Science.gov

Sample records for liberalised power markets

  1. Increasing nuclear power at liberalised energy markets- case Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syri, S.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Satka, V.

    2012-10-01

    Several Finnish projections for future electricity demand and the need for peak load capacity indicate a demand growth of about 2 GW from the present to the year 2030. The retirement of existing fossil fuel plants and old nuclear power plants will cause increased net import needs during 2020's, even when assuming additional energy efficiency measures and the commissioning of two new nuclear power plants recently approved by the Finnish Parliament. By the year 2030, the need for additional new capacity will be about 6 GW. The increased dependence on import is in contradiction with the official Government targets. This situation is not unique to Finland, but rather is likely to be the case in many other European countries as well. Both the energy company Fortum and energy-intensive industry in Finland see nuclear energy as a viable future generation technology. We describe the « Mankala » concept which is successfully used to build new nuclear capacity at liberalised electricity market in Finland.

  2. NHS market liberalisation and the TTIP agreement.

    PubMed

    Regan, Paul; Ball, Elaine

    2016-07-01

    Governments over the past three decades have undermined the founding principles of the NHS through reforms and market liberalisation. With greater involvement of commercial interests in health care, the NHS will become less democratic and transparent. Recent reforms, which were intended to improve productivity, quality and cost efficiency, have left the NHS exposed to the unwieldy model of market liberalisation and the attrition of public health care. The role of community nurses has been particularly destabilised by commissioning, as their work is difficult to measure. The advent of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership could further undermine the NHS to the benefit of international commercial interests.

  3. Effects of market liberalisation on smoking in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Honjo, K.; Kawachi, I.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To document the effect of the liberalisation of the Japanese tobacco market on Japanese smoking rates and on Japanese tobacco industry practices.
DATA SOURCE—Asahi Shimbun (major daily newspaper) from 1980 to 1996.
STUDY SELECTION—Review of media coverage on the effects of market liberalisation following the imposition of the USA's section 301 trade sanction.
DATA SYNTHESIS—The opening of Japan's tobacco market to foreign cigarette companies stalled a decline in smoking prevalence. Smoking rates among young women increased significantly, and also appear to be on the rise among adolescents. Aggressive marketing and promotional activities by US and Japanese tobacco companies in response to trade liberalisation appear responsible for these adverse trends. Steep increases in sales through vending machines were also possible contributors to the rising smoking prevalence among adolescents. On the positive side, market liberalisation indirectly promoted smoking control efforts in Japan, by causing an anti-smoking movement to coalesce.
CONCLUSION—Market liberalisation in Japan played a significant role in increasing smoking prevalence among young women and adolescents while helping to transform the issue of smoking in Japan from a matter of individual choice to a public health problem.


Keywords: Japan; market liberalisation PMID:10841856

  4. Effects of market liberalisation on smoking in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honjo, K; Kawachi, I

    2000-06-01

    To document the effect of the liberalisation of the Japanese tobacco market on Japanese smoking rates and on Japanese tobacco industry practices. Asahi Shimbun (major daily newspaper) from 1980 to 1996. Review of media coverage on the effects of market liberalisation following the imposition of the USA's section 301 trade sanction. The opening of Japan's tobacco market to foreign cigarette companies stalled a decline in smoking prevalence. Smoking rates among young women increased significantly, and also appear to be on the rise among adolescents. Aggressive marketing and promotional activities by US and Japanese tobacco companies in response to trade liberalisation appear responsible for these adverse trends. Steep increases in sales through vending machines were also possible contributors to the rising smoking prevalence among adolescents. On the positive side, market liberalisation indirectly promoted smoking control efforts in Japan, by causing an anti-smoking movement to coalesce. Market liberalisation in Japan played a significant role in increasing smoking prevalence among young women and adolescents while helping to transform the issue of smoking in Japan from a matter of individual choice to a public health problem.

  5. Creating demand for foreign brands in a 'home run' market: tobacco company tactics in South Korea following market liberalisation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Kelley; Holden, Chris

    2014-05-01

    To analyse the tactics transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) used to increase market share in South Korea after market liberalisation in 1988, and the subsequent impact of TTCs' activities on the domestic industry and ultimately public health. Internal tobacco industry documents were searched iteratively and analysed by keyword related to strategies for increasing market share in Korea since liberalisation. Following market liberalisation, TTCs faced entrenched cultural and institutional barriers in Korea which hindered increased sales of cigarette imports. TTCs identified population groups more favourably inclined towards imported brands, developed new distribution channels and used promotional activities targeting these groups. The growth in market share by TTCs suggests that these activities were successful at challenging the Korea Tobacco & Ginseng Corporation (KTGC) monopoly. In response, KTGC shifted to a proactive marketing approach and adopted strategies similar to TTCs. This, in turn, made the Korean market highly competitive. Findings show that, after market liberalisation, there was an upward trend in cigarette consumption and smoking prevalence among the targeted population groups, notably youth and young women. Governments engaging in trade negotiations that may lead to the opening of domestic tobacco markets need a fuller understanding of previous industry activities for expanding into emerging markets as well as how the domestic industry can change accordingly. To protect public health, the adoption of comprehensive tobacco control measures, guided by WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, are needed as part of such negotiations.

  6. Carbon pricing, nuclear power and electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, R.; Keppler, J. H.

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the NEA in conjunction with the International Energy Agency produced an analysis of the Projected Costs of Electricity for almost 200 power plants, covering nuclear, fossil fuel and renewable electricity generation. That analysis used lifetime costs to consider the merits of each technology. However, the lifetime cost analysis is less applicable in liberalised markets and does not look specifically at the viewpoint of the private investor. A follow-up NEA assessment of the competitiveness of nuclear energy against coal- and gas-fired generation under carbon pricing has considered just this question. The economic competition in electricity markets is today between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power generation not being competitive as soon as even modest carbon pricing is introduced. Whether nuclear energy or natural gas comes out ahead in their competition depends on a number of assumptions, which, while all entirely reasonable, yield very different outcomes. The analysis in this study has been developed on the basis of daily data from European power markets over the last five-year period. Three different methodologies, a Profit Analysis looking at historic returns over the past five years, an Investment Analysis projecting the conditions of the past five years over the lifetime of plants and a Carbon Tax Analysis (differentiating the Investment Analysis for different carbon prices) look at the issue of competitiveness from different angles. They show that the competitiveness of nuclear energy depends on a number of variables which in different configurations determine whether electricity produced from nuclear power or from CCGTs generates higher profits for its investors. These are overnight costs, financing costs, gas prices, carbon prices, profit margins (or mark-ups), the amount of coal with carbon capture and electricity prices. This paper will present the outcomes of the analysis in the context of a liberalised

  7. Electricity Market Liberalisation and Flexibility of Conventional Generation to Balance Intermittent Renewable Energy - Is It Possible to Stay Competitive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkevics, O.; Ivanova, P.; Balodis, M.

    2016-12-01

    Intermittent generation (solar PV and wind energy) integration in power production portfolio as well as electricity price fluctuations have changed the running manner of conventional combined heat and power (CHP) plants: the shift from base load operation to running in cyclic modes. These cogeneration power plants are not adapted to new running conditions. The level of CHP plant flexibility should be improved to operate profitably and efficiently from both technical and fuel usage point of view. There are different ways to increase the flexibility of power plants. Before any improvements, the situation at power plants should be evaluated and the weakest points defined. In this publication, such measures are presented on Riga CHP-2 plant example: installation of heat storage tank; extension of operation rang; acceleration of start-ups.

  8. Power marketers flex at FERC

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, W.L.; Burkhart, L.A.

    1995-02-01

    Electric utilities beware. Power marketers are not only here to stay, but their ranks are growing. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) logged approximately 81 applications in 1994, compared to nine in 1993. About half have been acted on already. The fledgling industry is also staking out its regulatory territory. Notably, on December 14, the FERC ordered the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to provide nonfirm transmission service to AES Power Inc. of Atlanta, GA, a power marketing subsidiary of AES Corp.-to accommodate AES Power`s current and future bulk-power marketing transactions (Docket No. TX94-7-000). This marks the first time the FERC has granted a power marketer`s request to require wheeling from a federal power agency. As a power marketer, AES Power takes title to electric power that it purchases and sells for resale, thus qualifying as a public utility under the Federal Power Act. In its filing, AES Power sought nonfirm, point-to-point transmission service under an umbrella agreement that would establish the rates, terms, and conditions under which AES could request specific transactions without applying under section 211 each time. AES Power also sought assurances that it would not be charged more than other parties, including TVA itself, for comparable service. The power marketer agreed to be subject to a postage-stamp ceiling rate that gives TVA the flexibility to quote any rate up to the ceiling.

  9. Market concentration and marketing power among electricity generators in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Zarnikau, J.; Lam, A.

    1998-11-01

    Policy initiatives designed to foster competition among electricity generators in Texas face a special challenge due to the relative isolation of that system. This isolation contributes to high levels of market concentration and market power that could hinder the development of a truly competitive market. This paper examines market concentration and market power in the ERCOT market for electricity generation by calculating the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI) under various assumptions to gauge the degree of market concentration among generators in ERCOT. In addition, some ongoing studies of market power in ERCOT are discussed. The distinction between market concentration and market power is highlighted.

  10. Green Power Markets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  11. Power plant engineering for overseas market

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, K.S.

    1994-12-31

    Korea`s experience in power plant engineering for the overseas market is reviewed. The following topics are discussed: the Asian electric power market, ordering characteristics, country situations, and overseas market requirements.

  12. Methods for Estimation of Market Power in Electric Power Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcik, M.; Oleinikova, I.; Junghans, G.; Kolcun, M.

    2012-01-01

    The article is related to a topical issue of the newly-arisen market power phenomenon in the electric power industry. The authors point out to the importance of effective instruments and methods for credible estimation of the market power on liberalized electricity market as well as the forms and consequences of market power abuse. The fundamental principles and methods of the market power estimation are given along with the most common relevant indicators. Furthermore, in the work a proposal for determination of the relevant market place taking into account the specific features of power system and a theoretical example of estimating the residual supply index (RSI) in the electricity market are given.

  13. Emissions markets, power markets and market power: A study of the interactions between contemporary emissions markets and deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormady, Noah Christopher

    Chapter 1: A Monte Carlo Approach. The use of auctions to distribute tradeable property rights to firms in already heavily concentrated markets may further exacerbate the problems of market power that exist within those markets. This chapter provides a model of a two-stage emissions market modeled after a contemporary regional permit trading market in the United States, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Inc. (RGGI). It then introduces Oligopsony 1.0, a C# software package constructed in the .NET environment that simulates uniform-price auctions using stochastic Monte Carlo simulation for modeling market power in tradeable property rights auctions. Monte Carlo methods add a probabilistic element to standard auction theoretic equilibria. The results of these simulations indicate that there can be significant non-linearities between profit and market power as exercised through strategic demand reduction. This analysis finds the optimum point of strategic demand reduction that enables the firm to exploit these non-linearities, and it determines the probability distributions of these optima using kernel density analysis. Chapter 2: An Experimental Approach. How will emerging auction-based emissions markets function within the context of today's deregulated auction-based electricity markets? This chapter provides an experimental analysis of a joint energy-emissions market. The impact of market power and collusion among dominant firms is evaluated to determine the extent to which an auction-based tradeable permit market influences performance in an adjacent electricity market. The experimental treatment design controls for a variety of real-world institutional features, including variable demand, permit banking, inter-temporal (multi-round) dynamics, a tightening cap, and resale. Results suggest that the exercise of market power significantly increases electricity auction clearing prices, without significantly increasing emissions

  14. Vertical integration and market power

    SciTech Connect

    Maddigan, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    One of the continuing debates of industrial organization surrounds the importance of market structure in determining a firm's performance. This controversy develops naturally from the difficulties in measuring the relevant variables and the hazards of statistical analysis. The focus of this empirical study is the relationship between vertical integration, as an element of market structure, and market power, as a component of a firm's performance. The model presented in this paper differs from previous efforts because vertical integration is measured by the Vertical Industry Connections (VIC) index. VIC is defined as a function of the relative net interactions among the industries in which a firm operates, and is calculated by use of the national input-output tables. A linear regression model is estimated by means of a random sample of firms selected from the Standard and Poor's COMPUSTAT data base for 1963, 1967, and 1972. Combined cross-sectional, time-series methods are employed. The dependent variable is the price-cost margin; the independent variables include not only VIC, but also the concentration ratio, diversification index, value of assets, capital-output ratio, and sales growth. The results indicate that VIC is significant in increasing the price-cost margin, and thus support the hypothesis that vertical integration is a strategy to enhance market power. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  15. Peak Power Markets for Satellite Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces first Indonesia, comprises 15,000 islands, has land area of two millions square kilometers. Extending from 95 to 141 degrees East longitude and from 6 degrees North to 11 degrees South latitude. Further the market of the Space Solar Power/SPS must be worldwide, including Indonesia. As we know, it can provide electricity anywhere in the world from the Earth's orbit, mostly Indonesia an equator country. We have to perform case studies of various countries to understand their benefits and disadvantages provided by the SSP, because each country has much different condition on energy from other countries. We are at the moment starting the international collaboration between Indonesia and Japan to carry out the case study for Indonesia. We understand that in Indonesia itself each province has much different micro-climate between one province compared to the other. In Japan, METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) has already organized a committee to investigate the feasibility of Space Solar Power and to make a plan to launch a space demonstration of the SPS. While, Indonesia is quickly developing economy and increasing their energy demand. We are investigating the detailed energy conditions of Indonesia, the benefits and disadvantages of the Space Solar Power for Indonesia. Especially, we will perform the investigation on the receiving system for the Japanese pilot Space Power Satellite.

  16. Optional forward contracts for electric power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Gedra, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    The use of financial options and forward contracts is discussed in the context of electric power markets. Optional forward contracts are proposed as a mechanism for allocating power consumption and generating among market participants, either in conjunction with, or in place of, the so-called [open quotes]spot[close quotes] market. The role of optional forwards in maintaining system security in a decentralized, deregulated electric power market is also discussed.

  17. 78 FR 79444 - Loveland Area Projects-2025 Power Marketing Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects--2025 Power Marketing Initiative AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Final 2025 Power Marketing Initiative. SUMMARY: Western Area Power Administration (Western), Rocky Mountain Region, a Federal power marketing agency of the...

  18. The inevitable commoditization of electric power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Mango, B.; Woodley, J.A.C.

    1994-11-01

    As competition grows between electric suppliers it is inevitable that a spot market in electricity will evolve. The impetus is the market demand for greater asset productivity. With prices revealed, a commodity market will follow. With spot and commodity markets will come the power to reallocate risk and make capital investment more productive. Given price volatility, separate markets will develop for near- and long-term hedging instruments.

  19. Trade Liberalisation in Education Services: Opportunities and Risks for SADC Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpinganjira, M.

    2009-01-01

    Education has become a "commodity" widely tradable on the international market. This has resulted in the sector being subjected to multinational as well as global priorities and agreements. This paper looks at the opportunities and risks of international trade liberalisation moves in the high education sector on member countries of the…

  20. Trade Liberalisation in Education Services: Opportunities and Risks for SADC Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpinganjira, M.

    2009-01-01

    Education has become a "commodity" widely tradable on the international market. This has resulted in the sector being subjected to multinational as well as global priorities and agreements. This paper looks at the opportunities and risks of international trade liberalisation moves in the high education sector on member countries of the…

  1. Competition and market power in option demand markets.

    PubMed

    Capps, Cory; Dranove, David; Satterthwaite, Mark

    2003-01-01

    We call markets in which intermediaries sell networks of suppliers to consumers who are uncertain about their needs "option demand markets." In these markets, suppliers may grant the intermediaries discounts in order to be admitted to their networks. We derive a measure of each supplier's market power within the network; the measure is based on the additional ex ante expected utility consumers obtain from the supplier's inclusion. We empirically validate the WTP measure by considering managed care purchases of hospital services in the San Diego market. Finally, we present three applications, including an analysis of hospital mergers in San Diego.

  2. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    PubMed

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours.

  3. Market power and provider consolidation in physician markets.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, Samuel A; White, William D; Lyons, Sean

    2015-03-01

    Physician services comprise a substantial share of total health care spending, and the price of health care services has been cited as a key contributor to the disproportionately high rate of health care spending in the US. However, despite a large literature analyzing market power in the hospital and insurance industries, less is known about the extent to which physicians exercise market power. In this study we make use of a private health insurance claims data set to analyze physician market power for two specialties within three mid-sized US metropolitan areas. Using a method developed for hospital competition analysis, we estimate measures of consumer willingness-to-pay for physician practices within each of these markets and relate these to the prices paid to these practices for a set of physician services. Our results are suggestive of the presence of market power in the markets that we analyze. We simulate physician practice mergers for the two largest practices in each market for each specialty analyzed. Results suggest that practice mergers could result in price increases deemed significant by antitrust authorities in some markets but not in others.

  4. Three essays on "making" electric power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kench, Brian Thomas

    2000-10-01

    Technological change over the past three decades has altered most of the basic conditions in the electric power industry. Because of technical progress, the dominant paradigm has shifted from the provision of electric power by regulated and vertically integrated local natural monopolies to competition and vertical separation. In the first essay I provide a historical context of the electric industry's power current deregulation debate. Then a dynamic model of induced institutional change is used to investigate how endogenous technological advancements have induced radical institutional change in the generation and transmission segments of the electric power industry. Because the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) ordered regulated utilities to provide open access to their transmission networks and to separate their generation and transmission functions, transmission networks have been used more intensively and in much different ways then in the past. The second essay tests experimentally the predictions of neoclassical theory for a radial electric power market under two alternative deregulated transmission institutions: financial transmission rights and physical transmission rights. Experimental evidence presented there demonstrates that an electric power market with physical transmission rights governing its transmission network generates more "right" market signals relative to a transmission network governed by financial transmission rights. The move to a greater reliance on markets for electric power is an idea that has animated sweeping and dramatic changes in the traditional business of electric power. The third essay examines two of the most innovative and complex initiatives of making electric power markets in the United States: California and PJM. As those markets mature and others are made, they must revise their governance mechanisms to eliminate rules that create inefficiency and adopt rules that work efficiently elsewhere. I argue that

  5. Assessment of the association of health with the liberalisation of trade in services under the World Trade Organisation.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Peña, Román; Franco-Giraldo, Álvaro; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Díaz, Carlos Álvarez-Dardet; Ruíz-Cantero, María Teresa; Gil-González, Diana; Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso

    2014-01-01

    The liberalisation of trade in services which began in 1995 under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) has generated arguments for and against its potential health effects. Our goal was to explore the relationship between the liberalisation of services under the GATS and three health indicators--life expectancy (LE), under-5 mortality (U5M) and maternal mortality (MM)--since the WTO was established. This was a cross-sectional ecological study that explored the association in 2010 and 1995 between liberalisation and health (LE, U5M and MM), and between liberalisation and progress in health in the period 1995-2010, considering variables related to economic and social policies such as per capita income (GDP pc), public expenditure on health (PEH), and income inequality (Gini index). The units of observation and analysis were WTO member countries with data available for 2010 (n = 116), 1995 (n = 114) and 1995-2010 (n = 114). We conducted bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted for GDP pc, Gini and PEH. Increased global liberalisation in services under the WTO was associated with better health in 2010 (U5M: -0.358 p<0.001; MM: -0.338 p = 0.001; LE: 0.247 p = 0.008) and in 1995, after adjusting for economic and social policy variables. For the period 1995-2010, progress in health was associated with income equality, PEH and per capita income. No association was found with global liberalisation in services. The favourable association in 2010 between health and liberalisation in services under the WTO seems to reflect a pre-WTO association observed in the 1995 data. However, this liberalisation did not appear as a factor associated with progress in health during 1995-2010. Income equality, health expenditure and per capita income were more powerful determinants of the health of populations.

  6. Market Based Analysis of Power System Interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obushevs, Artjoms; Turcik, Mario; Oleinikova, Irina; Junghans, Gatis

    2011-01-01

    Analysis in this Article is focused on usage of transmission grid under liberalized market with implicit transmission capacity allocation method, e.g. Nordic market. Attention is paid on fundamental changes in transmission utilization and its economical effective operation. For interconnection and power flow analysis and losses calculation model of Nordic grid was developed and transmission losses calculation method was created. Given approach will improve economical efficiency of system operation in electricity market conditions.

  7. 18 CFR 284.503 - Market-power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Market-power... RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for Storage § 284.503 Market-power determination. An applicant may apply for market-based rates by filing a request for a market-power determination...

  8. 18 CFR 284.503 - Market-power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Market-power... RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for Storage § 284.503 Market-power determination. An applicant may apply for market-based rates by filing a request for a market-power determination...

  9. 18 CFR 284.503 - Market-power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Market-power... RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for Storage § 284.503 Market-power determination. An applicant may apply for market-based rates by filing a request for a market-power...

  10. 18 CFR 284.503 - Market-power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Market-power... RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for Storage § 284.503 Market-power determination. An applicant may apply for market-based rates by filing a request for a market-power...

  11. 18 CFR 284.503 - Market-power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Market-power... RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for Storage § 284.503 Market-power determination. An applicant may apply for market-based rates by filing a request for a market-power...

  12. Resonating models for the electric power market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucheroni, Carlo

    2007-11-01

    This paper describes the economic phenomenon of price spiking in electric power markets and introduces an alternative way to model it. A stochastic FitzHugh-Nagumo dynamics in a special regime is proposed as a basic model for the power market, and an extension of the FitzHugh-Nagumo system is introduced to improve the statistical features of the basic model. Ideas from stochastic and coherence resonance are used to discuss the models.

  13. Resonating models for the electric power market.

    PubMed

    Lucheroni, Carlo

    2007-11-01

    This paper describes the economic phenomenon of price spiking in electric power markets and introduces an alternative way to model it. A stochastic FitzHugh-Nagumo dynamics in a special regime is proposed as a basic model for the power market, and an extension of the FitzHugh-Nagumo system is introduced to improve the statistical features of the basic model. Ideas from stochastic and coherence resonance are used to discuss the models.

  14. Wind power generation and dispatch in competitive power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Lisias

    Wind energy is currently the fastest growing type of renewable energy. The main motivation is led by more strict emission constraints and higher fuel prices. In addition, recent developments in wind turbine technology and financial incentives have made wind energy technically and economically viable almost anywhere. In restructured power systems, reliable and economical operation of power systems are the two main objectives for the ISO. The ability to control the output of wind turbines is limited and the capacity of a wind farm changes according to wind speeds. Since this type of generation has no production costs, all production is taken by the system. Although, insufficient operational planning of power systems considering wind generation could result in higher system operation costs and off-peak transmission congestions. In addition, a GENCO can participate in short-term power markets in restructured power systems. The goal of a GENCO is to sell energy in such a way that would maximize its profitability. However, due to market price fluctuations and wind forecasting errors, it is essential for the wind GENCO to keep its financial risk at an acceptable level when constituting market bidding strategies. This dissertation discusses assumptions, functions, and methodologies that optimize short-term operations of power systems considering wind energy, and that optimize bidding strategies for wind producers in short-term markets. This dissertation also discusses uncertainties associated with electricity market environment and wind power forecasting that can expose market participants to a significant risk level when managing the tradeoff between profitability and risk.

  15. Power laws of wealth, market order volumes and market returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sorin; Richmond, Peter

    2001-10-01

    Using the Generalized Lotka Volterra model adapted to deal with mutiagent systems we can investigate economic systems from a general viewpoint and obtain generic features common to most economies. Assuming only weak generic assumptions on capital dynamics, we are able to obtain very specific predictions for the distribution of social wealth. First, we show that in a ‘fair’ market, the wealth distribution among individual investors fulfills a power law. We then argue that ‘fair play’ for capital and minimal socio-biological needs of the humans traps the economy within a power law wealth distribution with a particular Pareto exponent α∼ {3}/{2}. In particular, we relate it to the average number of individuals L depending on the average wealth: α∼ L/( L-1). Then we connect it to certain power exponents characterizing the stock markets. We find that the distribution of volumes of the individual (buy and sell) orders follows a power law with similar exponent β∼α∼ {3}/{2}. Consequently, in a market where trades take place by matching pairs of such sell and buy orders, the corresponding exponent for the market returns is expected to be of order γ∼2 α∼3. These results are consistent with recent experimental measurements of these power law exponents (S. Maslov, M. Mills, Physica A 299 (2001) 234 for β; P. Gopikrishnan et al., Phys. Rev. E 60 (1999) 5305 for γ).

  16. 18 CFR 35.37 - Market power analysis required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Market power analysis... Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.37 Market... submit a market power analysis in the following circumstances: when seeking market-based rate authority...

  17. 18 CFR 35.37 - Market power analysis required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Market power analysis... Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.37 Market... submit a market power analysis in the following circumstances: when seeking market-based rate authority...

  18. 18 CFR 35.37 - Market power analysis required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Market power analysis... Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.37 Market... submit a market power analysis in the following circumstances: when seeking market-based rate...

  19. 18 CFR 35.37 - Market power analysis required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Market power analysis... Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.37 Market... submit a market power analysis in the following circumstances: when seeking market-based rate...

  20. Voluntary Green Power Market Forecast through 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Holt, E.; Sumner, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2010-05-01

    Various factors influence the development of the voluntary 'green' power market--the market in which consumers purchase or produce power from non-polluting, renewable energy sources. These factors include climate policies, renewable portfolio standards (RPS), renewable energy prices, consumers' interest in purchasing green power, and utilities' interest in promoting existing programs and in offering new green options. This report presents estimates of voluntary market demand for green power through 2015 that were made using historical data and three scenarios: low-growth, high-growth, and negative-policy impacts. The resulting forecast projects the total voluntary demand for renewable energy in 2015 to range from 63 million MWh annually in the low case scenario to 157 million MWh annually in the high case scenario, representing an approximately 2.5-fold difference. The negative-policy impacts scenario reflects a market size of 24 million MWh. Several key uncertainties affect the results of this forecast, including uncertainties related to growth assumptions, the impacts that policy may have on the market, the price and competitiveness of renewable generation, and the level of interest that utilities have in offering and promoting green power products.

  1. Reactive power management and voltage control in deregulated power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Robert G.

    The research that is the subject of this dissertation is about the management of reactive power and voltage support in the wholesale open access power markets in the United States (US). The purpose of this research is to place decisions about open access market structures, as they relate to reactive power and voltage control, on a logical and consistent economic basis, given the engineering needs of a commercial electric power system. An examination of the electricity markets operating in the US today reveals that current approaches to reactive power management and voltage support are extensions of those based on historical, regulated monopoly electric service. A case for change is built by first looking at the subject of reactive power from an engineering viewpoint and then from an economic perspective. Ultimately, a set of market rules for managing reactive power and voltage support is proposed. The proposal suggests that cost recovery for static and dynamic VARs is appropriately accomplished through the regulated transmission cost of service. Static VAR cost recovery should follow traditional rate recovery methodologies. In the case of dynamic VARs, this work provides a methodology based on the microeconomic theory of the firm for determining such cost. It further suggests that an operational strategy that reduces and limits the use of dynamic VARs, during normal operations, is appropriate. This latter point leads to an increase in the fixed cost of the transmission network but prevents price spikes and short supply situations from affecting, or being affected by, the reactive capability limitations associated with dynamic VARs supplied from synchronous generators. The rules are consistent with a market structure that includes competitive generation and their application will result in the communication of a clear understanding of the responsibilities, related to voltage control, of each type of market entity. In this sense, their application will contribute to

  2. Insurer Market Power Lowers Prices In Numerous Concentrated Provider Markets.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Richard M; Arnold, Daniel R

    2017-09-01

    Using prices of hospital admissions and visits to five types of physicians, we analyzed how provider and insurer market concentration-as measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI)-interact and are correlated with prices. We found evidence that in the range of the Department of Justice's and Federal Trade Commission's definition of a moderately concentrated market (HHI of 1,500-2,500), insurers have the bargaining power to reduce provider prices in highly concentrated provider markets. In particular, hospital admission prices were 5 percent lower and cardiologist, radiologist, and hematologist/oncologist visit prices were 4 percent, 7 percent, and 19 percent lower, respectively, in markets with high provider concentration and insurer HHI above 2,000, compared to such markets with insurer HHI below 2,000. We did not find evidence that high insurer concentration reduced visit prices for primary care physicians or orthopedists, however. The policy dilemma that arises from our findings is that there are no insurer market mechanisms that will pass a portion of these price reductions on to consumers in the form of lower premiums. Large purchasers of health insurance such as state and federal governments, as well as the use of regulatory approaches, could provide a solution. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Wind power and the conditions at a liberalized power market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morthorst, P. E.

    2003-07-01

    Wind power is undergoing a rapid development nationally as well as globally and in a number of countries covers an increasing part of the power supply. At the same time an ongoing liberalization of power markets is taking place and to an increasing extent the owners of wind power plants will themselves have to be responsible for trading the power at the spot market and financially handling the balancing. In the western part of Denmark (Jutland/Funen area), wind-generated power from time to time covers almost 100% of total power consumption. Therefore some examples are chosen from this area to analyse in more detail how well large amounts of wind power in the short-term are handled at the power spot market. It turns out that there is a tendency that more wind power in the system in the short run leads to relatively lower spot prices, while less wind power implies relatively higher spot prices, although, with the exception of December 2002, in general no strong relationship is found. A stronger relationship is found at the regulating market, where there is a fairly clear tendency that the more wind power produced, the higher is the need for down-regulation, and, correspondingly, the less wind power produced, the higher is the need for up-regulation. In general for the Jutland/Funen area the average cost of down-regulation is calculated as 1.2 c/kWh regulated for 2002, while the cost of up-regulation amounts to 0.7 c/kWh regulated.

  4. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described.

  5. Reshaping power markets: Lessons from South America

    SciTech Connect

    Lalor, R.P.; Garcia, H.

    1996-03-01

    Does restructuring enhance efficiency and give consumers a portion of these gains? Evidence from Chile and Argentina - whose restructuring is well ahead of that in the U.S. - demonstrates that more efficient power markets can be created, and that the need remains for appropriate treatment of the competitive and monopolistic portions of the market. Centrally planned electric systems have a long history in industrial states around the world: Marxist and capitalist, totalitarian and democratic. A growing enthusiasm world-wide for economic democracy has recently brought the concept of central planning under greater scrutiny, and alternative solutions have been sought. This paper describes experiences with the deregulation of the utility industry in Chile and Argentina and assesses the relevance of those experiences to the ongoing evolution of market-based systems in the United States. The lessons of the Southern Cone are very relevant to the ongoing dialogue on deregulation in the U.S. Experience there suggests a number of conditions that are important for the creation of competitive and efficient energy markets: (1) Mandatory separation of regulated functions, and clear delineation of the limits of involvement by regulated entities in competitive markets; (2) Unbundling of transmission charges and provision of {open_quotes}comparable{close_quotes} fair transmission access; (3) Clearly defined, published nodal or zonal transmission prices reflecting incremental operating and upgrade costs; (4) Establishment of a centrally dispatched commodity market, spot markets for both capacity and energy priced at system marginal cost, and a parallel bilateral market based on long term contracts; and (5) Access by generators and marketers to at least a portion of the retail market.

  6. Geographic market delineation in LMP electric power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, John R.; Accordino, Megan H.

    2010-04-15

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has jurisdiction over sales of electric generation assets in the United States, and it has found that generation on the high-priced side of transmission constraints provides competition for generators on the low-priced side. This article shows that this reasoning is correct in locational marginal price (LMP) electric power markets now prevalent in the U.S. (author)

  7. The developing international private power market

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.B.

    1989-09-01

    A review group comprised of representatives from ten U.S. power industry companies recently released a report recommending increased assistance by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and other government agencies to provide reliable supplies of electricity and efficient use of energy. The report called for integrating U.S. foreign aid and trade policy to support U.S. industry in expanding overseas markets. The review group estimates a potential market of $370 billion to $900 billion worth of power equipment and services over the next 20 years. Recommendations of the Review Group include: Provide funding to support feasibility studies for electric power projects; Increase economic support funds and development assistance to emphasize energy, infrastructure, trade and investment; expand USAID's energy and private power activities through the formation of an Energy/Power, Infrastructure and Trade Institute as a public-private partnership; and include considerations of the U.S. trade balance in USAID's programs. The Report also criticized the U.S. power industry for an inadequate commitment to long term involvement in overseas markets.

  8. How financial transmission rights curb market power

    SciTech Connect

    Stoft, S.

    1997-06-01

    This paper demonstrates that financial transmission rights allow their owners to capture at least a portion, and sometimes all, of the congestion rents. This extends work in this area by Shmuel Oren which was limited to the case in which generators could not purchase financial transmission rights. One form of financial rights, Transmission Congestion Contracts (TCCs), is shown to be so effective in reducing market power that as few as two generators facing a demand curve with zero elasticity may be forced to sell at marginal cost. The extent to which market power is limited depends on the extent to which total generation capacity exceeds export capacity and on the size of individual generators. A relationship is derived that determines when TCCs will eliminate market power. In the case of a three line network, it is shown that the reduction in market power that can be accomplished with {open_quotes}active transmission rights{close_quotes} can also be accomplished with simple contracts for differences.

  9. Measuring Educational Liberalisation. A Global Analysis of GATS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we examine the process of trade liberalisation of educational services in the framework of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Specifically, we analyse the factors that influence the undertaking of commitments on educational liberalisation by the member countries of the WTO. The…

  10. Measuring Educational Liberalisation. A Global Analysis of GATS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we examine the process of trade liberalisation of educational services in the framework of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Specifically, we analyse the factors that influence the undertaking of commitments on educational liberalisation by the member countries of the WTO. The…

  11. Managed care, market power, and monopsony.

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, M V

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the theoretical possibility of monopsony behavior under managed care insurance. STUDY DESIGN: Use of microeconomic theory to examine how managed care plans with market power would be expected to behave, and effects of that behavior on consumer and supplier welfare. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The article shows that, under managed care monopsony, the welfare of consumers may be increased but overall economic welfare will necessarily be reduced. It offers a test for whether the lower prices paid by managed care buyers with larger market share represent welfare-reducing monopsony or a welfare-increasing movement away from provider monopoly. The test says that, if the quantity of inputs (supplied under conditions of increasing long-run marginal cost) declines, monopsony is present. The article also argues that the translation of lower provider prices into lower premiums is consistent with welfare-reducing monopsony by nonprofit health plans. In contrast, for-profit health plans that obtain monopsony may reduce the welfare of consumers as well as that of input suppliers. These theoretical conclusions are shown to be consistent with recent empirical research indicating a negative relationship between buyer market power and cost per enrollee. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional antitrust policy has not been able to deal well with monopsony. The article concludes that health plans that use their market power to reduce medical spending may harm the well-being both of specialized medical workers and of consumers of medical care. Antitrust policy may need to be modified to deal with this situation. PMID:9865228

  12. Managed care, market power, and monopsony.

    PubMed

    Pauly, M V

    1998-12-01

    To examine the theoretical possibility of monopsony behavior under managed care insurance. Use of microeconomic theory to examine how managed care plans with market power would be expected to behave, and effects of that behavior on consumer and supplier welfare. The article shows that, under managed care monopsony, the welfare of consumers may be increased but overall economic welfare will necessarily be reduced. It offers a test for whether the lower prices paid by managed care buyers with larger market share represent welfare-reducing monopsony or a welfare-increasing movement away from provider monopoly. The test says that, if the quantity of inputs (supplied under conditions of increasing long-run marginal cost) declines, monopsony is present. The article also argues that the translation of lower provider prices into lower premiums is consistent with welfare-reducing monopsony by nonprofit health plans. In contrast, for-profit health plans that obtain monopsony may reduce the welfare of consumers as well as that of input suppliers. These theoretical conclusions are shown to be consistent with recent empirical research indicating a negative relationship between buyer market power and cost per enrollee. Traditional antitrust policy has not been able to deal well with monopsony. The article concludes that health plans that use their market power to reduce medical spending may harm the well-being both of specialized medical workers and of consumers of medical care. Antitrust policy may need to be modified to deal with this situation.

  13. New wholesale power market design using linked forward markets :

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William; Ellison, James F.; Elliott, Ryan Thomas; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Guttromson, Ross; Tesfatsion, Leigh S.

    2013-04-01

    This report proposes a reformulation of U.S. ISO/RTO-managed wholesale electric power mar- kets for improved reliability and e ciency of system operations. Current markets do not specify or compensate primary frequency response. They also unnecessarily limit the participation of new technologies in reserve markets and o er insu cient economic inducements for new capacity invest- ment. In the proposed market reformulation, energy products are represented as physically-covered rm contracts and reserve products as physically-covered call option contracts. Trading of these products is supported by a backbone of linked ISO/RTO-managed forward markets with planning horizons ranging from multiple years to minutes ahead. A principal advantage of this reformulation is that reserve needs can be speci ed in detail, and resources can o er the services for which they are best suited, without being forced to conform to rigid reserve product de nitions. This should improve the business case for electric energy storage and other emerging technologies to provide reserve. In addition, the facilitation of price discovery should help to ensure e cient energy/reserve procurement and adequate levels of new capacity investment.

  14. Market power in electric power markets: Indications of competitiveness in spatial prices for wholesale electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, Michael John

    The issue of market delineation and power in the wholesale electric energy market is explored using three separate approaches: two of these are analyses of spatial pricing data to explore the functional size of the markets, and the third is a series of experimental tests of the effects of different cost structures and market mechanisms on oligopoly strength in those markets. An equilibrium model of spatial network competition is shown to yield linear relationships between spatial prices. A data set comprising two years of spatial weekly peak and off-peak prices and weather for 6 locations in the Western States Coordinating Council and the Southwest Power Pool is subjected to a pairwise cointegration analysis. The use of dummy variables to account the the flow directions is found to significantly improve model performance. The second analytical technique utilizes the extraction of principal components from a spatial price correlation matrix to identify the extent of natural markets. One year of daily price observations for eleven locations within the WSCC is compiled and eigenvectors are extracted and subjected to oblique rotation, each of which is then interpreted as representing a separate geographic market. The results show that two distinct natural markets, correlated at 84%, account for over 96% of the variation in the spatial prices in the WSSC. Together, the findings support the assertion that the wholesale electricity market in the Western U.S. is large and highly competitive. The experimental analysis utilizes a radial three node network in which suppliers located at the outer nodes sell to buyers located at the central node. The parameterization captures the salient characteristics of the existing bulk power markets, and includes cyclical demand, transmission losses, as well as fixed and avoidable fixed costs for all agents. Treatments varied the number of sellers, the avoidable fixed cost structures, and the trading mechanism. Results indicated that

  15. Dropped out or pushed out? Insurance market exit and provider market power in Medicare Advantage.

    PubMed

    Pelech, Daria

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores how provider and insurer market power affect which markets an insurer chooses to operate in. A 2011 policy change required that certain private insurance plans in Medicare form provider networks de novo; in response, insurers cancelled two-thirds of the affected plans. Using detailed data on pre-policy provider and insurer market structure, I compare markets where insurers built networks to those they exited. Overall, insurers in the most concentrated hospital and physician markets were 9 and 13 percentage points more likely to exit, respectively, than those in the least concentrated markets. Conversely, insurers with more market power were less likely to exit than those with less, and an insurer's market power had the largest effect on exit in concentrated hospital markets. These findings suggest that concentrated provider markets contribute to insurer exit and that insurers with less market power have more difficulty surviving in concentrated provider markets.

  16. Information Brief on Green Power Marketing, 2nd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sweezey, B.; Houston, A.

    1998-02-01

    This document is the second in a series of information briefs on green power marketing activity in the United States. It includes descriptions of utility green pricing programs, green power marketing activity, retail access legislation and pilot programs, and other data and information supporting the development of green power markets.

