-induced fitting occurs on Cleft 2 harboring the extended part of the phosphopeptide. The results unravel the bases for the specific recognition between TAP38/PPH1 and phosphorylated Lhcb1, a crucial step in state transitions. PMID:25888588

  17. Observation of the rare Bs0 →µ+µ- decay from the combined analysis of CMS and LHCb data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cms Collaboration; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Crucy, S.; Dildick, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Mora Herrera, C.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Tao, J.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Xiao, H.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Bontenackels, M.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Klein, K.; Ostapchuk, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Roland, B.; Ron, E.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Vargas Trevino, A. D. R.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lange, J.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Ott, J.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Poehlsen, T.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Seidel, M.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; de Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Frensch, F.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Nürnberg, A.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Stiliaris, E.; Aslanoglou, X.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Singh, J. B.; Ashok Kumar; Arun Kumar; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Modak, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Roy, D.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. 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F.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Rinkevicius, A.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; Moon, D. H.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Haytmyradov, M.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Rahmat, R.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Swartz, M.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P., III; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Sekaric, J.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Wood, J. S.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Bauer, G.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Klute, M.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Meier, F.; Ratnikov, F.; Snow, G. R.; Zvada, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wolfe, H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Hunt, A.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Malik, S.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; de Mattia, M.; Gutay, L.; Hu, Z.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Zablocki, J.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Korjenevski, S.; Petrillo, G.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Kaplan, S.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Krutelyov, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Kunori, S.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Levine, A.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Vuosalo, C.; Bediaga, I.; de Miranda, J. M.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Gomes, A.; Massafferri, A.; Dos Reis, A. C.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Amato, S.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; de Paula, L.; Francisco, O.; Gandelman, M.; Hicheur, A.; Lopes, J. H.; Martins Tostes, D.; Nasteva, I.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Polycarpo, E.; Potterat, C.; Rangel, M. S.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Souza de Paula, B.; Vieira, D.; An, L.; Gao, Y.; Jing, F.; Li, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhong, L.; Beaucourt, L.; Chefdeville, M.; Decamp, D.; Déléage, N.; Ghez, Ph.; Lees, J.-P.; Marchand, J. F.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Qian, W.; T'jampens, S.; Tisserand, V.; Tournefier, E.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Baalouch, M.; Cogneras, E.; Deschamps, O.; El Rifai, I.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Henrard, P.; Hoballah, M.; Lefèvre, R.; Maratas, J.; Monteil, S.; Niess, V.; Perret, P.; Adrover, C.; Akar, S.; Aslanides, E.; Cogan, J.; Kanso, W.; Le Gac, R.; Leroy, O.; Mancinelli, G.; Mordà, A.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Serrano, J.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Amhis, Y.; Barsuk, S.; Borsato, M.; Kochebina, O.; Lefrançois, J.; Machefert, F.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Nicol, M.; Robbe, P.; Schune, M.-H.; Teklishyn, M.; Vallier, A.; Viaud, B.; Wormser, G.; Ben-Haim, E.; Charles, M.; Coquereau, S.; David, P.; Del Buono, L.; Henry, L.; Polci, F.; Albrecht, J.; Brambach, T.; Cauet, Ch.; Deckenhoff, M.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Gavardi, L.; Kruse, F.; Meier, F.; Niet, R.; Parkinson, C. J.; Schlupp, M.; Shires, A.; Spaan, B.; Swientek, S.; Wishahi, J.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Blouw, J.; Britsch, M.; Fontana, M.; Popov, D.; Schmelling, M.; Volyanskyy, D.; Zavertyaev, M.; Bachmann, S.; Bien, A.; Comerma-Montells, A.; de Cian, M.; Dordei, F.; Esen, S.; Färber, C.; Gersabeck, E.; Grillo, L.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Jaeger, A.; Kolpin, M.; Kreplin, K.; Krocker, G.; Leverington, B.; Marks, J.; Meissner, M.; Neuner, M.; Nikodem, T.; Seyfert, P.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Uwer, U.; Vesterinen, M.; Wandernoth, S.; Wiedner, D.; Zhelezov, A.; McNulty, R.; Wallace, R.; Zhang, W. C.; Palano, A.; Carbone, A.; Falabella, A.; Galli, D.; Marconi, U.; Moggi, N.; Mussini, M.; Perazzini, S.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Zangoli, M.; Bonivento, W.; Cadeddu, S.; Cardini, A.; Cogoni, V.; Contu, A.; Lai, A.; Liu, B.; Manca, G.; Oldeman, R.; Saitta, B.; Vacca, C.; Andreotti, M.; Baldini, W.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Corvo, M.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Luppi, E.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Shapoval, I.; Tellarini, G.; Tomassetti, L.; Vecchi, S.; Anderlini, L.; Bizzeti, A.; Frosini, M.; Graziani, G.; Passaleva, G.; Veltri, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Campana, P.; de Simone, P.; Lanfranchi, G.; Palutan, M.; Rama, M.; Sarti, A.; Sciascia, B.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Cardinale, R.; Fontanelli, F.; Gambetta, S.; Patrignani, C.; Petrolini, A.; Pistone, A.; Calvi, M.; Cassina, L.; Gotti, C.; Khanji, B.; Kucharczyk, M.; Matteuzzi, C.; Fu, J.; Geraci, A.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Amerio, S.; Collazuol, G.; Gallorini, S.; Gianelle, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lupato, A.; Morandin, M.; Rotondo, M.; Sestini, L.; Simi, G.; Stroili, R.; Bedeschi, F.; Cenci, R.; Leo, S.; Marino, P.; Morello, M. J.; Punzi, G.; Stracka, S.; Walsh, J.; Carboni, G.; Furfaro, E.; Santovetti, E.; Satta, A.; Alves, A. A., Jr.; Auriemma, G.; Bocci, V.; Martellotti, G.; Penso, G.; Pinci, D.; Santacesaria, R.; Satriano, C.; Sciubba, A.; Dziurda, A.; Kucewicz, W.; Lesiak, T.; Rachwal, B.; Witek, M.; Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Morawski, P.; Moron, J.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Swientek, K.; Szumlak, T.; Batozskaya, V.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kurek, K.; Szczekowski, M.; Ukleja, A.; Wislicki, W.; Cojocariu, L.; Giubega, L.; Grecu, A.; Maciuc, F.; Orlandea, M.; Popovici, B.; Stoica, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Alkhazov, G.; Bondar, N.; Dzyuba, A.; Maev, O.; Sagidova, N.; Shcheglov, Y.; Vorobyev, A.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, I.; Egorychev, V.; Golubkov, D.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Polyakov, I.; Savrina, D.; Semennikov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Berezhnoy, A.; Korolev, M.; Leflat, A.; Nikitin, N.; Filippov, S.; Gushchin, E.; Kravchuk, L.; Bondar, A.; Eidelman, S.; Krokovny, P.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Shekhtman, L.; Vorobyev, V.; Artamonov, A.; Belous, K.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Guz, Yu.; Novoselov, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Popov, A.; Romanovsky, V.; Shapkin, M.; Stenyakin, O.; Yushchenko, O.; Badalov, A.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Graugés, E.; Marin Benito, C.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Rives Molina, V.; Ruiz, H.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Adeva, B.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Gallas Torreira, A.; García Pardiñas, J.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Plo Casasus, M.; Romero Vidal, A.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Alessio, F.; Archilli, F.; Barschel, C.; Benson, S.; Buytaert, J.; Campora Perez, D.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Cid Vidal, X.; Clemencic, M.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Collins, P.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dettori, F.; di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Durante, P.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Gaspar, C.; Gligorov, V. V.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Gys, T.; Haen, C.; He, J.; Head, T.; van Herwijnen, E.; Jacobsson, R.; Johnson, D.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Lacarrere, D.; Langhans, B.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lohn, S.; Mapelli, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Otto, A.; Panman, J.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Rauschmayr, N.; Rihl, M.; Roiser, S.; Ruf, T.; Schindler, H.; Schmidt, B.; Schopper, A.; Schwemmer, R.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Subbiah, V. K.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, E.; Tonelli, D.; Trisovic, A.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Wicht, J.; Wyllie, K.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Blanc, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dupertuis, F.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Gianì, S.; Haefeli, G.; Jaton, P.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Komarov, I.; La Thi, V. N.; Lopez-March, N.; Märki, R.; Martinelli, M.; Muster, B.; Nakada, T.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Prisciandaro, J.; Puig Navarro, A.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rouvinet, J.; Schneider, O.; Soomro, F.; Szczypka, P.; Tobin, M.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Veneziano, G.; Xu, Z.; Anderson, J.; Bernet, R.; Bowen, E.; Bursche, A.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Elsasser, Ch.; Graverini, E.; Lionetto, F.; Lowdon, P.; Müller, K.; Serra, N.; Steinkamp, O.; Storaci, B.; Straumann, U.; Tresch, M.; Vollhardt, A.; Aaij, R.; Ali, S.; van Beuzekom, M.; David, P. N. Y.; de Bruyn, K.; Farinelli, C.; Heijne, V.; Hulsbergen, W.; Jans, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozlinskiy, A.; van Leerdam, J.; Merk, M.; Oggero, S.; Pellegrino, A.; Snoek, H.; van Tilburg, J.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; de Vries, J. A.; Ketel, T.; Koopman, R. F.; Lambert, R. W.; Martinez Santos, D.; Raven, G.; Schiller, M.; Syropoulos, V.; Tolk, S.; Dovbnya, A.; Kandybei, S.; Raniuk, I.; Okhrimenko, O.; Pugatch, V.; Bifani, S.; Farley, N.; Griffith, P.; Kenyon, I. R.; Lazzeroni, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCarthy, J.; Pescatore, L.; Watson, N. K.; Williams, M. P.; Adinolfi, M.; Benton, J.; Brook, N. H.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Dalseno, J.; Hampson, T.; Harnew, S. T.; Naik, P.; Price, E.; Prouve, C.; Rademacker, J. H.; Richards, S.; Saunders, D. M.; Skidmore, N.; Souza, D.; Velthuis, J. J.; Voong, D.; Barter, W.; Bettler, M.-O.; Cliff, H. V.; Evans, H.-M.; Garra Tico, J.; Gibson, V.; Gregson, S.; Haines, S. C.; Jones, C. R.; Sirendi, M.; Smith, J.; Ward, D. R.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Back, J. J.; Blake, T.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A. C.; Dossett, D.; Gershon, T.; Kreps, M.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Pilař, T.; Poluektov, A.; Reid, M. M.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Wallace, C.; Whitehead, M.; Easo, S.; Nandakumar, R.; Papanestis, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Wilson, F. F.; Carson, L.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Cowan, G. A.; Eisenhardt, S.; Ferguson, D.; Lambert, D.; Luo, H.; Morris, A.-B.; Muheim, F.; Needham, M.; Playfer, S.; Alexander, M.; Beddow, J.; Dean, C.-T.; Eklund, L.; Hynds, D.; Karodia, S.; Longstaff, I.; Ogilvy, S.; Pappagallo, M.; Sail, P.; Skillicorn, I.; Soler, F. J. P.; Spradlin, P.; Affolder, A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Brown, H.; Casse, G.; Donleavy, S.; Dreimanis, K.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Hennessy, K.; Hutchcroft, D.; Liles, M.; McSkelly, B.; Patel, G. D.; Price, J. D.; Pritchard, A.; Rinnert, K.; Shears, T.; Smith, N. A.; Ciezarek, G.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; Egede, U.; Fol, P.; Golutvin, A.; Hall, S.; McCann, M.; Owen, P.; Patel, M.; Petridis, K.; Redi, F.; Sepp, I.; Smith, E.; Sutcliffe, W.; Websdale, D.; Appleby, R. B.; Barlow, R. J.; Bird, T.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Borghi, S.; Brett, D.; Brodzicka, J.; Capriotti, L.; Chen, S.; de Capua, S.; Dujany, G.; Gersabeck, M.; Harrison, J.; Hombach, C.; Klaver, S.; Lafferty, G.; McNab, A.; Parkes, C.; Pearce, A.; Reichert, S.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Smith, M.; Cheung, S.-F.; Derkach, D.; Evans, T.; Gauld, R.; Greening, E.; Harnew, N.; Hill, D.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Jalocha, J.; John, M.; Lupton, O.; Malde, S.; Smith, E.; Stevenson, S.; Thomas, C.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Wilkinson, G.; Counts, I.; Ilten, P.; Williams, M.; Andreassen, R.; Davis, A.; de Silva, W.; Meadows, B.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Todd, J.; Andrews, J. E.; Hamilton, B.; Jawahery, A.; Wimberley, J.; Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Borgia, A.; Britton, T.; Ely, S.; Gandini, P.; Garofoli, J.; Gui, B.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Jurik, N.; Kelsey, M.; Mountain, R.; Pal, B. K.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J.; Xing, Z.; Zhang, L.; Baesso, C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Göbel, C.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Xie, Y.; Milanes, D. A.; Grünberg, O.; Heß, M.; Voß, C.; Waldi, R.; Likhomanenko, T.; Malinin, A.; Shevchenko, V.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Wilschut, H. W.; Pesen, E.

    2015-06-01

    The standard model of particle physics describes the fundamental particles and their interactions via the strong, electromagnetic and weak forces. It provides precise predictions for measurable quantities that can be tested experimentally. The probabilities, or branching fractions, of the strange B meson () and the B0 meson decaying into two oppositely charged muons (μ+ and μ-) are especially interesting because of their sensitivity to theories that extend the standard model. The standard model predicts that the and decays are very rare, with about four of the former occurring for every billion mesons produced, and one of the latter occurring for every ten billion B0 mesons. A difference in the observed branching fractions with respect to the predictions of the standard model would provide a direction in which the standard model should be extended. Before the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN started operating, no evidence for either decay mode had been found. Upper limits on the branching fractions were an order of magnitude above the standard model predictions. The CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) and LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty) collaborations have performed a joint analysis of the data from proton-proton collisions that they collected in 2011 at a centre-of-mass energy of seven teraelectronvolts and in 2012 at eight teraelectronvolts. Here we report the first observation of the µ+µ- decay, with a statistical significance exceeding six standard deviations, and the best measurement so far of its branching fraction. Furthermore, we obtained evidence for the µ+µ- decay with a statistical significance of three standard deviations. Both measurements are statistically compatible with standard model predictions and allow stringent constraints to be placed on theories beyond the standard model. The LHC experiments will resume taking data in 2015, recording proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 teraelectronvolts, which will approximately

  18. Ceres' hydrogen-rich regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prettyman, Thomas H.; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Feldman, William C.; Lawrence, David J.; McSween, Harry Y.; Schorghofer, Norbert; Toplis, Michael J.; Forni, Olivier; Joy, Steven P.; Marchi, Simone; Platz, Thomas; Polanskey, Carol A.; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Rayman, Marc D.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2016-04-01

    Low-altitude mapping of Ceres by Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) began in December of 2015. GRaND will continue to acquire data for at least six months in a circular-polar orbit, at an altitude of about 0.8 body radii. Close-proximity enables global mapping of the elemental composition of Ceres' regolith, with regional-scale spatial resolution, similar to that achieved at Vesta. An initial analysis of the data shows that Ceres' regolith is rich in H, consistent with the detection of ammoniated phyllosilicates by Dawn's Visible to InfraRed (VIR) spectrometer. Global maps of neutron and gamma ray counting data reveal a strong latitude variation, with suppressed counts at the poles. Lower bound estimates of the concentration of polar H exceed that found in carbonaceous chondrites, which are the best meteorite analogs for Ceres. Thermal modeling predicts that water ice is stable near the surface at high latitudes, and, given Ceres' low obliquity, water ice and other volatile species may be concentrated in permanently shadowed regions near the poles. Excess hydrogen at high latitudes is likely in the form of water ice within the decimeter depths sensed by GRaND. Changes in the hydration state of phyllosilicates and hydrated salt minerals with temperature could also contribute to observed spatial variations. Some GRaND signatures show evidence for layering of hydrogen, consistent with ice stability models. Differences in the gamma ray spectra of Ceres and Vesta indicate that Ceres' surface is primitive (closely related to carbonaceous chondrite-like compositions), in contrast to Vesta's fractionated igneous composition. Strong gamma rays are observed at 7.6 MeV (Fe), 6.1 MeV (O), and 2.2 MeV (H). With additional accumulation time, it may be possible to quantify or bound the concentration of other elements, such as Mg, Ni, and C. Elements diagnostic of hydrothermal activity (K, Cl, and S) may be detectable if they are present in high concentrations over

  19. Coexistence of Si-rich and S-rich Materials at Gusev Crater, Columbia Hills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A.; Bell, J. F.; Rice, M. S.; Cloutis, E. A.

    2008-03-01

    Si-rich species encountered by Spirit rover in the vicinity of S-rich soils show a characteristic feature in NIR spectra extracted from multicolor Pancam images. This feature is used to evaluate other potential Si-rich species at Gusev landing site.

  20. ROBUST OPTICAL RICHNESS ESTIMATION WITH REDUCED SCATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Rykoff, E. S.; Koester, B. P.; Rozo, E.; Annis, J.; Hao, J.; Johnston, D. E.; Evrard, A. E.; McKay, T. A.; Hansen, S. M.

    2012-02-20

    Reducing the scatter between cluster mass and optical richness is a key goal for cluster cosmology from photometric catalogs. We consider various modifications to the red-sequence-matched filter richness estimator of Rozo et al. implemented on the maxBCG cluster catalog and evaluate the impact of these changes on the scatter in X-ray luminosity (L{sub X} ) at fixed richness, using L{sub X} from the ROSAT All-Sky Catalog as the best mass proxy available for the large area required. Most significantly, we find that deeper luminosity cuts can reduce the recovered scatter, finding that {sigma}{sub ln{sub L{sub x|{lambda}}}}=0.63{+-}0.02 for clusters with M{sub 500c} {approx}> 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h{sup -1}{sub 70} M{sub Sun }. The corresponding scatter in mass at fixed richness is {sigma}{sub lnM|{lambda}} Almost-Equal-To 0.2-0.3 depending on the richness, comparable to that for total X-ray luminosity. We find that including blue galaxies in the richness estimate increases the scatter, as does weighting galaxies by their optical luminosity. We further demonstrate that our richness estimator is very robust. Specifically, the filter employed when estimating richness can be calibrated directly from the data, without requiring a priori calibrations of the red sequence. We also demonstrate that the recovered richness is robust to up to 50% uncertainties in the galaxy background, as well as to the choice of photometric filter employed, so long as the filters span the 4000 A break of red-sequence galaxies. Consequently, our richness estimator can be used to compare richness estimates of different clusters, even if they do not share the same photometric data. Appendix A includes 'easy-bake' instructions for implementing our optimal richness estimator, and we are releasing an implementation of the code that works with Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, as well as an augmented maxBCG catalog with the {lambda} richness measured for each cluster.

  1. Radial tail resolution in the SELEX RICH

    SciTech Connect

    Morelos, A.; Mata, J.; Cooper, P.S.; Engelfried, J.; Aguilera-Servin, J.L.; /San Luis Potosi U. /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The authors use a 7 Million event data sample of 600 GeV/c single track pion events, where the pion track is reconstructed upstream and downstream of the SELEX RICH. They build the RICH ring radius histogram distribution and count the tail events that fall outside 5{sigma}, giving a fraction of 4 x 10{sup -5} events outside the Gaussian tails. This control of events establishes the ability of using the RICH as velocity spectrometer for high precision searches of the K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} decay like it is planned in the CKM experiment.

  2. Firm size diversity, functional richness, and resilience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garmestani, A.S.; Allen, C.R.; Mittelstaedt, J.D.; Stow, C.A.; Ward, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper applies recent advances in ecology to our understanding of firm development, sustainability, and economic development. The ecological literature indicates that the greater the functional richness of species in a system, the greater its resilience - that is, its ability to persist in the face of substantial changes in the environment. This paper focuses on the effects of functional richness across firm size on the ability of industries to survive in the face of economic change. Our results indicate that industries with a richness of industrial functions are more resilient to employment volatility. ?? 2006 Cambridge University Press.

  3. Measurement of the Bs(0)→μ+ μ- branching fraction and search for B(0)→μ+ μ- decays at the LHCb experiment.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Cowie, E; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hess, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Holtrop, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palczewski, T; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Van Dijk, M; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-09-01

    A search for the rare decays Bs(0)→μ+ μ- and B(0)→μ+ μ- is performed at the LHCb experiment. The data analyzed correspond to an integrated luminosity of 1  fb(-1) of pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and 2  fb(-1) at 8 TeV. An excess of Bs(0)→μ+ μ- signal candidates with respect to the background expectation is seen with a significance of 4.0 standard deviations. A time-integrated branching fraction of B(Bs(0)→μ+ μ-)=(2.9(-1.0)(+1.1))×10(-9) is obtained and an upper limit of B(B(0)→μ+ μ-)<7.4×10(-10) at 95% confidence level is set. These results are consistent with the standard model expectations. PMID:25166655

  4. Measurement of the Bs(0)→μ+ μ- branching fraction and search for B(0)→μ+ μ- decays at the LHCb experiment.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Cowie, E; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hess, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Holtrop, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palczewski, T; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Van Dijk, M; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-09-01

    A search for the rare decays Bs(0)→μ+ μ- and B(0)→μ+ μ- is performed at the LHCb experiment. The data analyzed correspond to an integrated luminosity of 1  fb(-1) of pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and 2  fb(-1) at 8 TeV. An excess of Bs(0)→μ+ μ- signal candidates with respect to the background expectation is seen with a significance of 4.0 standard deviations. A time-integrated branching fraction of B(Bs(0)→μ+ μ-)=(2.9(-1.0)(+1.1))×10(-9) is obtained and an upper limit of B(B(0)→μ+ μ-)<7.4×10(-10) at 95% confidence level is set. These results are consistent with the standard model expectations.

  5. Ultra fast UV-photo detector based on single-walled carbon nanotube/PEDOT-PSS composites.

    PubMed

    Najeeb, Choolakadavil Khalid; Lee, Jae-Hyoek; Chang, Jingbo; Kang, Won-Seok; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2009-12-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS), composites (SWNT/PEDOT-PSS) have been prepared using SWNTs surface modified with a natural gum, 'gum arabic' by simple mixing process. Thin films of SWNTs, PEDOT-PSS and the composites were prepared by vacuum filtration technique and were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiations for photoconductivity measurements. The surface resistivity of pristine SWNTs film increased from initial value of 50 omega to 92 omega and that of the polymer film decreased from 6.7 Komega to 3.1 Komega while the resistivity of the composite film decreased from 267 omega to 232 omega upon UV illumination. When the lamp was switched off, the initial resistivities of PEDOT: PSS and SWNTs films were recovered very slowly. Interestingly, on the other hand the composite films demonstrated a very fast relaxation within a few minutes. An on-off cycle ruled out the possibility of local heating effect and revealed that the switching property was originated from the fast transport of charge and heat in the composite films. This property of composite film might open up optoelectronic applications involving photoconductivity, such as photo sensors, organic light emitting diodes (OLED) and organic solar cells. Here in, we demonstrate the application of the SWNT/PEDOT-PSS composite film based device as a UV sensor.

  6. Synthesis of cyclic disulfide-rich peptides.

    PubMed

    Akcan, Muharrem; Craik, David J

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we describe two SPPS approaches for producing cyclic disulfide-rich peptides in our laboratory, including cyclotides from plants, cyclic conotoxins from cone snail venoms, chlorotoxin from scorpion venom, and the sunflower trypsin inhibitor peptide, SFTI-1.

  7. Tannin rich peanut skins lack anthelmintic properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) resistance to synthetic anthelmintics in small ruminants has led to the evaluation of feed sources containing naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites that lessen parasite activity. Plants rich in condensed tannins (CT) can have beneficial anthelmintic pro...

  8. Tests of Zinc Rich Anticorrosion Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. D.; Paton, W. J.; Rowe, A.

    1986-01-01

    Condition of zinc-rich anticorrosion coatings after 10 years of exposure discussed in status report, which follows up on 18-month study of anticorrosion coatings on steel started in 1971. Test panels with various coatings mounted on racks on beach and checked periodically. Of panels with inorganic zinc-rich coatings, only one slightly rusted. Panels were in such good condition they were returned to beach for more exposure.

  9. Toxicological evaluation of arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kara D; Huang, Weifeng; Zheng, Xiaohui; Jiang, Yue; Feldman, Robin S; Falk, Michael C

    2016-10-01

    The safety of DHA-rich oil from Schizochytrium sp. and ARA-rich oil from Mortierella alpina was separately evaluated by testing for gene mutations, clastogenicity, and aneugenicity, and by conducting 28-day and 90-day dietary studies in Wistar rats. The results of all genotoxicity tests were negative. The 28-day and 90-day studies involved dietary exposure to 1000, 2500, and 5000 mg per kg bw of the DHA-rich and ARA-rich oils and two control diets: water and corn oil (vehicle control). There were no treatment-related effects of either the DHA-rich or ARA-rich oils on clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, behavior, hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, urinalysis parameters, or necropsy findings. Increases in cholesterol and triglyceride levels were considered related to a high oil diet and non-adverse. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for both the DHA-rich and ARA-rich oils was 5000 mg per kg bw, the highest dose tested. The results confirm that these oils possess toxicity profiles similar to those of other currently marketed oils and support the safety of DHA-rich oil from Schizochytrium sp. and ARA-rich oil from Mortierella alpina for their proposed uses in food. PMID:27470615

  10. Global patterns of species richness and climate

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, D.J. )

    1994-06-01

    Why are there many species in some places and few in others Several studies have shown that the variation in the number of species over continent-sized areas is closely related to the variation in macroclimatic factors: heat and moisture for terrestrial plants, and heat for terrestrial vertebrates. Yet, most of these studies dealt primarily with temperature areas on single continents. If contemporary climate is the principle determinant of large-scale patterns of richness, then richness should be related to climate in similar ways on different continents, regardless of their evolutionary histories. To test the hypothesis, we have gathered published data on the distributions of birds and mammals in temperature and tropical areas. We found that richness varies as a function of potential evapotranspiration in very similar ways on different continents in temperate areas, although there is some significant variation among continents that is unrelated to climate. In tropical areas, richness is more closely related to precipitation and annual climatic variability. Re-analysis of published data on plant richness is consistent with these observations. We conclude that most of the variation in large-scale patterns of species richness can be accounted for by contemporary climate.

  11. Lithium-rich Giants in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Zhang, Andrew J.; Hong, Jerry; Guo, Michelle; Guo, Rachel; Cohen, Judith G.; Cunha, Katia

    2016-03-01

    Although red giants deplete lithium on their surfaces, some giants are Li-rich. Intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars can generate Li through the Cameron-Fowler conveyor, but the existence of Li-rich, low-mass red giant branch (RGB) stars is puzzling. Globular clusters are the best sites to examine this phenomenon because it is straightforward to determine membership in the cluster and to identify the evolutionary state of each star. In 72 hours of Keck/DEIMOS exposures in 25 clusters, we found four Li-rich RGB and two Li-rich AGB stars. There were 1696 RGB and 125 AGB stars with measurements or upper limits consistent with normal abundances of Li. Hence, the frequency of Li-richness in globular clusters is (0.2 ± 0.1)% for the RGB, (1.6 ± 1.1)% for the AGB, and (0.3 ± 0.1)% for all giants. Because the Li-rich RGB stars are on the lower RGB, Li self-generation mechanisms proposed to occur at the luminosity function bump or He core flash cannot explain these four lower RGB stars. We propose the following origin for Li enrichment: (1) All luminous giants experience a brief phase of Li enrichment at the He core flash. (2) All post-RGB stars with binary companions on the lower RGB will engage in mass transfer. This scenario predicts that 0.1% of lower RGB stars will appear Li-rich due to mass transfer from a recently Li-enhanced companion. This frequency is at the lower end of our confidence interval. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  12. Microporoelastic Modeling of Organic-Rich Shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosh Sokhan Monfared, S.; Abedi, S.; Ulm, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Organic-rich shale is an extremely complex, naturally occurring geo-composite. The heterogeneous nature of organic-rich shale and its anisotropic behavior pose grand challenges for characterization, modeling and engineering design The intricacy of organic-rich shale, in the context of its mechanical and poromechanical properties, originates in the presence of organic/inorganic constituents and their interfaces as well as the occurrence of porosity and elastic anisotropy, at multiple length scales. To capture the contributing mechanisms, of 1st order, responsible for organic-rich shale complex behavior, we introduce an original approach for micromechanical modeling of organic-rich shales which accounts for the effect of maturity of organics on the overall elasticity through morphology considerations. This morphology contribution is captured by means of an effective media theory that bridges the gap between immature and mature systems through the choice of system's microtexture; namely a matrix-inclusion morphology (Mori-Tanaka) for immature systems and a polycrystal/granular morphology for mature systems. Also, we show that interfaces play a role on the effective elasticity of mature, organic-rich shales. The models are calibrated by means of ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements of elastic properties and validated by means of nanoindentation results. Sensitivity analyses using Spearman's Partial Rank Correlation Coefficient shows the importance of porosity and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) as key input parameters for accurate model predictions. These modeling developments pave the way to reach a "unique" set of clay properties and highlight the importance of depositional environment, burial and diagenetic processes on overall mechanical and poromechanical behavior of organic-rich shale. These developments also emphasize the importance of understanding and modeling clay elasticity and organic maturity on the overall rock behavior which is of critical importance for a

  13. Energetics of calcium-rich dolomite

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, L.; Navrotsky, A.; Reeder, R.J.

    1995-03-01

    The enthalpy of formation of sedimentary Ca-rich dolomite has been determined by oxide melt calorimetry. The results show that Ca-rich dolomite is energetically different from well-ordered stoichiometric dolomite. The enthalpy of formation from calcite and magnesite becomes strongly more endothermic with increasing excess Ca content. This supports the idea that the substitution of Ca in the Mg layer of dolomite is energetically unfavorable. Ca-rich dolomite is unstable relative to well-ordered stoichiometric dolomite and calcite. The enthalpy behavior for excess Ca substitution in dolomite is different from that of Mg substitution in calcite; the enthalpy change is much larger in magnitude in dolomite and is more strongly dependent on composition. Differences in cation order as well as the presence of a modulated structure and low-symmetry domains in Ca-rich dolomite cannot be discerned from the enthalpy data. The findings confirm that the growth and occurrence of Ca-rich dolomite in sedimentary environments must be attributed to kinetic factors rather than to equilibrium. 47 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Energetics of calcium-rich dolomite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, L.; Navrotsky, A.; Reeder, R. J.

    1995-03-01

    The enthalpy of formation of sedimentary Ca-rich dolomite has been determined by oxide melt calorimetry. The results show that Ca-rich dolomite is energetically different from well-ordered stoichiometric dolomite. The enthalpy of formation from calcite and magnesite becomes strongly more endothermic with increasing excess Ca content. This supports the idea that the substitution of Ca in the Mg layer of dolomite is energetically unfavorable. Ca-rich dolomite is unstable relative to well-ordered stoichiometric dolomite and calcite. The enthalpy behavior for excess Ca substitution in dolomite is different from that of Mg substitution in calcite; the enthalpy change is much larger in magnitude in dolomite and is more strongly dependent on composition. Differences in cation order as well as the presence of a modulated structure and low-symmetry domains in Ca-rich dolomite cannot be discerned from the enthalpy data. The findings confirm that the growth and occurrence of Ca-rich dolomite in sedimentary environments must be attributed to kinetic factors rather than to equilibrium.

  15. Species richness changes lag behind climate change.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Rosa; Megías, Adela González; Hill, Jane K; Braschler, Brigitte; Willis, Stephen G; Collingham, Yvonne; Fox, Richard; Roy, David B; Thomas, Chris D

    2006-06-22

    Species-energy theory indicates that recent climate warming should have driven increases in species richness in cool and species-poor parts of the Northern Hemisphere. We confirm that the average species richness of British butterflies has increased since 1970-82, but much more slowly than predicted from changes of climate: on average, only one-third of the predicted increase has taken place. The resultant species assemblages are increasingly dominated by generalist species that were able to respond quickly. The time lag is confirmed by the successful introduction of many species to climatically suitable areas beyond their ranges. Our results imply that it may be decades or centuries before the species richness and composition of biological communities adjusts to the current climate. PMID:16777739

  16. Gas Rich Mergers in Disk Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, C. B.; Veilleux, V.; Kawata, D.; Martel, H.; Gibson, B. K.

    In order to explain disk galaxy formation within the hierarchical structure formation, it seems that gas rich mergers must play an important role. We review here our previous studies which have shown the importance of mergers at high redshift being gas rich, in the formation of both the stellar halo and thick disk components of disk galaxies. Regulation of star formation in the building blocks of our galaxy is required to form a low mass low metallicity stellar halo. This regulation results in high redshift, gas rich mergers during which the thick disk forms. In these proceedings, we categorise stars from our simulated disk galaxy into thin and thick disk components by using the Toomre diagram. Rotation velocity, metallicity and age histograms of the two populations are presented, along with alpha element abundances (oxygen, silicone, magnesium), age-height above the plane, age-radius, metallicity-height, and metalicity-radius gradients.

  17. Probing neutron rich matter with parity violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Many compact and energetic astrophysical systems are made of neutron rich matter. In contrast, most terrestrial nuclei involve approximately symmetric nuclear matter with more equal numbers of neutrons and protons. However, heavy nuclei have a surface region that contains many extra neutrons. Precision measurements of this neutron rich skin can determine properties of neutron rich matter. Parity violating electron scattering provides a uniquely clean probe of neutrons, because the weak charge of a neutron is much larger than that of a proton. We describe first results and future plans for the Jefferson Laboratory experiment PREX that measures the thickness of the neutron skin in 208Pb. Another JLAB experiment CREX will measure the neutron radius of 48Ca and test recent microscopic calculations of this neutron rich 48 nucleon system. Finally, we show how measuring parity violation at multiple momentum transfers can determine not just the neutron radius but the full radial structure of the neutron density in 48Ca. A neutron star is eighteen orders of magnitude larger than a nucleus (km vs fm) but both the star and the neutron rich nuclear skin are made of the same neutrons, with the same strong interactions, and the same equation of state. A large pressure pushes neutrons out against surface tension and gives a thick neutron skin. Therefore, PREX will constrain the equation of state of neutron rich matter and improve predictions for the structure of neutron stars. Supported in part by DOE Grants DE-FG02-87ER40365 (Indiana University) and DE-SC0008808 (NUCLEI SciDAC Collaboration).

  18. He-3-rich flares - A possible explanation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisk, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    A plasma mechanism is proposed to explain the dramatic enhancements in He-3 observed in He-3-rich flares. It is shown that a common current instability in the corona may heat ambient He-3(2+) over any other ion and thus may preferentially inject He-3 into the flare acceleration process. This mechanism operates when the abundance of He-4 and heavier elements is larger than normal in the coronal plasma. It may also preferentially heat and thus inject certain ions of iron. The mechanism thus provides a possible explanation for the observed correlation between He-3 and heavy enhancements in He-3-rich flares.

  19. A gas-RICH detector for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, T.; Bergström, D.; Boezio, M.; Carlson, P.; Suffert, M.

    1999-08-01

    A gas-RICH counter using a C4F10 radiator and pad readout has been developed. The good transmission of the optical elements together with a low noise level in the electronics results that on average 12 photoelectrons are detected per event for /Z=1 particles with /β~1. The reconstructed Cherenkov angle has a resolution of 1.2mrad. The RICH detector is an important part of a balloon borne experiment, CAPRICE, which measures the flux of antiprotons and positrons in the cosmic radiation.

  20. Technology-Rich Schools Up Close

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Barbara B.; Schrum, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    This article observes that schools that use technology well have key commonalities, including a project-based curriculum and supportive, distributed leadership. The authors' research into tech-rich schools revealed that schools used three strategies to integrate technology successfully. They did so by establishing the vision and culture,…

  1. RICH Theory: The Promotion of Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.

    2004-01-01

    The acronym RICH stands for resources, intimacy, competence, and health. These characteristics are purported to define psychological health, which is assumed to be synonymous with happiness. The four characteristics encompass all possible reinforcers, are relatively obtainable by all individuals, are interrelated to the extent they incorporate…

  2. Experiments with neutron-rich isomeric beams

    SciTech Connect

    Rykaczewski, K. |; Grzywacz, R. |; Lewitowicz, M.; Pfuetzner, M.; Grawe, H.

    1998-01-01

    A review of experimental results obtained on microsecond-isomeric states in neutron-rich nuclei produced in fragmentation reactions and studied with SISSI-Alpha-LISE3 spectrometer system at GANIL Caen is given. The perspectives of experiments based on secondary reactions with isomeric beams are presented.

  3. The rich detail of cultural symbol systems.

    PubMed

    Read, Dwight W

    2014-08-01

    The goal of forming a science of intentional behavior requires a more richly detailed account of symbolic systems than is assumed by the authors. Cultural systems are not simply the equivalent in the ideational domain of culture of the purported Baldwin Effect in the genetic domain. PMID:25162879

  4. Mathematically Rich, Investigative Tasks for Teaching Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    A challenge for teachers is to incorporate the Standards for Mathematical Practice (CCSSI 2010) throughout their teaching of mathematics so that the Common Core Standards do not revert back to a purely content-driven curriculum. One way to achieve this is through the use of mathematically rich, investigative tasks. These tasks encourage students…

  5. Power Divider for Waveforms Rich in Harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, William Herbert, III

    2005-01-01

    A method for dividing the power of an electronic signal rich in harmonics involves the use of an improved divider topology. A divider designed with this topology could be used, for example, to propagate a square-wave signal in an amplifier designed with a push-pull configuration to enable the generation of more power than could be generated in another configuration.

  6. A Rich Metadata Filesystem for Scientific Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Hoang

    2012-01-01

    As scientific research becomes more data intensive, there is an increasing need for scalable, reliable, and high performance storage systems. Such data repositories must provide both data archival services and rich metadata, and cleanly integrate with large scale computing resources. ROARS is a hybrid approach to distributed storage that provides…

  7. The relationship between community species richness and the richness of the parasite community in Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Tavis K; Sukhdeo, Michael V K

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between the metazoan parasite community in a focal species, Fundulus heteroclitus , and the species richness of the free-living community. Four distinct salt marsh areas were selected in order to reflect a gradient in free-living species richness and time post-restoration (unrestored, 0, 10, and 20 yr post-restoration). A total of 960 fish was studied, with 30 collected per site in each of 8 consecutive seasons between 2005 and 2007. Species richness and abundance of birds, fish, and benthic macroinvertebrates varied significantly between sites. However, increasing richness in the free-living community was neither positively nor negatively correlated with richness in the parasite infracommunity in F. heteroclitus . These results demonstrate that the relationship between community species richness and parasite richness is not linear. The data suggest that the diversity of parasites may be more correlated with measures of community composition, such as the structure and cohesiveness of the food web, rather than with prevailing measures of biodiversity.

