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Sample records for liberdade lei natural

  1. Cell scientist to watch - Lei Stanley Qi.

    PubMed

    Bobrowska, Anna

    2016-01-15

    Originally from China, Lei (Stanley) Qi obtained his first degree in physics and mathematics at the Tsinghua University. He then moved to University of California, Berkeley, where he graduated with an MA in physics and worked in the laboratory of Steven Chu, Noble Laureate in Physics (1997), before switching fields to pursue a PhD in bioengineering in the laboratories of Adam Arkin and Jennifer Doudna. Stanley's work earned him the National Institutes of Health Director's Early Independence Award, which allowed him to start his own laboratory at the University of California, San Francisco, as a Systems Biology Fellow without a postdoctoral training period. In 2014, he moved to Stanford, where he is now Assistant Professor at the Department of Bioengineering and of Chemical and Systems Biology, and is affiliated with Stanford Chemistry, Engineering and Medicine for Human Health (ChEM-H). He invented the use of the CRISPR-dCas9 system for transcriptional modulation and genome imaging. His current research is focused on developing new tools and technologies for genome editing and transcriptional modulation, manipulating molecular networks to understand fundamental principles of biology and engineering cells to exhibit desired behaviors, such as teaching immune cells to recognise and eliminate cancers.

  2. Cell scientist to watch - Lei Stanley Qi.

    PubMed

    Bobrowska, Anna

    2016-01-15

    Originally from China, Lei (Stanley) Qi obtained his first degree in physics and mathematics at the Tsinghua University. He then moved to University of California, Berkeley, where he graduated with an MA in physics and worked in the laboratory of Steven Chu, Noble Laureate in Physics (1997), before switching fields to pursue a PhD in bioengineering in the laboratories of Adam Arkin and Jennifer Doudna. Stanley's work earned him the National Institutes of Health Director's Early Independence Award, which allowed him to start his own laboratory at the University of California, San Francisco, as a Systems Biology Fellow without a postdoctoral training period. In 2014, he moved to Stanford, where he is now Assistant Professor at the Department of Bioengineering and of Chemical and Systems Biology, and is affiliated with Stanford Chemistry, Engineering and Medicine for Human Health (ChEM-H). He invented the use of the CRISPR-dCas9 system for transcriptional modulation and genome imaging. His current research is focused on developing new tools and technologies for genome editing and transcriptional modulation, manipulating molecular networks to understand fundamental principles of biology and engineering cells to exhibit desired behaviors, such as teaching immune cells to recognise and eliminate cancers. PMID:26773006

  3. Ligand Efficiency Indices (LEIs): More than a Simple Efficiency Yardstick.

    PubMed

    Abad-Zapatero, Cele; Blasi, Daniel

    2011-03-14

    The concept of ligand efficiency and the usage of ligand efficiency values to assess the quality of fragments and compounds is becoming more accepted in the practice of medicinal chemistry. This is particularly true as it refers to the efficiency of ligands per unit size (i.e., binding affinity/number of non-hydrogen atoms or binding affinity/MW). The use of the Ligand Efficiency Indices (LEIs) as variables for a Cartesian mapping of chemico-biological space, the concept of AtlasCBS, has been presented in a recent publication with some initial drug-discovery applications. In this communication, we present additional applications of the concept in three domains of drug discovery: i) analyze and compare the content of databases: inhibitors vs. drugs; ii) polypharmacology; and iii) applications to Fragment-Based strategies. We suggest that the combined use of LEIs in a Cartesian representation of Chemico-Biological Space (AtlasCBS) could be a useful tool in various aspects of drug-discovery in the future.

  4. Preliminary discussion on the origin of Lei-gong-mo (tektites)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baoyin, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The specimens of lei-gong-mo (tektites) were collected from Hainan Island and Leizhow Peninsula during the period from 1963 to 1975. The distribution, forms, sculpture, abration surface (bald spot), internal structure and chemical composition of lei-gong-mo are discussed. Studies of these materials lead to the following conclusions: (1) the specimens of lei-gong-mo can be morphologically divided into eight types; (2) the sculptures on the surface of lei-gong-mo are probably due to the corrosion effect of volcanic gas, and the abration surface due to the aerodynamic corrosion; (3) the folded structures in the layered lei-gong-mo (Muong Nong-type tektite) seem hardly to be formed by an impact of meteorites, but they might be produced in the magma flow process when the lei-gong-mo was melting within the crater vent; and (4) the comparison of its chemical composition with that of basalt from Hainan Island does not show that lei-gong-mo came from the local volcano. The hypothesis of the lunar volcanic origin of tektites is examined.

  5. Using MicroLEIS DSS to evaluate climate change impacts on land suitability in Andalusia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh; Anaya-Romero, María; Jordán, Antonio; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; de la Rosa, Diego

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the effects of climate change on land suitability for crop production has become an important issue with respect to food security in areas undergoing increasing population sizes. Land suitability for six common Mediterranean crops was evaluated under current conditions and future climate change scenario. This evaluation was performed using the Agro-ecological Decision Support System Micro LEIS (MicroLEIS DSS) through the application of Terraza and Cervatana models. Terraza model provides an experimental prediction for the bioclimatic deficiency in the 62 natural regions that represent the Andalusia region. This model is dependent on current climate data, future climate change scenario data, and crop response data including coefficient of photosynthetic efficacy (Kc), coefficient of efficiency (Ky), and soil water retention. Alternatively, the Cervatana model is used to estimate agricultural land use capability under different soil types. Soil morphological and analytical data were collected from SEISnet data base representative of the natural region (NUTS 2) of Andalusia by 62 soil profiles. Agro-climatic data, referred to temperature and precipitation were obtained from the CDBm-Andalusia database, which contains monthly average values of climate variables: mean temperature, maximum and minimum rainfall, number of days of rain and humidity, collected during a consecutive period of 30 years (1960-1990), that represent the current climate scenario. Future climate is represented under A1B scenario for theperiods 2040, 2070 and 2100. These scenarios have been calculated using climate change variation values from the State Meteorological Agency (AEMET, 2011). The results of the Cervatana model depends on Terraza output results (e.g. water deficit class and the risk of frost class) and other land properties including soil factors, slope factors, and erosion risk factors. In order to spatialize the evaluation data, both models were incorporated into a

  6. Comparing simulated carbon budget of a Lei bamboo forest with flux tower data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Xuehe; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Jinxun; Sun, Cheng; Wang, Ying; Jin, Jiaxin

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo forest ecosystem is the part of the forest ecosystem. The distribution area of bamboo forest is limited, but in somewhere, like south China, it has been cultivate for a long time with human management. As the climate change has been take great effect on forest carbon budget, many researchers pay attention to the carbon budget in bamboo forest. Moreover cultivative management had a significant impact on the bamboo forest carbon budget. In this study, we modified a terrestrial ecosystem model named Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) according the management of Lei bamboo forest. Some management, like fertilization, shoots harvesting and organic mulching in winter, had been incorporated into model. Then we had compared model results with the observation data from a Lei bamboo flux tower. The simulated and observed results had achieved good consistency. Our simulated Lei bamboo forest yearly net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was 0.41 kgC a-1 of carbon, which is very close to the observation data 0.45 kgC a-1 of carbon. And the monthly simulated results can take the change of carbon budget in each month, similar to the data we got from flux tower. It reflects that the modified IBIS model can characterize the growth of bamboo forest and perform the simulation well. And then two groups of simulations were set to evaluate effects of cultivative managements on Lei bamboo forests carbon budget. And results showed that both fertilization and organic mulching had taken positive effects on Lei bamboo forests carbon sequestration.

  7. Apoptosis induced by Na+/H+ antiport inhibition activates the LEI/L-DNase II pathway.

    PubMed

    Altairac, S; Zeggai, S; Perani, P; Courtois, Y; Torriglia, A

    2003-05-01

    L-DNase II is derived from its precursor leucocyte elastase inhibitor (LEI) by post-translational modification. In vitro, the conversion of LEI into L-DNase II can be induced by incubation of LEI at an acidic pH. In this study, we proposed to analyze the effects of intracellular acidification on this transformation. Amiloride derivatives, like hexamethylene amiloride (HMA), are known to provoke a decrease of cytosolic pH by inhibiting the Na(+)/H(+) antiport. In BHK cells, treatment with HMA-induced apoptosis accompanied by an increase in L-DNase II immunoreactivity and L-DNase II enzymatic activity. Overexpression of L-DNase II precursor led to a significant increase of apoptosis in these cells supporting the involvement of L-DNase II in HMA induced apoptosis. As previously shown in other cells, etoposide-induced apoptosis did not activate L-DNase. On the contrary, LEI overexpression significantly increased cell survival in etoposide-induced apoptosis. Together these results suggest differential roles of LEI and L-DNase II in response to different types of apoptotic inducers.

  8. 76 FR 60815 - Final Legislative Environmental Impact Statement (LEIS) for the Limestone Hills Training Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Department of the Army Final Legislative Environmental Impact Statement (LEIS) for the Limestone Hills Training Area Land Withdrawal, Montana Army National Guard (MTARNG) AGENCY: National Guard Bureau (NGB), Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This announces the availability of...

  9. A caspase-independent cell clearance program. The LEI/L-DNase II pathway.

    PubMed

    Torriglia, A; Perani, P; Brossas, J Y; Altairac, S; Zeggai, S; Martin, E; Tréton, J; Courtois, Y; Counis, M F

    2000-01-01

    The discovery of caspase-mitochondrial pathway counts as one of the most important discovery in apoptosis biochemistry. Today, however, we begin to recognize its limits. Inhibition of caspase does not prevent cell death in many mammalian models. Targeted disruption of caspases does not impair every type of apoptosis. Other pathways, caspase independent, are now described. Here we present one of these pathways. It is a serine-protease dependent pathway and its key event is the transformation of LEI (a serine protease inhibitor) into L-DNase II (an endonuclease). When using this apoptotic pathway the cell activates, at the same time, its endonuclease activity (L-DNase II appears) and its protease activity (there is a release of inhibition of proteases).

  10. More to explore in music reading as a cross-modal process: a comment on Lee and Lei (2012).

    PubMed

    Besson, Mireille; Martínez-Montes, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    Lee and Lei (2012) used a pitch task and a duration task in different blocks of trials and measured event-related potentials in 12 musicians and 24 non-musicians as they read musical scores. The authors claimed to disentangle pitch and duration processing. From the perspectives of cognitive neuropsychology there is great interest in studying the processes involved in reading musical scores. However, we argue that the design used by Lee and Lei (2012) does not allow disentangling pitch and duration processing because both are expressed within the musical score. Moreover, we emphasize the importance of longitudinal studies over cross-sectional studies to pinpoint the specific influence of musical expertise on score reading.

  11. [Energy flux and energy balance closure of intensively managed lei bamboo forest ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-fei; Jiang, Hong; Zhou, Guo-mo; Sun, Cheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-04-01

    By using open-path eddy covariance system and meteorological instruments, an observation was conducted on the sensitive heat flux, latent heat flux, net radiation, soil heat flux, air temperature, ground temperature, and precipitation in a intensively managed Lei bamboo forest ecosystem in 2011, with the diurnal and monthly variations of energy flux as well as the distribution pattern of each energy component analyzed, and the Bowen ratio and energy balance closure calculated. The yearly net radiation of the forest ecosystem was 2928. 92 MJ m-2, and the latent heat flux, sensitive heat flux, and soil heat flux were 1384.90, 927.54, and -28.27 MJ m-2, respectively. Both the daily and the monthly variations of the energy components showed a single peak curve. The sensible and latent heat fluxes were 31.7% and 47.3% of the net radiation, respectively, indicating that latent heat flux was the main form of energy loss. The Bowen ratio followed the "U"-shaped pattern, and fluctuated from 0. 285 to 2. 062, suggesting that soil was a heat source. The yearly energy balance closure of the forest ecosystem was 0. 782, and the monthly average was 0.808. PMID:23898666

  12. [Energy flux and energy balance closure of intensively managed lei bamboo forest ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-fei; Jiang, Hong; Zhou, Guo-mo; Sun, Cheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-04-01

    By using open-path eddy covariance system and meteorological instruments, an observation was conducted on the sensitive heat flux, latent heat flux, net radiation, soil heat flux, air temperature, ground temperature, and precipitation in a intensively managed Lei bamboo forest ecosystem in 2011, with the diurnal and monthly variations of energy flux as well as the distribution pattern of each energy component analyzed, and the Bowen ratio and energy balance closure calculated. The yearly net radiation of the forest ecosystem was 2928. 92 MJ m-2, and the latent heat flux, sensitive heat flux, and soil heat flux were 1384.90, 927.54, and -28.27 MJ m-2, respectively. Both the daily and the monthly variations of the energy components showed a single peak curve. The sensible and latent heat fluxes were 31.7% and 47.3% of the net radiation, respectively, indicating that latent heat flux was the main form of energy loss. The Bowen ratio followed the "U"-shaped pattern, and fluctuated from 0. 285 to 2. 062, suggesting that soil was a heat source. The yearly energy balance closure of the forest ecosystem was 0. 782, and the monthly average was 0.808.

  13. Brassinosteroid stimulation of hypocotyl elongation and wall relaxation in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis cv Lei-Choi)

    SciTech Connect

    Tzannwei Wang; Cosgrove, D.J.; Arteca, R.N. )

    1993-03-01

    Hypocotyl elongation of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis cv Lei-Choi) was stimulated by applying 300 ng of brassinosteroid (2[alpha],3[alpha],22[beta],23[beta]-tetrahydroxy-24[beta]-methyl-B-homo-7-oxa-5[alpha]-cholestan-6-one, BR) in 1 [mu]L of 50% ethanol to the apex of hypocotyls. BR had its greatest effect on elongation of the apical 3-mm region below the cotyledonary node (75% stimulation) between 6 and 18 h after treatment. Stress/strain (Instron) analysis of this 3-mm region revealed that plastic and elastic components of extension were not significantly different between BR-treated and control seedlings. In pressure-block experiments, the initial rate of relaxation was 2-fold faster in BR-treated plants as compared with controls, whereas after 125 min the total amount of relaxation and the relaxation rate were the same for the two treatments. Osmotic pressure of cell sap expressed from this 3-mm region showed a large decrease (28%) in BR-treated seedlings compared to the controls. The authors conclude that BR stimulates growth in pakchoi by accelerating the biochemical processes that cause wall relaxation, without inducing a large change in wall mechanical properties. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Influence of screening length modification on the scattering cross section in LEIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primetzhofer, D.; Markin, S. N.; Efrosinin, D. V.; Steinbauer, E.; Andrzejewski, R.; Bauer, P.

    2011-06-01

    Scattering cross sections for He + ions in the energy range of 100 eV to 100 keV and for Al, Cu and Au target atoms were calculated. Employing the Thomas-Fermi-Molière model the potential strength was tuned by variation of the screening length. The resulting change in scattering cross section was analyzed and the absolute value is compared to cross sections obtained from potentials commonly employed in the medium-energy ion scattering (MEIS) regime. A large influence on the scattering cross section is observed for targets with large atomic number in the very low energy range. For instance, the scattering cross section for 100 eV He +-ions scattered from Au by 129° changes by a factor of 2.5 between different potential strengths claimed in the literature to be suitable for low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) energies. An experiment to determine electronic energy loss of very slow ions in metals is presented. It shows how uncertainties in the scattering potential strength can lead to systematically wrong results, although perfect agreement between experimental data and simulations is found. The impact of these results on quantitative surface structure and composition analysis is discussed.

  15. [Comparison of academic viewpoints between Yun Tie-qiao and Lu Yuan-lei].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-qing; Bi, Li-juan; Yang, Xing-lin

    2010-07-01

    Both Yun Tie-qiao and Lu Yuan-lei are medical professionals coming from the literary field with versatile and in-depth knowledge and extensive experience in medical education and clinical practice, all closely related to modern TCM development. Yun, the elder, insisted on reforming TCM and was early to advocate the academic idea of amalgamating western and traditional Chinese medicine; while Lu, the younger, insisted on the idea of "scientizing TCM" and was the representative of amalgamating western and traditional Chinese medicine in the later stage. They shared many common viewpoints, including venerating Zhang Zhongjing, stressing exogenous cold pathogens, advocating reformation and amalgamation of western medicine and TCM and objecting to the abolishment of TCM. However, there were discrepancies between them, including the relationship between the Inner Canon and the Essay on Exogenous Cold Diseases, warm disease theory, pulse theory, titles of TCM diseases and Japanese Kampo medicine. A comparison of them and noting their valuable contributions will be beneficial for the promotion of the development of TCM. PMID:21122338

  16. Differential effects of two blockers of small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, apamin and lei-Dab7, on learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Mpari, Bedel; Regaya, Imed; Escoffier, Guy; Mourre, Christiane

    2005-09-01

    SK channels are responsible for long-lasting hyperpolarization following action potential and contribute to the neuronal integration signal. This study evaluates the involvement of SK channels on learning and memory in rats, by comparing the effects of two SK channel blockers, i.e., apamin which recognizes SK2 and SK3 channels, and lei-Dab7 which binds SK2 channels only. lei-Dab7 totally competes and contests apamin binding on whole brain sections (IC(50): 11.4 nM). Using an olfactory associative task, intracerebroventricular blocker injections were tested on reference memory. Once the task was mastered with one odor pair, it was then tested with a new odor pair. Apamin (0.3 ng), injected before or after the acquisition session, improved new odor pair learning in a retention session 24 hours later, whereas lei-Dab7 (3 ng) did not significantly affect the mnesic processes. These results indicated that the blockage of SK channels by apamin facilitates consolidation on new odor associations; lei-Dab7, containing only SK2 subunits, remains without effect suggesting an involvement of SK3 channels in the modulation of the mnesic processes. PMID:16178064

  17. Sunspots and the Newcomb-Benford Law. (Spanish Title: Manchas Solares y la Ley de Newcomb-Benford.) Manchas Solares e a Lei de Newcomb-Benford

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Mauro A.; Lyra, Cássia S.

    2008-12-01

    The Newcomb-Benford's Law (LNB) of first digits is introduced to high school students in an extracurricular activity through the study of sunspots. The LNB establishes that the first digits of various sets of data describing natural occurrences are not distributed uniformly, but according to a logarithmic distribution of probability. The LNB is counter-intuitive and is a good example of how mathematics applied to the study of natural phenomena can provide surprising and unexpected results serving also as a motivating agent in the study of physical sciences. En este trabajo se describe una actividad extracurricular donde se presenta a los estudiantes la ley de los primeros dígitos de Newcomb-Benford (LNB) con el estudio de manchas solares. La LNB establece que los primeros dígitos de algunos tipos de dados de ocurrencia natural no están distribuidos en manera uniforme, pero sí de acuerdo con una distribución logarítmica de probabilidad. La LNB es contra-intuitiva y es un excelente ejemplo de como las matemáticas aplicadas al estudio de fenómenos naturales pueden sorprender al estudiante, sirviendo también como elemento motivador en la educación de ciencias y de matemáticas. Este trabalho descreve uma atividade extracurricular na qual a lei dos primeiros dígitos de Newcomb-Benford (LNB) é introduzida a estudantes através do estudo de manchas solares. A LNB estabelece que os primeiros dígitos de vários tipos de conjunto de dados de ocorrência natural não são distribuídos de maneira uniforme, mas sim de acordo com uma distribuição logarítmica de probabilidade. A LNB é contra-intuitiva e é um ótimo exemplo de como a matemática aplicada ao estudo de fenômenos naturais pode fornecer resultados surpreendentes e inesperados, servindo também como um agente motivador no ensino de ciências e matemática.

  18. The Pd/Ni(110) bimetallic system: Surface characterisation by LEED, AES, XPS, and LEIS techniques; new insight on catalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, P.; Simon, D.; Guigner, J.M.

    1996-09-15

    Pd deposits on Ni(110) have been studied by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEIS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques and their catalytic properties tested by the butadiene hydrogenation reaction at room temperature. Their catalytic activity is greatly enhanced by appropriate annealings. Superstructure indicative of a long range-ordering of Pd atoms on Ni is evidenced for low Pd coverages neither before nor after annealing. AES and LEIS studies reveal a sharp Pd depth profile and the existence of a Pd-Ni surface alloy even at room temperature. The Pd 3d core level binding energy is shifted upwards by at least 0.4 eV with respect to pure Pd surface atoms and remains unchanged in the course of annealings. Hence geometrical rearrangements have to be taken into consideration to explain the activity enhancement. 22 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. CONHECIMENTO DA LEI GERAL DE SAÚDE – RESPEITO ÀS TRANSFUSÕES SANGUÍNEAS EM MÉDICOS E PACIENTES TESTEMUNHAS DE JEOVÁ DO HOSPITAL DR. DARÍO CONTRERAS DA REPÚBLICA DOMINICANA

    PubMed Central

    SANTANA, ELSA DÍAZ

    2010-01-01

    Este estudo avalia quanto o corpo médico do Hospital Dr. Darío Contreras de República Dominicana conhece, respeita, informa e aplica a Lei Geral de Saúde em relação aos direitos do paciente Testemunha de Jeová de negar-se a ser transfundido (respeito a sua autonomia); também se os Testemunhas de Jeová conhecem a Lei Geral de Saúde e até que ponto têm se beneficiado diante dessa proposição. O estudo revelou que nem médicos, nem Testemunhas de Jeová conhecem de fato essa lei. PMID:20689657

  20. [Study on carving workers of Chong xiu zheng he jing shi zheng lei bei yong ben cao (Revised Prepared Materia Medica Classified under Syndromes in Zhenghe Period) published by Huiming Xuan (Huiming Sanctum)].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian

    2012-11-01

    The ancient carving workers have made a great contribution to the xylographic printing art in ancient China, so the studies on them are significant for a survey of ancient Chinese printing history, and for the identification of ancient Chinese books edition. Zheng lei ben cao published by Huiming Xuan (Huiming Sanctum) in the Jin and Yuan dynasties, which is the earliest extant edition of Zhenghe version system of Zheng lei ben cao and has important literature value. Thirty carving workers were involved in its printing process. On the whole, these workers had a relatively high technique and completed a remarkably fine work. In addition to lettering, 28 persons of them also made a total of 536 pages with 900 exquisite engraving illustrations on Chinese materia medica included in this book. Because of the high levels on carving, this precious book has been the representative of Pingshui edition, which has a great reputation but has very few works now.

  1. [Study on carving workers of Chong xiu zheng he jing shi zheng lei bei yong ben cao (Revised Prepared Materia Medica Classified under Syndromes in Zhenghe Period) published by Huiming Xuan (Huiming Sanctum)].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian

    2012-11-01

    The ancient carving workers have made a great contribution to the xylographic printing art in ancient China, so the studies on them are significant for a survey of ancient Chinese printing history, and for the identification of ancient Chinese books edition. Zheng lei ben cao published by Huiming Xuan (Huiming Sanctum) in the Jin and Yuan dynasties, which is the earliest extant edition of Zhenghe version system of Zheng lei ben cao and has important literature value. Thirty carving workers were involved in its printing process. On the whole, these workers had a relatively high technique and completed a remarkably fine work. In addition to lettering, 28 persons of them also made a total of 536 pages with 900 exquisite engraving illustrations on Chinese materia medica included in this book. Because of the high levels on carving, this precious book has been the representative of Pingshui edition, which has a great reputation but has very few works now. PMID:23363847

  2. Responses of seasonal and diurnal soil CO2 effluxes to land-use change from paddy fields to Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Yongfu; Chang, Scott X.; Jiang, Peikun; Zhou, Guomo; Zhang, Jiaojiao; Liu, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Land-use change often markedly alters soil carbon (C) dynamics such as soil surface CO2 efflux. This study aims to test the hypotheses that converting paddy fields to bamboo stands would markedly reduce soil CO2 efflux and their temperature sensitivity (change of soil CO2 efflux rate by increasing 10 °C of temperature), and change the relationship between soil CO2 efflux and other environmental factors. A 12-month field study was conducted to measure the seasonal and diurnal soil CO2 effluxes in three adjacent paddy field-bamboo forest pairs with the automated soil CO2 flux system (LI-8100). Results showed that soil CO2 effluxes from both of the two land-uses had distinct seasonal patterns, and were reduced from 45.4 to 34.7 t CO2 ha-1 yr-1 in cumulative CO2 emissions when paddy fields were converted to bamboo stands. About 80% of the variation in soil respiration in the bamboo stands was explained by soil temperature; however, a positive relationship between soil CO2 efflux and soil temperature in the paddy field was observed only when the soil was not submerged under water, indicating that soil water saturation in the paddy fields altered the soil CO2 efflux-temperature relationship. A negative relationship (P < 0.01) between soil CO2 efflux and soil moisture was observed in the paddy fields, while no such relationship was observed in the bamboo stands. The apparent temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) was dependent on the depth of the soil temperature measurement and was increased by converting paddy fields to bamboo stands, rejecting the hypothesis. In Lei bamboo stands, the R2 for the soil respiration-temperature regression was higher using seasonal and diurnal CO2 efflux data together than using the seasonal data alone. We conclude that the conversion of paddy fields to Lei bamboo stands decreased the annual soil CO2 efflux but increased its temperature sensitivity, and altered the relationship between soil respiration and soil moisture. When

  3. Spatial variations of community structures and methane cycling across a transect of Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Ling; Chiu, Yi-Ping; Cheng, Ting-Wen; Chang, Yung-Hsin; Tu, Wei-Xain; Lin, Li-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed cored sediments retrieved from sites distributed across a transect of the Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan to uncover the spatial distributions of biogeochemical processes and community assemblages involved in methane cycling. The profiles of methane concentration and carbon isotopic composition revealed various orders of the predominance of specific methane-related metabolisms along depth. At a site proximal to the bubbling pool, the methanogenic zone was sandwiched by the anaerobic methanotrophic zones. For two sites distributed toward the topographic depression, the methanogenic zone overlaid the anaerobic methanotrophic zone. The predominance of anaerobic methanotrophy at specific depth intervals is supported by the enhanced copy numbers of the ANME-2a 16S rRNA gene and coincides with high dissolved Fe/Mn concentrations and copy numbers of the Desulfuromonas/Pelobacter 16S rRNA gene. Assemblages of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes revealed that methanogenesis was mediated by Methanococcoides and Methanosarcina. pmoA genes and a few 16S rRNA genes related to aerobic methanotrophs were detected in limited numbers of subsurface samples. While dissolved Fe/Mn signifies the presence of anaerobic metabolisms near the surface, the correlations between geochemical characteristics and gene abundances, and the absence of aerobic methanotrophs in top sediments suggest that anaerobic methanotrophy is potentially dependent on iron/manganese reduction and dominates over aerobic methanotrophy for the removal of methane produced in situ or from a deep source. Near-surface methanogenesis contributes to the methane emissions from mud platform. The alternating arrangements of methanogenic and methanotrophic zones at different sites suggest that the interactions between mud deposition, evaporation, oxidation and fluid transport modulate the assemblages of microbial communities and methane cycling in different compartments of terrestrial mud volcanoes. PMID

  4. Spatial variations of community structures and methane cycling across a transect of Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Ling; Chiu, Yi-Ping; Cheng, Ting-Wen; Chang, Yung-Hsin; Tu, Wei-Xain; Lin, Li-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed cored sediments retrieved from sites distributed across a transect of the Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan to uncover the spatial distributions of biogeochemical processes and community assemblages involved in methane cycling. The profiles of methane concentration and carbon isotopic composition revealed various orders of the predominance of specific methane-related metabolisms along depth. At a site proximal to the bubbling pool, the methanogenic zone was sandwiched by the anaerobic methanotrophic zones. For two sites distributed toward the topographic depression, the methanogenic zone overlaid the anaerobic methanotrophic zone. The predominance of anaerobic methanotrophy at specific depth intervals is supported by the enhanced copy numbers of the ANME-2a 16S rRNA gene and coincides with high dissolved Fe/Mn concentrations and copy numbers of the Desulfuromonas/Pelobacter 16S rRNA gene. Assemblages of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes revealed that methanogenesis was mediated by Methanococcoides and Methanosarcina. pmoA genes and a few 16S rRNA genes related to aerobic methanotrophs were detected in limited numbers of subsurface samples. While dissolved Fe/Mn signifies the presence of anaerobic metabolisms near the surface, the correlations between geochemical characteristics and gene abundances, and the absence of aerobic methanotrophs in top sediments suggest that anaerobic methanotrophy is potentially dependent on iron/manganese reduction and dominates over aerobic methanotrophy for the removal of methane produced in situ or from a deep source. Near-surface methanogenesis contributes to the methane emissions from mud platform. The alternating arrangements of methanogenic and methanotrophic zones at different sites suggest that the interactions between mud deposition, evaporation, oxidation and fluid transport modulate the assemblages of microbial communities and methane cycling in different compartments of terrestrial mud volcanoes.