  17. Social marketing: dimensions of power and politics.

    PubMed

    Jones, S

    1982-01-01

    The effective us of marketing strategies by nonprofit organizations necessitates involvement in political activities, i.e., mobilizing power to influence others. Most nonprofit groups and marketing experts who work for nonprofit groups are not sufficiently aware of the value of using the tactics of politics to win support for their causes. The experiences of a voluntary group which used politics and power to develop a program aimed at assisting unemployed black youth were presented. The group wanted to establish a workshop to provide training for hard core unemployed youth. The group needed to raise funds to set up the workshop. The 1st step was to identify a target group of potential donors, and then to develop a strategy for selling their product, i.e., the worthiness of the workshop project. The group decided to direct its fund raising activities toward organizations in the community rather than individuals. The market was segmented, and the product was presented differently to differ groups. Initially, the voluntary group was powerless. Political tactics were subsequently used to legitimate the group and its product. A network of influencial sympathizers, primarily clergymen and politicians, was established. This network helped the group garner the support of the targeted donor organizations. The threat of sanctions was used to gain support for the project, but sanctions were applied with considerable care. For example, the support of local politicians was obtained partially by implicitly threatening them with the possibility of bad publicity if they failed to promote the project. Voluntary organizations are not immune to internal conflict and competition. In introducing a marketing perspective into a voluntary organization, internal politics must be taken into account. In the case presented here, the marketer had to decide who in the organization to align himself with and then develop strategies to increase his influence and the influence of his allies. In

  18. New Markets for Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Chacko; Jennings, Philip; Singh, Dilawar

    2007-10-01

    Over the past five years solar photovoltaic (PV) power supply systems have matured and are now being deployed on a much larger scale. The traditional small-scale remote area power supply systems are still important and village electrification is also a large and growing market but large scale, grid-connected systems and building integrated systems are now being deployed in many countries. This growth has been aided by imaginative government policies in several countries and the overall result is a growth rate of over 40% per annum in the sales of PV systems. Optimistic forecasts are being made about the future of PV power as a major source of sustainable energy. Plans are now being formulated by the IEA for very large-scale PV installations of more than 100 MW peak output. The Australian Government has announced a subsidy for a large solar photovoltaic power station of 154 MW in Victoria, based on the concentrator technology developed in Australia. In Western Australia a proposal has been submitted to the State Government for a 2 MW photovoltaic power system to provide fringe of grid support at Perenjori. This paper outlines the technologies, designs, management and policies that underpin these exciting developments in solar PV power.

  19. Waste Heat to Power Market Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Elson, Amelia; Tidball, Rick; Hampson, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Waste heat to power (WHP) is the process of capturing heat discarded by an existing process and using that heat to generate electricity. In the industrial sector, waste heat streams are generated by kilns, furnaces, ovens, turbines, engines, and other equipment. In addition to processes at industrial plants, waste heat streams suitable for WHP are generated at field locations, including landfills, compressor stations, and mining sites. Waste heat streams are also produced in the residential and commercial sectors, but compared to industrial sites these waste heat streams typically have lower temperatures and much lower volumetric flow rates. The economic feasibility for WHP declines as the temperature and flow rate decline, and most WHP technologies are therefore applied in industrial markets where waste heat stream characteristics are more favorable. This report provides an assessment of the potential market for WHP in the industrial sector in the United States.

  20. Assessment of the Association of Health with the Liberalisation of Trade in Services under the World Trade Organisation

    PubMed Central

    Umaña-Peña, Román; Franco-Giraldo, Álvaro; Díaz, Carlos Álvarez-Dardet; Ruíz-Cantero, María Teresa; Gil-González, Diana; Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso

    2014-01-01

    Background The liberalisation of trade in services which began in 1995 under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) has generated arguments for and against its potential health effects. Our goal was to explore the relationship between the liberalisation of services under the GATS and three health indicators - life expectancy (LE), under-5 mortality (U5M) and maternal mortality (MM) - since the WTO was established. Methods and Findings This was a cross-sectional ecological study that explored the association in 2010 and 1995 between liberalisation and health (LE, U5M and MM), and between liberalisation and progress in health in the period 1995–2010, considering variables related to economic and social policies such as per capita income (GDP pc), public expenditure on health (PEH), and income inequality (Gini index). The units of observation and analysis were WTO member countries with data available for 2010 (n = 116), 1995 (n = 114) and 1995–2010 (n = 114). We conducted bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted for GDP pc, Gini and PEH. Increased global liberalisation in services under the WTO was associated with better health in 2010 (U5M: −0.358 p<0.001; MM: −0.338 p = 0.001; LE: 0.247 p = 0.008) and in 1995, after adjusting for economic and social policy variables. For the period 1995–2010, progress in health was associated with income equality, PEH and per capita income. No association was found with global liberalisation in services. Conclusions The favourable association in 2010 between health and liberalisation in services under the WTO seems to reflect a pre-WTO association observed in the 1995 data. However, this liberalisation did not appear as a factor associated with progress in health during 1995–2010. Income equality, health expenditure and per capita income were more powerful determinants of the health of populations. PMID:25078783

  1. Green Power Marketing Abroad: Recent Experience and Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Wustenhagen, R.; Aabakken, J.

    2002-04-01

    Green power marketing--the act of differentially selling electricity generated wholly or in part from renewable sources--has emerged in more than a dozen countries around the world. This report reviews green power marketing activity abroad to gain additional perspective on consumer demand and to discern key factors or policies that affect the development of green power markets. The objective is to draw lessons from experience in other countries that could be applicable to the U.S. market.

  2. 75 FR 15429 - Dynegy Power Marketing, Inc;. Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Dynegy Power Marketing, Inc;. Notice of Filing March 22, 2010. Take notice that on December 15, 2008, Dynegy Power Marketing, Inc., Dynegy Power Corp., El Segundo Power LLC, Long...

  3. Using Ensemble Streamflows for Power Marketing at Bonneville Power Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, S. B.; Koski, P.

    2014-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is a federal non-profit agency within the Pacific Northwest responsible for marketing the power generated from 31 federal hydro projects throughout the Columbia River Basin. The basin encompasses parts of five states and portions of British Columbia, Canada. BPA works with provincial entities, federal and state agencies, and tribal members to manage the water resources for a variety of purposes including flood risk management, power generation, fisheries, irrigation, recreation, and navigation. This basin is subject to significant hydrologic variability in terms of seasonal volume and runoff shape from year to year which presents new water management challenges each year. The power generation planning group at BPA includes a team of meteorologists and hydrologists responsible for preparing both short-term (up to three weeks) and mid-term (up to 18 months) weather and streamflow forecasts including ensemble streamflow data. Analysts within the mid-term planning group are responsible for running several different hydrologic models used for planning studies. These models rely on these streamflow ensembles as a primary input. The planning studies are run bi-weekly to help determine the amount of energy available, or energy inventory, for forward marketing (selling or purchasing energy up to a year in advance). These studies are run with the objective of meeting the numerous multi-purpose objectives of the basin under the various streamflow conditions within the ensemble set. In addition to ensemble streamflows, an ensemble of seasonal volume forecasts is also provided for the various water conditions in order to set numerous constraints on the system. After meeting all the various requirements of the system, a probabilistic energy inventory is calculated and used for marketing purposes.

  4. Mental health: market power and governance.

    PubMed

    Forder, J

    2000-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the pricing behaviour of providers of residential care for people with mental health problems. Two aspects of pricing were considered. First, are there differences between providers' market power and their actual mark-up rates (e.g. due to differences in motivation)? Second, do the different governance arrangements used in sectors of the industry, such as unified public and non-profit organisation and private bilateral contracting, affect pricing behaviour? A theoretical model was developed to underpin the empirical analysis of 496 residents in 112 mental health care facilities. Private, bilateral organisation was found to be associated with comparatively lower potential price-cost mark-up but a greater propensity to use this power to make profits/surpluses.

  5. Marketing solenoid power saving device. Third quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-06

    I am continuing to explore three methods of marketing the solenoid power saving device. Since the redesign reported in the last report, we are pursuing both the OEM market, the distributor market in both turf and agricultural areas, and the export market. Progress in these areas is discussed: OEM, distribution; and export.

  6. Power tails of index distributions in chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, Y.; Kleinert, H.

    2007-04-01

    The power α of the Lévy tails of stock market fluctuations discovered in recent years are generally believed to be universal. We show that for the Chinese stock market this is not true, the powers depending strongly on anomalous daily index changes short before market closure, and weakly on the opening data.

  7. 76 FR 16394 - Analysis of Horizontal Market Power Under the Federal Power Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Analysis of Horizontal Market Power Under the Federal Power Act AGENCY... should revise its approach for examining horizontal ] market power concerns in transactions under Sec... Guidelines should have, if any, on the Commission's analysis of horizontal market power in its electric...

  8. Utility-Marketing Partnerships: An Effective Strategy for Marketing Green Power?

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L. A.; Brown, E. S.

    2006-04-01

    This paper explores whether partnerships between utilities and independent marketers are an effective strategy for marketing green power. We present case studies of voluntary and mandatory partnerships covering green power program design and implementation in both regulated and restructured electricity markets. We also include perspectives (based on interviews) from utilities, marketers, and regulators involved in developing and implementing these partnerships. From these case studies and interviews, we describe lessons learned about developing effective partnerships, including such issues as respective roles in marketing and administration, product branding, and contract and incentive structures. Based on experience to date, strategic partnerships between utilities and marketers can be an effective approach to marketing green power. Partnerships leverage the sales and resource procurement experience of marketers and the utility?s reputation and access to customers. Further, partnerships can create greater incentives for success because marketers have a vested financial interest in maximizing customer participation and green power sales.

  9. Utility-Marketer Partnerships. An Effective Strategy for Marketing Green Power?

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L. A.; Brown, E. S.

    2006-04-01

    This paper explores whether partnerships between utilities and independent marketers are an effective strategy for marketing green power. We present case studies of voluntary and mandatory partnerships covering green power program design and implementation in both regulated and restructured electricity markets. We also include perspectives (based on interviews) from utilities, marketers, and regulators involved in developing and implementing these partnerships. From these case studies and interviews, we describe lessons learned about developing effective partnerships, including such issues as respective roles in marketing and administration, product branding, and contract and incentive structures. Based on experience to date, strategic partnerships between utilities and marketers can be an effective approach to marketing green power. Partnerships leverage the sales and resource procurement experience of marketers and the utility’s reputation and access to customers. Further, partnerships can create greater incentives for success because marketers have a vested financial interest in maximizing customer participation and green power sales.

  10. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California`s residential marketplace.

  11. Liberalisation of abortion laws in Nigeria: the undergraduates' perspective.

    PubMed

    Orji, E O; Adeyemi, A B; Esimai, O A

    2003-01-01

    Nothing in the field of health care generates more controversy than does the issue of abortion. The views of 396 undergraduates of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria concerning the liberalisation of abortion laws were investigated in May 2001. Ninety respondents (22.7%) supported the liberalisation of abortion laws in Nigeria because they believed that it would lead to reduction in associated morbidity and mortality, encourage more qualified personnel to perform it, encourage women to request abortion openly and encourage accurate statistics on abortion. However, the majority of the respondents (59.6%) opposed the liberalisation of abortion laws due to the fear that it would increase promiscuity, sexually transmitted diseases and abortion rates. Religious opposition and the belief that liberalisation would not reduce the level of poverty, ignorance and poor reproductive health facilities were the common factors leading to unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Nigeria. Support for the liberalisation of abortion laws shows significant relationship with increasing age (P = 0.001), male sex (P = 0.001) and a science-orientated faculty (P<0.05), but not religion. There is every indication that the issue of abortion is one that will continue to be unresolved for the forseeable future.

  12. Peak-Power Markets for Satellite Solar Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landis, G.

    2002-01-01

    Aman MOSTAVANNobuyuki KAYA Institut Teknologi Bandung (TF)Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Ganesha 10; Bandung 40132, IndonesiaKobe 657, Japan mostavan@tf.itb.ac.idkaya@kobe-u.ac.jp This paper introduces first Indonesia, comprises 15 000 islands, has land area of two millions square kilometers. Extending from 95 to 141 degrees East longitude and from 6 degrees North to 11 degrees South latitude. Further the market of the Space Solar Power/SPS must be worldwide, including Indonesia. As we know, it can provide electricity anywhere in the world from the Earth's orbit, mostly Indonesia an equator country. We have to perform case studies of various countries to understand their benefits and disadvantages provided by the SSP, because each country has much different condition on energy from other countries. We are at the moment starting the international collaboration between Indonesia and Japan to carry out the case study for Indonesia. We understand that in Indonesia itself each province has much different micro-climate between one province compared to the other. In Japan, METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) has already organized a committee to investigate the feasibility of Space Solar Power and to make a plan to launch a space demonstration of the SPS. While, Indonesia is quickly developing economy and increasing their energy demand. We are investigating the detailed energy conditions of Indonesia, the benefits and disadvantages of the Space Solar Power for Indonesia. Especially, we will perform the investigation on the receiving system for the Japanese pilot Space Power Satellite.

  13. Parabolic trough solar power for competitive U.S. markets

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.W.; Kistner, R.

    1999-07-01

    Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 190. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a results of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive US power market.

  14. Parabolic Trough Solar Power for Competitive U.S. Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Henry W. Price

    1998-11-01

    Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 1990. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a result of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive U.S. power market.

  15. The role of public policy in emerging green power markets: An analysis of marketer preferences

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.

    1999-08-01

    Green power marketing has been heralded by some as a means to create a private market for renewable energy that is driven by customer demand for green products. This report challenges the premise--sometimes proffered in debates over green markets--that profitable, sizable, credible markets for green products will evolve naturally without supportive public policies. Relying primarily on surveys and interviews of US green power marketers, the article examines the role of specific regulatory and legislative policies in enabling the green market, and searches for those policies that are believed by marketers to be the most conducive or detrimental to the expansion of the green market. The authors find that marketers: (1) believe that profitable green power markets will only develop if a solid foundation of supportive policies exists; (2) believe that establishing overall price competition and encouraging customer switching are the top priorities; (3) are somewhat leery of government-sponsored or mandated public information programs; and (4) oppose three specific renewable energy policies that are frequently advocated by renewable energy enthusiasts, but that may have negative impacts on the green marketers' profitability. The stated preferences of green marketers shed light on ways to foster renewables by means of the green market. Because the interests of marketers do not coincide perfectly with those of society, however, the study also recognizes other normative perspectives and highlights policy tensions at the heart of current debates related to green markets. By examining these conflicts, they identify three key policy questions that should direct future research: (1) to what extent should price competition and customer switching be encouraged at the expense of cost shifting; (2) what requirements should be imposed to ensure credibility in green products and marketing; and (3) how should the green power market and broader renewable energy policies interact?

  16. Power Contro Energy Management and Market Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Addison; Andrew Stanbury

    2005-12-15

    More efficient use of the nation's electrical energy infrastructure will result in minimizing the cost of energy to the end user. Using real time electrical market information coupled with defined rules, market opportunities can be identified that provide economic benefit for both users and marketers of electricity. This report describes the design of one such system and the features a fully functional system would provide. This report documents several investigated methods of controlling load diversity or shifting.

  17. Managed care and market power: physician organizations in four markets.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, M B; Landon, B E; Huskamp, H A

    2001-01-01

    Physicians and other providers have responded to the spread of managed care by adapting structures and strategies to accommodate or resist the pressures exerted on them to reduce costs. In this paper we examine how physician organizations have evolved in four markets and whether their features represent attempts to improve efficiency or resist change. The strategies adopted by physicians in terms of alignment with other providers and development of independent medical management capabilities appear to be sensitive to opportunities to reap cost savings and the competitiveness of physician, hospital, and health plan markets.

  18. Marketing Power Tools for Building Better Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Karen Denard

    This paper proposes use of marketing methods to improve college health services and enhance their perceived value. Ten key marketing principles are defined: (1) value of the service as seen by the target population; (2) exchange clients perceive benefits received as exceeding perceived costs; (3) competition offering a better product than the…

  19. America's Seniors: Marketers Are Underestimating Their Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Catherine

    Society has stereotyped the elderly as those who are unable, dependent, institutionalized, and handicapped in various other ways. Stereotyping older people in this manner allows them to be cast aside in the market as well. The marketing community should concentrate more on this thriving aggregate, for they have disposable income--some for the…

  20. America's Seniors: Marketers Are Underestimating Their Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Catherine

    Society has stereotyped the elderly as those who are unable, dependent, institutionalized, and handicapped in various other ways. Stereotyping older people in this manner allows them to be cast aside in the market as well. The marketing community should concentrate more on this thriving aggregate, for they have disposable income--some for the…

  1. Implications of Carbon Regulation for Green Power Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Holt, Ed; Carroll, Ghita

    2007-04-01

    This paper examines the potential effects that emerging mandatory carbon markets have for voluntary markets for renewable energy, or green power markets. In an era of carbon regulation, green power markets will continue to play an important role because many consumers may be interested in supporting renewable energy development beyond what is supported through mandates or other types of policy support. The paper examines the extent to which GHG benefits motivate consumers to make voluntary renewable energy purchases and summarizes key issues emerging as a result of these overlapping markets, such as the implications of carbon regulation for renewable energy marketing claims, the demand for and price of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and the use of RECs in multiple markets (disaggregation of attributes). It describes carbon regulation programs under development in the Northeast and California, and how these might affect renewable energy markets in these regions, as well as the potential interaction between voluntary renewable energy markets and voluntary carbon markets, such as the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX). It also briefly summarizes the experience in the European Union, where carbon is already regulated. Finally, the paper presents policy options for policymakers and regulators to consider in designing carbon policies to enable carbon markets and voluntary renewable energy markets to work together.

  2. Implications of Carbon Regulation for Green Power Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Holt, E.; Carroll, G.

    2007-04-01

    This paper examines the potential effects that emerging mandatory carbon markets have for voluntary markets for renewable energy, or green power markets. In an era of carbon regulation, green power markets will continue to play an important role because many consumers may be interested in supporting renewable energy development beyond what is supported through mandates or other types of policy support. The paper examines the extent to which GHG benefits motivate consumers to make voluntary renewable energy purchases and summarizes key issues emerging as a result of these overlapping markets, such as the implications of carbon regulation for renewable energy marketing claims, the demand for and price of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and the use of RECs in multiple markets (disaggregation of attributes). It describes carbon regulation programs under development in the Northeast and California, and how these might affect renewable energy markets in these regions, as well as the potential interaction between voluntary renewable energy markets and voluntary carbon markets, such as the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX). It also briefly summarizes the experience in the European Union, where carbon is already regulated. Finally, the paper presents policy options for policymakers and regulators to consider in designing carbon policies to enable carbon markets and voluntary renewable energy markets to work together.

  3. Optimal Dispatch of Competitive Power Markets by Using PowerWorld Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Shuhui

    2013-10-01

    The transition to competitive and retail markets for electric utilities around the world has been a difficult and controversial process. One of the difficulties that hindered the development and growth of competitive power markets is the absence of efficient computational tools to assist the design, analysis, and operation of competitive power markets. PowerWorld simulator is a software package that has strong analytical and visualization functions suitable for extensive power flow study of an electric power system. However, like many other power flow simulators, PowerWorld cannot be used directly for analysis and evaluation of a competitive power market. This article investigates mathematical models associated with a competitive power market and how these models can be converted and transformed in such a way that makes it possible to use PowerWorld for the competitive power market study. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, models of several small-scale competitive power markets are built in MatLab by using conventional approaches. Results generated by both PowerWorld and MatLab are compared. Finally, the article demonstrates how the PowerWorld simulator is used to investigate a larger and practical competitive power system.

  4. A distributed power market for the Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, Ryan James

    To address the challenges of resource allocation in the Smart Electrical Grid a new power market is proposed. A distributed and autonomous contract net based market system in which participants, represented by the agents, engage in two distinct yet interconnected markets in order to determine resource allocation. Key to this proposed design is the 2 market structure which separates negotiations between consumers and reliable generation from negotiations between consumers and intermittent energy resources. The first or primary market operates as a first price sealed bid reverse auction while the second or secondary market utilizes a uniform price auction. In order to evaluate this new market a simulator is developed and the market is modeled and tested within it. The results of these tests indicate that the proposed design is an effective method of allocating electrical grid resources amongst consumers, generators, and intermittent energy resources with some feasibility and scalability limitations.

  5. The strategic use of forward contracts: Applications in power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Jeffrey Scott

    This dissertation develops three theoretical models that analyze forward trading by firms with market power. The models are discussed in the context of recently restructured power markets, but the results can be applied more generally. The first model considers the profitability of large firms in markets with limited economies of scale and free entry. When large firms apply their market power, small firms benefit from the high prices without incurring the costs of restricted output. When entry is considered, and profit opportunity is determined by the cost of entry, this asymmetry creates the "curse of market power;" the long-run profits of large firms are reduced because of their market power. I suggest ways that large power producers can cope with the curse of market power, including the sale of long-term forward contracts. Past research has shown that forward contracts can demonstrate commitment to aggressive behavior to a competing duopolist. I add explicitly modeled entry to this literature, and make the potential entrants the audience of the forward sale. The existence of a forward market decreases equilibrium entry, increases the profits of large firms, and enhances economic efficiency. In the second model, a consumer representative, such as a state government or regulated distribution utility, bargains in the forward market on behalf of end-consumers who cannot organize together in the spot market. The ability to organize in forward markets allows consumers to encourage economic efficiency. When multiple producers are considered, I find that the ability to offer contracts also increases consumer surplus by decreasing the producers' profits. In some specifications of the model, consumers are able to capture the full gains from trade. The third model of this dissertation considers the ability of a large producer to take advantage of anonymity by randomly alternating between forward sales and forward purchases. The large producer uses its market power to

  6. Equilibrium pricing in electricity markets with wind power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Ofir David

    Estimates from the World Wind Energy Association assert that world total wind power installed capacity climbed from 18 Gigawatt (GW) to 152 GW from 2000 to 2009. Moreover, according to their predictions, by the end of 2010 global wind power capacity will reach 190 GW. Since electricity is a unique commodity, this remarkable expansion brings forward several key economic questions regarding the integration of significant amount of wind power capacity into deregulated electricity markets. The overall dissertation objective is to develop a comprehensive theoretical framework that enables the modeling of the performance and outcome of wind-integrated electricity markets. This is relevant because the state of knowledge of modeling electricity markets is insufficient for the purpose of wind power considerations. First, there is a need to decide about a consistent representation of deregulated electricity markets. Surprisingly, the related body of literature does not agree on the very economic basics of modeling electricity markets. That is important since we need to capture the fundamentals of electricity markets before we introduce wind power to our study. For example, the structure of the electric industry is a key. If market power is present, the integration of wind power has large consequences on welfare distribution. Since wind power uncertainty changes the dynamics of information it also impacts the ability to manipulate market prices. This is because the quantity supplied by wind energy is not a decision variable. Second, the intermittent spatial nature of wind over a geographical region is important because the market value of wind power capacity is derived from its statistical properties. Once integrated into the market, the distribution of wind will impact the price of electricity produced from conventional sources of energy. Third, although wind power forecasting has improved in recent years, at the time of trading short-term electricity forwards, forecasting

  7. Does health plan generosity enhance hospital market power?

    PubMed

    Baker, Laurence C; Bundorf, M Kate; Kessler, Daniel P

    2015-12-01

    We test whether the generosity of employer-sponsored health insurance facilitates the exercise of market power by hospitals. We construct indices of health plan generosity and the price and volume of hospital services using data from Truven MarketScan for 601 counties from 2001 to 2007. We use variation in the industry and union status of covered workers within a county over time to identify the causal effects of generosity. Although OLS estimates fail to reject the hypothesis that generosity facilitates the exercise of hospital market power, IV estimates show a statistically significant and economically important positive effect of plan generosity on hospital prices in uncompetitive markets, but not in competitive markets. Our results suggest that most of the aggregate effect of hospital market structure on prices found in previous work may be coming from areas with generous plans.

  8. Market power in auction and efficiency in emission permits allocation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Min Xing; Yang, Dong Xiao; Chen, Zi Yue; Nie, Pu Yan

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyzes how to achieve the cost-effectiveness by initial allocation of CO2 emission permits when a single dominant firm in production market has market power in auction, and compare two prevalent allocation patterns, mixed allocation and single auction. We show how the firm with market power may manipulate the auction price, thereby this leads to fail to achieve cost-effective solution by auction unless the total permits for allocation equal to the effective emissions cap. Provided that the market power firm receives strictly positive free permits, the effective emissions cap of mixed allocation is larger than that of single auction. The production market share of dominant firm is increasing with the free permits it holds. Finally, we examine the compliance costs and welfare of mixed allocation and single auction, the result show that the former is preferred to the later when policy makers consider economic welfare without welfare cost due to CO2 emissions.

  9. Your School's Web Site-A Powerful Tool for Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Say, Michael W.; Collier, Karen J.; Hoya, Charlotte, G.

    2001-01-01

    A successful marketing plan requires a conceptual framework, the ability to target an audience effectively, and the strategy for positioning the school organization appropriately. A website can be a powerful marketing tool if it focuses on what users want and provides it in an organized, accessible fashion. (MLH)

  10. Your School's Web Site-A Powerful Tool for Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Say, Michael W.; Collier, Karen J.; Hoya, Charlotte, G.

    2001-01-01

    A successful marketing plan requires a conceptual framework, the ability to target an audience effectively, and the strategy for positioning the school organization appropriately. A website can be a powerful marketing tool if it focuses on what users want and provides it in an organized, accessible fashion. (MLH)

  11. 33 CFR 209.141 - Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydroelectric power projects and providing information affecting cost and availability of power to the power... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coordination of hydroelectric... Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies. (a) Purpose. This...

  12. 33 CFR 209.141 - Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hydroelectric power projects and providing information affecting cost and availability of power to the power... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coordination of hydroelectric... Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies. (a) Purpose. This...

  13. 33 CFR 209.141 - Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydroelectric power projects and providing information affecting cost and availability of power to the power... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coordination of hydroelectric... Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies. (a) Purpose. This...

  14. 33 CFR 209.141 - Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydroelectric power projects and providing information affecting cost and availability of power to the power... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coordination of hydroelectric... Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies. (a) Purpose. This...

  15. Market power and contract form: evidence from physician group practices.

    PubMed

    Town, Robert; Feldman, Roger; Kralewski, John

    2011-06-01

    We examine how the market power of physician groups affects the form of their contracts with health insurers. We develop a simple model of physician contracting based on 'behavioral economics' and test it with data from two sources: a survey of physician group practices in Minnesota; and the physician component of the Community Tracking Survey. In both data sets we find that increases in groups' market power are associated with proportionately more fee-for-service revenue and less revenue from capitation.

  16. Energy and environmental efficiency in competitive power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-02-01

    For years the electric utility industry operated as a regulated monopoly, largely immune to market forces except those of competing fuels. That era came to an end with the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1974, which created a market for non-utility generated power. Within twenty years, non-regulated, non-utility generators had become the primary supplier of new energy resources. Their market power is matched by their political power, as evidenced in the Energy Policy Act of 1994 (EPAct), which requires open access to utility transmission lines to facilitate inter-utility bulk power sales. The conventional wisdom is that active wholesale power markets with competition among alternative generators will lead to lower power-development costs and cheaper retail power prices. The trend towards alternative bulk power sources at low prices intersects with large retail power customers` interest in accessing alternative power supplies. In most cases, these alternatives to local utilities are at a lower cost than retail rates. For the most part, proponents of generation competition have remained silent about potential environmental consequences. However, skeptics of increased competition, including major environmental groups, cite environmental impacts among their concerns. This report examines these concerns.

  17. 76 FR 71015 - Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program-Eastern Division-2021 Power Marketing Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Area Power Administration Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program--Eastern Division--2021 Power Marketing Initiative AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Final 2021 Power Marketing... marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), announces the 2021 Power Marketing Initiative (2021 PMI...

  18. 18 CFR 35.37 - Market power analysis required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... required. 35.37 Section 35.37 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.37...

  19. Deregulation and competitive power markets -- Its impact on developing economies

    SciTech Connect

    Saran, K.

    1998-07-01

    The aim of privatization in developed countries is to encourage competition in generation and supply of power whereas the focus of developing economies is to bridge the demand supply gap by addition of capacity. However, there needs to be a reconciliation between these two apparently having conflicting objectives even in case of developing economies. In competitive power markets it is necessary that rules of the game are identified in advance and followed uniformly by all players. Existence of a ``referee'' would be necessary to regulate the game so as to ensure fair play. The regulatory institution would serve this purpose and work as a stimulator to development of privatization and competitive power markets in developing economies. Consumer interests should be of upper-most priority in the mind while establishing power markets and regulatory institutions, particularly as market forces are unfavorable to consumer interests in power shortage conditions. As competition fosters, gradually market forces take over and the ``harsh'' regulator would convert itself to a ``silent vigil referee'' so as to ensure genuine competition. The debate of deregulation vs. regulation will continue but the show must go on for building of an increasingly sound, competitive and vibrant power sector in the interest of end use consumers. The planned and phased restructuring though a delayed process is a preferred process and India is fully determined to achieve this.

  20. 78 FR 54888 - Guzman Power Markets, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Guzman Power Markets, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Guzman Power Markets, LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  1. 78 FR 4842 - Linden VFT, LLC v. Brookfield Energy Marketing, LP, Cargill Power Markets, LLC; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Linden VFT, LLC v. Brookfield Energy Marketing, LP, Cargill Power Markets... a formal complaint against Brookfield Energy Marketing, LP and Cargill Power Markets, LLC...

  2. 75 FR 24941 - PBF Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PBF Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of PBF Power Marketing LLC's application for market... for blanket authorization, under 18 CFR Part 34, of future issuances of securities and assumptions...

  3. 78 FR 56691 - Sapphire Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sapphire Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Sapphire Power Marketing LLC's application for market-based...

  4. Oil market power and United States national security.

    PubMed

    Stern, Roger

    2006-01-31

    It is widely believed that an oil weapon could impose scarcity upon the United States. Impending resource exhaustion is thought to exacerbate this threat. However, threat seems implausible when we consider strategic deficits of prospective weapon users and the improbability of impending resource exhaustion. Here, we explore a hypothesis relating oil to national security under a different assumption, abundance. We suggest that an oil cartel exerts market power to keep abundance at bay, commanding monopoly rents [or wealth transfers (wt)] that underwrite security threats. We then compare security threats attributed to the oil weapon to those that may arise from market power. We first reexamine whether oil is abundant or scarce by reviewing current development data, then we estimate a competitive price for oil. From this, we derive wt(2004) collections by Persian Gulf states approximately USD $132-178 x 10(9). We find that wt and the behavior of states collecting it interact to actuate security threats. Threats underwritten by wt are (i) the potential for emergence of a Persian Gulf superpower and (ii) terrorism. It is therefore oil market power, not oil per se, that actuates threats. We also describe a paradox in the relation of market power to the United States' defense doctrine of force projection to preempt a Gulf superpower. Because the superpower threat derives from wt, force alone cannot preempt it. A further paradox is that because foreign policy is premised on oil weapon fear, market power is appeased. Threats thereby grow unimpeded.

  5. Oil market power and United States national security

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Roger

    2006-01-01

    It is widely believed that an oil weapon could impose scarcity upon the United States. Impending resource exhaustion is thought to exacerbate this threat. However, threat seems implausible when we consider strategic deficits of prospective weapon users and the improbability of impending resource exhaustion. Here, we explore a hypothesis relating oil to national security under a different assumption, abundance. We suggest that an oil cartel exerts market power to keep abundance at bay, commanding monopoly rents [or wealth transfers (wt)] that underwrite security threats. We then compare security threats attributed to the oil weapon to those that may arise from market power. We first reexamine whether oil is abundant or scarce by reviewing current development data, then we estimate a competitive price for oil. From this, we derive wt2004 collections by Persian Gulf states ≈ $132-178 × 109. We find that wt and the behavior of states collecting it interact to actuate security threats. Threats underwritten by wt are (i) the potential for emergence of a Persian Gulf superpower and (ii) terrorism. It is therefore oil market power, not oil per se, that actuates threats. We also describe a paradox in the relation of market power to the United States' defense doctrine of force projection to preempt a Gulf superpower. Because the superpower threat derives from wt, force alone cannot preempt it. A further paradox is that because foreign policy is premised on oil weapon fear, market power is appeased. Threats thereby grow unimpeded. PMID:16428291

  6. HANJUNG`s overseas marketing for power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, B.K.

    1994-12-31

    The Korean government has a strong policy for developing local industries for producing power plant facilities. Korea Heavy Industries and Construction Co. Ltd. (HANJUNG) is a prime contractor for the design, construction, and installation of power plant facilities. The following topics are discussed: history of the electric power in Korea, the fabrication and supply of power plants in Korea, changing factors of the power plant business around the world, HANJUNG`s overseas marketing strategy, and Korea-US cooperation in third world countries.

  7. Econophysics of adaptive power markets: When a market does not dampen fluctuations but amplifies them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Sebastian M.; Börries, Stefan; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    The average economic agent is often used to model the dynamics of simple markets, based on the assumption that the dynamics of a system of many agents can be averaged over in time and space. A popular idea that is based on this seemingly intuitive notion is to dampen electric power fluctuations from fluctuating sources (as, e.g., wind or solar) via a market mechanism, namely by variable power prices that adapt demand to supply. The standard model of an average economic agent predicts that fluctuations are reduced by such an adaptive pricing mechanism. However, the underlying assumption that the actions of all agents average out on the time axis is not always true in a market of many agents. We numerically study an econophysics agent model of an adaptive power market that does not assume averaging a priori. We find that when agents are exposed to source noise via correlated price fluctuations (as adaptive pricing schemes suggest), the market may amplify those fluctuations. In particular, small price changes may translate to large load fluctuations through catastrophic consumer synchronization. As a result, an adaptive power market may cause the opposite effect than intended: Power demand fluctuations are not dampened but amplified instead.

  8. Econophysics of adaptive power markets: When a market does not dampen fluctuations but amplifies them.

    PubMed

    Krause, Sebastian M; Börries, Stefan; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    The average economic agent is often used to model the dynamics of simple markets, based on the assumption that the dynamics of a system of many agents can be averaged over in time and space. A popular idea that is based on this seemingly intuitive notion is to dampen electric power fluctuations from fluctuating sources (as, e.g., wind or solar) via a market mechanism, namely by variable power prices that adapt demand to supply. The standard model of an average economic agent predicts that fluctuations are reduced by such an adaptive pricing mechanism. However, the underlying assumption that the actions of all agents average out on the time axis is not always true in a market of many agents. We numerically study an econophysics agent model of an adaptive power market that does not assume averaging a priori. We find that when agents are exposed to source noise via correlated price fluctuations (as adaptive pricing schemes suggest), the market may amplify those fluctuations. In particular, small price changes may translate to large load fluctuations through catastrophic consumer synchronization. As a result, an adaptive power market may cause the opposite effect than intended: Power demand fluctuations are not dampened but amplified instead.

  9. Stability of power systems coupled with market dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jianping

    This Ph.D. thesis presented here spans two relatively independent topics. The first part, Chapter 2 is self-contained, and is dedicated to studies of new algorithms for power system state estimation. The second part, encompassing the remaining chapters, is dedicated to stability analysis of power system coupled with market dynamics. The first part of this thesis presents improved Newton's methods employing efficient vectorized calculations of higher order derivatives in power system state estimation problems. The improved algorithms are proposed based on an exact Newton's method using the second order terms. By efficiently computing an exact gain matrix, combined with a special optimal multiplier method, the new algorithms show more reliable convergence compared with the existing methods of normal equations, orthogonal decomposition, and Hachtel's sparse tableau. Our methods are able to handle ill-conditioned problems, yet show minimal penalty in computational cost for well-conditioned cases. These claims are illustrated through the standard IEEE 118 and 300 bus test examples. The second part of the thesis focuses on stability analysis of market/power systems. The work presented is motivated by an emerging problem. As the frequency of market based dispatch updates increases, there will inevitably be interaction between the dynamics of markets determining the generator dispatch commands, and the physical response of generators and network interconnections, necessitating the development of stability analysis for such coupled systems. We begin with numeric tests using different market models, with detailed machine/exciter/turbine/governor dynamics, in the New England 39 bus test system. A progression of modeling refinements are introduced, including such non-ideal effects as time delays. Electricity market parameter identification algorithms are also studied based on real time data from the PJM electricity market. Finally our power market model is augmented by optimal

  10. Electricity generation and transmission planning in deregulated power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang

    This dissertation addresses the long-term planning of power generation and transmission facilities in a deregulated power market. Three models with increasing complexities are developed, primarily for investment decisions in generation and transmission capacity. The models are presented in a two-stage decision context where generation and transmission capacity expansion decisions are made in the first stage, while power generation and transmission service fees are decided in the second stage. Uncertainties that exist in the second stage affect the capacity expansion decisions in the first stage. The first model assumes that the electric power market is not constrained by transmission capacity limit. The second model, which includes transmission constraints, considers the interactions between generation firms and the transmission network operator. The third model assumes that the generation and transmission sectors make capacity investment decisions separately. These models result in Nash-Cournot equilibrium among the unregulated generation firms, while the regulated transmission network operator supports the competition among generation firms. Several issues in the deregulated electric power market can be studied with these models such as market powers of generation firms and transmission network operator, uncertainties of the future market, and interactions between the generation and transmission sectors. Results deduced from the developed models include (a) regulated transmission network operator will not reserve transmission capacity to gain extra profits; instead, it will make capacity expansion decisions to support the competition in the generation sector; (b) generation firms will provide more power supplies when there is more demand; (c) in the presence of future uncertainties, the generation firms will add more generation capacity if the demand in the future power market is expected to be higher; and (d) the transmission capacity invested by the

  11. On emissions trading, toxic debt and the Australian power market

    SciTech Connect

    Simshauser, Paul

    2009-03-15

    Implementation of emissions trading will have profound effects on the financial stability of coal generators. While the impact on equity capital is well understood, the potential fallout in the market for project finance is not. During the current global financial crisis, the form and quantum of transitional assistance to coal generators will be crucial to ensure ongoing participation of domestic and foreign project banks in the power markets. (author)

  12. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (11th Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B.

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  13. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (11th Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Kreycik, Claire; Friedman, Barry

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  14. SPS market analysis. [small solar thermal power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goff, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    A market analysis task included personal interviews by GE personnel and supplemental mail surveys to acquire statistical data and to identify and measure attitudes, reactions and intentions of prospective small solar thermal power systems (SPS) users. Over 500 firms were contacted, including three ownership classes of electric utilities, industrial firms in the top SIC codes for energy consumption, and design engineering firms. A market demand model was developed which utilizes the data base developed by personal interviews and surveys, and projected energy price and consumption data to perform sensitivity analyses and estimate potential markets for SPS.