  8. The relationship between community species richness and the richness of the parasite community in Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Tavis K; Sukhdeo, Michael V K

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between the metazoan parasite community in a focal species, Fundulus heteroclitus , and the species richness of the free-living community. Four distinct salt marsh areas were selected in order to reflect a gradient in free-living species richness and time post-restoration (unrestored, 0, 10, and 20 yr post-restoration). A total of 960 fish was studied, with 30 collected per site in each of 8 consecutive seasons between 2005 and 2007. Species richness and abundance of birds, fish, and benthic macroinvertebrates varied significantly between sites. However, increasing richness in the free-living community was neither positively nor negatively correlated with richness in the parasite infracommunity in F. heteroclitus . These results demonstrate that the relationship between community species richness and parasite richness is not linear. The data suggest that the diversity of parasites may be more correlated with measures of community composition, such as the structure and cohesiveness of the food web, rather than with prevailing measures of biodiversity. PMID:23198795

  9. Production, measurement and simulation of a low mass flex cable for multi gigabit/s readout for the LHCb VELO upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemos Cid, E.; Buytaert, J.; Gallas Torreira, A. A.; Esperante Pereira, D.; Ronning, P. Arne; Visniakov, J.; Sanchez, M. G.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to examine the feasibility of data transmission up to ~ 5 Gbit/s on a short ( ~ 60 cm) low mass flex cable, for the readout of the upgraded vertex detector (VELO) of the LHCb experiment. They will be in a vacuum and very high radiation environment and also partly in the particle acceptance. For the full system 1600 readout links will be required. A set of single-ended and differential (edge-coupled) striplines, with a variety of line parameters have been prototyped using a material specifically tailored for this type of application (Dupont Pyralux AP-plus polyimide). To reduce mass, the total thickness of the cable is kept to 0.7 mm. We will present measurements of the characteristic impedance, insertion and return loss, obtained both from time and frequency domain, as well as a comparison with simulations and expectations. Also the effectiveness of grounded guard traces and the use of ground via holes to reduce crosstalk will be reported. From the measurements we were also able to extract the material properties such as the dielectric constant and loss factor up to several GHz. The measurements were done with a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA), TDR/TDT Digital Sampling Oscilloscope, serial PRBS generator and analyzer for eye diagram and CAD tools such as Agilent ADS and ANSYS HFSS simulators.

  10. D^*_{s0}(2317) and it{DK} scattering in B decays from BaBar and LHCb data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albaladejo, M.; Nieves, J.; Oset, E.; Jido, D.

    2016-06-01

    We study the experimental DK invariant mass spectra of the reactions [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], B0 → D- D0 K+ (measured by the BaBar collaboration) and B_s → π + bar{D}0 K- (measured by the LHCb collaboration), where an enhancement right above the threshold is seen. We show that this enhancement is due to the presence of D^*_{s0}(2317), which is a DK bound state in the I(J^P) = 0(0+) sector. We employ a unitarized amplitude with an interaction potential fixed by heavy meson chiral perturbation theory. We obtain a mass M_{D^*_{s0}} = 2315^{+12}_{-17} ^{+10}_{-5} {MeV}, and we also show, by means of the Weinberg compositeness condition, that the DK component in the wave function of this state is P_{DK} = 70^{+4}_{-6} ^{+4}_{-8} %, where the first (second) error is statistical (systematic).

  11. LHCb pentaquarks as a baryon-ψ (2 S ) bound state: Prediction of isospin-3/2 pentaquarks with hidden charm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perevalova, Irina A.; Polyakov, Maxim V.; Schweitzer, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The pentaquark Pc+(4450 ) recently discovered by the LHCb has been interpreted as a bound state of Ψ (2 S ) and a nucleon. The charmonium-nucleon interaction which provides the binding mechanism is given, in the heavy-quark limit, in terms of charmonium chromoelectric polarizabilities and densities of the nucleon energy-momentum tensor. In this work, we show in a model-independent way, by exploring general properties of the effective interaction, that Ψ (2 S ) can form bound states with a nucleon and Δ . Using the Skyrme model to evaluate the effective interaction in the large-Nc limit and estimate 1 /Nc corrections, we confirm the results from prior work which were based on a different effective model (chiral quark soliton model). This shows that the interpretation of Pc+(4450 ) is remarkably robust and weakly dependent on the details of the effective theories for the nucleon energy-momentum tensor. We explore the formalism further and present robust predictions of isospin-3/2 bound states of Ψ (2 S ) and Δ with masses around 4.5 GeV and widths around 70 MeV. The approach also predicts broader resonances in the Ψ (2 S )-Δ channel at 4.9 GeV with widths of the order of 150 MeV. We discuss in which reactions these new isospin-3/2 pentaquarks with hidden charm can be observed.

  12. Weighted species richness outperforms species richness as predictor of biotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Anna; Yu, Jun; Wardle, David A; Trygg, Johan; Englund, Göran

    2016-01-01

    The species richness hypothesis, which predicts that species-rich communities should be better at resisting invasions than species-poor communities, has been empirically tested many times and is often poorly supported. In this study, we contrast the species richness hypothesis with four alternative hypotheses with the aim of finding better descriptors of invasion resistance. These alternative hypotheses state that resistance to invasions is determined by abiotic conditions, community saturation (i.e., the number of resident species relative to the maximum number of species that can be supported), presence/absence of key species, or weighted species richness. Weighted species richness is a weighted sum of the number of species, where each species' weight describes its contribution to resistance. We tested these hypotheses using data on the success of 571 introductions of four freshwater fish species into lakes throughout Sweden, i.e., Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), tench (Tinca tinca), zander (Sander lucioperca), and whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus). We found that weighted species richness best predicted invasion success. The weights describing the contribution of each resident species to community resistance varied considerably in both strength and sign. Positive resistance weights, which indicate that species repel invaders, were as common as negative resistance weights, which indicate facilitative interactions. This result can be contrasted with the implicit assumption of the original species richness hypothesis, that all resident species have negative effects on invader success. We argue that this assumption is unlikely to be true in natural communities, and thus that we expect that weighted species richness is a better predictor of invader success than the actual number of resident species.

  13. Transitory O-rich chemistry in heavily obscured C-rich post-AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Hernández, D. A.; García-Lario, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Engels, D.; Perea-Calderón, J. V.

    2016-07-01

    Spitzer/IRS spectra of eleven heavily obscured C-rich sources rapidly evolving from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to Planetary Nebulae are presented. IRAM 30m observations for three of these post-AGBs are also reported. A few (3) of these sources are known to exhibit strongly variable maser emission of O-bearing molecules such as OH and H2 O, suggesting a transitory O-rich chemistry because of the quickly changing physical and chemical conditions in this short evolutionary phase. Interestingly, the Spitzer/IRS spectra show a rich circumstellar carbon chemistry, as revealed by the detection of small hydrocarbon molecules such as C2H2, C4H2, C6H2, C6H6, and HCN. Benzene is detected towards two sources, bringing up to three the total number of Galactic post-AGBs where this molecule has been detected. In addition, we report evidence for the possible detection of other hydrocarbon molecules like HC3N, CH3C2H, and CH3 in several of these sources. The available IRAM 30m data confirm that the central stars are C-rich - in despite of the presence of O-rich masers - and the presence of high velocity molecular outflows together with extreme AGB mass-loss rates (∼⃒10-4 Mʘ /yr). Our observations confirm the polymerization model of Cernicharo [1] that predicts a rich photochemistry in the neutral regions of these objects on timescales shorter than the dynamical evolution of the central HII region, leading to the formation of small C-rich molecules and a transitory O-rich chemistry.

  14. RICH Detector for Jefferson Labs CLAS12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotta, Richard; Torisky, Ben; Benmokhtar, Fatiha

    2015-10-01

    Jefferson Lab (Jlab) is performing a large-scale upgrade to its Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) up to 12GeV beams. The Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS12) in Hall B is being upgraded and a new hybrid Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector is being developed to provide better kaon - pion separation throughout the 3 to 8 GeV/c momentum range. This detector will be used for a variety of Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering experiments. Cherenkov light can be accurately detected by a large array of sophisticated Multi-Anode Photomultiplier Tubes (MA-PMT) and heavier particles, like kaons, will span the inner radii. We are presenting our work on the creation of the RICH's geometry within the CLAS12 java framework. This development is crucial for future calibration, reconstructions and analysis of the detector.

  15. Platelet rich plasma in ocular surface.

    PubMed

    Riestra, A C; Alonso-Herreros, J M; Merayo-Lloves, J

    2016-10-01

    The use of platelet-rich preparations has experienced a significant increase in recent years due to its role in tissue-repair and regeneration. The aim of this study is to examine the available evidence regarding the application of plasma rich in growth factors, and its variations, on the ocular surface. A review is also presented on the effects of platelet-derived growth factors, the implications of the preparation methods, and the existing literature on the safety and efficacy of these therapies in ocular surface diseases. Despite the widespread use of platelet preparations there is no consensus on the most appropriate preparation method, and growth factors concentration vary with different systems. These preparations have been used in the treatment of ocular surface diseases, such as dry eye or persistent epithelial defects, among others, with good safety and efficacy profiles, but further studies are needed to compare to the currently available alternatives.

  16. Rubidium-rich asymptotic giant branch stars.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, D A; García-Lario, P; Plez, B; D'Antona, F; Manchado, A; Trigo-Rodríguez, J M

    2006-12-15

    A long-debated issue concerning the nucleosynthesis of neutron-rich elements in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is the identification of the neutron source. We report intermediate-mass (4 to 8 solar masses) AGB stars in our Galaxy that are rubidium-rich as a result of overproduction of the long-lived radioactive isotope (87)Rb, as predicted theoretically 40 years ago. This finding represents direct observational evidence that the (22)Ne(alpha,n)(25)Mg reaction must be the dominant neutron source in these stars. These stars challenge our understanding of the late stages of the evolution of intermediate-mass stars and would have promoted a highly variable Rb/Sr environment in the early solar nebula. PMID:17095658

  17. The rich club phenomenon in the classroom

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero, Luis M.; Cebrian, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the evolution of the online interactions held by college students and report on novel relationships between social structure and performance. Our results indicate that more frequent and intense social interactions generally imply better score for students engaging in them. We find that these interactions are hosted within a “rich-club”, mediated by persistent interactions among high performing students, which is created during the first weeks of the course. Low performing students try to engage in the club after it has been initially formed, and fail to produce reciprocity in their interactions, displaying more transient interactions and higher social diversity. Furthermore, high performance students exchange information by means of complex information cascades, from which low performing students are selectively excluded. Failure to engage in the rich club eventually decreases these students' communication activity towards the end of the course. PMID:23378908

  18. The semantic richness of abstract concepts

    PubMed Central

    Recchia, Gabriel; Jones, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness—number of features (NFs), contextual dispersion (CD), and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN)—for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF) facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN) facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract concepts in early processing. Additionally, converging evidence from two datasets suggests that when NSN and CD are controlled for, the features that most facilitate processing are those associated with a concept's physical characteristics and real-world contexts. These results suggest that rich linguistic contexts (many semantic neighbors) facilitate early activation of abstract concepts, whereas concrete concepts benefit more from rich physical contexts (many associated objects and locations). PMID:23205008

  19. Pair correlations in neutron-rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Esbensen, H.

    1995-08-01

    We started a program to study the ground-state properties of heavy, neutron-rich nuclei using the Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov (HFB) approximation. This appears at present to be the most realistic approach for heavy nuclei that contain many loosely bound valence neutrons. The two-neutron density obtained in this approach can be decomposed into two components, one associated with the mean field and one associated with the pairing field. The latter has a structure that is quite similar to the pair-density obtained by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian for a two-neutron halo, which was studied earlier. This allows comparison of the HFB solutions against numerically exact solutions for two-neutron halos. This work is in progress. We intend to apply the HFB method to predict the ground-state properties of heavier, more neutron-rich nuclei that may be produced at future radioactive beam facilities.

  20. The CLAS12 large area RICH detector

    SciTech Connect

    M. Contalbrigo, E. Cisbani, P. Rossi

    2011-05-01

    A large area RICH detector is being designed for the CLAS12 spectrometer as part of the 12 GeV upgrade program of the Jefferson Lab Experimental Hall-B. This detector is intended to provide excellent hadron identification from 3 GeV/c up to momenta exceeding 8 GeV/c and to be able to work at the very high design luminosity-up to 1035 cm2 s-1. Detailed feasibility studies are presented for two types of radiators, aerogel and liquid C6F14 freon, in conjunction with a highly segmented light detector in the visible wavelength range. The basic parameters of the RICH are outlined and the resulting performances, as defined by preliminary simulation studies, are reported.

  1. The CLAS12 large area RICH detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contalbrigo, M.; Cisbani, E.; Rossi, P.

    2011-05-01

    A large area RICH detector is being designed for the CLAS12 spectrometer as part of the 12 GeV upgrade program of the Jefferson Lab Experimental Hall-B. This detector is intended to provide excellent hadron identification from 3 GeV/ c up to momenta exceeding 8 GeV/ c and to be able to work at the very high design luminosity-up to 10 35 cm 2 s -1. Detailed feasibility studies are presented for two types of radiators, aerogel and liquid C 6F 14 freon, in conjunction with a highly segmented light detector in the visible wavelength range. The basic parameters of the RICH are outlined and the resulting performances, as defined by preliminary simulation studies, are reported.

  2. Rubidium-rich asymptotic giant branch stars.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, D A; García-Lario, P; Plez, B; D'Antona, F; Manchado, A; Trigo-Rodríguez, J M

    2006-12-15

    A long-debated issue concerning the nucleosynthesis of neutron-rich elements in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is the identification of the neutron source. We report intermediate-mass (4 to 8 solar masses) AGB stars in our Galaxy that are rubidium-rich as a result of overproduction of the long-lived radioactive isotope (87)Rb, as predicted theoretically 40 years ago. This finding represents direct observational evidence that the (22)Ne(alpha,n)(25)Mg reaction must be the dominant neutron source in these stars. These stars challenge our understanding of the late stages of the evolution of intermediate-mass stars and would have promoted a highly variable Rb/Sr environment in the early solar nebula.

  3. Protective Coats For Zinc-Rich Primers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, Louis G, III

    1993-01-01

    Report describes tests of topcoats for inorganic zinc-rich primers on carbon steel. Topcoats intended to provide additional protection against corrosion in acidic, salty seacoast-air/rocket-engine-exhaust environment of Space Shuttle launch site. Tests focused on polyurethane topcoats on epoxy tie coats on primers. Part of study involved comparison between "high-build" coating materials and thin-film coating materials.

  4. Effective Interactions in Neutron-Rich Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sammarruca, F.; Krastev, P.; Barredo, W.

    2005-10-14

    We are generally concerned with probing the behavior of the isospin-asymmetric equation of state. In particular, we will discuss the one-body potentials for protons and neutrons obtained from our Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculations of neutron-rich matter properties. We will also present predictions of proton-proton and neutron-neutron cross sections in the isospin-asymmetric nuclear medium.

  5. The E781 (SELEX) RICH detector

    SciTech Connect

    Engelfried, J.

    1997-06-01

    First results from a new RICH detector, operating in an experiment currently taking data - Fermilab E781 (SELEX), are presented. The detector utilizes a matrix of 2848 phototubes for the photocathode. In a 650 GeV/c ?r- beam the number of photons detected is 14 per ring, giving a Figure of Merit No of 106 cm-`. The ring radius resolution obtained is 1.2 %. Results showing the particle identification ability of the detector are discussed.

  6. HOW TO FIND METAL-RICH ASTEROIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Alan W.; Drube, Line

    2014-04-10

    The metal content of asteroids is of great interest, not only for theories of their origins and the evolution of the solar system but, in the case of near-Earth objects (NEOs), also for impact mitigation planning and endeavors in the field of planetary resources. However, since the reflection spectra of metallic asteroids are largely featureless, it is difficult to identify them and relatively few are known. We show how data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)/NEOWISE thermal-infrared survey and similar surveys, fitted with a simple thermal model, can reveal objects likely to be metal rich. We provide a list of candidate metal-rich NEOs. Our results imply that future infrared surveys with the appropriate instrumentation could discover many more metal-rich asteroids, providing valuable data for assessment of the impact hazard and the potential of NEOs as reservoirs of vital materials for future interplanetary space activities and, eventually perhaps, for use on Earth.

  7. The Richness Dependence of Galaxy Cluster Correlations: Results From A Redshift Survey Of Rich APM Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, R. A. C.; Dalton, G. B.; Efstathiou, G.; Sutherland, W. J.; Maddox, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze the spatial clustering properties of a new catalog of very rich galaxy clusters selected from the APM Galaxy Survey. These clusters are of comparable richness and space density to Abell Richness Class greater than or equal to 1 clusters, but selected using an objective algorithm from a catalog demonstrably free of artificial inhomogeneities. Evaluation of the two-point correlation function xi(sub cc)(r) for the full sample and for richer subsamples reveals that the correlation amplitude is consistent with that measured for lower richness APM clusters and X-ray selected clusters. We apply a maximum likelihood estimator to find the best fitting slope and amplitude of a power law fit to x(sub cc)(r), and to estimate the correlation length r(sub 0) (the value of r at which xi(sub cc)(r) is equal to unity). For clusters with a mean space density of 1.6 x 10(exp -6) h(exp 3) MpC(exp -3) (equivalent to the space density of Abell Richness greater than or equal to 2 clusters), we find r(sub 0) = 21.3(+11.1/-9.3) h(exp -1) Mpc (95% confidence limits). This is consistent with the weak richness dependence of xi(sub cc)(r) expected in Gaussian models of structure formation. In particular, the amplitude of xi(sub cc)(r) at all richnesses matches that of xi(sub cc)(r) for clusters selected in N-Body simulations of a low density Cold Dark Matter model.

  8. Zinc-rich coatings: A market survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizak, R.

    1975-01-01

    Zinc-rich coatings with both organic and inorganic binders were considered for coastal bridges which require more corrosion protection than inland bridges because of exposure to salt spray and fog. Inorganics give longer protection and may be applied without a finish coat; those currently available are harder to apply than organics. The NASA potassium silicate/zinc - dust coating appears to provide longer protection, resist thermal shock, and overcome the application problem. Panels coated with the formulation withstood 5308 hours in a salt spray chamber with no rusting or blistering.

  9. Mars: A water-rich planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Michael H.

    1987-01-01

    Good geomorphic evidence is presented for a planet that was once water rich, and that a lower limit on the amount of water available for a given Martian watershed may be estimated by assuming that the volume of material eroded was equal to the volume of water available. This estimate, coupled with high latitude water estimates of 50 to 100 m gives a global inventory of about 500 m total water in the subsurface. It was emphasized that this is a lower limit as considerable water may be bound in weathered debris and in primary minerals.

  10. Mass Evaluation for Proton Rich Nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Audi, G.; Xu, X.; Pfeiffer, B.; Kondev, F. G.

    2011-11-30

    The Atomic mass evaluation (AME) provides the reliable resource for the values related to atomic masses. Since the publication of the latest version of AME in 2003, many developments for atomic mass determination have been done and important results changed significantly our knowledge. A preliminary version of AME was released in April 2011, and an official version is foreseen to be published in early 2013. The general status of AME is presented and some specific features of AME for proton-rich nuclides are discussed.

  11. Elastic moduli of pyrope rich garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, B. K.; Pandey, A. K.; Singh, C. K.

    2013-06-01

    The elastic properties of minerals depend on its composition, crystal structure, temperature and level of defects. The elastic parameters are important for the interpretation of the structure and composition of the garnet rich family. In present work we have calculated the elastic moduli such as isothermal bulk modulus, Young's modulus and Shear modulus over a wide range of temperature from 300 K to 1000 K by using Birch EOS and Poirrier Tarantola equation of state. The obtained results are compared with the experimental results obtained by measuring the elastic moduli of single crystal. The calculated results show that the logarithmic isothermal EOS does not cooperate well with experimental results.

  12. New process hydrotreats metal-rich feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Langhout, W.C.V.Z.; Ouwerkerk, C.; Pronk, K.M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V. has developed a hydroprocessing procedure suitable for heavy residual feeds with metal contents of up to about 100 ppm, and Shell plans to introduce soon a process which will enable the catalytic hydrotreating of even the heaviest metal-rich feedstocks. This new process will be studied in an experimental unit expected to be on stream by the end of 1981 at a Venezuelan refinery. Also discussed are the catalytic hydroprocessing of residual material, including the roles of hydrodemetallization, h

  13. Shell states of neutron-rich matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, C. J.; Shen, G.

    2008-07-01

    The equation of state (EOS) for nuclear and neutron rich matter is investigated in a relativistic mean field (RMF) model. New shell states are found that minimize the free energy per baryon, calculated in a spherical Wigner-Seitz (WS) approximation, over a significant range of baryon densities. These shell states, that have both inside and outside surfaces, minimize the Coulomb energy of large proton number configurations at the expense of a larger surface energy. This is related to a possible depression in the central density of super heavy nuclei. As the baryon density increases, we find the system changes from normal nuclei, to shell states, and then to uniform matter.

  14. Shell states of neutron-rich matter

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, C. J.; Shen, G.

    2008-07-15

    The equation of state (EOS) for nuclear and neutron rich matter is investigated in a relativistic mean field (RMF) model. New shell states are found that minimize the free energy per baryon, calculated in a spherical Wigner-Seitz (WS) approximation, over a significant range of baryon densities. These shell states, that have both inside and outside surfaces, minimize the Coulomb energy of large proton number configurations at the expense of a larger surface energy. This is related to a possible depression in the central density of super heavy nuclei. As the baryon density increases, we find the system changes from normal nuclei, to shell states, and then to uniform matter.

  15. Testing of fuel/oxidizer-rich, high-pressure preburners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawver, B. R.

    1982-01-01

    Results of an evaluation of high pressure combustion of fuel rich and oxidizer rich LOX/RP-1 propellants using 4.0 inch diameter prototype preburner injectors and chambers are presented. Testing covered a pressure range from 8.9 to 17.5 MN/square meters (1292 to 2540 psia). Fuel rich mixture ratios ranged from 0.238 to 0.367; oxidizer rich mixture ratios ranged from 27.2 to 47.5. Performance, gas temperature uniformity, and stability data for two fuel rich and two ozidizer rich preburner injectors are presented for a conventional like-on-like (LOL) design and a platelet design injector. Kinetically limited combustion is shown by the excellent agreement of measured fuel rich gas composition and C performance data with kinetic model predictions. The oxidizer rich test results support previous equilibrium combustion predictions.

  16. Cd-rich and Te-rich low-temperature photoluminescence in cadmium telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D. S. Kuciauskas, D.; Ma, J.; Metzger, W. K.; Burst, J. M.; Moutinho, H. R.; Dippo, P. C.

    2014-03-03

    Low-temperature photoluminescence emission spectra were measured in cadmium telluride (CdTe) samples in which composition was varied to promote either Cd or Te-rich stoichiometry. The ability to monitor stoichiometry is important, since it has been shown to impact carrier recombination. Te-rich samples show transitions corresponding to acceptor-bound excitons (∼1.58 eV) and free-electron to acceptor transitions (∼1.547 eV). In addition to acceptor-bound excitons, Cd-rich samples show transitions assigned to donor-bound excitons (1.591 eV) and Te vacancies at 1.552 eV. Photoluminescence is a noninvasive way to monitor stoichiometric shifts induced by post-deposition anneals in polycrystalline CdTe thin films deposited by close-spaced sublimation.

  17. Platelet-rich plasma and plantar fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Monto, Raymond R

    2013-12-01

    Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain and can prove difficult to treat in its most chronic and severe forms. Advanced cases of plantar fasciitis are often associated with ankle stiffness, heel spurs, and other conditions and can lead to extensive physical disability and financial loss. Most available traditional treatments, including orthoses, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and steroid injections have a paucity of supportive clinical evidence. More invasive treatments, ranging from corticosteroid and botulinum-A toxin injections to shockwave therapy and plantar fasciotomy, have demonstrated varying clinical success in severe cases but carry the potential for serious complication and permanent disability. Platelet-rich plasma has recently been demonstrated to be helpful in managing chronic severe tendinopathies when other techniques have failed. This review examines the pathophysiology, diagnostic options, nonoperative treatment modalities, and surgical options currently used for plantar fasciitis. It also focuses on the clinical rationale and available evidence for using autologous platelet-rich plasma to treat severe refractory chronic plantar fasciitis.

  18. Rapid Deployment of Rich Catalytic Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Richard S. Tuthill

    2004-06-10

    The overall objective of this research under the Turbines Program is the deployment of fuel flexible rich catalytic combustion technology into high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbines. The resulting combustion systems will provide fuel flexibility for gas turbines to burn coal derived synthesis gas or natural gas and achieve NO{sub x} emissions of 2 ppmvd or less (at 15 percent O{sub 2}), cost effectively. This advance will signify a major step towards environmentally friendly electric power generation and coal-based energy independence for the United States. Under Phase 1 of the Program, Pratt & Whitney (P&W) performed a system integration study of rich catalytic combustion in a small high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbine with a silo combustion system that is easily scalable to a larger multi-chamber gas turbine system. An implementation plan for this technology also was studied. The principal achievement of the Phase 1 effort was the sizing of the catalytic module in a manner which allowed a single reactor (rather than multiple reactors) to be used by the combustion system, a conclusion regarding the amount of air that should be allocated to the reaction zone to achieve low emissions, definition of a combustion staging strategy to achieve low emissions, and mechanical integration of a Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) combustor liner with the catalytic module.

  19. Estimating species richness using environmental DNA.

    PubMed

    Olds, Brett P; Jerde, Christopher L; Renshaw, Mark A; Li, Yiyuan; Evans, Nathan T; Turner, Cameron R; Deiner, Kristy; Mahon, Andrew R; Brueseke, Michael A; Shirey, Patrick D; Pfrender, Michael E; Lodge, David M; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-06-01

    The foundation for any ecological study and for the effective management of biodiversity in natural systems requires knowing what species are present in an ecosystem. We assessed fish communities in a stream using two methods, depletion-based electrofishing and environmental DNA metabarcoding (eDNA) from water samples, to test the hypothesis that eDNA provides an alternative means of determining species richness and species identities for a natural ecosystem. In a northern Indiana stream, electrofishing yielded a direct estimate of 12 species and a mean estimated richness (Chao II estimator) of 16.6 species with a 95% confidence interval from 12.8 to 42.2. eDNA sampling detected an additional four species, congruent with the mean Chao II estimate from electrofishing. This increased detection rate for fish species between methods suggests that eDNA sampling can enhance estimation of fish fauna in flowing waters while having minimal sampling impacts on fish and their habitat. Modern genetic approaches therefore have the potential to transform our ability to build a more complete list of species for ecological investigations and inform management of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27516876

  20. Estimating species richness using environmental DNA.

    PubMed

    Olds, Brett P; Jerde, Christopher L; Renshaw, Mark A; Li, Yiyuan; Evans, Nathan T; Turner, Cameron R; Deiner, Kristy; Mahon, Andrew R; Brueseke, Michael A; Shirey, Patrick D; Pfrender, Michael E; Lodge, David M; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-06-01

    The foundation for any ecological study and for the effective management of biodiversity in natural systems requires knowing what species are present in an ecosystem. We assessed fish communities in a stream using two methods, depletion-based electrofishing and environmental DNA metabarcoding (eDNA) from water samples, to test the hypothesis that eDNA provides an alternative means of determining species richness and species identities for a natural ecosystem. In a northern Indiana stream, electrofishing yielded a direct estimate of 12 species and a mean estimated richness (Chao II estimator) of 16.6 species with a 95% confidence interval from 12.8 to 42.2. eDNA sampling detected an additional four species, congruent with the mean Chao II estimate from electrofishing. This increased detection rate for fish species between methods suggests that eDNA sampling can enhance estimation of fish fauna in flowing waters while having minimal sampling impacts on fish and their habitat. Modern genetic approaches therefore have the potential to transform our ability to build a more complete list of species for ecological investigations and inform management of aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Are bioactive-rich fractions functionally richer?

    PubMed

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ismail, Maznah; Ooi, Der Jiun; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Sarega, Nadarajan; Chan, Kim Wei; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal

    2016-08-01

    Plant bioresources are relied upon as natural, inexpensive, and sustainable remedies for the management of several chronic diseases worldwide. Plants have historically been consumed for medicinal purposes based on traditional belief, but this trend is currently changing. The growing interest in the medicinal properties of plant bioresources stems from concerns of side effects and other adverse effects caused by synthetic drugs. This interest has yielded a better understanding of the roles of plant bioactive compounds in health promotion and disease prevention, including the underlying mechanisms involved in such functional effects. The desire to maximize the potential of phytochemicals has led to the development of "rich fractions," in which extracts contain bioactive compounds in addition to elevated levels of the primary compound. Although a rich fraction effectively increases the bioactivity of the extract, the standardization and quality assurance process can be challenging. However, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) system is a promising green technology in this regard. Future clinical and pharmacological studies are needed to fully elucidate the implications of these preparations in the management of human diseases, thereby fostering a move toward evidence-based medicine.

  2. Catalytic oxidation of very fuel rich mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of using a catalytic reactor as a tool to study soot formation from the fuel rich side of the soot limit (null set = 3 - 6). The experimental approach to be taken in the first phase of the research is to document that a hydrocarbon fuel can be burnt at very rich equivalence ratios without forming soot. A simple mono-component fuel, iso-octane, will be used as the test fuel. To insure that combustion is uniform across the catalyst bed, measurements will be made of the fuel-air equivalence ratio profile across the inlet and the temperature and product distribution across the outlet. Phase Two will be to use this environment as a testing ground for determining the effect the structure of a hydrocarbon fuel has on its tendency to form soot. Various amounts of organic compounds such as benzene will be added to the iso-octane and the reaction products studied. Other compounds to be tested will xylene, toluene, and naphthalene.

  3. Constancy in Functional Space across a Species Richness Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Nathan G; Weiser, Michael D; Mao, Lingfeng; Normand, Signe; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Lin, Luxiang; Cao, Min; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between large-scale gradients in species richness and functional diversity provides important information regarding the mechanisms driving patterns of biodiversity. A classic hypothesis in ecology is that strong interspecific interactions should result in an increase in the functional volume of assemblages as the species richness increases, whereas climatic constraints may result in no change in functional volume. Most research of this kind examines latitudinal gradients in species richness, but the results are likely confounded by underlying gradients in climate and phylogenetic composition. We take an alternative approach that examines functional richness across a tree species richness anomaly where species richness doubles from Europe to eastern North America. The results demonstrate that the functional richness on both continents saturates at a similar point as species richness increases and that the packing of functional space becomes tighter. Further, the species richness anomaly is driven primarily by genera unique to North America, but those genera contribute less than expected functional richness to the region, indicating a high level of redundancy with genera shared between the continents. Taken together, the results indicate that the species richness anomaly is associated with diversification within a climatically constrained trait space. More generally, the work demonstrates the power of utilizing species richness anomalies in biodiversity research, particularly when they are coupled with information regarding organismal function.

  4. Productivity is a poor predictor of plant species richness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For 30 years, the relationship between net primary productivity and species richness has generated intense debate in ecology about the processes regulating fine-scale species richness. The true relationship was thought to be hump-shaped, with richness peaking at intermediate levels of productivity, ...

  5. Constancy in Functional Space across a Species Richness Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Nathan G; Weiser, Michael D; Mao, Lingfeng; Normand, Signe; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Lin, Luxiang; Cao, Min; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between large-scale gradients in species richness and functional diversity provides important information regarding the mechanisms driving patterns of biodiversity. A classic hypothesis in ecology is that strong interspecific interactions should result in an increase in the functional volume of assemblages as the species richness increases, whereas climatic constraints may result in no change in functional volume. Most research of this kind examines latitudinal gradients in species richness, but the results are likely confounded by underlying gradients in climate and phylogenetic composition. We take an alternative approach that examines functional richness across a tree species richness anomaly where species richness doubles from Europe to eastern North America. The results demonstrate that the functional richness on both continents saturates at a similar point as species richness increases and that the packing of functional space becomes tighter. Further, the species richness anomaly is driven primarily by genera unique to North America, but those genera contribute less than expected functional richness to the region, indicating a high level of redundancy with genera shared between the continents. Taken together, the results indicate that the species richness anomaly is associated with diversification within a climatically constrained trait space. More generally, the work demonstrates the power of utilizing species richness anomalies in biodiversity research, particularly when they are coupled with information regarding organismal function. PMID:27028083

  6. Habitability constraints on water-rich exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Lena; Höning, Dennis; Rivoldini, Attilio; Heistracher, Clemens; Zimov, Nastasia; Journaux, Baptiste; Lammer, Helmut; Van Hoolst, Tim; Hendrik Bredehöft, Jan

    2016-04-01

    This research addresses the characterization, modelling, thermal evolution and possible habitability of water-rich exoplanets. Water is necessary for the origin and survival of life as we know it. In the search for habitable worlds, water-rich planets therefore seem obvious candidates. The water layer on such planets could be hundreds of kilometers deep. Depending on the temperature profile and the pressure gradient, it is likely that at great depths a significant part of the water layer is solid high pressure ice. Whether the solid ice layer extends to the bottom of the water layer, or if a shallow lower ocean forms above the silicate mantle, depends amongst others on the thermal state of the planet. We therefore model the thermal evolution of water-rich planets with a 1D parameterized model. Depth-dependent profiles for thermodynamic properties as well as pressure and gravity are obtained by solving the Poisson equation for the gravity and the hydrostatic pressure equation for pre-defined mass and composition (in terms of iron, silicates and water) [1]. For density, equations of state are applied. For the simulation of the thermal evolution of water-rich planets, several parameters (as initial temperatures or layer thicknesses) are unknown. We therefore employ a quantitatve study with more than 20'000 simulations, where we investigated which parameters have the largest influence on the appearance of a lower ocean, i.e. the possible melting of high-pressure ice by heat flowing out of the silicate mantle [2]. We find that the surface temperature has the largest influence on the thickness of water layers, for which a lower ocean can still form between the high-pressure ice layer and the silicate mantle. For higher surface temperatures, not only entirely liquid oceans are possible for deeper water shells, also a liquid ocean can form under high-pressure ice layers of hundreds of kilometer thickness (for a 1 Earth-mass planet). Deeper down, the lower ocean can still

  7. Silica-Rich Soil Found by Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has found a patch of bright-toned soil so rich in silica that scientists propose water must have been involved in concentrating it.

    The silica-rich patch, informally named 'Gertrude Weise' after a player in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, was exposed when Spirit drove over it during the 1,150th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's Mars surface mission (March 29, 2007). One of Spirit's six wheels no longer rotates, so it leaves a deep track as it drags through soil. Most patches of disturbed, bright soil that Spirit had investigated previously are rich in sulfur, but this one has very little sulfur and is about 90 percent silica.

    This image is a approximately true-color composite of three images taken through different filters by Spirit's panoramic camera on Sol 1,187 (May 6). The track of disturbed soil is roughly 20 centimeters (8 inches) wide.

    Spirit's miniature thermal emission spectrometer, which can assess a target's mineral composition from a distance, examined the Gertrude Weise patch on Sol 1,172 (April 20). The indications it found for silica in the overturned soil prompted a decision to drive Spirit close enough to touch the soil with the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, a chemical analyzer at the end of Spirit's robotic arm. The alpha particle X-ray spectrometer collected data about this target on sols 1,189 and 1,190 (May 8 and May 9) and produced the finding of approximately 90 percent silica.

    Silica is silicon dioxide. On Earth, it commonly occurs as the crystalline mineral quartz and is the main ingredient in window glass. The Martian silica at Gertrude Weise is non-crystalline, with no detectable quartz.

    In most cases, water is required to produce such a concentrated deposit of silica, according to members of the rover science team. One possible origin for the silica could have been interaction of soil with acidic steam produced by volcanic activity. Another could

  8. Silica-Rich Soil in Gusev Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has found a patch of bright-toned soil so rich in silica that scientists propose water must have been involved in concentrating it.

    The silica-rich patch, informally named 'Gertrude Weise' after a player in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, was exposed when Spirit drove over it during the 1,150th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's Mars surface mission (March 29, 2007). One of Spirit's six wheels no longer rotates, so it leaves a deep track as it drags through soil. Most patches of disturbed, bright soil that Spirit had investigated previously are rich in sulfur, but this one has very little sulfur and is about 90 percent silica.

    Spirit's panoramic camera imaged the bright patch through various filters on Sol 1,158 (April 6). This approximately true-color image combines images taken through three different filters. The track of disturbed soil is roughly 20 centimeters (8 inches) wide.

    Spirit's miniature thermal emission spectrometer, which can assess a target's mineral composition from a distance, examined the Gertrude Weise patch on Sol 1,172 (April 20). The indications it found for silica in the overturned soil prompted a decision to drive Spirit close enough to touch the soil with the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, a chemical analyzer at the end of Spirit's robotic arm. The alpha particle X-ray spectrometer collected data about this target on sols 1,189 and 1,190 (May 8 and May 9) and produced the finding of approximately 90 percent silica.

    Silica is silicon dioxide. On Earth, it commonly occurs as the crystalline mineral quartz and is the main ingredient in window glass. The Martian silica at Gertrude Weise is non-crystalline, with no detectable quartz.

    In most cases, water is required to produce such a concentrated deposit of silica, according to members of the rover science team. One possible origin for the silica could have been interaction of soil with acidic steam

  9. Fungal arachidonic acid-rich oil: research, development and industrialization.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiao-Jun; Ren, Lu-Jing; Nie, Zhi-Kui; Huang, He; Ouyang, Ping-Kai

    2014-09-01

    Fungal arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil is an important microbial oil that affects diverse physiological processes that impact normal health and chronic disease. In this article, the historic developments and technological achievements in fungal ARA-rich oil production in the past several years are reviewed. The biochemistry of ARA, ARA-rich oil synthesis and the accumulation mechanism are first introduced. Subsequently, the fermentation and downstream technologies are summarized. Furthermore, progress in the industrial production of ARA-rich oil is discussed. Finally, guidelines for future studies of fungal ARA-rich oil production are proposed in light of the current progress, challenges and trends in the field.