  5. Spatial variations of community structures and methane cycling across a transect of Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei-Ling; Chiu, Yi-Ping; Cheng, Ting-Wen; Chang, Yung-Hsin; Tu, Wei-Xain; Lin, Li-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed cored sediments retrieved from sites distributed across a transect of the Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan to uncover the spatial distributions of biogeochemical processes and community assemblages involved in methane cycling. The profiles of methane concentration and carbon isotopic composition revealed various orders of the predominance of specific methane-related metabolisms along depth. At a site proximal to the bubbling pool, the methanogenic zone was sandwiched by the anaerobic methanotrophic zones. For two sites distributed toward the topographic depression, the methanogenic zone overlaid the anaerobic methanotrophic zone. The predominance of anaerobic methanotrophy at specific depth intervals is supported by the enhanced copy numbers of the ANME-2a 16S rRNA gene and coincides with high dissolved Fe/Mn concentrations and copy numbers of the Desulfuromonas/Pelobacter 16S rRNA gene. Assemblages of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes revealed that methanogenesis was mediated by Methanococcoides and Methanosarcina. pmoA genes and a few 16S rRNA genes related to aerobic methanotrophs were detected in limited numbers of subsurface samples. While dissolved Fe/Mn signifies the presence of anaerobic metabolisms near the surface, the correlations between geochemical characteristics and gene abundances, and the absence of aerobic methanotrophs in top sediments suggest that anaerobic methanotrophy is potentially dependent on iron/manganese reduction and dominates over aerobic methanotrophy for the removal of methane produced in situ or from a deep source. Near-surface methanogenesis contributes to the methane emissions from mud platform. The alternating arrangements of methanogenic and methanotrophic zones at different sites suggest that the interactions between mud deposition, evaporation, oxidation and fluid transport modulate the assemblages of microbial communities and methane cycling in different compartments of terrestrial mud volcanoes. PMID

  6. Salinity and Temperature Constraints on Microbial Methanogenesis in the Lei-Gong-Huo Mud Volcano of Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W.; Lin, L.; Wang, P.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial mud volcano is thought to be one of the most important natural sources of methane emission. Previous studies have shown that methane cycling in terrestrial mud volcanoes involves a complex reaction network driven by the interactions between subsurface and surface abiotic and microbial processes. In situ methanogenesis appears to produce methane at quantities exceeding those of deeply-sourced thermogenic methane and the capacities of anaerobic methanotrophy at shallow depth levels, thereby contributing significantly to the methane emission. Various degrees of evaporation at surface also lead to the enhancement of chloride concentrations in pore water, favoring the proliferation of halo-tolerant and/or halophilic methanogens. The goal of this study is to investigate the extent of methanogenesis in terrestrial mud volcanoes by incubating mud slurries with various precursors (H2/CO2, acetate, methanol, and methylamine) at different salinities (up to 2000 mM) and temperatures (up to 50 oC). Methane concentrations were monitored through time and molecular analyses were applied to investigate the changes of methanogenic communities. Methanogenesis was stimulated by any investigated precursor at room temperature. However, the methanogenic response to salinity varied. Of the investigated precursors, H2/CO2 and methyl-compounds (methanol and methylamine) stimulated methanogenesis at all investigated salinities. The rates and yields of hydrogen- and methyl-utilizing methanogenesis declined significantly at salinities greater than 1500 mM. Acetate-utilizing methanogenesis proceeded at salinities less than 700 mM. At 40 oC, methanogenesis was stimulated by all investigated precursors at the in situ salinity (~400 mM). At 50 oC, only H2-utilizing methanogenesis was stimulated. Analyses of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) for 16S rRNA genes revealed various patterns upon different precursors and salinities. The TRFLP results combined with

  7. Temporal naturalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  8. Nature Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harr, Natalie; Lee, Richard E.; Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Richard Louv's "Last Child in the Woods" (2008) added to a growing consensus to get children outside and experiencing nature. Using ideas from place-based education, the authors present a simple year-long project that brings science, nature, and other curriculum standards to life right in your school yard. With a focus on journaling, this project…

  9. Nature plants.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    We welcome our new sister journal Nature Plants and the increased commitment to the plant science community that it represents. This is an opportunity for Nature Genetics to emphasize the use of genetic and genomic tools and resources in discovering new plant biology and solving major agricultural challenges.

  10. Matematica Natural.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Patricia; Medearis, Linda

    Matematica Natural (Natural Mathematics) is a mathematics curriculum for young children based on the assumption that they learn mathematics through concrete, real life, relevant experiences and that educational differences rather than cultural differences influence math achievement. The curriculum uses hands-on materials and activities to teach…

  11. Natural Beauty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her art class students were able to create, in just four class periods, clay relief plaques depicting nature. A lesson on texture speeds up the completion of such a project. Seeing that clay is a natural material with its own unique texture, it seemed fitting that the final product should depict a variety…

  12. [Natural selection].

    PubMed

    Mayr, E

    1985-05-01

    Much of the resistance against Darwin's theory of natural selection has been due to misunderstandings. It is shown that natural selection is not a tautology and that it is a two-step process. The first step, the production of variation, is under the control of chance; the second step, selection proper, is an anti-chance process, but subject to many constraints. The target of selection is the individual as a whole, and many neutral mutations can be retained as hitchhikers of successful genotypes. Sexual selection results from selection for pure reproductive success.

  13. Uranium, natural

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , natural ; CASRN 7440 - 61 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  14. Nature Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.

    2010-01-01

    Children are naturally curious about the world in which they live. To focus this sense of wonder, have your students investigate their local habitat as it changes over the year. This multiseason study will build connections and add relevance to the habitats that children learn about. This series of activities for grades 4-6 explores the changing…

  15. Nature's Palette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Brooke B.; Brewer, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Flower petals, acorn hats, exoskeletons of beetles, and lichens are just a few of the objects students may find in a surprising array of vivid colors. These tiny examples from nature's palette can be discovered in a school yard, a park, or even along the edges of a paved sidewalk...it simply takes careful observation! This article describes a…

  16. Natural restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Kamlet, K.S.

    1993-02-01

    After a company pays millions of dollars to clean up contaminated site, its liability may not be over. It may have to spend tens of millions more to restore damaged natural resources under an oft-overlooked Superfund program. Examples of liability are cited in this report from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and a pcb leak which contaminated a harbor.

  17. Natural ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleishman, Erica; Belnap, Jayne; Cobb, Neil; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Ford, Karl; MacDonald, Glen; Pellant, Mike; Schoennagel, Tania; Schmit, Lara M.; Schwartz, Mark; van Drunick, Suzanne; Westerling, Anthony LeRoy; Keyser, Alisa; Lucas, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Natural Ecosystems analyzes the association of observed changes in climate with changes in the geographic distributions and phenology (the timing of blossoms or migrations of birds) for Southwestern ecosystems and their species, portraying ecosystem disturbances—such as wildfires and outbreaks of forest pathogens—and carbon storage and release, in relation to climate change.

  18. Natural thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annila, Arto

    2016-02-01

    The principle of increasing entropy is derived from statistical physics of open systems assuming that quanta of actions, as undividable basic build blocks, embody everything. According to this tenet, all systems evolve from one state to another either by acquiring quanta from their surroundings or by discarding quanta to the surroundings in order to attain energetic balance in least time. These natural processes result in ubiquitous scale-free patterns: skewed distributions that accumulate in a sigmoid manner and hence span log-log scales mostly as straight lines. Moreover, the equation for least-time motions reveals that evolution is by nature a non-deterministic process. Although the obtained insight in thermodynamics from the notion of quanta in motion yields nothing new, it accentuates that contemporary comprehension is impaired when modeling evolution as a computable process by imposing conservation of energy and thereby ignoring that quantum of actions are the carriers of energy from the system to its surroundings.

  19. Natural Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1997-01-01

    Logarithmic strain is the preferred measure of strain used by materials scientists, who typically refer to it as the "true strain." It was Nadai who gave it the name "natural strain," which seems more appropriate. This strain measure was proposed by Ludwik for the one-dimensional extension of a rod with length l. It was defined via the integral of dl/l to which Ludwik gave the name "effective specific strain." Today, it is after Hencky, who extended Ludwik's measure to three-dimensional analysis by defining logarithmic strains for the three principal directions.

  20. Natural inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Frieman, J.A.

    1991-02-01

    A pseduo-Nambu-Goldstone boson, with a potential of the form V({phi}) = {Lambda}{sup 4}(1 {plus minus} cos({phi}/f)), can naturally give rise to an epoch of inflation in the early universe. Successful inflation can be achieved if f {approximately} m{sub pl} and {Lambda} {approximately} m{sub GUT}. Such mass scales arise in particle physics models with a gauge group that becomes strongly interacting a the GUT scale, e.g., as is expected to happen in the hidden sector of superstring theories. The density fluctuation spectrum is a non-scale-invariant power law, with extra power on large scales. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Natural Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a consistent and thorough development of the strain and strain-rate measures affiliated with Hencky. Natural measures for strain and strain-rate, as I refer to them, are first expressed in terms of of the fundamental body-metric tensors of Lodge. These strain and strain-rate measures are mixed tensor fields. They are mapped from the body to space in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian configurations, and then transformed from general to Cartesian fields. There they are compared with the various strain and strain-rate measures found in the literature. A simple Cartesian description for Hencky strain-rate in the Lagrangian state is obtained.

  2. [Naturalizing empathy].

    PubMed

    Decety, J

    2002-01-01

    Empathy is the ability to share emotions with others. It is acknowledged to be a powerful means of tacit communication, a key ingredient in any therapeutic relationship as well as in psychotherapy. Empathy is the cornerstone in the humanist perspective (Ego-psychology) in clinical psychology. This approach is often considered as poorly grounded on scientific and objective evidence. It is however acknowledged that empathetic therapists are more effective than less empathetic therapists. I shall argue that this paradox, i.e. it is the least scientific and the less validated psychotherapeutic approach that is the most efficient, can be eliminated if one considers the nature of empathy, its biological foundation, its evolutionary origin and its cognitive architecture. In this paper I will suggest that empathy is based on specific information processing modules which have been designed by natural selection to cope with social regularities in expressing and reading emotional states. This has provided adaptive benefits to individuals living in large groups bestowing them with mechanisms for cooperativity, altruism and more generally various aspects of prosocial behaviour. The capacity to express emotions, and to read and understand emotions of others also ensures implicit communication with others and may be at the root of intersubjectivity. This perspective on empathy is then articulated with two concurrent hypotheses regarding theory of mind (the simulation and the theory-theory) which aim to explain the human capacity to understand that the behaviors of other intelligent agents are caused by intentions, desires and beliefs. In this context, empathy can be considered as a simulation (or analogical) process that is necessary to understand but not sufficient to interpret other people. This last issue is relevant to clinical practice. PMID:11963348

  3. The social nature of natural childbirth.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Becky

    2008-03-01

    This paper aims to develop a better understanding of what proponents of natural childbirth mean by "natural." Using a biosocial approach to birth that posits that all birth is both social and natural, the paper investigates how proponents represent the relationship between nature and society. The study asks about what kinds of nature-society relationships are expressed in proponents' representations of natural childbirth. The study examines how natural childbirth is represented by proponents in popular non-fictional English language books written for pregnant women. Claims in these books are not taken as reality, but are analyzed as ideas about nature-society relations. The central finding is that these authors simultaneously emphasize the naturalness of birth and showcase three types of social practices that they describe as being integral to natural childbirth: (1) activity during birth, (2) preparation before birth, and (3) social support, both in an individual and in a broader socio-cultural sense. At least for these authors, it is these social practices that allow natural childbirth to be natural. These findings on the social nature of natural childbirth challenge current social science scholarship, in which natural childbirth is characterized as an essentializing and nostalgic attempt to return to nature.

  4. Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  5. The nature and ethics of natural experiments.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Angus; Sim, Julius

    2015-10-01

    Natural experiments are an important methodology often used to answer research questions that would, otherwise, be impossible to address, or employed because of ethical concerns about the use of randomisation to interventions that carry known risks. The UK Medical Research Council (MRC) recently produced an extremely useful document discussing the nature and significance of natural experiments within medical and public health research. In this paper, however, we suggest that the MRC document's definition of the term 'natural experiment' is insufficiently precise. In response, we offer a taxonomy of different types of natural experiments and related methods, and explore the ethical implications of these different types. We argue that while the ethical issues that may arise within natural experiments in relation to risks of harm or informed consent may differ from those within the randomised controlled trial, they are not thereby less pressing. The implications of the argument are explored and recommendations made for those involved in research governance.

  6. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  7. The Nature of Natural Hazards Communication (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, Y. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Some of the many issues of interest to natural hazards professionals include the analysis of proactive approaches to the governance of risk from natural hazards and approaches to broaden the scope of public policies related to the management of risks from natural hazards, as well as including emergency and environmental management, community development and spatial planning related to natural hazards. During the talk we will present results of scientific review, analysis and synthesis, which emphasize same new trends in communication of the natural hazards theories and practices within an up-to-the-minute context of new environmental and climate change issues, new technologies, and a new focus on resiliency. The presentation is divided into five sections that focus on natural hazards communication in terms of education, risk management, public discourse, engaging the public, theoretical perspectives, and new media. It includes results of case studies and best practices. It delves into natural hazards communication theories, including diffusion, argumentation, and constructivism, to name a few. The presentation will provide information about: (1) A manual of natural hazards communication for scientists, policymakers, and media; (2) An up-to-the-minute context of environmental hazards, new technologies & political landscape; (3) A work by natural hazards scientists for geoscientists working with social scientists and communication principles; (4) A work underpinned by key natural hazards communication theories and interspersed with pragmatic solutions; (5) A work that crosses traditional natural hazards boundaries: international, interdisciplinary, theoretical/applied. We will further explore how spatial planning can contribute to risk governance by influencing the occupation of natural hazard-prone areas, and review the central role of emergency management in risk policy. The goal of this presentation is to contribute to the augmentation of the conceptual framework

  8. Formulation of natural shampoos.

    PubMed

    Mainkar, A R; Jolly, C I

    2001-02-01

    Formulating cosmetics using completely natural raw materials is a difficult task. The challenge lies in selecting materials that can be rationally justified as 'natural' and formulating them into cosmetics whose functionality is comparable with their synthetic counterparts. The present paper focuses on the formulation of completely natural shampoos, their evaluation and comparison with commercial herbal shampoos. Attention is drawn to the fact that, due to the ambiguous definition of the word 'natural', several so-called natural cosmetics are available in the Indian market. It is up to the cosmetic chemists themselves to promote and encourage the development and use of truly natural cosmetics.

  9. Natural gas annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  10. Demonstrating Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, David S.; Amundson, John C.

    1975-01-01

    Describes laboratory exercises with chickens selecting their food from dyed and natural corn kernels as a method of demonstrating natural selection. The procedure is based on the fact that organisms that blend into their surroundings escape predation. (BR)

  11. Natural Gas Monthly

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

  12. Colours From Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Wilma

    1974-01-01

    In reference to American Indian ceremonial art, the importance of using natural pigments is emphasized, since the superior color values of natural dyes better reflect religious and philosophical depth and meaning. (JC)

  13. Nature's Nature: Ideas of Nature in Curricula for Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St Maurice, Henry

    2006-01-01

    Two contrasting sets of ideas about nature in environmental education are described. An analytical framework is developed from inter-disciplinary histories of ideas and used in evaluating a specific curriculum. In conclusion, some general implications are suggested for curricula in environmental education. [This article was reprinted from…

  14. Under the Jade Vault Lei Feng Salutes Mark Twain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krysl, Marilyn

    1984-01-01

    The experiences of a teacher who lectured undergraduates in the People's Republic of China on the American short story and taught a refresher course for Chinese teachers of English at the Tianjin Foreign Language Institute are presented. (Author/MLW)

  15. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  16. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  17. Learning in Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of a theory of learning in nature in order to explain how people learn in natural settings. The intellectual roots of the theory in informal learning, cognition, affective development, experiential and meaningful learning are described and the synthesis into a comprehensive theory of learning in nature are…

  18. Nature in the City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferbert, Mary Lou

    1981-01-01

    Describes a science program developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, "Nature in the City," in which students and teachers learn together about the natural community surrounding their school. Includes program's rationale, list of "adventures," and methods. Discusses strategies of Sherlock Holmes'"adventure" focusing on animal tracks…

  19. Human nature and enhancement.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Allen

    2009-03-01

    Appeals to the idea of human nature are frequent in the voluminous literature on the ethics of enhancing human beings through biotechnology. Two chief concerns about the impact of enhancements on human nature have been voiced. The first is that enhancement may alter or destroy human nature. The second is that if enhancement alters or destroys human nature, this will undercut our ability to ascertain the good because, for us, the good is determined by our nature. The first concern assumes that altering or destroying human nature is in itself a bad thing. The second concern assumes that human nature provides a standard without which we cannot make coherent, defensible judgments about what is good. I will argue (1) that there is nothing wrong, per se, with altering or destroying human nature, because, on a plausible understanding of what human nature is, it contains bad as well as good characteristics and there is no reason to believe that eliminating some of the bad would so imperil the good as to make the elimination of the bad impermissible, and (2) that altering or destroying human nature need not result in the loss of our ability to make judgments about the good, because we possess a conception of the good by which we can and do evaluate human nature. I will argue that appeals to human nature tend to obscure rather than illuminate the debate over the ethics of enhancement and can be eliminated in favor of more cogent considerations.

  20. Capturing Nature's Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Pascolutti, Mauro; Campitelli, Marc; Nguyen, Bao; Pham, Ngoc; Gorse, Alain-Dominique; Quinn, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Natural products are universally recognized to contribute valuable chemical diversity to the design of molecular screening libraries. The analysis undertaken in this work, provides a foundation for the generation of fragment screening libraries that capture the diverse range of molecular recognition building blocks embedded within natural products. Physicochemical properties were used to select fragment-sized natural products from a database of known natural products (Dictionary of Natural Products). PCA analysis was used to illustrate the positioning of the fragment subset within the property space of the non-fragment sized natural products in the dataset. Structural diversity was analysed by three distinct methods: atom function analysis, using pharmacophore fingerprints, atom type analysis, using radial fingerprints, and scaffold analysis. Small pharmacophore triplets, representing the range of chemical features present in natural products that are capable of engaging in molecular interactions with small, contiguous areas of protein binding surfaces, were analysed. We demonstrate that fragment-sized natural products capture more than half of the small pharmacophore triplet diversity observed in non fragment-sized natural product datasets. Atom type analysis using radial fingerprints was represented by a self-organizing map. We examined the structural diversity of non-flat fragment-sized natural product scaffolds, rich in sp3 configured centres. From these results we demonstrate that 2-ring fragment-sized natural products effectively balance the opposing characteristics of minimal complexity and broad structural diversity when compared to the larger, more complex fragment-like natural products. These naturally-derived fragments could be used as the starting point for the generation of a highly diverse library with the scope for further medicinal chemistry elaboration due to their minimal structural complexity. This study highlights the possibility to capture a

  1. On nature and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Paul Silas

    2010-01-01

    The account of nature and humanity's relationship to nature are of central importance for bioethics. The Scientific Revolution was a critical development in the history of this question and many contemporary accounts of nature find their beginnings here. While the innovative approach to nature going out of the seventeenth century was reliant upon accounts of nature from the early modern period, the Middle Ages, late-antiquity and antiquity, it also parted ways with some of the understandings of nature from these epochs. Here I analyze this development and suggests that some of the insights from older understandings of nature may be helpful for bioethics today, even if there can be no simple return to them.

  2. Nature, Education, and the Natural Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peter J.

    1974-01-01

    An examination of 18th and 19th century naturalistic educational theory reveals that appeals to nature confirmed and strengthened contemporary attitudes and practices restricting woman's access to knowledge and her freedom to make decisions and to act. (Author/DW)

  3. Human Nature and the Nature of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the procedural and philosophical perspectives taken by science in examining human characteristics. Discusses the different levels of accuracy of various scientific fields. Encourages discussion of what biological and behavioral sciences can and cannot reveal about complex human nature. Considers some characteristics of quality science…

  4. Natural vacuum electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leggett, Nickolaus

    1990-01-01

    The ambient natural vacuum of space is proposed as a basis for electron valves. Each valve is an electron controlling structure similiar to a vacuum tube that is operated without a vacuum sustaining envelope. The natural vacuum electron valves discussed offer a viable substitute for solid state devices. The natural vacuum valve is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, system generated electromagnetic pulse, current transients, and direct exposure to space conditions.

  5. Natural gas annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  6. Introduction to Exploring Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early Childhood Today, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Children are fascinated with the world of nature. From the tiniest of seeds to the highest of birds, they wonder "Why?" "How?" and "What can I do with it?" This paper provides intriguing nature activities that provide a solid starting point for expanding children's thinking and learning. Through these activities, children will be building skills…

  7. Island Natural Science School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

    Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

  8. Modeling Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogiages, Christopher A.; Lotter, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In their research, scientists generate, test, and modify scientific models. These models can be shared with others and demonstrate a scientist's understanding of how the natural world works. Similarly, students can generate and modify models to gain a better understanding of the content, process, and nature of science (Kenyon, Schwarz, and Hug…

  9. On Teaching Natural Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, David F.

    1978-01-01

    A brief look at Columbia, Harvard, and Notre Dame law schools shows that the American tradition in teaching natural law has not been strong. The value of teaching natural law is discussed, a separate course or seminar is seen as the most effective option, and a selection of available sources for such a course is appended. (JMD)

  10. Nature of Science Is...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Judith Sweeney; Lederman, Norman G.

    2005-01-01

    The phrase "nature of science" refers to the characteristics of scientific knowledge that necessarily result from the scientific investigations that scientists conduct to develop knowledge. Yet, these characteristics are assumed by many to be "difficult" to teach. Not so. Many important aspects of nature of science can be directly linked to…

  11. Natural Science Centers: Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natural Science for Youth Foundation, Roswell, GA.

    A nature center is defined as an organized and permanent nonprofit institution which is essentially educational, scientific, and cultural in purpose with professional staff, and open to the public on some regular schedule. A nature center manages and interprets its lands, native plants and animals and facilities to promote an understanding of…

  12. Nature's Advice Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahlin, Kathryn; Robertson, Amy

    2005-01-01

    What do can people learn from the world around them? Can a tree really teach something about life? Many times teachers provide students with facts about nature but fail to consider what one can learn from the natural world around them. After many months of exploring various ecosystems such as the prairie, rain forest, and desert, one of the…

  13. Geopolitics of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.

    1983-01-01

    This examines the role of gas in the world energy supply/demand. Special attention is paid to Western Europe, the Soviet Union, and the natural gas exporting countries. Forecasts of global energy demand until 2000 and data on Western Europe's proven natural gas reserves as per January 1982 are provided.

  14. Nature Foil Reliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Shaw J.

    2012-01-01

    Nature has always been a source of inspiration for artists across the centuries. Artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Georgia O'Keeffe, Ansel Adams, and Andy Goldsworthy all drew inspiration for their work from nature. Seeds come from the dried pods, which when planted and cared for, bear fruit. In this article, the author describes how her…

  15. Birds. Nature Discovery I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Sally F.

    The birds of New England and their particular habitats are explored in this guide which is part of a series of Nature Discovery publications. The materials are designed to directly supplement the natural science curricula and to complement other subject areas including social studies, language arts, music, and art. The program is designed for…

  16. Research Component - Natural Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Donald

    The research component in the natural sciences does not have to be changed. Ninety-three percent of the students surveyed by Ann Heiss for her book "The Challenge to the Graduate Schools" felt that the research component of the natural sciences contributed to their scientific development, and 85 percent felt that it was intellectually stimulating.…

  17. Nature Experience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathunde, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Kevin Rathunde turns his research lens to the task of finding out the relevance of the natural world, its impact on adolescent motivation, and its positive sustaining of concentration and focus. He cites "disembodiment and denaturing" as needing to be countered by contact with nature, leading to higher creativity, less drudgery, and more…

  18. Naturally occurring insecticides.

    PubMed Central

    Soloway, S B

    1976-01-01

    Naturally occurring insecticides are abundant and varied in their effects, though but a few are articles of commerce. Even for these, pyrethrum, nicotine, rotenone, hellebore, ryania, and sabadilla, there is a paucity of information on mammalian toxicology and environmental effects. In general, these materials are characterized favorably by low acute toxicity and ready dissipation in nature. Unfavorable aspects of natural insecticides are the contained mixture of active and inactive components and the low active ingredient content on a crop yield basis pointing to a high unit cost. Natural insecticides can serve additionally as leads to unnatural mimics, of which the commercially successful synthetic pyrethroids are prime examples. The chemical nature, relationship of insecticidal activity to chemical structure, occurrence, production, and utilization, registered uses, metabolism, and insect and mammalian toxicity are reviewed. PMID:789058

  19. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.; Hayden, M.; Radebaugh, R.; Wollan, J.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It should have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The thermoacoustic natural-gas liquefier (TANGL) is based on our recent invention of the first no-moving-parts cryogenic refrigerator. In short, our invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat, with no moving parts. The required apparatus comprises nothing more than heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. Its initial experimental success in a small size lead us to propose a more ambitious application: large-energy liquefaction of natural gas, using combustion of natural gas as the energy source. TANGL was designed to be maintenance-free, inexpensive, portable, and environmentally benign.

  20. "Diseases and natural kinds".

    PubMed

    Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2005-01-01

    David Thomasma called for the development of a medical ethics based squarely on the philosophy of medicine. He recognized, however, that widespread anti-essentialism presented a significant barrier to such an approach. The aim of this article is to introduce a theory that challenges these anti-essentialist objections. The notion of natural kinds presents a modest form of essentialism that can serve as the basis for a foundationalist philosophy of medicine. The notion of a natural kind is neither static nor reductionistic. Disease can be understood as making necessary reference to living natural kinds without invoking the claim that diseases themselves are natural kinds. The idea that natural kinds have a natural disposition to flourish as the kinds of things that they are provides a telos to which to tether the notion of disease - an objective telos that is broader than mere survival and narrower than subjective choice. It is argued that while nosology is descriptive and may have therapeutic implications, disease classification is fundamentally explanatory. Sickness and illness, while referring to the same state of affairs, can be distinguished from disease phenomenologically. Scientific and diagnostic fallibility in making judgments about diseases do not diminish the objectivity of this notion of disease. Diseases are things, not kinds. Injury is a concept parallel to disease that also makes necessary reference to living natural kinds. These ideas provide a new possibility for the development of a philosophy of medicine with implications for medical ethics. PMID:16292605

  1. Living in cities, naturally.

    PubMed

    Hartig, Terry; Kahn, Peter H

    2016-05-20

    Natural features, settings, and processes in urban areas can help to reduce stress associated with urban life. In this and other ways, public health benefits from, street trees, green roofs, community gardens, parks and open spaces, and extensive connective pathways for walking and biking. Such urban design provisions can also yield ecological benefits, not only directly but also through the role they play in shaping attitudes toward the environment and environmental protection. Knowledge of the psychological benefits of nature experience supports efforts to better integrate nature into the architecture, infrastructure, and public spaces of urban areas.