  15. A multi-regional framework for China's electric power market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhijun

    2000-10-01

    China faces the challenging task of substantially increasing its generation of electricity within economic, energy, political, and environmental constraints. Some of the most immediate issues are the decentralization of the utility decision making process, the creation of electricity markets over large geographic areas, the establishment of pricing mechanisms, and the maintenance of reasonable levels of air quality. This research develops a multi-regional optimization model to analyze these issues in the North China Power System. The model minimizes the total delivery cost of electric power for a multi-regional grid subject to the constraints of power flow, generation and transmission capacities and emission limits. Benders' decomposition is used to decompose the model into a two-level structure an inter-regional Power exchange module and an intra-regional power dispatch and transmission module The intra-regional market contains the least cost power dispatch based on bids from generators bidding and on users, insurance of their power consumption, all within local emission limits. The inter-regional market balances power exchange among regions. The results indicate that a decentralized, competitive electricity market has significant economic and environmental benefits to the entire region. Regional competition brings more cheap electric power from remote regions to urban demand centers. The expansion of power exchange reduces sulfur emissions without significantly increasing cost. The results demonstrate that without congestion, the nodal and transmission prices can be effectively separated, an important criterion for decentralization and competition. Transmission prices are related only to the wire and topological characteristics of the network. The effects of electricity loop flow on transmission prices are reflected through a multiplier that is specific to each loop. A priori calculation of the congestion and loop multipliers under congestion is possible with

  16. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  17. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-11-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  18. Marketing implications of the shift in power of the hospital.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, J M; Rayburn, L G

    1995-01-01

    With the introduction of the Prospective Payment System, hospital accountants' role changed from reimbursement maximizers to an important role in decision making. Faced with increased competition, hospitals are installing financial controls. Hospital marketers are also engaging in external promotional and health awareness campaigns and expanding their services to stabilize income and reduce the effects of a changing environment. Thus, hospitals operate in a more competitive environment with increasing uncertainty. When faced with uncertainty, organizations often believe that they must convince society that their existence is legitimate. Increasing specialization and organizational complexity in health care professions have made the expert important. Experts, such as the role assumed by hospital accountants and physicians, maintain power because the organization depends on them for their special skills and information. Marketing should also develop an internal marketing program to reach these power influencers. Scarce resource coupled with uncertainty move hospital accountants as experts into the power equation in the changing control of the U.S. healthcare system. Previously, the physician was the major source of hospital power. Since accountants often serve as monitors of scarce resources, information about the resource allocation directly affects the distribution of power. Marketers should acknowledge that this places hospital accountants in a critical role of assisting their institutions in adapting to a new environment.

  19. Essays in market power mitigation and supply function equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramainam, Thiagarajah Natchie

    Market power mitigation has been an integral part of wholesale electricity markets since deregulation. In wholesale electricity markets, different regions in the US take different approaches to regulating market power. While the exercise of market power has received considerable attention in the literature, the issue of market power mitigation has attracted scant attention. In the first chapter, I examine the market power mitigation rules used in New York ISO (Independent System Operator) and California ISO (CAISO) with respect to day-ahead and real-time energy markets. I test whether markups associated with New York in-city generators would be lower with an alternative approach to mitigation, the CAISO approach. Results indicate the difference in markups between these two mitigation rules is driven by the shape of residual demand curves for suppliers. Analysis of residual demand curves faced by New York in-city suppliers show similar markups under both mitigation rules when no one supplier is necessary to meet the demand (i.e., when no supplier is pivotal). However, when some supplier is crucial for the market to clear, the mitigation rule adopted by the NYISO consistently leads to higher markups than would the CAISO rule. This result suggest that market power episodes in New York is confined to periods where some supplier is pivotal. As a result, I find that applying the CAISOs' mitigation rules to the New York market could lower wholesale electricity prices by 18%. The second chapter of my dissertation focuses on supply function equilibrium. In power markets, suppliers submit offer curves in auctions, indicating their willingness to supply at different price levels. Although firms are allowed to submit different offer curves for different time periods, surprisingly many firms stick to a single offer curve for the entire day. This essentially means that firms are submitting a single offer curve for multiple demand realizations. A suitable framework to analyze

  20. Basic Studies on Chaotic Characteristics of Electric Power Market Price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Yuya; Miyauchi, Hajime; Kita, Toshihiro

    Recently, deregulation and reform of electric power utilities have been progressing in many parts of the world. In Japan, partial deregulation has been started from generation sector since 1995 and partial deregulation of retail sector is executed through twice law revisions. Through the deregulation, because electric power is traded in the market and its price is always fluctuated, it is important for the electric power business to analyze and predict the price. Although the price data of the electric power market is time series data, it is not always proper to analyze by the linear model such as ARMA because the price sometimes changes suddenly. Therefore, in this paper, we apply the methods of chaotic time series analysis, one of non-linear analysis methods, and investigate the chaotic characteristics of the system price of JEPX.

  1. 77 FR 35671 - Conformed Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for the Boulder Canyon Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... Area Power Administration Conformed Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for the Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Conformance of power marketing criteria in... (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is modifying Part C of its...

  2. 76 FR 64083 - Loveland Area Projects-2025 Power Marketing Initiative Proposal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects--2025 Power Marketing Initiative Proposal AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Proposed 2025 Power Marketing Initiative... marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is seeking comments on this proposed 2025 Power...

  3. 76 FR 30147 - Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Area Power Administration Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing... Power Administration (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is... General Consolidated Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for Boulder City Area Projects (Conformed...

  4. Network model of bilateral power markets based on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yang; Liu, Junyong; Li, Furong; Yan, Zhanxin; Zhang, Li

    2014-06-01

    The bilateral power transaction (BPT) mode becomes a typical market organization with the restructuring of electric power industry, the proper model which could capture its characteristics is in urgent need. However, the model is lacking because of this market organization's complexity. As a promising approach to modeling complex systems, complex networks could provide a sound theoretical framework for developing proper simulation model. In this paper, a complex network model of the BPT market is proposed. In this model, price advantage mechanism is a precondition. Unlike other general commodity transactions, both of the financial layer and the physical layer are considered in the model. Through simulation analysis, the feasibility and validity of the model are verified. At same time, some typical statistical features of BPT network are identified. Namely, the degree distribution follows the power law, the clustering coefficient is low and the average path length is a bit long. Moreover, the topological stability of the BPT network is tested. The results show that the network displays a topological robustness to random market member's failures while it is fragile against deliberate attacks, and the network could resist cascading failure to some extent. These features are helpful for making decisions and risk management in BPT markets.

  5. Power systems locational marginal pricing in deregulated markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui-Fung Francis

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the electricity business is transforming from a vertical integrating business to a competitive market operations. The generation, transmission, distribution subsystem of an electricity utility are operated independently as Genco (generation subsystem), Transco (transmission subsystem), and Distco (distribution subsystem). This trend promotes more economical inter- and intra regional transactions to be made by the participating companies and the users of electricity to achieve the intended objectives of deregulation. There are various types of electricity markets that are implemented in the North America in the past few years. However, transmission congestion management becomes a key issue in the electricity market design as more bilateral transactions are traded across long distances competing for scarce transmission resources. It directly alters the traditional concept of energy pricing and impacts the bottom line, revenue and cost of electricity, of both suppliers and buyers. In this research, transmission congestion problem in a deregulated market environment is elucidated by implementing by the Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) method. With a comprehensive understanding of the LMP method, new mathematical tools will aid electric utilities in exploring new business opportunities are developed and presented in this dissertation. The dissertation focuses on the development of concept of (LMP) forecasting and its implication to the market participants in deregulated market. Specifically, we explore methods of developing fast LMP calculation techniques that are differ from existing LMPs. We also explore and document the usefulness of the proposed LMP in determining electricity pricing of a large scale power system. The developed mathematical tools use of well-known optimization techniques such as linear programming that are support by several flow charts. The fast and practical security constrained unit commitment methods are the

  6. Digital Portfolios: Powerful Marketing Tool for Communications Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2008-01-01

    A digital portfolio is a powerful marketing tool for young people searching for employment in the communication or interactive media fields. With a digital portfolio, students can demonstrate their skills at working with software tools, demonstrate appropriate use of materials, explain technical procedures, show an understanding of processes and…

  7. Digital Portfolios: Powerful Marketing Tool for Communications Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2008-01-01

    A digital portfolio is a powerful marketing tool for young people searching for employment in the communication or interactive media fields. With a digital portfolio, students can demonstrate their skills at working with software tools, demonstrate appropriate use of materials, explain technical procedures, show an understanding of processes and…

  8. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Dagher, L.; Swezey, B.

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  9. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Dagher, Leila; Swezey, Blair

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  10. Power system and market integration of renewable electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Georg

    2017-07-01

    This paper addresses problems of power generation markets that arise under high shares of intermittent generation. After discussing the economic fundamentals of wind and photovoltaic investments, the paper introduces the concept of the "Merit order effect of renewables". According to this concept electricity prices on wholesale power markets become smaller in periods during which large volumes of wind and photovoltaic generation is available and squeeze out relative expensive gas-fired power generation. The merit order effect of renewables has a couple of consequences. Among others it challenges the profitability of conventional power generation. If such generation capacities are still necessary, at least during a transitory period, a capacity mechanism may be put in place that generates an additional stream of income to the operators of conventional power generators. Another consequence of growing intermittent power generation is the need for concepts and technologies that deal with excess generation. Among these concepts are virtual and physical power storage capacities. In the last parts of the paper models are presented that are able to analyze these concepts from an economic point of view.

  11. Power system market implementation in a deregulated environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Carlos

    2000-10-01

    The opening of the power system markets (also known as deregulation) gives rise to issues never seen before by this industry. One of the most important is the control of information about the cost of generation. Information that used to be common knowledge is now kept private by the new agents of the system (generator companies, distribution companies, etc.). Data such as the generator cost functions are now known only by the owning companies. The result is a new system consisting of a group of independent firms seeking the maximization of their own profit. There have been many proposals to organize the new market in an economically efficient manner. Nevertheless, the uniqueness of the electric power system has prevented the development of such a market. This thesis evaluates the most common proposals using simulations in an auction setting. In addition a new methodology is proposed based on mechanism design, a common technique in economics, that solves some of the practical problems of power system markets (such as the management of limited transmission capacity). In this methodology, when each company acts in its best interest, the outcome is efficient in spite of the information problem cited above. This new methodology, along with the existing methodologies, are tested using simulation and analyzed to create a clear comparison of benefits and disadvantages.

  12. Essays on microgrids, asymmetric pricing and market power in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Prete, Chiara

    This dissertation presents four studies of the electricity industry. The first and second essays use economic-engineering models to assess different aspects of microgrid penetration in regional electricity markets, while the last two studies contain empirical analyses aimed at evaluating the performance of wholesale electricity markets. Chapter 2 develops a framework to quantify economic, environmental, efficiency and reliability impacts of different power production scenarios in a regional system, focusing on the interaction of microgrids with the existing transmission and distribution grid. The setting is the regional network formed by Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands. The study presents simulations of power market outcomes under various policies and levels of microgrid penetration, and evaluates them using a diverse set of metrics. Chapter 3 studies the interaction between a microgrid and a regulated electric utility in a regional electricity market. I consider the interaction among the utility, the microgrid developer and consumers in the framework of cooperative game theory (assuming exchangeable utility), and use regional market models to simulate scenarios in which microgrid introduction may or may not be socially beneficial. Under the assumptions of this chapter, customer participation is essential to the development of socially beneficial microgrids, while the utility has little or no gain from it. Discussed incentives to avoid that utilities block microgrid entry include additional revenue drivers related to microgrid connection, decoupling and performance-based mechanisms targeted at service quality. When prices are below marginal costs of utility provided power, microgrid development may be socially beneficial, but unprofitable for microgrid customers and its developer. By imposing lower charges and higher remuneration for its services, the regulator could ensure that microgrid value is positive, without adversely impacting the utility

  13. Buying power in a competitive market (Part II): Public power experience in the new market

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlquist, D.S.

    1995-12-31

    Studies and subsequent contract negotiations engaged in by a municipal electric power agency to obtain alternative power supplies are outlined in the paper. Feasibility studies identified an 80 MW turbine for gas-fired peaking generation to be economically optimal. The request for proposal and contractual agreements to purchase 41 MW of baseload capacity are briefly described. Informal investigations of additional power purchases indicate that baseload power prices have dropped since the original purchase.

  14. 33 CFR 209.141 - Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination of hydroelectric... Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies. (a) Purpose. This regulation establishes policies and procedures for coordinating the operation of the Corps of Engineers' hydroelectric...

  15. Organization of bulk power markets: A concept paper

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.; Stoft, S.

    1995-12-01

    The electricity industry in the US today is at a crossroads. The restructuring debate going on in most regions has made it clear that the traditional model of vertically integrated firms serving defined franchise areas and regulated by state commissions may not be the pattern for the future. The demands of large customers seeking direct access to power markets, the entry of new participants, and proposed reforms of the regulatory process all signify a momentum for fundamental change in the organization of the industry. This paper addresses electricity restructuring from the perspective of bulk power markets. The authors focus attention on the organization of electricity trade and the various ways it has been and might be conducted. Their approach concentrates on conceptual models and empirical case studies, not on specific proposals made by particular utilities or commissions. They review literature in economics and power system engineering that is relevant to the major questions. The objective is to provide conceptual background to industry participants, e.g. utility staff, regulatory staff, new entrants, who are working on specific proposals. While they formulate many questions, they do not provide definitive answers on most issues. They attempt to put the industry restructuring dialogue in a neutral setting, translating the language of economists for engineers and vice versa. Towards this end they begin with a review of the basic economic institutions in the US bulk power markets and a summary of the engineering practices that dominate trade today.

  16. Credit Risk Evaluation of Power Market Players with Random Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezawa, Yasushi; Mori, Hiroyuki

    A new method is proposed for credit risk evaluation in a power market. The credit risk evaluation is to measure the bankruptcy risk of the company. The power system liberalization results in new environment that puts emphasis on the profit maximization and the risk minimization. There is a high probability that the electricity transaction causes a risk between companies. So, power market players are concerned with the risk minimization. As a management strategy, a risk index is requested to evaluate the worth of the business partner. This paper proposes a new method for evaluating the credit risk with Random Forest (RF) that makes ensemble learning for the decision tree. RF is one of efficient data mining technique in clustering data and extracting relationship between input and output data. In addition, the method of generating pseudo-measurements is proposed to improve the performance of RF. The proposed method is successfully applied to real financial data of energy utilities in the power market. A comparison is made between the proposed and the conventional methods.

  17. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2009 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Sumner, J.

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  18. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (2009 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Sumner, Jenny

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  19. An Integrated Design approach to Power Systems: from Power Flows to Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Subhonmesh

    Power system is at the brink of change. Engineering needs, economic forces and environmental factors are the main drivers of this change. The vision is to build a smart electrical grid and a smarter market mechanism around it to fulfill mandates on clean energy. Looking at engineering and economic issues in isolation is no longer an option today; it needs an integrated design approach. In this thesis, I shall revisit some of the classical questions on the engineering operation of power systems that deals with the nonconvexity of power flow equations. Then I shall explore some issues of the interaction of these power flow equations on the electricity markets to address the fundamental issue of market power in a deregulated market environment. Finally, motivated by the emergence of new storage technologies, I present an interesting result on the investment decision problem of placing storage over a power network. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that modern optimization and game theory can provide unique insights into this complex system. Some of the ideas carry over to applications beyond power systems.

  20. Market Evolution: Wholesale Electricity Market Design for 21st Century Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Jaquelin; Miller, Mackay; Milligan, Michael; Ela, Erik; Arent, Douglas; Bloom, Aaron; Futch, Matthew; Kiviluoma, Juha; Holtinnen, Hannele; Orths, Antje; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio; Martin-Martinez, Sergio; Kukoda, S.; Garcia, Glycon; Mikkelsen, Kim M.; Yongqiang, Zhao; Sandholt, Kaare

    2013-10-01

    Demand for affordable, reliable, domestically sourced, and low-carbon electricity is on the rise. This growing demand is driven in part by evolving public policy priorities, especially reducing the health and environmental impacts of electricity service and expanding energy access to under-served customers. Consequently, variable renewable energy resources comprise an increasing share ofelectricity generation globally. At the same time, new opportunities for addressing the variability of renewables are being strengthened through advances in smart grids, communications, and technologies that enable dispatchable demand response and distributed generation to extend to the mass market. A key challenge of merging these opportunities is market design -- determining how to createincentives and compensate providers justly for attributes and performance that ensure a reliable and secure grid -- in a context that fully realizes the potential of a broad array of sources of flexibility in both the wholesale power and retail markets. This report reviews the suite of wholesale power market designs in use and under consideration to ensure adequacy, security, and flexibilityin a landscape of significant variable renewable energy. It also examines considerations needed to ensure that wholesale market designs are inclusive of emerging technologies, such as demand response, distributed generation, and storage.

  1. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, David; Lemar, Paul

    2015-12-01

    This report estimates the potential for opportunity fuel combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the United States, and provides estimates for the technical and economic market potential compared to those included in an earlier report. An opportunity fuel is any type of fuel that is not widely used when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Opportunity fuels primarily consist of biomass fuels, industrial waste products and fossil fuel derivatives. These fuels have the potential to be an economically viable source of power generation in various CHP applications.

  2. RPS Market Analysis Based on Reinforcement Learning in Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugano, Takanori; Kita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Eiichi; Hasegawa, Jun

    Deregulation and restructuring of electric power supply business are proceeding all over the world. In many cases, a competitive environment is introduced, where a market to transact electric power is established, and various attempts are done to decrease the price. On the other hand, environmental problems are pointed out in recent years. However, there is a possibility of the environmental deterioration by cost reduction of electric power. In this paper, the RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standard) system is taken up as the solution method of environmental problem under the deregulation of electric power supply business. A RPS model is created by multi-agent theory, where Q-learning is used as a decision-making technique of agent. By using this model, the RPS system is verified for its effectiveness and influence.

  3. Market Penetration Simulation of Hydrogen Powered Vehicles in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Eunju Jun; Yong Hoon, Jeong; Soon Heung, Chang

    2006-07-01

    As oil price being boosted, hydrogen has been considered to be a strong candidate for the future energy carrier along with electricity. Although hydrogen can be produced by many energy sources, carbon-free sources such as nuclear and renewable energy may be ideal ones due to their environmental friendliness. For the analysis of hydrogen economy, the cost and market penetration of various end-use technologies are the most important factors in production and consumer side, respectively. Particularly, hydrogen powered vehicle is getting more interests as fuel cell technologies are developed. In this paper, the hydrogen powered vehicle penetration into the transportation market is simulated. A system dynamic code, Vensim, was utilized to simulate the dynamics in the transportation, assuming various types of vehicle such as gasoline, hybrid electricity and hydrogen powered. Market shares of each vehicle are predicted by using currently available data. The result showed that hydrogen era will not be bright as we think. To reach the era of hydrogen fuel cell cost should be reduced dramatically. And if the hydrogen cost which includes both operating and capital cost reaches to a $0.16 per kilometer, hydrogen portion can be a 50 percent in the transportation sector. However, if strong policy or subsidy can be given, the result will be changed. [1] (authors)

  4. 75 FR 53688 - Constellation Mystic Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...-000] Constellation Mystic Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding of Constellation Mystic Power, LLC's application for market-based...

  5. 75 FR 6378 - Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership Covanta Energy Marketing LLC Covanta Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Marketing LLC Covanta Power, LLC; Notice of Filing February 2, 2010. Take notice that, on February 1, 2010, Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership, Covanta Energy Marketing LLC, and Covanta Power...

  6. 75 FR 30812 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Further Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets... of Proposed Rulemaking on Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets, as previously announced.\\1\\ \\1\\ Notice of Technical Conference re Frequency Compensation in...

  7. 75 FR 31430 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Notice Establishing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets... technical conference regarding frequency regulation in the organized wholesale power markets, as previously announced.\\1\\ \\1\\ Notice of Technical Conference re Frequency Compensation in the Organized Wholesale...

  8. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated.

  9. Market power in the United States red meatpacking industry.

    PubMed

    Koontz, Stephen R

    2003-07-01

    The basic question asked in the beginning of this article was whether the evidence from research is persuasive enough to conclude that competition in the meatpacking industry is deficient. The literature review led to the conclusion that the answer is no. Research varies widely in terms of data and methodologic approaches. The research, however, clearly finds evidence of market power. Many SCP studies indicated the existence and exercise of market power, but the failure of the paradigm makes definitive conclusions dangerous. The NEIO studies showed a persistent gap between the price of livestock and marginal costs but the studies did not incorporate sufficient detail to prove specific behavior. Azzam and Anderson [4] conducted an extensive review of competition in meatpacking. In their summary, they offered criticisms of the SCP approach and the conduct parameter approach. These investigators concluded that the body of empiric evidence was insufficient to persuasively argue that the meatpacking industry was not competitive. Sexton [69] discussed more recent critiques of the conduct parameter appraoch. Despite its weaknesses, he concluded that market power estimates in meatpacking are modest but that structural changes on balance are beneficial, from an efficiency viewpoint. Examining the evidence either by data aggregation, methodology, or time period results in little difference in the qualitative interpretation. The research community has done what Nicholls [2] said was needed. The need remains relevant. The research leaves us with a clear picture and nagging questions. Azzam and Anderson [4] recommended that further research focus on the process of competition or the rivalrous interaction between competitors, and on competitors' strategies for responding to technologic and market forces, as the business history of the industry suggests. Specifically, they recommended two approaches. First, to develop empiric pricing models for short-term monitoring. Such models

  10. [Impact of European e-commerce liberalisation on pharmaceutical crime : The ALPhA research project].

    PubMed

    Sinn, Arndt

    2017-09-19

    The trading of illicit and falsified pharmaceuticals is a growth market. Factors influencing this illegal market are high profit margins, a low risk of detection, low control density, an obscure legal situation, and lastly, the easy and anonymous ways of selling over the Internet, usually across national borders. This situation was the background for the research project on the impact of European e‑commerce liberalisation on pharmaceutical crime (ALPhA). The goal of the project was to develop concrete recommendations for action regarding the improved prosecution of internet-based pharmaceutical crime and to create a broad body of data for effective law-making by legislators.In this article the initial situation regarding pharmaceutical crime and its risk potential is described and some of the results from the comparative-law investigation of the ALPhA research project are presented along with its final recommendations. The latter are directed at policy-makers and law enforcement agencies in addition to industry and science and demonstrate the type of framework to be designed to increase safety for the public and to minimize risks when purchasing pharmaceuticals.

  11. 76 FR 20651 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Cargill Power Markets, LLC (CPM) has... Power Markets, LLC, 9350 Excelsior Blvd., MS 150, Hopkins, MN 55343. A final decision will be made on...

  12. 76 FR 19069 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Cargill Power Markets, LLC (CPM) has... directly with Eugene J. Becker, Vice President, Cargill Power Markets, LLC, 9350 Excelsior Blvd., MS 150...

  13. 77 FR 11515 - Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ] ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: NRG Power Marketing LLC (NRGPML) has... would be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities and Federal power marketing agencies within...

  14. 75 FR 80482 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd... electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The...

  15. 75 FR 75994 - Application To Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: NRG Power Marketing LLC (NRGPML) has..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing international...

  16. Electric power competition & the economic doctrine of contestable markets

    SciTech Connect

    Owan, R.E.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses electric power competition and ascribes a prototypical market structure for the utility industry. The advent of {open_quotes}limited{close_quotes} competition in the electric utility industry has created interesting market challenges for incumbent companies and those eager to enter the fray. Competition is viewed as limited in the sense that not all aspects of the utility industry have been deregulated. While transmission and distribution remain protected market segments, the metamorphosis is most evident in the generation component of the utility industry. The changes have been orchestrated by favorable actions by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). Because of the industry changes, the classical view of the electric utility company as a vertical monopoly is arguable. Welfare considerations not withstanding, part of the rationale for the deregulation of power generation is that the technology and techniques are sufficiently common (i.e. not proprietary) as to allow others to provide the same product or service at competitive prices.

  17. 76 FR 36914 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego Harbor Power LLC, TC Ravenswood, LLC, v. New York Independent System Operator, Inc. Notice of Revised Comment Dates On June 3...

  18. 76 FR 36910 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego Harbor Power LLC, TC Ravenswood, LLC. v. New York Independent...

  19. 76 FR 34692 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego Harbor Power LLC, TC Ravenswood, LLC; v. New York Independent...

  20. International wind power market: The US/ECRE

    SciTech Connect

    Lilley, A.

    1995-12-31

    Today, wind power is in its infancy, comprising less than .1% of the world`s total energy mix. However, the world installed base of wind turbines doubled in the period 1989 to 1994, from 1.7 GW to over 3.6 GW. More than 85% of this growth occurred outside the US. In a study commissioned by AWEA for the period 1994 to 2000, market growth in 10 target countries is projected to be from 2 GW to 3.5 GW. The World Energy Council projects a total installed base of nearly 10 GW by the year 2000. Much of this growth is expected to come in developing countries. Driven by market related factors, the US industry has recently turned its attention to the international arena. AWEA, US/ECRE, and their partners in government can play a critical supporting role to industry as they make the transition from a domestically focused industry to one that is globally focused.

  1. Accountable Care Organizations: Integrated Care Meets Market Power.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Richard M

    2015-08-01

    Will accountable care organizations (ACOs) deliver high-quality care at lower costs? Or will their potential market power lead to higher prices and lower quality? ACOs appear in various forms and structures with financial and clinical integration at their core; however, the tools to assess their quality and the incentive structures that will determine their success are still evolving. Both market forces and regulatory structures will determine how these outcomes emerge. This introduction reviews the evidence presented in this special issue to tackle this thorny trade-off. In general the evidence is promising, but the full potential of ACOs to improve the health care delivery system is still uncertain. This introductory review concludes that the current consensus is to let ACOs grow, anticipating that they will make a contribution to improve our poor-quality and high-cost delivery system.

  2. Appendix M: GPRA05 estimate of penetration of generating technologies into Green Power Markets

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The Green Power Market Model (GPMM or the model) identifies and analyzes the potential electric-generating capacity additions that will result from “green power” programs, which are not captured in the “least-cost” analyses performed by the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The model projects green power-capacity additions through both green power marketing programs in deregulated markets, and utility green pricing programs in regulated markets.

  3. Lithium Battery Power Delivers Electric Vehicles to Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid Technologies Inc., a manufacturer and marketer of lithium-ion battery electric vehicles, based in Las Vegas, Nevada, and with research and manufacturing facilities in Mooresville, North Carolina, entered into a Space Act Agreement with Kennedy Space Center to determine the utility of lithium-powered fleet vehicles. NASA contributed engineering expertise for the car's advanced battery management system and tested a fleet of zero-emission vehicles on the Kennedy campus. Hybrid Technologies now offers a series of purpose-built lithium electric vehicles dubbed the LiV series, aimed at the urban and commuter environments.

  4. A market survey of geothermal wellhead power generation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leeds, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    The market potential for a portable geothermal wellhead power conversion device is assessed. Major study objectives included identifying the most promising applications for such a system, the potential impediments confronting their industrialization, and the various government actions needed to overcome these impediments. The heart of the study was a series of structured interviews with key decision-making individual in the various disciplines of the geothermal community. In addition, some technical and economic analyses of a candidate system were performed to support the feasibility of the basic concept.

  5. Market power and state costs of HIV/AIDS drugs.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, Arleen A; Sood, Neeraj

    2007-03-01

    We examine whether U.S. states can use their market power to reduce the costs of supplying prescription drugs to uninsured and underinsured persons with HIV through a public program, the AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP). Among states that purchase drugs from manufacturers and distribute them directly to clients, those that purchase a greater volume pay lower average costs per prescription. Among states depending on retail pharmacies to distribute drugs and then claiming rebates from manufacturers, those that contract with smaller numbers of pharmacy networks have lower average costs. Average costs per prescription do not differ between the two purchase methods.

  6. The strategic targeting of females by transnational tobacco companies in South Korea following trade liberalisation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley; Carpenter, Carrie; Challa, Chaitanya; Lee, Sungkyu; Connolly, Gregory N; Koh, Howard K

    2009-01-01

    Background In 1988 South Korea opened its cigarette market to foreign companies under the threat of US trade sanctions. Despite strong social stigma against female smoking in South Korea, and restrictions on tobacco marketing to women and children, smoking rates among young Korean females increased from 1.6% in 1988 to 13% in 1998. Previous analyses describe how Asian countries have been targeted by transnational tobacco companies for new markets, with Asian females offering substantial future growth potential. An understanding of the strategies used by TTCs to increase smoking among Korean females is critical to public health efforts to adopt a stronger gender perspective in implementing the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods Internal documents of transnational tobacco corporations were systematically searched using keywords focused on the targeting of the female market since market liberalisation in 1988. Industry documents were analysed alongside primary and secondary data on the tobacco industry in South Korea. Results TTCs have targeted Korean females since the late 1980s, conducting market research to understand consumer preferences, cultural characteristics and social changes affecting women and girls. Brands designed to appeal to females have focused on "slim" and "superslim" cigarettes, "light" and "mild" claims, and marketing which appeals to the growing numbers of young women entering the labour force. Strategies for overcoming legal restrictions on marketing to women and children have included the use of company rather than brand names, retail distribution at venues frequented by females, trademark diversification and sponsorship. Conclusion Given the high male smoking rates in South Korea, tobacco control efforts have given limited attention to girls and women. The limited data available on female smoking behaviour suggests that, despite legal restrictions and social stigma, smoking among females has increased since market opening

  7. 76 FR 19355 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets Operations Policy Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets Operations Policy... attend the meeting of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Markets Operations Policy Committee (MOPC), as... No. ER06-451, Southwest Power Pool, Inc. Docket No. ER08-1419, Southwest Power Pool, Inc. Docket...

  8. Power Laws and Market Crashes ---Empirical Laws on Bursting Bubbles---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaizoji, T.

    In this paper, we quantitatively investigate the statistical properties of a statistical ensemble of stock prices. We selected 1200 stocks traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, and formed a statistical ensemble of daily stock prices for each trading day in the 3-year period from January 4, 1999 to December 28, 2001, corresponding to the period of the forming of the internet bubble in Japn, and its bursting in the Japanese stock market. We found that the tail of the complementary cumulative distribution function of the ensemble of stock prices in the high value of the price is well described by a power-law distribution, P (S > x) ˜ x^{-α}, with an exponent that moves in the range of 1.09 < α < 1.27. Furthermore, we found that as the power-law exponents α approached unity, the bubbles collapsed. This suggests that Zipf's law for stock prices is a sign that bubbles are going to burst.

  9. Cost Benefit Analysis of the Power Storage System Considering Outage Cost in the Deregulated Power Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuru, Hirokazu; Fujii, Yasumasa

    In this paper, the authors propose the mathematical model which derives the optimal operation strategies of an on-site power storage system through the use of stochastic dynamic programming technique. The model takes account of the variations and uncertainties of electricity market prices as well as the outage costs of power grid failures. The market price fluctuation is modeled with stochastic differential equation. The stochastic state transitions between normal and failed systems are modeled with exponential density functions. The derived optimal operation indicates that the economic value of the storage system may be increased substantially, if the avoided outage costs are explicitly taken into account. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that the most influential parameters are the magnitude of outage cost and the mean time to failure of power grid.

  10. Cournot games with network effects for electric power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezia, Carl John

    The electric utility industry is moving from regulated monopolies with protected service areas to an open market with many wholesale suppliers competing for consumer load. This market is typically modeled by a Cournot game oligopoly where suppliers compete by selecting profit maximizing quantities. The classical Cournot model can produce multiple solutions when the problem includes typical power system constraints. This work presents a mathematical programming formulation of oligopoly that produces unique solutions when constraints limit the supplier outputs. The formulation casts the game as a supply maximization problem with power system physical limits and supplier incremental profit functions as constraints. The formulation gives Cournot solutions identical to other commonly used algorithms when suppliers operate within the constraints. Numerical examples demonstrate the feasibility of the theory. The results show that the maximization formulation will give system operators more transmission capacity when compared to the actions of suppliers in a classical constrained Cournot game. The results also show that the profitability of suppliers in constrained networks depends on their location relative to the consumers' load concentration.

  11. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2012 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.; Nicholas, T.

    2013-10-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. These markets continued to exhibit growth and stimulate renewable energy development in 2012. This paper reviews the voluntary market and identifies market trends.

  12. The transition to fully competitive bulk power markets: Federal regulatory developments in the electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Portasik, L.S.

    1994-12-31

    In recent years, traditional electric utilities have become increasingly dependent upon enhanced competitive conditions in the bulk power market to improve efficiency and secure {open_quotes}least-cost{close_quotes} generation for their franchise and wholesale customers. The industry`s growing reliance on competitive wholesale markets both presaged and overtook the new legislation reflected in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). This article describes the new environment, as revealed in recent Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) decisions, and discusses its impact on the services and rates of affected utilities.

  13. 75 FR 18497 - Chevron Keystone Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Notification of Change in Market Power Analysis and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... Market Power Analysis and Request for Renewed Approval of Market-Based Rates April 5, 2010. Take notice..., a notification of change in market power analysis and request for renewed approval of...

  14. 75 FR 22772 - Cargill Power Markets, LLC, Complainant v. Public Service Company of New Mexico, Respondent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cargill Power Markets, LLC, Complainant v. Public Service Company of New..., 18 CFR 385.206 (2009), and section 206 of the Federal Power Act (FPA), 16 U.S.C. 824e (2006), Cargill Power Markets, LLC (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Public Service Company of New...

  15. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on air quality and noise

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, K.C.; Chang, Y.S.; Rabchuk, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration, which is responsible for marketing electricity produced at the hydroelectric power-generating facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation on the Upper Colorado River, has proposed changes in the levels of its commitment (sales) of long-term firm capacity and energy to its customers. This report describes (1) the existing conditions of air resources (climate and meteorology, ambient air quality, and acoustic environment) of the region potentially affected by the proposed action and (2) the methodology used and the results of analyses conducted to assess the potential impacts on air resources of the proposed action and the commitment-level alternatives. Analyses were performed for the potential impacts of both commitment-level alternatives and supply options, which include combinations of electric power purchases and different operational scenarios of the hydroelectric power-generating facilities.

  16. Exponential and power laws in public procurement markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Skuhrovec, Jiri

    2012-07-01

    We analyze for the first time a unique public procurement database, which includes information about a number of bidders for a contract, a final price, an identification of a winner and an identification of a contracting authority for each of more than 40000 public procurements in the Czech Republic between 2006 and 2011, focusing on the distributional properties of the variables of interest. We uncover several scaling laws —the exponential law for the number of bidders, and the power laws for the total revenues and total spendings of the participating companies, which even follows Zipf's law for the 100 most spending institutions. We propose an analogy between extensive and non-extensive systems in physics and the public procurement market situations. Through an entropy maximization, such analogy yields some interesting results and policy implications with respect to the Maxwell-Boltzmann and Pareto distributions in the analyzed quantities.

  17. Market power and hospital pricing: are nonprofits different?

    PubMed

    Melnick, G; Keeler, E; Zwanziger, J

    1999-01-01

    Dramatic changes in hospitals' operating environments are leading to major restructuring of hospital organizations. Hospital mergers and acquisitions are increasing each year, and conversions by hospitals to different forms of ownership also are continuing apace. Such changes require policymakers and regulators to develop and implement policies to ensure that consumers' interests are protected. An important consideration in this process is the impact on the price of hospital care following such transactions. This paper reviews empirical evidence that mergers that reduce competition will lead to price increases at both merging hospitals and their competitors, regardless of ownership status. We show that nonprofit and government hospitals have steadily become more willing to raise prices to exploit market power and discuss the implications for antitrust regulators and agencies that must approve nonprofit conversions.

  18. 75 FR 29531 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Supplemental Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ...] Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical... conference will provide a forum to consider issues related to frequency regulation compensation in...

  19. The impact of a liberalisation law on legally induced abortion hospitalisations.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Pinho, Manuel; Santos, João V; Costa, Antónia; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Freitas, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    Legal abortion based purely in maternal option without fetal/maternal pathology was liberalised in Portugal in 2007 and since then abortion rates have increased substantially. The aim of this paper was to study the impact of the liberalisation of abortion by maternal request on total legal abortion related hospitalisation trends. We considered hospitalisations of legal abortion (ICD-9-CM codes 635.x) with discharges from 2000 to 2014. Data was obtained from a Portuguese administrative database, which contains all registered public hospitalisations in mainland Portugal. Performed legal abortions during the same period were obtained from INE (National Statistics Institute). Hospitalisations per abortion were calculated by dividing the number of legal abortions hospitalisations per the number of legal abortions, mean ages, number of hospitalisations per age group, complications, admission type and length of stay were also analysed, throughout the study period. Hospitalisations rose during the study period, (from 618 episodes in 2000 to 1,259 in 2014, with a peak of 1,603 in 2010). Since the liberalisation law was passed there was a significant decrease in the number of hospitalisations per abortion: from 1.07 in 2000 to 0.11 in 2014 (p<0.001). Furthermore, the mean age maintained stable since liberalisation (30.8 years before 2007 and 31.0 after). Abortion related hospitalisations are more frequent in women aged 25-39. A significant decrease from the emergent to the scheduled type of admission occurred from 2000 to 2014 (from 83.5% to 56.7% of emergent admissions) (p<0.001). Complications remained stable between 2000 and 2014 and delayed or excessive haemorrhage was the most frequent (4.6%). Since the liberalisation, hospitalisations per abortion have decreased, reflecting the major impact that the liberalisation of legal abortion by maternal request had on abortion trends nationwide. Before the liberalisation, each abortion led to approximately one hospitalisation

  20. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2015 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shaughnessy, Eric; Liu, Chang; Heeter, Jenny

    2016-10-01

    The voluntary green power market refers to the sale and procurement of renewable energy for voluntary purposes by residential and commercial customers. This report reviews seven green power procurement mechanisms: utility green pricing programs, utility green tariffs, voluntary unbundled renewable energy certificates, competitive supplier green power, community choice aggregations, voluntary power purchase agreements (PPAs), and community solar. This report details the status of trends of those seven green power procurement mechanisms in 2015. Three trends -- significant growth of the voluntary PPA project pipeline, innovative green power mechanisms developed by utilities, and geographic expansion of green power mechanisms -- suggest that the green power market is likely to continue to grow in coming years.

  1. Complexities at the intersection of tobacco control and trade liberalisation: evidence from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Drope, Jeffrey; Chavez, Jenina Joy

    2015-06-01

    For more than two decades, public health scholars and proponents have demonstrated concern about the negative effects of trade liberalisation on tobacco control policies. However, there is little theoretically-guided, empirical research across time and space that evaluates this relationship. Accordingly, we use one major region that has experienced rapid and significant recent liberalisation, Southeast Asia, and examine key tobacco control-relevant outcomes between 1999 and 2012. While we find a modest increase in regional trade in tobacco products in some countries, the effects on tobacco affordability and consumption are very mixed with no clear link to liberalisation. We argue that widespread penetration of the region by transnational tobacco firms is likely mitigating the effects of trade liberalisation. Notably, tobacco control policies have also generally improved across the region, part of which is likely the result of successful regional and global efforts by civil society, governments and intergovernmental organisations. The results suggest that scholars and public health proponents should move the focus away from narrow economic aspects of liberalisation toward specific issues that are more likely to affect tobacco control, such as intellectual property rights protections and investor-state dispute settlement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. 78 FR 40474 - Sustaining Power Solutions LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sustaining Power Solutions LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Sustaining Power Solutions LLC's application for...

  3. 77 FR 28871 - Renewable Power Strategies, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Renewable Power Strategies, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Renewable Power Strategies, LLC's application for...

  4. 76 FR 11177 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Power Markets AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... electricity markets. The emergence of technologies capable of responding more quickly than the generators that... market rules to ensure that they are not unduly discriminatory or fail to provide just and reasonable...

  5. 76 FR 47180 - Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program-Eastern Division-2021 Power Marketing Initiative Proposal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Area Power Administration Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program--Eastern Division--2021 Power Marketing... marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE) published the proposed 2021 Power Marketing Initiative... marketing the long-term firm hydroelectric resources of the Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program--Eastern...

  6. Price dynamics and market power in an agent-based power exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincotti, Silvano; Guerci, Eric; Raberto, Marco

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents an agent-based model of a power exchange. Supply of electric power is provided by competing generating companies, whereas demand is assumed to be inelastic with respect to price and is constant over time. The transmission network topology is assumed to be a fully connected graph and no transmission constraints are taken into account. The price formation process follows a common scheme for real power exchanges: a clearing house mechanism with uniform price, i.e., with price set equal across all matched buyer-seller pairs. A single class of generating companies is considered, characterized by linear cost function for each technology. Generating companies compete for the sale of electricity through repeated rounds of the uniform auction and determine their supply functions according to production costs. However, an individual reinforcement learning algorithm characterizes generating companies behaviors in order to attain the expected maximum possible profit in each auction round. The paper investigates how the market competitive equilibrium is affected by market microstructure and production costs.