  10. An Abundance of Riches: Cross-Task Comparisons of Semantic Richness Effects in Visual Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Melvin J.; Pexman, Penny M.; Wellsby, Michele; Hargreaves, Ian S.; Huff, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence (e.g., Pexman et al., 2008) that semantically rich words, which are associated with relatively more semantic information, are recognized faster across different lexical processing tasks. The present study extends this earlier work by providing the most comprehensive evaluation to date of semantic richness effects on visual word recognition performance. Specifically, using mixed effects analyses to control for the influence of correlated lexical variables, we considered the impact of number of features, number of senses, semantic neighborhood density, imageability, and body–object interaction across five visual word recognition tasks: standard lexical decision, go/no-go lexical decision, speeded pronunciation, progressive demasking, and semantic classification. Semantic richness effects could be reliably detected in all tasks of lexical processing, indicating that semantic representations, particularly their imaginal and featural aspects, play a fundamental role in visual word recognition. However, there was also evidence that the strength of certain richness effects could be flexibly and adaptively modulated by task demands, consistent with an intriguing interplay between task-specific mechanisms and differentiated semantic processing. PMID:22529787

  11. Is torrefaction of polysaccharides-rich biomass equivalent to carbonization of lignin-rich biomass?

    PubMed

    Bilgic, E; Yaman, S; Haykiri-Acma, H; Kucukbayrak, S

    2016-01-01

    Waste biomass species such as lignin-rich hazelnut shell (HS) and polysaccharides-rich sunflower seed shell (SSS) were subjected to torrefaction at 300°C and carbonization at 600°C under nitrogen. The structural variations in torrefied and carbonized biomasses were compared. Also, the burning characteristics under dry air and pure oxygen (oxy-combustion) conditions were investigated. It was concluded that the effects of carbonization on HS are almost comparable with the effects of torrefaction on SSS in terms of devolatilization and deoxygenation potentials and the increases in carbon content and the heating value. Consequently, it can be proposed that torrefaction does not provide efficient devolatilization from the lignin-rich biomass while it is relatively more efficient for polysaccharides-rich biomass. Heat-induced variations in biomass led to significant changes in the burning characteristics under both burning conditions. That is, low temperature reactivity of biomass reduced considerably and the burning shifted to higher temperatures with very high burning rates.

  12. Downscaling the environmental associations and spatial patterns of species richness.

    PubMed

    Keil, Petr; Jetz, Walter

    2014-06-01

    We introduce a method that enables the estimation of species richness environment association and prediction of geographic patterns of species richness at grains finer than the original grain of observation. The method is based on a hierarchical model that uses coarse-grain values of species richness and fine-grain environmental data as input. In the model, the (unobserved) fine-grain species richness is linked to the observed fine-grain environment and upscaled using a simple species-area relationship (SAR). The upscaled values are then stochastically linked to the observed coarse-grain species richness. We tested the method on Southern African Bird Atlas data by downscaling richness from 2 degrees to 0.25 degrees (-250 km to -30 km) resolution. When prior knowledge of the SAR slope (average species turnover within coarse-grain cells) was available, the method predicted the fine-grain relationship between richness and environment and provided fine-grain predictions of richness that closely resembled results from native fine-grain models. Without the SAR knowledge the method still accurately quantified the richness-environment relationship, but accurately predicted only relative (rank) values of richness. The approach can be easily extended and it is a powerful path for cross-scale statistical modeling of richness-environment relationships, and for the provision of high-resolution maps for basic science and conservation.

  13. Platelet-rich plasma for osteoarthritis treatment.

    PubMed

    Knop, Eduardo; Paula, Luiz Eduardo de; Fuller, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a comprehensive and systematic search of the literature on the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of osteoarthritis, using the Medline, Lilacs, Cochrane and SciELO databases, from May 2012 to October 2013. A total of 23 studies were selected, with nine being controlled trials and, of these, seven randomized, which included 725 patients. In this series, the group receiving PRP showed improvement in pain and joint function compared to placebo and hyaluronic acid. The response lasted up to two years and was better in milder cases. However it was found that there is no standardization in the PRP production method, neither in the number, timing, and volume of applications. Furthermore, the populations studied were not clearly described in many studies. Thus, these results should be analyzed with caution, and further studies with more standardized methods would be necessary for a more consistent conclusion about the PRP role in osteoarthritis. PMID:27267529

  14. Kin selection, species richness and community.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Kazuki

    2013-01-01

    Can evolutionary and ecological dynamics operating at one level of the biological hierarchy affect the dynamics and structure at other levels? In social insects, strong hostility towards unrelated individuals can evolve as a kin-selected counter-adaptation to intraspecific social parasitism. This aggression in turn might cause intraspecific competition to predominate over interspecific competition, permitting coexistence with other social insect species. In other words, kin selection-a form of intra-population dynamics-might enhance the species richness of the community, a higher-level structure. The converse effect, from higher to lower levels, might also operate, whereby strong interspecific competition may limit the evolution of selfish individual traits. If the latter effect were to prove more important, it would challenge the common view that intra-population dynamics (via individual or gene selection) is the main driver of evolution.

  15. Platelet-rich plasma: applications in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Conde Montero, E; Fernández Santos, M E; Suárez Fernández, R

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, the use of platelet-rich plasma has increased notably in a range of diseases and settings. Uses of these products now go beyond skin rejuvenation therapy in patients with facial ageing. Good outcomes for other dermatological indications such as skin ulcers and, more recently, alopecia have been reported in case series and controlled studies. However, these indications are not currently included in the labeling given that stronger scientific evidence is required to support their real benefits. With the increased use of these products, dermatologists need to become familiar with the underlying biological principles and able to critically assess the quality and outcomes of the studies of these products in different skin diseases.

  16. Clusters in neutron-rich light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelavić Malenica, D.; Milin, M.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Lattuada, M.; Miljanić, D.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Prepolec, L.; Scuderi, V.; Skukan, N.; Soić, N.; Torresi, D.; Uroić, M.

    2016-05-01

    Due to their high selectivity, transfer and sequential decay reactions are powerful tools for studies of both single particle (nucleon) and cluster states in light nuclei. Their use is particularly simple for investigations of α-particle clustering (because α-particle has Jπ=0+, which simplifies spin and parity assignments to observed cluster states), but they are also easily applicable to other types of clustering. Recent results on clustering in neutron-rich isotopes of beryllium, boron and carbon obtained measuring the 10B+10B reactions (at 50 and 72 MeV) are presented. The highly efficient and segmented detector systems used, built from 4 Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSD) allowed detection of double and multiple coincidences and, in that way, studies of states populated in transfer reactions, as well as their sequential decay.

  17. Platelet Rich Fibrin in Periodontal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Muthukumaraswamy; Pulikkotil, Shaju J.; Sonia, Nath

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic bacterial infection resulting in destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth. Regeneration of the lost tissues has faced difficulties primarily due to the lack of support during the intricate healing processes. A surgical additive which can ‘jump start’ the healing process to a more predictable regenerative process is always on the wish list of any periodontist. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a second generation platelet concentrate that has been considered to be an important, easy to obtain, predictable surgical additive for periodontal regeneration. This autologous scaffold provides the much needed bio-chemical mediators which has the potential for enhancing reconstruction of the periodontium. This review article tries to understand as to why PRF would be an important link to reach predictable periodontal regeneration. PMID:27386002

  18. Graphics performance in rich Internet applications.

    PubMed

    Hoetzlein, Rama C

    2012-01-01

    Rendering performance for rich Internet applications (RIAs) has recently focused on the debate between using Flash and HTML5 for streaming video and gaming on mobile devices. A key area not widely explored, however, is the scalability of raw bitmap graphics performance for RIAs. Does Flash render animated sprites faster than HTML5? How much faster is WebGL than Flash? Answers to these questions are essential for developing large-scale data visualizations, online games, and truly dynamic websites. A new test methodology analyzes graphics performance across RIA frameworks and browsers, revealing specific performance outliers in existing frameworks. The results point toward a future in which all online experiences might be GPU accelerated. PMID:24806992

  19. Platelet Rich Plasma and Knee Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Mikel; Sánchez, Pello; Orive, Gorka; Anitua, Eduardo; Padilla, Sabino

    2014-01-01

    In orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine, the knee joint has traditionally been considered the workhorse. The reconstruction of every damaged element in this joint is crucial in achieving the surgeon's goal to restore the knee function and prevent degeneration towards osteoarthritis. In the last fifteen years, the field of regenerative medicine is witnessing a boost of autologous blood-derived platelet rich plasma products (PRPs) application to effectively mimic and accelerate the tissue healing process. The scientific rationale behind PRPs is the delivery of growth factors, cytokines, and adhesive proteins present in platelets and plasma, as well as other biologically active proteins conveyed by the plasma such as fibrinogen, prothrombin, and fibronectin; with this biological engineering approach, new perspectives in knee surgery were opened. This work describes the use of PRP to construct and repair every single anatomical structure involved in knee surgery, detailing the process conducted in ligament, meniscal, and chondral surgery. PMID:25302310

  20. Antibacterial activity of resin rich plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Shuaib, Mohd; Ali, Abuzer; Ali, Mohd; Panda, Bibhu Prasad; Ahmad, Mohd Imtiyaz

    2013-01-01

    Background: The in vitro antibacterial activity of resin rich methanolic extracts (RRMEs) of Commiphora myrrha, Operculina turpethum, and Pinus roxburghii. Materials and Methods: Different concentration were studied by agar-well diffusion method against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae). Results: Among all the bacterial strains tested, E. faecalis was most sensitive and S. typhi was resistant to C. myrrha and P. roxburghii. The extracts of O. turpethum were active against all tested strains in which B. subtilis and S. aureus were the most sensitive. Conclusion: This suggested that the antibacterial activity of RRMEs of O. turpethum was more than C. myrrha and P. roxburghii. This probably explains the potential of these plants against a number of infections caused by bacterial strains tested. PMID:24302834

  1. Enhancing research publications using Rich Interactive Narratives.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kenji; Earl, Graeme; Frey, Jeremy; Keay, Simon; Wade, Alex

    2013-01-28

    It is desirable in many disciplines to include supplementary information to add value to research publications, particularly in digital form. The concept of interactive publications, in which the reader can browse and navigate through in a nonlinear manner, is one such medium that is explored in this paper. We describe the application of the Rich Interactive Narrative framework to provide such a mechanism in the fields of archaeology and chemistry, to supplement academic journal papers. This system provides both passive (pre-recorded) and active (user-led) interaction modes to navigate through data, including experimental datasets, maps, photos, video and three-dimensional models, and supports event-based audio and text narration. It includes an extensive authoring tool for deployment to the Web. We conclude by discussing the future possibilities of such a platform for e-science and scholarly communication.

  2. Platelet Rich Fibrin in Periodontal Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Muthukumaraswamy; Pulikkotil, Shaju J; Sonia, Nath

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic bacterial infection resulting in destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth. Regeneration of the lost tissues has faced difficulties primarily due to the lack of support during the intricate healing processes. A surgical additive which can 'jump start' the healing process to a more predictable regenerative process is always on the wish list of any periodontist. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a second generation platelet concentrate that has been considered to be an important, easy to obtain, predictable surgical additive for periodontal regeneration. This autologous scaffold provides the much needed bio-chemical mediators which has the potential for enhancing reconstruction of the periodontium. This review article tries to understand as to why PRF would be an important link to reach predictable periodontal regeneration. PMID:27386002

  3. Correlates of species richness in the largest Neotropical amphibian radiation.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Voyer, A; Padial, J M; Castroviejo-Fisher, S; de la Riva, I; Vilà, C

    2011-05-01

    Although tropical environments are often considered biodiversity hotspots, it is precisely in such environments where least is known about the factors that drive species richness. Here, we use phylogenetic comparative analyses to study correlates of species richness for the largest Neotropical amphibian radiation: New World direct-developing frogs. Clade-age and species richness were nonsignificantly, negatively correlated, suggesting that clade age alone does not explain among-clade variation in species richness. A combination of ecological and morphological traits explained 65% of the variance in species richness. A more vascularized ventral skin, the ability to colonize high-altitude ranges, encompassing a large variety of vegetation types, correlated significantly with species richness, whereas larger body size was marginally correlated with species richness. Hence, whereas high-altitude ranges play a role in shaping clade diversity in the Neotropics, intrinsic factors, such as skin structures and possibly body size, might ultimately determine which clades are more speciose than others. PMID:21401771

  4. Correlates of species richness in the largest Neotropical amphibian radiation.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Voyer, A; Padial, J M; Castroviejo-Fisher, S; de la Riva, I; Vilà, C

    2011-05-01

    Although tropical environments are often considered biodiversity hotspots, it is precisely in such environments where least is known about the factors that drive species richness. Here, we use phylogenetic comparative analyses to study correlates of species richness for the largest Neotropical amphibian radiation: New World direct-developing frogs. Clade-age and species richness were nonsignificantly, negatively correlated, suggesting that clade age alone does not explain among-clade variation in species richness. A combination of ecological and morphological traits explained 65% of the variance in species richness. A more vascularized ventral skin, the ability to colonize high-altitude ranges, encompassing a large variety of vegetation types, correlated significantly with species richness, whereas larger body size was marginally correlated with species richness. Hence, whereas high-altitude ranges play a role in shaping clade diversity in the Neotropics, intrinsic factors, such as skin structures and possibly body size, might ultimately determine which clades are more speciose than others.

  5. Atherogenicity of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Krauss, R M

    1998-02-26

    There is increasing evidence that alterations in metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are of importance in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its clinical consequences. Particles with the characteristics of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnants have been related to the extent and severity of atherosclerosis in humans and in animal models. These particles can be identified using ultracentrifugal procedures as small, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) with Svedberg flotation rates (Sf) of 12-60. Postprandial triglyceride levels also have been related to risk of coronary artery disease, consistent with a pathologic role for remnant lipoproteins. In studies in which measurements of lipoprotein subfractions have been carried out, levels of IDL have been more predictive than low-density lipoprotein (LDL) of atherosclerosis progression as assessed by coronary artery angiography or carotid artery ultrasonography. These findings suggest that a considerable portion of the coronary disease risk attributed to LDL may be accounted for by the IDL particles included in standard LDL measurements. Other metabolic changes associated with increased levels of plasma triglyceride may also adversely affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include reductions in HDL-cholesterol and apoprotein A1, increased levels of small dense LDL particles, redistribution of apoC-III from HDL to apoB-containing lipoproteins, diminished insulin sensitivity, and procoagulant changes, including increased levels of the fibrinolysis inhibitor, plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). A predominance of small dense LDL (subclass pattern B) is a discrete marker for this cluster of interrelated abnormalities and is found in 40-50% of patients with coronary artery disease. Therapeutic interventions with favorable effects on components of this dysmetabolic profile appear to be of value in decreasing atherosclerosis risk in a substantial proportion of

  6. Experimental Study of Olivine-rich Troctolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, S.; Faul, U.

    2014-12-01

    This experimental study is designed to complement field observations of olivine-rich troctolites in ophiolites and from mid-ocean ridges. The olivine-rich troctolites are characterized by high volume proportion of olivine with interstitial plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Typically the clinopyroxene occurs in the form of few large, poikilitic grains. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of cooling process on the geometry of the interstitial phases (clinopyroxene and plagioclase). Experiments are conducted in a piston cylinder apparatus by first annealing olivine plus a basaltic melt with a composition designed to be in equilibrium with four phases at ~ 1 GPa and 1250ºC. Initially, we anneal the olivine-basalt aggregates at 1350 °C and 0.7 GPa for one week to produce a steady state microstructure. At this temperature only olivine and minor opx are present as crystalline phases. We then cool the samples over two weeks below their solidus temperature, following different protocols. The post-run samples are sectioned, polished, and imaged at high resolution and analyzed by using a field emission SEM. Initial observations show that under certain conditions clinopyroxene nucleates distributed throughout the aggregate at many sites, forming relatively small, rounded to near euhedral grains. Under certain conditions few cpx grains nucleate and grow with a poikilitic shape, partially or fully enclosing olivine grains, as is observed in natural samples. As for partially molten aggregates quenched form the annealing temperature, the microstructure will be characterized by tracing phase boundaries on screen by using ImageJ software. The geometry of the interstitial phases will be quantified by determining the grain boundary wetness, in this case the ratio of the length of polyphase to single phase (olivine-olivine) boundaries. Compositional data will also be used to study the change in major element compositions before and after the cooling process.

  7. VOSGES, a long and rich geologic history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominique, Carteaux; Cyrille, Delangle; Sophie, Demangel

    2015-04-01

    The study of geology in scientific classes is often too theoretical and abstract for the pupils. How can teachers make the link between some samples of rocks observed in a practical class and the geologic story of the region? There's nothing better than outdoor education to establish a relationship between the rock observed in macroscopic and microscopic scale in the classroom,with the outcrop scale and the landscape scale in the field: all of them are the result of a fascinating geologic history.Our pupils are lucky enough to live at the heart of a modest mountain massif that has a very rich geologic story: the massif from Vosges situated in the east of France. During two expeditions we show the students all the following tectonic processes: Accretion at the scale of the landscape with the Rhenish Ditch (tectonic and volcanic markers) Obductionis observed due to ophiolites found in the massive of Thalhorn (peridotite, gabbro and sedimentary marine rocks of great depth). Collisionis illuminated with numerous sites like the schists of Steige, the phyllite of Villé, the gneisses of Climont. Subductionis captured bystudying the outcrops of magmatic rocks within the continental crust (andesite, diorite, granodiorite). At each of the stops we have the students, from a hand sample, to findits story in a more global context. So the theory becomes reality. A study of thin slides of rocks observed on the ground finishes these exits and so various scales of understanding are approached. The long and rich geologic history of Vosges maybe reconstituted on hundreds of million years, allowing certainly giving another aspect to the living environment of our pupils.

  8. Habitat use and deconstruction of richness patterns in Cerrado birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blamires, Daniel; de Oliveira, Guilherme; de Souza Barreto, Bruno; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola

    2008-01-01

    At lower spatial scales, richness spatial patterns probably lead to more complex ecological-evolutionary interactions. In this paper, we used a "deconstruction" approach to evaluate the Cerrado breeding bird's richness, according to their habitat use categories (independent, semi-dependent and dependent on forest habitats). Six environmental variables and current human population size were used as predictors of species richness. Moran's I coefficients revealed strong spatial autocorrelation in ordinary least squares multiple regression residuals, and thus a Principal Coordinate of Neighbour Matrices (PCNM) was used to evaluate the influence of richness predictors, minimizing the problems caused by spatial autocorrelation. Models generated for total richness and for species richness by habitat categories were compared. We showed that, despite the total richness being more concentrated in south and southeast regions of Cerrado, these patterns changed when analysing semi-dependent and dependent forest habitat species, demonstrating a spatial variation in richness for these categories. The PCNM analyses demonstrated that, for total species richness, only partial coefficients of AET and temperature were significant. For independent forest richness, significant partial regression coefficients were found for AET, PET, TEMP and PREC, whereas for semi-dependent forest habitats richness, only AET was significant. On the other hand, for dependent of forest richness, a significant positive coefficient was found for precipitation and for human population. Most spatial variation in richness can be explained by joined effects of geographic structure and environmental predictors. These analyses reveal that deconstruction can be a step to a more effective understanding of richness patterns and their environmental drivers.

  9. Particle identification performance of the prototype aerogel RICH counter for the Belle II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, S.; Adachi, I.; Hara, K.; Iijima, T.; Ikeda, H.; Kakuno, H.; Kawai, H.; Kawasaki, T.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Kumita, T.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Pestotnik, R.; Šantelj, L.; Seljak, A.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Tahirovic, E.; Yusa, Y.

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a new type of particle identification device, called an aerogel ring imaging Cherenkov (ARICH) counter, for the Belle II experiment. It uses silica aerogel tiles as Cherenkov radiators. For detection of Cherenkov photons, hybrid avalanche photo-detectors (HAPDs) are used. The designed HAPD has a high sensitivity to single photons under a strong magnetic field. We have confirmed that the HAPD provides high efficiency for single-photon detection even after exposure to neutron and γ -ray radiation that exceeds the levels expected in the 10-year Belle II operation. In order to confirm the basic performance of the ARICH counter system, we carried out a beam test at the using a prototype of the ARICH counter with six HAPD modules. The results are in agreement with our expectations and confirm the suitability of the ARICH counter for the Belle II experiment. Based on the in-beam performance of the device, we expect that the identification efficiency at 3.5 GeV/c is 97.4% and 4.9% for pions and kaons, respectively. This paper summarizes the development of the HAPD for the ARICH and the evaluation of the performance of the prototype ARICH counter built with the final design components.

  10. Ancient origin of high taxonomic richness among insects.

    PubMed

    Clapham, Matthew E; Karr, Jered A; Nicholson, David B; Ross, Andrew J; Mayhew, Peter J

    2016-02-10

    Insects are a hyper-diverse group, comprising nearly three-quarters of all named animal species on the Earth, but the environmental drivers of their richness and the roles of ecological interactions and evolutionary innovations remain unclear. Previous studies have argued that family-level insect richness increased continuously over the evolutionary history of the group, but inclusion of extant family records artificially inflated the relative richness of younger time intervals. Here we apply sampling-standardization methods to a species-level database of fossil insect occurrences, removing biases present in previous richness curves. We show that insect family-richness peaked 125 Ma and that Recent values are only 1.5-3 times as high as the Late Palaeozoic. Rarefied species-richness data also tentatively suggest little or no net increase in richness over the past 125 Myr. The Cretaceous peak in family richness was coincident with major radiations within extant groups but occurred prior to extinctions within more basal groups. Those extinctions may in part be linked to mid-Cretaceous floral turnover following the evolution of flowering plants. Negligible net richness change over the past 125 Myr implies that major radiations within extant groups were offset by reduced richness within groups that are now relict or extinct. PMID:26842567

  11. Ancient origin of high taxonomic richness among insects.

    PubMed

    Clapham, Matthew E; Karr, Jered A; Nicholson, David B; Ross, Andrew J; Mayhew, Peter J

    2016-02-10

    Insects are a hyper-diverse group, comprising nearly three-quarters of all named animal species on the Earth, but the environmental drivers of their richness and the roles of ecological interactions and evolutionary innovations remain unclear. Previous studies have argued that family-level insect richness increased continuously over the evolutionary history of the group, but inclusion of extant family records artificially inflated the relative richness of younger time intervals. Here we apply sampling-standardization methods to a species-level database of fossil insect occurrences, removing biases present in previous richness curves. We show that insect family-richness peaked 125 Ma and that Recent values are only 1.5-3 times as high as the Late Palaeozoic. Rarefied species-richness data also tentatively suggest little or no net increase in richness over the past 125 Myr. The Cretaceous peak in family richness was coincident with major radiations within extant groups but occurred prior to extinctions within more basal groups. Those extinctions may in part be linked to mid-Cretaceous floral turnover following the evolution of flowering plants. Negligible net richness change over the past 125 Myr implies that major radiations within extant groups were offset by reduced richness within groups that are now relict or extinct.

  12. Observation of the rare B(s)(0) →µ+µ− decay from the combined analysis of CMS and LHCb data.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    The standard model of particle physics describes the fundamental particles and their interactions via the strong, electromagnetic and weak forces. It provides precise predictions for measurable quantities that can be tested experimentally. The probabilities, or branching fractions, of the strange B meson (B(s)(0)) and the B0 meson decaying into two oppositely charged muons (μ+ and μ−) are especially interesting because of their sensitivity to theories that extend the standard model. The standard model predicts that the B(s)(0) →µ+µ− and B(0) →µ+µ− decays are very rare, with about four of the former occurring for every billion mesons produced, and one of the latter occurring for every ten billion B0 mesons. A difference in the observed branching fractions with respect to the predictions of the standard model would provide a direction in which the standard model should be extended. Before the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN started operating, no evidence for either decay mode had been found. Upper limits on the branching fractions were an order of magnitude above the standard model predictions. The CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) and LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty) collaborations have performed a joint analysis of the data from proton–proton collisions that they collected in 2011 at a centre-of-mass energy of seven teraelectronvolts and in 2012 at eight teraelectronvolts. Here we report the first observation of the B(s)(0) → µ+µ− decay, with a statistical significance exceeding six standard deviations, and the best measurement so far of its branching fraction. Furthermore, we obtained evidence for the B(0) → µ+µ− decay with a statistical significance of three standard deviations. Both measurements are statistically compatible with standard model predictions and allow stringent constraints to be placed on theories beyond the standard model. The LHC experiments will resume taking data in 2015, recording proton–proton collisions at a

  13. Observation of the rare $$B^0_s\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-$$ decay from the combined analysis of CMS and LHCb data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-05-13

    The standard model of particle physics describes the fundamental particles and their interactions via the strong, electromagnetic and weak forces. It provides precise predictions for measurable quantities that can be tested experimentally. We foudn that the probabilities, or branching fractions, of the strange B meson (B 02 ) and the B0 meson decaying into two oppositely charged muons (μ+ and μ-) are especially interesting because of their sensitivity to theories that extend the standard model. The standard model predicts that the B 02 → μ+ and μ- and (B 0 → μ+ and μ- decays are very rare, with aboutmore » four of the former occurring for every billion mesons produced, and one of the latter occurring for every ten billion B0 mesons1. A difference in the observed branching fractions with respect to the predictions of the standard model would provide a direction in which the standard model should be extended. Before the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN2 started operating, no evidence for either decay mode had been found. Upper limits on the branching fractions were an order of magnitude above the standard model predictions. The CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) and LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty) collaborations have performed a joint analysis of the data from proton–proton collisions that they collected in 2011 at a centre-of-mass energy of seven teraelectronvolts and in 2012 at eight teraelectronvolts. Here we report the first observation of the μ+ and μ-decay, with a statistical significance exceeding six standard deviations, and the best measurement so far of its branching fraction. We then obtained evidence for the B 0 → μ+ and μ- decay with a statistical significance of three standard deviations. Both measurements are statistically compatible with standard model predictions and allow stringent constraints to be placed on theories beyond the standard model. The LHC experiments will resume taking data in 2015, recording proton

  14. Observation of the rare B(s)(0) →µ+µ− decay from the combined analysis of CMS and LHCb data.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    The standard model of particle physics describes the fundamental particles and their interactions via the strong, electromagnetic and weak forces. It provides precise predictions for measurable quantities that can be tested experimentally. The probabilities, or branching fractions, of the strange B meson (B(s)(0)) and the B0 meson decaying into two oppositely charged muons (μ+ and μ−) are especially interesting because of their sensitivity to theories that extend the standard model. The standard model predicts that the B(s)(0) →µ+µ− and B(0) →µ+µ− decays are very rare, with about four of the former occurring for every billion mesons produced, and one of the latter occurring for every ten billion B0 mesons. A difference in the observed branching fractions with respect to the predictions of the standard model would provide a direction in which the standard model should be extended. Before the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN started operating, no evidence for either decay mode had been found. Upper limits on the branching fractions were an order of magnitude above the standard model predictions. The CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) and LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty) collaborations have performed a joint analysis of the data from proton–proton collisions that they collected in 2011 at a centre-of-mass energy of seven teraelectronvolts and in 2012 at eight teraelectronvolts. Here we report the first observation of the B(s)(0) → µ+µ− decay, with a statistical significance exceeding six standard deviations, and the best measurement so far of its branching fraction. Furthermore, we obtained evidence for the B(0) → µ+µ− decay with a statistical significance of three standard deviations. Both measurements are statistically compatible with standard model predictions and allow stringent constraints to be placed on theories beyond the standard model. The LHC experiments will resume taking data in 2015, recording proton–proton collisions at a

  15. Observation of the rare $B^0_s\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-$ decay from the combined analysis of CMS and LHCb data

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-05-13

    The standard model of particle physics describes the fundamental particles and their interactions via the strong, electromagnetic and weak forces. It provides precise predictions for measurable quantities that can be tested experimentally. We foudn that the probabilities, or branching fractions, of the strange B meson (B 02 ) and the B0 meson decaying into two oppositely charged muons (μ+ and μ-) are especially interesting because of their sensitivity to theories that extend the standard model. The standard model predicts that the B 02 → μ+ and μ- and (B 0 → μ+ and μ- decays are very rare, with about four of the former occurring for every billion mesons produced, and one of the latter occurring for every ten billion B0 mesons1. A difference in the observed branching fractions with respect to the predictions of the standard model would provide a direction in which the standard model should be extended. Before the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN2 started operating, no evidence for either decay mode had been found. Upper limits on the branching fractions were an order of magnitude above the standard model predictions. The CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) and LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty) collaborations have performed a joint analysis of the data from proton–proton collisions that they collected in 2011 at a centre-of-mass energy of seven teraelectronvolts and in 2012 at eight teraelectronvolts. Here we report the first observation of the μ+ and μ-decay, with a statistical significance exceeding six standard deviations, and the best measurement so far of its branching fraction. We then obtained evidence for the B 0 → μ+ and μ- decay with a statistical significance of three standard deviations. Both measurements are statistically compatible with

  16. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime. PMID:25589599

  17. A new metal-rich chondrite grouplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, Michael K.; Prinz, Martin; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.; Sugiura, Naoji; Zashu, Shigeo; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2001-03-01

    A new grouplet of primitive, metal-rich chondrites, here called the CB (bencubbinite) chondrites, has been recognized. It includes Bencubbin, Weatherford, HH 237 and QUE 94411, paired with QUE 94627. Their mineral compositions, as well as their oxygen and nitrogen isotopic compositions, indicate that they are closely related to the CR and CH chondrites, all of which are members of the more inclusive CR clan. CB chondrites have much greater metal/silicate ratios than any other chondrite group, widely increasing the range of metal/silicate fractionation recorded in solar nebular processes. They also have the greatest moderately volatile lithophile element depletions of any chondritic materials. Metal has compositional trends and zoning patterns that suggest a primitive condensation origin, in contrast with metal from other chondrite groups. CB chondrites, as well as other CR clan chondrites, have much heavier nitrogen (higher 15N/14N) than that in other chondrite groups. The primitive characteristics of the CB chondrites suggests that they contain one of the best records of early nebular processes. Another chondrite, GRO 95551, is petrographically similar to the CB chondrites, but its mineral and oxygen and nitrogen isotope compositions indicate that it formed from a different nebular reservoir.

  18. Study of neutron rich carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallon, Paul

    2012-03-01

    Electric quadrupole (E2) matrix elements are important quantities in nuclear structure. In particular they are sensitive to nuclear deformation, the decoupling of proton and neutron degrees of freedom, and are often affected by small components of the nuclear wave function. Neutron-rich carbon isotopes have attracted a great deal of attention recently, both experimentally and theoretically, with regards to the question of spatially extended (halo-like) and decoupled valence neutrons. For example, 19C and the drip-line nucleus 22C are proposed to have ground-state neutron halo structures. Electric quadrupole transition rates in 16C 18C and 20C are among the lowest found throughout the nuclear chart and this fact has been cited by some as evidence for a reduced coupling between the valence neutrons and the core nucleons. In this talk I will present the results from our experiments to measure the transition rates in 16,18,20C and discuss the evidence for a ``decoupling'' of valence neutrons from the core that goes beyond the usual shell model approach. Data will be compared to shell model and no-core (ab-initio) shell model calculations with NN and NN+NNN interactions.

  19. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime.

  20. A Metadata-Rich File System

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, S; Gokhale, M B; Maltzahn, C

    2009-01-07

    Despite continual improvements in the performance and reliability of large scale file systems, the management of file system metadata has changed little in the past decade. The mismatch between the size and complexity of large scale data stores and their ability to organize and query their metadata has led to a de facto standard in which raw data is stored in traditional file systems, while related, application-specific metadata is stored in relational databases. This separation of data and metadata requires considerable effort to maintain consistency and can result in complex, slow, and inflexible system operation. To address these problems, we have developed the Quasar File System (QFS), a metadata-rich file system in which files, metadata, and file relationships are all first class objects. In contrast to hierarchical file systems and relational databases, QFS defines a graph data model composed of files and their relationships. QFS includes Quasar, an XPATH-extended query language for searching the file system. Results from our QFS prototype show the effectiveness of this approach. Compared to the defacto standard, the QFS prototype shows superior ingest performance and comparable query performance on user metadata-intensive operations and superior performance on normal file metadata operations.

  1. Platelet rich fibrin in jaw defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nica, Diana; Ianes, Emilia; Pricop, Marius

    2016-03-01

    Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is a tissue product of autologous origin abundant in growth factors, widely used in regenerative procedures. Aim of the study: Evaluation of the regenerative effect of PRF added in the bony defects (after tooth removal or after cystectomy) Material and methods: The comparative nonrandomized study included 22 patients divided into 2 groups. The first group (the test group) included 10 patients where the bony defects were treated without any harvesting material. The second group included 12 patients where the bony defects were filled with PRF. The bony defect design was not critical, with one to two walls missing. After the surgeries, a close clinically monitoring was carried out. The selected cases were investigated using both cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) and radiographic techniques after 10 weeks postoperatively. Results: Faster bone regeneration was observed in the bony defects filled with PRF comparing with the not grafted bony defects. Conclusions: PRF added in the bony defects accelerates the bone regeneration. This simplifies the surgical procedures and decreases the economic costs.

  2. Quantitative microspectral evaluation of the ratio of arginine-rich to lysine-rich histones in neurons and neuroglial cells.

    PubMed

    Pevzner, L Z; Raygorodskaya, T G; Agroskin, L S

    1978-09-01

    Staining of nervous tissue sections with ammoniacal silver according to Black et al. has been confirmed to be a reliable histochemical colour reaction for quantitative evaluation of arginine-rich and lysine-rich histones in cell structures on the basis of determinations of the position of spectral curve maximum. Neurons of several brain nuclei which differed in predominating neurotransmitter did not differ in the ratio of arginine-rich to lysine-rich histones while some differences in this ratio were found out in the glial satelite cells adjacent to the corresponding neurons of these nuclei. Moderate circadian fluctuations were observed in the arginine-rich to lysine-rich histone ratio, these fluctuations being rather similar in the neurons studied and in the cells of perineuronal neuroglia.

  3. Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Schippinger, Gert; Prüller, Florian; Divjak, Manuela; Mahla, Elisabeth; Fankhauser, Florian; Rackemann, Steve; Raggam, Reinhard Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Background Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been widely used for the treatment of sports injuries. It has been associated with improved healing and regeneration of soft tissues in elite athletes. Athletes are commonly receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). As yet, the effect of these drugs on platelet function in PRP formulations has not been taken into consideration. Hypothesis The function of platelets in PRP produced under the influence of NSAIDs is inhibited and may lessen a possible healing effect on the site of injury. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods PRP was collected from patients receiving NSAIDs after elective orthopaedic surgery, and platelet function was evaluated using light transmission aggregometry (LTA). Results were compared with those obtained from healthy volunteers without a history of NSAID intake during the previous 2 weeks. Two different systems for blood collection and PRP production (Arthrex ACP double-syringe system and standard 4.5-mL sodium citrate blood collection tubes) were used and compared regarding the quality of PRP that was produced. Results For both groups, the baseline platelet counts of whole blood and the platelet counts of PRP formulations were found to be in the normal range. Both collection systems for PRP produced comparable results without significant differences between the groups. Platelet function testing with LTA revealed significantly impaired platelet aggregation in both PRP preparations, obtained from patients taking NSAIDs, irrespective of the type of NSAID (P < .001). All subjects from the control group showed normal platelet aggregation patterns when tested with LTA. Conclusion Autologous PRP produced from subjects after NSAID medication shows significantly impaired platelet function and may result in lower quality regarding the content of bioactive compounds. Clinical Relevance If required, the administration of NSAIDs should be performed after blood collection for

  4. Growing biodiverse carbon-rich forests.

    PubMed

    Pichancourt, Jean-Baptiste; Firn, Jennifer; Chadès, Iadine; Martin, Tara G

    2014-02-01

    Regrowing forests on cleared land is a key strategy to achieve both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation globally. Maximizing these co-benefits, however, remains theoretically and technically challenging because of the complex relationship between carbon sequestration and biodiversity in forests, the strong influence of climate variability and landscape position on forest development, the large number of restoration strategies possible, and long time-frames needed to declare success. Through the synthesis of three decades of knowledge on forest dynamics and plant functional traits combined with decision science, we demonstrate that we cannot always maximize carbon sequestration by simply increasing the functional trait diversity of trees planted. The relationships between plant functional diversity, carbon sequestration rates above ground and in the soil are dependent on climate and landscape positions. We show how to manage 'identities' and 'complementarities' between plant functional traits to achieve systematically maximal cobenefits in various climate and landscape contexts. We provide examples of optimal planting and thinning rules that satisfy this ecological strategy and guide the restoration of forests that are rich in both carbon and plant functional diversity. Our framework provides the first mechanistic approach for generating decision-makingrules that can be used to manage forests for multiple objectives, and supports joined carbon credit and biodiversity conservation initiatives, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation REDD+. The decision framework can also be linked to species distribution models and socio-economic models to find restoration solutions that maximize simultaneously biodiversity, carbon stocks, and other ecosystem services across landscapes. Our study provides the foundation for developing and testing cost-effective and adaptable forest management rules to achieve biodiversity, carbon

  5. PID techniques: Alternatives to RICH Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vavra, J.; /SLAC

    2011-03-01

    In this review article we discuss the recent progress in PID techniques other than the RICH methods. In particular we mention the recent progress in the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), dE/dx cluster counting, and Time Of Flight (TOF) techniques. The TRD technique is mature and has been tried in many hadron colliders. It needs space though, about 20cm of detector radial space for every factor of 10 in the {pi}/e rejection power, and this tends to make such detectors large. Although the cluster counting technique is an old idea, it was never tried in a real physics experiment. Recently, there are efforts to revive it for the SuperB experiment using He-based gases and waveform digitizing electronics. A factor of almost 2 improvement, compared to the classical dE/dx performance, is possible in principle. However, the complexity of the data analysis will be substantial. The TOF technique is well established, but introduction of new fast MCP-PMT and G-APD detectors creates new possibilities. It seems that resolutions below 20-30ps may be possible at some point in the future with relatively small systems, and perhaps this could be pushed down to 10-15ps with very small systems, assuming that one can solve many systematic issues. However, the cost, rate limitation, aging and cross-talk in multi-anode devices at high BW are problems. There are several groups working on these issues, so progress is likely. Table 6 summarizes the author's opinion of pros and cons of various detectors presented in this paper based on their operational capabilities. We refer the reader to Ref.40 for discussion of other more general limits from the PID point of view.