  2. Living in cities, naturally.

    PubMed

    Hartig, Terry; Kahn, Peter H

    2016-05-20

    Natural features, settings, and processes in urban areas can help to reduce stress associated with urban life. In this and other ways, public health benefits from, street trees, green roofs, community gardens, parks and open spaces, and extensive connective pathways for walking and biking. Such urban design provisions can also yield ecological benefits, not only directly but also through the role they play in shaping attitudes toward the environment and environmental protection. Knowledge of the psychological benefits of nature experience supports efforts to better integrate nature into the architecture, infrastructure, and public spaces of urban areas. PMID:27199417

  3. Nature limits filarial transmission

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Goutam

    2008-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori is a public health problem of considerable magnitude of the tropics and subtropics. Presently 1.3 billion people are at risk of lymphatic filariasis (LF) infection and about 120 million people are affected in 83 countries. In this context it is worth mentioning that 'nature' itself limits filarial transmission to a great extent in a number of ways such as by reducing vector populations, parasitic load and many other bearings. Possibilities to utilize these bearings of natural control of filariasis should be searched and if manipulations on nature, like indiscriminate urbanization and deforestation, creating sites favourable for the breeding of filarial vectors and unsanitary conditions, water pollution with organic matters etc., are reduced below the threshold level, we will be highly benefited. Understandings of the factors related to natural phenomena of control of filariasis narrated in this article may help to adopt effective control strategies. PMID:18500974

  4. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data presented include volume and price, production, consumption, underground storage, and interstate pipeline activities.

  5. Web life: Ask Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    Ask Nature is a site devoted to biomimicry, an interdisciplinary field in which practitioners study how animals and plants solve problems, and then use those solutions to develop better human technologies.

  6. Is image steganography natural?

    PubMed

    Martín, Alvaro; Sapiro, Guillermo; Seroussi, Gadiel

    2005-12-01

    Steganography is the art of secret communication. Its purpose is to hide the presence of information, using, for example, images as covers. We experimentally investigate if stego-images, bearing a secret message, are statistically "natural." For this purpose, we use recent results on the statistics of natural images and investigate the effect of some popular steganography techniques. We found that these fundamental statistics of natural images are, in fact, generally altered by the hidden "nonnatural" information. Frequently, the change is consistently biased in a given direction. However, for the class of natural images considered, the change generally falls within the intrinsic variability of the statistics, and, thus, does not allow for reliable detection, unless knowledge of the data hiding process is taken into account. In the latter case, significant levels of detection are demonstrated.

  7. Make a Nature Trail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Janice K.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the planning, construction, use, and maintenance of a nature trail. Ideal for demonstrating interrelationships between plants and animals, conservation practices, wildlife management, plant succession, forestry, geologic features and other scientific phenomena. (JR)

  8. The "Natural Law Tradition."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnis, John

    1986-01-01

    A discussion of natural law outlines some of the theory and tradition surrounding it and examines its relationship to the social science and legal curriculum and to the teaching of jurisprudence. (MSE)

  9. Tifft Farm Nature Preserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Thomas B.; Gannon, David J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the creation, development, activities, and programs of Tifft Farm, a 264-acre nature preserve and environmental education center in Buffalo, New York, constructed on a sanitary landfill. (BT)

  10. Natural Gas Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... by the Cass (ND) and Clay (MN) Emergency Planning Partnerships. Adapted with funding provided by Fargo Cass Public Health through the Cities Readiness Initiative (CRI) English – Natural Gas Emergencies - Last ...

  11. Nature's ups and downs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Peter

    2015-12-01

    When Norman Lockyer, an astronomer and science writer with a day job as a clerk at the War Office in London, approached the publishing house Macmillan and Company in 1869 with a proposal for a new weekly journal about science, few could have predicted the outcome. The journal in question was Nature, and given its influence over the past 146 years, it is hard to believe that Melinda Baldwin's Making Nature is the first full-length book to be written about it.

  12. [Natural toxin poisoning].

    PubMed

    Tsunematsu, Satoshi

    2012-08-01

    Natural toxin poisoning often occurs when amateur who has no expert knowledge of food collects and cooks the wrong material. In many cases, the symptoms of natural toxin poisoning are mild and the patients recover from illness within a day. However, if the patients have respiratory or neurological symptoms after several hours of intake, the patients must go to hospital immediately. Mushroom poisoning is often reported and puffer fish poisoning is sometimes reported in Japan.

  13. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  14. Blackouts and natural risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danihelka, P.; Paldusová, E.; Dobeš, P.

    2009-04-01

    "Blackout" has become the common definition for the situation when electricity supply and demand are not balanced and security of supply fails. These failures have many impacts besides the lights going out, but this term is used commonly. Blackouts have drastic impacts for the society on whole and its citizens and some of them can influence big areas and last for long period, so the consequences are catastrophic. Even if at the European scale, the large extend blackouts are supposed to be exceptional, real frequency is relatively high, approximately once per two years. According to statistics, blackouts are often caused by natural causes, especially lightning. An example of lightning caused blackout is New York blackout 1977, leading to the stand-by of nuclear power plant Indian Point and with overall cost more than 300 mil. USD. There is a clear a distinction between those blackouts caused by nature and those that were caused by other faults. Usually, the nature-caused disturbances as Canada 1988, Sweden 2005 and France 1999, stay inside one country. However, their duration can extend to several weeks, and thus the costs of the interruptions and social impacts are high. Blackouts of only technologic and/or anthropogenic origin are frequently shorter, but may concern more end-users, when cascading from one country to another. Lightning is not the only natural event causing blackouts. Eighteen various case studies of blackout caused by natural events different then lightning were studied and following natural phenomenon found as a root causes: 1x forest fire, 1x snow calamity, 1x ice storm, 1x landslide, 1x high temperature, 1x geomagnetic storm, 2x earthquake, 2x inundation, 2x contact of line with trees, 6x storm (wind, hurricane…). We can conclude, that natural event are frequent cause of blackout of medium or large extend and this phenomena should be studied more in details. This contribution was supported by Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic.

  15. Enhance Nature Exploration with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Patricia; Mahan, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Kids and nature seem like a natural combination, but what was natural a generation ago is different today. Children are spending less time outdoors but continue to need nature for their physical, emotional, and mental development. This fact has led author Richard Louv to suggest that today's children are suffering from "nature-deficit disorder"…

  16. Natural photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol; Simonis, Priscilla

    2012-10-01

    Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.

  17. Nature/culture/seawater.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place in anthropological categories of "nature" and "culture." Seawater as nature appears as potentiality of form and uncontainable flux; it moves faster than culture - with culture frequently figured through land-based metaphors - even as culture seeks to channel water's (nature's) flow. Seawater as culture manifests as a medium of pleasure, sustenance, travel, disaster. I argue that, although seawater's qualities in early anthropology were portrayed impressionistically, today technical, scientific descriptions of water's form prevail. For example, processes of globalization - which may also be called "oceanization" - are often described as "currents," "flows," and "circulations." Examining sea-set ethnography, maritime anthropologies, and contemporary social theory, I propose that seawater has operated as a “theory machine” for generating insights about human cultural organization. I develop this argument with ethnography from the Sargasso Sea and in the Sea Islands. I conclude with a critique of appeals to water's form in social theory. PMID:21560270

  18. Reinventing Natural Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraedts, Caspar L.; Boersma, Kerst Th.

    2006-06-01

    Although many research studies report students’ Lamarckian misconceptions, only a few studies present learning and teaching strategies that focus on the successful development of the concept of natural selection. The learning and teaching strategy for upper secondary students (aged 15 16) presented in this study conducted in The Netherlands is based on the idea of guided reinvention, rather than on the conceptual change strategy. In guided reinvention, students reinvent the concept of natural selection by answering a sequence of questions based on the logical nature of Darwin’s theory. The results show that few Lamarckian explanations for evolution were recorded in the study and that the majority of the students developed a Darwinian or neo-Darwinian conception. The status of Lamarckian misconceptions is challenged.

  19. Explaining immigrant naturalization.

    PubMed

    Yang, P Q

    1994-01-01

    "Prior research on immigrant naturalization has focused mainly on the effects of immigrants' adaptation experiences and demographic characteristics on their propensity to naturalize. This article proposes a broader analytical framework which incorporates immigrants' individual characteristics and larger social contexts in the country of origin and the country of destination to explain the likelihood of citizenship acquisition. The framework is tested for a cohort of recent immigrants, using the PUMS data from the 1980 U.S. census. The results show that economic, political, social, cultural and geographical conditions in the country of origin, and immigrants ethnic communities and urban concentration in the country of destination, to a large extent influence immigrants' propensity for naturalization and that, net of the contextual factors, many of the immigrants' adaptation and demographic characteristics are also significant predictors of citizenship acquisition."

  20. Nature/culture/seawater.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place in anthropological categories of "nature" and "culture." Seawater as nature appears as potentiality of form and uncontainable flux; it moves faster than culture - with culture frequently figured through land-based metaphors - even as culture seeks to channel water's (nature's) flow. Seawater as culture manifests as a medium of pleasure, sustenance, travel, disaster. I argue that, although seawater's qualities in early anthropology were portrayed impressionistically, today technical, scientific descriptions of water's form prevail. For example, processes of globalization - which may also be called "oceanization" - are often described as "currents," "flows," and "circulations." Examining sea-set ethnography, maritime anthropologies, and contemporary social theory, I propose that seawater has operated as a “theory machine” for generating insights about human cultural organization. I develop this argument with ethnography from the Sargasso Sea and in the Sea Islands. I conclude with a critique of appeals to water's form in social theory.

  1. Monitored natural attenuation.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Kirsten S; Salminen, Jani M; Björklöf, Katarina

    2010-01-01

    Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is an in situ remediation technology that relies on naturally occurring and demonstrable processes in soil and groundwater which reduce the mass and concentration of the contaminants. Natural attenuation (NA) involves both aerobic and anaerobic degradation of the contaminants due to the fact that oxygen is used up near the core of the contaminant plume. The aerobic and anaerobic microbial processes can be assessed by microbial activity measurements and molecular biology methods in combination with chemical analyses. The sampling and knowledge on the site conditions are of major importance for the linkage of the results obtained to the conditions in situ. Rates obtained from activity measurements can, with certain limitations, be used in modeling of the fate of contaminants whereas most molecular methods mainly give qualitative information on the microbial community and gene abundances. However, molecular biology methods are fast and describe the in situ communities and avoid the biases inherent to activity assays requiring laboratory incubations.

  2. Brontides: natural explosive noises.

    PubMed

    Gold, T; Soter, S

    1979-04-27

    Episodes of explosive noises of natural origin, or brontides, have been well documented, often in association with seismic activity and in a few cases as precursors to major earthquakes. Ground-to-air acoustic transmission from shallow earthquakes can account for many of these episodes, but not for all, and other causes, such as the sudden eruption of gas from high-pressure sources in the ground may at times have been responsible. Confusion with distant thunder or artillery at times of anomalous sound propagation complicates the analysis, and more recently the greatly increased frequency of artificial explosive noises and sonic booms has tended to mask the recognition of natural brontides. PMID:17757998

  3. Natural environment analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of terrain features on wind loading of the space shuttle while on the launch pad, or during early liftoff, was investigated both qualitatively and quantitatively. The climatology and meteorology producing macroscale wind patterns and characteristics for the Vandenburg Air Force Base launch site are described. Field test data are analyzed, and the nature and characteristic of flow disturbances due to the various terrain features, both natural and man-made, are reviewed. The magnitude of these wind loads are estimated. Finally, effects of turbulence are discussed. It is concluded that the influence of complex terrain can create significant wind loading on the vehicle.

  4. Naturally produced carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco-Santos, C.; Martínez-Hernández, A. L.; Consultchi, A.; Rodríguez, R.; Castaño, V. M.

    2003-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes represent an impressive kind of materials with diverse unexpected properties, and different methods to artificially produce them have been developed. Recently, they have also been synthesized at low temperatures, demonstrating that these materials might exist in fluids or carbon rocks of the Earth's crust. A new type of natural encapsulated carbon nanotubes found in a coal-petroleum mix is presented. These findings show that all allotropic carbon forms known up to date can be produced in Nature, where pressure, catalysts particles, shear stress and parameters other than exclusively very high temperature, seem to play an important role for producing nanotubes.

  5. Natural Cycles, Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Jackman, Charles H.; Rood, R. B.; Aikin, A. C.; Stolarski, R. S.; Mccormick, M. P.; Fahey, David W.

    1992-01-01

    The major gaseous components of the exhaust of stratospheric aircraft are expected to be the products of combustion (CO2 and H2O), odd nitrogen (NO, NO2 HNO3), and products indicating combustion inefficiencies (CO and total unburned hydrocarbons). The species distributions are produced by a balance of photochemical and transport processes. A necessary element in evaluating the impact of aircraft exhaust on the lower stratospheric composition is to place the aircraft emissions in perspective within the natural cycles of stratospheric species. Following are a description of mass transport in the lower stratosphere and a discussion of the natural behavior of the major gaseous components of the stratospheric aircraft exhaust.

  6. Natural language modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J.K.

    1997-11-01

    This seminar describes a process and methodology that uses structured natural language to enable the construction of precise information requirements directly from users, experts, and managers. The main focus of this natural language approach is to create the precise information requirements and to do it in such a way that the business and technical experts are fully accountable for the results. These requirements can then be implemented using appropriate tools and technology. This requirement set is also a universal learning tool because it has all of the knowledge that is needed to understand a particular process (e.g., expense vouchers, project management, budget reviews, tax, laws, machine function).

  7. Natural Freedom and Wilderness Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, George E.

    1978-01-01

    The "naturalism" of Jean Jacques Rousseau offers a philosophical base for wilderness survival: the renewal of participants in nature so that they can reenter civilization with a proper balance of natural and civil liberty. (MJB)

  8. The Nature of Diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, George E.

    1997-10-01

    The paragon of physical perfection and a sparkling example of Earth's forces at work, the diamond has fascinated all realms of society, from starlets to scientists. The Nature of Diamonds is a comprehensive look at nature's most coveted gem. A handsome, large-format book, The Nature of Diamonds is an authoritative and richly-illustrated tribute to the diamond. Leading geologists, gemologists, physicists, and cultural observers cover every facet of the stone, from its formation in the depths of the Earth, its ascent to the surface, and its economic, regal, social, and technological roles. Cutting-edge research takes the reader to the frontiers of diamond exploration and exploitation, from the Arctic wastes to the laboratories where diamonds are created for massive road shredders that rip up and then re-create superhighways. Here also is an overview of cutting, from the rough stones in Roman rings to the highly-faceted stones we see today, and a glimpse into the business of diamonds. Finally, The Nature of Diamonds chronicles scientific and cultural history and explores the diamond as both a sacred and a social symbol, including a picture history of betrothal rings. Wide-ranging illustrations explain the geology of diamonds, chart the history of mining from its origins in India and Brazil through the diamond rush in South Africa and today's high-tech enterprises, and capture the brilliance and beauty of this extraordinary gem. _

  9. Nature as Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tank, Kristina; Moore, Tamara; Strnat, Meg

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the final lesson within a seven-day STEM and literacy unit that is part of the Picture STEM curriculum (pictureSTEM. org) and uses engineering to integrate science and mathematics learning in a meaningful way (Tank and Moore 2013). For this engineering challenge, students used nature as a source of inspiration for designs to…

  10. Picturing the Natural Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Phyllis Scott

    2011-01-01

    Around Scout Island Education Center, a site used by schools in Fresno County to explore the area's natural environment, a total of 200 cylinder-shaped concrete stools display tiles representing small mammals, flying insects, birds, wildflowers, and more. Twenty sets have been created by elementary, middle, and high-school art students as part of…

  11. Designing Nature's Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Diane

    2005-01-01

    In the case of cars and other engineered objects, humans go about the design process in a very intentional way. They pretty much know what they are aiming for. The activity described in this article demonstrates how a computer can simulate biological evolution and the laws of natural selection. The article is divided into the following sections:…

  12. Picturing the Natural World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salia, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    How is the natural environment in the neighborhood representative of the larger biosphere in which people live? Studying the local birds and flora of the Pacific Northwest in the context of the local parks and ponds provided a rich opportunity for third-grade students at St. Thomas School in Medina, Washington, to explore and learn about…

  13. Reinventing Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geraedts, Caspar L.; Boersma, Kerst Th.

    2006-01-01

    Although many research studies report students' Lamarckian misconceptions, only a few studies present learning and teaching strategies that focus on the successful development of the concept of natural selection. The learning and teaching strategy for upper secondary students (aged 15-16) presented in this study conducted in The Netherlands is…

  14. A Biospheric Natural History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomashow, Mitchell

    2001-01-01

    A group of Maine birdwatchers recognizes that the presence or absence of migrating songbirds is related to complex biospheric patterns. For schoolchildren, community groups, and environmental scientists, such local natural history observations can be a pathway to perceiving and understanding global ecological change and then to developing…

  15. Natural Gas Annual

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    Provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States. Production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price data are published by state for the current year. Summary data are presented for each state for the previous 5 years.

  16. Nature in the City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melber, Leah W.

    2000-01-01

    Presents three science activities targeted to help urban students learn about nature: (1) observing coloration patterns of pigeons; (2) measuring local rainfall and comparing it to other areas; and (3) conducting a biodiversity study by observing a patch of lawn. (YDS)

  17. Natural Gas Annual

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States. Production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price data are published by state for the current year. Summary data are presented for each state for the previous 5 years.

  18. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  19. The Nature of Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Alan

    This monograph was written for the purpose of presenting physics to college students who are not preparing for careers in physics. It deals with the nature of atoms, and treats the following topics: (1) the atomic hypothesis, (2) the chemical elements, (3) models of an atom, (4) a particle in a one-dimensional well, (5) a particle in a central…

  20. Geopolitics of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-09

    With almost as many vital economic interests as there were attendees, two natural gas international conferences were held in North America during September and October, to share experience and forecasts. On September 26, the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) and the Calgary Chamber of Commerce sponsored the International Gas Markets Conference and drew 400 persons. And on October 5-6, at the University of Colorado at Boulder, USA, the International Research Center for Energy and Economic Development (ICEED) held its Tenth International Energy Conference on Economic and Political Issues of Natural Gas in International Trade, drawing some 200 experts. The latter seminar was preceded by a two-day seminar on Asian Energy Supplies and Requirements, which also featured natural gas in many of its presentations. To provide an overview of some of these pressing questions, Energy Detente reports on these two comprehensive seminars on natural gas. This issue also presents the fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices for the Eastern Hemisphere for November 1983.

  1. Precipitation: its acidic nature.

    PubMed

    Frohliger, J O; Kane, R

    1975-08-01

    A comparison of the free hydrogen ion concentration and the total hydrogen ion concentration of rain samples shows that rain is a weak acid. The weak acid nature of rain casts doubt on the concepts that the acidity of rain is increasing and that these increases are due to strong acids such as sulfuric acid.

  2. Gaia and natural selection.

    PubMed

    Lenton, T M

    1998-07-30

    Evidence indicates that the Earth self-regulates at a state that is tolerated by life, but why should the organisms that leave the most descendants be the ones that contribute to regulating their planetary environment? The evolving Gaia theory focuses on the feedback mechanisms, stemming from naturally selected traits of organisms, that could generate such self-regulation.

  3. Natural vegetation inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrumpf, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    Unique characteristics of ERTS imagery can be used to inventory natural vegetation. While satellite images can seldom be interpreted and identified directly in terms of vegetation types, such types can be inferred by interpretation of physical terrain features and through an understanding of the ecology of the vegetation.

  4. Natural Resources Education Notebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Eldon C.

    This notebook was developed cooperatively by the United States Soil Conservation Service and Iowa State University to be used by teachers in providing instruction regarding certain aspects of natural resources. It includes four sections which provide: (1) an instructional plan about the conservation provisions of the 1985 Food Security Act; (2) an…

  5. Explaining Immigrant Naturalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Philip Q.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes a broad analytical framework in the study of immigrant naturalization that incorporates an immigrant's individual characteristics with the larger social contexts in the country of origin and the country of destination to explain the likelihood of citizenship acquisition. Results testing of this framework show that such considerations are…

  6. Annatto: a natural choice.

    PubMed

    Evans, W C

    2000-09-01

    Annatto is a pigment derived from the seeds of Bixa orellana. It has been used from antiquity in South America and for over 100 years in Europe. It is now an important safe additive for a wide range of food, partly finding favour due to its natural origin. PMID:11153116

  7. Saving Natural Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Croon, Djuna; Sanz, Verónica E-mail: v.sanz@sussex.ac.uk

    2015-02-01

    Slow-roll inflation requires the inflaton field to have an exceptionally flat potential, which combined with measurements of the scale of inflation demands some degree of fine-tuning. Alternatively, the flatness of the potential could be due to the inflaton's origin as a pseudo-Goldstone boson, as in Natural Inflation. Alas, consistency with Planck data places the original proposal of Natural Inflation in a tight spot, as it requires a trans-Planckian excursion of the inflaton. Although one can still tune the renormalizable potential to sub-Planckian values, higher order corrections from quantum gravity or sources of breaking of the Goldstone symmetry would ruin the predictivity of the model. In this paper we show how in more realistic models of Natural Inflation one could achieve inflation without a trans-Planckian excursion of the field. We show how a variant of Extra-natural inflation with bulk fermions can achieve the desired goal and discuss its four-dimensional duals. We also present a new type of four dimensional models inspired in Little Higgs and Composite Higgs models which can lead to sub-Planckian values of the inflaton field.

  8. Natural fracture systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C.; Warpinski, N.R.

    1992-09-01

    The objectives of this program are (1) to develop a basinal-analysis methodology for natural fracture exploration and exploitation, and (2) to determine the important characteristics of natural fracture systems for use in completion, stimulation, and production operations. Natural-fracture basinal analysis begins with studies of fractures in outcrop, core and logs in order to determine the type of fracturing and the relationship of the fractures to the lithologic environment. Of particular interest are the regional fracture systems that are pervasive in western US tight sand basins. A Methodology for applying this analysis is being developed, with the goal of providing a structure for rationally characterizing natural fracture systems basin-wide. Such basin-wide characterizations can then be expanded and supplemented locally, at sites where production may be favorable. Initial application of this analysis is to the Piceance basin where there is a wealth of data from the Multiwell Experiment (MWX), DOE cooperative wells, and other basin studies conducted by Sandia, CER Corporation, and the USGS (Lorenz and Finley, 1989, Lorenz et aI., 1989, and Spencer and Keighin, 1984). Such a basinal approach has been capable of explaining the fracture characteristics found throughout the southern part of the Piceance basin and along the Grand Hogback.

  9. Demystifying Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Judith; Bartels, Selina; Lederman, Norman; Gnanakkan, Dionysius

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"; NGSS Lead States 2013), it is apparent that teaching and learning about nature of science (NOS) continues to be an important goal of science education for all K-12 students. With this emphasis on NOS, early childhood teachers are asking how to design…

  10. Nature, Education and Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rømer, Thomas Aastrup

    2013-01-01

    In this essay it is argued that the educational philosophy of John Dewey gains in depth and importance by being related to his philosophy of nature, his metaphysics. The result is that any experiental process is situated inside an event, an existence, a thing, and I try to interpret this "thing" as schools or major cultural events such…

  11. Natural hazards science strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research - founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes - can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events. To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science. In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H-SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory

  12. Natural products as photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Saewan, Nisakorn; Jimtaisong, Ampa

    2015-03-01

    The rise in solar ultraviolet radiation on the earth's surface has led to a depletion of stratospheric ozone over recent decades, thus accelerating the need to protect human skin against the harmful effects of UV radiation such as erythema, edema, hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and skin cancer. There are many different ways to protect skin against UV radiation's harmful effects. The most popular way to reduce the amount of UV radiation penetrating the skin is topical application of sunscreen products that contain UV absorbing or reflecting active molecules. Based on their protection mechanism, the active molecules in sunscreens are broadly divided into inorganic and organic agents. Inorganic sunscreens reflect and scatter UV and visible radiation, while organic sunscreens absorb UV radiation and then re-emit energy as heat or light. These synthetic molecules have limited concentration according to regulation concern. Several natural compounds with UV absorption property have been used to substitute for or to reduce the quantity of synthetic sunscreen agents. In addition to UV absorption property, most natural compounds were found to act as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory agents, which provide further protection against the damaging effects of UV radiation exposure. Compounds derived from natural sources have gained considerable attention for use in sunscreen products and have bolstered the market trend toward natural cosmetics. This adds to the importance of there being a wide selection of active molecules in sunscreen formulations. This paper summarizes a number of natural products derived from propolis, plants, algae, and lichens that have shown potential photoprotection properties against UV radiation exposure-induced skin damage. PMID:25582033

  13. Natural products as photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Saewan, Nisakorn; Jimtaisong, Ampa

    2015-03-01

    The rise in solar ultraviolet radiation on the earth's surface has led to a depletion of stratospheric ozone over recent decades, thus accelerating the need to protect human skin against the harmful effects of UV radiation such as erythema, edema, hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and skin cancer. There are many different ways to protect skin against UV radiation's harmful effects. The most popular way to reduce the amount of UV radiation penetrating the skin is topical application of sunscreen products that contain UV absorbing or reflecting active molecules. Based on their protection mechanism, the active molecules in sunscreens are broadly divided into inorganic and organic agents. Inorganic sunscreens reflect and scatter UV and visible radiation, while organic sunscreens absorb UV radiation and then re-emit energy as heat or light. These synthetic molecules have limited concentration according to regulation concern. Several natural compounds with UV absorption property have been used to substitute for or to reduce the quantity of synthetic sunscreen agents. In addition to UV absorption property, most natural compounds were found to act as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory agents, which provide further protection against the damaging effects of UV radiation exposure. Compounds derived from natural sources have gained considerable attention for use in sunscreen products and have bolstered the market trend toward natural cosmetics. This adds to the importance of there being a wide selection of active molecules in sunscreen formulations. This paper summarizes a number of natural products derived from propolis, plants, algae, and lichens that have shown potential photoprotection properties against UV radiation exposure-induced skin damage.