  7. 76 FR 56428 - Southern Cross Transmission LLC; Pattern Power Marketing LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Cross Transmission LLC; Pattern Power Marketing LLC; Notice of..., Southern Cross Transmission, LLC (SCT) and Pattern Power Marketing LLC (PPM) jointly filed an application...

  8. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2012 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.; Nicholas, T.

    2013-10-01

    The "voluntary" or "green power" market is that in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match all or part of their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. There are numerous ways consumers and institutions can purchase renewable energy. Historically, the voluntary market has consisted of three market sectors: (1) utility green pricing programs (in states with regulated electricity markets), (2) competitive suppliers (in states with restructured electricity markets), and (3) unbundled renewable electricity certificate (REC) markets, where RECs are purchased by consumers separately from electricity ("unbundled").

  9. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report, Sixth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2003-10-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, nearly 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. Currently, more than 350 investor-owned utilities, rural electric cooperatives, and other publicly owned utilities in 33 states offer green power programs. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. It describes green power product offerings, consumer response, and recent industry trends. The three distinct markets for green power are discussed in turn.

  10. Effective Ancillary Services Market Designs on High Wind Power Penetration Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Navid, N.; Smith, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    This paper focuses on how the ancillary service market designs are implemented and how they may require changes on systems with greater penetrations of variable renewable energy suppliers, in particular wind power. Ancillary services markets have been developed in many of the restructured power system regions throughout the world. Ancillary services include the services that support the provision of energy to support power system reliability. The ancillary services markets are tied tightly to the design of the energy market and to the physics of the system and therefore careful consideration of power system economics and engineering must be considered in their design. This paper focuses on how the ancillary service market designs are implemented and how they may require changes on systems with greater penetrations of variable renewable energy suppliers, in particular wind power.

  11. Trade liberalisation and tobacco control: moving from a policy of exclusion towards a more comprehensive policy

    PubMed Central

    McGrady, Benn

    2007-01-01

    Notwithstanding the fact that it has been 10 years since empirical confirmation that trade liberalisation may increase tobacco consumption, tobacco control policy with respect to trade liberalisation and related processes remains largely underdeveloped. The most commonly articulated policy, that tobacco be excluded from the scope of trade agreements, is problematic for a number of reasons and has not been widely implemented. In light of this fact and the potential role of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, further research and policy development are needed in the area. PMID:17652245

  12. 76 FR 12104 - Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program-Eastern Division-2021 Power Marketing Initiative Proposal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Area Power Administration Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program--Eastern Division--2021 Power Marketing... Marketing Initiative. SUMMARY: Western Area Power Administration (Western), Upper Great Plains Region, a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking comments on this proposed 2021...

  13. Bonneville Power Administration`s Commercial Sector Conservation Market.

    SciTech Connect

    Gordan, Frederick M.

    1992-11-10

    Bonneville has, as part of its resource plan, accepted targets for commercial conservation which are quite ambitious. To meet these targets, Bonneville will need to acquire as much cost-effective conservation as possible over the next twelve years. With this in mind, this document explores the relative importance of different commercial market segments and the types of assistance each market needs to install as many cost-effective conservation measures in as many buildings as possible. This document reviews Bonneville`s marketing environment and position, and suggests goals for commercial sector conservation marketing at Bonneville. Then it presents a broad market segmentation and series of additional demographic analyses. These analyses assess what groups of consumers Bonneville must reach to achieve most of the commercial conservation potential and what is needed to reach them. A final section reviews the success of Bonneville programs at reaching various markets. The market segmentation identifies different types of consumers and opportunities which would require distinct program approaches. Four large market segments are identified that have distinct program needs. Then four ``building life-cycle events`` are identified which provide important conservation opportunities and also require distinct program services. This creates a matrix of 16 cells which delineate distinct needs for program marketing. Each of the four key market segments manages at least 20% of the Region`s commercial floorspace.

  14. The Nordic energy market model an electricity power exchange across national borders

    SciTech Connect

    Randen, H.; Andersen, J.H.

    1998-07-01

    As a first step towards a Nordic Power Exchange the Swedish and the Norwegian electricity market were merged into one free trade area. Norwegian and Swedish participants trade on equal terms on the market. Finnish and Danish participants trade on special terms towards the common Norwegian-Swedish free trade area. Finland will be included in the free trade area in 1998. Nord Pool is responsible for two markets. The Spot Market is the Nordic market for physical delivery power. In this market participants trade power contracts for next-day delivery. A price is determined for each hour based on bids and offer from the participants. The Spot Market serves as reference price for Nord Pool's Futures and Forward Market and reference price in the bilateral wholesale market. The Futures and Forward Markets are financial markets for price hedging and risk management. Through these market the participants can hedge purchase and sale of power within a time horizon of up to three years. In the bilateral wholesale market there is a high trade activity of financial contracts that are standardized in the same manner as Nord Pools forwards. Nord Pool has therefore established a clearing service where contracts that are traded on bilateral basis can be cleared through Nord Pool and with Nord Pool as counterpart. More than 200 participants from Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark and England trade through Nord Pool. A general goal is to develop the market to include all four nordic countries in one common free trade area in close co-operation with the power business in the countries. There are different conditions for competition in the four countries, and much coordinating work is therefore still left to be done.

  15. Does the singular value decomposition entropy have predictive power for stock market? - Evidence from the Shenzhen stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Rongbao; Xiong, Wei; Li, Xinjie

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyzes the predictive ability of the singular value decomposition entropy for the Shenzhen Component Index based on different scales. It is found that, the predictive ability of the entropy for the index is affected by the width of moving time windows and the structural break in stock market. By moving time windows with one year, the predictive power of singular value decomposition entropy of Shenzhen stock market for its component index is found after the reform of non-tradable shares.

  16. Interdependency Assessment of Coupled Natural Gas and Power Systems in Energy Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongzhao; Qiu, Jing; Zhang, Sanhua; Lai, Mingyong; Dong, Zhao Yang

    2015-12-01

    Owing to the technological development of natural gas exploration and the increasing penetration of gas-fired power generation, gas and power systems inevitably interact with each other from both physical and economic points of view. In order to effectively assess the two systems' interdependency, this paper proposes a systematic modeling framework and constructs simulation platforms for coupled gas and power systems in an energy market environment. By applying the proposed approach to the Australian national electricity market (NEM) and gas market, the impacts of six types of market and system factors are quantitatively analyzed, including power transmission limits, gas pipeline contingencies, gas pipeline flow constraints, carbon emission constraints, power load variations, and non-electric gas load variations. The important interdependency and infrastructure weakness for the two systems are well studied and identified. Our work provides a quantitative basis for grid operators and policy makers to support and guide operation and investment decisions for electric power and natural gas industries.

  17. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2013 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.; Belyeu, K.; Kuskova-Burns, K.

    2014-11-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This report surveys utilities, competitive suppliers, renewable energy certificate (REC) marketers, and, for the first time, the community choice aggregation market. This report finds that the voluntary market totaled 62 million megawatt-hours in 2013. Approximately 5.4 million customers are purchasing green power. This report presents data and analysis on voluntary market sales and customer participation, products and premiums, green pricing marketing, and administrative expenses. The report also details trends in REC tracking systems, REC pricing in voluntary and compliance markets, community and crowd-funded solar, and interest in renewable energy by the information and communication technologies sector.

  18. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (2008 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Kreycik, Claire; Friedman, Barry

    2009-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to buy electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. In the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering 'green power' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from renewable energy marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets or offering renewable energy certificates (RECs) online. Today, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, while all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States including utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. These sections are followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The final section offers conclusions and observations.

  19. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2008 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B.

    2009-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to buy electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. In the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering 'green power' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from renewable energy marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets or offering renewable energy certificates (RECs) online. Today, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, while all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States including utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. These sections are followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The final section offers conclusions and observations.

  20. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report; Seventh Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2004-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering ''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. The first section provides an overview of green power markets, consumer response, and recent industry trends. Section 2 provides brief descriptions of the utility green pricing programs available nationally. Section 3 describes companies that actively market green power in competitive markets and those that market renew able energy certificates nationally or regionally. The last section provides information on a select number of large, nonresidential green power purchasers, including governmental agencies, universities, and businesses.

  1. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Eighth Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2005-10-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied by renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering "green power" options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. The first section provides an overview of green power markets, consumer response, and recent industry trends. The second section provides brief descriptions of utility green pricing programs. The third section describes companies that actively market green power in competitive markets and those that market renewable energy certificates nationally or regionally. The final section provides information on a select number of large, nonresidential green power purchasers, including businesses, universities, and government agencies.

  2. 77 FR 37035 - SunPower Corporation, Systems; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    .... ER12-1989-000] SunPower Corporation, Systems; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of SunPower Corporation, Systems's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  3. 75 FR 52321 - Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ...-1720-000] Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding, of Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC application for market-based rate...

  4. 76 FR 81487 - Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Area Power Administration Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the Boulder Canyon Project Post-2017 Remarketing AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration... withdrawing its decisions and proposals relating to its Boulder Canyon Project (BCP) Post-2017...

  5. 77 FR 61895 - Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... Section 220 of the Federal Power Act AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission is revising its regulations pursuant to section 220 of the Federal Power Act...

  6. Market entry, power, pharmacokinetics: what makes a successful drug innovation?

    PubMed

    Alt, Susanne; Helmstädter, Axel

    2017-09-20

    Depending on the timing of market entry, radical innovations can be distinguished from incremental innovations. Whereas a radical innovation typically is the first available derivative of a drug class, incremental innovations are launched later and show a certain benefit compared with the radical innovation. Here, we use historical market data relating to pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD), and other drug-related properties to investigate which derivatives within certain drug classes have been most successful on the market. Based on our investigations, we suggest naming the most successful drugs 'overtaking innovation', because they often exceed the market share of all the other derivatives. Seven drug classes showed that the overtaking innovation is never a radical innovation, but rather an early incremental innovation, with advantages in manageability and/or tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multi-agent social and organizational modeling of the electric power and natural gas markets.

    SciTech Connect

    North, M. J.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2001-12-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) can be applied to investigate large-scale socio-cognitive-technical systems. Viewing such systems from a multi-agent social and organizational perspective allows innovative computational policy analysis. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has taken such a perspective to produce an integrated model of the electric power and natural gas markets. This model focuses on the organizational interdependencies between these markets. These organizational interdependencies are being strained by fundamental market transformations.

  8. The predictive power of zero intelligence in financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyne Farmer, J.; Patelli, Paolo; Zovko, Ilija I.

    2005-02-01

    Standard models in economics stress the role of intelligent agents who maximize utility. However, there may be situations where constraints imposed by market institutions dominate strategic agent behavior. We use data from the London Stock Exchange to test a simple model in which minimally intelligent agents place orders to trade at random. The model treats the statistical mechanics of order placement, price formation, and the accumulation of revealed supply and demand within the context of the continuous double auction and yields simple laws relating order-arrival rates to statistical properties of the market. We test the validity of these laws in explaining cross-sectional variation for 11 stocks. The model explains 96% of the variance of the gap between the best buying and selling prices (the spread) and 76% of the variance of the price diffusion rate, with only one free parameter. We also study the market impact function, describing the response of quoted prices to the arrival of new orders. The nondimensional coordinates dictated by the model approximately collapse data from different stocks onto a single curve. This work is important from a practical point of view, because it demonstrates the existence of simple laws relating prices to order flows and, in a broader context, suggests there are circumstances where the strategic behavior of agents may be dominated by other considerations. double auction market | market microstructure | agent-based models

  9. Nuclear Power: The Market Test. Worldwatch Paper 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Christopher

    Nuclear power was considered vital to humanity's future until just a short time ago. Since the late seventies, economic viability has joined a list of such issues as waste disposal and radiation hazards which call into question the future of nuclear power. This document discusses (in separate sections): (1) the selling of nuclear power, including…

  10. The predictive power of Japanese candlestick charting in Chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shi; Bao, Si; Zhou, Yu

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies the predictive power of 4 popular pairs of two-day bullish and bearish Japanese candlestick patterns in Chinese stock market. Based on Morris' study, we give the quantitative details of definition of long candlestick, which is important in two-day candlestick pattern recognition but ignored by several previous researches, and we further give the quantitative definitions of these four pairs of two-day candlestick patterns. To test the predictive power of candlestick patterns on short-term price movement, we propose the definition of daily average return to alleviate the impact of correlation among stocks' overlap-time returns in statistical tests. To show the robustness of our result, two methods of trend definition are used for both the medium-market-value and large-market-value sample sets. We use Step-SPA test to correct for data snooping bias. Statistical results show that the predictive power differs from pattern to pattern, three of the eight patterns provide both short-term and relatively long-term prediction, another one pair only provide significant forecasting power within very short-term period, while the rest three patterns present contradictory results for different market value groups. For all the four pairs, the predictive power drops as predicting time increases, and forecasting power is stronger for stocks with medium market value than those with large market value.

  11. Solar Power Satellites: Creating the Market for Beamed Energy Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    2010-05-06

    Beamed energy advocates must investigate the potential of major markets like space based solar satellites and space-based nuclear waste disposal. For BEP to succeed, its proponents must work with these possible users to generate interest and resources needed to develop BEP.

  12. Solar Power Satellites: Creating the Market for Beamed Energy Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    Beamed energy advocates must investigate the potential of major markets like space based solar satellites and space-based nuclear waste disposal. For BEP to succeed, its proponents must work with these possible users to generate interest and resources needed to develop BEP.

  13. Market definition study of photovoltaic power for remote villages in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragsdale, C.; Quashie, P.

    1980-01-01

    A grass roots evaluation of the market potential was carried out for photovoltaic applications in remote villages in the U. S. and its possessions. An estimate of almost 14 MWp available for conversion from a potential to a real market was defined. The total power potential was based on the energy needs of almost 400 sites reported by Federal agencies and inputs from over 100 Indian tribes. The methodology used, the results achieved, and some recommendations of how to convert this domestic market potential into a real market are detailed.

  14. Photovoltaic village power application: Assessment of the near-term market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, L.; Bifano, W. J.; Poley, W. A.; Scudder, L. R.

    1978-01-01

    The village power application represents a potential market for photovoltaics. The price of energy for photovoltaic systems was compared to that of utility line extensions and diesel generators. The potential domestic demand was defined in both the government and commercial sectors. The foreign demand and sources of funding for village power systems in the developing countries were also discussed briefly. It was concluded that a near term domestic market of at least 12 MW min and a foreign market of about 10 GW exists.

  15. Monopsony power and relative wages in the labor market for nurses.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, B T; Schumacher, E J

    1995-10-01

    This paper examines the thesis that monopsony power is an important determinant of wages in nursing labor markets. Using data from the 1985-93 Current Population Surveys, measures of relative nurse/non-nurse wage rates for 252 labor markets are constructed. Contrary to predictions from the monopsony model, no positive relationship exists between relative nursing wages and hospital density or market size. Nor is support found for the presence of monopsony power based on evidence on union wage premiums, slopes of experience profiles, or the mix of RN to total hospital employment.

  16. Market definition study of photovoltaic power for remote villages in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Ragsdale, C.

    1980-02-01

    A grass roots evaluation of the market potential for photovoltaic applications in remote villages in the US and its territories provides an estimate of almost 14 MWp available for conversion from a potential to a real market. This total power potential is based on the energy needs of almost 400 sites reported by federal agencies and inputs from over 100 Indian tribes. This potential consists of the following: US government agencies-3000 KWp; Indian villages-10,000 KWp; Alaskan villages-370 KWp; territories-500 KWp; and US commercial-negligible. The report details the methodology used, the results achieved, and some recommendations of how to convert this domestic market potential into a real market and its contribution to preparing for the really large village power market potential that exists in developing countries.

  17. Evaluation of wholesale electric power market rules and financial risk management by agent-based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Nanpeng

    As U.S. regional electricity markets continue to refine their market structures, designs and rules of operation in various ways, two critical issues are emerging. First, although much experience has been gained and costly and valuable lessons have been learned, there is still a lack of a systematic platform for evaluation of the impact of a new market design from both engineering and economic points of view. Second, the transition from a monopoly paradigm characterized by a guaranteed rate of return to a competitive market created various unfamiliar financial risks for various market participants, especially for the Investor Owned Utilities (IOUs) and Independent Power Producers (IPPs). This dissertation uses agent-based simulation methods to tackle the market rules evaluation and financial risk management problems. The California energy crisis in 2000-01 showed what could happen to an electricity market if it did not go through a comprehensive and rigorous testing before its implementation. Due to the complexity of the market structure, strategic interaction between the participants, and the underlying physics, it is difficult to fully evaluate the implications of potential changes to market rules. This dissertation presents a flexible and integrative method to assess market designs through agent-based simulations. Realistic simulation scenarios on a 225-bus system are constructed for evaluation of the proposed PJM-like market power mitigation rules of the California electricity market. Simulation results show that in the absence of market power mitigation, generation company (GenCo) agents facilitated by Q-learning are able to exploit the market flaws and make significantly higher profits relative to the competitive benchmark. The incorporation of PJM-like local market power mitigation rules is shown to be effective in suppressing the exercise of market power. The importance of financial risk management is exemplified by the recent financial crisis. In this

  18. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2014 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shaughnessy, Eric; Heeter, Jenny; Liu, Chang; Nobler, Erin

    2015-10-16

    NREL's annual report on green power markets summarizes status and trends in the voluntary demand for renewable energy. U.S. green power markets have become more complex over time as state-level policies have enabled more avenues for green power purchases. In recent years, community solar, community choice aggregation (CCA), and voluntary power purchase agreements (PPAs) have significantly increased the number of U.S. voluntary green power customers. The community solar model has grown rapidly with 90 projects in 25 states by 2015. Renewable energy sales in CCAs declined slightly in 2014 in response to less favorable economic conditions in Illinois. At the same time, several California CCAs continued to grow, and many more communities are planning to pursue green power through aggregation. Voluntary green power purchasing through bi-lateral PPAs took off in 2014 due to several large-scale agreements signed by information and communication technology firms. Traditional green power options, such as utility green pricing programs and voluntary RECs markets, also grew in 2014. Current trends suggest strong continued growth in U.S. voluntary green power markets.

  19. Coordination and decision making of regulation, operation, and market activities in power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Tomoaki

    Electric power has been traditionally supplied to customers at regulated rates by vertically integrated utilities (VIUs), which own generation, transmission, and distribution systems. However, the regulatory authorities of VIUs are promoting competition in their businesses to lower the price of electric energy. Consequently, in new deregulated circumstances, many suppliers and marketers compete in the generation market, and conflict of interest may often occur over transmission. Therefore, a neutral entity, called an independent system operator (ISO), which operates the power system independently, has been established to give market participants nondiscriminatory access to transmission sectors with a natural monopoly, and to facilitate competition in generation sectors. Several types of ISOs are established at present, with their respective regions and authorities. The ISO receives many requests from market participants to transfer power, and must evaluate the feasibility of their requests under the system's condition. In the near future, regulatory authorities may impose various objectives on the ISOs. Then, based on the regulators' policies, the ISO must determine the optimal schedules from feasible solutions, or change the market participants' requests. In a newly developed power market, market participants will conduct their transactions in order to maximize their profit. The most crucial information in conducting power transactions is price and demand. A direct transaction between suppliers and consumers may become attractive because of its stability of price, while in a power exchange market, gaming and speculation of participants may push up electricity prices considerably. To assist the consumers in making effective decisions, suitable methods for forecasting volatile market price are necessary. This research has been approached from three viewpoints: Firstly, from the system operator's point of view, desirable system operation and power market structure

  20. Secure provision of reactive power ancillary services in competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Samahy, Ismael

    The research work presented in this thesis discusses various complex issues associated with reactive power management and pricing in the context of new operating paradigms in deregulated power systems, proposing appropriate policy solutions. An integrated two-level framework for reactive power management is set forth, which is both suitable for a competitive market and ensures a secure and reliable operation of the associated power system. The framework is generic in nature and can be adopted for any electricity market structure. The proposed hierarchical reactive power market structure comprises two stages: procurement of reactive power resources on a seasonal basis, and real-time reactive power dispatch. The main objective of the proposed framework is to provide appropriate reactive power support from service providers at least cost, while ensuring a secure operation of the power system. The proposed procurement procedure is based on a two-step optimization model. First, the marginal benefits of reactive power supply from each provider, with respect to system security, are obtained by solving a loadability-maximization problem subject to transmission security constraints imposed by voltage and thermal limits. Second, the selected set of generators is determined by solving an optimal power flow (OPF)-based auction. This auction maximizes a societal advantage function comprising generators' offers and their corresponding marginal benefits with respect to system security, and considering all transmission system constraints. The proposed procedure yields the selected set of generators and zonal price components, which would form the basis for seasonal contracts between the system operator and the selected reactive power service providers. The main objective of the proposed reactive power dispatch model is to minimize the total payment burden on the Independent System Operator (ISO), which is associated with reactive power dispatch. The real power generation is

  1. Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, D.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this 'big picture' three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology's market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

  2. The predictive power of zero intelligence in financial markets

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, J. Doyne; Patelli, Paolo; Zovko, Ilija I.

    2005-01-01

    Standard models in economics stress the role of intelligent agents who maximize utility. However, there may be situations where constraints imposed by market institutions dominate strategic agent behavior. We use data from the London Stock Exchange to test a simple model in which minimally intelligent agents place orders to trade at random. The model treats the statistical mechanics of order placement, price formation, and the accumulation of revealed supply and demand within the context of the continuous double auction and yields simple laws relating order-arrival rates to statistical properties of the market. We test the validity of these laws in explaining cross-sectional variation for 11 stocks. The model explains 96% of the variance of the gap between the best buying and selling prices (the spread) and 76% of the variance of the price diffusion rate, with only one free parameter. We also study the market impact function, describing the response of quoted prices to the arrival of new orders. The nondimensional coordinates dictated by the model approximately collapse data from different stocks onto a single curve. This work is important from a practical point of view, because it demonstrates the existence of simple laws relating prices to order flows and, in a broader context, suggests there are circumstances where the strategic behavior of agents may be dominated by other considerations. PMID:15687505

  3. The predictive power of zero intelligence in financial markets.

    PubMed

    Farmer, J Doyne; Patelli, Paolo; Zovko, Ilija I

    2005-02-08

    Standard models in economics stress the role of intelligent agents who maximize utility. However, there may be situations where constraints imposed by market institutions dominate strategic agent behavior. We use data from the London Stock Exchange to test a simple model in which minimally intelligent agents place orders to trade at random. The model treats the statistical mechanics of order placement, price formation, and the accumulation of revealed supply and demand within the context of the continuous double auction and yields simple laws relating order-arrival rates to statistical properties of the market. We test the validity of these laws in explaining cross-sectional variation for 11 stocks. The model explains 96% of the variance of the gap between the best buying and selling prices (the spread) and 76% of the variance of the price diffusion rate, with only one free parameter. We also study the market impact function, describing the response of quoted prices to the arrival of new orders. The nondimensional coordinates dictated by the model approximately collapse data from different stocks onto a single curve. This work is important from a practical point of view, because it demonstrates the existence of simple laws relating prices to order flows and, in a broader context, suggests there are circumstances where the strategic behavior of agents may be dominated by other considerations.

  4. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Ninth Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2006-11-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied by renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering ''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than half of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. Currently, more than 600 utilities, or about 20% of utilities nationally, offer green power programs to customers. These programs allow customers to purchase some portion of their power supply as renewable energy--almost always at a higher price--or to contribute funds for the utility to invest in renewable energy development. The term ''green pricing'' is typically used to refer to these utility programs offered in regulated or noncompetitive electricity markets. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States.

  5. Wind Generation in the Future Competitive California Power Market

    SciTech Connect

    Sezgen, O.; Marnay, C.; Bretz, S.

    1998-03-01

    The goal of this work is to develop improved methods for assessing the viability of wind generation in competitive electricity markets. The viability of a limited number of possible wind sites is assessed using a geographic information system (GIS) to determine the cost of development, and Elfin, an electric utility production costing and capacity expansion model, to estimate the possible revenues and profits of wind farms at the sites. This approach improves on a simple profitability calculation by using a site-specific development cost calculation and by taking the effect of time varying market prices on revenues into account. The first component of the work is to develop data characterizing wind resources suitable for use in production costing and capacity expansion models, such as Elfin, that are capable of simulating competitive electricity markets. An improved representation of California wind resources is built, using information collected by the California Energy Commission (CE C) in previous site evaluations, and by using a GIS approach to estimating development costs at 36 specific sites. These sites, which have been identified as favorable for wind development, are placed on Digital Elevation Maps (DEMs) and development costs are calculated based on distances to roads and transmission lines. GIS is also used to develop the potential capacity at each site by making use of the physical characteristics of the terrain, such as ridge lengths. In the second part of the effort, using a previously developed algorithm for simulating competitive entry to the California electricity market, the Elfin model is used to gauge the viability of wind farms at the 36 sites. The results of this exercise are forecasts of profitable development levels at each site and the effects of these developments on the electricity system as a whole. Under best guess assumptions, including prohibition of new nuclear and coal capacity, moderate increase in gas prices and some decline in

  6. Appendix M - GPRA06 estimate of penetration of generating technologies into green power markets

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The Green Power Market Model (GPMM or the model) identifies and analyzes the potential electric-generating capacity additions that will result from “green power” programs, which are not captured in the “least-cost” analyses performed by the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and the Market Allocation (MARKAL) model. The term "green power" is used to define power generated from renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal, and various forms of biomass. The Green Power market is an increasingly important element of the national renewable energy contribution, with changes in the regulatory and legislative environment and the recent dramatic changes in natural gas prices slowly altering the size of this opportunity.

  7. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steingass, H.; Asmon, I.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a month-long study in Morocco aimed at assessing the market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture and rural service applications are presented. The following applications, requiring less than 15 kW of power, are described: irrigation, cattle watering, refrigeration, crop processing, potable water and educational TV. Telecommunications and transportation signalling applications, descriptions of power and energy use profiles, assessments of business environment, government and private sector attitudes towards photovoltaics, and financing were also considered. The Moroccan market presents both advantages and disadvantages for American PV manufacturers. The principle advantages of the Moroccan market are: a limited grid, interest in and present use of PV in communications applications, attractive investment incentives, and a stated policy favoring American investment. Disadvantages include: lack of government incentives for PV use, general unfamiliarity with PV technology, high first cost of PV, a well-established market network for diesel generators, and difficulty with financing. The market for PV in Morocco (1981-1986), will be relatively small, about 340 kwp. The market for PV is likely to be more favorable in telecommunications, transport signalling and some rural services. The primary market appears to be in the public (i.e., government) rather than private sector, due to financial constraints and the high price of PV relative to conventional power sector.

  8. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steingass, H.; Asmon, I.

    1981-09-01

    Results of a month-long study in Morocco aimed at assessing the market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture and rural service applications are presented. The following applications, requiring less than 15 kW of power, are described: irrigation, cattle watering, refrigeration, crop processing, potable water and educational TV. Telecommunications and transportation signalling applications, descriptions of power and energy use profiles, assessments of business environment, government and private sector attitudes towards photovoltaics, and financing were also considered. The Moroccan market presents both advantages and disadvantages for American PV manufacturers. The principle advantages of the Moroccan market are: a limited grid, interest in and present use of PV in communications applications, attractive investment incentives, and a stated policy favoring American investment. Disadvantages include: lack of government incentives for PV use, general unfamiliarity with PV technology, high first cost of PV, a well-established market network for diesel generators, and difficulty with financing. The market for PV in Morocco (1981-1986), will be relatively small, about 340 kwp. The market for PV is likely to be more favorable in telecommunications, transport signalling and some rural services. The primary market appears to be in the public (i.e., government) rather than private sector, due to financial constraints and the high price of PV relative to conventional power sector.

  9. Market-Based Decision Guidance Framework for Power and Alternative Energy Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altaleb, Hesham

    With the introduction of power energy markets deregulation, innovations have transformed once a static network into a more flexible grid. Microgrids have also been deployed to serve various purposes (e.g., reliability, sustainability, etc.). With the rapid deployment of smart grid technologies, it has become possible to measure and record both, the quantity and time of the consumption of electrical power. In addition, capabilities for controlling distributed supply and demand have resulted in complex systems where inefficiencies are possible and where improvements can be made. Electric power like other volatile resources cannot be stored efficiently, therefore, managing such resource requires considerable attention. Such complex systems present a need for decisions that can streamline consumption, delay infrastructure investments, and reduce costs. When renewable power resources and the need for limiting harmful emissions are added to the equation, the search space for decisions becomes increasingly complex. As a result, the need for a comprehensive decision guidance system for electrical power resources consumption and productions becomes evident. In this dissertation, I formulate and implement a comprehensive framework that addresses different aspect of the electrical power generation and consumption using optimization models and utilizing collaboration concepts. Our solution presents a two-prong approach: managing interaction in real-time for the short-term immediate consumption of already allocated resources; and managing the operational planning for the long-run consumption. More specifically, in real-time, we present and implement a model of how to organize a secondary market for peak-demand allocation and describe the properties of the market that guarantees efficient execution and a method for the fair distribution of collaboration gains. We also propose and implement a primary market for peak demand bounds determination problem with the assumption that

  10. Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, David

    2012-04-23

    This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. It is intended for geothermal experts in either the private or public sector who are less familiar with how the electricity system operates beyond the geothermal plant. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this "big picture" three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology’s market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

  11. Path to Market for Compact Modular Fusion Power Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, Simon; Baerny, Jennifer K.; Mattor, Nathan; Stoulil, Don; Miller, Ronald; Marston, Theodore

    2012-08-01

    The benefits of an energy source whose reactants are plentiful and whose products are benign is hard to measure, but at no time in history has this energy source been more needed. Nuclear fusion continues to promise to be this energy source. However, the path to market for fusion systems is still regularly a matter for long-term (20 + year) plans. This white paper is intended to stimulate discussion of faster commercialization paths, distilling guidance from investors, utilities, and the wider energy research community (including from ARPA-E). There is great interest in a small modular fusion system that can be developed quickly and inexpensively. A simple model shows how compact modular fusion can produce a low cost development path by optimizing traditional systems that burn deuterium and tritium, operating not only at high magnetic field strength, but also by omitting some components that allow for the core to become more compact and easier to maintain. The dominant hurdles to the development of low cost, practical fusion systems are discussed, primarily in terms of the constraints placed on the cost of development stages in the private sector. The main finding presented here is that the bridge from DOE Office of Science to the energy market can come at the Proof of Principle development stage, providing the concept is sufficiently compact and inexpensive that its development allows for a normal technology commercialization path.

  12. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigelmann, W.; Asmon, I.

    1981-01-01

    The first year of cost-competitiveness, the market potential, and the environment in which PV systems would be marketed and employed were examined. Market elements specific to Mexico addressed include: (1) useful applications and estimates of the potential market for PV systems; (2) power requirements and load profiles for applications compatible with PV usage; (3) operating and cost characteristics of power systems that compete against PV; (4) national development goals in rural electrification and rural services, technology programs and government policies that influence the demand for PV in Mexico; (5) financing mechanisms and capital available for PV acquisition; (6) channels for distribution, installation and maintenance of PV systems; and (7) appropriate methods for conducting business in Mexico.

  13. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigelmann, W.; Asmon, I.

    1981-07-01

    The first year of cost-competitiveness, the market potential, and the environment in which PV systems would be marketed and employed were examined. Market elements specific to Mexico addressed include: (1) useful applications and estimates of the potential market for PV systems; (2) power requirements and load profiles for applications compatible with PV usage; (3) operating and cost characteristics of power systems that compete against PV; (4) national development goals in rural electrification and rural services, technology programs and government policies that influence the demand for PV in Mexico; (5) financing mechanisms and capital available for PV acquisition; (6) channels for distribution, installation and maintenance of PV systems; and (7) appropriate methods for conducting business in Mexico.

  14. Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E.; Palmer, S.C.

    1995-03-01

    Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation`s irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western`s wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western`s power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage.

  15. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Nigeria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, D.; Steingass, H.; Nolfi, J.

    1981-01-01

    The market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture was studied. Information is presented on technical and economically feasible applications, and assessments of the business, government and financial climate for photovoltaic sales. It is concluded that the market for stand-alone systems will be large because of the availability of captial and the high premium placed on high reliability, low maintenance power systems. Various specific applications are described, mostly related to agriculture.

  16. The Forbes 400, the Pareto power-law and efficient markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klass, O. S.; Biham, O.; Levy, M.; Malcai, O.; Solomon, S.

    2007-01-01

    Statistical regularities at the top end of the wealth distribution in the United States are examined using the Forbes 400 lists of richest Americans, published between 1988 and 2003. It is found that the wealths are distributed according to a power-law (Pareto) distribution. This result is explained using a simple stochastic model of multiple investors that incorporates the efficient market hypothesis as well as the multiplicative nature of financial market fluctuations.

  17. Multi-agent system for the short and long-term power market simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Botterud, A.; Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we give an overview of the Electricity Market Complex Adaptive System (EMCAS) model. EMCAS uses the agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) technique to model the market participants in electricity markets as different agents with different strategies, risk preferences, and objectives. The complex operations of an electricity market can be simulated across several time horizons from day-ahead scheduling to long-term expansion planning. The methodology used in the model is discussed and a central European case is utilized to illustrate how EMCAS can be used to analyze a power system's operation under various assumptions. The results show the effectiveness of the model, and how the ABMS approach allows the testing of different market conditions.

  18. Multi-agent system for short and long-term power market simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Botterud, A.; Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we give an overview of the Electricity Market Complex Adaptive System (EMCAS) model. EMCAS uses the agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) technique to model the market participants in electricity markets as different agents with different strategies, risk preferences, and objectives. The complex operations of an electricity market can be simulated across several time horizons from day-ahead scheduling to long-term expansion planning. The methodology used in the model is discussed and a central European case is utilized to illustrate how EMCAS can be used to analyze a power system's operation under various assumptions. The results show the effectiveness of the model, and how the ABMS approach allows the testing of different market conditions.

  19. Market survey of fuel cells in Mexico: Niche for low power portable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Salgado, Joel; Domínguez-Aguilar, Marco A.

    This work provides an overview of the potential market in Mexico for portable electronic devices to be potentially powered by direct methanol fuel cells. An extrapolation method based on data published in Mexico and abroad served to complete this market survey. A review of electronics consumption set the basis for the future forecast and technology assimilation. The potential market for fuel cells for mobile phones in Mexico will be around 5.5 billion USD by 2013, considering a cost of 41 USD per cell in a market of 135 million mobile phones. Likewise, the market for notebook computers, PDAs and other electronic devices will likely grow in the future, with a combined consumption of fuel cell technology equivalent to 1.6 billion USD by 2014.

  20. Effects of Demand Response on Retail and Wholesale Power Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-26

    Demand response has grown to be a part of the repertoire of resources used by utilities to manage the balance between generation and load. In recent years, advances in communications and control technology have enabled utilities to consider continuously controlling demand response to meet generation, rather than the other way around. This paper discusses the economic applications of a general method for load resource analysis that parallels the approach used to analyze generation resources and uses the method to examine the results of the US Department of Energy’s Olympic Peninsula Demonstration Testbed. A market-based closed-loop system of controllable assets is discussed with necessary and sufficient conditions on system controllability, observability and stability derived.

  1. Accounting for the effects of power system controllers and stability on power dispatch and electricity market prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodsi, Sameh K. M.

    Recently, the widespread use of power system controllers, such as PSS and FACTS controllers, has led to the analysis of their effect on the overall stability of power systems. Many studies have been conducted to allocate FACTS controllers so that they achieve optimal power flow conditions in the context of Optimal Power Flow (OPF) analysis. However, these studies usually do not examine the effect of these controllers on the voltage and angle stability of the entire system, considering that the types of these controllers and their control signals, such as reactive power, current, or voltage, have significant effect on the entire system stability. Due to the recent transition from government controlled to deregulated electricity markets, the relationship between power system controllers and electricity markets has added a new dimension, as the effect of these controllers on the overall power system stability has to be seen from an economic point of view. Studying the effect of adding and tuning these controllers on the pricing of electricity within the context of electricity markets is a significant and novel research area. Specifically, the link among stability, FACTS controllers and electricity pricing should be appropriately studied and modelled. Consequently, in this thesis, the focus is on proposing and describing of a novel OPF technique which includes a new stability constraint. This technique is compared with respect to existent OPF techniques, demonstrating that it provides an appropriate modelling of system controllers, and thus a better understanding of their effects on system stability and energy pricing. The proposed OPF technique offers a new methodology for pricing the dynamic services provided by the system's controllers. Moreover, the new OPF technique can be used to develop a novel tuning methodology for PSS and FACTS controllers to optimize power dispatch and price levels, as guaranteeing an adequate level of system security. All tests and

  2. Indian power generation market: Narrowing the gap between supply & demand

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.

    1997-01-01

    It is estimated that per capita consumption of electricity in India is less than 350 kWh per year, an extremely low level by world standards. India accounts for 16% of the world`s population, but only 3% of world energy consumption. Massive investments, as much as US $10 billion over the next five years, are needed to narrow the gap between supply and demand. Power sector policy reforms dating back to 1991 have encouraged private investors, but the lndian bureaucracy itself still bubbles with protectionist leanings and corruption, resulting in delays and inefficiencies. Stakes in the Indian power sector are so high, however, that investor interest is still keen. Most predict better than double-digit growth in the Indian energy sector through 2000. Those who have been persistent in courting the India power sector will eventually reap the rewards. This paper describes some of the projects in the works at present and the companies and equipment manufacturers involved. 6 figs.

  3. The effects of insurance carrier market power on dentists and patients.

    PubMed

    Brown, L Jackson; Guay, Albert H; House, Donald R

    2009-01-01

    Market power among dental insurance carriers is a carrier's ability to reimburse dentists at rates below what would exist in more competitive areas. Competition among carriers for dentists' participation in their networks protects dentists from highly discounted fees. The authors examined the extent to which dental insurance carriers facing less competition increase fee discounts. The authors selected a sample of dentists from listings of general practitioners. They identified 219 metropolitan areas and contacted 11,542 dentists in those areas by mail, telephone or both. A total of 8,017 dentists completed surveys (a response rate of 69.46 percent). The authors' key focus was the possible relationship between carrier market power and the size of the fee discount. The authors compared discounts across metropolitan areas with their differing levels of insurance coverage and carrier market shares. Carrier market power was directly related to the sizes of fee discounts. The larger discounts were found where there was significant dental insurance coverage and few carriers providing this coverage. Dentists' net incomes were significantly less in areas with larger fee discounts. Dental insurance carrier market power leads to increased fee discounts. These higher discounts reduce dentists' earnings. Although the larger discounts may result in lower overall patient costs, this patient benefit is temporary. Ultimately, the number of practicing dentists in these communities will decrease as dentists seek improved practicing conditions elsewhere. This reduction will lead to overall fee increases until the earning potential of dentists is restored.

  4. High and varying prices for privately insured patients underscore hospital market power.

    PubMed

    White, Chapin; Bond, Amelia M; Reschovsky, James D

    2013-09-01

    Across 13 selected U.S. metropolitan areas, hospital prices for privately insured patients are much higher than Medicare payment rates and vary widely across and within markets, according to a study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) based on claims data for about 590,000 active and retired nonelderly autoworkers and their dependents. Across the 13 communities, aver­age hospital prices for privately insured patients are about one-and-a-half times Medicare rates for inpatient care and two times what Medicare pays for outpa­tient care. Within individual communities, prices vary widely, with the highest-priced hospital typically paid 60 percent more for inpatient services than the lowest-priced hospital. The price gap within markets is even greater for hospital outpatient care, with the highest-priced hospital typically paid nearly double the lowest-priced hospital. In contrast to the wide variation in hospital prices for pri­vately insured patients across and within markets, prices for primary care physi­cian services generally are close to Medicare rates and vary little within markets. Prices for specialist physician services, however, are higher relative to Medicare and vary more across and within markets. Of the 13 markets, five are in Michigan, which has an unusually concentrated private insurance market, with one insurer commanding a 70-percent market share. Despite the presence of a dominant insurer, almost all Michigan hospi­tals command prices that are higher than Medicare, and some hospitals com­mand prices that are twice what Medicare pays. In the eight markets outside of Michigan, private insurers generally pay even higher hospital prices, with even wider gaps between high- and low-priced hospitals. The variation in hospital and specialist physician prices within communities underscores that some hospitals and physicians have significant market power to command high prices, even in markets with a dominant insurer.