  6. Lexical Richness in the Spontaneous Speech of Bilinguals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daller, Helmut; van Hout, Roeland; Treffers-Daller, Jeanine

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the measurement of lexical richness. Lexical richness is often measured either by the traditional type-token ratio or by its square root variant, the index of Guiraud. Proposes two methods that have advantages over traditional methods. Computed indices for the lexical items used in an oral text by two groups of Turkish-German…

  7. 76 FR 7836 - Rich, Brian R.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Rich, Brian R.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on December 31, 2010, Brian R. Rich submitted for filing, an application for authority to hold interlocking...

  8. Engaging Graduate Students in Rich Asynchronous Online Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuttikietpaiboon, Kanya

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of online instructional procedures that engage students in rich online discussions and enhance the quantity and the quality of the discussions, the purpose of this study was to investigate how a particular online instructor engaged graduate students in rich asynchronous online discussions, what roles the instructor played to…

  9. Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For 40 years ecologists have sought a canonical productivity-species richness relationship 48 (PRR) for ecosystems, despite continuing disagreements about expected form and 49 interpretation. Using a large global dataset of terrestrial grasslands, we consider how 50 productivity and richness relate ...

  10. An Image Study on the Rich and Poor Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koçak, Recep

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to project people's perceptions about the rich and poor. In this descriptive study, a questionnaire developed by the researcher and caricatures were used to collect data. The questionnaire composed of seven items including questions directed to adjectives related to the participants' perceptions about the rich and poor as…

  11. Recipes for School Success: An Interview with Dorothy Rich.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Mark F.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1960s, Dorothy Rich used paper cartons, tables, lamps, chairs, electric bills, and other paraphernalia of home life to construct "recipes" to help parents prepare their kids for achieving academic success. Rich's contemporary MegaSkills training program, developed at the Home and School Institute, is highly regarded. (MLH)

  12. Advantages and Limitations of the RICH Technique for Particle Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliff, Blair N.; /SLAC

    2011-11-07

    The ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) technique for hadronic particle identification (PID) is described. The advantages and limitations of RICH PID counters are compared with those of other classic PID techniques, such as threshold Cherenkov counters, ionization loss (dE/dx) in tracking devices, and time of flight (TOF) detectors.

  13. Rich Man, Poor Man: Developmental Differences in Attributions and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    In an examination guided by cognitive developmental and attribution theory of how explanations of wealth and poverty and perceptions of rich and poor people change with age and are interrelated, 6-, 10-, and 14-year-olds (N = 88) were asked for their causal attributions and trait judgments concerning a rich man and a poor man. First graders, like…

  14. FUEL RICH SULFUR CAPTURE IN A COMBUSTION ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A refractory-lined, natural gas furnace was used to study fuel rich sulfur capture reactions of calcium sorbents under typical combustion conditions. The fuel rich sulfur species H2S and COS were monitored in a near-continuous fashion using a gas chromatograph equipped with a fl...

  15. Journey to a Star Rich with Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Journey to a Star Rich with Planets

    This artist's animation takes us on a journey to 55 Cancri, a star with a family of five known planets - the most planets discovered so far around a star besides our own.

    The animation begins on Earth, with a view of the night sky and 55 Cancri (flashing dot), located 41 light-years away in the constellation Cancer. It then zooms through our solar system, passing our asteroids and planets, until finally arriving at the outskirts of 55 Cancri.

    The first planet to appear is the farthest out from the star -- a giant planet, probably made of gas, with a mass four times that of Jupiter. This planet orbits its star every 14 years, similar to Jupiter's 11.9-year orbit.

    As the movie continues, the three inner planets are shown, the closest of which is about 10 to 13 times the mass of Earth with an orbital period of less than three days.

    Zooming out, the animation highlights the newest member of the 55 Cancri family - a massive planet, likely made of gas, water and rock, about 45 times the mass of Earth and orbiting the star every 260 days. This planet is the fourth out from the star, and lies in the system's habitable zone (green). A habitable zone is the place around a star where liquid water would persist. Though the newest planet probably has a thick gaseous envelope, astronomers speculate that it could have one or more moons. In our own solar system, moons are common, so it seems likely that they also orbit planets in other solar systems. If such moons do exist, and if they are as large as Mars or Earth, astronomers speculate that they would retain atmospheres and surface liquid water that might make interesting environments for the development of life.

    The animation ends with a comparison between 55 Cancri and our solar system.

    The colors of the illustrated planets were chosen to resemble those of our own solar

  16. Mars: A water-rich planet?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    Mars had outgassed at least 0.5 to 1 km of water, 10 to 20 bar of CO2, and 0.1 to 0.3 bar of N2. The volatiles that have been retained are mostly in the cratered uplands. Terrain softening, fretted channels, debris flows, and closed depressions indicate that at least the upper 2 km of the cratered uplands at high latitudes (>30??) contain ice in amounts that exceed the porosity, estimated to be 10-20%. Theoretical studies, and lack of these features in the cratered uplands at low latitudes, suggest that the upper 1 km of the uplands at low latitudes is ice poor. However, valley networks indicate that water was present near the surface early in the planet's history, although in amounts smaller than at high latitudes. The entire upper 1 km, planetwide is estimated to have contained 75-125 m of water at the end of heavy bombardment. The largest sink for water is the megaregolith below 1 km. Episodic eruption of water from the deep megaregolith cut many of the large outflow channels. From the volume of water needed to cut the circum-Chryse channels, and assuming uniform planetwide distribution of water, the deep megaregolith is estimated to have contained at least 350 m of water at the end of heavy bombardment, thereby giving a total minimum inventory of 424-475 m planetwide. Most of the water lost from the low-latitude uplands by diffusion and in cutting the valley networks is now believed to be in the polar layered terrains. Most of the water involved in cutting the outflow channels is in the low-lying northern plains where a variety of features that have been attributed to ground ice is present. A large fraction of the planet's surface has been overplated with water-poor volcanics, of which we have samples in the SNC meteorites. The younger volcanics have reacted extensively with the old volatile-rich basement. Some of the CO2 and N2 outgassed was lost during heavy bombardment by impact erosion of the atmosphere and other processes. The remaining was fixed

  17. A manual method to obtain platelet rich plasma

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Fabiana Paulino; Ingham, Sheila Jean McNeill; Forgas, Andrea; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Sasaki, Pedro Henrique; Abdalla, Rene Jorge

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study is to report a manual method to obtain platelet rich plasma (PRP). METHODS: For this study 61 ml of peripheral blood was obtained and submitted to centrifugation at 541g for 5 min. The centrifugation separates the blood into three components: red blood cells, buffy coat and platelet rich plasma. Blood and platelet rich plasma samples were sent to the Hospital's Laboratory and platelets and leukocytes were measured. RESULTS: A sample of 637 blood donors was evaluated. The platelet yield efficiency was 86.77% and the increase in platelet concentration factor was 2.89 times. The increase in leukocyte concentration factor was 1.97 times. CONCLUSION: The method described here produces leukocyte-rich and platelet-rich plasma with a high platelet and leukocyte increased factor. Level of Evidence IV, Controlled Laboratory Study. PMID:24868183

  18. Marine benthic ecological functioning over decreasing taxonomic richness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnroos, Anna; Bonsdorff, Erik; Bremner, Julie; Blomqvist, Mats; Josefson, Alf B.; Garcia, Clement; Warzocha, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Alterations to ecosystem function due to reductions in species richness are predicted to increase as humans continue to affect the marine environment, especially in coastal areas, which serve as the interface between land and sea. The potential functional consequences due to reductions in species diversity have attracted considerable attention recently but little is known about the consequence of such loss in natural communities. We examined how the potential for function is affected by natural reductions in taxon richness using empirical (non-simulated) coastal marine benthic macrofaunal data from the Skagerrak-Baltic Sea region (N. Europe), where taxon richness decreases 25-fold, from 151 to 6 taxa. To estimate functional changes we defined multiple traits (10 traits and 51 categories) on which trait category richness, functional diversity (FD) and number of taxa per trait category were calculated. Our results show that decrease in taxon richness leads to an overall reduction in function but functional richness remains comparatively high even at the lowest level of taxon richness. Although the taxonomic reduction was sharp, up to 96% of total taxon richness, we identified both potential thresholds in functioning and subtler changes where function was maintained along the gradient. The functional changes were not only caused by reductions in taxa per trait category, some categories were maintained or even increased. Primarily, the reduction in species richness altered trait categories related to feeding, living and movement and thus potentially could have an effect on various ecosystem processes. This highlights the importance of recognising ecosystem multifunctionality, especially at low taxonomic richness. We also found that in this system rare species (singletons) did not stand for the functional complexities and changes. Our findings were consistent with theoretical and experimental predictions and suggest that a large proportion of the information about

  19. Does richness lose its luster? Effects of extensive practice on semantic richness in visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Ian S.; Pexman, Penny M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported facilitatory effects of semantic richness on word recognition (e.g., Yap et al., 2012). These effects suggest that word meaning is an important contributor to lexical decision task (LDT) performance, but what are the effects of repeated LDT practice on these semantic contributions? The current study utilized data from the British Lexicon Project (BLP) in which 78 participants made lexical decision judgments for 28,730 words over 16 h. We used linear mixed effects to detect practice-driven changes in the explanatory variance accounted for by a set of lexical predictors that included numerous indices of relative semantic richness, including imageability, the number of senses and average radius of co-occurrence (ARC). Results showed that practice was associated with decreasing effects of predictors such as word frequency and imageability. In contrast, ARC effects were only slightly diminished with repeated practice, and effects of the number of senses and the age of acquisition were unaffected by practice. We interpret our results within a framework in which variables may dynamically influence lexical processing and the post-lexical decision making mechanisms that also contribute to LDT performance. PMID:22912610

  20. Characterization of a type II chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene (Lhcb2*Pp1) in peach. II. mRNA abundance in developing leaves exposed to sun or shade.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Carole L; Callahan, Ann M

    2003-05-01

    Leaf development of shoots exposed to full sunlight and shoots shaded by the canopy was followed in field-grown, mature peach trees (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, cv. Loring) during the first half of the 1995 growing season. The architecture and size of shaded shoots and sun-exposed shoots differed significantly. Total number of leaves produced on shaded shoots was significantly less than on sun-exposed shoots throughout the season, and differences in leaf number between light conditions increased as the season progressed. The overall patterns of leaf development along sun-exposed and shaded shoots were qualitatively similar. The expression pattern of the type II chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene, Lhcb2*Pp1, determined by RNA abundance in leaves at different positions along the shoot, was also similar between the two light conditions. The major difference between sun-exposed and shaded leaves was a lower abundance of Lhcb2*Pp1 RNA in mature, shaded leaves compared with sun-exposed leaves. Although the number of fruit per shoot was significantly lower on shaded shoots than on sun-exposed shoots, the rate of fruit drop was not substantially different during the growing season, indicating that quantitative differences in leaf initiation and growth caused by differences in light exposure did not adversely affect fruit retention. However, based on comparison with a previous study of leaf development in non-fruiting trees, reproductive development slowed the rate of vegetative growth without affecting the overall pattern of leaf development along the shoots. PMID:12670801

  1. Polymerization Behavior of Hydrophilic-Rich Phase of Dentin Adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Abedin, F.; Parthasarathy, R.; Misra, A.; Spencer, P.

    2015-01-01

    The 2-fold objectives of this study were 1) to understand whether model hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-rich phase mimics of dentin adhesive polymerize similarly and 2) to determine which factor, the dimethacrylate component, bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA) or photoinitiator concentration, has greater influence on the polymerization of the hydrophilic-rich phase mimic. Current dentin adhesives are sensitive to moisture, as evidenced by nanoleakage in the hybrid layer and phase separation into hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-rich phases. Phase separation leads to limited availability of the cross-linkable dimethacrylate monomer and hydrophobic photoinitiators within the hydrophilic-rich phase. Model hydrophobic-rich phase was prepared as a single-phase solution by adding maximum wt% deuterium oxide (D2O) to HEMA/BisGMA neat resins containing 45 wt% 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). Mimics of the hydrophilic-rich phase were prepared similarly but using HEMA/BisGMA neat resins containing 95, 99, 99.5, and 100 wt% HEMA. The hydrophilic-rich mimics were prepared with standard or reduced photoinitiator content. The photoinitiator systems were camphorquinone (CQ)/ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (EDMAB) with or without [3-(3, 4-dimethyl-9-oxo-9H-thioxanthen-2-yloxy)-2-hydroxypropyl]trimethylammonium chloride (QTX). The polymerization kinetics was monitored using a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer with a time-resolved collection mode. The hydrophobic-rich phase exhibited a significantly higher polymerization rate compared with the hydrophilic-rich phase. Postpolymerization resulting in the secondary rate maxima was observed for the hydrophilic-rich mimic. The hydrophilic-rich mimics with standard photoinitiator concentration but varying cross-linker (BisGMA) content showed postpolymerization and a substantial degree of conversion. In contrast, the corresponding formulations with reduced photoinitiator concentrations exhibited lower polymerization and

  2. Polymerization behavior of hydrophilic-rich phase of dentin adhesive.

    PubMed

    Abedin, F; Ye, Q; Parthasarathy, R; Misra, A; Spencer, P

    2015-03-01

    The 2-fold objectives of this study were 1) to understand whether model hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-rich phase mimics of dentin adhesive polymerize similarly and 2) to determine which factor, the dimethacrylate component, bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA) or photoinitiator concentration, has greater influence on the polymerization of the hydrophilic-rich phase mimic. Current dentin adhesives are sensitive to moisture, as evidenced by nanoleakage in the hybrid layer and phase separation into hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-rich phases. Phase separation leads to limited availability of the cross-linkable dimethacrylate monomer and hydrophobic photoinitiators within the hydrophilic-rich phase. Model hydrophobic-rich phase was prepared as a single-phase solution by adding maximum wt% deuterium oxide (D2O) to HEMA/BisGMA neat resins containing 45 wt% 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). Mimics of the hydrophilic-rich phase were prepared similarly but using HEMA/BisGMA neat resins containing 95, 99, 99.5, and 100 wt% HEMA. The hydrophilic-rich mimics were prepared with standard or reduced photoinitiator content. The photoinitiator systems were camphorquinone (CQ)/ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (EDMAB) with or without [3-(3, 4-dimethyl-9-oxo-9H-thioxanthen-2-yloxy)-2-hydroxypropyl]trimethylammonium chloride (QTX). The polymerization kinetics was monitored using a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer with a time-resolved collection mode. The hydrophobic-rich phase exhibited a significantly higher polymerization rate compared with the hydrophilic-rich phase. Postpolymerization resulting in the secondary rate maxima was observed for the hydrophilic-rich mimic. The hydrophilic-rich mimics with standard photoinitiator concentration but varying cross-linker (BisGMA) content showed postpolymerization and a substantial degree of conversion. In contrast, the corresponding formulations with reduced photoinitiator concentrations exhibited lower polymerization and

  3. Rheology of Volatile-rich Crystal Mush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistone, M.; Caricchi, L.; Ulmer, P.; Reusser, E.; Mancktelow, N.; Burlini, L.

    2012-04-01

    Magma batholiths are commonly highly crystalline (> 50 vol%; crystal mush, Bachmann and Bergantz, 2008a) and possible modes of mobilization and emplacement have been intensively discussed in the last decades. Recently, it has been proposed that a stiff mushy batholith must be reheated to mobilize; this produces a reduction in crystallinity that leads to an increase of the magma buoyancy (Burgisser and Bergantz, 2011). Another way of batholith mobilization in the crust can be caused by addition of volatiles (mainly H2O and CO2) released by ascending hydrous mafic magmas coming from the mantle (Bachmann and Bergantz, 2008b). The enrichment in volatiles induces a drastic decrease in the bulk viscosity of the granitic body and, thus, an evident change in the rheological properties of the batholith. The rheology of such very crystal-rich highly viscous systems is still a matter of debate. To provide some additional experimental constraints relevant to this discussion, we deformed hydrous (2.52 wt% H2O) haplogranitic magmas containing variable amounts of quartz crystals (from 55 to 65 vol%), and fixed volume of gas-pressurized CO2-bubbles (9-10 vol%), in simple shear using a HT-HP Paterson-type rock deformation apparatus. Strain rates ranging between 1•10-5 s-1 and 4•10-3 s-1 were applied at temperatures between 823 and 1023 K and constant confining pressure of 200-250 MPa (8-9 km depth). The results suggest that three-phase suspensions are characterized by strain rate-dependent rheology (non-Newtonian behavior). Two non-Newtonian regimes were observed: shear thinning (decrease of viscosity with increasing strain rate) and shear thickening (increase of viscosity with increasing strain rate). The first effect dominantly occurs because of crystal size reduction and shear localization, enhanced by the presence of gas bubbles in the weak shear bands. However, when the solid crystal framework induces an internal flow blockage due to crystal interlock, the second effect

  4. Species richness, equitability, and abundance of ants in disturbed landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, J.H.; Krzysik, A.J.; Kovacic, D.A.; Duda, J.J.; Freeman, D.C.; Emlen, J.M.; Zak, J.C.; Long, W.R.; Wallace, M.P.; Chamberlin-Graham, C.; Nutter, J.P.; Balbach, H.E.

    2009-01-01

    Ants are used as indicators of environmental change in disturbed landscapes, often without adequate understanding of their response to disturbance. Ant communities in the southeastern United States displayed a hump-backed species richness curve against an index of landscape disturbance. Forty sites at Fort Benning, in west-central Georgia, covered a spectrum of habitat disturbance (military training and fire) in upland forest. Sites disturbed by military training had fewer trees, less canopy cover, more bare ground, and warmer, more compact soils with shallower A-horizons. We sampled ground-dwelling ants with pitfall traps, and measured 15 habitat variables related to vegetation and soil. Ant species richness was greatest with a relative disturbance of 43%, but equitability was greatest with no disturbance. Ant abundance was greatest with a relative disturbance of 85%. High species richness at intermediate disturbance was associated with greater within-site spatial heterogeneity. Species richness was also associated with intermediate values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a correlate of net primary productivity (NPP). Available NPP (the product of NDVI and the fraction of days that soil temperature exceeded 25 ??C), however, was positively correlated with species richness, though not with ant abundance. Species richness was unrelated to soil texture, total ground cover, and fire frequency. Ant species richness and equitability are potential state indicators of the soil arthropod community. Moreover, equitability can be used to monitor ecosystem change. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Disturbance alters local-regional richness relationships in Appalachian forests.

    PubMed

    Belote, R Travis; Sanders, Nathan J; Jones, Robert H

    2009-10-01

    Whether biological diversity within communities is limited by local interactions or regional species pools remains an important question in ecology. In this paper, we investigate how an experimentally applied tree-harvesting disturbance gradient influenced local-regional richness relationships. Plant species richness was measured at three spatial scales (2 ha = regional; 576 m2 and 1 m2 = local) on three occasions (one year pre-disturbance, one year post-disturbance, and 10 years post-disturbance) across five disturbance treatments (uncut control through clearcut) replicated throughout the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. We investigated whether species richness in 576-m2 plots and 1-m2 subplots depended on species richness in 2-ha experimental units and whether this relationship changed through time before and after canopy disturbance. We found that, before disturbance, the relationship between local and regional richness was weak or nonexistent. One year after disturbance local richness was a positive function of regional richness, because local sites were colonized from the regional species pool. Ten years after disturbance, the positive relationship persisted, but the slope had decreased by half. These results suggest that disturbance can set the stage for strong influences of regional species pools on local community assembly in temperate forests. However, as time since disturbance increases, local controls on community assembly decouple the relationships between regional and local diversity. PMID:19886502

  6. Disturbance alters local-regional richness relationships in appalachian forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belote, R.T.; Sanders, N.J.; Jones, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Whether biological diversity within communities is limited by local interactions or regional species pools remains an important question in ecology. In this paper, we investigate how an experimentally applied tree-harvesting disturbance gradient influenced local-regional richness relationships. Plant species richness was measured at three spatial scales (2 ha = regional; 576 m2 and 1 m2 = local) on three occasions (one year pre-disturbance, one year post-disturbance, and 10 years post-disturbance) across five disturbance treatments (uncut control through clearcut) replicated throughout the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. We investigated whether species richness in 576-m2 plots and 1-m2 subplots depended on species richness in 2-ha experimental units and whether this relationship changed through time before and after canopy disturbance. We found that, before disturbance, the relationship between local and regional richness was weak or nonexistent. One year after disturbance local richness was a positive function of regional richness, because local sites were colonized from the regional species pool. Ten years after disturbance, the positive relationship persisted, but the slope had decreased by half. These results suggest that disturbance can set the stage for strong influences of regional species pools on local community assembly in temperate forests. However, as time since disturbance increases, local controls on community assembly decouple the relationships between regional and local diversity. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Diversification rates and species richness across the Tree of Life.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Joshua P; Wiens, John J

    2016-09-14

    Species richness varies dramatically among clades across the Tree of Life, by over a million-fold in some cases (e.g. placozoans versus arthropods). Two major explanations for differences in richness among clades are the clade-age hypothesis (i.e. species-rich clades are older) and the diversification-rate hypothesis (i.e. species-rich clades diversify more rapidly, where diversification rate is the net balance of speciation and extinction over time). Here, we examine patterns of variation in diversification rates across the Tree of Life. We address how rates vary across higher taxa, whether rates within higher taxa are related to the subclades within them, and how diversification rates of clades are related to their species richness. We find substantial variation in diversification rates, with rates in plants nearly twice as high as in animals, and rates in some eukaryotes approximately 10-fold faster than prokaryotes. Rates for each kingdom-level clade are then significantly related to the subclades within them. Although caution is needed when interpreting relationships between diversification rates and richness, a positive relationship between the two is not inevitable. We find that variation in diversification rates seems to explain most variation in richness among clades across the Tree of Life, in contrast to the conclusions of previous studies.

  8. Diversification rates and species richness across the Tree of Life.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Joshua P; Wiens, John J

    2016-09-14

    Species richness varies dramatically among clades across the Tree of Life, by over a million-fold in some cases (e.g. placozoans versus arthropods). Two major explanations for differences in richness among clades are the clade-age hypothesis (i.e. species-rich clades are older) and the diversification-rate hypothesis (i.e. species-rich clades diversify more rapidly, where diversification rate is the net balance of speciation and extinction over time). Here, we examine patterns of variation in diversification rates across the Tree of Life. We address how rates vary across higher taxa, whether rates within higher taxa are related to the subclades within them, and how diversification rates of clades are related to their species richness. We find substantial variation in diversification rates, with rates in plants nearly twice as high as in animals, and rates in some eukaryotes approximately 10-fold faster than prokaryotes. Rates for each kingdom-level clade are then significantly related to the subclades within them. Although caution is needed when interpreting relationships between diversification rates and richness, a positive relationship between the two is not inevitable. We find that variation in diversification rates seems to explain most variation in richness among clades across the Tree of Life, in contrast to the conclusions of previous studies. PMID:27605507

  9. Global patterns and predictors of fish species richness in estuaries.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Rita P; Henriques, Sofia; França, Susana; Pasquaud, Stéphanie; Cardoso, Inês; Laborde, Marina; Cabral, Henrique N

    2015-09-01

    1. Knowledge of global patterns of biodiversity and regulating variables is indispensable to develop predictive models. 2. The present study used predictive modelling approaches to investigate hypotheses that explain the variation in fish species richness between estuaries over a worldwide spatial extent. Ultimately, such models will allow assessment of future changes in ecosystem structure and function as a result of environmental changes. 3. A comprehensive worldwide data base was compiled of the fish assemblage composition and environmental characteristics of estuaries. Generalized Linear Models were used to quantify how variation in species richness among estuaries is related to historical events, energy dynamics and ecosystem characteristics, while controlling for sampling effects. 4. At the global extent, species richness differed among marine biogeographic realms and continents and increased with mean sea surface temperature, terrestrial net primary productivity and the stability of connectivity with a marine ecosystem (open vs. temporarily open estuaries). At a smaller extent (within a marine biogeographic realm or continent), other characteristics were also important in predicting variation in species richness, with species richness increasing with estuary area and continental shelf width. 5. The results suggest that species richness in an estuary is defined by predictors that are spatially hierarchical. Over the largest spatial extents, species richness is influenced by the broader distributions and habitat use patterns of marine and freshwater species that can colonize estuaries, which are in turn governed by history contingency, energy dynamics and productivity variables. Species richness is also influenced by more regional and local parameters that can further affect the process of community colonization in an estuary including the connectivity of the estuary with the adjacent marine habitat, and, over smaller spatial extents, the size of these

  10. Global patterns and predictors of fish species richness in estuaries.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Rita P; Henriques, Sofia; França, Susana; Pasquaud, Stéphanie; Cardoso, Inês; Laborde, Marina; Cabral, Henrique N

    2015-09-01

    1. Knowledge of global patterns of biodiversity and regulating variables is indispensable to develop predictive models. 2. The present study used predictive modelling approaches to investigate hypotheses that explain the variation in fish species richness between estuaries over a worldwide spatial extent. Ultimately, such models will allow assessment of future changes in ecosystem structure and function as a result of environmental changes. 3. A comprehensive worldwide data base was compiled of the fish assemblage composition and environmental characteristics of estuaries. Generalized Linear Models were used to quantify how variation in species richness among estuaries is related to historical events, energy dynamics and ecosystem characteristics, while controlling for sampling effects. 4. At the global extent, species richness differed among marine biogeographic realms and continents and increased with mean sea surface temperature, terrestrial net primary productivity and the stability of connectivity with a marine ecosystem (open vs. temporarily open estuaries). At a smaller extent (within a marine biogeographic realm or continent), other characteristics were also important in predicting variation in species richness, with species richness increasing with estuary area and continental shelf width. 5. The results suggest that species richness in an estuary is defined by predictors that are spatially hierarchical. Over the largest spatial extents, species richness is influenced by the broader distributions and habitat use patterns of marine and freshwater species that can colonize estuaries, which are in turn governed by history contingency, energy dynamics and productivity variables. Species richness is also influenced by more regional and local parameters that can further affect the process of community colonization in an estuary including the connectivity of the estuary with the adjacent marine habitat, and, over smaller spatial extents, the size of these

  11. Relativistic mean field calculations in neutron-rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gangopadhyay, G.; Bhattacharya, Madhubrata; Roy, Subinit

    2014-08-14

    Relativistic mean field calculations have been employed to study neutron rich nuclei. The Lagrange's equations have been solved in the co-ordinate space. The effect of the continuum has been effectively taken into account through the method of resonant continuum. It is found that BCS approximation performs as well as a more involved Relativistic Continuum Hartree Bogoliubov approach. Calculations reveal the possibility of modification of magic numbers in neutron rich nuclei. Calculation for low energy proton scattering cross sections shows that the present approach reproduces the density in very light neutron rich nuclei.

  12. Reduced taxonomic richness of lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) in diving birds.

    PubMed

    Felsõ, B; Rózsa, L

    2006-08-01

    Avian lice occupy different habitats in the host plumage that the physical environment outside the host body may affect in several ways. Interactions between host plumage and water may be an important source of such effects. Here, we use a comparative approach to examine the effect of a host's diving behavior on the taxonomic richness of its lice. Louse genera richness was significantly lower in clades of diving birds than on their nondiving sister clades. Species richness of host and body mass did not differ significantly between these clades; thus, these factors did not bias our results. This study suggests that the hosts' diving behavior can effectively influence ectoparasite communities.

  13. Ar-40/Ar-39 Ages for Maskelynites and K-Rich Melt from Olivine-Rich Lithology in (Kanagawa) Zagami

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J.; Herzog, G. F.; Nyquist, L. E.; Lindsay, F.; Turrin, B.; Swisher, C. C., III; Delaney, J. S.; Shih, C.-Y.; Niihara, T.; Misawa, K.

    2013-01-01

    We report Ar/Ar release patterns for small maskelynite grains and samples of a K-rich phase separated from the basaltic shergottite Zagami. The purpose of the work is to investigate the well-known discrepancy between published Ar/Ar ages of Zagami, >200 Ma, and its age of approx. 170 Ma as determined by other methods [1-6]. Niihara et al. [7] divide less abundant darker material present in Zagami into an olivine-rich lithology (ORL), from which most of our samples came, and a pyroxene-rich one (Dark Mottled-Lithology: DML) [8, 9]. ORL consists of vermicular fayalitic olivine, coarse-grained pyroxene, maskelynite, and a glassy phase exceptionally rich in K (up to 8.5 wt%), Al, and Si, but poor in Fe and Mg. The elemental composition suggests a late-stage melt, i.e., residual material that solidified late in a fractional crystallization sequence. Below we refer to it as "K-rich melt." The K-rich melt contains laths of captured olivine, Ca-rich pyroxene, plagioclase, and opaques. It seemed to offer an especially promising target for Ar-40/Ar-39 dating.

  14. Increased anthropogenic pressure decreases species richness in tropical intertidal reefs.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Adriana Brizon; Carvalho, Fabrício Lopes; de Macedo Carneiro, Pedro Bastos; Rossi, Sergio; de Oliveira Soares, Marcelo

    2016-09-01

    Multiple human stressors affect tropical intertidal sandstone reefs, but little is known about their biodiversity and the environmental impacts of these stressors. In the present study, multiple anthropogenic pressures were integrated using the relative environmental pressure index (REPI) and related to benthic community structure across an intertidal gradient in five sandstone reefs in the tropical South Atlantic coast. Greater species richness and diversity were noted in the low intertidal zones. There was a negative relationship between REPI and species richness, suggesting that increasing anthropogenic pressure has decreased benthic richness. The factors associated with the loss of richness were jetties built to control erosion, urban areas, beachfront kiosks and restaurants, fish markets, and storm sewers with illegal sewage connections. Our results highlight the need for better infrastructure planning and rigorous monitoring of coastal urban areas, since the large influence of multiple human pressures in these reefs leads to biodiversity losses. PMID:27428738

  15. Plagioclase-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites - Liquid condensates?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wark, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics and formation of coarse-grained, plagioclase-rich inclusions are investigated. The textures, mineralogical compositions, and initial Al-26/Al-27 ratios for the plagioclase-rich inclusions are described. It is observed that plagioclase-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites are either Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) composed of 30-60 vol pct anorthite, and less than 35 vol pct Ti-Al-pyroxene and melilite, or CA chondrites composed of plagioclase, pyroxene, olivine, spinel, and melilite. It is observed that CA chondrules are chemically and mineralogically the most similar components shared by carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites. The textural changes observed in the inclusions are examined. The data reveal that the CAIs have three textural groups: coarse anorthite laths, equigranular anorthite and Ti-Al-pyroxene, and lacy Ti-Al-pyroxene and fine-grained anorthite.

  16. New Volatile-Rich Clasts from Brecciated Chondrites and Achondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzek, M.; Ebert, S.; Bischoff, A.

    2016-08-01

    New volatile-rich clasts from brecciated chondrites and achondrites have been analyzed. Some share similarities with CM and some with CI chondrites, but mineralogical and chemical differences still exist.

  17. Plant species richness enhanced the methane emission in experimental microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chong-Bang; Sun, Hong-Ying; Ge, Ying; Gu, Bao-Jing; Wang, Hai; Chang, Jie

    2012-12-01

    Effect of plant species richness on the methane (CH4) flux was investigated in vertical flow microcosms fed with the modified Hoagland solution. The CH4 flux increased significantly with the plant species richness (Linear regression analysis, r2 = 0.203, P = 0.010), with an average range from 1.59 to 4.30 mg m-2 d-1. Above-ground plant biomass followed the CH4 flux trend with the plant species richness (r2 = 0.108, P = 0.023), but both methanogenic number and activity decreased to different extents with the plant species richness (r2 = 0.103, P = 0.023; r2 = 0.020, P = 0.337), respectively. Accordingly, the present study highlights the significance of plant species diversity and its biomass production in manipulating the CH4 flux in the constructed wetlands.

  18. Detail view to show richness of materials such as the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view to show richness of materials such as the Fourteenth Street vestibule with its gilded groin-vaulted ceiling - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Increased anthropogenic pressure decreases species richness in tropical intertidal reefs.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Adriana Brizon; Carvalho, Fabrício Lopes; de Macedo Carneiro, Pedro Bastos; Rossi, Sergio; de Oliveira Soares, Marcelo

    2016-09-01

    Multiple human stressors affect tropical intertidal sandstone reefs, but little is known about their biodiversity and the environmental impacts of these stressors. In the present study, multiple anthropogenic pressures were integrated using the relative environmental pressure index (REPI) and related to benthic community structure across an intertidal gradient in five sandstone reefs in the tropical South Atlantic coast. Greater species richness and diversity were noted in the low intertidal zones. There was a negative relationship between REPI and species richness, suggesting that increasing anthropogenic pressure has decreased benthic richness. The factors associated with the loss of richness were jetties built to control erosion, urban areas, beachfront kiosks and restaurants, fish markets, and storm sewers with illegal sewage connections. Our results highlight the need for better infrastructure planning and rigorous monitoring of coastal urban areas, since the large influence of multiple human pressures in these reefs leads to biodiversity losses.

  20. Oxygen Compatibility Screening Tests in Oxygen-Rich Combustion Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckel, Anerew J.

    1997-01-01

    The identification and characterization of oxygen-rich compatible materials enables full-flow, staged combustion designs. Although these oxygen-rich designs offer significant cost, performance, and reliability benefits over existing systems, they have never been used operationally by the United States. If these systems are to be realized, it is critical to understand the long-term oxidative stability in high-temperature, high-pressure, oxygen-rich combustion environments. A unique facility has been constructed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to conduct tests of small-scale rocket engine materials and subcomponents in an oxygen-rich combustion environment that closely approximates a full-scale rocket engine. Thus, a broad range of advanced materials and concepts can be screened in a timely manner and at a relatively low cost.

  1. Productivity Is a Poor Predictor of Plant Species Richness.

    SciTech Connect

    Peter B. Adler; et al.

    2011-09-22

    For more than 30 years, the relationship between net primary productivity and species richness has generated intense debate in ecology about the processes regulating local diversity. The original view, which is still widely accepted, holds that the relationship is hump-shaped, with richness first rising and then declining with increasing productivity. Although recent meta-analyses questioned the generality of hump-shaped patterns, these syntheses have been criticized for failing to account for methodological differences among studies. We addressed such concerns by conducting standardized sampling in 48 herbaceous-dominated plant communities on five continents. We found no clear relationship between productivity and fine-scale (meters-2) richness within sites, within regions, or across the globe. Ecologists should focus on fresh, mechanistic approaches to understanding the multivariate links between productivity and richness.

  2. RICH detector at Jefferson Lab, design, performance and physics results

    SciTech Connect

    E. Cisbani; S. Colilli; F. Cusanno; S. Frullani; R. Frantoni; F. Garibaldi; F. Giuliani; M. Gricia; M. Lucentini; M.L. Magliozzi; L. Pierangeli; F. Santavenere; P. Veneroni; G.M. Urciuoli; M. Iodice; G. De Cataldo; R. De Leo; L. Lagamba; S. Marrone; E. Nappi; V. Paticchio; R. Feuerbach; D. Higinbotham; J. Lerose; B. Kross; R. Michaels; Y. Qiang; B. Reitz; J. Segal; B. Wojtsekhowski; C. Zorn; A. Acha; P. Markowitz; C.C. Chang; H. Breuer

    2006-04-01

    Since 2004 the hadron spectrometer of Hall A at Jefferson Lab is equipped with a proximity focusing RICH. This detector is capable of identify kaon from pion and proton with an angular separation starting from 6 sigma at 2 GeV/c. The RICH design is conceptually similar to the ALICE HMPID RICH; it uses a C6F14 liquid radiator and a 300 nm layer of CsI deposited on the cathode pad plane of an asymmetric MWPC. The RICH has operated for the Hypernuclear Spectroscopy Experiment E94-107, which took data in the last two years. Design details and performance along with first physics results from the hypernuclear experiment are shortly presented.

  3. Sports medicine and platelet-rich plasma: nonsurgical therapy.

    PubMed

    Grambart, Sean T

    2015-01-01

    A Cochrane Review was performed to assess the effects of platelet-rich therapies for treating musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries. Selection criteria were randomized and quasirandomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared platelet-rich therapy with either placebo, autologous whole blood, dry needling, or no platelet-rich therapy for people with acute or chronic musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries. Primary outcomes were functional status, pain, and adverse effects. The investigators found 19 studies that compared platelet-rich therapy with placebo, autologous whole blood, dry needling, or no platelet-rich therapy. Disorders included rotator cuff tears (arthroscopic repair; 6 trials); shoulder impingement syndrome surgery (1 trial); elbow epicondylitis (3 trials); anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (4 trials), ACL reconstruction (donor graft site application; 2 trials), patellar tendinopathy (1 trial), Achilles tendinopathy (1 trial), and acute Achilles rupture surgical repair (1 trial). They further subdivided the studies based on type of treatment, including tendinopathies in which platelet-rich therapy injections were the main treatment (5 trials), and surgical augmentation procedures in which platelet-rich therapy was applied during surgery (14 trials). The conclusion was that there is currently insufficient evidence to support the use of platelet-rich therapy for treating musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries. Researchers contemplating RCTs should consider the coverage of currently ongoing trials when assessing the need for future RCTs on specific conditions. There is a need for standardization of PRP preparation methods. At this time, the use of PRP in foot and ankle surgery as an orthobiologic does not have an absolute indication. Many of the studies are lower evidence-based from surgical techniques. Several in vitro studies have shown that growth factors promote the regeneration of bone, cartilage, and tendons. More clinical studies are

  4. Partitioning sources of variation in vertebrate species richness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, R.B.; Krohn, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To explore biogeographic patterns of terrestrial vertebrates in Maine, USA using techniques that would describe local and spatial correlations with the environment. Location: Maine, USA. Methods: We delineated the ranges within Maine (86,156 km2) of 275 species using literature and expert review. Ranges were combined into species richness maps, and compared to geomorphology, climate, and woody plant distributions. Methods were adapted that compared richness of all vertebrate classes to each environmental correlate, rather than assessing a single explanatory theory. We partitioned variation in species richness into components using tree and multiple linear regression. Methods were used that allowed for useful comparisons between tree and linear regression results. For both methods we partitioned variation into broad-scale (spatially autocorrelated) and fine-scale (spatially uncorrelated) explained and unexplained components. By partitioning variance, and using both tree and linear regression in analyses, we explored the degree of variation in species richness for each vertebrate group that Could be explained by the relative contribution of each environmental variable. Results: In tree regression, climate variation explained richness better (92% of mean deviance explained for all species) than woody plant variation (87%) and geomorphology (86%). Reptiles were highly correlated with environmental variation (93%), followed by mammals, amphibians, and birds (each with 84-82% deviance explained). In multiple linear regression, climate was most closely associated with total vertebrate richness (78%), followed by woody plants (67%) and geomorphology (56%). Again, reptiles were closely correlated with the environment (95%), followed by mammals (73%), amphibians (63%) and birds (57%). Main conclusions: Comparing variation explained using tree and multiple linear regression quantified the importance of nonlinear relationships and local interactions between species

  5. Sports medicine and platelet-rich plasma: nonsurgical therapy.

    PubMed

    Grambart, Sean T

    2015-01-01

    A Cochrane Review was performed to assess the effects of platelet-rich therapies for treating musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries. Selection criteria were randomized and quasirandomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared platelet-rich therapy with either placebo, autologous whole blood, dry needling, or no platelet-rich therapy for people with acute or chronic musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries. Primary outcomes were functional status, pain, and adverse effects. The investigators found 19 studies that compared platelet-rich therapy with placebo, autologous whole blood, dry needling, or no platelet-rich therapy. Disorders included rotator cuff tears (arthroscopic repair; 6 trials); shoulder impingement syndrome surgery (1 trial); elbow epicondylitis (3 trials); anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (4 trials), ACL reconstruction (donor graft site application; 2 trials), patellar tendinopathy (1 trial), Achilles tendinopathy (1 trial), and acute Achilles rupture surgical repair (1 trial). They further subdivided the studies based on type of treatment, including tendinopathies in which platelet-rich therapy injections were the main treatment (5 trials), and surgical augmentation procedures in which platelet-rich therapy was applied during surgery (14 trials). The conclusion was that there is currently insufficient evidence to support the use of platelet-rich therapy for treating musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries. Researchers contemplating RCTs should consider the coverage of currently ongoing trials when assessing the need for future RCTs on specific conditions. There is a need for standardization of PRP preparation methods. At this time, the use of PRP in foot and ankle surgery as an orthobiologic does not have an absolute indication. Many of the studies are lower evidence-based from surgical techniques. Several in vitro studies have shown that growth factors promote the regeneration of bone, cartilage, and tendons. More clinical studies are

  6. Platelet-rich fibrin matrix for facial plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony P; Saman, Masoud

    2012-05-01

    Platelets are known primarily for their role in hemostasis, but there is increasing interest in the effect of platelets on wound healing. Platelet isolates such as platelet-rich plasma have been advocated to enhance and accelerate wound healing. This article describes the use of a novel preparation, platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM), for facial plastic surgery applications such as volume augmentation, fat transfer supplementation, and as an adjunct to open surgical procedures.