  14. Why Is Nature Beneficial?: The Role of Connectedness to Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, F. Stephan; Frants, Cynthia McPherson; Bruehlman-Senecal, Emma; Dolliver, Kyffin

    2009-01-01

    Three studies examine the effects of exposure to nature on positive affect and ability to reflect on a life problem. Participants spent 15 min walking in a natural setting (Studies 1, 2, & 3), an urban setting (Study 1), or watching videos of natural and urban settings (Studies 2 & 3). In all three studies, exposure to nature increased…

  15. Natural light illumination system.

    PubMed

    Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Chen, Yi-Yung; Yang, Shu-Hua; Pan, Po-Hsuan; Chou, Kao-Hsu; Lee, Yu-Chi; Lee, Zong-Yi; Chen, Chi-An; Chen, Cheng-Nan

    2010-12-10

    In recent years, green energy has undergone a lot of development and has been the subject of many applications. Many research studies have focused on illumination with sunlight as a means of saving energy and creating healthy lighting. Natural light illumination systems have collecting, transmitting, and lighting elements. Today, most daylight collectors use dynamic concentrators; these include Sun tracking systems. However, this design is too expensive to be cost effective. To create a low-cost collector that can be easily installed on a large building, we have designed a static concentrator, which is prismatic and cascadable, to collect sunlight for indoor illumination. The transmission component uses a large number of optical fibers. Because optical fibers are expensive, this means that most of the cost for the system will be related to transmission. In this paper, we also use a prismatic structure to design an optical coupler for coupling n to 1. With the n-to-1 coupler, the number of optical fibers necessary can be greatly reduced. Although this new natural light illumination system can effectively guide collected sunlight and send it to the basement or to other indoor places for healthy lighting, previously there has been no way to manage the collected sunlight when lighting was not desired. To solve this problem, we have designed an optical switch and a beam splitter to control and separate the transmitted light. When replacing traditional sources, the lighting should have similar characteristics, such as intensity distribution and geometric parameters, to those of traditional artificial sources. We have designed, simulated, and optimized an illumination lightpipe with a dot pattern to redistribute the collected sunlight from the natural light illumination system such that it equals the qualities of a traditional lighting system. We also provide an active lighting module that provides lighting from the natural light illumination system or LED auxiliary

  16. Design, science and naturalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, David

    2008-09-01

    The Design Argument is the proposition that the presence of order in the universe is evidence for the existence of God. The Argument dates at least to the presocratic Greek philosophers, and is largely based on analogical reasoning. Following the appearance of Aquinas' Summa Theologica in the 13th century, the Christian Church in Europe embraced a Natural Theology based on observation and reason that allowed it to dominate the entire world of knowledge. Science in turn advanced itself by demonstrating that it could be of service to theology, the recognized queen of the sciences. During the heyday of British Natural Theology in the 17th and 18th centuries, the watchmaker, shipbuilder, and architect analogies were invoked reflexively by philosophers, theologians, and scientists. The Design Argument was not systematically and analytically criticized until David Hume wrote Dialogues on Natural Religion in the 1750s. After Darwin published Origin of Species in 1859, Design withered on the vine. But in recent years, the Argument has been resurrected under the appellation "intelligent design," and been the subject of political and legal controversy in the United States. Design advocates have argued that intelligent design can be formulated as a scientific hypothesis, that new scientific discoveries validate a design inference, and that naturalism must be removed as a methodological requirement in science. If science is defined by a model of concentric epistemological zonation, design cannot be construed as a scientific hypothesis because it is inconsistent with the core aspects of scientific methodology: naturalism, uniformity, induction, and efficient causation. An analytical examination of claims by design advocates finds no evidence of any type to support either scientific or philosophical claims that design can be unambiguously inferred from nature. The apparent irreducible complexity of biological mechanisms may be explained by exaptation or scaffolding. The argument

  17. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-05-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V = Δ4(1 + acos( ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ɛ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  18. Noncariogenic intense natural sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Kinghorn, A D; Kaneda, N; Baek, N I; Kennelly, E J; Soejarto, D D

    1998-09-01

    There is a definite relationship between the dietary consumption of sucrose and the incidence of dental caries. Noncaloric sucrose substitutes for use in the sweetening of foods, beverages, and medicines may be either synthetic compounds or natural products. In the United States, four potently sweet artificial sweeteners are approved, namely, saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame potassium, and sucralose. Highly sweet plant constituents are used in Japan and some other countries, including the diterpene glycoside stevioside and the protein thaumatin. Recent progress in a research project oriented towards the discovery and evaluation of novel potentially noncariogenic sweeteners from plants has focused on substances in the sesquiterpenoid, diterpenoid, triterpenoid, steroidal saponin, and proanthocyanidin structural classes. The feasibility of using Mongolian gerbil electrophysiological and behavioral assays to monitor the sweetness of plant extracts, chromatographic fractions, and pure isolates has been investigated. An in vivo cariogenicity study on the commercially available natural sweeteners stevioside and rebaudioside A has been carried out. PMID:9735874

  19. Natural Products for Antithrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cen; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Feng-Qin; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Xia, Zhi-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Thrombosis is considered to be closely related to several diseases such as atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease and stroke, as well as rheumatoid arthritis, hyperuricemia, and various inflammatory conditions. More and more studies have been focused on understanding the mechanism of molecular and cellular basis of thrombus formation as well as preventing thrombosis for the treatment of thrombotic diseases. In reality, there is considerable interest in the role of natural products and their bioactive components in the prevention and treatment of thrombosis related disorders. This paper briefly describes the mechanisms of thrombus formation on three aspects, including coagulation system, platelet activation, and aggregation, and change of blood flow conditions. Furthermore, the natural products for antithrombosis by anticoagulation, antiplatelet aggregation, and fibrinolysis were summarized, respectively. PMID:26075003

  20. Natural gas repowering experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bautista, P.J.; Fay, J.M.; Gerber, F.B.

    1995-12-31

    Gas Research Institute has led a variety of projects in the past two years with respect to repowering with natural gas. These activities, including workshops, technology evaluations, and market assessments, have indicated that a significant opportunity for repowering exists. It is obvious that the electric power industry`s restructuring and the actual implementation of environmental regulations from the Clean Air Act Amendments will have significant impact on repowering with respect to timing and ultimate size of the market. This paper summarizes the results and implications of these activities in repowering with natural gas. It first addresses the size of the potential market and discusses some of the significant issues with respect to this market potential. It then provides a perspective on technical options for repowering which are likely to be competitive in the current environment. Finally, it addresses possible actions by the gas industry and GRI to facilitate development of the repowering market.

  1. Responses to natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Since 1964, natural disasters caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or extreme weather in the form of floods, droughts, or hurricanes, have been responsible for more than 2,756,000 deaths worldwide in nations other than the United States, the Soviet Union, and the Eastern European Bloc, according to figures tabulated by the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) of the Agency for International Development (AID). Over 95% of these fatalities occurred in developing or third world countries. Damage resulting from these calamities has been severe but extremely difficult to estimate in monetary terms. In 1986, U.S. government and voluntary agencies spent $303 million on natural disaster assistance around the world, 79% of total world assistance. In 1985 the U.S. total was nearly $900 million, 48% of the $1.84 billion world total.

  2. Safer Liquid Natural Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After the disaster of Staten Island in 1973 where 40 people were killed repairing a liquid natural gas storage tank, the New York Fire Commissioner requested NASA's help in drawing up a comprehensive plan to cover the design, construction, and operation of liquid natural gas facilities. Two programs are underway. The first transfers comprehensive risk management techniques and procedures which take the form of an instruction document that includes determining liquid-gas risks through engineering analysis and tests, controlling these risks by setting up redundant fail safe techniques, and establishing criteria calling for decisions that eliminate or accept certain risks. The second program prepares a liquid gas safety manual (the first of its kind).

  3. [Secrets of nature].

    PubMed

    Molnar, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The article examines a group photograph of the Psychiatry and Neurology section of the 66th Meeting of the Society of German Natural Scientists and Doctors in Vienna, September 24-30, 1894 which Sigmund Freud attended. The society's origins in Naturphilosophie are indicated and a number of the participants are identified on the photo. They and the events at the conference are related to Sigmund Freud's work at the time and to his gradual abandonment of anatomy, and of heredity and degeneration as significant aetiological factors in the neuroses. Philosophical problems, such as how phenomena should be described and how "nature" is conceptualized, are also considered in the light of their implications for Freud's life and thought at that period.

  4. Naturally selecting solutions

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Timmy; Sleator, Roy D; Walsh, Paul

    2013-01-01

    For decades, computer scientists have looked to nature for biologically inspired solutions to computational problems; ranging from robotic control to scheduling optimization. Paradoxically, as we move deeper into the post-genomics era, the reverse is occurring, as biologists and bioinformaticians look to computational techniques, to solve a variety of biological problems. One of the most common biologically inspired techniques are genetic algorithms (GAs), which take the Darwinian concept of natural selection as the driving force behind systems for solving real world problems, including those in the bioinformatics domain. Herein, we provide an overview of genetic algorithms and survey some of the most recent applications of this approach to bioinformatics based problems. PMID:23222169

  5. Notes on natural inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonekura, Kazuya

    2014-10-01

    In the so-called natural inflation, an axion-like inflaton is assumed to have a cosine-type periodic potential. This is not the case in a very simple model in which the axion-like inflaton is coupled to an SU(N) (or other) pure Yang-Mills, at least in the large N limit as pointed out by Witten. It has a multi-valued potential, which is effectively quadratic, i.e., there is only a mass term in the large N limit. Thanks to this property, chaotic inflation can be realized more naturally with the decay constant of the axion-like inflaton less than the Planck scale. We demonstrate these points explicitly by using softly broken Script N=1 Super-Yang-Mills which allows us to treat finite N. This analysis also suggests that moderately large gauge groups such as E8 are good enough with a Planck scale decay constant.

  6. The natural holistic imperative.

    PubMed

    Kermode, Stephen

    2002-10-01

    Biodiversity is nature's expression of the principle of holism. This 'natural holistic imperative' is manifested in all aspects of the environment. While environmental health originated through a concern for protecting humans from environmental risks, it is now concerned with protecting the environment from the activities of humans. In order to protect the health of humans, there is a need to be concerned with protection of the biosphere. Moreover, the environmental crisis is essentially a crisis in spirituality, and a spirituality that respects and nurtures the non-human parts of our universe as much as it does the human ones is likely to be the only means of securing the health and happiness of humanity.

  7. Great natural gas swindle

    SciTech Connect

    Karkkainen, B.

    1981-07-01

    The Citizen/Labor Energy Coalition (C/LEC) is challenging natural gas deregulation bids by oil companies, which control 70% of domestic gas production, that will double or triple costs to consumers by 1985. Price increases will affect the cost of consumer goods, food, and several basic industries as well as residential heating bills. C/LEC disagrees with the Reagan administration that decontrol is needed to encourage production because this did not happen with the incentives provided by the Natural Gas Policy Act. Conservation will not be affected either because the capital needed for conservation investment will be used for higher gas bills. With higher employment another direct result, the only beneficiaries of decontrol appear to be the producers. (DCK)

  8. Natural environment analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Qualitative analyses (and quantitatively to the extend possible) of the influence of terrain features on wind loading of the space shuttle while on the launch pad, or during early liftoff, are presented. Initially, the climatology and meteorology producing macroscale wind patterns and characteristics fot he Vandenburg Air Force Base (VAFB) launch site are described. Also, limited field test data are analyzed, and then the nature and characteristic of flow disturbances due to the various terrain features, both natural and man-made, are then reviewed. Following this, the magnitude of these wind loads are estimated. Finally, effects of turbulence are discussed. The study concludes that the influence of complex terrain can create significant wind loading on the vehicle. Because of the limited information, it is not possible to quantify the magnitude of these loads.

  9. Principles of Natural Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Krewald, Vera; Retegan, Marius; Pantazis, Dimitrios A

    2016-01-01

    Nature relies on a unique and intricate biochemical setup to achieve sunlight-driven water splitting. Combined experimental and computational efforts have produced significant insights into the structural and functional principles governing the operation of the water-oxidizing enzyme Photosystem II in general, and of the oxygen-evolving manganese-calcium cluster at its active site in particular. Here we review the most important aspects of biological water oxidation, emphasizing current knowledge on the organization of the enzyme, the geometric and electronic structure of the catalyst, and the role of calcium and chloride cofactors. The combination of recent experimental work on the identification of possible substrate sites with computational modeling have considerably limited the possible mechanistic pathways for the critical O-O bond formation step. Taken together, the key features and principles of natural photosynthesis may serve as inspiration for the design, development, and implementation of artificial systems. PMID:26099285

  10. Natural convective mixing flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Eduardo; de La Cruz, Luis; del Castillo, Luis

    1998-11-01

    Natural convective mixing flows. Eduardo Ramos and Luis M. de La Cruz, National University of Mexico and Luis Del Castillo San Luis Potosi University. The possibility of mixing a fluid with a natural convective flow is analysed by solving numerically the mass, momentum and energy equations in a cubic container. Two opposite vertical walls of the container are assumed to have temperatures that oscillate as functions of time. The phase of the oscillations is chosen in such a way that alternating corrotating vortices are formed in the cavity. The mixing efficiency of this kind of flow is examined with a Lagrangian tracking technique. This work was partially financed by CONACyT-Mexico project number GE0044

  11. Noncariogenic intense natural sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Kinghorn, A D; Kaneda, N; Baek, N I; Kennelly, E J; Soejarto, D D

    1998-09-01

    There is a definite relationship between the dietary consumption of sucrose and the incidence of dental caries. Noncaloric sucrose substitutes for use in the sweetening of foods, beverages, and medicines may be either synthetic compounds or natural products. In the United States, four potently sweet artificial sweeteners are approved, namely, saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame potassium, and sucralose. Highly sweet plant constituents are used in Japan and some other countries, including the diterpene glycoside stevioside and the protein thaumatin. Recent progress in a research project oriented towards the discovery and evaluation of novel potentially noncariogenic sweeteners from plants has focused on substances in the sesquiterpenoid, diterpenoid, triterpenoid, steroidal saponin, and proanthocyanidin structural classes. The feasibility of using Mongolian gerbil electrophysiological and behavioral assays to monitor the sweetness of plant extracts, chromatographic fractions, and pure isolates has been investigated. An in vivo cariogenicity study on the commercially available natural sweeteners stevioside and rebaudioside A has been carried out.

  12. Reasons to Conserve Nature.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Richard G

    2016-05-01

    Is it sufficient to base arguments for conservation on the intrinsic value of nature, regardless of the services and economic benefits that biodiversity provides for humans? This question underlies much recent debate that has been at times acrimonious and has led to calls for a more inclusive approach to conservation. Yet melding different ideologies within a unified conceptual framework has proven difficult. Here I describe an approach that recognizes the importance of the level of biological organization and spatial extent in determining the strength of alternative arguments for why we should conserve nature. I argue that the framework helps reconcile contrasting viewpoints and brings clarity to when different conservation management approaches (for instance, regulation versus monetary valuation) are most appropriate. PMID:26936225

  13. Epidemics after Natural Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Gayer, Michelle; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between natural disasters and communicable diseases is frequently misconstrued. The risk for outbreaks is often presumed to be very high in the chaos that follows natural disasters, a fear likely derived from a perceived association between dead bodies and epidemics. However, the risk factors for outbreaks after disasters are associated primarily with population displacement. The availability of safe water and sanitation facilities, the degree of crowding, the underlying health status of the population, and the availability of healthcare services all interact within the context of the local disease ecology to influence the risk for communicable diseases and death in the affected population. We outline the risk factors for outbreaks after a disaster, review the communicable diseases likely to be important, and establish priorities to address communicable diseases in disaster settings. PMID:17370508

  14. Biofouling: lessons from nature.

    PubMed

    Bixler, Gregory D; Bhushan, Bharat

    2012-05-28

    Biofouling is generally undesirable for many applications. An overview of the medical, marine and industrial fields susceptible to fouling is presented. Two types of fouling include biofouling from organism colonization and inorganic fouling from non-living particles. Nature offers many solutions to control fouling through various physical and chemical control mechanisms. Examples include low drag, low adhesion, wettability (water repellency and attraction), microtexture, grooming, sloughing, various miscellaneous behaviours and chemical secretions. A survey of nature's flora and fauna was taken in order to discover new antifouling methods that could be mimicked for engineering applications. Antifouling methods currently employed, ranging from coatings to cleaning techniques, are described. New antifouling methods will presumably incorporate a combination of physical and chemical controls.

  15. Notes on natural inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Yonekura, Kazuya

    2014-10-01

    In the so-called natural inflation, an axion-like inflaton is assumed to have a cosine-type periodic potential. This is not the case in a very simple model in which the axion-like inflaton is coupled to an SU(N) (or other) pure Yang–Mills, at least in the large N limit as pointed out by Witten. It has a multi-valued potential, which is effectively quadratic, i.e., there is only a mass term in the large N limit. Thanks to this property, chaotic inflation can be realized more naturally with the decay constant of the axion-like inflaton less than the Planck scale. We demonstrate these points explicitly by using softly broken N=1 Super-Yang-Mills which allows us to treat finite N. This analysis also suggests that moderately large gauge groups such as E{sub 8} are good enough with a Planck scale decay constant.

  16. Nature's Greatest Puzzles

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2005-02-01

    It is a pleasure to be part of the SLAC Summer Institute again, not simply because it is one of the great traditions in our field, but because this is a moment of great promise for particle physics. I look forward to exploring many opportunities with you over the course of our two weeks together. My first task in talking about Nature's Greatest Puzzles, the title of this year's Summer Institute, is to deconstruct the premise a little bit.

  17. Natural and artificial tanning.

    PubMed

    Clore, E R

    1995-01-01

    Although sunlight is beneficial to provide light and warmth and aids the body in the formation of vitamin D, tanning is potentially damaging to an individual's health. The incidence of skin cancer and retinal damage from both natural and artificial light is on the rise. This article explores the concept of tanning, types of ultraviolet rays and related health hazards. Health care provider interventions for prevention and client education are also emphasized.

  18. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W.

    1997-05-01

    Cryenco and Los Alamos are collaborating to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that will have no moving parts and require no electrical power. It will have useful efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at only 115 Kelvin at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 invention of the thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse-tube refrigerator (TA-DOPTR) provides cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts for the first time. In short, this invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The required apparatus consists of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. In the Cryenco-Los Alamos collaboration, the authors are developing a version of this invention suitable for use in the natural-gas industry. The project is known as acoustic liquefier for short. The present program plans call for a two-phase development. Phase 1, with capacity of 500 gallon per day (i.e., approximately 40,000 scfd, requiring a refrigeration power of about 7 kW), is large enough to illuminate all the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction without undue cost, and to demonstrate the liquefaction of 60--70% of input gas, while burning 30--40%. Phase 2 will target versions of approximately 10{sup 6} scfd = 10,000 gallon per day capacity. In parallel with both, they continue fundamental research on the technology, directed toward increased efficiency, to build scientific foundations and a patent portfolio for future acoustic liquefiers.

  19. Geomorphology and natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gares, Paul A.; Sherman, Douglas J.; Nordstrom, Karl F.

    1994-08-01

    Natural hazards research was initiated in the 1960's by Gilbert White and his students who promulgated a research paradigm that involved assessing risk from a natural event, identifying adjustments to cope with the hazard, determining people's perception of the event, defining the process by which people choose adjustments, and estimating the effects of public policy on the choice process. Studies of the physical system played an important role in early research, but criticismsof the paradigm resulted in a shift to a prominence of social science. Geomorphologists are working to fill gaps in knowledge of the physical aspects of individual hazards, but use of the information by social scientists will only occur if information is presented in a format that is useful to them. One format involves identifying the hazard according to seven physical parameters established by White and his colleagues: magnitude, frequency, duration, areal extent, speed of onset, spatial dispersion, and temporal spacing. Geomorphic hazards are regarded as related to landscape changes that affect human systems. The processes that produce the changes are rarely geomorphic in nature, but are better regarded as atmospheric or hydrologic. An examination of geomorphic hazards in four fields — soil erosion, mass movement, coastal erosion and fluvial erosion — demonstrates that advances in those fields may be evaluated in terms of the seven parameters. Geomorphologists have contributed to hazard research by focusing on the dynamics of the landforms. The prediction of occurence, the determination of spatial and temporal characteristics, the impact of physical characteristics on people's perception, and the impact of physical characteristics on adjustment formulation. Opportunities for geomorphologists to improve our understanding of geomorphic hazards include research into the characteristics of the events particularly with respect to predicting the occurence, and increased evaluation of the

  20. Natural Underwater Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Russell J.; Ransom, Todd C.; Hlady, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The general topic of this review is protein-based underwater adhesives produced by aquatic organisms. The focus is on mechanisms of interfacial adhesion to native surfaces and controlled underwater solidification of natural water-borne adhesives. Four genera that exemplify the broad range of function, general mechanistic features, and unique adaptations are discussed in detail: blue mussels, acorn barnacles, sandcastle worms, and freshwater caddisfly larva. Aquatic surfaces in nature are charged and in equilibrium with their environment, populated by an electrical double layer of ions as well as adsorbed natural polyelectrolytes and microbial biofilms. Surface adsorption of underwater bioadhesives likely occurs by exchange of surface bound ligands by amino acid sidechains, driven primarily by relative affinities and effective concentrations of polymeric functional groups. Most aquatic organisms exploit modified amino acid sidechains, in particular phosphorylated serines and hydroxylated tyrosines (dopa), with high-surface affinity that form coordinative surface complexes. After delivery to the surfaces as a fluid, permanent natural adhesives solidify to bear sustained loads. Mussel plaques are assembled in a manner superficially reminiscent of in vitro layer-by-layer strategies, with sequentially delivered layers associated through Fe(dopa)3 coordination bonds. The adhesives of sandcastle worms, caddisfly larva, and barnacles may be delivered in a form somewhat similar to in vitro complex coacervation. Marine adhesives are secreted, or excreted, into seawater that has a significantly higher pH and ionic strength than the internal environment. Empirical evidence suggests these environment triggers could provide minimalistic, fail-safe timing mechanisms to prevent premature solidification (insolubilization) of the glue within the secretory system, yet allow rapid solidification after secretion. Underwater bioadhesives are further strengthened by secondary covalent

  1. Microflyers: inspiration from nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirohi, Jayant

    2013-04-01

    Over the past decade, there has been considerable interest in miniaturizing aircraft to create a class of extremely small, robotic vehicles with a gross mass on the order of tens of grams and a dimension on the order of tens of centimeters. These are collectively refered to as micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) or microflyers. Because the size of microflyers is on the same order as that of small birds and large insects, engineers are turning to nature for inspiration. Bioinspired concepts make use of structural or aerodynamic mechanisms that are observed in insects and birds, such as elastic energy storage and unsteady aerodynamics. Biomimetic concepts attempt to replicate the form and function of natural flyers, such as flapping-wing propulsion and external appearance. This paper reviews recent developments in the area of man-made microflyers. The design space for microflyers will be described, along with fundamental physical limits to miniaturization. Key aerodynamic phenomena at the scale of microflyers will be highlighted. Because the focus is on bioinspiration and biomimetics, scaled-down versions of conventional aircraft, such as fixed wing micro air vehicles and microhelicopters will not be addressed. A few representative bioinspired and biomimetic microflyer concepts developed by researchers will be described in detail. Finally, some of the sensing mechanisms used by natural flyers that are being implemented in man-made microflyers will be discussed.

  2. Future natural gas supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despite recent optimism about the outlook for the future supply of domestic conventional natural gas, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) finds insufficient evidence to clearly justify either an optimistic or a pessimistic view. In a technical memorandum entitled “U.S. Natural Gas Availability: Conventional Gas Supply Through the Year 2000,” released recently by Rep. Philip R. Sharp (D-Ind,), chairman of the Subcommittee on Fossil and Synthetic Fuels of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, OTA concluded that substantial technical uncertainties prevented a reliable estimation of the likely natural gas production rates for later in this century. Even ignoring the potential for significant changes in gas prices and technology, OTA estimated that conventional gas production by the lower 48 states in the year 2000 could range from 9 to 19 trillion cubic feet (TCF) (0.25 to 0.53 trillion cubic meters), compared to 1982 production of 17.5 TCF. Similarly, production in the year 1990 could range from 13 to 20 TCF.

  3. Natural language generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    The goal of natural language generation is to replicate human writers or speakers: to generate fluent, grammatical, and coherent text or speech. Produced language, using both explicit and implicit means, must clearly and effectively express some intended message. This demands the use of a lexicon and a grammar together with mechanisms which exploit semantic, discourse and pragmatic knowledge to constrain production. Furthermore, special processors may be required to guide focus, extract presuppositions, and maintain coherency. As with interpretation, generation may require knowledge of the world, including information about the discourse participants as well as knowledge of the specific domain of discourse. All of these processes and knowledge sources must cooperate to produce well-written, unambiguous language. Natural language generation has received less attention than language interpretation due to the nature of language: it is important to interpret all the ways of expressing a message but we need to generate only one. Furthermore, the generative task can often be accomplished by canned text (e.g., error messages or user instructions). The advent of more sophisticated computer systems, however, has intensified the need to express multisentential English.

  4. Natural death while driving.

    PubMed

    Oström, M; Eriksson, A

    1987-07-01

    Of sudden natural deaths while driving, 126 occurred during 1980 through 1985 in the northern half of Sweden. The mean age of the 69 car driver victims was 59 years, considerably higher than that of traumatic car deaths, and all but 2 were males. The mean age of 57 operators of other vehicles was 66 years, and of these, 6 were women. Seven car drivers were stricken during commercial employment. Most accidents occurred during daytime and the distribution of the weekdays was fairly even. Ischemic heart disease accounted for 112 deaths, and other cardiovascular diseases for an additional 9 deaths. Only 1/5 of the victims experienced previous symptoms of disease. Out of at least 31 other persons at risk in the car deaths, only 2 passengers suffered minor injuries. The trauma in the deceased was in most cases minor in both car and other vehicle deaths. Property damage was also minimal. At least 1/3 of the drivers were able to stop the car before becoming unconscious. In none of the car cases was alcohol detected in the blood, while alcohol was identified in at least 2 of the other vehicle victims. The findings here agree with previous studies that natural deaths at the wheel are fairly uncommon, and that the risk for other persons is not significant. The value of adequate postmortem examinations of drivers dying in traffic is stressed--natural deaths can otherwise be overlooked. PMID:3612079

  5. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-12-11

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this report, but are planned to be included in the hydrology

  6. World Natural Gas Model

    1994-12-01

    RAMSGAS, the Research and Development Analysis Modeling System World Natural Gas Model, was developed to support planning of unconventional gaseoues fuels research and development. The model is a scenario analysis tool that can simulate the penetration of unconventional gas into world markets for oil and gas. Given a set of parameter values, the model estimates the natural gas supply and demand for the world for the period from 1980 to 2030. RAMSGAS is based onmore » a supply/demand framwork and also accounts for the non-renewable nature of gas resources. The model has three fundamental components: a demand module, a wellhead production cost module, and a supply/demand interface module. The demand for gas is a product of total demand for oil and gas in each of 9 demand regions and the gas share. Demand for oil and gas is forecast from the base year of 1980 through 2030 for each demand region, based on energy growth rates and price-induced conservation. For each of 11 conventional and 19 unconventional gas supply regions, wellhead production costs are calculated. To these are added transportation and distribution costs estimates associated with moving gas from the supply region to each of the demand regions and any economic rents. Based on a weighted average of these costs and the world price of oil, fuel shares for gas and oil are computed for each demand region. The gas demand is the gas fuel share multiplied by the total demand for oil plus gas. This demand is then met from the available supply regions in inverse proportion to the cost of gas from each region. The user has almost complete control over the cost estimates for each unconventional gas source in each year and thus can compare contributions from unconventional resources under different cost/price/demand scenarios.« less

  7. Nature, nurture and epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Crews, David; Gillette, Ross; Miller-Crews, Isaac; Gore, Andrea C; Skinner, Michael K

    2014-12-01

    Real life by definition combines heritability (e.g., the legacy of exposures) and experience (e.g. stress during sensitive or 'critical' periods), but how to study or even model this interaction has proven difficult. The hoary concept of evaluating traits according to nature versus nurture continues to persist despite repeated demonstrations that it retards, rather than advances, our understanding of biological processes. Behavioral genetics has proven the obvious, that genes influence behavior and, vice versa, that behavior influences genes. The concept of Genes X Environment (G X E) and its modern variants was viewed as an improvement on nature-nurture but has proven that, except in rare instances, it is not possible to fractionate phenotypes into these constituent elements. The entanglement inherent in terms such as nature-nurture or G X E is a Gordian knot that cannot be dissected or even split. Given that the world today is not what it was less than a century ago, yet the arbitrator (differential survival and reproduction) has stayed constant, de novo principles and practices are needed to better predict what the future holds. Put simply, the transformation that is now occurring within and between individuals as a product of global endocrine disruption is quite independent of what has been regarded as evolution by selection. This new perspective should focus on how epigenetic modifications might revise approaches to understand how the phenotype and, in particular its components, is shaped. In this review we summarize the literature in this developing area, focusing on our research on the fungicide vinclozolin. PMID:25102229

  8. Nature Inspired Surface Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubner, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Materials Scientists more and more are looking to nature for clues on how to create highly functional surface coatings with exceptional properties. The fog harvesting capabilities of the Namib Desert beetle, the beautiful iridescent colors of the hummingbird, and the super water repellant abilities of the Lotus leaf are but a few examples of the amazing properties developed over many years in the natural world. Nature also makes extensive use of the pH-dependent behavior of weak functional groups such as carboxylic acid and amine functional groups. This presentation will explore synthetic mimics to the nano- and microstructures responsible for these fascinating properties. For example, we have demonstrated a pH-induced porosity transition that can be used to create porous films with pore sizes that are tunable from the nanometer scale to the multiple micron scale. The pores of these films, either nano- or micropores, can be reversibly opened and closed by changes in solution pH. The ability to engineer pH-gated porosity transitions in heterostructured thin films has led to the demonstration of broadband anti-reflection coatings that mimic the anti-reflection properties of the moth eye and pH-tunable Bragg reflectors with a structure and function similar to that found in hummingbird wings and the Longhorn beetle. In addition, the highly textured honeycomb-like surfaces created by the formation of micron-scale pores are ideally suited for the creation of superhydrophobic surfaces that mimic the behavior of the self-cleaning lotus leaf. The development of synthetic "backbacks" on immune system cells that may one day ferry drugs to disease sites will also be discussed.