  5. POWER for reproductive health: results from a social marketing campaign promoting female and male condoms.

    PubMed

    Bull, Sheana S; Posner, Samuel F; Ortiz, Charlene; Beaty, Brenda; Benton, Kathryn; Lin, Lillian; Pals, Sherri L; Evans, Tom

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate effects of a 6-month social marketing campaign on awareness of, attitudes toward and use of female as well as male condoms for 15-25 year-old-women. Using a time-space sampling methodology, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 3407 women at pre-campaign in 12 western U.S. neighborhoods on female and male condom awareness, attitudes, and use. Six of the 12 study neighborhoods were randomly selected to receive the POWER social marketing campaign designed to impact condom knowledge, attitudes, and use. The campaign was followed with another cross-sectional survey of 3,003 women in all 12 study neighborhoods on condom knowledge, attitudes, use and awareness of POWER materials. We compared pre-and post-campaign surveys to determine the efficacy of POWER and conducted post hoc analyses on post-campaign data to determine if exposure to POWER was related to higher levels of positive condom attitudes and norms and condom use. We found no differences between neighborhoods with and without the POWER campaign with regard to our primary outcomes. To diagnose reasons for this null effect, we examined outcomes post hoc examining the influence of POWER exposure. Post hoc analyses show some evidence that exposure to POWER was associated with condom use. In the context of the nested trial, this raises concerns that post test only evaluations are limited. Establishing the efficacy of a social marketing campaign is challenging. This group randomized trial showed a null effect. Social marketing campaigns may need to have more media channels and saturation before they can show behavioral effects. Using a nested design with randomization at the community level and probability sampling introduces rigor not commonly seen in evaluations of social marketing campaigns.

  6. Biopower markets in developing countries: Meeting the demands for cleaner power

    SciTech Connect

    Demeter, C.P.

    1997-12-31

    The worldwide expansion of democracy economic freedom and the explosion of private investment and trading is fueling a boom in global economic growth at double the rate of only a decade ago. Dependence on power and process heat is growing in lockstep during a time of significant structural change in electric markets. Many countries are creating more competitive market environments for power production and sales through changes in regulation, ownership, and pricing structures. But while demand for heat and power is expanding and creating a higher standard of living for many around the world, there is growing global concern about increases in carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion and its possible link to climate changes. On a local level, flooding and non-point runoff, deforestation and habitat loss, salination of drinking water aquifers, solid waste disposal and landfill capacity shortages all put an increasing strain on our environment`s ability to cleanse itself. This could have subsequent adverse impacts on human health and welfare. This article explores emerging markets for biomass power development in India, china, Asia, and Latin America. Exploiting these markets requires understanding each country`s resources, energy needs, and government attitudes about foreign power developers. 6 figs.

  7. Markets to Facilitate Wind and Solar Energy Integration in the Bulk Power Supply: An IEA Task 25 Collaboration; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Soder, L.; Clark, C.; Pineda, I.

    2012-09-01

    Wind and solar power will give rise to challenges in electricity markets regarding flexibility, capacity adequacy, and the participation of wind and solar generators to markets. Large amounts of wind power will have impacts on bulk power system markets and electricity prices. If the markets respond to increased wind power by increasing investments in low-capital, high-cost or marginal-cost power, the average price may remain in the same range. However, experiences so far from Denmark, Germany, Spain, and Ireland are such that the average market prices have decreased because of wind power. This reduction may result in additional revenue insufficiency, which may be corrected with a capacity market, yet capacity markets are difficult to design. However, the flexibility attributes of the capacity also need to be considered. Markets facilitating wind and solar integration will include possibilities for trading close to delivery (either by shorter gate closure times or intraday markets). Time steps chosen for markets can enable more flexibility to be assessed. Experience from 5- and 10-minute markets has been encouraging.

  8. Models for the modern power grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardelli, Pedro H. J.; Rubido, Nicolas; Wang, Chengwei; Baptista, Murilo S.; Pomalaza-Raez, Carlos; Cardieri, Paulo; Latva-aho, Matti

    2014-10-01

    This article reviews different kinds of models for the electric power grid that can be used to understand the modern power system, the smart grid. From the physical network to abstract energy markets, we identify in the literature different aspects that co-determine the spatio-temporal multilayer dynamics of power system. We start our review by showing how the generation, transmission and distribution characteristics of the traditional power grids are already subject to complex behaviour appearing as a result of the the interplay between dynamics of the nodes and topology, namely synchronisation and cascade effects. When dealing with smart grids, the system complexity increases even more: on top of the physical network of power lines and controllable sources of electricity, the modernisation brings information networks, renewable intermittent generation, market liberalisation, prosumers, among other aspects. In this case, we forecast a dynamical co-evolution of the smart grid and other kind of networked systems that cannot be understood isolated. This review compiles recent results that model electric power grids as complex systems, going beyond pure technological aspects. From this perspective, we then indicate possible ways to incorporate the diverse co-evolving systems into the smart grid model using, for example, network theory and multi-agent simulation.

  9. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets

    PubMed Central

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players’ behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents’ behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data. PMID:26335705

  10. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    PubMed

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data.

  11. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Colombia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigelmann, W.; Neyeloff, S.

    1981-01-01

    The market potential for photovoltaic systems in the agricultural sector of Colombia is assessed. Consideration was given to over twenty specific livestock production, crop production, and rural services applications requiring less than 15 kW of power without backup power. Analysis revealed that near-term potential exists for photovoltaic technology in applications in coffee depulging, cattle watering, rural domestic users, rural water supply and small irrigation, rural telephones, rural health posts, and vaccine refrigeration. Market size would be in the 1200 to 2500 kWp range in the 1981 to 86 timeframe. Positive factors influencing the market size include a lack of electrical services, potential for developing the Llanos Orientales Territory, high fuel costs in remote areas, balance of system availability, the presence of wealthy land owners, and a large government-sponsored contract for photovoltaic (PV)-powered rural telephone systems. The anticipated eligibility of photovoltaic equipment for loans would be a further positive factor in market potential. Important negative factors include relatively inexpensive energy in developed locations, reliance on hydropower, lack of familiarity with PV equipment, a lack of financing, and established foreign competition in PV technology. Recommendations to American PV manufacturers attempting to develop the Colombian market are given.

  12. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Steigelmann, W.; Neyeloff, S.

    1981-11-01

    An assessment is made of the market potential for photovoltaic systems in the agricultural sector of Colombia. Consideration was given to over twenty specific livestock production, crop production, and rural services applications requiring less than 15 KW of power without backup power. Analysis revealed that near-term potential exists for photovoltaic technology in applications in coffee depulging, cattle watering, rural domestic users, rural water supply and small irrigation, rural telephones, rural health posts, and vaccine refrigeration. Market size would be in the 1200 to 2500 KWp range in the 1981-86 timeframe. Positive factors influencing the market size include a lack of electrical services, potential for developing the Llanos Orientales Territory, high fuel costs in remote areas, balance of system availability, the presence of wealthy land owners, and a large government-sponsored contract for PV-powered rural telephone systems. The anticipated eligibility of photovoltaic equipment for loans under the Fifth Law would be a further positive factor in market potential. Important negative factors include relatively inexpensive energy in developed locations, reliance on hydropower, lack of familarity with PV equipment, a lack of financing, and established foreign competition in PV technology. Recommendations to American PV manufacturers attempting to develop the Colombian market are to offer complete systems, perform as much production and assembly of systems as possible in Colombia or another Andean Pact country to avoid higher tariffs, and consider forming corporations with majority Colombian participation in light or trade advantages.

  13. Efficiency measurement for regulatory market-structure regimes of the electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceno, Cecilia Maria

    This dissertation provides an empirical evaluation of market structure reforms that have been implemented in the Electric Power Industry between 1980 and 1999. The analysis is based on the experience of Latin American countries and to some extent of OECD countries. Market structure reforms pose certain tradeoffs. Economic theory suggests that such tradeoffs depend on parameters that can only be estimated econometrically. The tradeoffs arise in industries where vertical relationships between production layers result from the interaction between competitive markets and regulated markets. The implications of different structural arrangements can be clarified by empirical work. This comparative analysis of the recent international experience in the electric power industry addresses these implications. The results of this research support the claim that vertical separation between generation, transmission and distribution is the most efficient regulatory regime, and, as such, a central feature of reform processes in the electric power industry. The empirical analysis uses the distance function as an analytical tool to estimate relative efficiency for each market structure arrangement. For this purpose, the present study assembles a panel set covering 40 countries during a 20-year period.

  14. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigelmann, W.; Neyeloff, S.

    1981-11-01

    The market potential for photovoltaic systems in the agricultural sector of Colombia is assessed. Consideration was given to over twenty specific livestock production, crop production, and rural services applications requiring less than 15 kW of power without backup power. Analysis revealed that near-term potential exists for photovoltaic technology in applications in coffee depulging, cattle watering, rural domestic users, rural water supply and small irrigation, rural telephones, rural health posts, and vaccine refrigeration. Market size would be in the 1200 to 2500 kWp range in the 1981 to 86 timeframe. Positive factors influencing the market size include a lack of electrical services, potential for developing the Llanos Orientales Territory, high fuel costs in remote areas, balance of system availability, the presence of wealthy land owners, and a large government-sponsored contract for photovoltaic (PV)-powered rural telephone systems. The anticipated eligibility of photovoltaic equipment for loans would be a further positive factor in market potential. Important negative factors include relatively inexpensive energy in developed locations, reliance on hydropower, lack of familiarity with PV equipment, a lack of financing, and established foreign competition in PV technology. Recommendations to American PV manufacturers attempting to develop the Colombian market are given.

  15. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations`s proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations.

  16. Nuclear power and the market value of the shares of electric utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Joseph T.

    The most basic principle of security valuation is that market prices are determined by investors' expectations of the firm's performance in the future. These expectations are generally understood to be related to the risk that investors will bear by holding the firm's equity. There is considerable evidence that financial statements prepared in accordance with accrual-based accounting standards consistent with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) have information content relevant to the establishment of market prices. In 2001, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standard No. 143, "Accounting for Asset Retirement Obligations," changing the accounting standards that must be used to prepare financial statements. This paper investigates the effect that investment in nuclear power has on the market value of electric utilities and the impact on the securities markets of the significant changes in financial statement presentation mandated by this new standard.

  17. The Power (Law) of Indian Markets: Analysing NSE and BSE Trading Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sitabhra; Pan, Raj Kumar

    The nature of fluctuations in the Indian financial market is analyzed in this paper. We have looked at the price returns of individual stocks, with tick-by-tick data from the National Stock Exchange (NSE) and daily closing price data from both NSE and the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), the two largest exchanges in India. We find that the price returns in Indian markets follow a fat-tailed cumulative distribution, consistent with a power law having exponent α ˜ 3, similar to that observed in developed markets. However, the distributions of trading volume and the number of trades have a different nature than that seen in the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). Further, the price movement of different stocks are highly correlated in Indian markets.

  18. Study on Stochastic Optimal Electric Power Procurement Strategies with Uncertain Market Prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakchai, Siripatanakulkhajorn; Saisho, Yuichi; Fujii, Yasumasa; Yamaji, Kenji

    The player in deregulated electricity markets can be categorized into three groups of GENCO (Generator Companies), TRNASCO (Transmission Companies), DISCO (Distribution Companies). This research focuses on the role of Distribution Companies, which purchase electricity from market at randomly fluctuating prices, and provide it to their customers at given fixed prices. Therefore Distribution companies have to take the risk stemming from price fluctuation of electricity instead of the customers. This entails the necessity to develop a certain method to make an optimal strategy for electricity procurement. In such a circumstance, this research has the purpose for proposing the mathematical method based on stochastic dynamic programming to evaluate the value of a long-term bilateral contract of electricity trade, and also a project of combination of the bilateral contract and power generation with their own generators for procuring electric power in deregulated market.

  19. Why credit risk markets are predestined for exhibiting log-periodic power law structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosnitza, Jan Henrik; Leker, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has established the existence of log-periodic power law (LPPL) patterns in financial institutions’ credit default swap (CDS) spreads. The main purpose of this paper is to clarify why credit risk markets are predestined for exhibiting LPPL structures. To this end, the credit risk prediction of two variants of logistic regression, i.e. polynomial logistic regression (PLR) and kernel logistic regression (KLR), are firstly compared to the standard logistic regression (SLR). In doing so, the question whether the performances of rating systems based on balance sheet ratios can be improved by nonlinear transformations of the explanatory variables is resolved. Building on the result that nonlinear balance sheet ratio transformations hardly improve the SLR’s predictive power in our case, we secondly compare the classification performance of a multivariate SLR to the discriminative powers of probabilities of default derived from three different capital market data, namely bonds, CDSs, and stocks. Benefiting from the prompt inclusion of relevant information, the capital market data in general and CDSs in particular increasingly outperform the SLR while approaching the time of the credit event. Due to the higher classification performances, it seems plausible for creditors to align their investment decisions with capital market-based default indicators, i.e., to imitate the aggregate opinion of the market participants. Since imitation is considered to be the source of LPPL structures in financial time series, it is highly plausible to scan CDS spread developments for LPPL patterns. By establishing LPPL patterns in governmental CDS spread trajectories of some European crisis countries, the LPPL’s application to credit risk markets is extended. This novel piece of evidence further strengthens the claim that credit risk markets are adequate breeding grounds for LPPL patterns.

  20. Military markets for solar thermal electric power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauger, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Defense maintains an inventory of over 1,800 MW of engine-generators 15 KW and larger, with an estimated procurement rate of over 140 MW/year. Nearly the entire requirement could be met by advanced heat engines of the types being developed as point-focussing, distributed receiver power plants. A conceptual system consisting of a heat engine which efficiently burns liquid fossil or synthetic fuels, with a 'solarization kit' for conversion to hybrid solar operation could meet existing DOD requirements for new systems which are quieter, lighter, and multi-fueled. An estimated 24 percent (33 MW/year) or more could operationally benefit from the solar option. Baseline cost projections indicate levelized energy cost goals of 210 to 120 mills/KWh (15 to 1000 KW systems). Fuel cost escalation is the major factor affecting the value of the solar option. A baseline calculation for fuel at $0.59/gal in spring, 1979, escalating at 8 percent above general inflation indicates a value of $2700/KWe for a solarization kit.

  1. Power law distributions and dynamic behaviour of stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, P.

    2001-04-01

    A simple agent model is introduced by analogy with the mean field approach to the Ising model for a magnetic system. Our model is characterised by a generalised Langevin equation = F ϕ + G ϕ t where t is the usual Gaussian white noise, i.e.: t t' = 2Dδ t-t' and t = 0. Both the associated Fokker Planck equation and the long time probability distribution function can be obtained analytically. A steady state solution may be expressed as P ϕ = exp{ - Ψ ϕ - ln G(ϕ)} where Ψ ϕ = - F/ G dϕ and Z is a normalization factor. This is explored for the simple case where F ϕ = Jϕ + bϕ2 - cϕ3 and fluctuations characterised by the amplitude G ϕ = ϕ + ɛ when it readily yields for ϕ>>ɛ, a distribution function with power law tails, viz: P ϕ = exp{ 2bϕ-cϕ2 /D}. The parameter c ensures convergence of the distribution function for large values of ϕ. It might be loosely associated with the activity of so-called value traders. The parameter J may be associated with the activity of noise traders. Output for the associated time series show all the characteristics of familiar financial time series providing J < 0 and D | J|.

  2. 75 FR 26225 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets... conference to elicit input on issues pertaining to Frequency Regulation Compensation in the ISO/RTO...

  3. Energy Market and Economic Impacts of the American Power Act of 2010

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senators Kerry, Graham, and Lieberman for an analysis of the American Power Act of 2010 (APA). APA, as released by Senators Kerry and Lieberman on May 12, 2010, regulates emissions of greenhouse gases through market-based mechanisms, efficiency programs, and other economic incentives.

  4. 78 FR 7773 - Cargill Power Markets, LLC v. NV Energy, Inc., Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cargill Power Markets, LLC v. NV Energy, Inc., Notice of Complaint Take notice that on January 18, 2013, pursuant to Rule 206 of the Rules of Practice and Procedure of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  5. Multiobjective Model of Time-of-Use and Stepwise Power Tariff for Residential Consumers in Regulated Power Markets

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Bin; Yang, Rui; Li, Canbing; ...

    2017-07-04

    Here, time-of-use (TOU) rates and stepwise power tariff (SPT) are important economic levers to motivate residents to shift their electricity usage in response to electricity price. In this paper, a new multiobjective optimal tariff-making model of time-of-use and stepwise power tariff (TOUSPT) is proposed, which combines the complementary characteristics of two power tariffs, for residential energy conservation and peak load shaving. In the proposed approach, the residential demand response with price elasticity in regulated power market is considered to determine the optimum peak-valley TOU tariffs for each stepwise electricity partition. Furthermore, a practical case study is implemented to test themore » effectiveness of the proposed TOUSPT, and the results demonstrate that TOUSPT can achieve efficient end-use energy saving and also shift load from peak to off-peak periods.« less

  6. Wide variation in hospital and physician payment rates evidence of provider market power.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Paul B

    2010-11-01

    Wide variation in private insurer payment rates to hospitals and physicians across and within local markets suggests that some providers, particularly hospitals, have significant market power to negotiate higher-than-competitive prices, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Looking across eight health care markets--Cleveland; Indianapolis; Los Angeles; Miami; Milwaukee; Richmond, Va.; San Francisco; and rural Wisconsin--average inpatient hospital payment rates of four large national insurers ranged from 147 percent of Medicare in Miami to 210 percent in San Francisco. In extreme cases, some hospitals command almost five times what Medicare pays for inpatient services and more than seven times what Medicare pays for outpatient care. Variation within markets was just as dramatic. For example, the hospital with prices at the 25th percentile of Los Angeles hospitals received 84 percent of Medicare rates for inpatient care, while the hospital with prices at the 75th percentile received 184 percent of Medicare rates. The highest-priced Los Angeles hospital with substantial inpatient claims volume received 418 percent of Medicare. While not as pronounced, significant variation in physician payment rates also exists across and within markets and by specialty. Few would characterize the variation in hospital and physician payment rates found in this study to be consistent with a highly competitive market. Purchasers and public policy makers can address provider market power, or the ability to negotiate higher-than-competitive prices, through two distinct approaches. One is to pursue market approaches to strengthen competitive forces, while the other is to constrain payment rates through regulation.

  7. From a fuel supplier to an active participant: Shell's view of the opportunities offered by a changing power market

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhan, J.

    1998-07-01

    In the last 10 years, the power generation market has seen radical changes. The coming years will see yet more change. Although the pace of change may be uneven across Europe, it is clear that the old reference points for the power generation market are no longer valid. Along with other market players, Shell has re-evaluated the role it wishes to play in the power generation market. Although it has long operated large generation capacity on its own sites, Shell's role has been that of a fuel supplier to monopoly power generation and distribution organizations, which were largely state controlled . Privatization and liberalization have been followed by changing market structures tending to push risk towards the producer. This evolution presents challenges for the normal IPP structure, where market risk is transferred and offers an opportunity for the active participation of the fuel supplier in meeting these challenges. In 1996, Shell decided to embrace the changes in power generation market. Already, significant steps have been taken in markets in Asia, Latin America and in Europe. The differing requirements of each of these markets means there are no standard solutions and requires Shell to devise flexible frameworks which meet the customer's needs. Shell is bringing its significant strengths to the power generation market and looks forward to participating on a world wide scale in the industry at this exciting phase in its development.

  8. Market power, private information and the optimal scale of pollution permit markets with application to North Carolina’s Neuse River

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We extend the analysis of optimal scale in pollution permit markets by allowing for both market power and private information. The effect of these considerations on optimal scale is determined by analyzing pollution of nitrogen from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP) into North Carolina’s Neuse Riv...

  9. Power-law relaxation in a complex system: Omori law after a financial market crash.

    PubMed

    Lillo, F; Mantegna, R N

    2003-07-01

    We study the relaxation dynamics of a financial market just after the occurrence of a crash by investigating the number of times the absolute value of an index return is exceeding a given threshold value. We show that the empirical observation of a power law evolution of the number of events exceeding the selected threshold (a behavior known as the Omori law in geophysics) is consistent with the simultaneous occurrence of (i) a return probability density function characterized by a power law asymptotic behavior and (ii) a power-law relaxation decay of its typical scale. Our empirical observation cannot be explained within the framework of simple and widespread stochastic volatility models.

  10. pCloud: A Cloud-based Power Market Simulation Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Rudkevich, Aleksandr; Goldis, Evgeniy

    2012-12-02

    This research conducted by the Newton Energy Group, LLC (NEG) is dedicated to the development of pCloud: a Cloud-based Power Market Simulation Environment. pCloud is offering power industry stakeholders the capability to model electricity markets and is organized around the Software as a Service (SaaS) concept -- a software application delivery model in which software is centrally hosted and provided to many users via the internet. During the Phase I of this project NEG developed a prototype design for pCloud as a SaaS-based commercial service offering, system architecture supporting that design, ensured feasibility of key architecture's elements, formed technological partnerships and negotiated commercial agreements with partners, conducted market research and other related activities and secured funding for continue development of pCloud between the end of Phase I and beginning of Phase II, if awarded. Based on the results of Phase I activities, NEG has established that the development of a cloud-based power market simulation environment within the Windows Azure platform is technologically feasible, can be accomplished within the budget and timeframe available through the Phase II SBIR award with additional external funding. NEG believes that pCloud has the potential to become a game-changing technology for the modeling and analysis of electricity markets. This potential is due to the following critical advantages of pCloud over its competition: - Standardized access to advanced and proven power market simulators offered by third parties. - Automated parallelization of simulations and dynamic provisioning of computing resources on the cloud. This combination of automation and scalability dramatically reduces turn-around time while offering the capability to increase the number of analyzed scenarios by a factor of 10, 100 or even 1000. - Access to ready-to-use data and to cloud-based resources leading to a reduction in software, hardware, and IT costs

  11. 77 FR 69819 - QC Power Strategies Fund LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission QC Power Strategies Fund LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of QC Power Strategies Fund LLC's application for market-based...

  12. 76 FR 64341 - Silver State Solar Power North LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Silver State Solar Power North LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Silver State Solar Power North, LLC's application for market... 20426. The filings in the above-referenced proceeding are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system...

  13. 76 FR 35211 - Palmco Power DC, LLC; Supplemental Notice THAT Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Palmco Power DC, LLC; Supplemental Notice THAT Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Palmco Power DC, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...., Washington, DC 20426, in accordance with Rules 211 and 214 of the Commission's Rules of Practice and...

  14. 78 FR 28834 - Salton Sea Power L.L.C.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Salton Sea Power L.L.C.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Salton Sea Power L.L.C.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  15. 78 FR 28835 - Salton Sea Power Generation Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Salton Sea Power Generation Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Salton Sea Power Generation Company's application for market...

  16. 78 FR 2984 - Silver Bear Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Silver Bear Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Silver Bear Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  17. 76 FR 54764 - Marathon Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Marathon Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Marathon Power LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  18. 78 FR 38027 - Novo BioPower LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Novo BioPower LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of Novo BioPower LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  19. 77 FR 20380 - Desert View Power, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Desert View Power, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Desert View Power, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with...

  20. 76 FR 15306 - Macho Springs Power I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Macho Springs Power I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Macho Springs Power I, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  1. 76 FR 40722 - Granite Reliable Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Granite Reliable Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Granite Reliable Power, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  2. 76 FR 73619 - Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  3. 78 FR 14530 - ATO Power, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ATO Power, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of ATO Power, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  4. 77 FR 30522 - Amplified Power & Gas, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Amplified Power & Gas, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Amplified Power & Gas, LLC's application for market-based...

  5. 76 FR 65718 - Tenaska Power Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Tenaska Power Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Tenaska Power Management, LLC's application for market-based...

  6. 77 FR 52015 - LVI Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission LVI Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of LVI Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  7. 78 FR 15718 - Palmco Power CA, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Palmco Power CA, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Palmco Power CA, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  8. 75 FR 37430 - Community Power & Utility LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Community Power & Utility LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Community Power & Utility LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that such application includes...

  9. 77 FR 57082 - DR Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission DR Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of DR Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  10. 77 FR 17473 - Wellhead Power Delano, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Wellhead Power Delano, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Wellhead Power Delano, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  11. 77 FR 16026 - Cargill Power Markets, LLC v. Public Service Company of New Mexico; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cargill Power Markets, LLC v. Public Service Company of New Mexico; Notice... Cargill Power Markets, LLC submitted a compliance filing to modify the standard of review in...

  12. 76 FR 22392 - Command Power Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Command Power Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Command Power Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with...

  13. 78 FR 67359 - PowerOne Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PowerOne Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of PowerOne Corporation's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  14. 77 FR 42301 - W Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission W Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of W Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  15. 75 FR 25234 - EquiPower Resources Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission EquiPower Resources Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of EquiPower Resources Management, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate ] tariff, noting that such application includes...

  16. 76 FR 2369 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets and Operation Policy Committee and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets and Operation... Commission hereby gives notice that members of its staff may attend the meetings of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Markets and Operations Policy Committee (MOPC) and the Strategic Planning Committee...

  17. 77 FR 42301 - Power Dave Fund LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Power Dave Fund LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Power Dave Fund LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  18. 77 FR 6108 - Essential Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Essential Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Essential Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  19. 76 FR 46287 - Hudson Ranch Power I LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hudson Ranch Power I LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Hudson Ranch Power I LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  20. 77 FR 15096 - Liberty Hill Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Hill Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Liberty Hill Power LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  1. 75 FR 82379 - Pinetree Power-Tamworth, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pinetree Power--Tamworth, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Pinetree Power-Tamworth, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that such application includes...

  2. 78 FR 54464 - Mansfield Power and Gas, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mansfield Power and Gas, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Mansfield Power and Gas, LLC's application for market-based...

  3. 77 FR 52016 - Power Dave Fund LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Power Dave Fund LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Power Dave Fund LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  4. 75 FR 61467 - Garland Power Company; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Garland Power Company; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Garland Power Company's application for market-based...

  5. 76 FR 13611 - Coolidge Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Coolidge Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Coolidge Power LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  6. 75 FR 63168 - Ridgewind Power Partners, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Ridgewind Power Partners, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Ridgewind Power Partners, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that such application includes...

  7. 76 FR 76712 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets and Operations Policy Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets and Operations Policy Committee Meeting The Federal Energy... Power Pool, Inc. Markets and Operations Policy Committee. Their attendance is part of the Commission's... discussions may address matters at issue in the following proceedings: Docket No. ER06-451, Southwest...

  8. 76 FR 22695 - Wildcat Power Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Wildcat Power Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Wildcat Power Holdings, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  9. 78 FR 77670 - AlphaGen Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AlphaGen Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of AlphaGen Power LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  10. 78 FR 18583 - EconoPower, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission EconoPower, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of EconoPower, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  11. 75 FR 42745 - Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC's application for market-based...

  12. 78 FR 26771 - Mesa Wind Power Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mesa Wind Power Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Mesa Wind Power Corporation's application for market-based rate authority...

  13. 77 FR 62510 - Niagara Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Niagara Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Niagara Wind Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  14. 76 FR 41238 - Post Rock Wind Power Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Post Rock Wind Power Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Post Rock Wind Power Project, LLC's application for market...

  15. 77 FR 59607 - Piedmont Green Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Piedmont Green Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Piedmont Green Power, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  16. 76 FR 2368 - Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Balance Power Systems, LLC's application for market...

  17. Potentiality Prediction of Electric Power Replacement Based on Power Market Development Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Bo; Yang, Shuo; Liu, Qiang; Lin, Jingyi; Zhao, Le; Liu, Chang; Li, Bin

    2017-05-01

    The application of electric power replacement plays an important role in promoting the development of energy conservation and emission reduction in our country. To exploit the potentiality of regional electric power replacement, the regional GDP (gross domestic product) and energy consumption are taken as potentiality evaluation indicators. The principal component factors are extracted with PCA (principal component analysis), and the integral potentiality analysis is made to the potentiality of electric power replacement in the national various regions; a region is taken as a research object, and the potentiality of electric power replacement is defined and quantified. The analytical model for the potentiality of multi-scenario electric power replacement is developed, and prediction is made to the energy consumption with the grey prediction model. The relevant theoretical research is utilized to realize prediction analysis on the potentiality amount of multi-scenario electric power replacement.

  18. New markets for VCSELS: pulsed operation of high-power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabherr, Martin; Miller, Michael; Wiedenmann, Dieter; Jäger, Roland; King, Roger

    2007-02-01

    Driving basic VCSEL technology in the '90, datacom has been the first volume market for various VCSEL products. The downturn in 2001 can be regarded as a point in time, when engineers both from VCSEL manufacturers and nondatacom users started to identify VCSEL technology as a very promising laser source platform for many other applications. Dedicated spectroscopy laser sources based on VCSEL technology, e.g. for oxygen sensing [1], have proven their competitiveness in industrial applications. The most prosepective consumer market of human-machineinterfaces like laser mice has shown the huge potential of the VCSEL technology in low costs, high volume applications, even given extreme technical performance specifications [2]. Just as a consequence, VCSELs are now penetrating into the next potential volume markets, where unique properties of this technology is requested: High power pulsed laser applications, where low cost is a key factor for market entry. In this paper we discuss a suitable semiconductor technology platform, assembly solutions, selected applications and their market potential as well as performance and reliability data. From small footprint of 0.3 mm2 and 0.11 mm2 peak output powers of 0.7 W and more than 6 W at 850 nm wavelength are shown at 30 μs and 30 ns pulse widths, respectively.

  19. Market definition study of photovoltaic power for remote villages in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Ragsdale, C.; Quashie, P.

    1980-10-01

    The objective of this market definition study is to assess the market potential for the use of photovoltaic power systems for remote villages in developing countries. The approach used was to conduct an in-depth literature search followed by in-country surveys of selected developing countries in Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. The purpose of these surveys was to determine the current energy situation in these countries, the level of rural electrification activity, their knowledge and interest in solar and specifically photovoltaics, their financial resource capability, and the probability of development of a market for photovoltaics based on these and other factors. Findings are presented. The conclusion reached by the survey is that there is a significant market potential for photovoltaics in village power applications in developing countries. Extrapolation of the number of unelectrified villages results in an estimated potential of as much as 20,000 MWp, a potential similar in magnitude to previous UN and World Bank estimates. Recommendations for market stimulation are presented. (WHK)

  20. Controlling market power and price spikes in electricity networks: Demand-side bidding

    PubMed Central

    Rassenti, Stephen J.; Smith, Vernon L.; Wilson, Bart J.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we report an experiment that examines how demand-side bidding can discipline generators in a market for electric power. First we develop a treatment without demand-side bidding; two large firms are allocated baseload and intermediate cost generators such that either firm might unilaterally withhold the capacity of its intermediate cost generators from the market to benefit from the supracompetitive prices that would result from only selling its baseload units. In a converse treatment, ownership of some of the intermediate cost generators is transferred from each of these firms to two other firms such that no one firm could unilaterally restrict output to spawn supracompetitive prices. Having established a well controlled data set with price spikes paralleling those observed in the naturally occurring economy, we also extend the design to include demand-side bidding. We find that demand-side bidding completely neutralizes the exercise of market power and eliminates price spikes even in the presence of structural market power. PMID:16576750

  1. Controlling market power and price spikes in electricity networks: Demand-side bidding.

    PubMed

    Rassenti, Stephen J; Smith, Vernon L; Wilson, Bart J

    2003-03-04

    In this article we report an experiment that examines how demand-side bidding can discipline generators in a market for electric power. First we develop a treatment without demand-side bidding; two large firms are allocated baseload and intermediate cost generators such that either firm might unilaterally withhold the capacity of its intermediate cost generators from the market to benefit from the supracompetitive prices that would result from only selling its baseload units. In a converse treatment, ownership of some of the intermediate cost generators is transferred from each of these firms to two other firms such that no one firm could unilaterally restrict output to spawn supracompetitive prices. Having established a well controlled data set with price spikes paralleling those observed in the naturally occurring economy, we also extend the design to include demand-side bidding. We find that demand-side bidding completely neutralizes the exercise of market power and eliminates price spikes even in the presence of structural market power.

  2. How do health insurer market concentration and bargaining power with hospitals affect health insurance premiums?

    PubMed

    Trish, Erin E; Herring, Bradley J

    2015-07-01

    The US health insurance industry is highly concentrated, and health insurance premiums are high and rising rapidly. Policymakers have focused on the possible link between the two, leading to ACA provisions to increase insurer competition. However, while market power may enable insurers to include higher profit margins in their premiums, it may also result in stronger bargaining leverage with hospitals to negotiate lower payment rates to partially offset these higher premiums. We empirically examine the relationship between employer-sponsored fully-insured health insurance premiums and the level of concentration in local insurer and hospital markets using the nationally-representative 2006-2011 KFF/HRET Employer Health Benefits Survey. We exploit a unique feature of employer-sponsored insurance, in which self-insured employers purchase only administrative services from managed care organizations, to disentangle these different effects on insurer concentration by constructing one concentration measure representing fully-insured plans' transactions with employers and the other concentration measure representing insurers' bargaining with hospitals. As expected, we find that premiums are indeed higher for plans sold in markets with higher levels of concentration relevant to insurer transactions with employers, lower for plans in markets with higher levels of insurer concentration relevant to insurer bargaining with hospitals, and higher for plans in markets with higher levels of hospital market concentration.

  3. Artificial neural network and SARIMA based models for power load forecasting in Turkish electricity market

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Load information plays an important role in deregulated electricity markets, since it is the primary factor to make critical decisions on production planning, day-to-day operations, unit commitment and economic dispatch. Being able to predict the load for a short term, which covers one hour to a few days, equips power generation facilities and traders with an advantage. With the deregulation of electricity markets, a variety of short term load forecasting models are developed. Deregulation in Turkish Electricity Market has started in 2001 and liberalization is still in progress with rules being effective in its predefined schedule. However, there is a very limited number of studies for Turkish Market. In this study, we introduce two different models for current Turkish Market using Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and present their comparative performances. Building models that cope with the dynamic nature of deregulated market and are able to run in real-time is the main contribution of this study. We also use our ANN based model to evaluate the effect of several factors, which are claimed to have effect on electrical load. PMID:28426739

  4. Artificial neural network and SARIMA based models for power load forecasting in Turkish electricity market.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Ömer Özgür; Biricik, Göksel; Tayşi, Ziya Cihan

    2017-01-01

    Load information plays an important role in deregulated electricity markets, since it is the primary factor to make critical decisions on production planning, day-to-day operations, unit commitment and economic dispatch. Being able to predict the load for a short term, which covers one hour to a few days, equips power generation facilities and traders with an advantage. With the deregulation of electricity markets, a variety of short term load forecasting models are developed. Deregulation in Turkish Electricity Market has started in 2001 and liberalization is still in progress with rules being effective in its predefined schedule. However, there is a very limited number of studies for Turkish Market. In this study, we introduce two different models for current Turkish Market using Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and present their comparative performances. Building models that cope with the dynamic nature of deregulated market and are able to run in real-time is the main contribution of this study. We also use our ANN based model to evaluate the effect of several factors, which are claimed to have effect on electrical load.

  5. Fractal Markets Hypothesis and the Global Financial Crisis: Wavelet Power Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2013-10-01

    We analyze whether the prediction of the fractal markets hypothesis about a dominance of specific investment horizons during turbulent times holds. To do so, we utilize the continuous wavelet transform analysis and obtained wavelet power spectra which give the crucial information about the variance distribution across scales and its evolution in time. We show that the most turbulent times of the Global Financial Crisis can be very well characterized by the dominance of short investment horizons which is in hand with the assertions of the fractal markets hypothesis.

  6. Fractal markets hypothesis and the global financial crisis: wavelet power evidence.

    PubMed

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2013-10-04

    We analyze whether the prediction of the fractal markets hypothesis about a dominance of specific investment horizons during turbulent times holds. To do so, we utilize the continuous wavelet transform analysis and obtained wavelet power spectra which give the crucial information about the variance distribution across scales and its evolution in time. We show that the most turbulent times of the Global Financial Crisis can be very well characterized by the dominance of short investment horizons which is in hand with the assertions of the fractal markets hypothesis.

  7. Business management practices in the power industry: Decision making in a market economy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.H.; Rosel, V.

    1995-12-01

    Management of a free market power industry, or managing the transition from a planned economy to a free market one, is driven by a fundamental economic premise - it is unrealistic (and economically unsound) to try to shelter end users (manufacturers or otherwise) from the true cost of energy: (i) energy prices are a function of fuel inputs (ii) fuel inputs are world priced (iii) end users must pay prices based on true costs Trying to counter any of these dictates will cause economic inefficiencies and misallocations. Managers of energy production in a free market economy must therefore learn to acquire data, and learn to extrapolate. As information is never complete, or perfect, managers must learn to consider contingencies, alternatives and options. In a free market economy, the decision to build a power facility is not controlled simply by the recognition of a perceived need for more power in an area. Because survival in a free market economy requires making a profit, as part for the decision process managers must: (i) talk to their customers to determine power needs into the future (ii) talk to their input suppliers, and arrange contracts (iii) make sure that there is a spread between cost and revenue As stated this is a simple recipe, but is difficult in practice. To perform any forecasting, managers must acquire control over cost, so as to have a base from which to judge the continued profitability or potential profitability, of any current activity or future ventures. It should be noted that planning for the future is difficult at any time but even more so when moving through an era where in the entire economy is undergoing systemic changes. Historic customer base, and historic supply arrangements, may not mean much. Therefore, managers must keep acquiring information, and updating forecasts.

  8. Creating markets for combined heat and power and clean distributed generation in New York State.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Thomas G; Hedman, Bruce; Zalcman, Fred

    2003-01-01

    Combined heat and power (CHP) is the simultaneous production of electrical or mechanical power and thermal energy from in a single process. Because thermal output from the generation of electricity is captured and utilized onsite, CHP systems can achieve efficiencies from 60% to as high as 90%. In contrast generation of electric power at sites remote from the loads served often results in efficiencies of 33% or less due to losses in generation and transmission and distribution of the power to ultimate end users. A well designed CHP system is the essence of energy efficiency. It may also provide significant environmental benefits. However, the full promise of CHP for improving the efficiency and productivity of businesses and the quality of the environment is unlikely to be realized given the current market structure and regulatory environment in which CHP projects are forced to compete. This paper examines the market structure and regulatory obstacles that hinder the development of more robust markets for CHP in New York State.

  9. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in the Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabraal, R. A.; Delasanta, D.; Burrill, G.

    1981-01-01

    The market potential in the Philippines for stand alone photovoltaic (P/V) systems in agriculture was assessed. Applications include: irrigation, postharvest operation, food and fiber processing and storage, and livestock and fisheries operations. Power and energy use profiles for many applications as well as assessments of business, government and financial climate for P/V sales are described. Many characteristics of the Philippine agriculture and energy sector favorably influence the use of P/V systems. However, serious and significant barriers prevent achieving the technically feasible, cost competitive market for P/V systems in the agricultural sector. The reason for the small market is the limited availability capital for financing P/V systems. It is suggested that innovative financing schemes and promotional campaigns should be devised.