  7. Geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness

    PubMed Central

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Carrara, Francesco; Mari, Lorenzo; Altermatt, Florian; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Elevational gradients of biodiversity have been widely investigated, and yet a clear interpretation of the biotic and abiotic factors that determine how species richness varies with elevation is still elusive. In mountainous landscapes, habitats at different elevations are characterized by different areal extent and connectivity properties, key drivers of biodiversity, as predicted by metacommunity theory. However, most previous studies directly correlated species richness to elevational gradients of potential drivers, thus neglecting the interplay between such gradients and the environmental matrix. Here, we investigate the role of geomorphology in shaping patterns of species richness. We develop a spatially explicit zero-sum metacommunity model where species have an elevation-dependent fitness and otherwise neutral traits. Results show that ecological dynamics over complex terrains lead to the null expectation of a hump-shaped elevational gradient of species richness, a pattern widely observed empirically. Local species richness is found to be related to the landscape elevational connectivity, as quantified by a newly proposed metric that applies tools of complex network theory to measure the closeness of a site to others with similar habitat. Our theoretical results suggest clear geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness and support the use of the landscape elevational connectivity as a null model for the analysis of the distribution of biodiversity. PMID:26831107

  8. Effects of ion interactions with a cholesterol-rich bilayer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Lingxue; Yang, Linlin; Zhang, Qiansen; Jiang, Hualiang; Yang, Huaiyu

    Previous molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of ion-lipid interactions have focused on pure phospholipid bilayers. Many functional microdomains in membranes have a complex composition of cholesterol and phospholipids. Here, we reveal the distinctiveness of the interactions and the effects of the ions on a cholesterol-rich bilayer by performing MD simulations of a cholesterol-rich bilayer with a Na(+)/K(+) mixture or a Na(+)/K(+)/Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) mixture. The simulations reveal that Ca(2+) maintains its dominant role in the interaction with the cholesterol-rich bilayer, but the binding affinity of Mg(2+) to the cholesterol-rich bilayer is even weaker than the affinities of Na(+) and K(+), whereas its interaction with pure phospholipid bilayers is strong and is only slightly weaker than that of Ca(2+). Additionally, it was found that the presence of additional divalent cations induces the headgroups of phospholipids to be more perpendicular to the membrane surface, reducing the lateral movement of lipids and slightly altering the ordering and packing of the cholesterol-rich bilayer, different from divalent cations, which strongly influence that ordering and packing of pure phospholipid bilayers. Therefore, this study indicates that cholesterol in the membrane could affect the interactions between membrane and cations. The findings could be helpful in understanding the biological processes relevant to regulation of cations in cholesterol-rich regions.

  9. Estimating species richness: The importance of heterogeneity in species detectability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boulinier, T.; Nichols, J.D.; Sauer, J.R.; Hines, J.E.; Pollock, K.H.

    1998-01-01

    Estimating species richness (i.e. the actual number of species present in a given area) is a basic objective of many field studies carried out in community ecology and is also of crucial concern when dealing with the conservation and management of biodiversity. In most studies, the total number of species recorded in an area at a given time is taken as a measure of species richness. Here we use a capture-recapture approach to species richness estimation with North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data in order to estimate species detectability and thus gain insight about its importance. We carried out analyses on all survey routes of four states, Arizona, Maryland, North Dakota, and Wisconsin, in two years, 1970 and 1990. These states were chosen to provide contrasting habitats, bird species composition and survey quality. We investigated the effect of state, year and observer ability on the proportions of different models selected, and on estimates of detectability and species richness. Our results indicate that model Mh, which assumes heterogeneous detection probability among species, is frequently appropriate for estimating species richness from BBS data. Species detectability varied among states and was higher for the more skilled observers. These results emphasize the need to take into account potential heterogeneities in detectability among species in studies of factors affecting species richness.

  10. Platelet-rich plasma for long bone healing

    PubMed Central

    Lenza, Mário; Ferraz, Silvia de Barros; Viola, Dan Carai Maia; dos Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão; Cendoroglo, Miguel; Ferretti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate effectiveness of the use of platelet-rich plasma as coadjuvant for union of long bones. Methods: The search strategy included the Cochrane Library (via Central) and MEDLINE (via PubMed). There were no limits as to language or publication media. The latest search strategy was conducted in December 2011. It included randomized clinical trials that evaluated the use of platelet-rich plasma as coadjuvant medication to accelerate union of long bones (acute fractures, pseudoarthrosis and bone defects). The outcomes of interest for this review include bone regeneration, adverse events, costs, pain, and quality of life. The authors selected eligible studies, evaluated the methodological quality, and extracted the data. It was not possible to perform quantitative analysis of the grouped studies (meta-analyses). Results: Two randomized prospective clinical trials were included, with a total of 148 participants. One of them compared recombinant human morphogenic bone protein-7 versus platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of pseudoarthrosis; the other evaluated the effects of three coadjuvant treatments for union of valgising tibial osteotomies (platelet-rich plasma, platelet-rich plasma plus bone marrow stromal cells, and no coadjuvant treatment). Both had low statistical power and moderate to high risk of bias. Conclusion: There was no conclusive evidence that sustained the use of platelet-rich plasma as a coadjuvant to aid bone regeneration of fractures, pseudoarthrosis, or bone defects. PMID:23579757

  11. Geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness.

    PubMed

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Carrara, Francesco; Mari, Lorenzo; Altermatt, Florian; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-02-16

    Elevational gradients of biodiversity have been widely investigated, and yet a clear interpretation of the biotic and abiotic factors that determine how species richness varies with elevation is still elusive. In mountainous landscapes, habitats at different elevations are characterized by different areal extent and connectivity properties, key drivers of biodiversity, as predicted by metacommunity theory. However, most previous studies directly correlated species richness to elevational gradients of potential drivers, thus neglecting the interplay between such gradients and the environmental matrix. Here, we investigate the role of geomorphology in shaping patterns of species richness. We develop a spatially explicit zero-sum metacommunity model where species have an elevation-dependent fitness and otherwise neutral traits. Results show that ecological dynamics over complex terrains lead to the null expectation of a hump-shaped elevational gradient of species richness, a pattern widely observed empirically. Local species richness is found to be related to the landscape elevational connectivity, as quantified by a newly proposed metric that applies tools of complex network theory to measure the closeness of a site to others with similar habitat. Our theoretical results suggest clear geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness and support the use of the landscape elevational connectivity as a null model for the analysis of the distribution of biodiversity.

  12. Geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness.

    PubMed

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Carrara, Francesco; Mari, Lorenzo; Altermatt, Florian; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-02-16

    Elevational gradients of biodiversity have been widely investigated, and yet a clear interpretation of the biotic and abiotic factors that determine how species richness varies with elevation is still elusive. In mountainous landscapes, habitats at different elevations are characterized by different areal extent and connectivity properties, key drivers of biodiversity, as predicted by metacommunity theory. However, most previous studies directly correlated species richness to elevational gradients of potential drivers, thus neglecting the interplay between such gradients and the environmental matrix. Here, we investigate the role of geomorphology in shaping patterns of species richness. We develop a spatially explicit zero-sum metacommunity model where species have an elevation-dependent fitness and otherwise neutral traits. Results show that ecological dynamics over complex terrains lead to the null expectation of a hump-shaped elevational gradient of species richness, a pattern widely observed empirically. Local species richness is found to be related to the landscape elevational connectivity, as quantified by a newly proposed metric that applies tools of complex network theory to measure the closeness of a site to others with similar habitat. Our theoretical results suggest clear geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness and support the use of the landscape elevational connectivity as a null model for the analysis of the distribution of biodiversity. PMID:26831107

  13. Development and demonstration of table-top synchronized fast-scan femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy system by single-shot scan photo detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabushita, Atsushi; Kao, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Yu-Hsien; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2015-07-01

    Ultrafast dynamics is generally studied by pump-probe method with laser pulse, which scans optical delay by motorized stage step by step. Using ultrashort laser pulse shorter than typical molecular vibration periods, the pump-probe measurement can study both of electronic dynamics and vibration dynamics simultaneously. The probe wavelength dependence of the ultrafast electronic and vibration dynamics (UEVD) helps us to distinguish the signal contributions from the dynamics of the electronic ground state and that of the electronic excited states, which elucidates primary reaction mechanism after photoexcitation. Meanwhile, the measurement time of UEVD spectroscopy takes too long time to be used in realistic application. In our previous work, we have developed multi-channel lock-in amplifying (MLA) detectors to study UEVD at all probe wavelengths simultaneously, and synchronized it with laser and fast-scan delay stage to scan the data in five seconds. It enabled us to study UEVD spectroscopy even for photo-fragile materials. However, the home-made MLA detectors required for the measurement is expensive and massive in size and weight, thus not suitable for general researchers in the field of ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy. In the present work, we have developed a table-top synchronized fast-scan femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy system using single shot scan line CCD. This system measures time-resolved trace at all probe wavelengths simultaneously in five seconds. The CCD-based fast-scan time-resolved spectroscopy system enables us to study ultrafast dynamics of various materials even biomaterials, which have been thought to be hard or even impossible to be studied in previous methods.

  14. Demonstration of First 9 Micron cutoff 640 x 486 GaAs Based Quantum Well Infrared PhotoDetector (QWIP) Snap-Shot Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Hong, W.; Sundaram, M.; Maker, P. D.; Muller, R. E.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of this very sensitive long waelength infrared (LWIR) camera based on a GaAs/AlGaAs QWIP focal plane array (FPA) and its performance in quantum efficiency, NEAT, uniformity, and operability.

  15. Assessment of the liquid phase methanol synthesis process: CO-rich vs. H{sub 2}-rich syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayaraghavan, P.; Lee, S.; Kulik, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    A mechanically agitated slurry reactor system was designed, built and operated to investigate the liquid phase methanol (LPMeOH{trademark}) synthesis process. In this reactor system, syngas reacts in the presence of the methanol synthesis catalyst (Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), which is slurried in the oil phase, and is thoroughly agitated by a mechanically driven impeller. Synthesis gas consisting of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} is mainly used as a feedstock in the synthesis of methanol. The sources of syngas for methanol synthesis have become very diverse, ranging from syngas obtained from Lurgi gasifiers (H{sub 2}-rich syngas), to syngas obtained from industrial gasifiers like Texaco and Koppers Totzek (CO-rich syngas). The effect of syngas composition, ranging from CO-rich to H{sub 2}-rich syngas, on the productivity of methanol was investigated. The development of a kinetic rate expression and the effect on equilibrium conversion, using H{sub 2}-rich syngas and CO-rich syngas, will be compared. These results will be of immense help in the modeling of the reactor system, and assist in the design, development, and scale-up of the LPMeOH process.

  16. The Frequency of Lithium-Rich Giants in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Zhang, Andrew J.; Hong, Jerry; Guo, Michelle; Guo, Rachel; Cohen, Judith G.; Cunha, Katia M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Although red giants destroy lithium, some giants are Li-rich. Intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars can generate Li through the Cameron-Fowler conveyor, but the existence of Li-rich, low-mass red giant branch (RGB) stars is puzzling. Globular clusters are the best sites to examine this phenomenon because it is straightforward to determine membership in the cluster and to identify the evolutionary state of each star. In 72 hours of Keck/DEIMOS exposures in 25 clusters, we found four Li-rich RGB and two Li-rich AGB stars. There were 1696 RGB and 125 AGB stars with measurements or upper limits consistent with normal abundances of Li. Hence, the frequency of Li-richness in globular clusters is (0.2 ± 0.1)% for the RGB, (1.6 ± 1.1)% for the AGB, and (0.3 ± 0.1)% for all giants. Because the Li-rich RGB stars are on the lower RGB, Li self-generation mechanisms proposed to occur at the luminosity function bump or He core flash cannot explain these four lower RGB stars. We propose the following origin for Li enrichment: (1) All luminous giants experience a brief phase of Li enrichment at the He core flash. (2) All post-RGB stars with binary companions on the lower RGB will engage in mass transfer. This scenario predicts that 0.1% of lower RGB stars will appear Li-rich due to mass transfer from a recently Li-enhanced companion. This frequency is at the lower end of our confidence interval.

  17. 6. Photocopy of woodengraving in Rich, TruroCape Cod facing p. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of wood-engraving in Rich, Truro-Cape Cod facing p. 464. Copy owned by Miss Marion Rich, Truro, Mass. SUMMER HOME OF THE AUTHOR, AT LONGNOOK - Shebnah Rich House, Longnook Road, Truro, Barnstable County, MA

  18. Richness and distribution of tropical oyster parasites in two oceans.

    PubMed

    Pagenkopp Lohan, Katrina M; Hill-Spanik, Kristina M; Torchin, Mark E; Aguirre-Macedo, Leopoldina; Fleischer, Robert C; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    Parasites can exert strong effects on population to ecosystem level processes, but data on parasites are limited for many global regions, especially tropical marine systems. Characterizing parasite diversity and distributions are the first steps towards understanding the potential impacts of parasites. The Panama Canal serves as an interesting location to examine tropical parasite diversity and distribution, as it is a conduit between two oceans and a hub for international trade. We examined metazoan and protistan parasites associated with ten oyster species collected from both Panamanian coasts, including the Panama Canal and Bocas del Toro. We found multiple metazoan taxa (pea crabs, Stylochus spp., Urastoma cyrinae). Our molecular screening for protistan parasites detected four species of Perkinsus (Perkinsus marinus, Perkinsus chesapeaki, Perkinsus olseni, Perkinsus beihaiensis) and several haplosporidians, including two genera (Minchinia, Haplosporidium). Species richness was higher for the protistan parasites than for the metazoans, with haplosporidian richness being higher than Perkinsus richness. Perkinsus species were the most frequently detected and most geographically widespread among parasite groups. Parasite richness and overlap differed between regions, locations and oyster hosts. These results have important implications for tropical parasite richness and the dispersal of parasites due to shipping associated with the Panama Canal. PMID:27263626

  19. Richness and distribution of tropical oyster parasites in two oceans.

    PubMed

    Pagenkopp Lohan, Katrina M; Hill-Spanik, Kristina M; Torchin, Mark E; Aguirre-Macedo, Leopoldina; Fleischer, Robert C; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    Parasites can exert strong effects on population to ecosystem level processes, but data on parasites are limited for many global regions, especially tropical marine systems. Characterizing parasite diversity and distributions are the first steps towards understanding the potential impacts of parasites. The Panama Canal serves as an interesting location to examine tropical parasite diversity and distribution, as it is a conduit between two oceans and a hub for international trade. We examined metazoan and protistan parasites associated with ten oyster species collected from both Panamanian coasts, including the Panama Canal and Bocas del Toro. We found multiple metazoan taxa (pea crabs, Stylochus spp., Urastoma cyrinae). Our molecular screening for protistan parasites detected four species of Perkinsus (Perkinsus marinus, Perkinsus chesapeaki, Perkinsus olseni, Perkinsus beihaiensis) and several haplosporidians, including two genera (Minchinia, Haplosporidium). Species richness was higher for the protistan parasites than for the metazoans, with haplosporidian richness being higher than Perkinsus richness. Perkinsus species were the most frequently detected and most geographically widespread among parasite groups. Parasite richness and overlap differed between regions, locations and oyster hosts. These results have important implications for tropical parasite richness and the dispersal of parasites due to shipping associated with the Panama Canal.

  20. Correlates of viral richness in bats (order Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Turmelle, Amy S; Olival, Kevin J

    2009-12-01

    Historic and contemporary host ecology and evolutionary dynamics have profound impacts on viral diversity, virulence, and associated disease emergence. Bats have been recognized as reservoirs for several emerging viral pathogens, and are unique among mammals in their vagility, potential for long-distance dispersal, and often very large, colonial populations. We investigate the relative influences of host ecology and population genetic structure for predictions of viral richness in relevant reservoir species. We test the hypothesis that host geographic range area, distribution, population genetic structure, migratory behavior, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat status, body mass, and colony size, are associated with known viral richness in bats. We analyze host traits and viral richness in a generalized linear regression model framework, and include a correction for sampling effort and phylogeny. We find evidence that sampling effort, IUCN status, and population genetic structure correlate with observed viral species richness in bats, and that these associations are independent of phylogeny. This study is an important first step in understanding the mechanisms that promote viral richness in reservoir species, and may aid in predicting the emergence of viral zoonoses from bats.

  1. Drivers of species richness in European Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattorini, Simone; Ulrich, Werner

    2012-08-01

    The species-area relationship (SAR) and the latitudinal gradient in species richness are the most widespread and best-documented patterns in ecology, yet few studies have explored how the two patterns are interrelated. We used tenebrionid beetles as a species rich invertebrate group to investigate how area, habitat heterogeneity, climate, and ecological history act together in shaping species richness across Europe. We tested the effects of various climatic gradients on tenebrionid richness, with separate analyses for endemics and non-endemics. To take into account differences in area size among geographical units, we included species-area relationships using simultaneous autoregressive models. Although area had a significant effect on richness, the signal associated with temperature is so strong that it is still evident as a major driver. Also, the effect of area was only apparent when the effect of spatial coordinates had been accounted for, which has important implications for the use of SARs to locate diversity hotspots. The influence of latitude was mainly explained by a temperature gradient. Our findings support a postglacial European colonisation mainly from glacial southern refuges. Large Mediterranean islands were also important refugial areas.

  2. Human population, grasshopper and plant species richness in European countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steck, Claude E.; Pautasso, Marco

    2008-11-01

    Surprisingly, several studies over large scales have reported a positive spatial correlation of people and biodiversity. This pattern has important implications for conservation and has been documented for well studied taxa such as plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it is unknown whether the pattern applies also to invertebrates other than butterflies and more work is needed to establish whether the species-people relationship is explained by both variables correlating with other environmental factors. We studied whether grasshopper species richness (Orthoptera, suborder Caelifera) is related to human population size in European countries. As expected, the number of Caelifera species increases significantly with increasing human population size. But this is not the case when controlling for country area, latitude and number of plant species. Variations in Caelifera species richness are primarily associated with variations in plant species richness. Caelifera species richness also increases with decreasing mean annual precipitation, Gross Domestic Product per capita (used as an indicator for economic development) and net fertility rate of the human population. Our analysis confirms the hypothesis that the broad-scale human population-biodiversity correlations can be explained by concurrent variations in factors other than human population size such as plant species richness, environmental productivity, or habitat heterogeneity. Nonetheless, more populated countries in Europe still have more Caelifera species than less populated countries and this poses a particular challenge for conservation.

  3. Regional pools and environmental controls of vertebrate richness.

    PubMed

    Belmaker, Jonathan; Jetz, Walter

    2012-04-01

    Abstract The species richness of local communities depends on the richness of the regional pool and the filtering processes that preclude some regional species from occurring locally. These filters may include absolute attributes of the local environment and also how representative the local environment is of the surrounding region. The latter is consistent with a species-sorting perspective, in which regional species only occupy the local habitats to which they are adapted. Here we evaluate the relative effects of local environmental conditions, environmental representativeness, and environment-independent processes on the probability of local species occurrence, given their regional presence, of birds, mammals, and amphibians worldwide. In multipredictor models, environmental representativeness is a strong independent predictor of local species occurrence probability, with a relative contribution greater than that of absolute local environmental conditions. Furthermore, we find that local occurrence probability diminishes with increased regional richness independent of the local environment. This is consistent with reduced local occupancy in richer regions, which is a pattern that could stem from a largely neutral community assembly process. Our results support the importance of both environment-independent and species-sorting processes and suggest that regional richness and environmental representativeness should be jointly used for understanding richness gradients across scales.

  4. Semantic Richness Effects in Syntactic Classification: The Role of Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Melvin J.; Pexman, Penny M.

    2016-01-01

    Words with richer semantic representations are recognized faster across a range of lexical processing tasks. The most influential account of this finding is based on the idea that semantic richness effects are mediated by feedback from semantic-level to lower-level representations. In an earlier lexical decision study, Yap et al. (2015) tested this claim by examining the joint effects of stimulus quality and four semantic richness dimensions (imageability, number of features, semantic neighborhood density, semantic diversity). The results of that study showed that joint effects of stimulus quality and richness were generally additive, consistent with the idea that semantic feedback does not typically reach the earliest levels of representation in lexical decision. The present study extends this earlier work by investigating the joint effects of stimulus quality and the same four semantic richness dimensions on syntactic classification performance (is this a noun or verb?), which places relatively more emphasis on semantic processing. Additive effects of stimulus quality and richness were found for two of the four targeted dimensions (concreteness, number of features) while semantic neighborhood density and semantic diversity did not seem to influence syntactic classification response times. These findings provide further support against the view that semantic information reaches early letter-level processes.

  5. Functional identity versus species richness: herbivory resistance in plant communities

    PubMed Central

    Heimann, Juliane; Köhler, Günter; Mitschunas, Nadine; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2010-01-01

    The resistance of a plant community against herbivore attack may depend on plant species richness, with monocultures often much more severely affected than mixtures of plant species. Here, we used a plant–herbivore system to study the effects of selective herbivory on consumption resistance and recovery after herbivory in 81 experimental grassland plots. Communities were established from seed in 2002 and contained 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 60 plant species of 1, 2, 3 or 4 functional groups. In 2004, pairs of enclosure cages (1 m tall, 0.5 m diameter) were set up on all 81 plots. One randomly selected cage of each pair was stocked with 10 male and 10 female nymphs of the meadow grasshopper, Chorthippus parallelus. The grasshoppers fed for 2 months, and the vegetation was monitored over 1 year. Consumption resistance and recovery of vegetation were calculated as proportional changes in vegetation biomass. Overall, grasshopper herbivory averaged 6.8%. Herbivory resistance and recovery were influenced by plant functional group identity, but independent of plant species richness and number of functional groups. However, herbivory induced shifts in vegetation composition that depended on plant species richness. Grasshopper herbivory led to increases in herb cover at the expense of grasses. Herb cover increased more strongly in species-rich mixtures. We conclude that selective herbivory changes the functional composition of plant communities and that compositional changes due to selective herbivory depend on plant species richness. PMID:20429014

  6. PAH formation in O-rich planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Lagadec, E.; Jones, D.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Gesicki, K.

    2014-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been observed in O-rich planetary nebulae towards the Galactic bulge. This combination of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich material, known as dual-dust or mixed chemistry, is not expected to be seen around such objects. We recently proposed that PAHs could be formed from the photodissociation of CO in dense tori. In this work, using VISIR/VLT, we spatially resolved the emission of the PAH bands and ionized emission from the [S IV] line, confirming the presence of dense central tori in all the observed O-rich objects. Furthermore, we show that for most of the objects, PAHs are located at the outer edge of these dense/compact tori, while the ionized material is mostly present in the inner parts of these tori, consistent with our hypothesis for the formation of PAHs in these systems. The presence of a dense torus has been strongly associated with the action of a central binary star and, as such, the rich chemistry seen in these regions may also be related to the formation of exoplanets in post-common-envelope binary systems.

  7. PAH Formation in O-rich Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Lagadec, E.; Jones, D.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Gesicki, K.

    2015-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been observed in O-rich planetary nebulae. This combination of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich material, known as dual-dust or mixed chemistry, is not expected to be seen around these objects. We recently proposed that PAHs could be formed from the photodissociation of CO in dense tori. Using VISIR/VLT, we spatially resolved the emission of the PAH bands and ionised emission from the [S IV] line, confirming the presence of dense central tori in all the observed O-rich objects. Furthermore, we show that for most of the objects, PAHs are located at the outer edge of these dense/compact tori, while the ionised material is mostly present in the inner parts, consistent with our hypothesis for the formation of PAHs in these systems. The presence of a dense torus has been strongly associated with the action of a central binary star and, as such, the rich chemistry seen in these regions may also be related to the formation of exoplanets in post-common-envelope binary systems.

  8. Species richness at continental scales is dominated by ecological limits.

    PubMed

    Rabosky, Daniel L; Hurlbert, Allen H

    2015-05-01

    Explaining variation in species richness among provinces and other large geographic regions remains one of the most challenging problems at the intersection of ecology and evolution. Here we argue that empirical evidence supports a model whereby ecological factors associated with resource availability regulate species richness at continental scales. Any large-scale predictive model for biological diversity must explain three robust patterns in the natural world. First, species richness for evolutionary biotas is highly correlated with resource-associated surrogate variables, including area, temperature, and productivity. Second, species richness across epochal timescales is largely stationary in time. Third, the dynamics of diversity exhibit clear and predictable responses to mass extinctions, key innovations, and other perturbations. Collectively, these patterns are readily explained by a model in which species richness is regulated by diversity-dependent feedback mechanisms. We argue that many purported tests of the ecological limits hypothesis, including branching patterns in molecular phylogenies, are inherently weak and distract from these three core patterns. We have much to learn about the complex hierarchy of processes by which local ecological interactions lead to diversity dependence at the continental scale, but the empirical evidence overwhelmingly suggests that they do.

  9. Semantic Richness Effects in Syntactic Classification: The Role of Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Melvin J.; Pexman, Penny M.

    2016-01-01

    Words with richer semantic representations are recognized faster across a range of lexical processing tasks. The most influential account of this finding is based on the idea that semantic richness effects are mediated by feedback from semantic-level to lower-level representations. In an earlier lexical decision study, Yap et al. (2015) tested this claim by examining the joint effects of stimulus quality and four semantic richness dimensions (imageability, number of features, semantic neighborhood density, semantic diversity). The results of that study showed that joint effects of stimulus quality and richness were generally additive, consistent with the idea that semantic feedback does not typically reach the earliest levels of representation in lexical decision. The present study extends this earlier work by investigating the joint effects of stimulus quality and the same four semantic richness dimensions on syntactic classification performance (is this a noun or verb?), which places relatively more emphasis on semantic processing. Additive effects of stimulus quality and richness were found for two of the four targeted dimensions (concreteness, number of features) while semantic neighborhood density and semantic diversity did not seem to influence syntactic classification response times. These findings provide further support against the view that semantic information reaches early letter-level processes. PMID:27695431

  10. Environmental and historical constraints on global patterns of amphibian richness.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Lauren B; Jetz, Walter

    2007-05-01

    Our knowledge of the broad-scale ecology of vertebrate ectotherms remains very limited. Despite ongoing declines and sensitivity to environmental change, amphibian distributions are particularly poorly understood. We present a global analysis of contemporary environmental and historical constraints on amphibian richness, the first for an ectotherm clade at this scale. Amphibians are presumed to experience environmental constraints distinct from those of better studied endothermic taxa due to their stringent water requirements and the temperature dependence of their energetic costs and performance. Single environmental predictors set upper bounds on, but do not exclusively determine, amphibian richness. Accounting for differing regional histories of speciation and extinction helps resolve triangular or scattered relationships between core environmental predictors and amphibian richness, as the relationships' intercepts or slopes can vary regionally. While the magnitude of richness is strongly determined by regional history, within-region patterns are consistently jointly driven by water and temperature. This confirms that ecophysiological constraints extend to the broad scale. This coupling suggests that shifts in climatic regimes will probably have dramatic consequences for amphibians. Our results illustrate how the environmental and historical explanations of species richness gradients can be reconciled and how the perspectives are complements for understanding broad-scale patterns of diversity.

  11. Plant species richness and ecosystem multifunctionality in global drylands

    PubMed Central

    Maestre, Fernando T.; Quero, José L.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Escudero, Adriá; Ochoa, Victoria; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; García-Gómez, Miguel; Bowker, Matthew A.; Soliveres, Santiago; Escolar, Cristina; García-Palacios, Pablo; Berdugo, Miguel; Valencia, Enrique; Gozalo, Beatriz; Gallardo, Antonio; Aguilera, Lorgio; Arredondo, Tulio; Blones, Julio; Boeken, Bertrand; Bran, Donaldo; Conceição, Abel A.; Cabrera, Omar; Chaieb, Mohamed; Derak, Mchich; Eldridge, David J.; Espinosa, Carlos I.; Florentino, Adriana; Gaitán, Juan; Gatica, M. Gabriel; Ghiloufi, Wahida; Gómez-González, Susana; Gutiérrez, Julio R.; Hernández, Rosa M.; Huang, Xuewen; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Jankju, Mohammad; Miriti, Maria; Monerris, Jorge; Mau, Rebecca L.; Morici, Ernesto; Naseri, Kamal; Ospina, Abelardo; Polo, Vicente; Prina, Aníbal; Pucheta, Eduardo; Ramírez-Collantes, David A.; Romão, Roberto; Tighe, Matthew; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Val, James; Veiga, José P.; Wang, Deli; Zaady, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Experiments suggest that biodiversity enhances the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple functions, such as carbon storage, productivity, and buildup of nutrient pools (multifunctionality). However, the relationship between biodiversity and multifunctionality has never been assessed globally in natural ecosystems. We report on the first global empirical study relating plant species richness and abiotic factors to multifunctionality in drylands, which collectively cover 41% of Earth’s land surface and support over 38% of the human population. Multifunctionality was positively and significantly related to species richness. The best-fitting models accounted for over 55% of the variation in multifunctionality, and always included species richness as a predictor variable. Our results suggest that preservation of plant biodiversity is crucial to buffer negative effects of climate change and desertification in drylands. PMID:22246775

  12. Rich-and-Poor Model for Human and Nature Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motesharrei, S.; Kalnay, E.; Rivas, J.; Rich-n-Poor

    2011-12-01

    Historical evidence shows collapse of several civilizations in different regions of the world. Jared Diamond presents an account of such societal failures in his 2005 book "Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed." As a precursor to building a complex model for interaction of human and environment, we developed a "thought-experiment" model based on Lotka-Volterra equations for the interaction of two species, known as the Predator-Prey model. We constructed a fairly simple rich-and-poor model that includes only four state variables (or stocks): Rich Population, Poor Population, Nature, and Rich Savings. We observed several scenarios for growth of societies by varying the model's parameter values, including scenarios that resemble the catastrophic fall of ancient civilizations such as the Maya and Anasazi.

  13. The RICH detector of the NA62 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duk, Viacheslav

    2016-09-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN is aimed at measuring the ultra-rare decay K+→π+νν with 10% accuracy. One of the detectors that is crucial for the rejection of background events is the RICH detector: a gas based detector aimed at π/μ separation in the 15-35 GeV/c momentum range with an inefficiency of less than 1%. The RICH must also provide a very precise time measurement (with the time resolution ˜100 ps) to correctly associate the π+ with the parent K+ particle measured by an upstream detector. This paper contains the detailed description of the RICH detector, its readout, and the results of the commissioning run at CERN in 2014.

  14. Guanine-rich sequences inhibit proofreading DNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Jing; Sun, Shuhui; Xie, Binghua; Hu, Xuemei; Zhang, Zunyi; Qiu, Mengsheng; Dai, Zhong-Min

    2016-01-01

    DNA polymerases with proofreading activity are important for accurate amplification of target DNA. Despite numerous efforts have been made to improve the proofreading DNA polymerases, they are more susceptible to be failed in PCR than non-proofreading DNA polymerases. Here we showed that proofreading DNA polymerases can be inhibited by certain primers. Further analysis showed that G-rich sequences such as GGGGG and GGGGHGG can cause PCR failure using proofreading DNA polymerases but not Taq DNA polymerase. The inhibitory effect of these G-rich sequences is caused by G-quadruplex and is dose dependent. G-rich inhibitory sequence-containing primers can be used in PCR at a lower concentration to amplify its target DNA fragment. PMID:27349576

  15. Does climate limit species richness by limiting individual species' ranges?

    PubMed

    Boucher-Lalonde, Véronique; Kerr, Jeremy T; Currie, David J

    2014-02-01

    Broad-scale geographical variation in species richness is strongly correlated with climate, yet the mechanisms underlying this correlation are still unclear. We test two broad classes of hypotheses to explain this pattern. Bottom-up hypotheses propose that the environment determines individual species' ranges. Ranges then sum up to yield species richness patterns. Top-down hypotheses propose that the environment limits the number of species that occur in a region, but not which ones. We test these two classes of hypotheses using a natural experiment: seasonal changes in environmental variables and seasonal range shifts of 625 migratory birds in the Americas. We show that richness seasonally tracks the environment. By contrast, individual species' geographical distributions do not. Rather, species occupy different sets of environmental conditions in two seasons. Our results are inconsistent with extant bottom-up hypotheses. Instead, a top-down mechanism appears to constrain the number of species that can occur in a given region.

  16. Productivity is a poor predictor of plant species richness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adler, Peter B.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hautier, Yann; Hector, Andy; Harpole, W. Stanley; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori A.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Calabrese, Laura B.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Cleland, Elsa E.; Collins, Scott L.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Crawley, Michael J.; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Davies, Kendi F.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Fay, Philip A.; Firn, Jennifer; Frater, Paul; Gasarch, Eve I.; Gruner, Daneil S.; Hagenah, Nicole; Lambers, Janneke Hille Ris; Humphries, Hope; Jin, Virginia L.; Kay, Adam D.; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Lambrinos, John G.; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Morgan, John W.; Mortensen, Brent; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Wang, Gang; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin P.; Yang, Louie H.

    2011-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the relationship between net primary productivity and species richness has generated intense debate in ecology about the processes regulating local diversity. The original view, which is still widely accepted, holds that the relationship is hump-shaped, with richness first rising and then declining with increasing productivity. Although recent meta-analyses questioned the generality of hump-shaped patterns, these syntheses have been criticized for failing to account for methodological differences among studies. We addressed such concerns by conducting standardized sampling in 48 herbaceous-dominated plant communities on five continents. We found no clear relationship between productivity and fine-scale (meters-2) richness within sites, within regions, or across the globe. Ecologists should focus on fresh, mechanistic approaches to understanding the multivariate links between productivity an

  17. Prediction of new superhard boron-rich compounds.

    PubMed

    Gao, Faming; Qin, Xiujuan; Wang, Liqin; He, Yunhua; Sun, Guifang; Hou, Li; Wang, Wenyin

    2005-08-11

    Boron solids exhibit a fascinating geometric and electronic structure. The properties of alpha-rhombohedral boron can be significantly changed by the addition of other atomic constituents. It is found that Pauling's bond valence principle plays an important role in designing boron-rich semiconductors. We have designed the novel boron-rich phases B12N2X (X = Zn, Cd, Be) with the boron carbide type structure by combining Pauling's bond valence principle with first-principles techniques. Their energy gaps, bulk moduli, microhardnesses, and total energies have been calculated. The results show that they are new superhard materials and potential semiconductors. It has been elucidated why B12N2 is metallic but B12N2Be is a semiconductor. This should open up new potential areas for predicting novel boron-rich compounds for industrial applications.

  18. Body size and species-richness in carnivores and primates.

    PubMed

    Gittleman, J L; Purvis, A

    1998-01-22

    We use complete species-level phylogenies of extant Carnivora and Primates to perform the first thorough phylogenetic tests, in mammals, of the hypothesis that small body size is associated with species-richness. Our overall results, based on comparisons between sister clades, indicate a weak tendency for lineages with smaller bodies to contain more species. The tendency is much stronger within caniform carnivores (canids, procyonids, pinnipeds, ursids and mustelids), perhaps relating to the dietary flexibility and hence lower extinction rates in small, meat-eating species. We find significant heterogeneity in the size-diversity relationship within and among carnivore families. There is no significant association between body mass and species-richness in primates or feliform carnivores. Although body size is implicated as a correlate of species-richness in mammals, much of the variation in diversity cannot be attributed to size differences. PMID:9474795

  19. Photochemistry and molecular ions in carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Mamon, G. A.; Omont, A.; Lucas, R.

    1987-01-01

    An earlier theory of ionization of C-rich circumstellar envelopes based on the photochemical model is extended to include the temperature dependence of ion-molecule reactions with polar molecules, particularly HCN, and line self-shielding of CO dissociating radiation. The results are applied to the abundances of HCO(+) and HNC in C-rich circumstellar envelopes. With standard parameters for IRC + 10216, the model is found to be consistent with the new upper limit to the antenna temperature of the J = 1-0 line of HCO(+) obtained with the IRAM 30-m telescope. The photochemical model provides a natural explanation of the relatively large ratio of HCN to HNC observed for C-rich circumstellar envelopes, and good agreement is obtained for the H(C-13)N/HNC antenna temperature ratio measured for IRC + 10216.