  9. Nature, nurture and epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Crews, David; Gillette, Ross; Miller-Crews, Isaac; Gore, Andrea C; Skinner, Michael K

    2014-12-01

    Real life by definition combines heritability (e.g., the legacy of exposures) and experience (e.g. stress during sensitive or 'critical' periods), but how to study or even model this interaction has proven difficult. The hoary concept of evaluating traits according to nature versus nurture continues to persist despite repeated demonstrations that it retards, rather than advances, our understanding of biological processes. Behavioral genetics has proven the obvious, that genes influence behavior and, vice versa, that behavior influences genes. The concept of Genes X Environment (G X E) and its modern variants was viewed as an improvement on nature-nurture but has proven that, except in rare instances, it is not possible to fractionate phenotypes into these constituent elements. The entanglement inherent in terms such as nature-nurture or G X E is a Gordian knot that cannot be dissected or even split. Given that the world today is not what it was less than a century ago, yet the arbitrator (differential survival and reproduction) has stayed constant, de novo principles and practices are needed to better predict what the future holds. Put simply, the transformation that is now occurring within and between individuals as a product of global endocrine disruption is quite independent of what has been regarded as evolution by selection. This new perspective should focus on how epigenetic modifications might revise approaches to understand how the phenotype and, in particular its components, is shaped. In this review we summarize the literature in this developing area, focusing on our research on the fungicide vinclozolin.

  10. Vancomycin assembly: nature's way.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Brian K; Walsh, Christopher T

    2003-02-17

    Antibiotics are precious resources in the fight to combat bacterial infections caused by pathogenic organisms. Vancomycin is one of the antibiotics of last resort in the treatment of life-threatening infections by gram-positive bacteria. The rules by which nature assembles the glycopeptide (vancomycin) and lipoglycopeptide (teicoplanin) antibiotics are becoming elucidated and verified: first amino acids are synthesized, then joined together and cross-linked. This knowledge opens up approaches for reprogramming strategies at the level of altered monomers, swapped assembly lines, and different post-assembly tailoring enzymes.

  11. Turbulent Plumes in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    This review describes a range of natural processes leading to the formation of turbulent buoyant plumes, largely relating to volcanic processes, in which there are localized, intense releases of energy. Phenomena include volcanic eruption columns, bubble plumes in lakes, hydrothermal plumes, and plumes beneath the ice in polar oceans. We assess how the dynamics is affected by heat transfer, particle fallout and recycling, and Earth's rotation, as well as explore some of the mixing of the ambient fluid produced by plumes in a confined geometry.

  12. Natural Killer Cell Memory.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Timothy E; Sun, Joseph C; Lanier, Lewis L

    2015-10-20

    Natural killer (NK) cells have historically been considered short-lived cytolytic cells that can rapidly respond against pathogens and tumors in an antigen-independent manner and then undergo cell death. Recently, however, NK cells have been shown to possess traits of adaptive immunity and can acquire immunological memory in a manner similar to that of T and B cells. In this review, we discuss evidence of NK cell memory and the mechanisms involved in the generation and survival of these innate lymphocytes.

  13. "Naturally occurring asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnard, F.; Lahondère, D.; Blein, O.; Lahfid, A.; Wille, G.

    2012-04-01

    The term asbestos refers to six silicate minerals from amphibole and serpentine groups. By definition, it consists in bundles of thin and flexible long fibers, with high-tensile strength, and chemical and heat resistance. In contrast to asbestos found within commercial products and mining, the specific term ''naturally occurring asbestos'' (NOA) refers to asbestiform minerals occurring within rocks or soils that can be released by human activities or weathering processes. The fact that the exposure to asbestos is related to lung pathologies is now widely demonstrated (e.g. asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). However, if health risks associated with exposure to NOA exist, they are not yet well documented. The crystallization of natural asbestos occurs in specific Mg-rich lithologies associated with peculiar structural and metamorphic conditions. By recognizing and combining such specific geologic criteria, the presence or the absence of asbestos in bedrock terrains can be reasonably predicted and maps of NOA hazard can be drawn. We present here new results of geological mapping and petrological study concerning the evaluation of the NOA hazard in the Alps and Corsica, in France. The three folds approach consists in (1) a determination of lithologies with potential NOA from a bibliographic compilation and extraction of target zones from a geological geodatabase (2) a geological mapping of the target zones followed by a petrological characterization of sampled asbestiform minerals in the laboratory (optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy technics), and (3) the drawing of the final map of NOA hazard, at regional-scale. Occurrence criteria can be retained as follows: 1. NOA are abundant in the internal zones of the Alps and Corsica, especially within ophiolitic complexes. Natural asbestos are mostly concentrated within ultramafic rocks but can also occur within basic lithologies such as Mg-metagabbros, metabasalts and meta-pillow-lavas, 2. Asbestos

  14. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2015-02-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2013 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 982 citations (644 for the period January to December 2013) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1163 for 2013), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included.

  15. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2014 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 1116 citations (753 for the period January to December 2014) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1378 in 456 papers for 2014), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included.

  16. Natural Analogue Synthesis Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Simmons

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature, along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement drift degradation, waste form degradation, waste package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated zone (SZ) transport, impact of radionuclide

  17. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2014-01-17

    This review covers the literature published in 2012 for marine natural products, with 1035 citations (673 for the period January to December 2012) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1241 for 2012), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:24389707

  18. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2015-02-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2013 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 982 citations (644 for the period January to December 2013) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1163 for 2013), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:25620233

  19. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2014 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 1116 citations (753 for the period January to December 2014) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1378 in 456 papers for 2014), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:26837534

  20. Gluino meets flavored naturalness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanke, Monika; Fuks, Benjamin; Galon, Iftah; Perez, Gilad

    2016-04-01

    We study constraints from LHC run I on squark and gluino masses in the presence of squark flavor violation. Inspired by the concept of `flavored naturalness', we focus on the impact of a non-zero stop-scharm mixing and mass splitting in the right-handed sector. To this end, we recast four searches of the ATLAS and CMS collaborations, dedicated either to third generation squarks, to gluino and squarks of the first two generations, or to charm-squarks. In the absence of extra structure, the mass of the gluino provides an additional source of fine tuning and is therefore important to consider within models of flavored naturalness that allow for relatively light squark states. When combining the searches, the resulting constraints in the plane of the lightest squark and gluino masses are rather stable with respect to the presence of flavor-violation, and do not allow for gluino masses of less than 1.2 TeV and squarks lighter than about 550 GeV. While these constraints are stringent, interesting models with sizable stop-scharm mixing and a relatively light squark state are still viable and could be observed in the near future.

  1. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    In collaboration with Cryenco Inc. and NIST-Boulder, we intend to develop a natural gas-powered natural-gas liquefier which has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It will have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. Progress on the liquefier to be constructed at Cryenco continues satisfactorily. The thermoacoustic driver is still ahead of the pulse tube refrigerator, because of NIST`s schedule. We completed the thermoacoustics design in the fall of 1994, with Los Alamos providing physics input and checks of all aspects, and Cryenco providing engineering to ASME code, drafting, etc. Completion of this design represents a significant amount of work, especially in view of the many unexpected problems encountered. Meanwhile, Cryenco and NIST have almost completed the design of the pulse tube refrigerator. At Los Alamos, we have assembled a half-size scale model of the thermoacoustic portion of the 500 gal/day TANGL. This scale model will enable easy experimentation in harmonic suppression techniques, new stack geometries, new heat-exchanger geometries, resonator coiling, and other areas. As of March 1995, the scale model is complete and we are performing routine debugging tests and modifications.

  2. Naturally Occurring Food Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Laurie C.; Matulka, Ray A.; Burdock, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States. PMID:22069686

  3. Natural gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, E.D. Jr. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on gas clathrates (commonly called hydrates), which are crystalline compounds that occur when water form a cage-like structure around smaller guest molecules. Gas hydrates of interest to the natural gas hydrocarbon industry are composed of water and eight molecules: methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, normal butane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. Hydrate formation is possible in any place where water exists with such molecules - in natural or artificial environments and at temperatures above and below 32{degrees} F when the pressure is elevated. Hydrates are considered a nuisance because they block transmission lines, plug blowout preventers, jeopardize the foundations of deepwater platforms and pipelines, cause tubing and casing collapse, and foul process heat exchangers, valves, and expanders. Common examples of preventive measures are the regulation of pipeline water content, unusual drilling-mud compositions, and large quantities of methanol injection into pipelines. We encounter conditions that encourage hydrate formation as we explore more unusual environments for gas and oil, including deepwater frontiers and permafrost regions.

  4. Optimizing stop naturalness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wymant, Chris

    2012-12-01

    In supersymmetric models, a large average stop mass MS is well known to both boost the lightest Higgs boson mass mh and also make radiative electroweak symmetry breaking unnaturally tuned. The case of “maximal mixing,” where the stop trilinear mixing term At is set to give At2/MS2=6, allows the stops to be as light as possible for a given mh. Here we make the distinction between minimal MS and optimal naturalness, showing that the latter occurs for less-than-maximal mixing. Lagrange-constrained optimization reveals that the two coincide closely in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM)—optimally we have 5naturalness considerations.

  5. Natural medicaments in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Dakshita J.; Sinha, Ashish A.

    2014-01-01

    The major objective in root canal treatment is to disinfect the entire root canal system. Cleaning, shaping, and use of antimicrobial medicaments are effective in reducing the bacterial load to some extent, but some bacteria do remain behind and multiply, causing reinfection. Taking into consideration the ineffectiveness, potential side-effects and safety concerns of synthetic drugs, the herbal alternatives for endodontic usage might prove to be advantageous. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. Phytomedicine has been used in dentistry as anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative and also as endodontic irrigant. Herbal preparations can be derived from the root, leaves, seeds, stem, and flowers. The PubMed database search revealed that the reference list for natural medicaments featured 1480 articles and in dentistry 173 articles. A forward search was undertaken on the selected articles and author names. This review focuses on various natural drugs and products as well as their therapeutic applications when used as phytomedicine in dentistry. PMID:25558153

  6. [Natural philosophy in medieval medicine].

    PubMed

    Riha, Ortrun

    2007-01-01

    Medieval medicine is not much interested in natural philosophy. Nevertheless, it is based upon clear methodological and epistemological principles, where the word 'nature' is used in several ways. The natural 'virtues' of things--including magical ones--are most important for therapy. Human health is influenced by stars (planets, zodiac) and seasons, and the physician has to take into account such cosmic effects. The chances of healing depend on the patients' 'nature' in relation to the power of illness. A strong nature makes medicine superfluous, an overwhelming disease cannot be beaten. Thus, medicine is limited to 'neutral' situations when supporting the patient makes his 'nature' win.

  7. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  8. [Natural philosophy in medieval medicine].

    PubMed

    Riha, Ortrun

    2007-01-01

    Medieval medicine is not much interested in natural philosophy. Nevertheless, it is based upon clear methodological and epistemological principles, where the word 'nature' is used in several ways. The natural 'virtues' of things--including magical ones--are most important for therapy. Human health is influenced by stars (planets, zodiac) and seasons, and the physician has to take into account such cosmic effects. The chances of healing depend on the patients' 'nature' in relation to the power of illness. A strong nature makes medicine superfluous, an overwhelming disease cannot be beaten. Thus, medicine is limited to 'neutral' situations when supporting the patient makes his 'nature' win. PMID:18447188

  9. Which naturalism for bioethics? A defense of moderate (pragmatic) naturalism.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric

    2008-02-01

    There is a growing interest in various forms of naturalism in bioethics, but there is a clear need for further clarification. In an effort to address this situation, I present three epistemological stances: anti-naturalism, strong naturalism, and moderate pragmatic naturalism. I argue that the dominant paradigm within philosophical ethics has been a form of anti-naturalism mainly supported by a strong 'is' and 'ought' distinction. This fundamental epistemological commitment has contributed to the estrangement of academic philosophical ethics from major social problems and explains partially why, in the early 1980s, 'medicine saved the life of ethics'. Rejection of anti-naturalism, however, is often associated with strong forms of naturalism that commit the naturalistic fallacy and threaten to reduce the normative dimensions of ethics to biological imperatives. This move is rightly dismissed as a pitfall since ethics is, in part, a struggle against the course of nature. Rejection of naturalism has drawbacks, however, such as deterring bioethicists from acknowledging the implicit naturalistic epistemological commitments of bioethics. I argue that a moderate pragmatic form of naturalism represents an epistemological position that best embraces the tension of anti-naturalism and strong naturalism: bioethics is neither disconnected from empirical knowledge nor subjugated to it. The discussion is based upon historical writings in philosophy and bioethics.

  10. Which naturalism for bioethics? A defense of moderate (pragmatic) naturalism.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric

    2008-02-01

    There is a growing interest in various forms of naturalism in bioethics, but there is a clear need for further clarification. In an effort to address this situation, I present three epistemological stances: anti-naturalism, strong naturalism, and moderate pragmatic naturalism. I argue that the dominant paradigm within philosophical ethics has been a form of anti-naturalism mainly supported by a strong 'is' and 'ought' distinction. This fundamental epistemological commitment has contributed to the estrangement of academic philosophical ethics from major social problems and explains partially why, in the early 1980s, 'medicine saved the life of ethics'. Rejection of anti-naturalism, however, is often associated with strong forms of naturalism that commit the naturalistic fallacy and threaten to reduce the normative dimensions of ethics to biological imperatives. This move is rightly dismissed as a pitfall since ethics is, in part, a struggle against the course of nature. Rejection of naturalism has drawbacks, however, such as deterring bioethicists from acknowledging the implicit naturalistic epistemological commitments of bioethics. I argue that a moderate pragmatic form of naturalism represents an epistemological position that best embraces the tension of anti-naturalism and strong naturalism: bioethics is neither disconnected from empirical knowledge nor subjugated to it. The discussion is based upon historical writings in philosophy and bioethics. PMID:18251769

  11. Nature's loss, Immunologists gain?

    PubMed

    Aluvihare

    2000-01-01

    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology Nature Publishing Group (2000). ISSN 1471-0072. Monthly First there was Annual Reviews, then came the monthly Elsevier Trends Journals, both of which try to identify hot topics in their chosen fields. The Current Opinion journals followed several years later, and Current Opinion in Cell Biology is presently one of the highest 'impact factor' review journals, with a distinguished board of editors and advisors and a systematic approach to regular coverage of the major fields of cell biology. Important topics are visited once a year, whether or not something specially exciting happened in the last 12 months. Add to this list Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, the FASEB journal and the countless minireviews in 'real' journals, and you begin to wonder how anyone finds any time for doing experiments, or indeed reading the primary literature. So, into this already crowded field arrive three important newcomers: Nature Reviews in Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Neurosciences, of which the first two will probably interest readers of Journal of Cell Science the most. Backed by the name and money of Nature and edited by experienced Nature staff, it is hard to see how these publications can possibly do other than succeed with writers and readers alike. What's inside the first issue? The cover of Nature Reviews in Molecular Cell Biology presents a 3-colour montage of a blue cell nucleus surrounded by splotches of green GPI-anchored GFP overlaid by orange actin stress fibres that seem to come from somewhere else. This image trails a comprehensive review from Kai Simons and Derek Toomre about Lipid Rafts. There are another five major review articles: calcium puffs and sparks, rings around DNA, HIV inhibitors, kinesin and the circadian clock provide a rich and varied mix of topics from authors who know what they're talking about. Surrounding this core is an entertaining mixture of 'highlights' at the front: news and views about

  12. Nature's loss, Immunologists gain?

    PubMed

    Aluvihare

    2000-01-01

    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology Nature Publishing Group (2000). ISSN 1471-0072. Monthly First there was Annual Reviews, then came the monthly Elsevier Trends Journals, both of which try to identify hot topics in their chosen fields. The Current Opinion journals followed several years later, and Current Opinion in Cell Biology is presently one of the highest 'impact factor' review journals, with a distinguished board of editors and advisors and a systematic approach to regular coverage of the major fields of cell biology. Important topics are visited once a year, whether or not something specially exciting happened in the last 12 months. Add to this list Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, the FASEB journal and the countless minireviews in 'real' journals, and you begin to wonder how anyone finds any time for doing experiments, or indeed reading the primary literature. So, into this already crowded field arrive three important newcomers: Nature Reviews in Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Neurosciences, of which the first two will probably interest readers of Journal of Cell Science the most. Backed by the name and money of Nature and edited by experienced Nature staff, it is hard to see how these publications can possibly do other than succeed with writers and readers alike. What's inside the first issue? The cover of Nature Reviews in Molecular Cell Biology presents a 3-colour montage of a blue cell nucleus surrounded by splotches of green GPI-anchored GFP overlaid by orange actin stress fibres that seem to come from somewhere else. This image trails a comprehensive review from Kai Simons and Derek Toomre about Lipid Rafts. There are another five major review articles: calcium puffs and sparks, rings around DNA, HIV inhibitors, kinesin and the circadian clock provide a rich and varied mix of topics from authors who know what they're talking about. Surrounding this core is an entertaining mixture of 'highlights' at the front: news and views about

  13. Natural fracturing, by depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooker, John; Laubach, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    Natural opening-mode fractures commonly fall upon a spectrum whose end-members are veins, which have wide ranges of sizes and are mostly or thoroughly cemented, and joints, which have little opening displacement and little or no cement. The vein end-member is common in metamorphic rocks, whose high temperature and pressure of formation place them outside typical reservoir settings; conversely, many uncemented joints likely form near the surface and so too have limited relevance to subsurface exploration. Sampling of cores retrieved from tight-gas sandstone reservoirs suggest that it is intermediate fractures, not true joints or veins, that provide natural porosity and permeability. Such fractures have abundant pore space among fracture-bridging cements, which may hold fractures open despite varying states of stress through time. Thus the more sophisticated our understanding of the processes that form veins and joints, i.e., how natural fracturing varies by depth, the better our ability to predict intermediate fractures. Systematic differences between veins and joints, in terms of size-scaling and lateral and stratigraphic spatial arrangement, have been explained in the literature by the mechanical effects of sedimentary layering, which likely exert more control over fracture patterns at shallower depths. Thus stratabound joints commonly have narrow size ranges and regular spacing; non-stratabound veins have a wide range of sizes and spacings. However, new fieldwork and careful literature review suggest that the effects of mechanical layering are only half the story. Although atypical, veins may be highly stratabound and yet spatially clustered; non-stratabound fractures may nonetheless feature narrow size ranges. These anomalous fracture arrangements are better explained by the presence of precipitating cements during fracture opening than by mechanical layering. Cement is thought to be highly important for fracture permeability, but potential effects of

  14. New probe of naturalness.

    PubMed

    Craig, Nathaniel; Englert, Christoph; McCullough, Matthew

    2013-09-20

    Any new scalar fields that perturbatively solve the hierarchy problem by stabilizing the Higgs boson mass also generate new contributions to the Higgs boson field-strength renormalization, irrespective of their gauge representation. These new contributions are physical, and in explicit models their magnitude can be inferred from the requirement of quadratic divergence cancellation; hence, they are directly related to the resolution of the hierarchy problem. Upon canonically normalizing the Higgs field, these new contributions lead to modifications of Higgs couplings that are typically great enough that the hierarchy problem and the concept of electroweak naturalness can be probed thoroughly within a precision Higgs boson program. Specifically, at a lepton collider this can be achieved through precision measurements of the Higgs boson associated production cross section. This would lead to indirect constraints on perturbative solutions to the hierarchy problem in the broadest sense, even if the relevant new fields are gauge singlets.

  15. Natural dispersion revisited.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Øistein; Reed, Mark; Bodsberg, Nils Rune

    2015-04-15

    This paper presents a new semi-empirical model for oil droplet size distributions generated by single breaking wave events. Empirical data was obtained from laboratory experiments with different crude oils at different stages of weathering. The paper starts with a review of the most commonly used model for natural dispersion, which is followed by a presentation of the laboratory study on oil droplet size distributions formed by breaking waves conducted by SINTEF on behalf of the NOAA/UNH Coastal Response Research Center. The next section presents the theoretical and empirical foundation for the new model. The model is based on dimensional analysis and contains two non-dimensional groups; the Weber and Reynolds number. The model was validated with data from a full scale experimental oil spill conducted in the Haltenbanken area offshore Norway in July 1982, as described in the last section of the paper.

  16. Natural Air Purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA environmental research has led to a plant-based air filtering system. Dr. B.C. Wolverton, a former NASA engineer who developed a biological filtering system for space life support, served as a consultant to Terra Firma Environmental. The company is marketing the BioFilter, a natural air purifier that combines activated carbon and other filter media with living plants and microorganisms. The filter material traps and holds indoor pollutants; plant roots and microorganisms then convert the pollutants into food for the plant. Most non-flowering house plants will work. After pollutants have been removed, the cleansed air is returned to the room through slits in the planter. Terra Firma is currently developing a filter that will also disinfect the air.

  17. Carotenoid Distribution in Nature.

    PubMed

    Alcaíno, Jennifer; Baeza, Marcelo; Cifuentes, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are naturally occurring red, orange and yellow pigments that are synthesized by plants and some microorganisms and fulfill many important physiological functions. This chapter describes the distribution of carotenoid in microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, microalgae, filamentous fungi and yeasts. We will also focus on their functional aspects and applications, such as their nutritional value, their benefits for human and animal health and their potential protection against free radicals. The central metabolic pathway leading to the synthesis of carotenoids is described as the three following principal steps: (i) the synthesis of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and the formation of dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, (ii) the synthesis of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and (iii) the synthesis of carotenoids per se, highlighting the differences that have been found in several carotenogenic organisms and providing an evolutionary perspective. Finally, as an example, the synthesis of the xanthophyll astaxanthin is discussed. PMID:27485217

  18. Liquefied Natural Gas Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Chicago Bridge & Iron Company's tanks and associated piping are parts of system for transferring liquefied natural gas from ship to shore and storing it. LNG is a "cryogenic" fluid meaning that it must be contained and transferred at very low temperatures, about 260 degrees below Fahrenheit. Before the LNG can be pumped from the ship to the storage tanks, the two foot diameter transfer pipes must be cooled in order to avoid difficulties associated with sharp differences of temperature between the supercold fluid and relatively warm pipes. Cooldown is accomplished by sending small steady flow of the cryogenic substance through the pipeline; the rate of flow must be precisely controlled or the transfer line will be subjected to undesirable thermal stress.

  19. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. PMID:23161399

  20. Nature . . . an environmental yardstick

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pecora, William T.

    1976-01-01

    To one who has spent his professional career in geologic science, conservation always has had special meaning. In the measurements so necessary to his work the geologist develops an integrity in the use of numbers and in the qualifications attending the validity of numbers. Scientific analysis of geologic events and sequence develops a keen sense of what is coincidental, correlative, and consequential. The geologist applies his science in evaluating hazards to man as natural catastrophes and/or benefits to man such as earth materials that form the resource base of his society. But more than these the geologist has acquired a deep appreciation for the planet as a whole, its inner structure, its landscape, and the living things that abound.

  1. Dengue fever: natural management.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Abbas, Khizar; Tahir, Madeha; Irfan, Muhammad; Raza Bukhari, Syeda Fiza; Ahmed, Bilal; Hanif, Muhammad; Rasul, Akhtar; Ali, Muhammad

    2015-03-01

    Dengue fever is caused by the mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV) serotypes 1-4, and is the most common arboviral infection of humans in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Dengue virus infections can present with a spacious range of clinical signs, from a mild feverish illness to a life-threatening shock syndrome. Till now, there is no approved vaccine or drug against this virus. Therefore, there is an urgent need of development of alternative solutions for dengue. Several plant species have been reported with anti-dengue activity. Many herbal/natural drugs, most of which are commonly used as nutritional components, have been used as antiviral, larvicidal, mosquitocidal and mosquito repellents that may be used against dengue. The objective of this review article was to provide current approaches for the treatment and management/prevention of dengue fever by targeting viral proteins involved in replication cycle of the virus and different developmental stages of mosquito.

  2. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    SciTech Connect

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-08-07

    The content of {sup 40}K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, Sao Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel.

  3. The nature of confidentiality.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, I E

    1979-01-01

    This paper examines confidentiality and its nature and analyses the guidelines laid down by the Hippocratic Oath as well as the British and World Medical Associations for maintaining such confidentiality between doctor and patient. There are exceptions to practically any code of rules and this is true also for confidentiality. Some of these exceptions make it appear that very little is confidential. The three values implicit in confidentiality would seem to be privacy, confidence and secrecy. Each of these values is discussed and developed in this paper. In conclusion, the question is suggested that maybe in the face of death, doctor and patient need to re-examine the pre-suppositions of privacy, confidence and secrecy on which the confidential relationship is based. PMID:469872

  4. Pest management with natural products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2012 Philadelphia ACS Symposium on Natural Products for Pest Management introduced recent discoveries and applications of natural products from insect, terrestrial plant, microbial, and synthetic sources for the management of insects, weeds, plant pathogenic microbes, and nematodes. The symposiu...

  5. Natural gas monthly, December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report presents information of interest to organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data are presented on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  6. Natural Gas Exports from Iran

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

  7. Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  8. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  9. Natural gas monthly, June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  10. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  11. Natural gas monthly, April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  13. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  14. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  16. Supramolecular complexations of natural products.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Hans-Jörg; Agrawal, Pawan; Yatsimirsky, Anatoly K

    2013-08-21

    Complexations of natural products with synthetic receptors as well as the use of natural products as host compounds are reviewed, with an emphasis on possible practical uses or on biomedical significance. Applications such as separation, sensing, enzyme monitoring, and protection of natural drugs are first outlined. We then discuss examples of complexes with all important classes of natural compounds, such as amino acids, peptides, nucleosides/nucleotides, carbohydrates, catecholamines, flavonoids, terpenoids/steroids, alkaloids, antibiotics and toxins. PMID:23703643

  17. Natural gas monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-20

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  18. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-29

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  19. Natural gas monthly, September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-27

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  20. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Children's Moral Relationships with Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; McCoy, Ann

    Two studies of the development of children's moral relationships with nature addressed such questions as: (1) What does it mean to say that we have an obligation not to harm the natural environment? (2) Does the natural environment feel pain? (3) Does it have rights? or (4) Is moral obligation an inappropriate construct by which to understand the…

  2. Advances in the Natural transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgacem, F. B. M.; Silambarasan, R.

    2012-11-01

    The literature review of the Natural transform and the existing definitions and connections to the Laplace and Sumudu transforms are discussed in this communication. Along with the complex inverse Natural transform and Heaviside's expansion formula, the relation of Bessel's function to Natural transform (and hence Laplace and Sumudu transforms) are defined.