  10. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    Many countries--reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems--are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy (RE) on the grid. Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Colorado and Texas), for example, have effectively integrated variable RE utilizing diverse approaches. Analysis of the results from these case studies reveals a wide range of mechanisms that can be used to accommodate high penetrations of variable RE (e.g., from new market designs to centralized planning). Nevertheless, the myriad approaches collectively suggest that governments can best enable variable RE grid integration by implementing best practices in five areas of intervention: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations.

  11. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabraal, R. A.; Delasanta, D.; Burrill, G.

    1981-04-01

    The market potential in the Philippines for stand alone photovoltaic (P/V) systems in agriculture was assessed. Applications include: irrigation, postharvest operation, food and fiber processing and storage, and livestock and fisheries operations. Power and energy use profiles for many applications as well as assessments of business, government and financial climate for P/V sales are described. Many characteristics of the Philippine agriculture and energy sector favorably influence the use of P/V systems. However, serious and significant barriers prevent achieving the technically feasible, cost competitive market for P/V systems in the agricultural sector. The reason for the small market is the limited availability capital for financing P/V systems. It is suggested that innovative financing schemes and promotional campaigns should be devised.

  12. Food marketing to children in Canada: a settings-based scoping review on exposure, power and impact.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Rachel

    2017-09-01

    Food marketing impacts children's food knowledge, behaviours and health. Current regulations in Canada focus on restricting promotional aspects of food marketing with little-to-no consideration of the places where children experience food. Understanding food marketing in children's everyday settings is necessary to protect children. This scoping review describes the current literature on food marketing to children in Canada by setting. The author searched databases for Canadian research on children's exposure to food marketing, and the power and impact of food marketing to children (2-17 years) across settings, and on how current regulations may mediate the effect of food marketing on children. Peer-reviewed studies in English, published between 2000 and 2016, were included. Twenty-five studies documented children's exposure to food marketing and its power and/or impact on them in homes (via television, or online) (n = 12), public schools (n = 1), grocery stores (n = 8), fast food restaurants (n = 2), and in general (n = 2). Research trends suggest that unhealthy foods are targeted at children using multiple promotional techniques that overlap across settings. Several research gaps exist in this area, leading to an incomplete, and potentially underestimated, picture of food marketing to children in Canada. Available evidence suggests that current Canadian approaches have not reduced children's exposure to or the power of food marketing in these settings, with the exception of some positive influences from Quebec's statutory regulations. The settings where children eat, buy or learn about food expose them to powerful, often unhealthy food marketing. The current evidence suggests that "place" may be an important marketing component to be included in public policy in order to broadly protect children from unhealthy food marketing. Organizations and communities can engage in settings-based health promotion interventions by developing their own marketing policies that

  13. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Jaquelin; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Arent, Douglas J.

    2012-04-30

    Many countries - reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems - are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  14. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  15. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Jaquelin; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Arent, Douglas J.

    2012-04-30

    Many countries—reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems—are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  16. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This study documents the diverse approaches to effective integration of variable renewable energy among six countries -- Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Western region-Colorado and Texas)-- and summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. Each country has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. The ability to maintain a broad ecosystem perspective, to organize and make available the wealth of experiences, and to ensure a clear path from analysis to enactment should be the primary focus going forward.

  17. Transition from Exponential to Power Law Income Distributions in a Chaotic Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicer-Lostao, Carmen; Lopez-Ruiz, Ricardo

    Economy is demanding new models, able to understand and predict the evolution of markets. To this respect, Econophysics offers models of markets as complex systems, that try to comprehend macro-, system-wide states of the economy from the interaction of many agents at micro-level. One of these models is the gas-like model for trading markets. This tries to predict money distributions in closed economies and quite simply, obtains the ones observed in real economies. However, it reveals technical hitches to explain the power law distribution, observed in individuals with high incomes. In this work, nonlinear dynamics is introduced in the gas-like model in an effort to overcomes these flaws. A particular chaotic dynamics is used to break the pairing symmetry of agents (i, j) ⇔ (j, i). The results demonstrate that a "chaotic gas-like model" can reproduce the Exponential and Power law distributions observed in real economies. Moreover, it controls the transition between them. This may give some insight of the micro-level causes that originate unfair distributions of money in a global society. Ultimately, the chaotic model makes obvious the inherent instability of asymmetric scenarios, where sinks of wealth appear and doom the market to extreme inequality.

  18. Interplay Between Energy-Market Dynamics and Physical Stability of a Smart Power Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picozzi, Sergio; Mammoli, Andrea; Sorrentino, Francesco

    2013-03-01

    A smart power grid is being envisioned for the future which, among other features, should enable users to play the dual role of consumers as well as producers and traders of energy, thanks to emerging renewable energy production and energy storage technologies. As a complex dynamical system, any power grid is subject to physical instabilities. With existing grids, such instabilities tend to be caused by natural disasters, human errors, or weather-related peaks in demand. In this work we analyze the impact, upon the stability of a smart grid, of the energy-market dynamics arising from users' ability to buy from and sell energy to other users. The stability analysis of the resulting dynamical system is performed assuming different proposed models for this market of the future, and the corresponding stability regions in parameter space are identified. We test our theoretical findings by comparing them with data collected from some existing prototype systems.

  19. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  20. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  1. Certificate-Based Approach to Marketing Green Power and Constructing New Wind Energy Facilities: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, E.; Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2002-05-01

    The availability of wind energy certificates in Pennsylvania's retail electricity market has made a critical difference in the economic feasibility of developing 140 MW of new wind energy projects in the region. Certificates offer important benefits to both green power suppliers and buyers by reducing transaction barriers and thus lowering the cost of renewable energy. Buyers also benefit through the increased flexibility offered by certificate products. The experience described in this paper offers important insights for selling green power certificates and achieving new wind energy development in other areas of the country.

  2. Method of Power System Suistanable Development Optimization in Liberalized Market Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcik, M.; Oleinikova, I.; Krishans, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The paper is focused on the development of the Baltic Sea region taking into account the new EU energy policy. The authors elucidate the current situation and the power system infrastructure projects of the region. For the economic analysis and optimization of the development plans a method is proposed that takes into account the outlooks for upcoming 20-50 years and the initial information uncertainty. The method makes possible estimation of the technically-economic state, including market conditions, for a given power system.

  3. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on retail electricity rates and utility financial viability

    SciTech Connect

    Bodmer, E.; Fisher, R.E.; Hemphill, R.C.

    1995-03-01

    Changes in power contract terms for customers of Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office affect electricity rates for consumers of electric power in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The impacts of electricity rate changes on consumers are studied by measuring impacts on the rates charged by individual utility systems, determining the average rates in regional areas, and conducting a detailed rate analysis of representative utility systems. The primary focus is an evaluation of the way retail electricity rates for Western`s preference customers vary with alternative pricing and power quantity commitment terms under Western`s long-term contracts to sell power (marketing programs). Retail rate impacts are emphasized because changes in the price of electricity are the most direct economic effect on businesses and residences arising from different Western contractual and operational policies. Retail rates are the mechanism by which changes in cost associated with Western`s contract terms are imposed on ultimate consumers, and rate changes determine the dollar level of payments for electric power incurred by the affected consumers. 41 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

  5. Liberalisation and Privatisation of Higher Education in Flanders: Passing the Point of No Return? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broucker, Bruno; De Wit, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The higher education system in Flanders is characterised by tight regulation and a tradition of excluding private providers from the sector. However, as in other European countries, the Belgian public sector has been confronted with the principles of New Public Management (NPM) and trends of liberalisation and privatisation. The same goes for the…

  6. Liberalisation and Privatisation of Higher Education in Flanders: Passing the Point of No Return? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broucker, Bruno; De Wit, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The higher education system in Flanders is characterised by tight regulation and a tradition of excluding private providers from the sector. However, as in other European countries, the Belgian public sector has been confronted with the principles of New Public Management (NPM) and trends of liberalisation and privatisation. The same goes for the…

  7. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western`s power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western`s firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action altemative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  8. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  9. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  10. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maust, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    Although college administrators may be committed to the concept and need for institutional marketing, even a well-developed marketing plan may not work if it is not clearly organized to address special needs. This article reviews management fads, how to make jargon operational, organizational dynamics, and monitoring fads. (MSE)

  11. Comparisons of auction mechanisms in a multiple unit setting: A consideration for restructuring electric power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, John Charles

    The objective of this study was to compare the performance of five single sided auctions that could be used in restructured electric power markets across different market sizes in a multiple unit setting. Auction selection would profoundly influence an industry over $200 billion in size in the United States, and the consequences of implementing an inappropriate mechanism would be great. Experimental methods were selected to analyze the auctions. Two rounds of experiments were conducted, the first testing the sealed offer last accepted offer (LAO) and first rejected offer (FRO), and the clock English (ENG) and sealed offer English (SOE) in markets of sizes two and six. The FRO, SOE, and ENG used the same pricing rule. Second round testing was on the LAO, FRO, and the nonuniform price multiple unit Vickrey (MUV) in markets of sizes two, four, and six. Experiments lasted 23 and 75 periods for rounds 1 and 2 respectively. Analysis of variance and contrast analysis were used to examine the data. The four performance measures used were price, efficiency, profits per unit, and supply revelation. Five basic principles were also assessed: no sales at losses, all low cost capacity should be offered and sold, no high cost capacity should sell, and the market should clear. It was expected group size and auction type would affect performance. For all performance measures, group size was a significant variable, with smaller groups showing poorer performance. Auction type was significant only for the efficiency performance measure, where clock auctions outperformed the others. Clock auctions also proved superior for the first four principles. The FRO performed poorly in almost all situations, and should not be a preferred mechanism in any market. The ENG was highly efficient, but expensive for the buyer. The SOE appeared superior to the FRO and ENG. The clock improves efficiency over the FRO while less information kept prices under the ENG. The MUV was superior in revealing costs

  12. The political effects of ideas and markets on China's economic reforms: The case of electrical power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Laura Washington

    This study examines factors influencing contemporary economic policy-making and reform in China's electric power industry. Results of the study suggest that there is an ongoing paradigm change in China's policy-making. However, institutional resistance to changes in the policy process is strong. Policy outcomes in the case of electric power reforms reflect the interaction of both dynamics. In the early 1990s, the central government in Beijing began to consider restructuring the electric power industry to introduce competition and establish markets for electricity supply. Until then, economic policies had resulted from a process of deliberation within the upper echelons of the Communist Party. Although the Party considered the interests of dominant economic actors, particularly the large State-owned sector, its channels for participation in the policy process were closed to most economic actors. Central bureaucratic and provincial interests largely governed policy processes, leading observers to describe the Chinese State as bureaucratic authoritarian. Bureaucracy's heavy role in the economy led to what some called a corporatist State, whereby organs of government infiltrated most aspects of the economy. This institutional arrangement perpetuated bureaucracy's influence in policy-making. This study hypothesizes that transformation in domestic financial markets poses a threat to the entrenched institutions of the electric power industry. The integration of China's economy with foreign firms and markets enabled actors outside of the dominant State-owned economy to improve their positions vis-a-vis the state-owned sector, and eventually to play a role in the policy process. At the same time, Beijing's adaptation of foreign-designed restructuring policies threatened the deep-rooted institutions. The study analyzes the behavior, statements and channels utilized by those actors affected by power sector policies. Based on interviews conducted between 2000 through 2002

  13. Neural network based load and price forecasting and confidence interval estimation in deregulated power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li

    With the deregulation of the electric power market in New England, an independent system operator (ISO) has been separated from the New England Power Pool (NEPOOL). The ISO provides a regional spot market, with bids on various electricity-related products and services submitted by utilities and independent power producers. A utility can bid on the spot market and buy or sell electricity via bilateral transactions. Good estimation of market clearing prices (MCP) will help utilities and independent power producers determine bidding and transaction strategies with low risks, and this is crucial for utilities to compete in the deregulated environment. MCP prediction, however, is difficult since bidding strategies used by participants are complicated and MCP is a non-stationary process. The main objective of this research is to provide efficient short-term load and MCP forecasting and corresponding confidence interval estimation methodologies. In this research, the complexity of load and MCP with other factors is investigated, and neural networks are used to model the complex relationship between input and output. With improved learning algorithm and on-line update features for load forecasting, a neural network based load forecaster was developed, and has been in daily industry use since summer 1998 with good performance. MCP is volatile because of the complexity of market behaviors. In practice, neural network based MCP predictors usually have a cascaded structure, as several key input factors need to be estimated first. In this research, the uncertainties involved in a cascaded neural network structure for MCP prediction are analyzed, and prediction distribution under the Bayesian framework is developed. A fast algorithm to evaluate the confidence intervals by using the memoryless Quasi-Newton method is also developed. The traditional back-propagation algorithm for neural network learning needs to be improved since MCP is a non-stationary process. The extended Kalman

  14. The Defense Logistics Agency Properly Awarded Power Purchase Agreements and the Army Obtained Fair Market Value for Leases Supporting Power Purchase Agreements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-28

    Fair Market Value for Leases Supporting Power Purchase Agreements I N T E G R I T Y  E F F I C I E N C Y  A C C O U N T A B I L I T Y  E X... Market Value for Leases Supporting Power Purchase Agreements Visit us at www.dodig.mil September 28, 2016 Objective We determined whether the...Department of the Army properly awarded and obtained fair market value for leases supporting energy production projects. We conducted this audit in

  15. Review of the Structure of Bulk Power Markets Grid of the Future White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.J.

    2000-05-02

    This paper is intended to provide an understanding of the needs of a restructured electricity market and some of the market methods and systems that have developed to address those needs. Chapter 2 discusses the historic market framework of vertically integrated utilities. Chapter 3 introduces the changes to the vertically integrated utility brought about by restructuring. It discusses generation and transmission planning, control and the regulatory process. It also summarizes reliability, security and adequacy. Chapter 4 discusses the basic structures of generation and transmission markets along with transmission-congestion contracts (TCCs) and transmission pricing principles. A discussion is given of the 12 ancillary services needed to reliably operate the power system. Chapter 4 also deals with the role of transmission in opening up markets to competition. In California increments (incs) and decrements (decs) are bid to overcome price differences in different zones caused by congestion. In PJM, any member can purchase Fixed Transmission Rights (FTRs) which allows the member to ''collect rent'' on congested lines and essentially obtain a hedge against congestion. There has been a worrisome slowdown in the growth of the transmission system in the United States since about the mid 70's. However, there are methods for providing incentives for construction of new transmission using tariffs. The California and PJM transmission planning processes are outlined. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has recently issued a proposed rulemaking on Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) which stated that the traditional methods of grid management are showing signs of strain and may be inadequate to support efficient and reliable transmission operations. Chapter 5 provides examples of market implementations and a discussion of the price spikes seen in the Midwest in the summers of 1998 and 1999. An examination of six restructured market systems is performed in

  16. Liberalising trade in health services: constraints and prospects for South Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Fahmida; Ahamad, Mazbahul

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine the prospects and challenges associated with liberalising trade in health services in five South Asian countries, namely Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Country-specific secondary information, a brief literature review of empirical studies and debriefing sessions with key stakeholders are employed to explore the issues related to liberalising health services trade. The health sectors in India, Nepal and Pakistan are scheduled under General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) classification, whereas those in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka are not. In Bangladesh, there is opportunity for investment in joint venture hospitals under Mode 3. Nonetheless, India is the largest trader in health services under all four modes. In Sri Lanka, cross-border trade in healthcare services is found to be insignificant. Moreover, expertise in eye treatment in Nepal could also attract foreign investment in medical services under Mode 3. In contrast, Pakistan exhibits no potential under Mode 4, because of a lack of healthcare professionals. In this view, the prospects of trade in health services within the South Asian region under the four GATS modes are constrained by infrastructural, regulatory, perception-related, logistical and cultural problems. Considering the level of development and commercial opportunities, regional integration in the health sector could be explored in such areas as telemedicine, medical tourism, cross-border investment and capacity building of health personnel. These developments call for stronger and pro-active government-to-government collaboration in the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) region in a transparent and accountable manner.

  17. Socioeconomic effects of power marketing alternatives for the Central Valley and Washoe Projects: 2005 regional econmic impact analysis using IMPLAN

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Ulibarri, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) was founded by the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 to market and transmit federal hydroelectric power in 15 western states outside the Pacific Northwest, which is served by the Bonneville Power Administration. Western is divided into four independent Customer Service Regions including the Sierra Nevada Region (Sierra Nevada), the focus of this report. The Central Valley Project (CVP) and the Washoe Project provide the primary power resources marketed by Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada also purchases and markets power generated by the Bonneville Power Administration, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), and various power pools. Sierra Nevada currently markets approximately 1,480 megawatts of power to 77 customers in northern and central California. These customers include investor-owned utilities, public utilities, government agencies, military bases, and irrigation districts. Methods and conclusions from an economic analysis are summarized concerning distributional effects of alternative actions that Sierra Nevada could take with it`s new marketing plan.

  18. Nash equilibrium strategy in the deregulated power industry and comparing its lost welfare with Iran wholesale electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Seyed Hosein; Nazemi, Ali; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2016-07-01

    With the increasing use of different types of auctions in market designing, modeling of participants' behaviors to evaluate the market structure is one of the main discussions in the studies related to the deregulated power industries. In this article, we apply an approach of the optimal bidding behavior to the Iran wholesale electricity market as a restructured electric power industry and model how the participants of the market bid in the spot electricity market. The problem is formulated analytically using the Nash equilibrium concept composed of large numbers of players having discrete and very large strategy spaces. Then, we compute and draw supply curve of the competitive market in which all generators' proposed prices are equal to their marginal costs and supply curve of the real market in which the pricing mechanism is pay-as-bid. We finally calculate the lost welfare or inefficiency of the Nash equilibrium and the real market by comparing their supply curves with the competitive curve. We examine 3 cases on November 24 (2 cases) and July 24 (1 case), 2012. It is observed that in the Nash equilibrium on November 24 and demand of 23,487 MW, there are 212 allowed plants for the first case (plants are allowed to choose any quantity of generation except one of them that should be equal to maximum Power) and the economic efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 2.77 times as much as the real market. In addition, there are 184 allowed plants for the second case (plants should offer their maximum power with different prices) and the efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 3.6 times as much as the real market. On July 24 and demand of 42,421 MW, all 370 plants should generate maximum energy due to the high electricity demand that the economic efficiency or social welfare of the Nash equilibrium is about 2 times as much as the real market.

  19. Optimal Operation and Value Evaluation of Pumped Storage Power Plants Considering Spot Market Trading and Uncertainty of Bilateral Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kenta; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Jun

    In recent years, as the deregulation in electric power industry has advanced in many countries, a spot market trading of electricity has been done. Generation companies are allowed to purchase the electricity through the electric power market and supply electric power for their bilateral customers. Under this circumstance, it is important for the generation companies to procure the required electricity with cheaper cost to increase their profit. The market price is volatile since it is determined by bidding between buyer and seller. The pumped storage power plant, one of the storage facilities is promising against such volatile market price since it can produce a profit by purchasing electricity with lower-price and selling it with higher-price. This paper discusses the optimal operation of the pumped storage power plants considering bidding strategy to an uncertain spot market. The volatilities in market price and demand are represented by the Vasicek model in our estimation. This paper also discusses the allocation of operational reserve to the pumped storage power plant.

  20. A new market risk model for cogeneration project financing---combined heat and power development without a power purchase agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockwood, Timothy A.

    Federal legislative changes in 2006 no longer entitle cogeneration project financings by law to receive the benefit of a power purchase agreement underwritten by an investment-grade investor-owned utility. Consequently, this research explored the need for a new market-risk model for future cogeneration and combined heat and power (CHP) project financing. CHP project investment represents a potentially enormous energy efficiency benefit through its application by reducing fossil fuel use up to 55% when compared to traditional energy generation, and concurrently eliminates constituent air emissions up to 50%, including global warming gases. As a supplemental approach to a comprehensive technical analysis, a quantitative multivariate modeling was also used to test the statistical validity and reliability of host facility energy demand and CHP supply ratios in predicting the economic performance of CHP project financing. The resulting analytical models, although not statistically reliable at this time, suggest a radically simplified CHP design method for future profitable CHP investments using four easily attainable energy ratios. This design method shows that financially successful CHP adoption occurs when the average system heat-to-power-ratio supply is less than or equal to the average host-convertible-energy-ratio, and when the average nominally-rated capacity is less than average host facility-load-factor demands. New CHP investments can play a role in solving the world-wide problem of accommodating growing energy demand while preserving our precious and irreplaceable air quality for future generations.

  1. Estimating the Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower and Power Marketing

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, Michael J; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Uria Martinez, Rocio; Wei, Yaxing

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is currently preparing an assessment of the effects of climate change on federal hydropower, as directed by Congress in Section 9505 of the Secure Water Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-11). This paper describes the assessment approach being used in a Report to Congress currently being prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The 9505 assessment will examine climate change effects on water available for hydropower operations and the future power supplies marketed from federal hydropower projects. It will also include recommendations from the Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) on potential changes in operation or contracting practices that could address these effects and risks of climate change. Potential adaption and mitigation strategies will also be identified. Federal hydropower comprises approximately half of the U.S. hydropower portfolio. The results from the 9505 assessment will promote better understanding among federal dam owners/operators of the sensitivity of their facilities to water availability, and it will provide a basis for planning future actions that will enable adaptation to climate variability and change. The end-users of information are Congressional members, their staff, the PMAs and their customers, federal dam owners/operators, and the DOE Water Power Program.

  2. Market failure and the failure of discourse: facing up to the power of sellers.

    PubMed

    Vladeck, Bruce C; Rice, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The United States spends far more than other countries do on its health care system, but comparative data strongly imply that Americans are not receiving their money's worth. There is much hand-wringing about spending, but little attention is paid to the main culprit: lack of market power by purchasers-something that exists in nearly all other countries. This lack of attention is not surprising, however, given that having an open discussion could ultimately lead to more regulation-and a major redistribution of resources away from providers and back to employers, individuals and families, and taxpayers.

  3. Optimal operational strategies for a day-ahead electricity market in the presence of market power using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, Deepal

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation introduces a novel approach for optimally operating a day-ahead electricity market not only by economically dispatching the generation resources but also by minimizing the influences of market manipulation attempts by the individual generator-owning companies while ensuring that the power system constraints are not violated. Since economic operation of the market conflicts with the individual profit maximization tactics such as market manipulation by generator-owning companies, a methodology that is capable of simultaneously optimizing these two competing objectives has to be selected. Although numerous previous studies have been undertaken on the economic operation of day-ahead markets and other independent studies have been conducted on the mitigation of market power, the operation of a day-ahead electricity market considering these two conflicting objectives simultaneously has not been undertaken previously. These facts provided the incentive and the novelty for this study. A literature survey revealed that many of the traditional solution algorithms convert multi-objective functions into either a single-objective function using weighting schemas or undertake optimization of one function at a time. Hence, these approaches do not truly optimize the multi-objectives concurrently. Due to these inherent deficiencies of the traditional algorithms, the use of alternative non-traditional solution algorithms for such problems has become popular and widely used. Of these, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA) have received wide acceptance due to their solution quality and robustness. In the present research, three distinct algorithms were considered: a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II), a multi-objective tabu search algorithm (MOTS) and a hybrid of multi-objective tabu search and genetic algorithm (MOTS/GA). The accuracy and quality of the results from these algorithms for applications similar to the problem investigated here

  4. Current and Future Costs for Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Systems in the US Market: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C.; Mehos, M.; Ho, C. K.; Kolb, G. J.

    2010-10-01

    NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is employed to estimate the current and future costs for parabolic trough and molten salt power towers in the US market. Future troughs are assumed to achieve higher field temperatures via the successful deployment of low melting-point, molten-salt heat transfer fluids by 2015-2020. Similarly, it is assumed that molten salt power towers are successfully deployed at 100MW scale over the same time period, increasing to 200MW by 2025. The levelized cost of electricity for both technologies is predicted to drop below 11 cents/kWh (assuming a 10% investment tax credit and other financial inputs outlined in the paper), making the technologies competitive in the marketplace as benchmarked by the California MPR. Both technologies can be deployed with large amounts of thermal energy storage, yielding capacity factors as high as 65% while maintaining an optimum LCOE.

  5. Market reaction to a bid-ask spread change: A power-law relaxation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponzi, Adam; Lillo, Fabrizio; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2009-07-01

    We study the relaxation dynamics of the bid-ask spread and of the midprice after a sudden variation of the spread in a double auction financial market. We find that the spread decays as a power law to its normal value. We measure the price reversion dynamics and the permanent impact, i.e., the long-time effect on price, of a generic event altering the spread and we find an approximately linear relation between immediate and permanent impact. We hypothesize that the power-law decay of the spread is a consequence of the strategic limit order placement of liquidity providers. We support this hypothesis by investigating several quantities, such as order placement rates and distribution of prices and times of submitted orders, which affect the decay of the spread.

  6. Market reaction to a bid-ask spread change: a power-law relaxation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ponzi, Adam; Lillo, Fabrizio; Mantegna, Rosario N

    2009-07-01

    We study the relaxation dynamics of the bid-ask spread and of the midprice after a sudden variation of the spread in a double auction financial market. We find that the spread decays as a power law to its normal value. We measure the price reversion dynamics and the permanent impact, i.e., the long-time effect on price, of a generic event altering the spread and we find an approximately linear relation between immediate and permanent impact. We hypothesize that the power-law decay of the spread is a consequence of the strategic limit order placement of liquidity providers. We support this hypothesis by investigating several quantities, such as order placement rates and distribution of prices and times of submitted orders, which affect the decay of the spread.

  7. Six kilowatt, residential photovoltaic power systems study; design, performance, economics, market potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partain, L. D.

    1980-08-01

    A cost and performance analysis is presented for a solar cell electric system that can provide 70% of the electric power to a home in a California-like climate. Both a battery storage and no-storage configuration with a six kilowatt, peak power, solar array were considered, including batteries, for a 15 kWh per day average energy use that equals that of an average household in Northern California. For the promising, no-storage home system the uncertainties in important parameter values are too large to allow definitive assessment until better characterizations have been made. The political and policy decisions that can have a strong influence were assessed and quantified. The effects of tax credits, utility buyback, and proper home construction were considered. Potential markets in the hundreds of millions of dollars per year range that involve on the order of one million peak kilowatts of solar cells per year were estimated.

  8. Impacts of demand response and renewable generation in electricity power market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhechong

    This thesis presents the objective of the research which is to analyze the impacts of uncertain wind power and demand response on power systems operation and power market clearing. First, in order to effectively utilize available wind generation, it is usually given the highest priority by assigning zero or negative energy bidding prices when clearing the day-ahead electric power market. However, when congestion occurs, negative wind bidding prices would aggravate locational marginal prices (LMPs) to be negative in certain locations. A load shifting model is explored to alleviate possible congestions and enhance the utilization of wind generation, by shifting proper amount of load from peak hours to off peaks. The problem is to determine proper amount of load to be shifted, for enhancing the utilization of wind generation, alleviating transmission congestions, and making LMPs to be non-negative values. The second piece of work considered the price-based demand response (DR) program which is a mechanism for electricity consumers to dynamically manage their energy consumption in response to time-varying electricity prices. It encourages consumers to reduce their energy consumption when electricity prices are high, and thereby reduce the peak electricity demand and alleviate the pressure to power systems. However, it brings additional dynamics and new challenges on the real-time supply and demand balance. Specifically, price-sensitive DR load levels are constantly changing in response to dynamic real-time electricity prices, which will impact the economic dispatch (ED) schedule and in turn affect electricity market clearing prices. This thesis adopts two methods for examining the impacts of different DR price elasticity characteristics on the stability performance: a closed-loop iterative simulation method and a non-iterative method based on the contraction mapping theorem. This thesis also analyzes the financial stability of DR load consumers, by incorporating

  9. Scheduling and Pricing for Expected Ramp Capability in Real-Time Power Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, Erik; O'Malley, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Higher variable renewable generation penetrations are occurring throughout the world on different power systems. These resources increase the variability and uncertainty on the system which must be accommodated by an increase in the flexibility of the system resources in order to maintain reliability. Many scheduling strategies have been discussed and introduced to ensure that this flexibility is available at multiple timescales. To meet variability, that is, the expected changes in system conditions, two recent strategies have been introduced: time-coupled multi-period market clearing models and the incorporation of ramp capability constraints. To appropriately evaluate these methods, it is important to assess both efficiency and reliability. But it is also important to assess the incentive structure to ensure that resources asked to perform in different ways have the proper incentives to follow these directions, which is a step often ignored in simulation studies. We find that there are advantages and disadvantages to both approaches. We also find that look-ahead horizon length in multi-period market models can impact incentives. This paper proposes scheduling and pricing methods that ensure expected ramps are met reliably, efficiently, and with associated prices based on true marginal costs that incentivize resources to do as directed by the market. Case studies show improvements of the new method.

  10. 77 FR 2717 - Palmco Power MA, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Palmco Power MA, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Palmco Power...

  11. 77 FR 20381 - Silver State Solar Power North, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Silver State Solar Power North, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Silver State Solar Power North, LLC's application for...

  12. 75 FR 25235 - Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC's application for...

  13. 76 FR 53443 - ENBALA Power Networks (USA), Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ENBALA Power Networks (USA), Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of ENBALA Power Networks (USA), Inc.'s application for...

  14. 75 FR 61468 - Lexington Power & Light, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lexington Power & Light, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Lexington Power & Light, LLC's application for...

  15. 77 FR 43071 - Public Power, LLC of Pennsylvania; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Public Power, LLC of Pennsylvania; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Public Power, LLC of Pennsylvania's application for...

  16. 75 FR 62808 - Eagle Power Authority, Inc; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Power Authority, Inc; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Eagle Power Authority, Inc.'s application for...

  17. 77 FR 35372 - EverPower Commercial Services LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission EverPower Commercial Services LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of EverPower Commercial Services LLC's application for...

  18. 75 FR 76727 - Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC's application for...

  19. 75 FR 18201 - Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC's application for...

  20. Markets

    Treesearch

    David N. Wear; Jeffrey Prestemon; Robert Huggett; Douglas Carter

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsAlthough timber production in the South more than doubled from the 1960s to the late 1990s, output levels have declined over the last 10 years, signaling structural changes in timber markets.For softwood products, production declines are most clearly related to demand issues. Demand for softwood solid wood products...

  1. International market assessment of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems for cottage industry applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philippi, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The final result of an international assessment of the market for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in cottage industry applications is reported. Nonindustrialized countries without centrally planned economies were considered. Cottage industries were defined as small rural manufacturers, employing less than 50 people, producing consumer and simple products. The data to support this analysis were obtained from secondary and expert sources in the U.S. and in-country field investigations of the Philippines and Mexico. The near-term market for photovoltaics for rural cottage industry applications appears to be limited to demonstration projects and pilot programs, based on an in-depth study of the nature of cottage industry, its role in the rural economy, the electric energy requirements of cottage industry, and a financial analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic systems as compared to their most viable competitor, diesel driven generators. Photovoltaics are shown to be a better long-term option only for very low power requirements. Some of these uses would include clay mixers, grinders, centrifuges, lathes, power saws and lighting of a workshop.

  2. International market assessment of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems for cottage industry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippi, T. M.

    1981-11-01

    The final result of an international assessment of the market for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in cottage industry applications is reported. Nonindustrialized countries without centrally planned economies were considered. Cottage industries were defined as small rural manufacturers, employing less than 50 people, producing consumer and simple products. The data to support this analysis were obtained from secondary and expert sources in the U.S. and in-country field investigations of the Philippines and Mexico. The near-term market for photovoltaics for rural cottage industry applications appears to be limited to demonstration projects and pilot programs, based on an in-depth study of the nature of cottage industry, its role in the rural economy, the electric energy requirements of cottage industry, and a financial analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic systems as compared to their most viable competitor, diesel driven generators. Photovoltaics are shown to be a better long-term option only for very low power requirements. Some of these uses would include clay mixers, grinders, centrifuges, lathes, power saws and lighting of a workshop.

  3. Proposed new energy legislation: How will it impact power marketing transactions?

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, R.D.

    1997-11-01

    As a transactional attorney poised to follow the new power markets and assist in their financing, the author follows the legislative debate not from the perspective of the absolute public policy merit of positions (which generally are rhetorical anyway), but from what they will mean for entrepreneurs seeking to exploit the potential of open access via sales or via aggregation. While that means, of course, that he is fundamentally in favor of open access, it also means that he keeps his eye cocked on the implication of certain key questions. What this paper considers is: (1) what the overall approach of the three archetypal bills before Congress are to the generic questions of interest to those involved in power marketing; (2) how interested parties might meld their self interest with respect to these questions with the titanic struggle of other interests reflected in the legislative fray; and (3) identify what special key questions are presented by these bills and what additional statutory guidance they might seek in this regard.

  4. “Slimming” of power-law tails by increasing market returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, D.

    2002-06-01

    We introduce a simple generalization of rational bubble models which removes the fundamental problem discovered by Lux and Sornette (J. Money, Credit and Banking, preprint at http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/cond-mat/9910141) that the distribution of returns is a power law with exponent <1, in contradiction with empirical data. The idea is that the price fluctuations associated with bubbles must on average grow with the mean market return r. When r is larger than the discount rate rδ, the distribution of returns of the observable price, sum of the bubble component and of the fundamental price, exhibits an intermediate tail with an exponent which can be larger than 1. This regime r> rδ corresponds to a generalization of the rational bubble model in which the fundamental price is no more given by the discounted value of future dividends. We explain how this is possible. Our model predicts that, the higher is the market remuneration r above the discount rate, the larger is the power-law exponent and thus the thinner is the tail of the distribution of price returns.

  5. Coal gasification power generation, and product market study. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Sheesley, D.; King, S.B.

    1998-12-31

    This Western Research Institute (WRI) project was part of a WRI Energy Resource Utilization Program to stimulate pilot-scale improved technologies projects to add value to coal resources in the Rocky Mountain region. The intent of this program is to assess the application potential of emerging technologies to western resources. The focus of this project is on a coal resource near the Wyoming/Colorado border, in Colorado. Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company operates a coal mine in Jackson County, Colorado. The coal produces 10,500 Btu/lb and has very low sulfur and ash contents. Kerr Coal Company is seeking advanced technology for alternate uses for this coal. This project was to have included a significant cost-share from the Kerr Coal Company ownership for a market survey of potential products and technical alternatives to be studied in the Rocky Mountain Region. The Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company and WRI originally proposed this work on a cost reimbursable basis. The total cost of the project was priced at $117,035. The Kerr Coal Company had scheduled at least $60,000.00 to be spent on market research for the project that never developed because of product market changes for the company. WRI and Kerr explored potential markets and new technologies for this resource. The first phase of this project as a preliminary study had studied fuel and nonfuel technical alternatives. Through related projects conducted at WRI, resource utilization was studied to find high-value materials that can be targeted for fuel and nonfuel use and eventually include other low-sulfur coals in the Rocky Mountain region. The six-month project work was spread over about a three-year period to observe, measure, and confirm over time-any trends in technology development that would lead to economic benefits in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming from coal gasification and power generation.

  6. ORCED: A model to simulate the operations and costs of bulk-power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

    1998-06-01

    Dramatic changes in the structure and operation of US bulk-power markets require new analytical tools. The authors developed the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model to analyze a variety of public-policy issues related to the many changes underway in the US electricity industry. Such issues include: policy and technology options to reduce carbon emissions from electricity production; the effects of electricity trading between high- and low-cost regions on consumers and producers in both regions; the ability of the owners of certain generating units to exercise market power as functions of the transmission link between two regions and the characteristics of the generating units and loads in each region; and the market penetration of new energy-production and energy-use technologies and the effects of their adoption on fuel use, electricity use and costs, and carbon emissions. ORCED treats two electrical systems connected by a single transmission link ORCED uses two load-duration curves to represent the time-varying electricity consumption in each region. The two curves represent peak and offpeak seasons. User specification of demand elasticities permits ORCED to estimate the effects of changes in electricity price, both overall and hour by hour, on overall electricity use and load shapes. ORCED represents the electricity supply in each region with 26 generating units. The two regions are connected by a single transmission link. This link is characterized by its capacity (MW), cost ({cents}/kWh), and losses (%). This report explains the inputs to, outputs from, and operation of ORCED. It also presents four examples showing applications of the model to various public-policy issues related to restructuring of the US electricity industry.

  7. Utility-Scale Concentrating Solar Power and Photovoltaic Projects: A Technology and Market Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.; Lowder, T.; Canavan, B.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last several years, solar energy technologies have been, or are in the process of being, deployed at unprecedented levels. A critical recent development, resulting from the massive scale of projects in progress or recently completed, is having the power sold directly to electric utilities. Such 'utility-scale' systems offer the opportunity to deploy solar technologies far faster than the traditional 'behind-the-meter' projects designed to offset retail load. Moreover, these systems have employed significant economies of scale during construction and operation, attracting financial capital, which in turn can reduce the delivered cost of power. This report is a summary of the current U.S. utility-scale solar state-of-the-market and development pipeline. Utility-scale solar energy systems are generally categorized as one of two basic designs: concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV). CSP systems can be further delineated into four commercially available technologies: parabolic trough, central receiver (CR), parabolic dish, and linear Fresnel reflector. CSP systems can also be categorized as hybrid, which combine a solar-based system (generally parabolic trough, CR, or linear Fresnel) and a fossil fuel energy system to produce electric power or steam.

  8. 18 CFR 348.1 - Content of application for a market power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... calculation of the market concentration of the relevant markets using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. The... deliveries in its destination markets, if the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index is not based on those factors. The...

  9. 18 CFR 348.1 - Content of application for a market power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... calculation of the market concentration of the relevant markets using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. The... deliveries in its destination markets, if the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index is not based on those factors. The...

  10. 18 CFR 348.1 - Content of application for a market power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... calculation of the market concentration of the relevant markets using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. The... deliveries in its destination markets, if the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index is not based on those factors. The...

  11. 18 CFR 348.1 - Content of application for a market power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... calculation of the market concentration of the relevant markets using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. The... deliveries in its destination markets, if the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index is not based on those factors. The...

  12. 18 CFR 348.1 - Content of application for a market power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... calculation of the market concentration of the relevant markets using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. The... deliveries in its destination markets, if the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index is not based on those factors. The...

  13. Economic and technological aspects of the market introduction of renewable power technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worlen, Christine M.

    Renewable energy, if developed and delivered with appropriate technologies, is cleaner, more evenly distributed, and safer than conventional energy systems. Many countries and several states in the United States promote the development and introduction of technologies for "green" electricity production. This dissertation investigates economic and technological aspects of this process for wind energy. In liberalized electricity markets, policy makers use economic incentives to encourage the adoption of renewables. Choosing from a large range of possible policies and instruments is a multi-criteria decision process. This dissertation evaluates the criteria used and the trade-offs among the criteria, and develops a hierarchical flow scheme that policy makers can use to choose the most appropriate policy for a given situation. Economic incentives and market transformation programs seek to reduce costs through mass deployment in order to make renewable technologies competitive. Cost reduction is measured in "experience curves" that posit negative exponential relationships between cumulative deployment and production cost. This analysis reveals the weaknesses in conventional experience curve analyses for wind turbines, and concludes that the concept is limited by data availability, a weak conceptual foundation, and inappropriate statistical estimation. A revised model specifies a more complete set of economic and technological forces that determine the cost of wind power. Econometric results indicate that experience and upscaling of turbine sizes accounted for the observed cost reduction in wind turbines in the United States, Denmark and Germany between 1983 and 2001. These trends are likely to continue. In addition, future cost reductions will result from economies of scale in production. Observed differences in the performance of theoretically equivalent policy instruments could arise from economic uncertainty. To test this hypothesis, a methodology for the

  14. Future Market Share of Space Solar Electric Power Under Open Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. J.; Mahasenan, N.; Clarke, J. F.; Edmonds, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the value of Space Solar Power deployed under market competition with a full suite of alternative energy technologies over the 21st century. Our approach is to analyze the future energy system under a number of different scenarios that span a wide range of possible future demographic, socio-economic, and technological developments. Scenarios both with, and without, carbon dioxide concentration stabilization policies are considered. We use the comprehensive set of scenarios created for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (Nakicenovic and Swart 2000). The focus of our analysis will be the cost of electric generation. Cost is particularly important when considering electric generation since the type of generation is, from a practical point of view, largely irrelevant to the end-user. This means that different electricity generation technologies must compete on the basis of price. It is important to note, however, that even a technology that is more expensive than average can contribute to the overall generation mix due to geographical and economic heterogeneity (Clarke and Edmonds 1993). This type of competition is a central assumption of the modeling approach used here. Our analysis suggests that, under conditions of full competition of all available technologies, Space Solar Power at 7 cents per kW-hr could comprise 5-10% of global electric generation by the end of the century, with a global total generation of 10,000 TW-hr. The generation share of Space Solar Power is limited due to competition with lower-cost nuclear, biomass, and terrestrial solar PV and wind. The imposition of a carbon constraint does not significantly increase the total amount of power generated by Space Solar Power in cases where a full range of advanced electric generation technologies are also available. Potential constraints on the availability of these other electric generation options can increase the amount of

  15. Why do electricity policy and competitive markets fail to use advanced PV systems to improve distribution power quality?