  20. Does climate limit species richness by limiting individual species’ ranges?

    PubMed Central

    Boucher-Lalonde, Véronique; Kerr, Jeremy T.; Currie, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale geographical variation in species richness is strongly correlated with climate, yet the mechanisms underlying this correlation are still unclear. We test two broad classes of hypotheses to explain this pattern. Bottom-up hypotheses propose that the environment determines individual species’ ranges. Ranges then sum up to yield species richness patterns. Top-down hypotheses propose that the environment limits the number of species that occur in a region, but not which ones. We test these two classes of hypotheses using a natural experiment: seasonal changes in environmental variables and seasonal range shifts of 625 migratory birds in the Americas. We show that richness seasonally tracks the environment. By contrast, individual species’ geographical distributions do not. Rather, species occupy different sets of environmental conditions in two seasons. Our results are inconsistent with extant bottom-up hypotheses. Instead, a top-down mechanism appears to constrain the number of species that can occur in a given region. PMID:24352946

  1. Conversion of light hydrocarbons to ether rich gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, W.K.; Haag, W.O.; Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1991-05-07

    This patent describes an integrated process for the production of ether-rich rich liquid fuels. It comprises: contacting a fresh mixture of lower alkanol and a light hydrocarbon feedstock containing linear olefins and C{sub 4} + tertiary olefins; separating the etherification effluent stream consisting of ether rich C{sub 5} + and C{sub 5{minus}}; contacting second stream with an acidic catalyst in a second etherification zone under conditions effective to etherify the linear olefinic hydrocarbons; recovering a first stream comprising C{sub 5} + gasoline containing lower alkyl ethers of the C{sub 5{minus}}; and passing the second stream to an olefins to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons conversion zone.

  2. Plant species richness and ecosystem multifunctionality in global drylands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maestre, Fernando T.; Quero, Jose L.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Escudero, Adrian; Ochoa, Victoria; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Garcia-Gomez, Miguel; Bowker, Matthew A.; Soliveres, Santiago; Escolar, Cristina; Garcia-Palacios, Pablo; Berdugo, Miguel; Valencia, Enrique; Gozalo, Beatriz; Gallardo, Antonio; Aguilera, Lorgio; Arredondo, Tulio; Blones, Julio; Boeken, Bertrand; Bran, Donaldo; Conceicao, Abel A.; Cabrera, Omar; Chaieb, Mohamed; Derak, Mchich; Eldridge, David J.; Espinosa, Carlos I.; Florentino, Adriana; Gaitan, Juan; Gatica, M. Gabriel; Ghiloufi, Wahida; Gomez-Gonzalez, Susana; Gutie, Julio R.; Hernandez, Rosa M.; Huang, Xuewen; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Jankju, Mohammad; Miriti, Maria; Monerris, Jorge; Mau, Rebecca L.; Morici, Ernesto; Naseri, Kamal; Ospina, Abelardo; Polo, Vicente; Prina, Anibal; Pucheta, Eduardo; Ramirez-Collantes, David A.; Romao, Roberto; Tighe, Matthew; Torres-Diaz, Cristian; Val, James; Veiga, Jose P.; Wang, Deli; Zaady, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Experiments suggest that biodiversity enhances the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple functions, such as carbon storage, productivity, and the buildup of nutrient pools (multifunctionality). However, the relationship between biodiversity and multifunctionality has never been assessed globally in natural ecosystems. We report here on a global empirical study relating plant species richness and abiotic factors to multifunctionality in drylands, which collectively cover 41% of Earth's land surface and support over 38% of the human population. Multifunctionality was positively and significantly related to species richness. The best-fitting models accounted for over 55% of the variation in multifunctionality and always included species richness as a predictor variable. Our results suggest that the preservation of plant biodiversity is crucial to buffer negative effects of climate change and desertification in drylands.

  3. Genotypic richness predicts phenotypic variation in an endangered clonal plant.

    PubMed

    Evans, Suzanna M; Sinclair, Elizabeth A; Poore, Alistair G B; Bain, Keryn F; Vergés, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Declines in genetic diversity within a species can affect the stability and functioning of populations. The conservation of genetic diversity is thus a priority, especially for threatened or endangered species. The importance of genetic variation, however, is dependent on the degree to which it translates into phenotypic variation for traits that affect individual performance and ecological processes. This is especially important for predominantly clonal species, as no single clone is likely to maximise all aspects of performance. Here we show that intraspecific genotypic diversity as measured using microsatellites is a strong predictor of phenotypic variation in morphological traits and shoot productivity of the threatened, predominantly clonal seagrass Posidonia australis, on the east coast of Australia. Biomass and surface area variation was most strongly predicted by genotypic richness, while variation in leaf chemistry (phenolics and nitrogen) was unrelated to genotypic richness. Genotypic richness did not predict tissue loss to herbivores or epiphyte load, however we did find that increased herbivore damage was positively correlated with allelic richness. Although there was no clear relationship between higher primary productivity and genotypic richness, variation in shoot productivity within a meadow was significantly greater in more genotypically diverse meadows. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by environmental conditions varied among different genotypes, and there was generally no variation in phenotypic traits among genotypes present in the same meadows. Our results show that genotypic richness as measured through the use of presumably neutral DNA markers does covary with phenotypic variation in functionally relevant traits such as leaf morphology and shoot productivity. The remarkably long lifespan of individual Posidonia plants suggests that plasticity within genotypes has played an important role in the longevity of the species

  4. How to describe species richness patterns for bryophyte conservation?

    PubMed

    Hespanhol, Helena; Cezón, Katia; Felicísimo, Ángel M; Muñoz, Jesús; Mateo, Rubén G

    2015-12-01

    A large amount of data for inconspicuous taxa is stored in natural history collections; however, this information is often neglected for biodiversity patterns studies. Here, we evaluate the performance of direct interpolation of museum collections data, equivalent to the traditional approach used in bryophyte conservation planning, and stacked species distribution models (S-SDMs) to produce reliable reconstructions of species richness patterns, given that differences between these methods have been insufficiently evaluated for inconspicuous taxa. Our objective was to contrast if species distribution models produce better inferences of diversity richness than simply selecting areas with the higher species numbers. As model species, we selected Iberian species of the genus Grimmia (Bryophyta), and we used four well-collected areas to compare and validate the following models: 1) four Maxent richness models, each generated without the data from one of the four areas, and a reference model created using all of the data and 2) four richness models obtained through direct spatial interpolation, each generated without the data from one area, and a reference model created with all of the data. The correlations between the partial and reference Maxent models were higher in all cases (0.45 to 0.99), whereas the correlations between the spatial interpolation models were negative and weak (-0.3 to -0.06). Our results demonstrate for the first time that S-SDMs offer a useful tool for identifying detailed richness patterns for inconspicuous taxa such as bryophytes and improving incomplete distributions by assessing the potential richness of under-surveyed areas, filling major gaps in the available data. In addition, the proposed strategy would enhance the value of the vast number of specimens housed in biological collections. PMID:27069596

  5. Nano-Chemomechanical Assessment of Organic Rich Shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedi, S.; Slim, M. I.; Ferralis, N.; Ulm, F.

    2013-12-01

    Organic rich shales, a rapidly increasing source of fossil fuels, have recently gained significant attention from the geomechanics and geochemistry communities. Despite their importance, the chemomechanical characterization of organic rich shales remains a pressing challenge due to their highly heterogeneous microstructure, complex chemistry, and multiscale mechanical performances. Such complexity requires advanced and innovative characterization tools for a complete understanding of the role played by different constituents in the chemomechnaical properties at multiple scales. In this study, experimental and theoretical microporomechanics have been employed for assessing the microtexture and material invariant properties of clay-dominated organic rich shales at nanometer length scales. A novel experimental methodology consisting of instrumented nanoindenation experiments and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) is developed for the proper chemomechanical characterization of the main constituents of the composite shale material. Combining experimental characterization with micromechanical modeling, the material invariant properties and mesotexture of material main constituents are investigated. The results provide evidence that mature clay-dominated organic rich shale systems exhibit a kerogen stiffening of the mechanical properties of the elementary particles. Such a stiffening effect cannot be explained by classical micromechanics models based on mean-field theories and volume averaging where a property softening would be predicted. Furthermore, it is seen that the presence and chemical composition of organic matter affects mechanical properties of organic rich shales significantly. The role of kerogen maturity, type, and chemical composition on mechanical performance of the material is investigated by incorporating results from Raman Spectroscopy into the analysis. The results of this investigation are used to define a model of the fundamental building

  6. [Relationships between Kobresia's species richness and climatic factors in China].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Qiao-Fu

    2012-04-01

    Based on the information from collected literatures, this paper defined the geographical distribution of Kobresia in China, and analyzed the relationships between the Kobresia's species richness and climatic factors. The Kobresia in China had higher species richness on the borders of Yunnan Province, Sichuan Province, and Tibet Autonomous Region and in the southeast Qinghai Province and Himalayas, with a denser and wider distribution in the areas of < 40 degrees N, 85 degrees-105 degrees E and > altitude 2500 m, or the areas of lower or medium thermal factors, medium precipitation, medium aridity and humidity, or medium sunshine duration. The species richness was significantly negatively correlated with the mean, maximum, and minimum air temperature in July and the mean air temperature in summer (P < 0.05), and well corresponded to the isolines of warmth index, annual biotemperature, extreme maximum air temperature, air temperature in summer, and mean, maximum, and minimum air temperature in July. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the maximum air temperature in July and the precipitation in spring had significant effects on the species richness (P<0.05) , with the greatest contribution of the maximum air temperature in July. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that the mean air temperature in July and the mean annual maximum and extreme maximum air temperature had significant effects on the species richness (P < 0.05), and the principal component regression analysis indicated that the extreme maximum air temperature, air temperature in July and summer, Thornthwaite aridity index, sunshine hours in April-October, precipitation in summer and autumn, and annual precipitation had greater effects on the richness. The air temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours in growth season as well as the extreme maximum air temperature, annual precipitation, and soil moisture content were the main factors affecting the geographical distribution of Kobresia

  7. How to describe species richness patterns for bryophyte conservation?

    PubMed

    Hespanhol, Helena; Cezón, Katia; Felicísimo, Ángel M; Muñoz, Jesús; Mateo, Rubén G

    2015-12-01

    A large amount of data for inconspicuous taxa is stored in natural history collections; however, this information is often neglected for biodiversity patterns studies. Here, we evaluate the performance of direct interpolation of museum collections data, equivalent to the traditional approach used in bryophyte conservation planning, and stacked species distribution models (S-SDMs) to produce reliable reconstructions of species richness patterns, given that differences between these methods have been insufficiently evaluated for inconspicuous taxa. Our objective was to contrast if species distribution models produce better inferences of diversity richness than simply selecting areas with the higher species numbers. As model species, we selected Iberian species of the genus Grimmia (Bryophyta), and we used four well-collected areas to compare and validate the following models: 1) four Maxent richness models, each generated without the data from one of the four areas, and a reference model created using all of the data and 2) four richness models obtained through direct spatial interpolation, each generated without the data from one area, and a reference model created with all of the data. The correlations between the partial and reference Maxent models were higher in all cases (0.45 to 0.99), whereas the correlations between the spatial interpolation models were negative and weak (-0.3 to -0.06). Our results demonstrate for the first time that S-SDMs offer a useful tool for identifying detailed richness patterns for inconspicuous taxa such as bryophytes and improving incomplete distributions by assessing the potential richness of under-surveyed areas, filling major gaps in the available data. In addition, the proposed strategy would enhance the value of the vast number of specimens housed in biological collections.

  8. Genotypic richness predicts phenotypic variation in an endangered clonal plant

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Elizabeth A.; Poore, Alistair G.B.; Bain, Keryn F.; Vergés, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Declines in genetic diversity within a species can affect the stability and functioning of populations. The conservation of genetic diversity is thus a priority, especially for threatened or endangered species. The importance of genetic variation, however, is dependent on the degree to which it translates into phenotypic variation for traits that affect individual performance and ecological processes. This is especially important for predominantly clonal species, as no single clone is likely to maximise all aspects of performance. Here we show that intraspecific genotypic diversity as measured using microsatellites is a strong predictor of phenotypic variation in morphological traits and shoot productivity of the threatened, predominantly clonal seagrass Posidonia australis, on the east coast of Australia. Biomass and surface area variation was most strongly predicted by genotypic richness, while variation in leaf chemistry (phenolics and nitrogen) was unrelated to genotypic richness. Genotypic richness did not predict tissue loss to herbivores or epiphyte load, however we did find that increased herbivore damage was positively correlated with allelic richness. Although there was no clear relationship between higher primary productivity and genotypic richness, variation in shoot productivity within a meadow was significantly greater in more genotypically diverse meadows. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by environmental conditions varied among different genotypes, and there was generally no variation in phenotypic traits among genotypes present in the same meadows. Our results show that genotypic richness as measured through the use of presumably neutral DNA markers does covary with phenotypic variation in functionally relevant traits such as leaf morphology and shoot productivity. The remarkably long lifespan of individual Posidonia plants suggests that plasticity within genotypes has played an important role in the longevity of the species

  9. The Sulfide Capacity of Iron Oxide-Rich Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motlagh, M.

    1988-03-01

    The relationship between the sulfide capacity of slags rich in iron oxide and the sulfur partition ratio between the metal and slag is strongly related to the slag's iron oxide concentration. For slags containing little or no lime, this relationship is linear for a constant concentration of iron oxide in the slag. The effect of silica on changes in the sulfide capacity of slags rich in iron oxide is similar to that of basic steel-making slags, particularly at low activity of silica in slag.

  10. Method for making hydrogen rich gas from hydrocarbon fuel

    DOEpatents

    Krumpelt, M.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Doshi, R.

    1999-07-27

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400 C for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide. 4 figs.

  11. Method for making hydrogen rich gas from hydrocarbon fuel

    DOEpatents

    Krumpelt, Michael; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Doshi, Rajiv

    1999-01-01

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  12. FunRich proteomics software analysis, let the fun begin!

    PubMed

    Benito-Martin, Alberto; Peinado, Héctor

    2015-08-01

    Protein MS analysis is the preferred method for unbiased protein identification. It is normally applied to a large number of both small-scale and high-throughput studies. However, user-friendly computational tools for protein analysis are still needed. In this issue, Mathivanan and colleagues (Proteomics 2015, 15, 2597-2601) report the development of FunRich software, an open-access software that facilitates the analysis of proteomics data, providing tools for functional enrichment and interaction network analysis of genes and proteins. FunRich is a reinterpretation of proteomic software, a standalone tool combining ease of use with customizable databases, free access, and graphical representations.

  13. Calcium rich transients: tidal detonations of white dwarfs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccarone, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    We propose for a 40 kilosecond TOO observation of a new Ca-rich gap transient. These enigmatic objects, with properties intermediate between those of classical novae and Type Ia supernovae, can be well-explained by tidal detonations of low mass white dwarfs by intermediate mass black holes. In such a case, fall-back accretion of the tidal debris would power an X-ray source for which we propose to search. Because supermassive black holes will swallow white dwarfs whole, a successful outcome to this proposal would both explain the Ca-rich gap transients *and* establish the existence of intermediate mass black holes.

  14. Modes of decay in neutron-rich nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, B.; Biswal, S. K.; Singh, S. K.; Lahiri, C.; Patra, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    We calculate the ground, first intrinsic excited states and density distribution for neutron-rich thorium and uranium isotopes, within the framework of relativistic mean field (RMF) approach using axially deformed basis. The total nucleon densities are calculated, from which the cluster-structures inside the parent nuclei are determined. The possible modes of decay, like α-decay and β-decay are analyzed. We find the neutron-rich isotopes are stable against α-decay, however they are very much unstable against β-decay. The life time of these nuclei predicted to be tens of second against β-decay.

  15. Iron-rich silicates in the Earth's D'' layer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Wendy L; Meng, Yue; Shen, Guoyin; Prakapenka, Vitali B; Campbell, Andrew J; Heinz, Dion L; Shu, Jinfu; Caracas, Razvan; Cohen, Ronald E; Fei, Yingwei; Hemley, Russell J; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2005-07-12

    High-pressure experiments and theoretical calculations demonstrate that an iron-rich ferromagnesian silicate phase can be synthesized at the pressure-temperature conditions near the core-mantle boundary. The iron-rich phase is up to 20% denser than any known silicate at the core-mantle boundary. The high mean atomic number of the silicate greatly reduces the seismic velocity and provides an explanation to the low-velocity and ultra-low-velocity zones. Formation of this previously undescribed phase from reaction between the silicate mantle and the iron core may be responsible for the unusual geophysical and geochemical signatures observed at the base of the lower mantle.

  16. Multifuel evaluation of rich/quench/lean combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, J. J.; Novick, A. S.; Troth, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    The fuel flexible combustor technology was developed for application to the Model 570-K industrial gas turbine engine. The technology, to achieve emission goals, emphasizes dry NOx reduction methods. Due to the high levels of fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN), control of NOx can be effected through a staged combustor with a rich initial combustion zone. A rich/quench/lean variable geometry combustor utilizes the technology presented to achieve low NOx from alternate fuels containing FBN. The results focus on emissions and durability for multifuel operation.

  17. Photochemistry and molecular ions in oxygen-rich circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mamon, G. A.; Glassgold, A. E.; Omont, A.

    1987-01-01

    A theory for the ionization of the circumstellar envelopes around O-rich red giants is developed from the photochemical model. The main source of ionization is photoionization of H2O, OH, and C by the interstellar UV radiation field, supplemented by cosmic-ray ionization of hydrogen. Significant amounts of H3O(+) and HCO(+) are produced, with peak abundances of about 10 to the -7th at intermediate distances from the star. Although H3O(+) may be difficult to detect with current instrumentation, HCO(+) is probably detectable in nearby O-rich envelopes with large millimeter-wave telescopes.

  18. Platelet-rich growth factor in oral and maxillofacial surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Uma Shanker; Mohammad, Shadab; Singh, Rakesh K.; Das, Somdipto; Singh, Nimisha; Singh, Mayank

    2012-01-01

    Platelet-rich growth factor is an innovative regenerative therapy used to promote hard and soft tissue healing. It involves the application of autologous platelet-leukocyte-rich plasma containing growth factors and thrombin directly to the site of treatment. It is the intrinsic growth factors released by activated platelets which are concentrated in a topical gel formula. Clinically, it is an affordable treatment with potentially broad spectrum of applications in maxillofacial surgery especially in the treatment of complex or refractory wounds. The present article reviews its various applications not only in the specialization of oral and maxillofacial surgery but also in regenerative medicine. PMID:23833484

  19. Molecular switches in carbon-rich organometallic compounds: Theoretical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Costuas, Karine

    2015-01-22

    Organometallic complexes associated with an appropriate choice of ancillary ligands reveal to have a wide range of physical properties leading to promising applications when incorporated in nano-size devices. The challenge is to design innovative multifunctional compounds based on redox active carbon-rich organometallics associated with spin carriers and/or photochromic units. A multidisciplinary approach in this area has proved to be efficient in a series a systems combining carbon-rich bridging ligands and redox metallic moieties. In this domain, the role of theoretical investigations based on quantum mechanics tools have a crucial role in rationalizing and in helping designing systems possessing target properties.

  20. Anaerobic co-digestion of acetate-rich with lignin-rich wastewater and the effect of hydrotalcite addition.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Chiang, Lourdes; Llorca, Jordi; Dahl, Olli

    2016-10-01

    The methane potential and biodegradability of different ratios of acetate and lignin-rich effluents from a neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC) pulp mill were investigated. Results showed ultimate methane yields up to 333±5mLCH4/gCOD when only acetate-rich substrate was added and subsequently lower methane potentials of 192±4mLCH4/gCOD when the lignin fraction was increased. The presence of lignin showed a linear decay in methane production, resulting in a 41% decrease in methane when the lignin-rich feed had a 30% increase. A negative linear correlation between lignin content and biodegradability was also observed. Furthermore, the effect of hydrotalcite (HT) addition was evaluated and showed increase in methane potential of up to 8%, a faster production rate and higher soluble lignin removal (7-12% higher). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies between 64 and 83% were obtained for all samples. PMID:27347802

  1. Differential mode of antimicrobial actions of arginine-rich and lysine-rich histones against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Morita, Shuu; Tagai, Chihiro; Shiraishi, Takayuki; Miyaji, Kazuyuki; Iwamuro, Shawichi

    2013-10-01

    We previously reported the activities and modes of action of arginine (Arg)-rich histones H3 and H4 against Gram-negative bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the properties of the Arg-rich histones against Gram-positive bacteria in comparison with those of lysine (Lys)-rich histone H2B. In a standard microdilution assay, calf thymus histones H2B, H3, and H4 showed growth inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus with minimum effective concentration values of 4.0, 4.0, and 5.6 μM, respectively. Laser confocal microscopic analyses revealed that both the Arg-rich and Lys-rich histones associated with the surface of S. aureus. However, while the morphology of S. aureus treated with histone H2B appeared intact, those treated with the histones H3 and H4 closely resembled each other, and the cells were blurred. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay results revealed these histones have binding affinity to lipoteichoic acid (LTA), one of major cell surface components of Gram-positive bacteria. Scanning electron microscopic analyses demonstrated that while histone H2B elicited no obvious changes in cell morphology, histones H3 and H4 disrupted the cell membrane structure with bleb formation in a manner similar to general antimicrobial peptides. Consequently, our results suggest that bacterial cell surface LTA initially attracts both the Arg- and Lys-rich histones, but the modes of antimicrobial action of these histones are different; the former involves cell membrane disruption and the latter involves the cell integrity disruption.

  2. Happiness Rich and Poor: Lessons from Philosophy and Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cigman, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Happiness is a large idea. It looms enticingly before us when we are young, delivers verdicts on our lives when we are old, and seems to inform a responsible engagement with children. The question is raised: do we want this idea? I explore a distinction between rich and poor conceptions of happiness, suggesting that many sceptical arguments are…

  3. Astronaut Rich Clifford inserts tape into payload high data recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    On the Space Shuttle Endeavour's aft flight deck, Astronaut Michael R. (Rich) Clifford, mission specialist, inserts a tape in the payload high rate recorder. Three of these state-of-the-art recorders captured four times the amount of data that could be radioed to the ground.

  4. Rich man, poor man: developmental differences in attributions and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Sigelman, Carol K

    2012-11-01

    In an examination guided by cognitive developmental and attribution theory of how explanations of wealth and poverty and perceptions of rich and poor people change with age and are interrelated, 6-, 10-, and 14-year-olds (N=88) were asked for their causal attributions and trait judgments concerning a rich man and a poor man. First graders, like older children, perceived the rich man as more competent than the poor man. However, they had difficulty in explaining wealth and poverty, especially poverty, and their trait perceptions were associated primarily with their attributions of wealth to job status, education, and luck. Fifth and ninth graders more clearly attributed wealth and poverty to the equity factors of ability and effort and based their trait perceptions on these attributions. Although the use of structured attribution questions revealed more understanding among young children than previous studies have suggested, the findings suggest a shift with age in the underlying bases for differential evaluation of rich and poor people from a focus on good outcomes associated with wealth (a good education and job) to a focus on personal qualities responsible for wealth (ability and effort).

  5. CEO Experiences as Proteges: An Interactional Richness Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser, Manda H.; Egan, Toby Marshall

    2007-01-01

    We elaborate upon the explicatory relevance of Barry and Crant's (2000) theoretically based international richness model and its alignment with the interpersonal dynamics described by CEO interviewees. Each CEO described interpersonal dynamics in on one or more significant mentoring relationship that contributed to their personal and career…

  6. Growth and alteration of uranium-rich microlite

    SciTech Connect

    Giere, R.; Swope, R. J.; Buck, E. C.; Guggenheim, R.; Mathys, D.; Reusser, E.

    2000-02-01

    Uranium-rich microlite, a pyrochlore-group mineral, occurs in 440 Ma old lithium pegmatites of the Mozambique Belt in East Africa. Microlite exhibits a pronounced growth zoning, with a U-free core surrounded by a U-rich rim (UO{sub 2} up to 17 wt.%). The core exhibits conjugate sets of straight cracks (cleavage planes) which provided pathways for a late-stage U-enriched pegmatitic fluid which interacted with the U-free microlite to produce a distinct U enrichment along the cracks and led to the formation of the U-rich rim. Following the stage of U incorporation into microlite, a second generation of hydrothermal fluids deposited mica along the cleavage planes. Subsequent to these two hydrothermal stages, the host rock was uplifted and subjected to intense low-temperature alteration during which Na, Ca and F were leached from the microlite crystals. This alteration also led to a hydration of microlite, but there is no evidence of U loss. These low-temperature alteration effects were only observed in the U-rich rim which is characterized by a large number of irregular cracks which are most probably the result of metamictization, as indicated by electron diffraction images and powder X-ray patterns. The pyrochlore-group minerals provide excellent natural analogues for pyrochlore-based nuclear waste forms, because samples of variable age and with high actinide contents are available.

  7. Comment on "A hydrogen-rich early Earth atmosphere".

    PubMed

    Catling, David C

    2006-01-01

    Tian et al. (Reports, 13 May 2005, p. 1014) proposed a hydrogen-rich early atmosphere with slow hydrogen escape from a cold thermosphere. However, their model neglects the ultraviolet absorption of all gases other than H2. The model also neglects Earth's magnetic field, which affects the temperature and density of ions and promotes nonthermal escape of neutral hydrogen.

  8. Molecular equilibria and condensation sequences in carbon rich gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, C. M.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical equilibria in stellar atmospheres have been investigated by many authors. Lattimer, Schramm, and Grossman presented calculations in both O rich and C rich environments and predicted possible presolar condensates. A recent paper by Cherchneff and Barker considered a C rich composition with PAH's included in the calculations. However, the condensation sequences of C bearing species have not been investigated in detail. In a carbon rich gas surrounding an AGB star, it is often assumed that graphite (or diamond) condenses out before TiC and SiC. However, Lattimer et al. found some conditions under which TiC condenses before graphite. We have performed molecular equilibrium calculations to establish the stability fields of C(s), TiC(s), and SiC(s) and other high temperature phases under conditions of different pressures and C/O. The preserved presolar interstellar dust grains so far discovered in meteorites are graphite, diamond, SiC, TiC, and possibly Al2O3.

  9. Implications for Learning in a Technology-Rich School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Vicki L.

    1997-01-01

    A study of 15 gifted high school freshman investigated changes in learning style after a year of schooling in a technology-rich environment dedicated to constructivist learning. Although the results were inconclusive, learning styles were influenced by exposure to technology: computers affected the exploration and presentation of content and…

  10. Developing Students' Metacognitive Skills in a Data-Rich Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, V. William; Lari, Nasim

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the development of students' metacognitive skills in a data-rich environment. The study involves the development and use of a Metacognitive Inventory, which evaluates students' awareness of their cognitive processes as they approach and solve problems. This 26-item inventory is based on the Problem Solving Inventory and State…

  11. Group Work Tests for Context-Rich Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The group work test is an assessment strategy that promotes higher-order thinking skills for solving context-rich problems. With this format, teachers are able to pose challenging, nuanced questions on a test, while providing the support weaker students need to get started and show their understanding. The test begins with a group discussion…

  12. Fluorine-Rich Planetary Environments as Possible Habitats for Life

    PubMed Central

    Budisa, Nediljko; Kubyshkin, Vladimir; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    In polar aprotic organic solvents, fluorine might be an element of choice for life that uses selected fluorinated building blocks as monomers of choice for self-assembling of its catalytic polymers. Organofluorine compounds are extremely rare in the chemistry of life as we know it. Biomolecules, when fluorinated such as peptides or proteins, exhibit a “fluorous effect”, i.e., they are fluorophilic (neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic). Such polymers, capable of creating self-sorting assemblies, resist denaturation by organic solvents by exclusion of fluorocarbon side chains from the organic phase. Fluorous cores consist of a compact interior, which is shielded from the surrounding solvent. Thus, we can anticipate that fluorine-containing “teflon”-like or “non-sticking” building blocks might be monomers of choice for the synthesis of organized polymeric structures in fluorine-rich planetary environments. Although no fluorine-rich planetary environment is known, theoretical considerations might help us to define chemistries that might support life in such environments. For example, one scenario is that all molecular oxygen may be used up by oxidation reactions on a planetary surface and fluorine gas could be released from F-rich magma later in the history of a planetary body to result in a fluorine-rich planetary environment. PMID:25370378

  13. Syndicating Rich Bibliographic Metadata Using MODS and RSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Many libraries use RSS to syndicate information about their collections to users. A survey of 65 academic libraries revealed their most common use for RSS is to disseminate information about library holdings, such as lists of new acquisitions. Even though typical RSS feeds are ill suited to the task of carrying rich bibliographic metadata, great…

  14. Controlling the prion propensity of glutamine/asparagine-rich proteins

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Kacy R; Ross, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can harbor a number of distinct prions. Most of the yeast prion proteins contain a glutamine/asparagine (Q/N) rich region that drives prion formation. Prion-like domains, defined as regions with high compositional similarity to yeast prion domains, are common in eukaryotic proteomes, and mutations in various human proteins containing prion-like domains have been linked to degenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we discuss a recent study in which we utilized two strategies to generate prion activity in non-prion Q/N-rich domains. First, we made targeted mutations in four non-prion Q/N-rich domains, replacing predicted prion-inhibiting amino acids with prion-promoting amino acids. All four mutants formed foci when expressed in yeast, and two acquired bona fide prion activity. Prion activity could be generated with as few as two mutations, suggesting that many non-prion Q/N-rich proteins may be just a small number of mutations from acquiring aggregation or prion activity. Second, we created tandem repeats of short prion-prone segments, and observed length-dependent prion activity. These studies demonstrate the considerable progress that has been made in understanding the sequence basis for aggregation of prion and prion-like domains, and suggest possible mechanisms by which new prion domains could evolve. PMID:26555096

  15. The more, the merrier: heterotroph richness stimulates methanotrophic activity.

    PubMed

    Ho, Adrian; de Roy, Karen; Thas, Olivier; De Neve, Jan; Hoefman, Sven; Vandamme, Peter; Heylen, Kim; Boon, Nico

    2014-09-01

    Although microorganisms coexist in the same environment, it is still unclear how their interaction regulates ecosystem functioning. Using a methanotroph as a model microorganism, we determined how methane oxidation responds to heterotroph diversity. Artificial communities comprising of a methanotroph and increasing heterotroph richness, while holding equal starting cell numbers were assembled. We considered methane oxidation rate as a functional response variable. Our results showed a significant increase of methane oxidation with increasing heterotroph richness, suggesting a complex interaction in the cocultures leading to a stimulation of methanotrophic activity. Therefore, not only is the methanotroph diversity directly correlated to methanotrophic activity for some methanotroph groups as shown before, but also the richness of heterotroph interacting partners is relevant to enhance methane oxidation too. In this unprecedented study, we provide direct evidence showing how heterotroph richness exerts a response in methanotroph-heterotroph interaction, resulting in increased methanotrophic activity. Our study has broad implications in how methanotroph and heterotroph interact to regulate methane oxidation, and is particularly relevant in methane-driven ecosystems.

  16. Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness.

    PubMed

    Grace, James B; Anderson, T Michael; Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Adler, Peter B; Harpole, W Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M; Pärtel, Meelis; Bakker, Jonathan D; Buckley, Yvonne M; Crawley, Michael J; Damschen, Ellen I; Davies, Kendi F; Fay, Philip A; Firn, Jennifer; Gruner, Daniel S; Hector, Andy; Knops, Johannes M H; MacDougall, Andrew S; Melbourne, Brett A; Morgan, John W; Orrock, John L; Prober, Suzanne M; Smith, Melinda D

    2016-01-21

    How ecosystem productivity and species richness are interrelated is one of the most debated subjects in the history of ecology. Decades of intensive study have yet to discern the actual mechanisms behind observed global patterns. Here, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a single model and using data from 1,126 grassland plots spanning five continents, we detect the clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking productivity and richness. We find that an integrative model has substantially higher explanatory power than traditional bivariate analyses. In addition, the specific results unveil several surprising findings that conflict with classical models. These include the isolation of a strong and consistent enhancement of productivity by richness, an effect in striking contrast with superficial data patterns. Also revealed is a consistent importance of competition across the full range of productivity values, in direct conflict with some (but not all) proposed models. The promotion of local richness by macroecological gradients in climatic favourability, generally seen as a competing hypothesis, is also found to be important in our analysis. The results demonstrate that an integrative modelling approach leads to a major advance in our ability to discern the underlying processes operating in ecological systems. PMID:26760203

  17. Classroom Dynamics in a Technology-Rich Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiene, Drew; Luft, Pamela

    2002-01-01

    Describes the results of a study that examined the classroom dynamics in a K-12 technology-rich learning environment and also assessed the educational outcomes associated with intensive use of technology by teachers and students. Discusses changes in the teacher's role and whether this level of instructional technology is cost-effective. (LRW)

  18. A RICH counter for trigger and detection of exotic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nóbrega, R.; Sonderegger, P.; Varela, J.

    1996-02-01

    This paper reports on the study of a RICH detector for SQUASH, an exotic particles search. We start by describing the physics problem we want to address, proceed with the experimental setup that could solve it and finally present some results obtained by simulation.

  19. Controlling the prion propensity of glutamine/asparagine-rich proteins.

    PubMed

    Paul, Kacy R; Ross, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can harbor a number of distinct prions. Most of the yeast prion proteins contain a glutamine/asparagine (Q/N) rich region that drives prion formation. Prion-like domains, defined as regions with high compositional similarity to yeast prion domains, are common in eukaryotic proteomes, and mutations in various human proteins containing prion-like domains have been linked to degenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we discuss a recent study in which we utilized two strategies to generate prion activity in non-prion Q/N-rich domains. First, we made targeted mutations in four non-prion Q/N-rich domains, replacing predicted prion-inhibiting amino acids with prion-promoting amino acids. All four mutants formed foci when expressed in yeast, and two acquired bona fide prion activity. Prion activity could be generated with as few as two mutations, suggesting that many non-prion Q/N-rich proteins may be just a small number of mutations from acquiring aggregation or prion activity. Second, we created tandem repeats of short prion-prone segments, and observed length-dependent prion activity. These studies demonstrate the considerable progress that has been made in understanding the sequence basis for aggregation of prion and prion-like domains, and suggest possible mechanisms by which new prion domains could evolve. PMID:26555096

  20. Teachers Enacting a Technology-Rich Curriculum for Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cviko, Amina; McKenney, Susan; Voogt, Joke

    2012-01-01

    PictoPal is the name of a technology-rich curriculum with a focus on emergent literacy of Dutch kindergarteners. A case study design was used to examine teacher technology integration within PictoPal along with their perceptions about teaching/learning, technology and technology-based innovations. Observations were undertaken on pupils' engagement…

  1. Controlling the prion propensity of glutamine/asparagine-rich proteins.

    PubMed

    Paul, Kacy R; Ross, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can harbor a number of distinct prions. Most of the yeast prion proteins contain a glutamine/asparagine (Q/N) rich region that drives prion formation. Prion-like domains, defined as regions with high compositional similarity to yeast prion domains, are common in eukaryotic proteomes, and mutations in various human proteins containing prion-like domains have been linked to degenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we discuss a recent study in which we utilized two strategies to generate prion activity in non-prion Q/N-rich domains. First, we made targeted mutations in four non-prion Q/N-rich domains, replacing predicted prion-inhibiting amino acids with prion-promoting amino acids. All four mutants formed foci when expressed in yeast, and two acquired bona fide prion activity. Prion activity could be generated with as few as two mutations, suggesting that many non-prion Q/N-rich proteins may be just a small number of mutations from acquiring aggregation or prion activity. Second, we created tandem repeats of short prion-prone segments, and observed length-dependent prion activity. These studies demonstrate the considerable progress that has been made in understanding the sequence basis for aggregation of prion and prion-like domains, and suggest possible mechanisms by which new prion domains could evolve.

  2. Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Adler, Peter B.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M.; Pärtel, Meelis; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Damschen, Ellen I.; Davies, Kendi F.; Fay, Philip A.; Firn, Jennifer; Gruner, Daniel S.; Hector, Andy; Knops, Johannes M. H.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Morgan, John W.; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Smith, Melinda D.

    2016-01-01

    How ecosystem productivity and species richness are interrelated is one of the most debated subjects in the history of ecology. Decades of intensive study have yet to discern the actual mechanisms behind observed global patterns. Here, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a single model and using data from 1,126 grassland plots spanning five continents, we detect the clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking productivity and richness. We find that an integrative model has substantially higher explanatory power than traditional bivariate analyses. In addition, the specific results unveil several surprising findings that conflict with classical models. These include the isolation of a strong and consistent enhancement of productivity by richness, an effect in striking contrast with superficial data patterns. Also revealed is a consistent importance of competition across the full range of productivity values, in direct conflict with some (but not all) proposed models. The promotion of local richness by macroecological gradients in climatic favourability, generally seen as a competing hypothesis, is also found to be important in our analysis. The results demonstrate that an integrative modelling approach leads to a major advance in our ability to discern the underlying processes operating in ecological systems.

  3. Community Discovery in Dynamic, Rich-Context Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Ru

    2010-01-01

    My research interest has been in understanding the human communities formed through interpersonal social activities. Participation in online communities on social network sites such as Twitter has been observed to influence people's behavior in diverse ways including financial decision-making and political choices, suggesting the rich potential…

  4. Semantic richness effects in lexical decision: The role of feedback.

    PubMed

    Yap, Melvin J; Lim, Gail Y; Pexman, Penny M

    2015-11-01

    Across lexical processing tasks, it is well established that words with richer semantic representations are recognized faster. This suggests that the lexical system has access to meaning before a word is fully identified, and is consistent with a theoretical framework based on interactive and cascaded processing. Specifically, semantic richness effects are argued to be produced by feedback from semantic representations to lower-level representations. The present study explores the extent to which richness effects are mediated by feedback from lexical- to letter-level representations. In two lexical decision experiments, we examined the joint effects of stimulus quality and four semantic richness dimensions (imageability, number of features, semantic neighborhood density, semantic diversity). With the exception of semantic diversity, robust additive effects of stimulus quality and richness were observed for the targeted dimensions. Our results suggest that semantic feedback does not typically reach earlier levels of representation in lexical decision, and further reinforces the idea that task context modulates the processing dynamics of early word recognition processes. PMID:26155967

  5. The Role of Physicality in Rich Programming Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Allison S.; Schunn, Christian D.; Flot, Jesse; Shoop, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Computer science proficiency continues to grow in importance, while the number of students entering computer science-related fields declines. Many rich programming environments have been created to motivate student interest and expertise in computer science. In the current study, we investigated whether a recently created environment, Robot…

  6. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Meredith C; Doran-Peterson, Joy

    2012-08-01

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes.