  3. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  5. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. Percents Are Not Natural Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Adults are prone to treating percents, one representational format of rational numbers, as novel cases of natural number. This suggests that percent values are not differentiated from natural numbers; a conceptual shift from the natural numbers to the rational numbers has not yet occurred. This is most surprising, considering people are inundated…

  7. Nature and Nationhood: Danish Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnack, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss Danish perspectives on nature, showing the interdependence of conceptions of "nature" and "nationhood" in the formations of a particular cultural community. Nature, thus construed, is never innocent of culture and cannot therefore simply be "restored" to some pristine, pre-lapsarian state. On the other hand,…

  8. Natural gas monthly, December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  9. Natural Products for Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Greenlee, Heather

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To review the clinical trial literature on the use and effects of natural products for cancer prevention. DATA SOURCES Clinical trials published in PubMed. CONCLUSION There is a growing body of literature on the use of natural products for cancer prevention. To date, few trials have demonstrated conclusive benefit. Current guidelines recommend against the use of natural products for cancer prevention. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE Clinicians should ask patients about their use of natural products and motivations for use. If patients are using natural products specifically for cancer prevention, they should be counseled on the current guidelines, as well as their options for other cancer prevention strategies. PMID:22281308

  10. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  11. Natural gas monthly, November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, October 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  13. Natural gas monthly, October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article in this issue is a special report, ``Comparison of Natural Gas Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-24

    The natural gas monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article for this month is Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection.

  15. Natural gas monthly, April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

  17. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  19. Heat distribution by natural convection

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Natural convection can provide adequate heat distribution in many situtations that arise in buildings. This is appropriate, for example, in passive solar buildings where some rooms tend to be more strongly solar heated than others or to reduce the number of heating units required in a building. Natural airflow and heat transport through doorways and other internal building apertures is predictable and can be accounted for in the design. The nature of natural convection is described, and a design chart is presented appropriate to a simple, single-doorway situation. Natural convective loops that can occur in buildings are described and a few design guidelines are presented.

  20. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  2. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  3. Natural gas monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured articles for this month are: Opportunities with fuel cells, and revisions to monthly natural gas data.

  4. Natural gas monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-22

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  5. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  6. Natural history and the Encyclopedie.

    PubMed

    Llana, J

    2000-01-01

    The general popularity of natural history in the eighteenth century is mirrored in the frequency and importance of the more than 4,500 articles on natural history in the Encyclopedie. The main contributors to natural history were Daubenton, Diderot, Jaucourt and d'Holbach, but some of the key animating principles derive from Buffon, who wrote nothing specifically for the Encyclopedie. Still, a number of articles reflect his thinking, especially his antipathy toward Linnaeus. There was in principle a natural tie between encyclopedism, with its emphasis on connected knowledge, and the task of natural historians who concentrated on the relationships among living forms. Both the encyclopedists and the natural historians aimed at a sweeping overview of knowledge, and we see that Diderot's discussions of the encyclopedia were apparently informed by his reading of natural history. Most of the articles on natural history drew from traditional sources, but there are differences in emphasis and choice of subject, depending upon the author. Diderot's 300 contributions are often practical, interesting, and depend upon accounts from other parts of the world. Jaucourt, who wrote more articles on natural history than anyone else, followed in his foodsteps. Daubenton's 900 articles reflected a more narrow, professional approach. His contributions concluded for the most part with Volume 8, and Jaucourt carried on almost single-handedly after that. While staking out traditional ground (description, taxonomy) and advancing newer theoretical views linked with Buffon, natural history in the Encyclopedie avoided almost completely the sentimentalism concerning nature that developed after Rousseau. PMID:11624414

  7. Natural gas monthly, April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  8. [Carotenoids as natural antioxidants].

    PubMed

    Igielska-Kalwat, Joanna; Gościańska, Joanna; Nowak, Izabela

    2015-04-07

    Human organisms have many defence mechanisms able to neutralise the harmful effects of the reactive species of oxygen. Antioxidants play an important role in reducing the oxidative damage to the human organism. Carotenoids are among the strongest antioxidants. They have 11 coupled double bonds, so they can be classified as polyisoprenoids, show low polarity and can occur in acyclic, monocyclic or bicyclic forms. The carotenoids of the strongest antioxidant properties are lycopene, lutein, astaxanthin and β-carotene. Carotenoids with strong antioxidant properties have found wide application in medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. These compounds are highly active against both reactive oxygen species and free radicals. Comparing β-carotene, astaxanthin and lycopene with other antioxidants (e.g. vitamin C and E), it can be concluded that these compounds have higher antioxidant activity, e.g. against singlet oxygen. Astaxanthin is a stronger antioxidant compared to β-carotene, vitamin E and vitamin C, respectively 54, 14 and 65 times. Carotenoids have a salutary effect on our body, making it more resistant and strong to fight chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to review the literature concerning free radicals and their adverse effects on the human body and carotenoids, as strong, natural antioxidants.

  9. Natural gas purchases

    SciTech Connect

    Grenier, E.J. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    In the 1970`s gas and boilers were like oil and water as far as policy makers were concerned, culminating in the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (perhaps a more appropriate title would have been the Fuel Non-Use Act or the Gas Non-Use Act). But now, the last two Administrations have made gas the centerpiece of their energy and environmental strategies, including promotion of gas use for boilers and electric generation. The FERC`s Order 636 almost completes the Commission`s restructuring of the gas industry that began with Order 380 (eliminating commodity minimum bills) and progressed sharply with Orders 436 and 500. It is Order 636 that has transformed the interstate pipeline business into a transportation business, with the pipelines virtually out of the merchant business altogether because the Commission is not resting on its laurels after completing implementation of Order 636. Rather, it is exploring new ways to expand the growing competitive market for gas, including the possibility of using market-based rates for interstate pipeline transportation services. Methods for the procurement of natural gas supplies are discussed.

  10. Nature of orchestral noise.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Ian; Wilson, Wayne; Bradley, Andrew

    2008-08-01

    Professional orchestral musicians are at risk of exposure to excessive noise when at work. This is an industry-wide problem that threatens not only the hearing of orchestral musicians but also the way orchestras operate. The research described in this paper recorded noise levels within a professional orchestra over three years in order to provide greater insight to the orchestral noise environment; to guide future research into orchestral noise management and hearing conservation strategies; and to provide a basis for the future education of musicians and their managers. Every rehearsal, performance, and recording from May 2004 to May 2007 was monitored, with the woodwind, brass, and percussion sections monitored in greatest detail. The study recorded dBALEQ and dBC peak data, which are presented in graphical form with accompanying summarized data tables. The findings indicate that the principal trumpet, first and third horns, and principal trombone are at greatest risk of exposure to excessive sustained noise levels and that the percussion and timpani are at greatest risk of exposure to excessive peak noise levels. However, the findings also strongly support the notion that the true nature of orchestral noise is a great deal more complex than this simple statement would imply.

  11. Optically switchable natural silk

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnov, Igor Müller, Martin; Krekiehn, Nicolai R.; Jung, Ulrich; Magnussen, Olaf M.; Krywka, Christina; Zillohu, Ahnaf U.; Strunskus, Thomas; Elbahri, Mady

    2015-03-02

    An optically active bio-material is created by blending natural silk fibers with photoisomerizable chromophore molecules—azobenzenebromide (AzBr). The material converts the energy of unpolarized light directly into mechanical work with a well-defined direction of action. The feasibility of the idea to produce optically driven microsized actuators on the basis of bio-material (silk) is proven. The switching behavior of the embedded AzBr molecules was studied in terms of UV/Vis spectroscopy. To test the opto-mechanical properties of the modified fibers and the structural changes they undergo upon optically induced switching, single fiber X-ray diffraction with a micron-sized synchrotron radiation beam was combined in situ with optical switching as well as with mechanical testing and monitoring. The crystalline regions of silk are not modified by the presence of the guest molecules, hence occupy only the amorphous part of the fibers. It is shown that chromophore molecules embedded into fibers can be reversibly switched between the trans and cis conformation by illumination with light of defined wavelengths. The host fibers respond to this switching with a variation of the internal stress. The amplitude of the mechanical response is independent of the applied external stress and its characteristic time is shorter than the relaxation time of the usual mechanical response of silk.

  12. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  13. Methylgermanium in natural waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Brent L.; Froelich, Philip N.; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    1985-01-01

    Biological methylation of metallic elements1 and the occurrence and cycling of organometals in the environment have been investigated in Japan during the 1950s and 1960s, where the ingestion of fish and shellfish contaminated with methylmercury compounds caused mercury poisoning2,3. Biomethylation ability has been demonstrated in bacteria, fungi and algae for As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Se, Sn, Te and Tl4-7. Naturally-occurring methylated species have been reported in estuaries and seawater for Sb8, As9, Ge10-13 and Sn14, although recent evidence suggests that some reports of methyltin species result from interferences by Ge and volatile sulphur compounds15. With the exception of Sb8, As9,12,16 and Ge11,12, there are no consistent estuarine or oceanic profiles for methylmetal compounds in the literature from which to judge their biogeochemical behaviour. Early investigations17-19 reported that methylgermanium species do not exist in the aquatic environment. Subsequently, we identified monomethylgermanium (MMGe) and dimethylgermanium (DMGe) in estuaries10,12, the Baltic Sea11 and the Bering and Sargasso seas13. We report here recent measurements of methylgermanium compounds in river water, estuaries, seawater and anoxic basins.

  14. Lorentz violation naturalness revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Gambassi, Andrea; Liberati, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    We revisit here the naturalness problem of Lorentz invariance violations on a simple toy model of a scalar field coupled to a fermion field via a Yukawa interaction. We first review some well-known results concerning the low-energy percolation of Lorentz violation from high energies, presenting some details of the analysis not explicitly discussed in the literature and discussing some previously unnoticed subtleties. We then show how a separation between the scale of validity of the effective field theory and that one of Lorentz invariance violations can hinder this low-energy percolation. While such protection mechanism was previously considered in the literature, we provide here a simple illustration of how it works and of its general features. Finally, we consider a case in which dissipation is present, showing that the dissipative behaviour does not percolate generically to lower mass dimension operators albeit dispersion does. Moreover, we show that a scale separation can protect from unsuppressed low-energy percolation also in this case.

  15. Grandmothering and natural selection.

    PubMed

    Kachel, A Friederike; Premo, L S; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2011-02-01

    Humans are unique among primates in that women regularly outlive their reproductive period by decades. The grandmother hypothesis proposes that natural selection increased the length of the human post-menopausal period-and, thus, extended longevity-as a result of the inclusive fitness benefits of grandmothering. However, it has yet to be demonstrated that the inclusive fitness benefits associated with grandmothering are large enough to warrant this explanation. Here, we show that the inclusive fitness benefits are too small to affect the evolution of longevity under a wide range of conditions in simulated populations. This is due in large part to the relatively weak selection that applies to women near or beyond the end of their reproductive period. However, we find that grandmothers can facilitate the evolution of a shorter reproductive period when their help decreases the weaning age of their matrilineal grandchildren. Because selection favours a shorter reproductive period in the presence of shorter interbirth intervals, this finding holds true for any form of allocare that helps mothers resume cycling more quickly. We conclude that while grandmothering is unlikely to explain human-like longevity, allocare could have played an important role in shaping other unique aspects of human life history, such as a later age at first birth and a shorter female reproductive period.

  16. World Natural Gas, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    World marketed production of natural gas in 1978 totaled 51.749 trillion CF (up from 50.1 TCF in 1977); this 3.3% increase, however, was slightly lower than 1977's 3.7% rise. US production, which fell 0.3% dropped to 38.6% of the world total, while the USSR share (13.137 TCF) accounted for 25.4% (for a growth rate of 7.5%). Of the world gross production of 62.032 TCF, 69.7% came from gas wells; the remainder was associated with oil. Thirty-one percent of the 10.282 TCF difference between gross and marketed gas production was used for oil reservoir repressuring, while the balance (7.094 TCF) was vented and flared. Internationally traded gas movements rose to 11.6% of production. The Netherlands, the USSR, and Canada accounted for 30.6%, 20.1% and 14.7%, respectively, of total 1978 exports. At 0.956 TCF, LNG shipments accounted for 15.9% of world trade, a 35.2% higher share than in 1977; most of this growth was due to increased Indonesia-to-Japan volumes.

  17. Naturalness and supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Agashe, K

    1998-05-01

    In this thesis, the author argues that the supersymmetric Standard Model, while avoiding the fine tuning in electroweak symmetry breaking, requires unnaturalness/fine tuning in some (other) sector of the theory. For example, Baryon and Lepton number violating operators are allowed which lead to proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. He studies some of the constraints from the latter in this thesis. He has to impose an R-parity for the theory to be both natural and viable. In the absence of flavor symmetries, the supersymmetry breaking masses for the squarks and sleptons lead to too large flavor changing neutral currents. He shows that two of the solutions to this problem, gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking and making the scalars of the first two generations heavier than a few TeV, reintroduce fine tuning in electroweak symmetry breaking. He also constructs a model of low energy gauge mediation with a non-minimal messenger sector which improves the fine tuning and also generates required Higgs mass terms. He shows that this model can be derived from a Grand Unified Theory despite the non-minimal spectrum.

  18. Higgs inflation and naturalness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, Rose N.; McDonald, John

    2010-04-01

    Inflation based on scalar fields which are non-minimally coupled to gravity has been proposed as a way to unify inflation with weak-scale physics, with the inflaton being identified with the Higgs boson or other weak-scale scalar particle. These models require a large non-minimal coupling ξ ~ 104 to have agreement with the observed density perturbations. However, it has been suggested that such models are unnatural, due to an apparent breakdown of the calculation of Higgs-Higgs scattering via graviton exchange in the Jordan frame. Here we argue that Higgs inflation models are in fact natural and that the breakdown does not imply new physics due to strong-coupling effects or unitarity breakdown, but simply a failure of perturbation theory in the Jordan frame as a calculational method. This can be understood by noting that the model is completely consistent when analysed in the Einstein frame and that scattering rates in the two frames are equal by the Equivalence Theorem for non-linear field redefinitions.

  19. Rx: human nature.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Nava

    2013-04-01

    Why doesn't a woman who continues to have unwanted pregnancies avail herself of the free contraception at a nearby clinic? What keeps people from using free chlorine tablets to purify their drinking water? Behavioral economics has shown us that we don't always act in our own best interests. This is as true of health decisions as it is of economic ones. An array of biases, limits on cognition, and motivations leads people all over the world to make suboptimal health choices. The good news is that human nature can also be a source of solutions. Through her studies in Zambia exploring the reasons for unwanted pregnancies and the incentives that would motivate hairdressers to sell condoms to their clients, the author has found that designing effective health programs requires more than providing accessible, affordable care; it requires understanding what makes both end users and providers tick. By understanding the cognitive processes underlying our choices and applying the tools of behavioral economics--such as commitment devices, material incentives, defaults, and tools that tap our desire to help others--it's possible to design simple, inexpensive programs that encourage good health decisions and long-term behavior change.

  20. SUSY naturalness without prejudice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghilencea, D. M.

    2014-05-01

    Unlike the Standard Model (SM), supersymmetric models stabilize the electroweak (EW) scale v at the quantum level and predict that v is a function of the TeV-valued SUSY parameters (γα) of the UV Lagrangian. We show that the (inverse of the) covariance matrix of the model in the basis of these parameters and the usual deviation δχ2 (from χmin2 of a model) automatically encode information about the "traditional" EW fine-tuning measuring this stability, provided that the EW scale v ˜mZ is indeed regarded as a function v =v(γ). It is known that large EW fine-tuning may signal an incomplete theory of soft terms and can be reduced when relations among γα exist (due to GUT symmetries, etc.). The global correlation coefficient of this matrix can help one investigate if such relations are present. An upper bound on the usual EW fine-tuning measure ("in quadrature") emerges from the analysis of the δχ2 and the s-standard deviation confidence interval by using v =v(γ) and the theoretical approximation (loop order) considered for the calculation of the observables. This upper bound avoids subjective criteria for the "acceptable" level of EW fine-tuning for which the model is still "natural."

  1. Nature, nurture, and expertise

    PubMed Central

    Plomin, Robert; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; McMillan, Andrew; Trzaskowski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Rather than investigating the extent to which training can improve performance under experimental conditions (‘what could be’), we ask about the origins of expertise as it exists in the world (‘what is’). We used the twin method to investigate the genetic and environmental origins of exceptional performance in reading, a skill that is a major focus of educational training in the early school years. Selecting reading experts as the top 5% from a sample of 10,000 12-year-old twins assessed on a battery of reading tests, three findings stand out. First, we found that genetic factors account for more than half of the difference in performance between expert and normal readers. Second, our results suggest that reading expertise is the quantitative extreme of the same genetic and environmental factors that affect reading performance for normal readers. Third, growing up in the same family and attending the same schools account for less than a fifth of the difference between expert and normal readers. We discuss implications and interpretations (‘what is inherited is DNA sequence variation’; ‘the abnormal is normal’). Finally, although there is no necessary relationship between ‘what is’ and ‘what could be’, the most far-reaching issues about the acquisition of expertise lie at the interface between them (‘the nature of nurture: from a passive model of imposed environments to an active model of shaped experience’). PMID:24948844

  2. Engineering lessons from nature

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, R.

    1990-01-01

    The Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, a new facility at Washington's Naval Research Laboratory, uses a creative approach; its 30 researchers come from diverse backgrounds and value teamwork. Among the projects they are working on, using nature as an engineering model: how microscopic biological structures assemble themselves, an area of import to medicine and technology. One such effort aims to use biological principles to improve electronic sensing devices. If a biological receptor is attached to a membrane and then linked to a silicon chip, it will send a signal each time the receptor is activated. Using this technology, monitor the downstream pollution levels from a plant could be monitored, looking for dioxin or trichloroethylene in groundwater or sulfuric acid in the air. Biosensors may lead to the fastest and most specific monitoring devices available. Their small size, light weight and extreme accuracy could enable them to be used to monitor minute levels of pollutants in a workplace or of drugs in a person's bloodstream.

  3. The SCHOOL of nature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    During the co-evolution of viruses and their hosts, the latter have equipped themselves with an elaborate immune system to defend themselves from the invading viruses. In order to establish a successful infection, replicate and persist in the host, viruses have evolved numerous strategies to counter and evade host antiviral immune responses as well as exploit them for productive viral replication. These strategies include those that modulate signaling mediated by cell surface receptors. Despite tremendous advancement in recent years, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying these critical points in viral pathogenesis remain unknown. In this work, based on a novel platform of receptor signaling, the Signaling Chain HOmoOLigomerization (SCHOOL) platform, I suggest specific mechanisms used by different viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, human herpesvirus 6 and others, to modulate receptor signaling. I also use the example of HIV and CMV to illustrate how two unrelated enveloped viruses use a similar SCHOOL mechanism to modulate the host immune response mediated by two functionally different receptors: T cell antigen receptor and natural killer cell receptor, NKp30. This suggests that it is very likely that similar general mechanisms can be or are used by other viral and possibly non-viral pathogens. Learning from viruses how to target cell surface receptors not only helps us understand viral strategies to escape from the host immune surveillance, but also provides novel avenues in rational drug design and the development of new therapies for immune disorders. PMID:21487503

  4. Natural rubber latex allergy.

    PubMed

    Deval, Ravi; Ramesh, V; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Arun Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL) is a ubiquitous allergen as it is a component of > 40,000 products in everyday life. Latex allergy might be attributed to skin contact or inhalation of latex particles. Latex allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to NRL, presenting a wide range of clinical symptoms such as angioedema, swelling, cough, asthma, and anaphylactic reactions. Until 1979, latex allergy appeared only as type IV delayed hypersensitivity; subsequently, the proportion of different allergy types drifted towards type IV contact allergy reactions. Several risk factors for sensitization to NRL are already known and well documented. Some authors have established a positive correlation between a history of multiple surgical interventions, atopy, spina bifida malformation, and latex allergy incidence. We suspect an increase in latex allergy incidence in association with increased atopy and sensitivity to environmental allergens in the industrial population. It is often postulated in literature that the groups of workers at risk for this allergy are essentially workers in the latex industry and healthcare professionals. In this population, direct internal and mucosal contact with NRL medical devices may be the route of sensitization as factors such as the number of procedures and use of NRL materials (catheters and tubes) were associated with increased risk of latex sensitization and allergy. PMID:18797048

  5. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to design and operate a laboratory apparatus for the catalytic reforming of natural gas in order to provide data for a large-scale process. To accelerate the assembly and calibration of this equipment, a request has been made to the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for assistance, under the DOE's Industrial Visitor Exchange Program. Pr. Heinz Heinemann (Catalysis), Dr. John Apps (Geochemistry) and Dr. Robert Fulton (Mechanical Engineering) have expressed interest in supporting our request. Pr. Heinemann's recent results on the conversion of Petroleum Coke residues into CO2 and H2 mixtures using highly basic metal oxides catalysts, similar to ours, are very encouraging regarding the possibility of converting the Coke residue on our catalyst into Syngas in the Regenerator/riser, as proposed. To minimize Coke formation in the vapor phase, by the Plasmapyrolytic Methane Conversion reactions, the experimental data of H. Drost et al. (Ref. 12) have been reviewed. Work is underway to design equipment for the safe and non-polluting disposal of the two gaseous product streams of the flow loop. 2 refs.

  6. Nature, Nurture, and Expertise.

    PubMed

    Plomin, Robert; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; McMillan, Andrew; Trzaskowski, Maciej

    2014-07-01

    Rather than investigating the extent to which training can improve performance under experimental conditions ('what could be'), we ask about the origins of expertise as it exists in the world ('what is'). We used the twin method to investigate the genetic and environmental origins of exceptional performance in reading, a skill that is a major focus of educational training in the early school years. Selecting reading experts as the top 5% from a sample of 10,000 12-year-olds twins assessed on a battery of reading tests, three findings stand out. First, we found that genetic factors account for more than half of the difference in performance between expert and normal readers. Second, our results suggest that reading expertise is the quantitative extreme of the same genetic and environmental factors that affect reading performance for normal readers. Third, growing up in the same family and attending the same schools account for less than a fifth of the difference between expert and normal readers. We discuss implications and interpretations ('what is inherited is DNA sequence variation'; 'the abnormal is normal'). Finally, although there is no necessary relationship between 'what is' and 'what could be', the most far-reaching issues about the acquisition of expertise lie at the interface between them ('the nature of nurture: from a passive model of imposed environments to an active model of shaped experience').

  7. Grandmothering and natural selection

    PubMed Central

    Kachel, A. Friederike; Premo, L. S.; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Humans are unique among primates in that women regularly outlive their reproductive period by decades. The grandmother hypothesis proposes that natural selection increased the length of the human post-menopausal period—and, thus, extended longevity—as a result of the inclusive fitness benefits of grandmothering. However, it has yet to be demonstrated that the inclusive fitness benefits associated with grandmothering are large enough to warrant this explanation. Here, we show that the inclusive fitness benefits are too small to affect the evolution of longevity under a wide range of conditions in simulated populations. This is due in large part to the relatively weak selection that applies to women near or beyond the end of their reproductive period. However, we find that grandmothers can facilitate the evolution of a shorter reproductive period when their help decreases the weaning age of their matrilineal grandchildren. Because selection favours a shorter reproductive period in the presence of shorter interbirth intervals, this finding holds true for any form of allocare that helps mothers resume cycling more quickly. We conclude that while grandmothering is unlikely to explain human-like longevity, allocare could have played an important role in shaping other unique aspects of human life history, such as a later age at first birth and a shorter female reproductive period. PMID:20739319

  8. Natural and engineered biosynthesis of fluorinated natural products.

    PubMed

    Walker, Mark C; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2014-09-21

    Both natural products and synthetic organofluorines play important roles in the discovery and design of pharmaceuticals. The combination of these two classes of molecules has the potential to be useful in the ongoing search for new bioactive compounds but our ability to produce site-selectively fluorinated natural products remains limited by challenges in compatibility between their high structural complexity and current methods for fluorination. Living systems provide an alternative route to chemical fluorination and could enable the production of organofluorine natural products through synthetic biology approaches. While the identification of biogenic organofluorines has been limited, the study of the native organisms and enzymes that utilize these compounds can help to guide efforts to engineer the incorporation of this unusual element into complex pharmacologically active natural products. This review covers recent advances in understanding both natural and engineered production of organofluorine natural products.

  9. Natural and engineered biosynthesis of fluorinated natural products.

    PubMed

    Walker, Mark C; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2014-09-21

    Both natural products and synthetic organofluorines play important roles in the discovery and design of pharmaceuticals. The combination of these two classes of molecules has the potential to be useful in the ongoing search for new bioactive compounds but our ability to produce site-selectively fluorinated natural products remains limited by challenges in compatibility between their high structural complexity and current methods for fluorination. Living systems provide an alternative route to chemical fluorination and could enable the production of organofluorine natural products through synthetic biology approaches. While the identification of biogenic organofluorines has been limited, the study of the native organisms and enzymes that utilize these compounds can help to guide efforts to engineer the incorporation of this unusual element into complex pharmacologically active natural products. This review covers recent advances in understanding both natural and engineered production of organofluorine natural products. PMID:24776946

  10. Agrobacterium: nature's genetic engineer.

    PubMed

    Nester, Eugene W

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium was identified as the agent causing the plant tumor, crown gall over 100 years ago. Since then, studies have resulted in many surprising observations. Armin Braun demonstrated that Agrobacterium infected cells had unusual nutritional properties, and that the bacterium was necessary to start the infection but not for continued tumor development. He developed the concept of a tumor inducing principle (TIP), the factor that actually caused the disease. Thirty years later the TIP was shown to be a piece of a tumor inducing (Ti) plasmid excised by an endonuclease. In the next 20 years, most of the key features of the disease were described. The single-strand DNA (T-DNA) with the endonuclease attached is transferred through a type IV secretion system into the host cell where it is likely coated and protected from nucleases by a bacterial secreted protein to form the T-complex. A nuclear localization signal in the endonuclease guides the transferred strand (T-strand), into the nucleus where it is integrated randomly into the host chromosome. Other secreted proteins likely aid in uncoating the T-complex. The T-DNA encodes enzymes of auxin, cytokinin, and opine synthesis, the latter a food source for Agrobacterium. The genes associated with T-strand formation and transfer (vir) map to the Ti plasmid and are only expressed when the bacteria are in close association with a plant. Plant signals are recognized by a two-component regulatory system which activates vir genes. Chromosomal genes with pleiotropic functions also play important roles in plant transformation. The data now explain Braun's old observations and also explain why Agrobacterium is nature's genetic engineer. Any DNA inserted between the border sequences which define the T-DNA will be transferred and integrated into host cells. Thus, Agrobacterium has become the major vector in plant genetic engineering. PMID:25610442

  11. Submicroscopic Nature Needs Megascience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Leon

    2005-04-01

    The history of ``submicroscopic nature,'' that is, the history of particle physics, begins in the early 1950's and builds on the construction of a post WWII series of particle accelerators developed to study nuclear physics had been applied to the collisions, in the earth's atmosphere, of cosmic rays. These were high energy particles generated in cosmological events and colliding with oxygen and nitrogen in our atmosphere to create new particles. These studies discovered muons, pions, kaons and lambdas---the beginnings of a vast ``zoo.'' Clearly, studies of the inhabitants of the zoo required energetic collisions, the higher the energy of the accelerator, the more extensive was the range of masses that could be produced and studied. Our paper will review the developments over the past 50 years. As accelerators grew, so did the particle detectors and the sizes of the experimental groups. This will bring us to Fermilab in 2005. Finally, we will describe the ˜900 physicist groups that are cheerfully collaborating, building particle detectors designed to peer deeply into the structure of matter, based upon the ``Large Hadron Collider'' (LHC), an accelerator of unprecedented size, cost, and complexity. The story then takes us from the 100 MeV (10^8 eV) ``atom smashers'' of 1950, to the ˜10 TeV (10^13 eV) behemoth now under construction in Europe. Thus, we move from dozens of machines often on University campuses around the world, to one single megascience device shared by physicists around the world. The motivation for this evolution is physics, as we shall attempt to explain.