    DOE PAGES

    McHenry, Mark P.; Johnson, Jay; Hightower, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The increasing pressure for network operators to meet distribution network power quality standards with increasing peak loads, renewable energy targets, and advances in automated distributed power electronics and communications is forcing policy-makers to understand new means to distribute costs and benefits within electricity markets. Discussions surrounding how distributed generation (DG) exhibits active voltage regulation and power factor/reactive power control and other power quality capabilities are complicated by uncertainties of baseline local distribution network power quality and to whom and how costs and benefits of improved electricity infrastructure will be allocated. DG providing ancillary services that dynamically respond to the networkmore » characteristics could lead to major network improvements. With proper market structures renewable energy systems could greatly improve power quality on distribution systems with nearly no additional cost to the grid operators. Renewable DG does have variability challenges, though this issue can be overcome with energy storage, forecasting, and advanced inverter functionality. This paper presents real data from a large-scale grid-connected PV array with large-scale storage and explores effective mitigation measures for PV system variability. As a result, we discuss useful inverter technical knowledge for policy-makers to mitigate ongoing inflation of electricity network tariff components by new DG interconnection requirements or electricity markets which value power quality and control.« less

  16. The potential impact of externalities considerations on the market for biomass power technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Swezey, B.G.; Porter, K.L.; Feher, J.S.

    1994-02-01

    This study assesses the current status of externalities considerations--nonmarket costs and benefits--in state and utility electricity resource planning processes and determines how externalities considerations might help or hinder the development of biomass power plants. It provides an overview of biomass resources and technologies, including their market status and environmental impacts; reviews the current treatment of externalities in the states; and documents the perspectives of key utility, regulatory, and industry representatives concerning externalities considerations. The authors make the following recommendations to the biomass industry: (1) the wood and agricultural waste industries should work toward having states and utilities recognize that wood and agricultural waste are greenhouse gas neutral resources because of carbon sequestration during growth; (2) the biomass industry should emphasize nonenvironmental benefits such as economic development and job creation; and (3) the biomass industry should pursue and support efforts to establish renewable energy set-asides or ``green`` requests for proposals.

  17. The potential impact of externalities considerations on the market for biomass power technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swezey, B. G.; Porter, K. L.; Feher, J. S.

    1994-02-01

    This study assesses the current status of externalities considerations--nonmarket costs and benefits--in state and utility electricity resource planning processes and determines how externalities considerations might help or hinder the development of biomass power plants. It provides an overview of biomass resources and technologies, including their market status and environmental impacts; reviews the current treatment of externalities in the states; and documents the perspectives of key utility, regulatory, and industry representatives concerning externalities considerations. The authors make the following recommendations to the biomass industry: (1) the wood and agricultural waste industries should work toward having states and utilities recognize that wood and agricultural waste are greenhouse gas neutral resources because of carbon sequestration during growth; (2) the biomass industry should emphasize nonenvironmental benefits such as economic development and job creation; and (3) the biomass industry should pursue and support efforts to establish renewable energy set-asides or 'green' requests for proposals.

  18. Power and transmission rate orders and related documents. Office of Power Marketing Coordination, data compiled January 1, 1980-December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1982-08-01

    This publication contains the power and transmission rate orders and related documents issued by the Department of Energy. It covers calendar years 1980 and 1981. The first publication, DOE/CE-007 covering the period from March through December 1979, was published July 1981. This publication is a compilation of all rate orders issued by the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications and the Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy during calendar years 1980 and 1981 under Delegation Order No. 0204-33. It also includes all final approvals, remands, and disapprovals by the FERC, and a petition to the FERC for reconsideration by a Power Marketing Administration during 1980 and 1981. Also included are two delegation orders along with an amendment and a supplement to one delegation order, a departmental order on financial reporting, and Power and Transmission Rate Adjustment Procedures relating to federal power marketing.

  19. DOE: Integrating Southwest Power Pool Wind Energy into Southeast Electricity Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Daniel, EPRI; Tuohy, Aidan, EPRI; Deb, Sidart, LCG Consulting; Jampani, Srinivas, LCG Consulting; Kirby, Brendan, Consultant; King, Jack, Consultant

    2011-11-29

    Wind power development in the United States is outpacing previous estimates for many regions, particularly those with good wind resources. The pace of wind power deployment may soon outstrip regional capabilities to provide transmission and integration services to achieve the most economic power system operation. Conversely, regions such as the Southeastern United States do not have good wind resources and will have difficulty meeting proposed federal Renewable Portfolio Standards with local supply. There is a growing need to explore innovative solutions for collaborating between regions to achieve the least cost solution for meeting such a renewable energy mandate. The DOE-funded project 'Integrating Southwest Power Pool Wind Energy into Southeast Electricity Markets' aims to evaluate the benefits of coordination of scheduling and balancing for Southwest Power Pool (SPP) wind transfers to Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) Balancing Authorities (BAs). The primary objective of this project is to analyze the benefits of different balancing approaches with increasing levels of inter-regional cooperation. Scenarios were defined, modeled and investigated to address production variability and uncertainty and the associated balancing of large quantities of wind power in SPP and delivery to energy markets in the southern regions of the SERC. The primary analysis of the project is based on unit commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED) simulations of the SPP-SERC regions as modeled for the year 2022. The UC/ED models utilized for the project were developed through extensive consultation with the project utility partners, to ensure the various regions and operational practices are represented as accurately as possible realizing that all such future scenario models are quite uncertain. SPP, Entergy, Oglethorpe Power Company (OPC), Southern Company, and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) actively participated in the project providing input data for the models

  20. The emerging roles of energy storage in a competitive power market: Summary of a DOE Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, S.P.; Falcone, P.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains a summary of the workshop, {open_quotes}The Emerging Roles of Energy Storage in a Competitive Power Market,{close_quotes} which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories and was held in Pleasanton, California on December 6-7, 1994. More than 70 people attended, representing government agencies, national laboratories, equipment vendors, electric utilities and other energy providers, venture capital interests, and consultants. Many types of energy storage were discussed, including electrical (batteries and superconducting magnets), mechanical (flywheels and pumped hydro), hydrogen, compressed air, and thermal energy storage. The objectives of the workshop were to communicate within the energy storage community regarding the costs, benefits, and technical status of various technology options; to explore and elucidate the evolving roles of energy storage in a more dynamic and competitive power and energy marketplace; and to discuss the optimum federal role in this area. The goals of the workshop were fully realized through knowledgeable and insightful presentations and vigorous discussion, which are summarized.

  1. Surpassing Expectations: State of the U.S. Wind Power Market

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A; Wiser, Ryan

    2008-07-15

    The wind power industry in the U.S. has been on a growth binge in recent years, and the rapid pace of development has made it difficult to keep up with trends in the marketplace. Yet the need for timely, objective information on the wind industry and its progress has never been greater. This article, excerpted from a longer report from the U.S. Department of Energy, attempts to fill this need by providing a comprehensive, yet detailed, overview of key developments in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2007. This summary includes information on wind project installation trends, industry developments, and, perhaps most interestingly, project-level installed cost and pricing information that has not otherwise been widely reported. The article concentrates on larger-scale wind applications, defined here as projects utilizing turbines that exceed 50 kW in size. In many cases, the data reported here represent only a sample of all wind projects installed in the United States; furthermore, the data vary in quality. As such, emphasis should be placed on overall trends in the data, rather than on individual data points.

  2. 18 CFR 284.505 - Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for... section 4(f) of the Natural Gas Act, related to a specific facility put into service after August 8,...

  3. 18 CFR 284.505 - Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for... section 4(f) of the Natural Gas Act, related to a specific facility put into service after August 8,...

  4. 18 CFR 284.505 - Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for... section 4(f) of the Natural Gas Act, related to a specific facility put into service after August 8,...

  5. 18 CFR 284.505 - Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for... section 4(f) of the Natural Gas Act, related to a specific facility put into service after August 8,...

  6. 18 CFR 284.505 - Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for... section 4(f) of the Natural Gas Act, related to a specific facility put into service after August 8,...

  7. Possibility of controlling nonregulated prices in the electricity market by means of varying the parameters of a power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaskovskaya, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper offers a new approach to the analysis of price signals from the wholesale electricity and capacity market that is based on the analysis of the influence exerted by input data used in the problem of optimization of the power system operating conditions, namely: parameters of a power grid and power-receiving equipment that might vary under the effect of control devices. It is shown that it would be possible to control nonregulated prices for electricity in the wholesale electricity market by varying the parameters of control devices and energy-receiving equipment. An increase in the effectiveness of power transmission and the cost-effective use of fuel-and-energy resources (energy saving) can become an additional effect of controlling the nonregulated prices.

  8. 78 FR 28836 - Vulcan/BN Geothermal Power Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Vulcan/BN Geothermal Power Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding...

  9. 75 FR 4062 - Cosa Geothermal Power Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cosa Geothermal Power Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization January 15, 2010. This is a supplemental notice in...

  10. 76 FR 67259 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ...Pursuant to section 206 of the Federal Power Act, the Commission is revising its regulations to remedy undue discrimination in the procurement of frequency regulation in the organized wholesale electric markets and ensure that providers of frequency regulation receive just and reasonable and not unduly discriminatory or preferential rates. Frequency regulation service is one of the tools regional transmission organizations (RTOs) and independent system operators (ISOs) use to balance supply and demand on the transmission system, maintaining reliable operations. In doing so, RTOs and ISOs deploy a variety of resources to meet frequency regulation needs; these resources differ in both their ramping ability, which is their ability to increase or decrease their provision of frequency regulation service, and the accuracy with which they can respond to the system operator's dispatch signal. The Commission finds that current frequency regulation compensation practices of RTOs and ISOs result in rates that are unjust, unreasonable, and unduly discriminatory or preferential. Specifically, current compensation methods for regulation service in RTO and ISO markets fail to acknowledge the inherently greater amount of frequency regulation service being provided by faster-ramping resources. In addition, certain practices of some RTOs and ISOs result in economically inefficient economic dispatch of frequency regulation resources. By remedying these issues, the Commission is removing unduly discriminatory and preferential practices from RTO and ISO tariffs and requiring the setting of just and reasonable rates. Specifically, this Final Rule requires RTOs and ISOs to compensate frequency regulation resources based on the actual service provided, including a capacity payment that includes the marginal unit's opportunity costs and a payment for performance that reflects the quantity of frequency regulation service provided by a resource when the resource is accurately following

  11. Deregulation of the California electric power industry: An analysis of electric and natural gas corporate mergers and their effect on the California electric power market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbuckle, James Dixon

    Deregulation of the electric utility industry in California is moving in a direction that places greater reliance on the market forces of competition. Investor owned utilities (IOU's) are using mergers and acquisitions to improve their ability to compete in this new environment. Two large mergers were proposed in 1996 that could affect the California market. The first is between Enron Corporation, a large power marketer and Portland General Corporation, owner of Portland General Electric. The second is between Pacific Enterprises Inc., owner of Southern California Gas Company, the largest natural gas utility in the U. S., and Enova Corporation, owner of San Diego Gas and Electric Company. Understanding the impact of these mergers on the California electric power market is the focus of this study. This study examines hypotheses dealing with: (1) Merger Strategy, (2) Efficiency, and (3) Market Power. Using the Miles and Snow (1978) typology, I develop a strategic orientation model for the merger participants and their competitors. The results suggest a two-stage strategic orientation: (1) regulated core business stage, where the firms follow a Defender strategy, and (2) unregulated business stage, where the firms follow a Prospector strategy. Further, the results show the mergers are consistent with the strategy of Enron and Pacific Enterprises. Event study methodology, dollar gains/losses and market value weighted returns are used to determine if the mergers support the efficiency hypothesis. The evidence suggests the mergers lead to increased competitive advantage through improved efficiency for the participants. The results also suggest the mergers do not harm the rivals. The results of structural changes made by the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) in deregulation of the California market and analysis of the mergers by the CPUC and the Public Utility Commission of Oregon suggest that the exercise of market power is not a significant issue. Finally

  12. WARP{trademark} solar/wind power: Green, user-friendly and cost effective for the new millennium international power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrich, A.L.; Rainey, D.L.; Olson, P.W.

    1999-11-01

    The Wind Amplified Rotor Platform (WARP{trademark}) system is a highly effective and versatile modular wind amplifier power design. WARP is intended to enhance use of proven wind turbines, albeit with lower risk and more reliability, using much simpler, smaller size and lower cost turbines. Hence, WARP systems can be easily packaged to any power size by virtue of its modular amplifier building blocks. Plus, WARP can operate integrally and synergistically in baseload fashion with fossil fired power plants like gas turbines, micro-turbines and diesels while reducing fuel consumption--hence pollutants--by over 50% to 70%. In other words, this renewable power technology is not intended as an us (renewable) versus them (fossil) power system; rather it is a complementary technology with excellent economy and environmentally green characteristics to serve a variety of markets.

  13. Advanced power generation systems for the 21st Century: Market survey and recommendations for a design philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    Andriulli, J.B.; Gates, A.E.; Haynes, H.D.; Klett, L.B.; Matthews, S.N.; Nawrocki, E.A.; Otaduy, P.J.; Scudiere, M.B.; Theiss, T.J.; Thomas, J.F.; Tolbert, L.M.; Yauss, M.L.; Voltz, C.A.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of a study designed to enhance the performance of future military generator sets (gen-sets) in the medium power range. The study includes a market survey of the state of the art in several key component areas and recommendations comprising a design philosophy for future military gen-sets. The market survey revealed that the commercial market is in a state of flux, but it is currently or will soon be capable of providing the technologies recommended here in a cost-effective manner. The recommendations, if implemented, should result in future power generation systems that are much more functional than today's gen-sets. The number of differing units necessary (both family sizes and frequency modes) to cover the medium power range would be decreased significantly, while the weight and volume of each unit would decrease, improving the transportability of the power source. Improved fuel economy and overall performance would result from more effective utilization of the prime mover in the generator. The units would allow for more flexibility and control, improved reliability, and more effective power management in the field.

  14. Commercialization of coal diesel engines for non-utility and export power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Rao, K.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E.; Mayville, R.A.; Itse, D.; Kimberley, J.; Parkinson, J.

    1993-11-01

    The basic motivation behind this project is to develop coal-burning heat engine technology primarily for 10-100 MW modular stationary power applications in the late 1990`s and beyond, when oil and gas prices may return to the $5--7/MMBtu range. The fuel is a low-cost, coal-based liquid with the consistency of black paint, composed of 12-micron mean size premium 2% ash coal dust mixed 50/50 with water. The Clean Coal Diesel Plant of the future is targeted for the 10-100 MW non-utility generation (NUG) and small utility markets, including independent power producers (IPP) and cogeneration. A family of plant designs will be offered using the Cooper-Bessemer 3.8, 5.0, and 6.3 MW Model LS engines as building blocks. In addition, larger plants will be configured with an engine in the 10-25 MW class (Cooper will license the technology to other large bore stationary engine manufacturers). The reciprocating engine offers a remarkable degree of flexibility in selecting plant capacity. This flexibility exists because the engines are modular in every sense (fuel cell stacks have similar modularity). Scale-up is accomplished simply by adding cylinders (e.g., 20 vs 16) or by adding engines (4 vs 3). There is no scale-up of the basic cylinder size. Thus, there is essentially no technical development needed to scale-up the Cooper-Bessemer Clean Coal Diesel Technology all the way from 2 MW (one 6-cylinder engine) to 50 MW (eight 20-cylinder engines), other than engineering adaptation of the turbocharger to match the engine.

  15. Pricing in a two-echelon supply chain with different market powers: game theory approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Afshin; Taleizadeh, Ata Allah

    2016-12-01

    In this research, the optimal pricing decisions for two complementary products in a two-echelon supply chain under two scenarios are studied. The proposed supply chain in each echelon includes one retailer and two manufacturers and the same complementary products are produced. In the first scenario, we assume the unit manufacturing costs of the complementary products in each echelon are the same, while in the second one the different unit manufacturing costs are supposed and lead to demand leakage from the echelon with the higher unit manufacturing cost to the echelon with the lower unit manufacturing cost. Moreover, under the second scenario, the products with lower price are replaced with the higher price products. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of different market powers between the manufacturers and the retailer and the demand leakage on the optimal wholesale and retail prices and also on the profit of the chain. The relationships between the manufacturers and the retailer are modeled by the MS-Stackelberg and MS-Bertrand game-theoretic approach where the manufacturers are leaders and the retailers are followers.

  16. A unified econophysics explanation for the power-law exponents of stock market activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabaix, Xavier; Gopikrishnan, Parameswaran; Plerou, Vasiliki; Stanley, Eugene

    2007-08-01

    We survey a theory (first sketched in Nature in 2003, then fleshed out in the Quarterly Journal of Economics in 2006) of the economic underpinnings of the fat-tailed distributions of a number of financial variables, such as returns and trading volume. Our theory posits that they have a common origin in the strategic trading behavior of very large financial institutions in a relatively illiquid market. We show how the fat-tailed distribution of fund sizes can indeed generate extreme returns and volumes, even in the absence of fundamental news. Moreover, we are able to replicate the individually different empirical values of the power-law exponents for each distribution: 3 for returns, 3/2 for volumes, 1 for the assets under management of large investors. Large investors moderate their trades to reduce their price impact; coupled with a concave price impact function, this leads to volumes being more fat-tailed than returns but less fat-tailed than fund sizes. The trades of large institutions also offer a unified explanation for apparently disconnected empirical regularities that are otherwise a challenge for economic theory.

  17. Market power and the sale of Ontario residential natural gas: An institutional analysis and a laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemhof, Barbara Lynn

    2005-11-01

    The Ontario residential natural gas market underwent a significant institutional change in 1986, after the federal government decontrolled natural gas prices. Currently, consumers may sign up for fixed-cost natural gas from a broker, or they may continue to be served by the regulated distribution company. This thesis examines the economic effects on consumers of the institutional change, and particularly whether or not market power was enhanced by the change. In the thesis, I first present the industrial organization of the residential natural gas sector, and explain the institutional evolution using an institutional economic approach. I then construct a model of the market environment, with sellers acting as middlemen in a well-defined Bertrand oligopoly setting with no production constraints and single-unit consumer demands. In this model, the only Nash equilibrium in the one-period game is the joint profit maximizing price, and its likelihood of obtaining depends on the nature of the cost of signing up new customers. I then take a version of this model into the laboratory with human subject sellers and simulated buyers and run six replications each of a balanced treatment design under a unique information mechanism that parallels individual customer canvassing used by sellers in the naturally-occurring market. Treatment variables are: number of sellers, number of simulated at-cost sellers present, and presence of input cost uncertainty for sellers. I find that adding any seller to the market has about the same impact on market price, irrespective of whether it is a human subject or a simulated at-cost seller. Although increasing the number of sellers does decrease the market price somewhat, it does not bring about the competitive outcome predicted by the benchmark microeconomic model. This research contributes to the literature on policy making and energy market design, as well as to experimental methodology aimed at policy evaluation.

  18. New frontier, new power: the retail environment in Australia's dark market

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of the retail environment in cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. Design: Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents; and articles and advertisements found by hand searching Australia's three leading retail trade journals. Results: As Australian cigarette marketing was increasingly restricted, the retail environment became the primary communication vehicle for building cigarette brands. When retail marketing was restricted, the industry conceded only incrementally and under duress, and at times continues to break the law. The tobacco industry targets retailers via trade promotional expenditure, financial and practical assistance with point of sale marketing, alliance building, brand advertising, and distribution. Cigarette brand advertising in retail magazines are designed to build brand identities. Philip Morris and British American Tobacco are now competing to control distribution of all products to retailers, placing themselves at the heart of retail business. Conclusions: Cigarette companies prize retail marketing in Australia's dark market. Stringent point of sale marketing restrictions should be included in any comprehensive tobacco control measures. Relationships between retailers and the industry will be more difficult to regulate. Retail press advertising and trade promotional expenditure could be banned. In-store marketing assistance, retail–tobacco industry alliance building, and new electronic retail distribution systems may be less amenable to regulation. Alliances between the health and retail sectors and financial support for a move away from retail dependence on tobacco may be necessary to effect cultural change. PMID:14645954

  19. 76 FR 24187 - Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... price transparency in markets for the sale and transmission of electric energy in interstate commerce... facilitate price transparency in markets for the sale and transmission of electric energy in interstate..., of information about the availability and prices of wholesale electric energy and transmission...

  20. GPP Webinar: Market Outlook and Innovations in Wind and Solar Power

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green Power Partnership webinar reviewing the state of the renewable energy industry as a whole, with a focus on wind and solar power and exploring recent marketplace innovations in wind and solar power and renewable energy purchases.

  1. Start-up costs of thermal power plants in markets with increasing shares of variable renewable generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schill, Wolf-Peter; Pahle, Michael; Gambardella, Christian

    2017-06-01

    The emerging literature on power markets with high shares of variable renewable energy sources suggests that the costs of more frequent start-ups of thermal power plants may become an increasing concern. Here we investigate how this develops in Germany, where the share of variable renewables is expected to grow from 14% in 2013 to 34% in 2030. We show that the overall number of start-ups grows by 81%, while respective costs increase by 119% in this period. Related to variable renewables' production, start-up costs increase by a mere €0.70 per additional megawatt hour. While the expansion of variable renewables alone would increase start-up costs, more flexible biomass power plants and additional power storage have counteracting effects. Yet changes in reserve provision and fuel prices increase start-up costs again. The relevance of start-up costs may grow further under continued renewable expansion, but could be mitigated by increasing system flexibility.

  2. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  3. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  4. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 4, Appendixes B-D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  5. Evaluation of a new multi-directional power toothbrush versus a marketed sonic toothbrush on plaque and gingivitis efficacy.

    PubMed

    Goyal, C Ram; Klukowska, Malgorzata; Grender, Julie M; Cunningham, Pam; Qaqish, Jimmy

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the plaque- and gingivitis-reducing efficacy of a newly developed multi-directional power toothbrush in comparison to a commercially-available sonic power toothbrush. Adult subjects with mild-to-moderate gingivitis were eligible for this 4-week, randomized and controlled, single-center, examiner-blinded, parallel group study. At baseline, plaque and gingivitis status was assessed with the Rustogi Modified Navy Plaque Index (RMNPI), Lobene Modified Gingival Index (MGI), and Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI). Subjects meeting all eligibility criteria were randomly assigned to one of two power toothbrushes: a novel multi-directional power toothbrush (Oral-B Professional Deep Sweep TRICLEAN 1000 also marketed as Oral-B TriZone) or the marketed sonic control toothbrush (Philips Sonicare Essence 5500). A single supervised brushing occurred onsite at baseline; thereafter toothbrushing was conducted twice daily at home in accordance with manufacturer instructions using the assigned power brush. At 4 weeks post-baseline, subjects returned for MGI, GBI, and RMNPI evaluations to determine the plaque and gingivitis efficacy of the respective brushes. All 130 subjects completing the trial were evaluable. Both the novel multi-directional power and sonic control brushes produced significant mean reductions in gingivitis, gingival bleeding and plaque (whole mouth and region-specific) at Week 4 in comparison to baseline (P < 0.001). The new multi-directional power brush performed statistically significantly better (P < or = 0.001) in all efficacy measures after 4 weeks ofbrushing, providing superior adjusted mean relative reduction benefits versus the sonic control brush of 48% for MGI, 52% for GBI, 26% for whole mouth RMNPI, 58% for gingival margin RMNPI plaque, and 33% for interproximal (approximal) RMNPI plaque. Both toothbrushes were well-tolerated.

  6. Inertial Fusion Energy's Role in Developing the Market for High Power Laser Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ladran, A L; Ault, E R; Beach, R J; Campbell, J H; Erlandson, A C; Felker, A J; Freitas, B L; Meier, W R; Telford, S; Ebbers, C A; Caird, J A; Barty, C J

    2007-11-29

    Production-cost models for high-power laser-diodes indicate systems of 10GW peak power coupled with facilitization of semi-conductor manufacturing capacity could yield costs below $0.02/Watt. This is sufficient to make IFE competitive with other nuclear power technologies.

  7. Consumer participation in power market balancing. A real-life step towards smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Per, Lund

    2014-09-01

    With the increasing role of wind and solar power, the power balance authorities are facing a big challenge: How to manage the increasing need for fast balancing power brought on by increased penetration of variable and difficult-to-forecast renewable generation? Could more active participation by the residential customers in managing electricity demand be a smart way to go?

  8. Market definition study of photovoltaic power for remote villages in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragsdale, C.; Quashie, P.

    1980-01-01

    The potential market of photovoltaic systems in remote village applications in developing countries is assessed. It is indicated that photovoltaic technology is cost-competitive with diesel generators in many remote village applications. The major barriers to development of this market are the limited financial resources on the part of developing countries, and lack of awareness of photovoltaics as a viable option in rural electrification. A comprehensive information, education and demonstration program should be established as soon as possible to convince the potential customer countries and the various financial institutions of the viability of photovoltaics as an electricity option for developing countries.

  9. Relationships between Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing program and hydropower operations at Salt Lake City area integrated projects

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Folga, S.; Poch, L.A.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum provides background information on the Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the physical characteristics of the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) hydropower plants, which include the Colorado River Storage Project, the Rio Grande Project, and the Collbran Project. In addition, the history, electrical capacity, storage capacity, and flow restrictions at each dam are presented. An overview of Western`s current programs and services, including a review of statutory authorities, agency discretion, and obligations, is also provided. The variability of SLCA/IP hourly generation under various alternative marketing strategies and purchasing programs is discussed. The effects of Western`s services, such as area load control, outage assistance, and transmission, on SLCA/IP power plant operations are analyzed.

  10. Integrated Simulation Development and Decision Support Tool-Set for Utility Market and Distributed Solar Power Generation Electricore, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Daye, Tony

    2013-09-30

    This project will enable utilities to develop long-term strategic plans that integrate high levels of renewable energy generation, and to better plan power system operations under high renewable penetration. The program developed forecast data streams for decision support and effective integration of centralized and distributed solar power generation in utility operations. This toolset focused on real time simulation of distributed power generation within utility grids with the emphasis on potential applications in day ahead (market) and real time (reliability) utility operations. The project team developed and demonstrated methodologies for quantifying the impact of distributed solar generation on core utility operations, identified protocols for internal data communication requirements, and worked with utility personnel to adapt the new distributed generation (DG) forecasts seamlessly within existing Load and Generation procedures through a sophisticated DMS. This project supported the objectives of the SunShot Initiative and SUNRISE by enabling core utility operations to enhance their simulation capability to analyze and prepare for the impacts of high penetrations of solar on the power grid. The impact of high penetration solar PV on utility operations is not only limited to control centers, but across many core operations. Benefits of an enhanced DMS using state-of-the-art solar forecast data were demonstrated within this project and have had an immediate direct operational cost savings for Energy Marketing for Day Ahead generation commitments, Real Time Operations, Load Forecasting (at an aggregate system level for Day Ahead), Demand Response, Long term Planning (asset management), Distribution Operations, and core ancillary services as required for balancing and reliability. This provided power system operators with the necessary tools and processes to operate the grid in a reliable manner under high renewable penetration.

  11. From Preconceived Perceptions to Purchasing Realities, Species Names Carry Powerful Marketing Images (an editorial)

    Treesearch

    Matt Bumgardner; Scott Bowe; Scott Bowe

    2002-01-01

    Hardwood product marketing has certainly evolved over the years. Twenty years ago, we promoted, hardwoods over softwoods, for their durability, strength and stature. Then we focused on solid wood products as better than engineered or veneered products. With the emergence of so many tropical substitutes, we focused on North American hardwoods as the right choice,...

  12. 18 CFR 284.504 - Standard requirements for market-power authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for Storage §...

  13. 18 CFR 284.504 - Standard requirements for market-power authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for Storage §...

  14. 18 CFR 284.504 - Standard requirements for market-power authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for Storage §...

  15. 18 CFR 284.504 - Standard requirements for market-power authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for Storage §...

  16. 18 CFR 284.504 - Standard requirements for market-power authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for Storage §...

  17. 75 FR 4805 - Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 61,039] Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the...,000 MWh of electricity per year) from the Commission's jurisdiction.\\3\\ However, section 201(b)(2... collect ``information about the availability and prices'' of natural gas and electricity sold at wholesale...

  18. Resource adequacy, capital adequacy and investment uncertainty in the Australian power market

    SciTech Connect

    Simshauser, Paul

    2010-01-15

    Ignoring the importance of capital markets risks overlooking one of the most fundamental drivers of investment and price in the utilities industry. While the worst effects of the financial crisis are beginning to subside, the residual fallout will be more than a passing fad for energy utilities. (author)

  19. Unleashing the Power of the 21st Century Community College: Maximizing Labor Market Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacAllum, Keith; Yoder, Karla; Poliakoff, Anne Rogers

    2004-01-01

    To help all community colleges unleash their potential for workforce and economic development, the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education sponsored the Community College Labor Market Responsiveness (CCLMR) Initiative. This project sought to develop and disseminate information and tools enabling colleges to keep pace…

  20. The power of pink: cause-related marketing and the impact on breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Jennifer A; Strahilevitz, Michal A

    2009-01-01

    The pink ribbon is one of the most widely recognized symbols in the United States. It can symbolize strength, hope, responsibility, empathy, and permission to discuss breast cancer, though not all associations are uniformly positive. Cause-related marketing is an agreement between nonprofit and for-profit organizations to promote a product that provides benefit for the cause through increasing awareness and financial contributions from sales. For-profit organizations benefit through the association of the positive ideology of the pink ribbon. The relationship between the organizations should be mutually beneficial; the percentage of funds donated should be reasonable, and the organizations that benefit should be respected institutions. Many breast cancer organizations have obtained significant benefit from corporate partnerships in cause-related marketing. Certainly, breast cancer awareness is much stronger now than 15 years ago. However, not all products are appropriate for promotion, particularly products that may increase the risk for breast cancer, such as alcohol. No corporation is licensed to have exclusive use of the pink ribbon symbol, leaving it open to potential abuse. Backlash by consumers has raised awareness of the misuse of the pink ribbon and cause-related marketing. As marketing becomes more global, the impact of the pink ribbon in the third world may spur open dialogue and reduce the taboo associated with breast cancer observed in some cultures.

  1. Powering Your Community With Solar: Overcoming Market and Implementation Barriers (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This document introduces the Energy Department's new Solarize Guidebook: A Community Guide to Collective Purchasing of Residential PV Systems. The guide is designed for 'green' consumers, utilities, local governments, and community groups who want to replicate the success of the Solarize Portland model, overcome barriers to implementation, and permanently transform the market for solar energy in their communities.

  2. Covered California: The Impact of Provider and Health Plan Market Power on Premiums.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Richard M; Kessell, Eric; Brandt, Margareta

    2015-12-01

    We explain the establishment of Covered California, California's health insurance marketplace. The marketplace uses an active purchaser model, which means that Covered California can selectively contract with some health plans and exclude others. During the 2014 open-enrollment period, it enrolled 1.3 million people, who are covered by eleven health plans. We describe the market shares of health plans in California and in each of the nineteen rating regions. We examine the empirical relationship between measures of provider market concentration--spanning health plans, hospitals, and medical groups--and rating region premiums. To do this, we analyze premiums for silver and bronze plans for specific age groups. We find both medical group concentration and hospital concentration to be positively associated with premiums, while health plan concentration is not statistically significant. We simulate the impact of reducing hospital concentration to levels that would exist in moderately competitive markets. This produces a predicted overall premium reduction of more than 2 percent. However, in three of the nineteen rating regions, the predicted premium reduction was more than 10 percent. These results suggest the importance of provider market concentration on premiums.

  3. Optimizing the Operation of Windfarms, Energy Storage and Flexible Loads in Modern Power Systems and Deregulated Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar, Zamiyad

    The amount of wind energy in power systems is increasing at a significant rate. With this increased penetration, there are certain problems associated with the operation of windfarms which need careful attention. In the operations side, the wake effects of upstream wind turbines on downstream wind turbines can cause a reduction in the total generated power of a windfarm. On the market side, the fluctuation of real-time prices can make the operation of windfarms less profitable. Similarly, the intermittent nature of wind power prevents the windfarms from participating in the day-ahead and forward markets. On the system side, the volatile nature of wind speeds is also an obstacle for windfarms to provide frequency regulation to the system. In this thesis, we address these issues and optimize the operation of windfarms in power systems and deregulated electricity markets. First, the total power generation in a windfarm is maximized by using yaw angle of wind turbines as a control variable. We extend the existing wake models to include the effects of yaw misalignment and wake deflection of wind turbines. A numerical study is performed to find the optimal values of induction factor and yaw misalignment angle of wind turbines in a single row of a windfarm for achieving the maximum total power with wake effects. The numerical study shows that the maximum power is achieved by keeping the induction factor close to 1/3 and only changing the yaw angle to deflect the wake. We then propose a Dynamic Programming Framework (DPF) to maximize the total power production of a windfarm using yaw angle as the control variable. We compare the windfarm efficiency achieved with our DPF with the efficiency values obtained through greedy control strategy and induction factor optimization. We also extend our expressions to a windfarm with multiple rows and columns of turbines and perform simulations on the 3x3 and 4x4 grid topologies. Our results show that the optimal induction factor for

  4. Restructuring and renewable energy developments in California:using Elfin to simulate the future California power market

    SciTech Connect

    Kirshner, Dan; Kito, Suzie; Marnay, Chris; Pickle, Steve; Schumacher, Katja; Sezgen,Osman; Wiser, Ryan

    1998-06-01

    We provide some basic background information on support for renewable in California on the expected operation of the power pool and bilateral markets, and on the three key policy types modeled here. We discuss the Elfin production cost and expansion planning model as well as key assumptions that we made to model the future California pool. We present results from the successful Elfin models runs. We discuss the implications of the study, as well as key areas for future research. Additional information on results, Elfin's expansion planning logic, and resource options can be found in the appendices.

  5. The value of improved wind power forecasting: Grid flexibility quantification, ramp capability analysis, and impacts of electricity market operation timescales

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Hongyu; Florita, Anthony R.; Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-11-11

    The value of improving wind power forecasting accuracy at different electricity market operation timescales was analyzed by simulating the IEEE 118-bus test system as modified to emulate the generation mixes of the Midcontinent, California, and New England independent system operator balancing authority areas. The wind power forecasting improvement methodology and error analysis for the data set were elaborated. Production cost simulation was conducted on the three emulated systems with a total of 480 scenarios, considering the impacts of different generation technologies, wind penetration levels, and wind power forecasting improvement timescales. The static operational flexibility of the three systems was compared through the diversity of generation mix, the percentage of must-run baseload generators, as well as the available ramp rate and the minimum generation levels. The dynamic operational flexibility was evaluated by the real-time upward and downward ramp capacity. Simulation results show that the generation resource mix plays a crucial role in evaluating the value of improved wind power forecasting at different timescales. In addition, the changes in annual operational electricity generation costs were mostly influenced by the dominant resource in the system. Lastly, the impacts of pumped-storage resources, generation ramp rates, and system minimum generation level requirements on the value of improved wind power forecasting were also analyzed.

  6. The value of improved wind power forecasting: Grid flexibility quantification, ramp capability analysis, and impacts of electricity market operation timescales

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Hongyu; Florita, Anthony R.; ...

    2016-11-11

    The value of improving wind power forecasting accuracy at different electricity market operation timescales was analyzed by simulating the IEEE 118-bus test system as modified to emulate the generation mixes of the Midcontinent, California, and New England independent system operator balancing authority areas. The wind power forecasting improvement methodology and error analysis for the data set were elaborated. Production cost simulation was conducted on the three emulated systems with a total of 480 scenarios, considering the impacts of different generation technologies, wind penetration levels, and wind power forecasting improvement timescales. The static operational flexibility of the three systems was comparedmore » through the diversity of generation mix, the percentage of must-run baseload generators, as well as the available ramp rate and the minimum generation levels. The dynamic operational flexibility was evaluated by the real-time upward and downward ramp capacity. Simulation results show that the generation resource mix plays a crucial role in evaluating the value of improved wind power forecasting at different timescales. In addition, the changes in annual operational electricity generation costs were mostly influenced by the dominant resource in the system. Lastly, the impacts of pumped-storage resources, generation ramp rates, and system minimum generation level requirements on the value of improved wind power forecasting were also analyzed.« less

  7. Solar Energy Technologies Program - Growing Solar Power Industry Brightens Job Market (Green Jobs)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-01

    U.S. solar power capacity is expanding rapidly as part of the national initiative to double renewable energy resources in three years. This growth is helping to generate many new, well-paid jobs in solar power for American workers.

  8. Using Rényi parameter to improve the predictive power of singular value decomposition entropy on stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jiaqi; Gu, Rongbao

    2016-04-01

    This paper generalizes the method of traditional singular value decomposition entropy by incorporating orders q of Rényi entropy. We analyze the predictive power of the entropy based on trajectory matrix using Shanghai Composite Index and Dow Jones Index data in both static test and dynamic test. In the static test on SCI, results of global granger causality tests all turn out to be significant regardless of orders selected. But this entropy fails to show much predictability in American stock market. In the dynamic test, we find that the predictive power can be significantly improved in SCI by our generalized method but not in DJI. This suggests that noises and errors affect SCI more frequently than DJI. In the end, results obtained using different length of sliding window also corroborate this finding.

  9. Efficient coal-based power generation in India: A market opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Gollakota, S.; Rao, N.; Staats, G.; Sinha, K.

    1998-07-01

    The planned addition of over 100,000 MW power generation capacity in India in the next 10 years will provide attractive business opportunities for independent power producers, engineering and consulting companies, and equipment manufacturers in the US. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is providing, through the US Department of Energy (DOE), necessary technical and project development support to the government stakeholders (Indian Ministries of Power and Coal) and private stakeholders (Ahmedabad Electric Co. and Bombay Suburban Electric Supply) for identifying and promoting advanced clean coal technologies. Implementation of advanced technologies improves electric power generation efficiency and economics, and environmental management in India (e.g., reduces emissions of greenhouse gases and particulates, and increases byproduct utilization). This paper presents a brief overview of the coal-based power generation and related technical support activities being provided in India by the DOE's Federal Energy Technology Center and its support contractor, Burns and Roe Services Corporation.