  7. Production of Carbon-rich Presolar Grains from Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignatari, M.; Wiescher, M.; Timmes, F. X.; de Boer, R. J.; Thielemann, F.-K.; Fryer, C.; Heger, A.; Herwig, F.; Hirschi, R.

    2013-04-01

    About a year after core-collapse supernova, dust starts to condense in the ejecta. In meteorites, a fraction of C-rich presolar grains (e.g., silicon carbide (SiC) grains of Type-X and low density graphites) are identified as relics of these events, according to the anomalous isotopic abundances. Several features of these abundances remain unexplained and challenge the understanding of core-collapse supernovae explosions and nucleosynthesis. We show, for the first time, that most of the measured C-rich grain abundances can be accounted for in the C-rich material from explosive He burning in core-collapse supernovae with high shock velocities and consequent high temperatures. The inefficiency of the 12C(α, γ)16O reaction relative to the rest of the α-capture chain at T > 3.5 × 108 K causes the deepest He-shell material to be carbon-rich and silicon-rich, and depleted in oxygen. The isotopic ratio predictions in part of this material, defined here as the C/Si zone, are in agreement with the grain data. The high-temperature explosive conditions that our models reach at the bottom of the He shell can also be representative of the nucleosynthesis in hypernovae or in the high-temperature tail of a distribution of conditions in asymmetric supernovae. Finally, our predictions are consistent with the observation of large 44Ca/40Ca observed in the grains. This is due to the production of 44Ti together with 40Ca in the C/Si zone and/or to the strong depletion of 40Ca by neutron captures.

  8. Multiscale assessment of patterns of avian species richness

    PubMed Central

    Rahbek, Carsten; Graves, Gary R.

    2001-01-01

    The search for a common cause of species richness gradients has spawned more than 100 explanatory hypotheses in just the past two decades. Despite recent conceptual advances, further refinement of the most plausible models has been stifled by the difficulty of compiling high-resolution databases at continental scales. We used a database of the geographic ranges of 2,869 species of birds breeding in South America (nearly a third of the world's living avian species) to explore the influence of climate, quadrat area, ecosystem diversity, and topography on species richness gradients at 10 spatial scales (quadrat area, ≈12,300 to ≈1,225,000 km2). Topography, precipitation, topography × latitude, ecosystem diversity, and cloud cover emerged as the most important predictors of regional variability of species richness in regression models incorporating 16 independent variables, although ranking of variables depended on spatial scale. Direct measures of ambient energy such as mean and maximum temperature were of ancillary importance. Species richness values for 1° × 1° latitude-longitude quadrats in the Andes (peaking at 845 species) were ≈30–250% greater than those recorded at equivalent latitudes in the central Amazon basin. These findings reflect the extraordinary abundance of species associated with humid montane regions at equatorial latitudes and the importance of orography in avian speciation. In a broader context, our data reinforce the hypothesis that terrestrial species richness from the equator to the poles is ultimately governed by a synergism between climate and coarse-scale topographic heterogeneity. PMID:11296292

  9. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Meredith C; Doran-Peterson, Joy

    2012-08-01

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes. PMID:22695801

  10. Tree species richness affecting fine root biomass in European forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finér, Leena; Domisch, Timo; Vesterdal, Lars; Dawud, Seid M.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Fine roots are an important factor in the forest carbon cycle, contributing significantly to below-ground biomass and soil carbon storage. Therefore it is essential to understand the role of the forest structure, indicated by tree species diversity in controlling below-ground biomass and managing the carbon pools of forest soils. We studied how tree species richness would affect fine root biomass and its distribution in the soil profile and biomass above- and below-ground allocation patterns of different tree species. Our main hypothesis was that increasing tree species richness would lead to below-ground niche differentiation and more efficient soil exploitation by the roots, resulting in a higher fine root biomass in the soil. We sampled fine roots of trees and understorey vegetation in six European forest types in Finland, Poland, Germany, Romania, Italy and Spain, representing boreal, temperate and Mediterranean forests, established within the FunDivEUROPE project for studying the effects of tree species diversity on forest functioning. After determining fine root biomasses, we identified the percentages of different tree species in the fine root samples using the near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) method. Opposite to our hypothesis we did not find any general positive relationship between tree species richness and fine root biomass. A weak positive response found in Italy and Spain seemed to be related to dry environmental conditions during Mediterranean summers. At the Polish site where we could sample deeper soil layers (down to 40 cm), we found more tree fine roots in the deeper layers under species-rich forests, as compared to the monocultures, indicating the ability of trees to explore more resources and to increase soil carbon stocks. Tree species richness did not affect biomass allocation patterns between above- and below-ground parts of the trees.

  11. Enhancing E-Learning with Media-Rich Content and Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caladine, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Online learning is transcending from the text-rich educational experience of the past to a video- and audio-rich learning transformation. The greater levels of media-rich content and media-rich interaction that are currently prevalent in online leisure experiences will help to increase e-learning's future efficiency and effectiveness. "Enhancing…

  12. Platelet-rich plasma, plasma rich in growth factors and simvastatin in the regeneration and repair of alveolar bone.

    PubMed

    Rivera, César; Monsalve, Francisco; Salas, Juan; Morán, Andrea; Suazo, Iván

    2013-12-01

    Platelet preparations promote bone regeneration by inducing cell migration, proliferation and differentiation in the area of the injury, which are essential processes for regeneration. In addition, several studies have indicated that simvastatin (SIMV), widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, stimulates osteogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with either platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) in combination with SIMV in the regeneration and repair of alveolar bone. The jaws of Sprague Dawley rats (n=18) were subjected to rotary instrument-induced bone damage (BD). Animals were divided into six groups: BD/H2O (n=3), distilled water without the drug and alveolar bone damage; BD/H2O/PRP (n=3), BD and PRP; BD/H2O/PRGF (n=3), BD and PRGF; BD/SIMV (n=3), BD and water with SIMV; BD/SIMV/PRP (n=3), BD, PRP and SIMV; and BD/SIMV/PRGF (n=3), BD, PRGF and SIMV. Conventional histological analysis (hematoxylin and eosin staining) revealed that the BD/SIMV group showed indicators for mature bone tissue, while the BD/SIMV/PRP and BD/SIMV/PRGF groups showed the coexistence of indicators for mature and immature bone tissue, with no statistical differences between the platelet preparations. Simvastatin did not improve the effect of platelet-rich plasma and plasma rich in growth factors. It was not possible to determine which platelet preparation produced superior effects.

  13. Carbon-Rich Phases in Cap-Prudhomme Micrometeorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perreau, M.; Maurette, M.; Kurat, G.; Engrand, C.

    1992-07-01

    Two methods were used to search for C-rich phases in micrometeorites collected at Cap-Prudhomme, Antarctica: (i) In the first method ~200-micrometer-sized grains were fragmented into three pieces. The largest one was polished and analyzed with classical techniques of mineralogy for micrometeorite classification. The second one was crushed into micrometer-sized grains onto a gold electron microscope grid held between two glass plates; they were observed at ONERA with a 400-kV Jeol 4000-FX transmission analytical electron microscope equipped with both a Kevex EDX system with a thin boron window, and a Gata electron energy loss spectrometer (EELS). It was shown four years ago (Maurette et al, 1989) that this procedure greatly reduces residual C contamination on the grains and allows measurements of their C/O ratios on a scale of ~1000 angstroms; (ii) In the second method polished sections of 50-100-micrometer-sized micrometeorites were run in Vienna with a Jeol 6400 SEM equipped with an EDX system similar to that of the 400-kV microscope. The first method was applied to ~200-micrometer-sized micrometeorites that had been heated more upon atmospheric entry than the 50-100-micrometer-sized grains analyzed with the second method. Our preliminary results are: (i) Comparisons with carbonaceous chondrites indicate that ~50% of the fine grained micrometeorites contain higher C/O ratios than Murchinson (CI chondrites should be run soon) (ii) Carbon appears as C-rich "hot" spots, where the C/O ratios occasionally reach unity (never observed yet in meteorites) that are superimposed on a rather homogeneous low-C matrix; (iii) On a scale of 10^-4 micrometer^3 comparisons between EDX and EELS spectra already show a variety of C-rich mineral phases, the dominant one being associated with some Mg-rich silicate; (iv) Some of the most C-rich micrometeorites belong to a family of light-colored particles that was overlooked in our previous studies, and that includes several new

  14. On social inequality: Analyzing the rich-poor disparity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-05-01

    From the Old Testament to the Communist Manifesto, and from the French Revolution to the Occupy Wall Street protests, social inequality has always been at the focal point of public debate, as well as a major driver of political change. Although being of prime interest since Biblical times, the scientific investigation of the distributions of wealth and income in human societies began only at the close of the nineteenth century, and was pioneered by Pareto, Lorenz, Gini, and Pietra. The methodologies introduced by these trailblazing scholars form the bedrock of the contemporary science of social inequality. Based on this bedrock we present a new quantitative approach to the analysis of wealth and income distributions, which sets its spotlight on the most heated facet of the current global debate on social inequality-the rich-poor disparity. Our approach offers researchers highly applicable quantitative tools to empirically track and statistically analyze the growing gap between the rich and the poor.

  15. Coacervate-like microspheres from lysine-rich proteinoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohlfing, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Microspheres form isothermally from lysine-rich proteinoid when the ionic strength of the solution is increased with NaCl or other salts. Studies with different monovalent anions and with polymers of different amino acid composition indicate that charge neutralization and hydrophobic bonding contribute to microsphere formation. The particles also form in sea water, especially if heated or made slightly alkaline. The microspheres differ from those made from acidic proteinoid but resemble coacervate droplets in some ways (isothermal formation, limited stability, stabilization by quinone, uptake of dyes). Because the constituent lysine-rich proteinoid is of simulated prebiotic origin, the study is interpreted to add emphasis to and suggest an evolutionary continuity for coacervation phenomena.

  16. Actinide chemistry in Allende Ca-Al-rich inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murrell, M. T.; Burnett, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    Fission track radiography is used to investigate the U and Th microscale distribution in a set of Allende-meteorite Ca-Al-rich inclusions. In the Type B inclusions, the major phases melilite and fassaite are important actinide host phases, and on the rims of Type B inclusions and throughout all other inclusions studied, perovskite is the dominant actinide host phase. Results suggest that neither alteration nor loss or gain of an actinide-rich phase appears to have been an important Th/U fractionation mechanism, and that volatility differences may be the dominant factor. Th/U and rare earth element abundance patterns for the spinel and perovskite rim suggest rim formation by volatilization of interior material, and within the constraints of the brief time scale required for this heating, several mechanisms for spinel-perovskite rim formation are possible.

  17. Oxygen rich gas generator design and performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloyer, P. W.; Knuth, W. H.; Crawford, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The present oxygen-rich combustion research investigates oxygen gas generator concepts. The theoretical and modeling aspects of a selected concept are presented, together with a refined concept resulting from the findings of the study. This investigation examined a counter-flow gas generator design for O2/H2 mass ratios of 100-200, featuring a near-stoichiometric combustion zone followed by downstream mixing. The critical technologies required to develop a performance model are analyzed and include the following: (1) oxygen flow boiling; (2) two-phase oxygen flow heat transfer; (3) film-cooling in the combustion zone; (4) oxygen-rich combustion with hydrogen; and (5) mixing and dilution.

  18. The structure of cometary ionospheres. II - CO-rich comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ip, W.-H.; Mendis, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    The structure of the ionosphere of a CO-rich comet is computed using two different models. The first one, the photochemical model, assumes that the dissociation and ionization of cometary neutrals and ions are due to photoionization, and photodissociation by solar UV radiation together with dissociative recombinations and ion-neutral reactions. The second one, the internal source model, also incorporates the ionization and dissociation effects of an electric current discharging through the inner coma. The generation of this current has been discussed in earlier papers. It is concluded that the internal source model can explain qualitatively the basic morphology of the ionospheres of CO-rich comets such as Humason (1962, VIII) and Morehouse (1908, III), whereas the photochemical model cannot. The main aim of this paper is not so much to provide accurate numerical estimates as to draw attention to a process which may very well dominate the structures of cometary ionospheres.

  19. Species richness and morphological diversity of passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Ricklefs, Robert E

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between species richness and the occupation of niche space can provide insight into the processes that shape patterns of biodiversity. For example, if species interactions constrained coexistence, one might expect tendencies toward even spacing within niche space and positive relationships between diversity and total niche volume. I use morphological diversity of passerine birds as a proxy for diet, foraging maneuvers, and foraging substrates and examine the morphological space occupied by regional and local passerine avifaunas. Although independently diversified regional faunas exhibit convergent morphology, species are clustered rather than evenly distributed, the volume of the morphological space is weakly related to number of species per taxonomic family, and morphological volume is unrelated to number of species within both regional avifaunas and local assemblages. These results seemingly contradict patterns expected when species interactions constrain regional or local diversity, and they suggest a larger role for diversification, extinction, and dispersal limitation in shaping species richness.

  20. Harvesting carbohydrate-rich Arthrospira platensis by spontaneous settling.

    PubMed

    Depraetere, Orily; Pierre, Guillaume; Deschoenmaeker, Frédéric; Badri, Hanène; Foubert, Imogen; Leys, Natalie; Markou, Giorgos; Wattiez, Ruddy; Michaud, Philippe; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2015-03-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis is an attractive feedstock for carbohydrate-based biofuels because it accumulated up to 74% of carbohydrates when nitrogen stressed. Nitrogen stressed A. platensis also settled spontaneously, and this occurred simultaneously with carbohydrates accumulation, suggesting a link between both phenomena. The increased settling velocity was neither due to production of extracellular carbohydrates, nor due to degradation of gas vacuoles, but was caused by an increase in the specific density of the filaments as a result of accumulation of carbohydrates under the form of glycogen. Settling velocities of carbohydrate-rich A. platensis reached 0.64mh(-1), which allowed the biomass to be harvested using a lamella separator. The biomass could be concentrated at least 15 times, allowing removal of 94% of the water using gravity settling, thus offering a potential application as a low-cost and high-throughput method for primary dewatering of carbohydrate-rich A. platensis.

  1. Utilization of protein-rich residues in biotechnological processes.

    PubMed

    Pleissner, Daniel; Venus, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    A drawback of biotechnological processes, where microorganisms convert biomass constituents, such as starch, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lipids, and proteins, into wanted products, is the economic feasibility. Particularly the cost of nitrogen sources in biotechnological processes can make up a large fraction of total process expenses. To further develop the bioeconomy, it is of considerable interest to substitute cost-intensive by inexpensive nitrogen sources. The aim of this mini-review was to provide a comprehensive insight of utilization methods of protein-rich residues, such as fish waste, green biomass, hairs, and food waste. The methods described include (i) production of enzymes, (ii) recovery of bioactive compounds, and/or (iii) usage as nitrogen source for microorganisms in biotechnological processes. In this aspect, the utilization of protein-rich residues, which are conventionally considered as waste, allows the development of value-adding processes for the production of bioactive compounds, biomolecules, chemicals, and materials. PMID:26758300

  2. On age and species richness of higher taxa.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Tanja; Rabosky, Daniel L; Ricklefs, Robert E; Bokma, Folmer

    2014-10-01

    Many studies have tried to identify factors that explain differences in numbers of species between clades against the background assumption that older clades contain more species because they have had more time for diversity to accumulate. The finding in several recent studies that species richness of clades is decoupled from stem age has been interpreted as evidence for ecological limits to species richness. Here we demonstrate that the absence of a positive age-diversity relationship, or even a negative relationship, may also occur when taxa are defined based on time or some correlate of time such as genetic distance or perhaps morphological distinctness. Thus, inferring underlying processes from distributions of species across higher taxa requires caution concerning the way in which higher taxa are defined. When this definition is unclear, crown age is superior to stem age as a measure of clade age. PMID:25226180

  3. Basin richness and source rock disruption - a fundamental relationship

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    Primary petroleum migration (expulsion from source rocks) remains the least understood parameter controlling the genesis of oil deposits. It is hypothesised that source rocks must be physically disrupted before meaningful expulsion can occur. Faulting, with accompanying significant fracturing, would appear to be the optimum naturally-occurring process for physical disruption of source rocks. If these hypotheses are valid, intensity of faulting in deeply-buried HC "kitchens' containing mature source rocks should strongly correlate with increasing basin richness. This possible relationship is examined in this paper; it is found that there is a strong correlation of increasing basin richness with increasing structural intensity over and adjacent to basin depocentres. This correlation thus supports the hypothesis that physical disruption of mature source rocks is a necessary, and previously unappreciated, controlling parameter for oil expulsion. -from Author

  4. Bimodality of Latitudinal Gradients in Marine Species Richness.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Chhaya; Saeedi, Hanieh; Costello, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    The paradigm for the latitudinal gradient in species richness is that it is unimodal with a tropical peak. For 27 published studies, and global datasets of 65 000 recent and 50 000 fossil marine species, we found that almost all datasets were significantly bimodal with a dip in species richness near the equator. The locations of mid-latitude peaks varied between taxa and were higher in the northern hemisphere where the continental shelf is greatest. Our findings support hypotheses of tropical species evolving in response to temperature variation near the edges of the tropics and available high-productivity habitat. They suggest that the equator may already be too hot for some species and that the modes may move further apart due to climate warming.

  5. Species richness and morphological diversity of passerine birds

    PubMed Central

    Ricklefs, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between species richness and the occupation of niche space can provide insight into the processes that shape patterns of biodiversity. For example, if species interactions constrained coexistence, one might expect tendencies toward even spacing within niche space and positive relationships between diversity and total niche volume. I use morphological diversity of passerine birds as a proxy for diet, foraging maneuvers, and foraging substrates and examine the morphological space occupied by regional and local passerine avifaunas. Although independently diversified regional faunas exhibit convergent morphology, species are clustered rather than evenly distributed, the volume of the morphological space is weakly related to number of species per taxonomic family, and morphological volume is unrelated to number of species within both regional avifaunas and local assemblages. These results seemingly contradict patterns expected when species interactions constrain regional or local diversity, and they suggest a larger role for diversification, extinction, and dispersal limitation in shaping species richness. PMID:22908271

  6. Vacuum Evaporation Technology for Treating Antimony-Rich Anode Slime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Keqiang; Lin, Deqiang; Yang, Xuelin

    2012-11-01

    A vacuum evaporation technology for treating antimony-rich anode slime was developed in this work. Experiments were carried out at temperatures from 873 K to 1073 K and residual gas pressures from 50 Pa to 600 Pa. During vacuum evaporation, silver from the antimony-rich anode slime was left behind in the distilland in a silver alloy containing antimony and lead, and antimony trioxide was evaporated. The experimental results showed that 92% by weight of antimony can be removed, and the silver content in the alloy was up to 12.84%. The antimony trioxide content in the distillate was more than 99.7%, and the distillate can be used directly as zero-grade antimony trioxide (China standard).

  7. Harvesting carbohydrate-rich Arthrospira platensis by spontaneous settling.

    PubMed

    Depraetere, Orily; Pierre, Guillaume; Deschoenmaeker, Frédéric; Badri, Hanène; Foubert, Imogen; Leys, Natalie; Markou, Giorgos; Wattiez, Ruddy; Michaud, Philippe; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2015-03-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis is an attractive feedstock for carbohydrate-based biofuels because it accumulated up to 74% of carbohydrates when nitrogen stressed. Nitrogen stressed A. platensis also settled spontaneously, and this occurred simultaneously with carbohydrates accumulation, suggesting a link between both phenomena. The increased settling velocity was neither due to production of extracellular carbohydrates, nor due to degradation of gas vacuoles, but was caused by an increase in the specific density of the filaments as a result of accumulation of carbohydrates under the form of glycogen. Settling velocities of carbohydrate-rich A. platensis reached 0.64mh(-1), which allowed the biomass to be harvested using a lamella separator. The biomass could be concentrated at least 15 times, allowing removal of 94% of the water using gravity settling, thus offering a potential application as a low-cost and high-throughput method for primary dewatering of carbohydrate-rich A. platensis. PMID:25585253

  8. Bimodality of Latitudinal Gradients in Marine Species Richness.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Chhaya; Saeedi, Hanieh; Costello, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    The paradigm for the latitudinal gradient in species richness is that it is unimodal with a tropical peak. For 27 published studies, and global datasets of 65 000 recent and 50 000 fossil marine species, we found that almost all datasets were significantly bimodal with a dip in species richness near the equator. The locations of mid-latitude peaks varied between taxa and were higher in the northern hemisphere where the continental shelf is greatest. Our findings support hypotheses of tropical species evolving in response to temperature variation near the edges of the tropics and available high-productivity habitat. They suggest that the equator may already be too hot for some species and that the modes may move further apart due to climate warming. PMID:27372733

  9. Carbon-rich icosahedral boron carbide designed from first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Jay, Antoine; Vast, Nathalie; Sjakste, Jelena; Duparc, Olivier Hardouin

    2014-07-21

    The carbon-rich boron-carbide (B{sub 11}C)C-C has been designed from first principles within the density functional theory. With respect to the most common boron carbide at 20% carbon concentration B{sub 4}C, the structural modification consists in removing boron atoms from the chains linking (B{sub 11}C) icosahedra. With C-C instead of C-B-C chains, the formation of vacancies is shown to be hindered, leading to enhanced mechanical strength with respect to B{sub 4}C. The phonon frequencies and elastic constants turn out to prove the stability of the carbon-rich phase, and important fingerprints for its characterization have been identified.

  10. Characterization of Leukocyte-platelet Rich Fibrin, A Novel Biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Madurantakam, Parthasarathy; Yoganarasimha, Suyog; Hasan, Fadi K

    2015-09-29

    Autologous platelet concentrates represent promising innovative tools in the field of regenerative medicine and have been extensively used in oral surgery. Unlike platelet rich plasma (PRP) that is a gel or a suspension, Leukocyte-Platelet Rich Fibrin (L-PRF) is a solid 3D fibrin membrane generated chair-side from whole blood containing no anti-coagulant. The membrane has a dense three dimensional fibrin matrix with enriched platelets and abundant growth factors. L-PRF is a popular adjunct in surgeries because of its superior handling characteristics as well as its suturability to the wound bed. The goal of the study is to demonstrate generation as well as provide detailed characterization of relevant properties of L-PRF that underlie its clinical success.

  11. Evidence for dineutrons in extremely neutron-rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, K.K.; Parker, B. )

    1991-05-13

    It is shown that the continuum missing-mass spectra for the ({pi}{sup {minus}},{pi}{sup +}) and ({pi}{sup {minus}},{ital p}) reactions leading to extremely neutron-rich exotic nuclei can be explained in terms of phase-space distributions by invoking the presence of dineutrons as one of the products of the breakup. It is suggested that this indicates the presence of the dineutron as a cluster in these neutron-rich systems during their breakup. It is noted that these observations in weakly {ital unbound} systems may be analogs of the dineutron halos for which evidence has been found in weakly {ital bound} nuclei near the neutron drip line.

  12. Combustion synthesis of low exothermic component rich composites

    DOEpatents

    Halverson, Danny C.; Lum, Beverly Y.; Munir, Zuhair A.

    1991-01-01

    A self-sustaining combustion synthesis process for producing hard, tough, lightweight, low exothermic potential product (LEPP)/high exothermic potential product (HEPP) composites is based on the thermodynamic dependence of adiabatic temperature and product composition on the stoichiometry of the LEPP and HEPP reactants. For lightweight products the composition must be relatively rich in the LEPP component. LEPP rich composites are obtained by varying the initial temperature of the reactants. The product is hard, porous material whose toughness can be enhanced by filling the pores with aluminum or other metal phases using a liquid metal infiltration process. The process can be extended to the formation of other composites having a low exothermic component.

  13. Species richness and morphological diversity of passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Ricklefs, Robert E

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between species richness and the occupation of niche space can provide insight into the processes that shape patterns of biodiversity. For example, if species interactions constrained coexistence, one might expect tendencies toward even spacing within niche space and positive relationships between diversity and total niche volume. I use morphological diversity of passerine birds as a proxy for diet, foraging maneuvers, and foraging substrates and examine the morphological space occupied by regional and local passerine avifaunas. Although independently diversified regional faunas exhibit convergent morphology, species are clustered rather than evenly distributed, the volume of the morphological space is weakly related to number of species per taxonomic family, and morphological volume is unrelated to number of species within both regional avifaunas and local assemblages. These results seemingly contradict patterns expected when species interactions constrain regional or local diversity, and they suggest a larger role for diversification, extinction, and dispersal limitation in shaping species richness. PMID:22908271

  14. Utilization of protein-rich residues in biotechnological processes.

    PubMed

    Pleissner, Daniel; Venus, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    A drawback of biotechnological processes, where microorganisms convert biomass constituents, such as starch, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lipids, and proteins, into wanted products, is the economic feasibility. Particularly the cost of nitrogen sources in biotechnological processes can make up a large fraction of total process expenses. To further develop the bioeconomy, it is of considerable interest to substitute cost-intensive by inexpensive nitrogen sources. The aim of this mini-review was to provide a comprehensive insight of utilization methods of protein-rich residues, such as fish waste, green biomass, hairs, and food waste. The methods described include (i) production of enzymes, (ii) recovery of bioactive compounds, and/or (iii) usage as nitrogen source for microorganisms in biotechnological processes. In this aspect, the utilization of protein-rich residues, which are conventionally considered as waste, allows the development of value-adding processes for the production of bioactive compounds, biomolecules, chemicals, and materials.

  15. Hyaline cell-rich chondroid syringoma of the finger.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, A S; Yenni, V V; Wilfred, Clement; Manjunatha, H K; Shilpa, K

    2011-03-01

    A mixed tumor is a neoplasm that has microscopic features of both epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation. Such mixed tumors are known as pleomorphic adenomas in the salivary glands, and their cutaneous counterparts are called chondroid syringomas. These tumors commonly occur in the head and neck region of middle-aged men. Hyaline cell-rich chondroid syringoma is a rare benign variant of chondroid syringoma composed of cells with eosinophilic hyaline cytoplasm and plasmacytoid features, the origin of which remains elusive. Although very few cases have been reported in literature, it is important to be aware of this entity so as to avoid misdiagnosis on histopathological examination. In this report we present a case of hyaline cell-rich chondroid syringoma occurring in the finger.

  16. Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) in Orthopedic Sports Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mlynarek, Ryan A; Kuhn, Andrew W; Bedi, Asheesh

    2016-01-01

    The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections in the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions has become more prevalent in recent years. Current literature has exhibited that PRP injections are relatively safe and can potentially accelerate or augment the soft tissue healing process. This review presents the most current literature update on the use of PRP in the treatment of rotator cuff tears, osteoarthritis of the knee, ulnar collateral ligament tears, lateral epicondylitis, hamstring injuries, and Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:27552452

  17. Utilizing the rich resources of a diverse workplace.

    PubMed

    Miller, E K

    1993-01-01

    The dynamic and ever-increasing diversity of the U.S. workforce challenges those in executive management to utilize human resources in a manner that maximizes those resources and produces optimal results. A diverse organization is itself laden with rich resources of human capital waiting to be tapped in creative ways. In order to be competitive and remain so, physician executives in today's market must engage in the management of diversity on a continuous basis.

  18. The Adopted Morphological Types of 247 Rich PF Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panko, Elena; Bajan, Katarzyna; Flin, Piotr; Gotsulyak, Alla

    2016-10-01

    Morphological types were determined for 247 rich galaxy clusters from the PF Catalogue of Galaxy Clusters and Groups. The adopted types are based on classical morphological schemes and consider concentration to the cluster center, the signs of preferential direction or plane in the cluster, and the positions of the brightest galaxies. It is shown that both concentration and preferential plane are significant and independent morphological criteria.

  19. Origin of life and iron-rich clays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, H. H.

    1986-01-01

    The premise that life began with self-replicating iron-rich clays is explored. In association with these clays and UV light, polar organic molecules, such as oxalic acid, were synthesized. The carbonaceous chondrites have both iron-rich clays and organic molecules. It is convenient to classify meteoritic organic matter into 3 categories: insoluble polymer, hydrocarbons and polar organics (soluble in water). Recent work on the delta D, delta N-15 and delta C-13 has made it clear that these three fractions have been made by three different mechanisms. A significant fraction of the insoluble polymer has a delta-D which suggests that it was made in an interstellar medium. The hydrocarbons seem to have been made on a parent body by a Fischer-Tropsch mechanism. The polar organics were probably synthesized in a mixture of carbonate (NH4)2CO3, Fe(++) ion and liquid water by radiolysis. In a set of experiments the radiolysis of (NH4)2CO3 in the presence and absence of Fe(++) ion has been examined. The synthesis of glycine in the presence of Fe(++) ion is 3-4 times that in the absence of ferrous ion. The effects of the addition of hydrocarbons to this mixture are explored. Iron-rich clays at low temperature and pressure are synthesized. So far the results are not sufficiently crystalline to look for replication. It should be noted that organic chelating agents such as oxalic acid do increase the crystallinity of the clays but not sufficiently. The hydrothermal synthesis of iron-rich clays is being examined.

  20. Etude RICH Nursing. Plus de connaissances et de preuves scientifiques

    PubMed Central

    SCHUBERT, MARIA

    2009-01-01

    L’importance et la validité des résultats de l’étude RICH-Nursing* ont été récemment mises en cause par certains milieux, ce qui a provoqué certaines incertitudes chez les infirmières. Les auteurs reviennent sur l’impact actuel de cette étude et évoquent les perspectives d’avenir. PMID:25221376

  1. Grassland invader responses to realistic changes in native species richness.

    PubMed

    Rinella, Matthew J; Pokorny, Monica L; Rekaya, Romdhane

    2007-09-01

    The importance of species richness for repelling exotic plant invasions varies from ecosystem to ecosystem. Thus, in order to prioritize conservation objectives, it is critical to identify those ecosystems where decreasing richness will most greatly magnify invasion risks. Our goal was to determine if invasion risks greatly increase in response to common reductions in grassland species richness. We imposed treatments that mimic management-induced reductions in grassland species richness (i.e., removal of shallow- and/or deep-rooted forbs and/or grasses and/or cryptogam layers). Then we introduced and monitored the performance of a notorious invasive species (i.e., Centaurea maculosa). We found that, on a per-gram-of-biomass basis, each resident plant group similarly suppressed invader growth. Hence, with respect to preventing C. maculosa invasions, maintaining overall productivity is probably more important than maintaining the productivity of particular plant groups or species. But at the sites we studied, all plant groups may be needed to maintain overall productivity because removing forbs decreased overall productivity in two of three years. Alternatively, removing forbs increased productivity in another year, and this led us to posit that removing forbs may inflate the temporal productivity variance as opposed to greatly affecting time-averaged productivity. In either case, overall productivity responses to single plant group removals were inconsistent and fairly modest, and only when all plant groups were removed did C. maculosa growth increase substantially over a no-removal treatment. As such, it seems that intense disturbances (e.g., prolonged drought, overgrazing) that deplete multiple plant groups may often be a prerequisite for C. maculosa invasion. PMID:17913143

  2. Delivering carbide ligands to sulfide-rich clusters.

    PubMed

    Reinholdt, Anders; Herbst, Konrad; Bendix, Jesper

    2016-02-01

    The propensity of the terminal ruthenium carbide Ru(C)Cl2(PCy3)2 (RuC) to form carbide bridges to electron-rich transition metals enables synthetic routes to metal clusters with coexisting carbide and sulfide ligands. Electrochemical experiments show the Ru≡C ligand to exert a relatively large electron-withdrawing effect compared with PPh3, effectively shifting redox potentials.

  3. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) applied during total knee arthroplasty☆

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro, João Paulo Fernandes; Danieli, Marcus Vinicius; Queiroz, Alexandre Oliveira; Deffune, Elenice; Ferreira, Rosana Rossi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma regarding healing, pain and hemostasis after total knee arthroplasty, by means of a blinded randomized controlled and blinded clinical study. Methods Forty patients who were going to undergo implantation of a total knee prosthesis were selected and randomized. In 20 of these patients, platelet-rich plasma was applied before the joint capsule was closed. The hemoglobin (mg/dL) and hematocrit (%) levels were assayed before the operation and 24 and 48 h afterwards. The Womac questionnaire and a verbal pain scale were applied and knee range of motion measurements were made up to the second postoperative month. The statistical analysis compared the results with the aim of determining whether there were any differences between the groups at each of the evaluation times. Results The hemoglobin (mg/dL) and hematocrit (%) measurements made before the operation and 24 and 48 h afterwards did not show any significant differences between the groups (p > 0.05). The Womac questionnaire and the range of motion measured before the operation and up to the first two months also did not show any statistical differences between the groups (p > 0.05). The pain evaluation using the verbal scale showed that there was an advantage for the group that received platelet-rich plasma, 24 h, 48 h, one week, three weeks and two months after the operation (p < 0.05). Conclusions In the manner in which the platelet-rich plasma was used, it was not shown to be effective for reducing bleeding or improving knee function after arthroplasty, in comparison with the controls. There was an advantage on the postoperative verbal pain scale. PMID:26229915

  4. Utilizing the rich resources of a diverse workplace.

    PubMed

    Miller, E K

    1993-01-01

    The dynamic and ever-increasing diversity of the U.S. workforce challenges those in executive management to utilize human resources in a manner that maximizes those resources and produces optimal results. A diverse organization is itself laden with rich resources of human capital waiting to be tapped in creative ways. In order to be competitive and remain so, physician executives in today's market must engage in the management of diversity on a continuous basis. PMID:10161026

  5. Testing Rich Internet Applications: The MAST Discovery Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, L.

    2014-05-01

    Testing Rich Internet Applications (RIA) provides unique challenges to the overall success of a web application. Validating data driven, data intensive, dynamic, realtime events is imperative. In order to effectively and efficiently test such applications one needs to understand how, when and why different test types should be applied. Test types include application functionality, browser compatibility, data and database functions, performance and scalability, and regression testing.

  6. Gene organization features in A/T-rich organisms.

    PubMed

    Szafranski, Karol; Lehmann, Rüdiger; Parra, Genis; Guigo, Roderic; Glöckner, Gernot

    2005-01-01

    Several species have genomes in which the four nucleotides are not equally represented (Glöckner 2000). Interestingly, shifts to very high A/T or G/C levels can occur in several distinct branches of the tree of life. The underlying reasons for these shifts therefore may be of different origin. Now entire chromosome sequences from two different A/T-rich genomes, Dictyostelium discoideum and Plasmodium falciparum, are available (Bowman et al. 1999; Gardner et al. 2002; Glöckner et al. 2002). This gives us the opportunity to investigate how a high A/T content may influence the signals that are the landmarks for gene specification. We found that, in contrast with most known metazoan and plant genomes, splice signals contain, little information other than the canonical GT-AG dinucleotides. Intron lengths in A/T rich organisms, on the other hand, are comparable to those of other lower eukaryotes. Intergenic regions show, dependent on the orientation of adjacent genes, a size pattern with a ratio of 1 (3'-3') to 2 (3'-5') to 3 (5'-5'). Overall, gene organization patterns seem not to be influenced by the A/T bias. Surprisingly, the slightly higher A/T content of the P. falciparum genome compared to that of D. discoideum (80.1 versus 77.4%) is not achieved by increased A/T richness in intergenic regions. Instead both the shift of the nucleotide usage in coding regions to A/T-rich codons and the longer intergenic regions make an equal contribution to the higher A/T content in this organism.

  7. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Ni Rich Amorphous Boride Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Vidyadhar; Banerjee, Progna; Srinivas, V.; Babu, N. H.

    2011-06-30

    The Ni rich amorphous boride nanoparticles can be prepared very easily by the solid-solid reaction of the NiCl{sub 2} and NaBH{sub 4} powders at room temperature. XRD, DTA-TG, FESEM, TEM, and selected-area electron diffraction characterize the resultant nanoparticles. The results show that the resultant is mainly composed of the amorphous Ni-B alloy nanoparticles with an average diameter of 15-25 nm.

  8. Anomalous creep in Sn-rich solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Ho Geon; Morris Jr., John W.; Hua, Fay

    2002-03-15

    This paper discusses the creep behavior of example Sn-rich solders that have become candidates for use in Pb-free solder joints. The specific solders discussed are Sn-3.5Ag, Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu, Sn-0.7Cu and Sn-10In-3.1Ag, used in thin joints between Cu and Ni-Au metallized pads.

  9. Variable Stars In the Unusual, Metal-Rich Globular Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritzl, Barton J.; Smith, Horace A.; Catelan, Marcio; Sweigart, Allen V.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have undertaken a search for variable stars in the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 6388 using time-series BV photometry. Twenty-eight new variables were found in this survey, increasing the total number of variables found near NGC 6388 to approx. 57. A significant number of the variables are RR Lyrae (approx. 14), most of which are probable cluster members. The periods of the fundamental mode RR Lyrae are shown to be unusually long compared to metal-rich field stars. The existence of these long period RRab stars suggests that the horizontal branch of NGC 6388 is unusually bright. This implies that the metallicity-luminosity relationship for RR Lyrae stars is not universal if the RR Lyrae in NGC 6388 are indeed metal-rich. We consider the alternative possibility that the stars in NGC 6388 may span a range in [Fe/H]. Four candidate Population II Cepheids were also found. If they are members of the cluster, NGC 6388 would be the most metal-rich globular cluster to contain Population II Cepheids. The mean V magnitude of the RR Lyrae is found to be 16.85 +/- 0.05 resulting in a distance of 9.0 to 10.3 kpc, for a range of assumed values of (M(sub V)) for RR Lyrae. We determine the reddening of the cluster to be E(B - V) = 0.40 +/- 0.03 mag, with differential reddening across the face of the cluster. We discuss the difficulty in determining the Oosterhoff classification of NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 due to the unusual nature of their RR Lyrae, and address evolutionary constraints on a recent suggestion that they are of Oosterhoff type II.

  10. Spectroscopic studies on light proton-rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes, V.; Lichtenthaler, R.; Kubono, S.; Tanaka, M. H.; Nomura, T.; Katayama, I.; Kato, S.

    2007-02-12

    A systematic for the light proton rich nuclei with constant TZ = -3/2 isospin is proposed, where a survey on their structure have shown interesting features. Preliminary results of a re-analysis on the sctructure of 13O nucleus is also presented. This 13O nucleus have been investigated by the 3-neutron pick up (3He,6He) reaction, and new levels have been assigned for this nucleus.