  12. Natural gas monthly, September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Natural gas monthly, May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-24

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  14. Natural gas monthly, October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-23

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-26

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  16. Natural gas monthly, February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  17. Contaminant Removal From Natural Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Geiger, Cheri L. (Inventor); Reinhart, Debra (Inventor); Fillpek, Laura B. (Inventor); Coon, Christina (Inventor); Devor, Robert (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion containing zero-valent metal particles is used to remediate contaminated natural resources, such as groundwater and soil. In a preferred embodiment, the zero-valent metal emulsion removes heavy metals, such as lead (pb), from contaminated natural resources. In another preferred embodiment, the zero-valent metal emulsion is a bimetallic emulsion containing zero-valent metal particles doped with a catalytic metal to remediate halogenated aromatic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), from natural resources.

  18. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

  20. Natural Products as Molecular Messengers*

    PubMed Central

    Meinwald, Jerrold

    2011-01-01

    The chemistry of naturally-occurring compounds has long been pursued in the search for medicines, dyes, pesticides, flavors, and fragrances. In addition, the deeper aim of understanding life itself as a chemical phenomenon has motivated generations of scientists. One consequence of such studies has been the realization that natural products often serve central roles as biological signaling agents. We consider natural products from the viewpoint of the organisms that produce and/or respond to them, and suggest how a naturally-occurring compound may acquire its role in chemical communication. PMID:21190370

  1. Super Natural II--a database of natural products.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Priyanka; Erehman, Jevgeni; Gohlke, Björn-Oliver; Wilhelm, Thomas; Preissner, Robert; Dunkel, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Natural products play a significant role in drug discovery and development. Many topological pharmacophore patterns are common between natural products and commercial drugs. A better understanding of the specific physicochemical and structural features of natural products is important for corresponding drug development. Several encyclopedias of natural compounds have been composed, but the information remains scattered or not freely available. The first version of the Supernatural database containing ∼ 50,000 compounds was published in 2006 to face these challenges. Here we present a new, updated and expanded version of natural product database, Super Natural II (http://bioinformatics.charite.de/supernatural), comprising ∼ 326,000 molecules. It provides all corresponding 2D structures, the most important structural and physicochemical properties, the predicted toxicity class for ∼ 170,000 compounds and the vendor information for the vast majority of compounds. The new version allows a template-based search for similar compounds as well as a search for compound names, vendors, specific physical properties or any substructures. Super Natural II also provides information about the pathways associated with synthesis and degradation of the natural products, as well as their mechanism of action with respect to structurally similar drugs and their target proteins. PMID:25300487

  2. Connection to Nature: Children's Affective Attitude toward Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Judith Chen-Hsuan; Monroe, Martha C.

    2012-01-01

    A connection to nature index was developed and tested to measure children's affective attitude toward the natural environment. The index was employed through a survey that investigates students' attitude toward Lagoon Quest, a mandatory environmental education program for all fourth-grade, public school students in Brevard County, Florida. Factor…

  3. Privileging Naturals Over Strivers: The Costs of the Naturalness Bias.

    PubMed

    Tsay, Chia-Jung

    2016-01-01

    A preference for "naturals" over "strivers" in performance judgments was investigated to test whether the effect is generalizable across domains, as well as to ascertain any costs imposed on decision quality by favoring naturals. Despite being presented with entrepreneurs equal in achievement, participants judged the natural and his business proposal to be superior to the striver and his proposal on multiple dimensions of performance and success (Study 1a and Study 1b). These findings were extended in Study 2, which quantified the costs of the naturalness bias using conjoint analysis to measure specific decision tradeoffs. Together, these three studies show that people tend to pass over better-qualified individuals in favor of apparent naturals. PMID:26481449

  4. Better than Nature: Nicotinamide Biomimetics That Outperform Natural Coenzymes.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Tanja; Paul, Caroline E; Levy, Colin W; de Vries, Simon; Mutti, Francesco G; Hollmann, Frank; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2016-01-27

    The search for affordable, green biocatalytic processes is a challenge for chemicals manufacture. Redox biotransformations are potentially attractive, but they rely on unstable and expensive nicotinamide coenzymes that have prevented their widespread exploitation. Stoichiometric use of natural coenzymes is not viable economically, and the instability of these molecules hinders catalytic processes that employ coenzyme recycling. Here, we investigate the efficiency of man-made synthetic biomimetics of the natural coenzymes NAD(P)H in redox biocatalysis. Extensive studies with a range of oxidoreductases belonging to the "ene" reductase family show that these biomimetics are excellent analogues of the natural coenzymes, revealed also in crystal structures of the ene reductase XenA with selected biomimetics. In selected cases, these biomimetics outperform the natural coenzymes. "Better-than-Nature" biomimetics should find widespread application in fine and specialty chemicals production by harnessing the power of high stereo-, regio-, and chemoselective redox biocatalysts and enabling reactions under mild conditions at low cost.

  5. Better than Nature: Nicotinamide Biomimetics That Outperform Natural Coenzymes.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Tanja; Paul, Caroline E; Levy, Colin W; de Vries, Simon; Mutti, Francesco G; Hollmann, Frank; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2016-01-27

    The search for affordable, green biocatalytic processes is a challenge for chemicals manufacture. Redox biotransformations are potentially attractive, but they rely on unstable and expensive nicotinamide coenzymes that have prevented their widespread exploitation. Stoichiometric use of natural coenzymes is not viable economically, and the instability of these molecules hinders catalytic processes that employ coenzyme recycling. Here, we investigate the efficiency of man-made synthetic biomimetics of the natural coenzymes NAD(P)H in redox biocatalysis. Extensive studies with a range of oxidoreductases belonging to the "ene" reductase family show that these biomimetics are excellent analogues of the natural coenzymes, revealed also in crystal structures of the ene reductase XenA with selected biomimetics. In selected cases, these biomimetics outperform the natural coenzymes. "Better-than-Nature" biomimetics should find widespread application in fine and specialty chemicals production by harnessing the power of high stereo-, regio-, and chemoselective redox biocatalysts and enabling reactions under mild conditions at low cost. PMID:26727612

  6. Turbulence in Natural Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Tirtha

    Problems in the area of land/biosphere-atmosphere interaction, hydrology, climate modeling etc. can be systematically organized as a study of turbulent flow in presence of boundary conditions in an increasing order of complexity. The present work is an attempt to study a few subsets of this general problem of turbulence in natural environments- in the context of neutral and thermally stratified atmospheric surface layer, the presence of a heterogeneous vegetation canopy and the interaction between air flow and a static water body in presence of flexible protruding vegetation. The main issue addressed in the context of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer is whether it is possible to describe the macro-states of turbulence such as mean velocity and turbulent velocity variance in terms of the micro-states of the turbulent flow, i.e., a distribution of turbulent kinetic energy across a multitude of scales. This has been achieved by a `spectral budget approach' which is extended for thermal stratification scenarios as well, in the process unifying the seemingly different and unrelated theories of turbulence such as Kolmogorov's hypothesis, Heisenberg's eddy viscosity, Monin Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) etc. under a common framework. In the case of a more complex scenario such as presence of a vegetation canopy with edges and gaps, the question that is addressed is in what detail the turbulence is needed to be resolved in order to capture the bulk flow features such as recirculation patterns. This issue is addressed by a simple numerical framework and it has been found out that an explicit prescription of turbulence is not necessary in presence of heterogeneities such as edges and gaps where the interplay between advection, pressure gradients and drag forces are sufficient to capture the first order dynamics. This result can be very important for eddy-covariance flux calibration strategies in non-ideal environments and the developed numerical model can be

  7. Natural gas monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-03

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of Natural Resource Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Andy

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a frame for evaluation of natural resource interventions, which necessarily involves both human and natural systems. Two-system evaluands require us to adapt evaluation methods for comparison and attribution and to address differences in time and space occurring across the systems as well as potentially very different values…

  9. Commentary: Biochemistry Re-Natured

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Harold B.

    2010-01-01

    In his last commentary on "Biochemistry Denatured," this author dealt with his perception that college students today have spent too little of their childhood years playing outside in nature and as a consequence have not learned basic things about the world from personal experience. This "nature-deficit disorder" removes many opportunities for…

  10. Collaborating with Forms in Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Aileen Pugliese

    2011-01-01

    Taking students outside is a great opportunity to make art. In this article, the author describes how her students collaborated with forms in nature to create their own visual structures to communicate ideas. This lesson can be done on the beach, in a sand box on the school playground, in grassy areas, or nature can even be brought into the…

  11. Discovering Nature with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalufour, Ingrid; Worth, Karen

    Young children's curiosity about nature and their need to make sense of the world presents an opportunity to incorporate science as a natural and critical part of children's early learning. This guide, part of a preschool science curriculum, uses an inquiry approach to encourage young naturalists to observe life more closely, build an…

  12. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  13. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  14. Climate Change: Prospects for Nature

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Lovejoy

    2008-03-12

    Thomas Lovejoy, President of The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment, explores the impact of climate change on the natural world. He also discusses the implications of climate change for climate policy and natural resource management.

  15. Czech Children's Drawing of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Zuhal; Kubiatko, Milan; Topal, Hatice

    2012-01-01

    Do world children draw nature pictures in a certain way? Range of mountains in the background, a sun, couple clouds, a river rising from mountains. Is this type of drawing universal in the way these nature items are organized on a drawing paper? The sample size from Czech Republic included 33 participants from two kindergartens. They were 5 and 6…

  16. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  17. Illinois Birds. Nature Discovery I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Sally F.

    The birds of Illinois and their particular habitats are explored in this guide which is a part of a series of Nature Discovery publications. The materials are designed to directly supplement the natural science curricula and to complement other subject areas including social studies, language arts, music, and art. The program is formated for…

  18. Systematics, Natural History, and Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Harry W.; Losos, Jonathan B.

    1988-01-01

    Cites the public image problem of field biologists and systematists. Discusses systematics and natural history including species variation, ecology, management of organisms and appreciation of nature. Describes widespread fallacies which downplay the importance of field biology and suggests ways to improve its image. (CW)

  19. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  20. Natural gas monthly, December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  1. Natural Gas Industry and Markets

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This special report provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2004 and is intended as a supplement to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Natural Gas Annual 2004 (NGA). Unless otherwise stated, all data and figures in this report are based on summary statistics published in the NGA 2004.

  2. Backpocket: Activities for Nature Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Ian; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Leading naturalist-teachers share outdoor learning activities and techniques, including using binoculars as magnifiers, scavenger hunts, games such as "what's it called" and "I spy," insect study, guessing the age of trees by examining the bark, leading bird walks, exploring nature in the community, and enhancing nature hikes with props. (LP)

  3. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  4. Beholding Nature: Contemplation and Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Kathleen Mary

    2013-01-01

    Two related exploratory studies, one with families, and a second one with adult and child members of an independent school community, suggest that our connections with the rhythms, processes, species, and cycles of nature, our "love" and feelings of affinity for nature, can be strengthened by practicing contemplation outdoors. In The…

  5. Natural Disasters and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, Jon N.; Chan, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases acquired by survivors of large-scale natural disasters complicate the recovery process. During events such as tsunamis, hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornados and well into the recovery period, victims often are exposed to water-soil mixtures that have relocated with indigenous microbes. Because nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in water and soil, there is potential for increased exposure to these organisms during natural disasters. In this hypothesis-driven commentary, we discuss the rise in NTM lung disease and natural disasters and examine the geographic overlap of NTM infections and disaster frequencies in the United States. Moreover, we show an increased number of positive NTM cultures from Louisiana residents in the years following three of the relatively recent epic hurricanes and posit that such natural disasters may help to drive the increased number of NTM infections. Finally, we advocate for increased environmental studies and surveillance of NTM infections before and after natural disasters. PMID:25644904

  6. Natural gas monthly, October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-05

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

  7. Natural Hazards - A National Threat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geological Survey, U.S.

    2007-01-01

    The USGS Role in Reducing Disaster Losses -- In the United States each year, natural hazards cause hundreds of deaths and cost billions of dollars in disaster aid, disruption of commerce, and destruction of homes and critical infrastructure. Although the number of lives lost to natural hazards each year generally has declined, the economic cost of major disaster response and recovery continues to rise. Each decade, property damage from natural hazards events doubles or triples. The United States is second only to Japan in economic damages resulting from natural disasters. A major goal of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to reduce the vulnerability of the people and areas most at risk from natural hazards. Working with partners throughout all sectors of society, the USGS provides information, products, and knowledge to help build more resilient communities.

  8. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies

  9. The Science of Middle Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pataki, D. E.; Pincetl, S.

    2012-12-01

    In the field of biogeochemistry, urbanization is often considered as an "alteration" or "disturbance" to the earth's surface and its natural processes. This view is an outcome of the view of nature inherent in earth system science and ecology, in which nature is defined as separate from humans and society. However, other disciplines are based in alternative views of nature in which humans are more integral components of the landscape. Urban planning, landscape architecture, agriculture, and horticulture, for example, more fully integrate the role of landscape design and management in the functioning of human-dominated ecosystems. We suggest that the field of urban biogeochemistry has been somewhat limited by the predominant, disturbance-based view of the role of nature in cities, and that more deeply evaluating and broadening the concept of nature inherent in studies of urban processes can enhance our understanding of the role of urbanization in the earth system. A particularly useful concept is the "middle nature" proposed by Cosgrove (1993), which serves a purpose of "actively transforming nature into culture." It is this view of urban landscapes as middle nature, or transformation of urban space into human-dominated nature with a purpose, that is lacking from the current scientific discourse about the role of biogeochemistry in urban ecosystem services. A scientific evaluation of middle nature implies studying the performance of urban designs to meet intended cultural and environmental goals, including beauty, social equity, governance, and social capital as well as environmental quality. We describe our work in evaluating the transformed urban landscapes of Los Angeles from multiple perspectives that focus on urban livability, equity, and beauty as well as the physical impacts of plants and soils on the environment. The outcomes of this process do not necessary meet the traditional demands of biophysical ecology such as utilizing native species, maximizing

  10. Nature's Trust: A Paradigm for Natural Resources Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M. C.; Whitelaw, E.; Doppelt, B.; Burchell, A.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change uncertainty puts a premium on all remaining natural resources. Farmland, air, water, wetlands, wildlife, soils, mineral resources and forests must be protected to ensure that Americans - present citizens and future generations - have the fundamental survival resources they need in a future that holds many unknowns. Moreover, in light of the need to manage resources given climate and particle forcing, government must mitigate dangerous carbon loading of the atmosphere. Confronting climate change and protecting natural resources requires a clear sense of government obligation that is inherent to sovereignty, not a matter of political choice. Our government representatives can and must reframe government's discretion into a trustee obligation to protect Nature and ensure natural resource stewardship. Drawing upon enduring legal principles and court decisions, government can be characterized as a trustee of the natural resources essential to human survival. A trust is a fundamental type of ownership whereby one manages property for the benefit of another. Viewed as a trust, the environment consists of a portfolio of quantified natural assets that government manages. As beneficiaries, citizens hold a common property interest in defined, bounded assets that make up Nature's Trust. Such trust principles form the bedrock of statutory law. Trustees have a fiduciary obligation to protect trust assets and may not allow destruction of property they manage. This session will provide a policy frame for current scientific efforts to address climate change and natural resources loss. Under the Nature's Trust frame, U.S. government leaders and agencies at every level inherit a strict fiduciary obligation to protect our collective natural resources, including our water and the atmosphere, as assets in the trust. Their fiduciary standard of care consists of a proportionate responsibility, which ties directly to "Nature's Mandate" as defined by current climate

  11. Natural gas monthly, February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through February 1998 for many data series, and through November 1997 for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the natural gas data contained in this issue are: Preliminary estimates for January and February 1998 show that dry natural gas production, net imports, and consumption are all within 1 percent of their levels in 1997. Warmer-than-normal weather in recent months has resulted in lower consumption of natural gas by the residential sector and lower net withdrawals of gas from under round storage facilities compared with a year ago. This has resulted in an estimate of the amount of working gas in storage at the end of February 1998 that is 18 percent higher than in February 1997. The national average natural gas wellhead price is estimated to be $3.05 per thousand cubic feet in November 1997, 7 percent higher than in October. The cumulative average wellhead price for January through November 1997 is estimated to be $2.42 per thousand cubic feet, 17 percent above that of the same period in 1996. This price increase is far less than 36-percent rise that occurred between 1995 and 1996. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  12. New Methods for Assessing the Fascinating Nature of Nature Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Joye, Yannick; Pals, Roos; Steg, Linda; Evans, Ben Lewis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous environmental psychology studies have demonstrated that contact with nature as opposed to urban settings can improve an individual’s mood, can lead to increased levels of vitality, and can offer an opportunity to recover from stress. According to Attention Restoration Theory (ART) the restorative potential of natural environments is situated in the fact that nature can replenish depleted attentional resources. This replenishment takes place, in part, because nature is deemed to be a source of fascination, with fascination being described as having an “attentional”, an “affective” and an “effort” dimension. However, the claim that fascination with nature involves these three dimensions is to a large extent based on intuition or derived from introspection-based measurement methods, such as self-reports. In three studies, we aimed to more objectively assess whether these three dimensions indeed applied to experiences related to natural environments, before any (attentional) depletion has taken place. The instruments that were used were: (a) the affect misattribution procedure (Study 1), (b) the dot probe paradigm (Study 2) and (c) a cognitively effortful task (Study 3). These instrument were respectively aimed at verifying the affective, attentional and effort dimension of fascination. Overall, the results provide objective evidence for the claims made within the ART framework, that natural as opposed to urban settings are affectively positive (cfr., affective dimension) and that people have an attentional bias to natural (rather than urban) environments (cfr., attentional dimension). The results regarding the effort dimension are less straightforward, and suggest that this dimension only becomes important in sufficiently difficult cognitive tasks. PMID:23922645

  13. New methods for assessing the fascinating nature of nature experiences.

    PubMed

    Joye, Yannick; Pals, Roos; Steg, Linda; Evans, Ben Lewis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous environmental psychology studies have demonstrated that contact with nature as opposed to urban settings can improve an individual's mood, can lead to increased levels of vitality, and can offer an opportunity to recover from stress. According to Attention Restoration Theory (ART) the restorative potential of natural environments is situated in the fact that nature can replenish depleted attentional resources. This replenishment takes place, in part, because nature is deemed to be a source of fascination, with fascination being described as having an "attentional", an "affective" and an "effort" dimension. However, the claim that fascination with nature involves these three dimensions is to a large extent based on intuition or derived from introspection-based measurement methods, such as self-reports. In three studies, we aimed to more objectively assess whether these three dimensions indeed applied to experiences related to natural environments, before any (attentional) depletion has taken place. The instruments that were used were: (a) the affect misattribution procedure (Study 1), (b) the dot probe paradigm (Study 2) and (c) a cognitively effortful task (Study 3). These instrument were respectively aimed at verifying the affective, attentional and effort dimension of fascination. Overall, the results provide objective evidence for the claims made within the ART framework, that natural as opposed to urban settings are affectively positive (cfr., affective dimension) and that people have an attentional bias to natural (rather than urban) environments (cfr., attentional dimension). The results regarding the effort dimension are less straightforward, and suggest that this dimension only becomes important in sufficiently difficult cognitive tasks.

  14. Darwin's explanation of design: from natural theology to natural selection.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Francisco J

    2010-08-01

    Copernicus, Galileo, Newton and other physical scientists ushered in a conception of the universe as matter in motion governed by natural laws. Their discoveries brought about a fundamental revolution, namely a commitment to the postulate that the universe obeys immanent laws that can account for natural phenomena. The workings of the universe were brought into the realm of science: explanation through natural laws. Darwin completed the Copernican revolution by extending it to the living world. Darwin demonstrated the evolution of organisms. More important yet is that he discovered natural selection, the process that explains the "design" of organisms. The adaptations and diversity of organisms, the origin of novel and complex species, even the origin of mankind, could now be explained by an orderly process of change governed by natural laws. The origin of species and the exquisite features of organisms had previously been explained as special creations of an Omniscient God. Darwin brought them into the domain of science. Evolution is a creative process that produces genuine novelty. The creative power of evolution arises from a distinctive interaction between chance and necessity, between random mutation and natural selection.

  15. Darwin's explanation of design: from natural theology to natural selection.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Francisco J

    2010-08-01

    Copernicus, Galileo, Newton and other physical scientists ushered in a conception of the universe as matter in motion governed by natural laws. Their discoveries brought about a fundamental revolution, namely a commitment to the postulate that the universe obeys immanent laws that can account for natural phenomena. The workings of the universe were brought into the realm of science: explanation through natural laws. Darwin completed the Copernican revolution by extending it to the living world. Darwin demonstrated the evolution of organisms. More important yet is that he discovered natural selection, the process that explains the "design" of organisms. The adaptations and diversity of organisms, the origin of novel and complex species, even the origin of mankind, could now be explained by an orderly process of change governed by natural laws. The origin of species and the exquisite features of organisms had previously been explained as special creations of an Omniscient God. Darwin brought them into the domain of science. Evolution is a creative process that produces genuine novelty. The creative power of evolution arises from a distinctive interaction between chance and necessity, between random mutation and natural selection. PMID:19800418

  16. Natural Fiber Composites: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Westman, Matthew P.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Laddha, Sachin; Kafentzis, Tyler A.

    2010-03-07

    The need for renewable fiber reinforced composites has never been as prevalent as it currently is. Natural fibers offer both cost savings and a reduction in density when compared to glass fibers. Though the strength of natural fibers is not as great as glass, the specific properties are comparable. Currently natural fiber composites have two issues that need to be addressed: resin compatibility and water absorption. The following preliminary research has investigated the use of Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus, as a possible glass replacement in fiber reinforced composites.

  17. On the measurement of naturalization.

    PubMed

    Liang, Z

    1994-08-01

    This paper proposes a new way of measuring naturalization, which takes into account both emigration and death. I argue that the new method corrects for underestimation and thus provides a more accurate measure of the concept. Using data from six groups of the 1973 immigrant cohort and multiple-decrement life table techniques, I estimated and compared naturalization measures derived from new and old methods. The results show that failure to control for emigration has a significant effect on the measurement of naturalization, particularly if an immigrant group has relatively high rate of emigration. Some further substantive implications of this new method are also explored.

  18. Visibility of natural tertiary rainbows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Raymond L; Laven, Philip

    2011-10-01

    Naturally occurring tertiary rainbows are extraordinarily rare and only a handful of reliable sightings and photographs have been published. Indeed, tertiaries are sometimes assumed to be inherently invisible because of sun glare and strong forward scattering by raindrops. To analyze the natural tertiary's visibility, we use Lorenz-Mie theory, the Debye series, and a modified geometrical optics model (including both interference and nonspherical drops) to calculate the tertiary's (1) chromaticity gamuts, (2) luminance contrasts, and (3) color contrasts as seen against dark cloud backgrounds. Results from each model show that natural tertiaries are just visible for some unusual combinations of lighting conditions and raindrop size distributions.

  19. Natural attenuation of contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Catherine N; Yong, Raymond N

    2004-06-01

    Natural attenuation is increasing in use as a low cost means of remediating contaminated soil and groundwater. Modelling of contaminant migration plays a key role in evaluating natural attenuation as a remediation option and in ensuring that there will be no adverse impact on humans and the environment. During natural attenuation, the contamination must be characterized thoroughly and monitored through the process. In this paper, attenuation mechanisms for both organic and inorganic contaminants, use of models and protocols, role of monitoring and field case studies will be reviewed.

  20. Visibility of natural tertiary rainbows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Raymond L; Laven, Philip

    2011-10-01

    Naturally occurring tertiary rainbows are extraordinarily rare and only a handful of reliable sightings and photographs have been published. Indeed, tertiaries are sometimes assumed to be inherently invisible because of sun glare and strong forward scattering by raindrops. To analyze the natural tertiary's visibility, we use Lorenz-Mie theory, the Debye series, and a modified geometrical optics model (including both interference and nonspherical drops) to calculate the tertiary's (1) chromaticity gamuts, (2) luminance contrasts, and (3) color contrasts as seen against dark cloud backgrounds. Results from each model show that natural tertiaries are just visible for some unusual combinations of lighting conditions and raindrop size distributions. PMID:22016239

  1. Natural products in crop protection.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Franck E; Cantrell, Charles L; Duke, Stephen O

    2009-06-15

    The tremendous increase in crop yields associated with the 'green' revolution has been possible in part by the discovery and utilization of chemicals for pest control. However, concerns over the potential impact of pesticides on human health and the environment has led to the introduction of new pesticide registration procedures, such as the Food Quality Protection Act in the United States. These new regulations have reduced the number of synthetic pesticides available in agriculture. Therefore, the current paradigm of relying almost exclusively on chemicals for pest control may need to be reconsidered. New pesticides, including natural product-based pesticides are being discovered and developed to replace the compounds lost due to the new registration requirements. This review covers the historical use of natural products in agricultural practices, the impact of natural products on the development of new pesticides, and the future prospects for natural products-based pest management.

  2. Natural gas: The next shortage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The eighth Annual Meeting of the Gas Research Institute that was held in Chicago in April 1984 focused on the potential of a crisis in the supply of natural gas. According to a report of discussions held at that meeting, “Natural gas, the country's largest petrochemical feedstock, may be in short supply in a couple of years if some present forecasts prove true. The next supply/demand crisis for natural gas is likely to come in early 1986” [Chemical and Engineering News, April 30, 1984]. There are a number of variables, geologic and socio-economic, that may affect this prediction. An important factor is that drilling exploration of natural gas has decreased sharply, due to the onset of sharp rates of surplus since 1981. Drilling is highly sensitive to depth and flow rate.

  3. Natural Gas Monthly August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. Explanatory notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication.

  4. Natural Products as Aromatase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Balunas, Marcy J.; Su, Bin; Brueggemeier, Robert W.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    With the clinical success of several synthetic aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in the treatment of postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, researchers have also been investigating also the potential of natural products as AIs. Natural products from terrestrial and marine organisms provide a chemically diverse array of compounds not always available through current synthetic chemistry techniques. Natural products that have been used traditionally for nutritional or medicinal purposes (e.g., botanical dietary supplements) may also afford AIs with reduced side effects. A thorough review of the literature regarding natural product extracts and secondary metabolites of plant, microbial, and marine origin that have been shown to exhibit aromatase inhibitory activity is presented herein. PMID:18690828

  5. Thermal loading of natural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackman, Alan P.; Yotsukura, Nobuhiro

    1977-01-01

    The impact of thermal loading on the temperature regime of natural streams is investigated by mathematical models, which describe both transport (convection-diffusion) and decay (surface dissipation) of waste heat over 1-hour or shorter time intervals. The models are derived from the principle of conservation of thermal energy for application to one- and two-dimensional spaces. The basic concept in these models is to separate water temperature into two parts, (1) excess temperature due to thermal loading and (2) natural (ambient) temperature. This separation allows excess temperature to be calculated from the models without incoming radiation data. Natural temperature may either be measured in prototypes or calculated from the model. If use is made of the model, however, incoming radiation is required as input data. Comparison of observed and calculated temperatures in seven natural streams shows that the models are capable of predicting transient temperature regimes satisfactorily in most cases. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Is Science Biased Toward Natural?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Having widely available, accurate, understandable, and unbiased scientific information is central to the successful resolution of the typically contentious, divisive, and litigious natural resource policy issue. Three examples are offered to illustrate how science is often misus...