  10. A new approach to quantify power-law cross-correlation and its application to commodity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ling-Yun; Chen, Shu-Peng

    2011-10-01

    We proposed a new method: Detrended Moving-average Cross-correlation Analysis (DMCA) to detect the power-law cross-correlation between two correlated non-stationary time series by combining Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (DCCA) and Detrended Moving Average (DMA). In order to compare the performance of DMCA and DCCA in the detection of cross-correlation, and to estimate the influence of periodic trend, we generate two cross-correlated time series x(i) and y(i) by a periodic two-component fractionally autoregressive integrated moving average (ARFIMA) process. Then we apply both methods to quantify the cross-correlations of the generated series, whose theoretical values are already known to us. By comparing the results we obtained, we find that the performance of this new approach is comparable to DCCA with less calculating amounts; our method can also reduce the impact of trends; furthermore, DMCA (for background and forward moving average case) outperforms DCCA in more accurate estimation when the analyzed times series are short in length. To provide an example, we also apply this new method to the time series of the real-world data from Brent and WTI crude oil spot markets, to investigate the complex cross-market correlation between these commodity markets. In all, our method is another practical choice to detect the cross-correlation between two short period non-stationary time series, and has potential application to real world problems.

  11. Bus industry market study. Report -- Task 3.2: Fuel cell/battery powered bus system

    SciTech Connect

    Zalbowitz, M.

    1992-06-02

    In support of the commercialization of fuel cells for transportation, Georgetown University, as a part of the DOE/DOT Fuel Cell Transit Bus Program, conducted a market study to determine the inventory of passenger buses in service as of December, 1991, the number of buses delivered in 1991 and an estimate of the number of buses to be delivered in 1992. Short term and long term market projections of deliveries were also made. Data was collected according to type of bus and the field was divided into the following categories which are defined in the report: transit buses, school buses, commercial non-transit buses, and intercity buses. The findings of this study presented with various tables of data collected from identified sources as well as narrative analysis based upon interviews conducted during the survey.

  12. Participation of the Nuclear Power Plants in the New Brazilian Electric Energy Market

    SciTech Connect

    Mathias, S.G.

    2004-10-06

    A new regulation framework has been established for the Brazilian electric energy market by a law put into effect on March 15,2004. The main overall goals of this new regulation are: to allow the lowest possible tariffs for end users, while providing the necessary economic incentives for the operation of present installations (generating plants, transmission lines, distribution networks) and the expansion of the system; long-term planning of the extension of the installations required to meet the demand growth; separation of the generation, transmission and distribution activities by allocating them into different companies; new contracts between generating and distribution companies must result from bidding processes based on lowest-tariff criteria; and energy from new generating units required to meet the demand growth must be contracted by all distributing companies integrated to the National Interconnected Grid, in individual amounts proportional to their respective markets.

  13. Stay tuned next week. The power of social marketing: how Egypt learned about ORS.

    PubMed

    Eddy, D; Garb, G

    1986-01-01

    In Egypt, as in many other countries throughout the world, diarrhea is the number 1 killer of children under 2. The recent medical miracle responsible for battling diarrhea is nothing more than a simple solution of salts, sugar and water, commonly known as oral rehydration solution (ORS). In Egypt, the use of ORS saved an estimated 130,000 infants over a brief period of 2 years, and since 1980, deaths associated with diarrhea have been reduced by nearly 2/3 for children under 2. However, the lives saved in Egypt would not have been possible if mothers, pharmacists, doctors and nurses had not known about ORS and had not used the solution in the proper way at the proper time. The process of education Egyptians about ORS occurred due to the adaptation of commercial marketing methods for socially beneficial ends. The National Control of Diarrehal Diseases Project has managed to get the message out to mothers and medical professionals through a carefully planned communications strategy involving the coordinated use of mass media, market research, and evaluation; and relying on a multiplicity of channels that encompassed the Ministry of Health, medical professionals, the private sector and foreign technical assistants. This article outlines the ways in which social marketing was used to make this project a success.

  14. Electricity-market price and nuclear power plant shutdown: Evidence from California

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, C.K.; Ho, T.; Zarnikau, J.; Olson, A.; Jones, R.; Chait, M.; Horowitz, I.; Wang, J.

    2014-10-01

    Japan's Fukushima nuclear disaster, triggered by the March 11, 2011 earthquake, has led to calls for shutting down existing nuclear plants. To maintain resource adequacy for a grid's reliable operation, one option is to expand conventional generation, whose marginal unit is typically fueled by natural-gas. Two timely and relevant questions thus arise for a deregulated wholesale electricity market: (1) what is the likely price increase due to a nuclear plant shutdown? and (2) what can be done to mitigate the price increase? To answer these questions, we perform a regression analysis of a large sample of hourly real-time electricity-market price data from the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) for the 33-month sample period of April 2010-December 2012. Our analysis indicates that the 2013 shutdown of the state's San Onofre plant raised the CAISO real-time hourly market prices by $6/MWH to $9/MWH, and that the price increases could have been offset by a combination of demand reduction, increasing solar generation, and increasing wind generation.

  15. AUSTRALIAN COMPETITION AND CONSUMER COMMISSION v PFIZER: EVERGREENING AND MARKET POWER AS A BLOCKBUSTER DRUG GOES OFF PATENT.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    In Australian Competition and Consumer Commission v Pfizer Australia Pty Ltd [2015] FCA 113, the ACCC alleged that Pfizer's "Project LEAP" involved a scheme to lock pharmacists into substituting its generic version of the high sales volume anti-cholesterol drug, patent-expired atorvastatin (Lipitor), which took advantage of a substantial degree of market power for a purpose proscribed by s 46(1)(c) of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth). The ACCC also claimed that Pfizer's actions constituted a course of exclusive dealing pursuant to s 47(1)(d) and (e) for the proscribed purpose of lessening competition. Flick J in the Federal Court of Australia, in a judgment heavy with quotations but sparse in reasoning, dismissed the ACCC's Amended Originating Application alleging abuse of market power and ordered the ACCC to pay Pfizer's costs. The ACCC has now appealed the decision. This column explores this case in the context of Pfizer's broader strategies to preserve its income globally from this high sales volume drug in the period following its patent expiration.

  16. Making Markets in Long-Term Care: Or How a Market Can Work by Being Invisible.

    PubMed

    Grit, Kor; Zuiderent-Jerak, Teun

    2015-05-08

    Many Western countries have introduced market principles in healthcare. The newly introduced financial instrument of "care-intensity packages" in the Dutch long-term care sector fit this development since they have some characteristics of a market device. However, policy makers and care providers positioned these instruments as explicitly not belonging to the general trend of marketisation in healthcare. Using a qualitative case study approach, we study the work that the two providers have done to fit these instruments to their organisations and how that enables and legitimatises market development. Both providers have done various types of work that could be classified as market development, including creating accounting systems suitable for markets, redefining public values in the context of markets, and starting commercial initiatives. Paradoxically, denying the existence of markets for long-term care and thus avoiding ideological debates on the marketisation of healthcare has made the use of market devices all the more likely. Making the market invisible seems to be an operative element in making the market work. Our findings suggest that Dutch long-term care reform points to the need to study the 'making' rather than the 'liberalising' of markets and that the study of healthcare markets should not be confined to those practices that explicitly label themselves as such.

  17. 75 FR 23759 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power... technical conference to elicit input on issues pertaining to Frequency Regulation Compensation in the...

  18. Modeling the Impact of State and Federal Incentives on Concentrating Solar Power Market Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.; Short, W.; Mehos, M.

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents methodology and results from the Regional Energy Deployment System Model (ReEDS) examining the ability of concentrating solar power (CSP), other renewables, and electricity storage to contribute to the U.S. electric sector.

  19. The Long-Term Market Potential of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.

    2012-10-30

    This chapter will examine the conditions under which thermal CSP systems might play a large role in the global energy system. CSP technologies, such as troughs or power towers, have a large advantage over other solar technologies in that they offer the potential for firm power delivery, mitigating intermittency issues. These systems require relatively cloud-free conditions to operate, which limits their geographic applicability.

  20. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on utility demand-side management and conservation and renewable energy programs

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, J.D.; Germer, M.F.; Tompkins, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) requires all of its long-term firm power customers to implement programs that promote the conservation of electric energy or facilitate the use of renewable energy resources. Western has also proposed that all customers develop integrated resource plans that include cost-effective demand-side management programs. As part of the preparation of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) developed estimates of the reductions in energy demand resulting from Western`s conservation and renewable energy activities in its Salt Lake City Area Office. ANL has also estimated the energy-demand reductions from cost-effective, demand-side management programs that could be included in the integrated resource plans of the customers served by Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The results of this study have been used to adjust the expected hourly demand for Western`s major systems in the Salt Lake City Area. The expected hourly demand served as the basis for capacity expansion plans develops with ANL`s Production and Capacity Expansion (PACE) model.

  1. Re-insurance in the Swiss health insurance market: Fit, power, and balance.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Christian P R; Beck, Konstantin

    2016-07-01

    Risk equalization mechanisms mitigate insurers' incentives to practice risk selection. On the other hand, incentives to limit healthcare spending can be distorted by risk equalization, particularly when risk equalization payments depend on realized costs instead of expected costs. In addition, cost based risk equalization mechanisms may incentivize health insurers to distort the allocation of resources among different services. The incentives to practice risk selection, to limit healthcare spending, and to distort the allocation of resources can be measured by fit, power, and balance, respectively. We apply these three measures to evaluate the risk adjustment mechanism in Switzerland. Our results suggest that it performs very well in terms of power but rather poorly in terms of fit. The latter indicates that risk selection might be a severe problem. We show that re-insurance can reduce this problem while power remains on a high level. In addition, we provide evidence that the Swiss risk equalization mechanism does not lead to imbalances across different services.

  2. Non-private power aggregation: New markets for public-private partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, R.D.

    1998-07-01

    Motivated by needs to survive the twin thrusts of deregulation and privatization, the non-private sector is beginning to take the initiative in the energy aggregation field. Success in establishing public-private partnerships with it requires appreciation of the legal and also the institutional survival issues with which they are dealing. The results can be creative uses of municipal franchises, a renaissance of non profit power firms, and the continuing financial vitality of the seriously threatened and socially valuable not-for-profit public sector. From the perspective of private firms, aggregation by non-private firms can be a portal to response to the electric power deregulation revolution.

  3. Trajectories of concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) in market space based on comparisons with offshore wind power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutz, Ralf

    2012-10-01

    Concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) are for solar photovoltaics what offshore wind power is for wind power; this is the hypothesis of this work. In analogy to offshore wind cumulative global CPV installations of approximately 3-7 GW are predicted for the year 2020. Scenarios are based on paths for CPV following offshore wind in shape, but with a delay of ten years which is approximately the time lag the first larger offshore wind farms were built earlier than the first large CPV plants of 2011.

  4. Small, modular, low-cost coal-fired power plants for the international market

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.; Frain, B.; Borck, B.; Baldwin, A.L.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents recent operating results of Coal Tech`s second generation, air cooled, slagging coal combustor, and its application to power plants in the 1 to 20 MW range. This 20 MMBtu/hour combustor was installed in a new demonstration plant in Philadelphia, PA in 1995. It contains the combustion components of a 1 MWe coal fired power plant, a 17,500 lb/hour steam boiler, coal storage and feed components, and stack gas cleanup components. The plant`s design incorporates improvements resulting from 2,000 hours of testing between 1987 and 1993 on a first generation, commercial scale, air cooled combustor of equal thermal rating. Since operations began in early 1996, a total of 51 days of testing have been successfully completed. Major results include durability of the combustor`s refractory wall, excellent combustion with high ash concentration in the fuel, removal of 95% to 100% of the slag in the combustor, very little ash deposition in the boiler, major reduction of in-plant parasitic power, and simplified power system control through the use of modular designs of sub-systems and computer control. Rapid fuel switching between oil, gas, and coal and turndown of up to a factor of three was accomplished. All these features have been incorporated in advanced coal fired plant designs in the 1 to 20 MWe range. Incremental capital costs are only $100 to $200/kW higher than comparable rated gas or oil fired steam generating systems. Most of its components and subsystems can be factory assembled for very rapid field installation. The low capital, low operating costs, fuel flexibility, and compatibility with very high ash fuels, make this power system very attractive in regions of the world having domestic supplies of these fuels.

  5. A giant market and a powerful metabolism: L-lysine provided by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Eggeling, Lothar; Bott, Michael

    2015-04-01

    L-lysine is made in an exceptional large quantity of currently 2,200,000 tons/year and belongs therefore to one of the leading biotechnological products. Production is done almost exclusively with mutants of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The increasing L-lysine market forces companies to improve the production process fostering also a deeper understanding of the microbial physiology of C. glutamicum. Current major challenges are the identification of ancillary mutations not intuitively related with product increase. This review gives insights on how cellular characteristics enable to push the carbon flux in metabolism towards its theoretical maximum, and this example may also serve as a guide to achieve and increase the formation of other products of interest in microbial biotechnology.

  6. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  7. "The Heart Truth:" Using the Power of Branding and Social Marketing to Increase Awareness of Heart Disease in Women.

    PubMed

    Long, Terry; Taubenheim, Ann; Wayman, Jennifer; Temple, Sarah; Ruoff, Beth

    2008-03-01

    In September 2002, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute launched The Heart Truth, the first federally-sponsored national campaign aimed at increasing awareness among women about their risk of heart disease. A traditional social marketing approach, including an extensive formative research phase, was used to plan, implement, and evaluate the campaign. With the creation of the Red Dress as the national symbol for women and heart disease awareness, the campaign integrated a branding strategy into its social marketing framework. The aim was to develop and promote a women's heart disease brand that would create a strong emotional connection with women. The Red Dress brand has had a powerful appeal to a wide diversity of women and has given momentum to the campaign's three-part implementation strategy of partnership development, media relations, and community action. In addition to generating its own substantial programming, The Heart Truth became a catalyst for a host of other national and local educational initiatives, both large and small. By the campaign's fifth anniversary, surveys showed that women were increasingly aware of heart disease as their leading cause of death and that the rise in awareness was associated with increased action to reduce heart disease risk.

  8. Concentrating Solar Deployment System (CSDS) -- A New Model for Estimating U.S. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Market Potential: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.; Mehos, M.; Short, W.; Heimiller, D.

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents the Concentrating Solar Deployment System Model (CSDS). CSDS is a multiregional, multitime-period, Geographic Information System (GIS), and linear programming model of capacity expansion in the electric sector of the United States. CSDS is designed to address the principal market and policy issues related to the penetration of concentrating solar power (CSP) electric-sector technologies. This paper discusses the current structure, capabilities, and assumptions of the model. Additionally, results are presented for the impact of continued research and development (R&D) spending, an extension to the investment tax credit (ITC), and use of a production tax credit (PTC). CSDS is an extension of the Wind Deployment System (WinDS) model created at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). While WinDS examines issues related to wind, CSDS is an extension to analyze similar issues for CSP applications. Specifically, a detailed representation of parabolic trough systems with thermal storage has been developed within the existing structure.

  9. Commercialization of coal-fired diesel engines for cogeneration and non-utility power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Rao, K.; Benedek, K.R.; Itse, D.; Parkinson, J.; Kimberley, J.; Balles, E.N.; Benson, C.E.; Smith, C.

    1992-12-31

    The primary objective of this METC project is to established practical, durable components compatible with clean coal slurry fuel and capable of low emissions. The components will be integrated into a coal power system for a 100-hr proof-of-concept test. The goal of this program is to advance the stationary coal-fueled diesel engine to the next plateau of technological readiness, and thus provide the springboard to commercialization.

  10. Commercialization of coal-fired diesel engines for cogeneration and non-utility power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Rao, K.; Benedek, K.R.; Itse, D.; Parkinson, J.; Kimberley, J.; Balles, E.N.; Benson, C.E.; Smith, C.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of this METC project is to established practical, durable components compatible with clean coal slurry fuel and capable of low emissions. The components will be integrated into a coal power system for a 100-hr proof-of-concept test. The goal of this program is to advance the stationary coal-fueled diesel engine to the next plateau of technological readiness, and thus provide the springboard to commercialization.

  11. Re-Examining first principles of regulation: NRG power marketing, LLC v. Maine public utilities Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, Mark R.

    2010-03-15

    Maine PUC and Morgan Stanley have resolved some of the key issues facing the energy industry. The Supreme Court has plainly and directly in both cases reaffirmed the central role that private contracts play in the energy industry and set terms to balance the need to secure long-term investment with the public interest that lies at the heart of the Federal Power Act. (author)

  12. An explanation for the universal 3.5 power-law observed in currency markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nicholas A.; Johnson, Neil F.

    We present a mathematical theory to explain a recent empirical finding in the Physics literature (Zhao et al., 2013) in which the distributions of waiting-times between discrete events were found to exhibit power-law tails with an apparent universal exponent: α ∼ 3.5 . This new theory provides the first ever qualitative and quantitative explanation of Zhao et al.'s surprising finding. It also provides a mechanistic description of the origin of the observed universality, assigning its cause to the emergence of dynamical feedback processes between evolving clusters of like-minded agents.

  13. Emergence of power-law in a market with mixed models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Saif, M.; Gade, Prashant M.

    2007-10-01

    We investigate the problem of wealth distribution from the viewpoint of asset exchange. Robust nature of Pareto's law across economies, ideologies and nations suggests that this could be an outcome of trading strategies. However, the simple asset exchange models fail to reproduce this feature. A Yardsale (YS) model in which amount put on the bet is a fraction of minimum of the two players leads to condensation of wealth in hands of some agent while theft and fraud (TF) model in which the amount to be exchanged is a fraction of loser's wealth leads to an exponential distribution of wealth. We show that if we allow few agents to follow a different model than others, i.e., there are some agents following TF model while rest follow YS model, it leads to distribution with power-law tails. Similar effect is observed when one carries out transactions for a fraction of one's wealth using TF model and for the rest YS model is used. We also observe a power-law tail in wealth distribution if we allow the agents to follow either of the models with some probability.

  14. Market Powers Predict Reciprocal Grooming in Golden Snub-Nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song-Tao; Zhao, Da-Peng; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Kang; Li, Bao-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Social grooming is a common form of affiliative behavior in primates. Biological market theory suggests that grooming can be traded either for grooming or other social commodities and services. When no other services are exchanged, grooming is predicted to be approximately reciprocated within a dyad. In contrast, the amount of reciprocal grooming should decrease as other offered services increase. We studied grooming patterns between polygamous male and female in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) from the Qinling Mountains of central China and found that about 29.7% of grooming bouts were reciprocated. However, the durations of grooming bouts offered and returned was asymmetrical within dyads. In bisexual dyads, more grooming was initiated by females than males, which became more pronounced as the number of females per one-male unit increased. The rate of copulation per day for each female was positively correlated with the total duration of grooming time females invested in males.. Females without an infant (non-mothers) directed more grooming towards females with an infant (mothers) and were significantly more likely to be non-reciprocated. There was a significant negative relationship between non-mother and mother grooming duration and the rate of infants per female in each one-male unit. High-ranking females also received more grooming from low-ranking females than vice versa. The rate of food-related aggressive interactions was per day for low-ranking females was negatively correlated with the duration of grooming that low-ranking females gave to high-ranking females. Our results showed that grooming reciprocation in R. roxellana was discrepancy. This investment-reciprocity rate could be explained by the exchange of other social services in lieu of grooming. PMID:22590611

  15. Environmental implications of carbon limits on market penetration of combined heat and power with the U.S. energy sector (Slides)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined heat and power (CHP) is promoted as an economical, energy-efficient option for combating climate change. To fully examine the viability of CHP as a clean-technology solution, its market potential and impacts need to be analyzed as part of scenarios of the future energy s...

  16. Environmental implications of carbon limits on market penetration of combined heat and power with the U.S. energy sector (Slides)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined heat and power (CHP) is promoted as an economical, energy-efficient option for combating climate change. To fully examine the viability of CHP as a clean-technology solution, its market potential and impacts need to be analyzed as part of scenarios of the future energy s...

  17. The Environmental implications of carbon limits on market penetration of combined heat and power with the U.S. energy sector

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined heat and power (CHP) is promoted as an economical, energy-efficient option for combating climate change. To fully examine the viability of CHP as a clean-technology solution, its market potential and impacts need to be analyzed as part of scenarios of the future energy s...

  18. Architectural innovation foresight of thermoelectric generator charger integrated portable power supply for portable consumer electronic device in metropolitan market: The case study of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maolikul, S.; Kiatgamolchai, S.; Chavarnakul, T.

    2012-06-01

    In the context of information and communication technology (ICT) trend for worldwide individuals, social life becomes digital and portable consumer electronic devices (PCED) powered by conventional power supply from batteries have been evolving through miniaturization and various function integration. Thermoelectric generators (TEG) were hypothesized for its potential role of battery charger to serve the shining PCED market. Hence, this paper, mainly focusing at the metropolitan market in Thailand, aimed to conduct architectural innovation foresight and to develop scenarios on potential exploitation approach of PCED battery power supply with TEG charger converting power from ambient heat source adjacent to individual's daily life. After technical review and assessment for TEG potential and battery aspect, the business research was conducted to analyze PCED consumer behavior for their PCED utilization pattern, power supply lack problems, and encountering heat sources/sinks in 3 modes: daily life, work, and leisure hobbies. Based on the secondary data analysis from literature and National Statistical Office of Thailand, quantitative analysis was applied using the cluster probability sampling methodology, statistically, with the sample size of 400 at 0.05 level of significance. In addition, the qualitative analysis was conducted to emphasize the rationale of consumer's behavior using in-depth qualitative interview. Scenario planning technique was also used to generate technological and market trend foresight. Innovation field and potential scenario for matching technology with market was proposed in this paper. The ingredient for successful commercialization of battery power supply with TEG charger for PCED market consists of 5 factors as follows: (1) PCED characteristic, (2) potential ambient heat sources/sinks, (3) battery module, (4) power management module, and the final jigsaw (5) characteristic and adequate arrangement of TEG modules. The foresight outcome for

  19. U.S. Renewable Electricity Market

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The US green energy market is broken up into two main groups: the mandatory markets including state Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and voluntary markets, also referred to as green power markets.  This page delineates this two markets.

  20. Creating markets for captured carbon: Retrofit of Abbott Power Plant and Future Utilization of Captured CO2

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Kevin C.; Lu, Yongqi; Patel, Vinod; Greenberg, Sallie; Locke, Randall; Larson, Michael; Krishnamurthy, Krish R.; Byron, Makini; Naumovitz, Joseph; Guth, David S.; Bennett, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    The successful implementation of CCUS requires the confluence of technology, regulatory, and financial factors. One of the factors that impact this confluence is the ability to utilize and monetize captured CO2. The generally accepted utilization approach has been CO2-based Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), yet this is not always feasible and/or a preferable approach. There is a need to be able to explore a multitude of utilization approaches in order to identify a portfolio of potential utilization mechanisms. This portfolio must be adapted based on the economy of the region. In response to this need, the University of Illinois has formed a Carbon Dioxide Utilization and Reduction (COOULR) Center. The open nature of the university, coupled with a university policy to reduce CO2 emissions, provides a model for the issues communities will face when attempting to reduce emissions while still maintaining reliable and affordable power. This Center is one of the key steps in the formation of a market for captured CO2. Furthermore, the goal of the Center is to not only evaluate technologies, but also demonstrate at a large pilot scale how communities may be able to adjust to the need to reduce GHG emissions.

  1. Creating markets for captured carbon: Retrofit of Abbott Power Plant and Future Utilization of Captured CO2

    DOE PAGES

    O'Brien, Kevin C.; Lu, Yongqi; Patel, Vinod; ...

    2017-01-01

    The successful implementation of CCUS requires the confluence of technology, regulatory, and financial factors. One of the factors that impact this confluence is the ability to utilize and monetize captured CO2. The generally accepted utilization approach has been CO2-based Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), yet this is not always feasible and/or a preferable approach. There is a need to be able to explore a multitude of utilization approaches in order to identify a portfolio of potential utilization mechanisms. This portfolio must be adapted based on the economy of the region. In response to this need, the University of Illinois has formedmore » a Carbon Dioxide Utilization and Reduction (COOULR) Center. The open nature of the university, coupled with a university policy to reduce CO2 emissions, provides a model for the issues communities will face when attempting to reduce emissions while still maintaining reliable and affordable power. This Center is one of the key steps in the formation of a market for captured CO2. Furthermore, the goal of the Center is to not only evaluate technologies, but also demonstrate at a large pilot scale how communities may be able to adjust to the need to reduce GHG emissions.« less

  2. An Empirical Analysis of a Dominant Firm’s Market Power in a Restructured Electricity Market, A Case Study of Colorado

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    supply curve slopes downward, average cost is always higher than marginal cost. As a result of pricing based on average total cost, prices under...is commonly called a load duration curve (figure 30). In a load duration curve , hourly load data is sorted from largest load ( peak demand) to...revenue from electricity sales to - all retail customers, cents/kWh, by state, 199 5 2 0 6. Supply curve for generation 23 7. Competitive market

  3. Market trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A very large segment of the over water, long haul passenger market, 31% of the passengers who provide 42% of the passenger revenue, offers a significant market for an advanced supersonic transport. This is for both the first class and full-fare economy passenger markets. The supersonic transport may be more competitive here in spite of lower costs of subsonic transports, as passenger preference is a more powerful variable than DOC. This latter fact was amply demonstrated in the late fifties when the jets completely replaced the reciprocating engine transports on most world routes, in spite of slightly higher fares.

  4. 77 FR 68768 - Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal... Commission Meeting Room at 888 First Street NE., Washington, DC 20426. \\1\\ Electricity Market...

  5. Clean Restructuring: Design Elements for Low-Carbon Wholesale Markets and Beyond. A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Monisha; Valenzuela, Jose Maria; Mora, Hector Alejandro Beltran; Moller Porst, Kim; Hasselager, Anders; Friis-Jensen, Sandra; Vingaard, Mette; Wigand, Fabian; Tiedemann, Silvana; Bird, Lori; Zinaman, Owen; Logan, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    Countries around the world are in various stages of reforming and restructuring their power systems to better meet development needs and decarbonization commitments. Changes in technology, business models, societal needs, and environmental goals are increasing pressure on countries to consider improvements to their power systems. This report addresses key issues associated with clean restructuring--the transition from traditional, vertically integrated utilities to competitive wholesale markets that rely increasingly on variable renewable electricity sources, demand response, and other clean energy options. The report also includes case studies from Mexico, Denmark, and Germany to provide real-world examples of clean restructuring from different perspectives.

  6. An optimization-based approach for facility energy management with uncertainties, and, Power portfolio optimization in deregulated electricity markets with risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun

    Topic 1. An Optimization-Based Approach for Facility Energy Management with Uncertainties. Effective energy management for facilities is becoming increasingly important in view of the rising energy costs, the government mandate on the reduction of energy consumption, and the human comfort requirements. This part of dissertation presents a daily energy management formulation and the corresponding solution methodology for HVAC systems. The problem is to minimize the energy and demand costs through the control of HVAC units while satisfying human comfort, system dynamics, load limit constraints, and other requirements. The problem is difficult in view of the fact that the system is nonlinear, time-varying, building-dependent, and uncertain; and that the direct control of a large number of HVAC components is difficult. In this work, HVAC setpoints are the control variables developed on top of a Direct Digital Control (DDC) system. A method that combines Lagrangian relaxation, neural networks, stochastic dynamic programming, and heuristics is developed to predict the system dynamics and uncontrollable load, and to optimize the setpoints. Numerical testing and prototype implementation results show that our method can effectively reduce total costs, manage uncertainties, and shed the load, is computationally efficient. Furthermore, it is significantly better than existing methods. Topic 2. Power Portfolio Optimization in Deregulated Electricity Markets with Risk Management. In a deregulated electric power system, multiple markets of different time scales exist with various power supply instruments. A load serving entity (LSE) has multiple choices from these instruments to meet its load obligations. In view of the large amount of power involved, the complex market structure, risks in such volatile markets, stringent constraints to be satisfied, and the long time horizon, a power portfolio optimization problem is of critical importance but difficulty for an LSE to serve the

  7. Is trade liberalisation a vector for the spread of sugar-sweetened beverages? A cross-national longitudinal analysis of 44 low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Mendez Lopez, Ana; Loopstra, Rachel; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2017-01-01

    Does trade and investment liberalisation increase the growth in sales of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)? Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we test this hypothesis using a unique data source on SSB-specific trade flows. We test whether lower tariffs effectively increase imports of SSBs, and whether a higher level of imports increase sales of SSBs. Cross-national fixed effects models were used to evaluate the association between SSBs sales and trade liberalisation. SSBs per capita sales data were taken from EuroMonitor, covering 44 low- and middle-income countries from 2001 to 2014, SSBs import data were from TradeMap, Foreign Direct Investment data were from EuroMonitor, and data on applied tariffs on SSB from the World Trade Organisation tariffs database, all 2015 editions. The results show that higher tariffs on SSBs significantly decreased per capita SSB imports. Each one percent increase in tariffs was associated with a 2.9% (95% CI: 0.9%-5%) decrease in imports of SSBs. In turn, increased imports of SSBs were significantly associated with greater sales of SSBs per capita, with each 10 percent increase in imports (in US$) associated with a rise in sales of 0.36 L per person (95% CI: 0.08-0.68). Between 2001 and 2014, this amounted to 9.1 L greater sales per capita, about 40% of the overall rise seen in this period in LMICs. We observed that tariffs were inversely but not significantly associated with sales of SSBs. In conclusion, lower tariffs substantially increased imports of SSBs in LMICs, which translated into greater sales. These findings suggest that trade policies which lower tariff barriers to SSB imports can be expected to lead to increased imports and then increased sales of SSBs in LMICs, with adverse consequences for obesity and the diseases that result from it. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. An economic analysis of space solar power and its cost competitiveness as a supplemental source of energy for space and ground markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, N. I.

    2002-01-01

    Economic Growth has been historically associated with nations that first made use of each new energy source. There is no doubt that Solar Power Satellites is high as a potential energy system for the future. A conceptual cost model of the economics value of space solar power (SSP) as a source of complementary power for in-space and ground applications will be discussed. Several financial analysis will be offered based on present and new technological innovations that may compete with or be complementary to present energy market suppliers depending on various institutional arrangements for government and the private sector in a Global Economy. Any of the systems based on fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and synthetic fuels share the problem of being finite resources and are subject to ever-increasing cost as they grow ever more scarce with drastic increase in world population. Increasing world population and requirements from emerging underdeveloped countries will also increase overall demand. This paper would compare the future value of SSP with that of other terrestrial renewable energy in distinct geographic markets within the US, in developing countries, Europe, Asia, and Eastern Europe.

  9. An economic analysis of space solar power and its cost competitiveness as a supplemental source of energy for space and ground markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, N. I.

    2002-01-01

    Economic Growth has been historically associated with nations that first made use of each new energy source. There is no doubt that Solar Power Satellites is high as a potential energy system for the future. A conceptual cost model of the economics value of space solar power (SSP) as a source of complementary power for in-space and ground applications will be discussed. Several financial analysis will be offered based on present and new technological innovations that may compete with or be complementary to present energy market suppliers depending on various institutional arrangements for government and the private sector in a Global Economy. Any of the systems based on fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and synthetic fuels share the problem of being finite resources and are subject to ever-increasing cost as they grow ever more scarce with drastic increase in world population. Increasing world population and requirements from emerging underdeveloped countries will also increase overall demand. This paper would compare the future value of SSP with that of other terrestrial renewable energy in distinct geographic markets within the US, in developing countries, Europe, Asia, and Eastern Europe.

  10. Final Technical Report for Contract No. DE-EE0006332, "Integrated Simulation Development and Decision Support Tool-Set for Utility Market and Distributed Solar Power Generation"

    SciTech Connect

    Cormier, Dallas; Edra, Sherwin; Espinoza, Michael; Daye, Tony; Kostylev, Vladimir; Pavlovski, Alexandre; Jelen, Deborah

    2014-12-29

    This project will enable utilities to develop long-term strategic plans that integrate high levels of renewable energy generation, and to better plan power system operations under high renewable penetration. The program developed forecast data streams for decision support and effective integration of centralized and distributed solar power generation in utility operations. This toolset focused on real time simulation of distributed power generation within utility grids with the emphasis on potential applications in day ahead (market) and real time (reliability) utility operations. The project team developed and demonstrated methodologies for quantifying the impact of distributed solar generation on core utility operations, identified protocols for internal data communication requirements, and worked with utility personnel to adapt the new distributed generation (DG) forecasts seamlessly within existing Load and Generation procedures through a sophisticated DMS. This project supported the objectives of the SunShot Initiative and SUNRISE by enabling core utility operations to enhance their simulation capability to analyze and prepare for the impacts of high penetrations of solar on the power grid. The impact of high penetration solar PV on utility operations is not only limited to control centers, but across many core operations. Benefits of an enhanced DMS using state-of-the-art solar forecast data were demonstrated within this project and have had an immediate direct operational cost savings for Energy Marketing for Day Ahead generation commitments, Real Time Operations, Load Forecasting (at an aggregate system level for Day Ahead), Demand Response, Long term Planning (asset management), Distribution Operations, and core ancillary services as required for balancing and reliability. This provided power system operators with the necessary tools and processes to operate the grid in a reliable manner under high renewable penetration.

  11. Changes in the volume, power and nutritional quality of foods marketed to children on television in Canada.

    PubMed

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Martin, Cherie L; Kent, Emily A

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the self-regulatory Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative pre- and post-implementation in terms of volume of marketing, marketing techniques, and nutritional quality of foods marketed to children on television. Data for 11 food categories for May 2006 and 2011 were purchased from Nielsen Media Research for two children's specialty channels in Toronto. A content analysis of food advertisements examining the volume and marketing techniques was undertaken. Nutritional information on each advertisement was collected and comparisons were made between 2006 and 2011. The volume of ads aired by Canadian Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CAI) companies on children's specialty channels decreased by 24% between 2006 and 2011; however, children and teens were targeted significantly more, and spokes-characters and licensed characters were used more frequently in 2011 compared to 2006. The overall nutritional quality of CAI advertisements remains unchanged between 2006 and 2011. There are clear weaknesses in the self-regulatory system in Canada. Food advertising needs to be regulated to protect the health of Canadian children. © 2014 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  12. Changes in the volume, power and nutritional quality of foods marketed to children on television in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Martin, Cherie L; Kent, Emily A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the self-regulatory Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative pre- and post-implementation in terms of volume of marketing, marketing techniques, and nutritional quality of foods marketed to children on television. Methods Data for 11 food categories for May 2006 and 2011 were purchased from Nielsen Media Research for two children's specialty channels in Toronto. A content analysis of food advertisements examining the volume and marketing techniques was undertaken. Nutritional information on each advertisement was collected and comparisons were made between 2006 and 2011. Results The volume of ads aired by Canadian Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CAI) companies on children's specialty channels decreased by 24% between 2006 and 2011; however, children and teens were targeted significantly more, and spokes-characters and licensed characters were used more frequently in 2011 compared to 2006. The overall nutritional quality of CAI advertisements remains unchanged between 2006 and 2011. Conclusion There are clear weaknesses in the self-regulatory system in Canada. Food advertising needs to be regulated to protect the health of Canadian children. PMID:24975614

  13. The Power of Positional Competition and Market Mechanism: A Case Study of Recent Parental Choice Development in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoxin

    2008-01-01

    The positional competition reflected in the current parental choice fever in China is highlighted by the introduction of market mechanisms: buying houses near preferred schools, paying choice fees or co-founding fees, giving donations and spending money on spare time training classes, etc. All of these work effectively together with the…

  14. The Power of Positional Competition and Market Mechanism: A Case Study of Recent Parental Choice Development in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoxin

    2008-01-01

    The positional competition reflected in the current parental choice fever in China is highlighted by the introduction of market mechanisms: buying houses near preferred schools, paying choice fees or co-founding fees, giving donations and spending money on spare time training classes, etc. All of these work effectively together with the…

  15. A 12-week clinical comparison of an oscillating-rotating power brush versus a marketed sonic brush with self-adjusting technology in reducing plaque and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Klukowska, Malgorzata; Grender, Julie M; Conde, Erinn; Goyal, C Ram

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the comparative gingivitis and plaque reduction efficacy of a leading oscillating-rotating power toothbrush and a recently introduced sonic toothbrush in adults with gingivitis. This was a 12-week, randomized and controlled, parallel group, examiner-blind, single-center clinical study of 130 adults with pre-existing gingivitis and plaque. At baseline, the Modified Gingival Index (MGI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), and total number of bleeding sites were assessed, along with plaque levels (whole mouth, gingival margin, and interproximal) via the Rustogi Modified Navy Plaque Index (RMNPI). Qualified subjects were randomly assigned to one of two power toothbrush test groups: the Oral-B Triumph with SmartGuide (marketed in the United States as the Oral-B Professional Care SmartSeries 5000 [D34]) oscillating-rotating brush, or the Colgate ProClinical A1500 (also marketed as elmex ProClinical) sonic brush. Subjects brushed at home for two minutes twice daily with their assigned power toothbrush and a marketed sodium fluoride dentifrice, and were reevaluated for gingivitis at Week 4 and Week 12 via the MGI, GBI, and total number of bleeding sites, and for plaque reduction via the RMNPI. Ninety-seven percent (97%) of the 130 enrolled subjects completed the trial and 62 and 65 subjects in the oscillating-rotating and sonic brush groups, respectively, had evaluable data for analysis. Statistically significant mean reductions in all three gingivitis parameters and plaque relative to baseline were seen at both Weeks 4 and 12 with unsupervised use of both test toothbrushes (p < 0.001). The oscillating-rotating power brush provided statistically significantly superior reductions compared to the sonic brush in mean adjusted MGI (31% and 29% at Weeks 4 and 12, respectively; p < 0.001), GBI (17% at Week 12; p = 0.047), and total number of bleeding sites (48% and 30% at Weeks 4 and 12, respectively; p = 0.002), and produced statistically

  16. Waste-Heat-to-Power Market in the U.S., Heat is Power Annual Meeting (Presentation) – August 15, 2012

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation provides information about the EPA CHP Partnership, including an overview of the Partnership's tools and resources, and policy support. The presentation also describes the potential of Waste Heat to Power (WHP) systems.

  17. Marketing percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenberg, J.; Libai, B.; Solomon, S.; Jan, N.; Stauffer, D.

    2000-09-01

    A percolation model is presented, with computer simulations for illustrations, to show how the sales of a new product may penetrate the consumer market. We review the traditional approach in the marketing literature, which is based on differential or difference equations similar to the logistic equation (Bass, Manage. Sci. 15 (1969) 215). This mean-field approach is contrasted with the discrete percolation on a lattice, with simulations of "social percolation" (Solomon et al., Physica A 277 (2000) 239) in two to five dimensions giving power laws instead of exponential growth, and strong fluctuations right at the percolation threshold.

  18. 77 FR 5008 - Solios Power Mid-Atlantic Virtual LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Solios Power Mid-Atlantic Virtual LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Solios Power Mid-Atlantic Virtual LLC's application...

  19. 77 FR 33210 - EDF Industrial Power Services (CA), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission EDF Industrial Power Services (CA), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of EDF Industrial Power Services (CA), LLC's application for... request for blanket authorization, under 18 CFR part 34, of future issuances of securities and assumptions...

  20. Acquiring competitive power supplies in the new restructured electricity markets -- Aggregation opportunities, choosing the right supplier, and negotiating contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, K.L.

    1999-07-01

    While demand-side and energy efficiency measures conventionally bring more substantive cost savings than procuring competitive energy supplies, the new opportunity to create added electricity savings has been gaining momentum as deregulated electricity markets mature from their infancy to adolescence. As these markets evolve, more and more small and medium sized facilities are being approached by new entrants to switch electricity providers. Many of these new providers seem to have come from nowhere, while other don't seem any different than the current utility. Managers struggle to find an easy way to validate the claims and promises that often seem too good to be true; no matter how much assistance the incumbent utility offers. This paper will discuss the impact of Customer Choice for electricity as a commodity and will present the key issues that energy decisionmakers will contend with when deciding whether or not to switch. It will also address critical elements vital to contract negotiations that will protect a business' financial risk in the new deregulated market.