  11. Environmental correlates of species richness of European springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Werner; Fiera, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Our knowledge about environmental correlates of the spatial distribution of animal species stems mostly from the study of well known vertebrate and a few invertebrate taxa. The poor spatial resolution of faunistic data and undersampling prohibit detailed spatial modeling for the vast majority of arthropods. However, many such models are necessary for a comparative approach to the impact of environmental factors on the spatial distribution of species of different taxa. Here we use recent compilations of species richness of 35 European countries and larger islands and linear spatial autocorrelation modeling to infer the influence of area and environmental variables on the number of springtail (Collembola) species in Europe. We show that area, winter length and annual temperature difference are major predictors of species richness. We also detected a significant negative longitudinal gradient in the number of springtail species towards Eastern Europe that might be caused by postglacial colonization. In turn, environmental heterogeneity and vascular plant species richness did not significantly contribute to model performance. Contrary to theoretical expectations, climate and longitude corrected species-area relationships of Collembola did not significantly differ between islands and mainlands.

  12. Polyphenols-rich natural products for treatment of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dragan, S; Andrica, F; Serban, Maria-Corina; Timar, R

    2015-01-01

    Currently, experimental and clinical evidences showed that polyphenols-rich natural products, like nutraceuticals and food supplements, may offer unique treatment modalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), due to their biological properties. Natural products modulate the carbohydrate metabolism by various mechanisms, such as restoring beta-cells integrity and physiology, enhancing insulin releasing activity, and the glucose using. Sea buckthorn berries, red grapes, bilberries, chokeberries and popular drinks like cocoa, coffee and green tea are all rich in polyphenols and may decrease the insulin response, offer in g a natural alternative of treatment in diabetes. Therefore, researches are now focused on potential efficacies of different types of polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, anthocyans and stilbenes. Animal and human studies showed that polyphenols modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, decrease glycemia and insulin resistance, increase lipid metabolism and optimize oxidative stress and inflammatory processes. It is important to understand the proper dose and duration of supplementation with polyphenols-rich extracts in order to guide effective therapeutic interventions in diabetic patients.

  13. Quadrupole collectivity in neutron-rich Cd isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bönig, S.; Kröll, Th; Ilieva, S.; Scheck, M.; Is411; Is477; Is524; Miniball Collaborations

    2015-02-01

    The proximity to the closed shells at Z = 50 and N = 82 makes the neutron-rich Cd isotopes a perfect test case for nuclear theories. The energy of the first excited 2+-state in the even 122-128 shows an irregular behaviour as the Cd isotopes exhibit only a slight increase for 122Cd to 126Cd and even a decrease from 126Cd to 128Cd. This anomaly can so far not be reproduced by shell model calculations. Only beyond mean field calculations with a resultant prolate deformation are capable to describe this anomalous behaviour. In order to gain more information about the neutron-rich Cd isotopes a Coulomb excitation experiment was performed with MINIBALL at REX-ISOLDE, CERN. The extracted transition strengths B (E2,0+gs → 2+1) for 122,124,126,128Cd agree with beyond mean field calculations. The spectroscopic quadrupole moments Qs (2+1) are compared with measurements on odd neutron-rich Cd isotopes.

  14. Do Phages influence Species Richness of Prokaryotic Communities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, C.; Smit, A.; Herndl, G. J.; Weinbauer, M. G.

    2003-04-01

    The aim of the study was to follow the potential influence of phage infection on the species richness of their pelagic prokaryotic hosts. Experiments were conducted during cruises in the tropical Atlantic and the southern North Sea. Concentrates of bacteria and viruses were obtained by ultrafiltration. An aliquot of the bacterial concentrate was inoculated in virus-free seawater and varying amounts of viral concentrate were added. Batch cultures with microwave-inactivated viruses and without virus amendment served as controls. Species richness of the domains Bacteria and Archaea was determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of PCR amplified 16S rDNA fragments collected every 24 hrs for up to four days. The time courses of viral abundance in the cultures amended with viral concentrates were comparable to each other. However, the observed oscillations in bacterial and viral numbers appeared to increase in magnitude with increasing initial viral abundance. Differences between the microbial communities of the various treatments increased with increasing initial viral abundance for Bacteria and Archaea, regardless of the initial bacterial abundance. The results show that bacteriophages are affecting the species richness of pelagic Bacteria and Archaea under non-steady state conditions.

  15. [Platelet-rich plasma in knee osteoarthritis treatment].

    PubMed

    Simental-Mendía, Mario Alberto; Vílchez-Cavazos, José Félix; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    The biological changes that commonly cause degenerative articular cartilage injuries in the knee are primarily associated to misalignment of the joint and metabolic changes related to age, as occurs in osteoarthritis. Furthermore, the capacity for cartilage self-regeneration is quite limited due to the lack of vascularity of the tissue. To date there is no ideal treatment capable to stimulate cartilage regeneration; thus there is a need to seek alternative therapies for the treatment of such conditions. The number of publications demonstrating the therapeutic and regenerative benefits of using platelet-rich plasma as a treatment for knee osteoarthritis has been increasing in recent years. In spite of encouraging results, there are still only a few randomised control studies with strong clinical evidence, lacking clarity on points such as the optimum formulation or the mechanism of action of platelet-rich plasma. Up to this point and based on the results of clinical studies, not all patients can benefit from this therapy. It is important to consider aspects such as the age and grade of cartilage degeneration. The aim of the present paper is to review the recent scientific literature on the treatment of knee osteoarthritis with platelet-rich plasma, and the biological bases of this therapy, as well as presenting the current opinion on this subject.

  16. Unusual properties of icosahedral boron-rich solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emin, David

    2006-09-01

    Icosahedral boron-rich solids are materials containing boron-rich units in which atoms reside at an icosahedron's 12 vertices. These materials are known for their exceptional bonding and the unusual structures that result. This article describes how the unusual bonding generates other distinctive and useful effects. In particular, radiation-induced atomic vacancies and interstitials spontaneously recombine to produce the "self-healing" that underlies these materials' extraordinary radiation tolerance. Furthermore, boron carbides, a group of icosahedral boron-rich solids, possess unusual electronic, magnetic and thermal properties. For example, the charge carriers, holes, localize as singlet pairs on icosahedra. The unusual origin of this localization is indicated by the absence of a concomitant photo-ionization. The thermally assisted hopping of singlet pairs between icosahedra produces Seebeck coefficients that are unexpectedly large and only weakly dependent on carrier concentration. These properties are exploited in devices: (1) long-lived high-power high-capacity beta-voltaic cells, (2) very high temperature thermoelectrics and (3) solid-state neutron detectors.

  17. Production of new neutron-rich heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Zagrebaev, Valery; Greiner, Walter

    2009-03-04

    A new way is found to discover and examine unknown neutron-rich heavy nuclei at the 'north-east' part of the nuclear map. This 'blank spot' of the nuclear map can be reached neither in fusion--fission reactions nor in fragmentation processes. The present limits of the upper part of the nuclear map are very close to stability while the unexplored area of heavy neutron-rich nuclides along the neutron closed shell N = 126(to the east of the stability line) is extremely important for nuclear astrophysics investigations and, in particular, for the understanding of the r-process of astrophysical nucleogenesis. A novel idea is proposed for the production of these nuclei via low-energy multi-nucleon transfer reactions with stable beams. The estimated yields of neutron-rich nuclei are found to be rather high in such reactions and several tens of new nuclides can be produced, for example, in the near-barrier collision of {sup 136}Xe with {sup 208}Pb. This finding may spur new studies at heavy-ion facilities and should have significant impact on future experiments.

  18. Sulfide-rich metallic impact melts from chondritic parent bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Devin L.; Lauretta, Dante S.; Connolly, Harold C. _jr., Jr.; Goreva, Yulia S.; Hill, Dolores H.; Domanik, Ken J.; Berger, Eve L.; Yang, Hexiong; Downs, Robert T.

    2010-05-01

    Sacramento Wash 005 (SaW) 005, Meteorite Hills 00428 (MET) 00428, and Mount Howe 88403 (HOW) 88403 are S-rich Fe,Ni-rich metal meteorites with fine metal structures and homogeneous troilite. We compare them with the H-metal meteorite, Lewis Cliff 88432. Phase diagram analyses suggest that SaW 005, MET 00428, and HOW 88403 were liquids at temperatures above 1350°C. Tridymite in HOW 88403 constrains formation to a high-temperature and low-pressure environment. The morphology of their metal-troilite structures may suggest that MET 00428 cooled the slowest, SaW 005 cooled faster, and HOW 88403 cooled the quickest. SaW 005 and MET 00428 contain H-chondrite like silicates, and SaW 005 contains a chondrule-bearing inclusion that is texturally and compositionally similar to H4 chondrites. The compositional and morphological similarities of SaW 005 and MET 00428 suggest that they are likely the result of impact processing on the H-chondrite parent body. SaW 005 and MET 00428 are the first recognized iron- and sulfide-rich meteorites, which formed by impact on the H-chondrite parent body, which are distinct from the IIE-iron meteorite group. The morphological and chemical differences of HOW 88403 suggest that it is not from the H-chondrite body, although it likely formed during an impact on a chondritic parent body.

  19. Neutron-rich B isotopes studied with antisymmetrized molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kanada-En`yo, Y.; Horiuchi, H.

    1995-08-01

    Structure of odd-even B isotopes up to the neutron dripline is studied systematically with the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD). The AMD method has already proved to be a powerful theoretical approach for the systematic study of nuclear structure in extensive region including exotic neutron-rich nuclei as well as ordinary nuclei. It is owing to its flexible nature free from any model assumptions such as the existence of clusters. The energies and other observed data of B isotopes are reproduced well. Especially very good reproduction of electromagnetic properties is obtained. The systematic behavior of the electromagnetic properties is explained in relation to the drastic change between clustering structure and shell-model-like structure. This explanation gives us an important indication that clustering structure in neutron-rich B nuclei is strongly suggested by the experimental data. It is shown that the structure change with increase of the neutron number is largely governed by the shell effect of neutron orbits. Exotic structure with new type of clustering is suggested to evolve in neutron-rich nuclei near the dripline.

  20. Variable Glutamine-Rich Repeats Modulate Transcription Factor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gemayel, Rita; Chavali, Sreenivas; Pougach, Ksenia; Legendre, Matthieu; Zhu, Bo; Boeynaems, Steven; van der Zande, Elisa; Gevaert, Kris; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost; Babu, M. Madan; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Excessive expansions of glutamine (Q)-rich repeats in various human proteins are known to result in severe neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington’s disease and several ataxias. However, the physiological role of these repeats and the consequences of more moderate repeat variation remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Q-rich domains are highly enriched in eukaryotic transcription factors where they act as functional modulators. Incremental changes in the number of repeats in the yeast transcriptional regulator Ssn6 (Cyc8) result in systematic, repeat-length-dependent variation in expression of target genes that result in direct phenotypic changes. The function of Ssn6 increases with its repeat number until a certain threshold where further expansion leads to aggregation. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals that the Ssn6 repeats affect its solubility and interactions with Tup1 and other regulators. Thus, Q-rich repeats are dynamic functional domains that modulate a regulator’s innate function, with the inherent risk of pathogenic repeat expansions. PMID:26257283

  1. A RICH detector for hadron identification at Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Mammoliti, Francesco; Cisbani, Evaristo; Cusanno, Francesco; Garibaldi, Franco; Guisa, Antonio; De Jager, Cornelis; Russo, Guiseppe; Leda Sperduto, Maria; Sutera, Concetta; Urciuoli, Guido

    2011-08-01

    The “standard” Hall A apparatus at Jefferson Lab (TOF and aerogel threshold Cherenkov detectors) does not provide complete identification for proton, kaon and pion. To this aim, a proximity focusing C6F14/CsI RICH (Ring Image Cherenkov) detector has been designed, built, tested and operated to separate kaons from pions with a pion contamination of a few percent up to 2.4 GeV/c. Two quite different experimental investigations have benefitted of the RICH identification: on one side, the high-resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy series of experiments on carbon, beryllium and oxygen, devoted to the study of the lambda-nucleon potential. On the other side, the measurements of the single spin asymmetries of pion and kaon on a transversely polarized 3He target are of utmost interest in understanding QCD dynamics in the nucleon. We present the technical features of such a RICH detector and comment on the presently achieved performance in hadron identification.

  2. Why fruits are rich in antioxidants? An opinion review.

    PubMed

    Grover, Ashok Kumar

    2013-03-01

    We rarely consider whether and how plants benefit from making antioxidant-rich fruits, despite our dependence on fruits as routine sources of these compounds. The hypothesis presented here is that storage of the antioxidant materials is advantageous to the survival of the plant species. This hypothesis is based on the premise that at different stages from flower bud opening to seedling formation, the concentrations of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) needed vary tremendously. Exposing seeds of several plant species to ROS aids germination. However, ROS can cause considerable damage by mutagenesis during plant embryogenesis. It is suggested that the antioxidant-rich environment in fruits protects the developing plant embryos from this damage. It also allows for an antioxidant environment for packaging the embryos into seeds with tight seed coats. After fruit maturation and seed dispersal, a prolonged exposure to oxygen and moisture enables the seeds to produce the ROS needed for seed germination. There is a simultaneous increase in the ROS scavenging systems to allow for protection of the dividing cells afterwards. These observations are unified into the hypothesis that the antioxidant rich fruits aid in the survival of plant species, and discussed in the context of vascular plant evolution. PMID:23537432

  3. Proline Rich Motifs as Drug Targets in Immune Mediated Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Mythily; Dunker, A. Keith

    2012-01-01

    The current version of the human immunome network consists of nearly 1400 interactions involving approximately 600 proteins. Intermolecular interactions mediated by proline-rich motifs (PRMs) are observed in many facets of the immune response. The proline-rich regions are known to preferentially adopt a polyproline type II helical conformation, an extended structure that facilitates transient intermolecular interactions such as signal transduction, antigen recognition, cell-cell communication and cytoskeletal organization. The propensity of both the side chain and the backbone carbonyls of the polyproline type II helix to participate in the interface interaction makes it an excellent recognition motif. An advantage of such distinct chemical features is that the interactions can be discriminatory even in the absence of high affinities. Indeed, the immune response is mediated by well-orchestrated low-affinity short-duration intermolecular interactions. The proline-rich regions are predominantly localized in the solvent-exposed regions such as the loops, intrinsically disordered regions, or between domains that constitute the intermolecular interface. Peptide mimics of the PRM have been suggested as potential antagonists of intermolecular interactions. In this paper, we discuss novel PRM-mediated interactions in the human immunome that potentially serve as attractive targets for immunomodulation and drug development for inflammatory and autoimmune pathologies. PMID:22666276

  4. Eosinophil-rich syphilis: a report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Gabriela; Bennett, Dan; Piliang, Melissa P

    2015-08-01

    The differential diagnosis for eosinophil-rich skin lesions often includes a drug reaction, allergic contact dermatitis and rarely, response to a helminth infection. However, many unrelated entities, such as infections, neoplasms and inflammatory dermatoses, can have a prominent eosinophilic infiltrate. Syphilis is classically associated with plasma cells, but other patterns of inflammation have been reported, including ulcerative, granulomatous and eosinophil-rich. Classic teaching might indicate that the presence of eosinophils argues against a diagnosis of syphilis. We present four cases of secondary syphilis with increased eosinophils, ranging from 8 to >200 eosinophils per 10 high-power fields (×400 magnification). Patient 1 had lesions on the penis and scrotum, with greater than 200 eosinophils per 10 high-power fields. Patient 2 had lesions on the back, with 150 eosinophils per 10 high-power fields. Patient 3 had lesions on the bilateral arms, with 8 eosinophils per 10 high-power fields. Patient 4 had lesions involving the anus, with 17 eosinophils per 10 high-power fields. These cases highlight that the presence of an eosinophil-rich infiltrate on skin biopsy should not exclude syphilis from the differential diagnosis.

  5. FUSE Observations of He-rich sdB Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swiegart, A. V.; Lanz, T.; Brown, T. M.; Hubeny, I.; Landsman, W. B.

    2003-01-01

    Most subdwarf B stars are extremely deficient in helium and selected light elements, but a minority are helium-rich. New evolutionary calculations suggest that these helium-rich sdB stars are the result of a delayed helium-core flash on the white dwarf cooling curve, which leads to extensive mixing between the hydrogen envelope and helium core. Such mixed stars should show greatly enhanced helium and carbon with respect to the other heavy elements. We have recently obtained FUSE spectra of two helium-rich sdB stars, PG1544+488 and JL87, revealing huge C Ill lines at 977 and 1176 A. Our analysis shows that PG1544+488 has a surface composition of 97% He, 2% C, and 1% N, in agreement with the new evolutionary scenario. While JL87 also reveals a large enrichment in carbon and nitrogen (1.4% and 0.4%, respectively), there is still a significant amount of hydrogen in its atmosphere.

  6. A rich multiplicity veto for the hera-b experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husemann, U.; Adams, M.; Bocker, M.; Bruggemann, M.; Buchholz, P.; Cruse, C.; Kolotaev, Y.

    2003-08-01

    We present the design and commissioning of a new multiplicity veto for the HERA-B detector, a fixed-target spectrometer originally designed to study the physics of B mesons in proton-nucleus interactions. The HERA-B trigger is a message-driven multi-level track trigger. The first level trigger (FLT) consists of custom-made electronics, and the higher trigger levels are implemented as PC farms. The multiplicity veto has been designed to reject high-multiplicity events before they enter the trigger chain. A veto signal is generated based on the comparison of the number of photons in part of the HERA-B ring-imaging Cherenkov counter (RICH) with a programmable threshold. The RICH Multiplicity Veto is a modular system. First the hits in 256 detector channels are summed by Base Sum Cards (BSC), then FED Sum Cards (FSC) sum the subtotals of up to eight BSCs. Finally the Veto Board (VB) takes the veto decision based on the sum of up to 14 FSCs. The RICH Multiplicity Veto has been successfully installed and commissioned in HERA-B. The measured veto efficiency is (99.9991+/-0.0001)%, and the system is used in the routine data-taking of the HERA-B experiment.

  7. RNA isolation from mouse pancreas: a ribonuclease-rich tissue.

    PubMed

    Azevedo-Pouly, Ana Clara P; Elgamal, Ola A; Schmittgen, Thomas D

    2014-08-02

    Isolation of high-quality RNA from ribonuclease-rich tissue such as mouse pancreas presents a challenge. As a primary function of the pancreas is to aid in digestion, mouse pancreas may contain as much a 75 mg of ribonuclease. We report modifications of standard phenol/guanidine thiocyanate lysis reagent protocols to isolate RNA from mouse pancreas. Guanidine thiocyanate is a strong protein denaturant and will effectively disrupt the activity of ribonuclease under most conditions. However, critical modifications to standard protocols are necessary to successfully isolate RNA from ribonuclease-rich tissues. Key steps include a high lysis reagent to tissue ratio, removal of undigested tissue prior to phase separation and inclusion of a ribonuclease inhibitor to the RNA solution. Using these and other modifications, we routinely isolate RNA with RNA Integrity Number (RIN) greater than 7. The isolated RNA is of suitable quality for routine gene expression analysis. Adaptation of this protocol to isolate RNA from ribonuclease rich tissues besides the pancreas should be readily achievable.

  8. [Platelet-rich plasma in knee osteoarthritis treatment].

    PubMed

    Simental-Mendía, Mario Alberto; Vílchez-Cavazos, José Félix; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    The biological changes that commonly cause degenerative articular cartilage injuries in the knee are primarily associated to misalignment of the joint and metabolic changes related to age, as occurs in osteoarthritis. Furthermore, the capacity for cartilage self-regeneration is quite limited due to the lack of vascularity of the tissue. To date there is no ideal treatment capable to stimulate cartilage regeneration; thus there is a need to seek alternative therapies for the treatment of such conditions. The number of publications demonstrating the therapeutic and regenerative benefits of using platelet-rich plasma as a treatment for knee osteoarthritis has been increasing in recent years. In spite of encouraging results, there are still only a few randomised control studies with strong clinical evidence, lacking clarity on points such as the optimum formulation or the mechanism of action of platelet-rich plasma. Up to this point and based on the results of clinical studies, not all patients can benefit from this therapy. It is important to consider aspects such as the age and grade of cartilage degeneration. The aim of the present paper is to review the recent scientific literature on the treatment of knee osteoarthritis with platelet-rich plasma, and the biological bases of this therapy, as well as presenting the current opinion on this subject. PMID:26116039

  9. Rich club neurons dominate Information Transfer in local cortical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigam, Sunny; Shimono, Masanori; Sporns, Olaf; Beggs, John

    2015-03-01

    The performance of complex networks depends on how they route their traffic. It is unknown how information is transferred in local cortical networks of hundreds of closely-spaced neurons. To address this, it is necessary to record simultaneously from hundreds of neurons at a spacing that matches typical axonal connection distances, and at a temporal resolution that matches synaptic delays. We used a 512 electrode array (60 μm spacing) to record spontaneous activity at 20 kHz, simultaneously from up to 700 neurons in slice cultures of mouse somatosensory cortex for 1 hr at a time. We used transfer entropy to quantify directed information transfer (IT) between pairs of neurons. We found an approximately lognormal distribution of firing rates as reported in in-vivo. Pairwise information transfer strengths also were nearly lognormally distributed, similar to synaptic strengths. 20% of the neurons accounted for 70% of the total IT coming into, and going out of the network and were defined as rich nodes. These rich nodes were more densely and strongly connected to each other expected by chance, forming a rich club. This highly uneven distribution of IT has implications for the efficiency and robustness of local cortical networks, and gives clues to the plastic processes that shape them. JSPS.

  10. H2O Formation in C-rich AGB Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombaert, R.; Decin, L.; Royer, P.; de Koter, A.; Cox, N. L. J.; De Ridder, J.; Khouri, T.; Agúndez, M.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Cernicharo, J.; González-Alfonso, E.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Kerschbaum, F.; Neufeld, D.; Vandenbussche, B.; Waelkens, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Herschel detection of warm H2O vapor emission from C-rich winds of AGB stars challenges the current understanding of circumstellar chemistry. Two mechanisms have been invoked to explain warm H2O formation. In the first, penetration of UV interstellar radiation through a clumpy circumstellar medium causes the formation of H2O molecules in the inner envelope. In the second, periodic shocks passing through the medium immediately above the stellar surface lead to H2O formation. We have identified H2O emission trends from distance-independent line-strength ratios in a sample of 18 C-rich AGB sources, by comparing to a theoretical model grid. We detect warm H2O emission close to or inside the acceleration zone of all sample stars. We find an anti-correlation between the H2O/CO line-strength ratios and the mass-loss rate for Mgas>3×10-7 M⊙/yr. This implies that the H2O formation mechanism becomes less efficient with increasing envelope column density. The anti-correlation breaks down for SRb objects, which clump together at an overall lower H2O abundance. Finally, a radial dependence of the H2O abundance within individual sources is unlikely. These findings lend support to shock-induced non-equilibrium chemistry as the primary source of H2O formation in C-rich AGB stars.

  11. Storage and Transport of Hydrocarbons in Organic-Rich Mudstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinberg, R. L.; Falk, K. I.; Coasne, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Organic-rich mudstones - also called source rocks - are capable of economically producing significant quantities of oil and natural gas. Although the static physical and chemical properties of these rocks are generally well understood, the dynamics of hydrocarbon fluids in them is still a matter of conjecture and debate. In conventional porous petroleum reservoirs, the solid matrix is composed of inorganic minerals such as quartz or calcite, pore sizes are in the range of micrometers, and the following assumptions generally hold to a high degree of approximation: (1) thermodynamic and transport properties of the pore fluids are identical to their bulk values; (2) matrix solids are inert; (3) fluid-solid interactions are fully described by simple notions of wettability. In contrast, in source rock, oil and gas are in intimate contact with an organic solid called kerogen, the pore spaces of which are comparable to molecular dimensions. Therefore the dynamics of hydrocarbons in organic-rich mudstones must take into account significant departures from bulk thermodynamics and hydrodynamics, and fluid-solid interactions are molecular-species specific. We present a multi-scale model of organic-rich mudstone that is consistent with a variety of molecular-level computations and physical property measurements, and that may serve as a basis for understanding the oil and gas production mechanisms of these rocks.

  12. Plant species richness increases phosphatase activities in an experimental grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Nina; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Oelmann, Yvonne

    2014-05-01

    Plant species richness has been shown to increase aboveground nutrient uptake requiring the mobilization of soil nutrient pools. For phosphorus (P) the underlying mechanisms for increased P release in soil under highly diverse grassland mixtures remain obscure because aboveground P storage and concentrations of inorganic and organic P in soil solution and differently reactive soil P pools are unrelated (Oelmann et al. 2011). The need of plants and soil microorganisms for P can increase the exudation of enzymes hydrolyzing organically bound P (phosphatases) which might represent an important release mechanism of inorganic P in a competitive environment such as highly diverse grassland mixtures. Our objectives were to test the effects of i) plant functional groups (legumes, grasses, non-leguminous tall and small herbs), and of (ii) plant species richness on microbial P (Pmic) and phosphatase activities in soil. In autumn 2013, we measured Pmic and alkaline phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase activities in soil of 80 grassland mixtures comprising different community compositions and species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 60) in the Jena Experiment. In general, Pmic and enzyme activities were correlated (r = 0.59 and 0.46 for phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase activities, respectively; p

  13. Collagen-rich crystalloids in a scarred vascularized cornea.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Natalie A; Wright, Tarra M; Cummings, Thomas J; Proia, Alan D

    2005-09-01

    Collagen-rich crystalloids, also referred to as collagenous crystalloids, are uncommon findings in benign salivary gland tumors with myoepithelial differentiation and in cutaneous neoplasms. Herein, we report the presence of collagen-rich crystalloids in the scarred, vascularized cornea of a 56-year-old woman. The patient underwent penetrating keratoplasty, and microscopic examination of hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections disclosed large aggregates of refractile material within the corneal stroma. The deposits were partially birefringent when viewed with polarized light and composed of radially arranged columns (long rectangles) with rounded to pointed tips. The deposits had tinctorial properties of collagen using Masson trichrome and the van Gieson method for collagen, and they stained with Alcian blue, pH 2.5, and Verhoeff elastic stain. They did not stain with Gomori methenamine silver, Snook reticulin stain, or tyrosine using the Baker modification of the Millon reaction. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of collagen-rich crystalloids in the cornea. Their presence in the cornea indicates that these structures may occur in the absence of neoplasia.

  14. Open architecture for health care systems: the European RICHE experience.

    PubMed

    Frandji, B

    1997-01-01

    Groupe RICHE is bringing to the market of health IT the Open Systems approach allowing a new generation of health information systems to arise with benefit for patients, health care professionals, hospital managers, agencies and citizens. Groupe RICHE is a forum for exchanging information, expertise around open systems in health care. It is open to any organisation interested by open systems in health care and wanting to participate and influence the work done by its user, marketing and technical committees. The Technical Committee is in charge of the maintenance of the architecture and impact the results of industrial experiences on new releases. Any Groupe RICHE member is entitled to participate to this process. This unique approach in Europe allows health care professionals to benefit from applications supporting their business processes, including providing a cooperative working environment, a shared electronic record, in an integrated system where the information is entered only once, customised according to the user needs and available to the administrative applications. This allows Hospital managers to satisfy their health care professionals, to smoothly migrate from their existing environment (protecting their investment), to choose products in a competitive environment, being able to mix and match system components and services from different suppliers, being free to change suppliers without having to replace their existing system (minimising risk), in line with national and regional strategies. For suppliers, this means being able to commercialise products well fitted to their field of competence in a large market, reducing investments and increasing returns. The RICHE approach also allows agencies to define a strategy, allowing to create a supporting infrastructure, organising the market leaving enough freedom to health care organisations and suppliers. Such an approach is based on the definition of an open standard architecture. The RICHE esprit project

  15. Lithium-rich giants in the Galactic thick disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, L.; Villanova, S.; Moni Bidin, C.; Carraro, G.; Geisler, D.; Bonifacio, P.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Zoccali, M.; Jilkova, L.

    2011-05-01

    Context. Lithium is a fragile element, which is easily destroyed in the stellar interior. The existence of lithium-rich giants still represents a challenge for stellar evolution models. Aims: We have collected a large database of high-resolution stellar spectra of 824 candidate thick-disk giants having 2 MASS photometry and proper motions measured by the Southern Proper-Motion Program (SPM). In order to investigate the nature of Li-rich giants, we searched this database for giants presenting a strong Li I resonance line. Methods: We performed a chemical abundance analysis on the selected stars with the MOOG code along with proper ATLAS-9 model atmospheres. The iron content and atmospheric parameters were fixed by using the equivalent width of a sample of Fe lines. We also derive abundances for C, N, and O and measure or derive lower limits on the 12C/13C isotopic ratios, which is a sensible diagnostic of the stars evolutionary status. Results: We detected five stars with a lithium abundance higher than 1.5, i.e. Li-rich according to the current definition. One of them (SPM-313132) has A(Li) > 3.3 and, because of this, belongs to the group of the rare super Li-rich giants. Its kinematics makes it a likely thin-disk member and its atmospheric parameters are compatible with it being a 4 M⊙ star either on the red giant branch (RGB) or the early asymptotic giant branch. This object is the first super Li-rich giant detected at this phase. The other four are likely low-mass thick-disk stars evolved past the RGB luminosity bump, as determined from their metallicities and atmospheric parameters. The most evolved of them lies close to the RGB-tip. It has A(Li) > 2.7 and a low 12C/13C isotopic ratio, close to the cool bottom processing predictions. Based on observations taken at the Las Campanas and La Silla/ Paranal observatory (ESO proposal ID: 077.B-0348).

  16. ON INFRARED EXCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH Li-RICH K GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Rebull, Luisa M.; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Gibbs, John C.; Cashen, Sarah; Datta, Ashwin; Hodgson, Emily; Lince, Megan; Deeb, J. Elin; Larsen, Estefania; Altepeter, Shailyn; Bucksbee, Ethan; Clarke, Matthew; Black, David V.

    2015-10-15

    Infrared (IR) excesses around K-type red giants (RGs) have previously been discovered using Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data, and past studies have suggested a link between RGs with overabundant Li and IR excesses, implying the ejection of circumstellar shells or disks. We revisit the question of IR excesses around RGs using higher spatial resolution IR data, primarily from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Our goal was to elucidate the link between three unusual RG properties: fast rotation, enriched Li, and IR excess. Our sample of RGs includes those with previous IR detections, a sample with well-defined rotation and Li abundance measurements with no previous IR measurements, and a large sample of RGs asserted to be Li-rich in the literature; we have 316 targets thought to be K giants, about 40% of which we take to be Li-rich. In 24 cases with previous detections of IR excess at low spatial resolution, we believe that source confusion is playing a role, in that either (a) the source that is bright in the optical is not responsible for the IR flux, or (b) there is more than one source responsible for the IR flux as measured in IRAS. We looked for IR excesses in the remaining sources, identifying 28 that have significant IR excesses by ∼20 μm (with possible excesses for 2 additional sources). There appears to be an intriguing correlation in that the largest IR excesses are all in Li-rich K giants, though very few Li-rich K giants have IR excesses (large or small). These largest IR excesses also tend to be found in the fastest rotators. There is no correlation of IR excess with the carbon isotopic ratio, {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C. IR excesses by 20 μm, though relatively rare, are at least twice as common among our sample of Li-rich K giants. If dust shell production is a common by-product of Li enrichment mechanisms, these observations suggest that the IR excess stage is very short-lived, which is supported by theoretical calculations. Conversely, the

  17. On Infrared Excesses Associated with Li-rich K Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebull, Luisa M.; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Gibbs, John C.; Deeb, J. Elin; Larsen, Estefania; Black, David V.; Altepeter, Shailyn; Bucksbee, Ethan; Cashen, Sarah; Clarke, Matthew; Datta, Ashwin; Hodgson, Emily; Lince, Megan

    2015-10-01

    Infrared (IR) excesses around K-type red giants (RGs) have previously been discovered using Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data, and past studies have suggested a link between RGs with overabundant Li and IR excesses, implying the ejection of circumstellar shells or disks. We revisit the question of IR excesses around RGs using higher spatial resolution IR data, primarily from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Our goal was to elucidate the link between three unusual RG properties: fast rotation, enriched Li, and IR excess. Our sample of RGs includes those with previous IR detections, a sample with well-defined rotation and Li abundance measurements with no previous IR measurements, and a large sample of RGs asserted to be Li-rich in the literature; we have 316 targets thought to be K giants, about 40% of which we take to be Li-rich. In 24 cases with previous detections of IR excess at low spatial resolution, we believe that source confusion is playing a role, in that either (a) the source that is bright in the optical is not responsible for the IR flux, or (b) there is more than one source responsible for the IR flux as measured in IRAS. We looked for IR excesses in the remaining sources, identifying 28 that have significant IR excesses by ∼20 μm (with possible excesses for 2 additional sources). There appears to be an intriguing correlation in that the largest IR excesses are all in Li-rich K giants, though very few Li-rich K giants have IR excesses (large or small). These largest IR excesses also tend to be found in the fastest rotators. There is no correlation of IR excess with the carbon isotopic ratio, 12C/13C. IR excesses by 20 μm, though relatively rare, are at least twice as common among our sample of Li-rich K giants. If dust shell production is a common by-product of Li enrichment mechanisms, these observations suggest that the IR excess stage is very short-lived, which is supported by theoretical calculations. Conversely, the Li

  18. On Infrared Excesses Associated with Li-Rich K Giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebull, Luisa M.; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Gibbs, John C.; Deeb, J. Elin; Larsen, Estefania; Black, David V.; Altepeter, Shailyn; Bucksbee, Ethan; Cashen, Sarah; Clarke, Matthew; Datta, Ashwin; Hodgson, Emily; Lince, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) excesses around K-type red giants (RGs) have previously been discovered using Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data, and past studies have suggested a link between RGs with overabundant lithium and IR excesses, implying the ejection of circumstellar shells or disks. We revisit the question of IR excesses around RGs using higher spatial resolution IR data, primarily from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Our goal was to elucidate the link between three unusual RG properties: fast rotation, enriched lithium, and IR excess. Our sample of RGs includes those with previous IR detections, a sample with well-defined rotation and lithium abundance measurements with no previous IR measurements, and a large sample of RGs asserted to be lithium-rich in the literature; we have 316 targets thought to be K giants, about 40% of which we take to be Li-rich. In 24 cases with previous detections of IR excess at low spatial resolution, we believe that source confusion is playing a role, in that either (a) the source that is bright in the optical is not responsible for the IR flux, or (b) there is more than one source responsible for the IR flux as measured in IRAS. We looked for IR excesses in the remaining sources, identifying 28 that have significant IR excesses by approximately 20 micrometers (with possible excesses for 2 additional sources). There appears to be an intriguing correlation in that the largest IR excesses are all in Li-rich K giants, though very few lithium-rich K giants have IR excesses (large or small). These largest IR excesses also tend to be found in the fastest rotators. There is no correlation of IR excess with the carbon isotopic ratio, 12C/13C. IR excesses by 20 micrometers, though relatively rare, are at least twice as common among our sample of lithium-rich K giants. If dust shell production is a common by-product of Li enrichment mechanisms, these observations suggest that the IR excess stage is very short-lived, which is supported

  19. Open architecture for health care systems: the European RICHE experience.

    PubMed

    Frandji, B

    1997-01-01

    Groupe RICHE is bringing to the market of health IT the Open Systems approach allowing a new generation of health information systems to arise with benefit for patients, health care professionals, hospital managers, agencies and citizens. Groupe RICHE is a forum for exchanging information, expertise around open systems in health care. It is open to any organisation interested by open systems in health care and wanting to participate and influence the work done by its user, marketing and technical committees. The Technical Committee is in charge of the maintenance of the architecture and impact the results of industrial experiences on new releases. Any Groupe RICHE member is entitled to participate to this process. This unique approach in Europe allows health care professionals to benefit from applications supporting their business processes, including providing a cooperative working environment, a shared electronic record, in an integrated system where the information is entered only once, customised according to the user needs and available to the administrative applications. This allows Hospital managers to satisfy their health care professionals, to smoothly migrate from their existing environment (protecting their investment), to choose products in a competitive environment, being able to mix and match system components and services from different suppliers, being free to change suppliers without having to replace their existing system (minimising risk), in line with national and regional strategies. For suppliers, this means being able to commercialise products well fitted to their field of competence in a large market, reducing investments and increasing returns. The RICHE approach also allows agencies to define a strategy, allowing to create a supporting infrastructure, organising the market leaving enough freedom to health care organisations and suppliers. Such an approach is based on the definition of an open standard architecture. The RICHE esprit project

  20. Composition and mineralogy of refractory-metal-rich assemblages from a Ca,Al-rich inclusion in the Allende meteorite

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, A. Institut fuer Mineralogie, Muenster ); Palme, H. )

    1987-10-01

    The authors have separated four refractory metal-rich samples (10 {mu}g to 190 {mu}g) from a single Ca,Al-inclusion of the Allende meteorite. Chemical analyses were performed by INAA. From the analyzed samples polished sections were prepared. Mineral phases from six large Fremdlinge and the surrounding inclusion were analyzed by EDS. Three of the four separated samples have variable absolute but similar relative abundances of refractory metals. The pattern is controlled by volatility. The most refractory metals W, Os, and Re are enriched relative to the less refractory metals Ir, Mo, Ru, and Pt. This pattern can be reproduced by condensation calculations. A metal alloy in equilibrium with a gas of solar composition at a temperature of 1672 K, a pressure of 10{sup {minus}3} atm, and an H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}-ratio of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} would have the same abundance pattern. All six Fremdlinge have similar texture and mineralogy. They are composed of Ni-rich metal containing 2-9% Ir, surrounded by a fine-grained intergrowth of V-magnetite and FeS. The Ni-Fe metal poikilitically encloses tiny Os-particles, domains of a W- and Mo-rich solid solution (Ca(W,Mo)O{sub 4}) and V-magnetite. Based on chemical and textural information obtained in this study the formation of these aggregates in four steps is suggested: (1) condensation of a refractory metal alloys (W, Os, Re, Ir, Mo, Ru); (2) oxidation of the refractory metal alloy, allowing formation of Ca(W,Mo)O{sub 4}; (3) condensation of Ni-rich metal and V-magnetite at high oxygen fugacity (relative to the f{sub O{sub 2}} in a solar gas); (4) reaction of the existing assemblage with S to form FeS at lower temperatures.