  7. A quantum of natural selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Seth

    2009-03-01

    The modern evolutionary synthesis, which marries Darwin's theory of natural selection with Mendel's genetics, was developed around the same time as quantum mechanics. Is there any connection between the two?

  8. The natural approach to osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Bartolozzi, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is normally the result of a wrong life-style (diet, physical inactivity, smoke, dental hygiene, intestinal dysbiosis,…) and environmental toxicity which stimulate the chronic expression of inflammatory genes and alter the immuno-endocrine balance. A natural approch should face all the factors involved, leading the patients to become aware of their own responsability, and helping them with natural therapies, healthy food and life-style which support their body in the process of self-healing. PMID:26604935

  9. Afghanistan's energy and natural resources

    SciTech Connect

    Balcome-Rawding, R.; Porter, K.C.

    1989-10-01

    This study provides a resource perspective from which to better plan the necessary steps toward the viable reconstruction and economic development of post war Afghanistan. The vast availability of natural resources affords the opportunity to formulate a framework upon which Afghanistan can grow and prosper in the future. The paper includes the following sections: Historical Overview: Thwarted Opportunities; Natural Resources: A Survey of Possibilities; The Future: Post War Rehabilitation and Reconstruction; and Conclusions: Future Energy Sources.

  10. The Capricious Character of Nature

    PubMed Central

    Keto, Jaana; Annila, Arto

    2012-01-01

    The on-going whole genome sequencing and whole cell assays of metabolites and proteins imply that complex systems could ultimately be mastered by perfecting knowledge into great detail. However, courses of nature are inherently intractable because flows of energy and their driving forces depend on each other. Thus no data will suffice to predict precisely the outcomes of e.g., engineering experiments. All path-dependent processes, most notably evolution in its entirety, display this capricious character of nature. PMID:25382121

  11. Natural gas monthly, November 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

  12. Natural gas monthly, July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-21

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Explanatory Notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided in the Data Sources section. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. All natural gas volumes are reported at a pressure base of 14.73 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) and at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Cubic feet are converted to cubic meters by applying a factor of 0.02831685.

  13. US Vulnerability to Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Vink, G.; Apgar, S.; Batchelor, A.; Carter, C.; Gail, D.; Jarrett, A.; Levine, N.; Morgan, W.; Orlikowski, M.; Pray, T.; Raymar, M.; Siebert, A.; Shawa, T. W.; Wallace, C.

    2002-05-01

    Natural disasters result from the coincidence of natural events with the built environment. Our nation's infrastructure is growing at an exponential rate in many areas of high risk, and the Federal government's liability is increasing proportionally. By superimposing population density with predicted ground motion from earthquakes, historical hurricane tracks, historical tornado locations, and areas within the flood plain, we are able to identify locations of high vulnerability within the United States. We present a comprehensive map of disaster risk for the United States that is being produced for the Senate Natural Hazards Caucus. The map allows for the geographic comparison of natural disaster risk with past disaster declarations, the expenditure of Federal dollars for disaster relief, population increase, and variations of GDP. Every state is vulnerable to natural disasters. Although their frequency varies considerably, the annualized losses for disaster relief from hurricanes, earthquakes, and floods are approximately equivalent. While fast-growing states such as California and Florida remain highly vulnerable, changes in the occurrence of natural events combined with population increases are making areas such as Texas, North Carolina, and the East Coast increasingly vulnerable.

  14. Hidden genetic nature of epigenetic natural variation in plants.

    PubMed

    Pecinka, Ales; Abdelsamad, Ahmed; Vu, Giang T H

    2013-11-01

    Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) is an epigenetic mechanism that suppresses the activity of repetitive DNA elements via accumulation of repressive chromatin marks. We discuss natural variation in TGS, with a particular focus on cases that affect the function of protein-coding genes and lead to developmental or physiological changes. Comparison of the examples described has revealed that most natural variation is associated with genetic determinants, such as gene rearrangements, inverted repeats, and transposon insertions that triggered TGS. Recent technical advances have enabled the study of epigenetic natural variation at a whole-genome scale and revealed patterns of inter- and intraspecific epigenetic variation. Future studies exploring non-model species may reveal species-specific evolutionary adaptations at the level of chromatin configuration.

  15. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    PubMed

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  16. Imaging natural cognition in action☆

    PubMed Central

    Gramann, Klaus; Ferris, Daniel P.; Gwin, Joseph; Makeig, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The primary function of the human brain is arguably to optimize the results of our motor actions in an ever-changing environment. Our cognitive processes and supporting brain dynamics are inherently coupled both to our environment and to our physical structure and actions. To investigate human cognition in its most natural forms demands imaging of brain activity while participants perform naturally motivated actions and interactions within a full three-dimensional environment. Transient, distributed brain activity patterns supporting spontaneous motor actions, performed in pursuit of naturally motivated goals, may involve any or all parts of cortex and must be precisely timed at a speed faster than the speed of thought and action. Hemodynamic imaging methods give information about brain dynamics on a much slower scale, and established techniques for imaging brain dynamics in all modalities forbid participants from making natural extensive movements so as to avoid intractable movement-related artifacts. To overcome these limitations, we are developing mobile brain/body imaging (MoBI) approaches to study natural human cognition. By synchronizing lightweight, high-density electroencephalographic (EEG) recording with recordings of participant sensory experience, body and eye movements, and other physiological measures, we can apply advanced data analysis techniques to the recorded signal ensemble. This MoBI approach enables the study of human brain dynamics accompanying active human cognition in its most natural forms. Results from our studies have provided new insights into the brain dynamics supporting natural cognition and can extend theories of human cognition and its evolutionary function — to optimize the results of our behavior to meet ever-changing goals, challenges, and opportunities. PMID:24076470

  17. What is Imbalance of Nature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, V. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Mother Nature is imbalanced at all. The Mother Nature is every moment new, never returns to previous condition. The gravity and magnetosphere are changeable and imbalanced. The Sun is changeable and imbalanced. The climate is changeable and imbalanced. The atmosphere is changeable and imbalanced. The ocean is changeable and imbalanced. The crust and deep interior are changeable and imbalanced. The cryosphere is changeable and imbalanced. The life is simultaneously as the creator and the result of the imbalance of Nature. The people society is changeable and imbalanced. All chemical, physical, social, and other phenomenons are changeable and imbalanced. It's just that each phenomenon of the Mother Nature has some personal time-scale: one change in a nanosecond, and looks like for us as instable, i.e. imbalanced; while others change over millions years and, therefore, to us looks like not changeable, i.e. balanced. The scientists who are studying the Nature have convinced that the real balance never exist in Nature. Sometimes we can see something that is stable, i.e. balanced. But on closer study it appears that we are witnessing is not eternal rest and balance, it is not eternal STOP, but it is the perpetual motion, changing, there are a lot of imbalances. The balance it can be some result of the temporary mutual compensation the imbalanced processes in opposite directions. The balance it can be also some result of the inaccurate measurement, misunderstanding of conception or even request from bosses. But if we start use more accurate measurements, improve the models and not fear the bosses, than usually we got some new details. These new details show thet under the balanced visibility in really is hiding the interaction of many imbalanced processes of different directions. The balanced logic usually answers to question: What is it? The balanced answers are approximate and it will be updated many times during the development of science and practice. The

  18. Natural pigments and sacred art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelekian, Lena, ,, Lady

    2010-05-01

    Since the dawn of mankind, cavemen has expressed himself through art. The earliest known cave paintings date to some 32,000 years ago and used 4 colours derived from the earth. These pigments were iron oxides and known as ochres, blacks and whites. All pigments known by the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and Renaissance man were natural and it was not until the 18th century that synthetic pigments were made and widely used. Until that time all art, be it sacred or secular used only natural pigments, of which the preparation of many have been lost or rarely used because of their tedious preparation. As a geologist, a mineralogist and an artist specializing in iconography, I have been able to rediscover 89 natural pigments extracted from minerals. I use these pigments to paint my icons in the traditional Byzantine manner and also to restore old icons, bringing back their glamour and conserving them for years to come. The use of the natural pigments in its proper way also helps to preserve the traditional skills of the iconographer. In the ancient past, pigments were extremely precious. Many took an exceedingly long journey to reach the artists, and came from remote countries. Research into these pigments is the work of history, geography and anthropology. It is an interesting journey in itself to discover that the blue aquamarines came from Afghanistan, the reds from Spain, the greens Africa, and so on. In this contribution I will be describing the origins, preparation and use of some natural pigments, together with their history and provenance. Additionally, I will show how the natural pigments are used in the creation of an icon. Being a geologist iconographer, for me, is a sacrement that transforms that which is earthly, material and natural into a thing of beauty that is sacred. As bread and wine in the Eucharist, water during baptism and oil in Holy Union transmit sanctification to the beholder, natural pigments do the same when one considers an icon. The

  19. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for

  20. Natural Gas Supply SBIR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, H.D.; Gwilliam, W.J.

    1995-07-01

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program was created in 1982 by Public Law 97-219 and reauthorized in 1992 until the year 2000 by Public Law 102-564. The purposes of the new law are to (1) expand and improve the SBIR program, 2) emphasize the program`s goal of increasing private sector commercialization of technology developed through Federal R&D, (3) increase small business participation in Federal R&D, and (4) improve the Federal Government`s dissemination of information concerning the SBIR program. DOE`s SBIR pro-ram has two features that are unique. In the 1995 DOE SBIR solicitation, the DOE Fossil Energy topics were: environmental technology for natural gas, oil, and coal; advanced recovery of oil; natural gas supply; natural gas utilization; advanced coal-based power systems; and advanced fossil fuels research. The subtopics for this solicitation`s Natural Gas Supply topic are (1) drilling, completion, and stimulation; (2) low-permeability Formations; (3) delivery and storage; and (4) natural gas upgrading.

  1. Natural pedagogy as evolutionary adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, György

    2011-01-01

    We propose that the cognitive mechanisms that enable the transmission of cultural knowledge by communication between individuals constitute a system of ‘natural pedagogy’ in humans, and represent an evolutionary adaptation along the hominin lineage. We discuss three kinds of arguments that support this hypothesis. First, natural pedagogy is likely to be human-specific: while social learning and communication are both widespread in non-human animals, we know of no example of social learning by communication in any other species apart from humans. Second, natural pedagogy is universal: despite the huge variability in child-rearing practices, all human cultures rely on communication to transmit to novices a variety of different types of cultural knowledge, including information about artefact kinds, conventional behaviours, arbitrary referential symbols, cognitively opaque skills and know-how embedded in means-end actions. Third, the data available on early hominin technological culture are more compatible with the assumption that natural pedagogy was an independently selected adaptive cognitive system than considering it as a by-product of some other human-specific adaptation, such as language. By providing a qualitatively new type of social learning mechanism, natural pedagogy is not only the product but also one of the sources of the rich cultural heritage of our species. PMID:21357237

  2. Natural patterns of energy dispersal.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Teemu; Annila, Arto

    2010-12-01

    Universal patterns such as power-law dependences, skewed distributions, tree-like structures, networks and spirals are associated with energy dispersal processes using the principle of least action. Also ubiquitous temporal courses such as sigmoid growth, bifurcations and chaos are ascribed to the decrease of free energy in the least time. Moreover, emergence of natural standards such as the common genetic code and chirality consensus of amino acids are understood to follow from the quest to maximize the dispersal of energy. Many mathematical functions that model natural patterns and processes are found as approximations of the evolutionary equation of motion that has been derived from statistical physics of open systems. The evolutionary processes can be described as flows of energy that run from high energy sources to low energy sinks in the least time. However, the equation of evolution cannot be solved in general because the flows of energy and their driving forces are inseparable. Since the energy of the system keeps changing, the paths of evolution cannot be integrated from a given initial state to a final state. Although evolutionary courses of these non-Hamiltonian systems with two or more alternative ways of dissipation cannot be predicted, the flows of energy will search and naturally select paths of least action, known as geodesics, to consume free energy in the least time. The scale-invariant natural patterns follow from this natural law that impinges on processes at all scales of space and time.

  3. Toward a New Natural Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckel, Peter

    Treatments summarized under the term "natural medicine," i.e., those offered as an alternative or in addition to conventional medicine, have enjoyed a surge in popularity in recent years. The "natural" descriptor employed in connection with these healing methods is frequently misunderstood, leading to underestimation of the risks arising from incorrect use. However, the essential principle underlying traditional natural medicine, mobilization of the body's own forces against disease, is increasingly being employed in a new, rational form of medicine: molecular medicine. A range of natural endogenous substances for medical use are already available. Human proteins such as erythropoietin can now be produced as medicines in highly pure form with the aid of genetic engineering techniques. Our increasing understanding of the function of our genes and the resulting descriptions of molecular mechanisms underlying disease are also helping us to utilize the body's own construction set. New techniques such as gene therapy will in future enable us to reproduce the natural conditions in the healthy body with increasing specificity in our attempts to cure illnesses. One such application will be the activation of the immune system to combat cancer. The complete decoding of the human genome will not only allow illnesses to be described, and possibly prevented, at an earlier stage. Illnesses will also be able to described more precisely and individually at the molecular level, opening up the possibility of targeted, patient-specific cures.

  4. Natural GUT and the cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, Nobuhiro

    2012-07-01

    In the natural GUT, not only realistic quark and lepton mass matrices can be obtained but also the most serious problem in the SUSY GUT, which is called the doublet-triplet splitting problem, can be solved under the natural assumption that all the interactions which are allowed by the symmetry are introduced with O(1) coefficients (including the higher dimensional operators). In this manuscript, we examine several cosmological aspects which are related with the natural GUT, B - L-genesis, non-thermal production of dark matter (DM), vacuum selection by particle production, and the inflation after the trapping. These works are based on several papers[1, 2, 3] collaborated with S. Enomoto, S. Iida, Y. Kurata, and T. Matsuda.

  5. Hegel's notion of natural purpose.

    PubMed

    Michelini, Francesca

    2012-03-01

    This paper argues that the notion of natural purpose developed by Hegel can only be thoroughly grasped by considering its intimate connection with the idea of contradiction and, particularly, with what Hegel in his philosophy of nature called the 'activity of deficiency'. This expression is used by Hegel to denote the ontological situation of every living being, which is embodied most authentically in the concepts of need and drive. For Hegel, life itself is imbued with contradiction because it is inextricably bound up with what it lacks: its identity is at one with its negation. This paper defends the thesis that Hegel's philosophy-and not just his philosophy of nature-can be characterized as an 'ontology of life' (to use the same expression that Martin Heidegger applied to Aristotle's De Anima), or more precisely, as an ontology of living individuality.

  6. Natural GUT and the cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Maekawa, Nobuhiro

    2012-07-27

    In the natural GUT, not only realistic quark and lepton mass matrices can be obtained but also the most serious problem in the SUSY GUT, which is called the doublet-triplet splitting problem, can be solved under the natural assumption that all the interactions which are allowed by the symmetry are introduced with O(1) coefficients (including the higher dimensional operators). In this manuscript, we examine several cosmological aspects which are related with the natural GUT, B - L-genesis, non-thermal production of dark matter (DM), vacuum selection by particle production, and the inflation after the trapping. These works are based on several papers[1, 2, 3] collaborated with S. Enomoto, S. Iida, Y. Kurata, and T. Matsuda.

  7. Natural gas monthly, February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents estimates of natural gas supply and consumption through February 1997. Estimates of natural gas prices are through November 1996 except electric utility prices that are through October 1996. Cumulatively for January through February 1997, the daily average rates for several data series remain close to those of 1996. (Comparing daily rates accounts for the fact that February 1996 had 29 days.) Daily total consumption for January through February is estimated to be 83 billion cubic feet per day, 1 percent higher than during the same period in 1996. Similarly, the estimate of average daily production of 53 billion cubic feet is 1.5 percent higher than in 1996, while daily net imports during the first 2 months of 1997 are virtually unchanged from 1996.

  8. Natural gas monthly, August 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This analysis presents the most recent data on natural gas prices, supply, and consumption from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The presentation of the latest monthly data is followed by an update on natural gas markets. The markets section examines the behavior of daily spot and futures prices based on information from trade press, as well as regional, weekly data on natural gas storage from the American Gas Association (AGA). This {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} closes with a special section comparing and contrasting EIA and AGA storage data on a monthly and regional basis. The regions used are those defined by the AGA for their weekly data collection effort: the Producing Region, the Consuming Region East, and the Consuming Region West. While data on working gas levels have tracked fairly closely between the two data sources, differences have developed recently. The largest difference is in estimates of working gas levels in the East consuming region during the heating season.

  9. Immunobiology of natural killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lotzova, E.; Herberman, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    This book combines research from many disciplines into a review of natural killer (NK) cell-mediated immunity in humans and experimental animal system. Topics for the volumes include: Volume I: Assays for NK Cell Cytotoxicity; Their Values and Pitfalls. Separation and Characterization of Phenotypically Distinct Subsets of NK Cells. Ultrastructure and Cytochemistry of the Human Large Granular Lymphocytes. Phylogeny and Ontogeny of NK Cells. Tissue and Organ distribution of NK Cells. Genetic Control of NK Cell Activity in Rodents. Phenotype, Functional Heterogeneity, and Lineage of Natural Killer Cells. Target Cell Structures, Recognition Sites, and the Mechanism of NK Cytotoxicity. Natural Killer Cytotoxic Factors (NKCF) Role in Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity. Characteristics of Cultured NK Cells. Lectin-Dependent Killer Cells. MLC-Induced Cytotoxicity as a Model for the Development and Regulation of NK Cytotoxicity. LGL Lymphoproliferative Diseases in Man and Experimental Animals: The Characteristics of These Cells and Their Potential Experimental Uses. Index.

  10. Naturalizing phenomenology - A philosophical imperative.

    PubMed

    Harney, Maurita

    2015-12-01

    Phenomenology since Husserl has always had a problematic relationship with empirical science. In its early articulations, there was Husserl's rejection of 'the scientific attitude', Merleau-Ponty's distancing of the scientifically-objectified self, and Heidegger's critique of modern science. These suggest an antipathy to science and to its methods of explaining the natural world. Recent developments in neuroscience have opened new opportunities for an engagement between phenomenology and cognitive science and through this, a re-thinking of science and its hidden assumptions more generally. This is so partly because of the shortcomings of conventional mechanistically-conceived science in dealing with complex and dynamic phenomena such as climate change, brain plasticity, the behaviour of collectives, the dynamics of various microbiological processes, etc. But it is also due to recent phenomenological scholarship focussed on the 'embodied' phenomenology of Husserl's Ideen II and Merleau Ponty's later ontology of nature which have helped to extend the insights of phenomenology beyond the narrowly 'human' to an understanding of nature (which includes the human) more generally. Thus re-contextualised, phenomenology is well placed to examine some of the assumptions that give rise to the reductionism and associated scientism which has characterised conventional science in its approach to the study of natural processes. In light of this, it might be suggested that the 'anti-science' of early articulations of phenomenology is more a hostility to the underlying assumptions of science as conventionally understood than to science itself - that it is scientism rather than science that is targeted. In this paper, I aim to show how a phenomenological naturalism might be seen as a necessary step towards the development of a non-reductionist and non-scientistic approach to scientific inquiry. A key to this is a reconceptualization of nature as inclusive of meanings and of mind. It

  11. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  12. Ecology: Darwin's naturalization hypothesis challenged.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Richard P; Williams, Peter A

    2002-06-01

    Naturalized plants can have a significant ecological and economic impact, yet they comprise only a fraction ot the plant species introduced by humans. Darwin proposed that introduced plant species will be less likely to establish a self-sustaining wild population in places with congeneric native species because the introduced plants have to compete with their close relatives, or are more likely to be attacked by native herbivores or pathogens, a theory known as Darwin's naturalization hypothesis. Here we analyze a complete list of seed-plant species that have been introduced to New Zealand and find that those with congeneric relatives are significantly more, not less, likely to naturalize--perhaps because they share with their native relatives traits that pre-adapt them to their new environment.

  13. Surface reactions of natural glasses

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.F.

    1986-12-31

    Reactions at natural glass surfaces are important in studies involving nuclear waste transport due to chemical control on ground water in host rocks such as basalt and tuff, to potential diffusion into natural hydrated glass surfaces and as natural analogs for waste glass stability. Dissolution kinetics can be described by linear surface reaction coupled with cation interdiffusion with resulting rates similar to those of synthetic silicate glasses. Rates of Cs diffusion into hydrated obsidian surfaces between 25{sup 0} and 75{sup 0}C were determined by XPS depth profiles and loss rates from aqueous solutions. Calculated diffusion coefficients were ten others of magnitude more rapid than predicted from an Arrhenius extrapolation of high temperature tracer diffusion data due to surface hydration reactions.

  14. Natural Products as Chemical Probes

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    Natural products have evolved to encompass a broad spectrum of chemical and functional diversity. It is this diversity, along with their structural complexity, that enables nature’s small molecules to target a nearly limitless number of biological macromolecules and to often do so in a highly selective fashion. Because of these characteristics, natural products have seen great success as therapeutic agents. However, this vast pool of compounds holds much promise beyond the development of future drugs. These features also make them ideal tools for the study of biological systems. Recent examples of the use of natural products and their derivatives as chemical probes to explore biological phenomena and assemble biochemical pathways are presented here. PMID:20509672

  15. Second nature: on Gramsci's anthropology.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Giovanni

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to convey the relevance of a Gramscian perspective in medical anthropology, stressing his anti-essentialist way of reasoning about 'nature'. The author claims that Gramsci's understandings of the bodily life of the state can deconstruct naturalized realities in ways that are helpful for the ethnographer engaged in the political anthropology of embodiment and the management of health, persons, and life itself. The paper is presented in three parts. An attempt is made, first, to frame the relevance of Gramsci for Italian medical anthropology and second, to explore the components of the Gramscian concept of 'second nature' within the perspective that he himself calls 'an anthropology'. Third, an example is given of how the proposed Gramscian insights could inform an ethnography on the biopolitical aspects for the early detection of Alzheimer's disease, which is currently being carried out in Perugia.

  16. Synthesis of Polycyclic Natural Products

    SciTech Connect

    Tuan Hoang Nguyen

    2003-05-31

    With the continuous advancements in molecular biology and modern medicine, organic synthesis has become vital to the support and extension of those discoveries. The isolations of new natural products allow for the understanding of their biological activities and therapeutic value. Organic synthesis is employed to aid in the determination of the relationship between structure and function of these natural products. The development of synthetic methodologies in the course of total syntheses is imperative for the expansion of this highly interdisciplinary field of science. In addition to the practical applications of total syntheses, the structural complexity of natural products represents a worthwhile challenge in itself. The pursuit of concise and efficient syntheses of complex molecules is both gratifying and enjoyable.

  17. Naturalizing phenomenology - A philosophical imperative.

    PubMed

    Harney, Maurita

    2015-12-01

    Phenomenology since Husserl has always had a problematic relationship with empirical science. In its early articulations, there was Husserl's rejection of 'the scientific attitude', Merleau-Ponty's distancing of the scientifically-objectified self, and Heidegger's critique of modern science. These suggest an antipathy to science and to its methods of explaining the natural world. Recent developments in neuroscience have opened new opportunities for an engagement between phenomenology and cognitive science and through this, a re-thinking of science and its hidden assumptions more generally. This is so partly because of the shortcomings of conventional mechanistically-conceived science in dealing with complex and dynamic phenomena such as climate change, brain plasticity, the behaviour of collectives, the dynamics of various microbiological processes, etc. But it is also due to recent phenomenological scholarship focussed on the 'embodied' phenomenology of Husserl's Ideen II and Merleau Ponty's later ontology of nature which have helped to extend the insights of phenomenology beyond the narrowly 'human' to an understanding of nature (which includes the human) more generally. Thus re-contextualised, phenomenology is well placed to examine some of the assumptions that give rise to the reductionism and associated scientism which has characterised conventional science in its approach to the study of natural processes. In light of this, it might be suggested that the 'anti-science' of early articulations of phenomenology is more a hostility to the underlying assumptions of science as conventionally understood than to science itself - that it is scientism rather than science that is targeted. In this paper, I aim to show how a phenomenological naturalism might be seen as a necessary step towards the development of a non-reductionist and non-scientistic approach to scientific inquiry. A key to this is a reconceptualization of nature as inclusive of meanings and of mind. It

  18. Better than Nature: Nicotinamide Biomimetics That Outperform Natural Coenzymes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The search for affordable, green biocatalytic processes is a challenge for chemicals manufacture. Redox biotransformations are potentially attractive, but they rely on unstable and expensive nicotinamide coenzymes that have prevented their widespread exploitation. Stoichiometric use of natural coenzymes is not viable economically, and the instability of these molecules hinders catalytic processes that employ coenzyme recycling. Here, we investigate the efficiency of man-made synthetic biomimetics of the natural coenzymes NAD(P)H in redox biocatalysis. Extensive studies with a range of oxidoreductases belonging to the “ene” reductase family show that these biomimetics are excellent analogues of the natural coenzymes, revealed also in crystal structures of the ene reductase XenA with selected biomimetics. In selected cases, these biomimetics outperform the natural coenzymes. “Better-than-Nature” biomimetics should find widespread application in fine and specialty chemicals production by harnessing the power of high stereo-, regio-, and chemoselective redox biocatalysts and enabling reactions under mild conditions at low cost. PMID:26727612

  19. Sequence-selective DNA recognition: natural products and nature's lessons.

    PubMed

    Tse, Winston C; Boger, Dale L

    2004-12-01

    Biologically active, therapeutically useful, DNA binding natural products continue to reveal new paradigms for sequence-selective recognition, to enlist beautiful mechanisms of in situ activation for DNA modification, to define new therapeutic targets, to exploit new mechanisms to achieve cellular selectivity, and to provide a rich source of new drugs. These attributes arise in compact structures of complex integrated function.

  20. Nature of Science Contextualized: Studying Nature of Science with Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tala, Suvi; Vesterinen, Veli-Matti

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nature of science (NOS) is widely considered an important educational objective and views of NOS are closely linked to science teaching and learning. Thus there is a lively discussion about what understanding NOS means and how it is reached. As a result of analyses in educational, philosophical, sociological and historical research,…

  1. The Power of Nature and the Nature of Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neilson, Alison Laurie

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the process of going outdoors and using "nature" as a way to support teaching about power and privilege within society. It explores how being inside the classroom hinders the process of understanding and disrupting power dynamics between learners and instructors. The classroom decontextualizes the learning process by denying…

  2. Nature of Science or Nature of the Sciences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schizas, Dimitrios; Psillos, Dimitris; Stamou, George

    2016-01-01

    The present essay examines the emerging issue of domain-general versus domain-specific nature of science (NOS) understandings from a perspective that illuminates the value of domain-specific philosophies of science for the growth and development of the NOS educational field. Under the assumption that individual sciences do have their own…

  3. Wettability of natural superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Webb, Hayden K; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2014-08-01

    Since the description of the 'Lotus Effect' by Barthlott and Neinhuis in 1997, the existence of superhydrophobic surfaces in the natural world has become common knowledge. Superhydrophobicity is associated with a number of possible evolutionary benefits that may be bestowed upon an organism, ranging from the ease of dewetting of their surfaces and therefore prevention of encumbrance by water droplets, self-cleaning and removal of particulates and potential pathogens, and even to antimicrobial activity. The superhydrophobic properties of natural surfaces have been attributed to the presence of hierarchical microscale (>1 μm) and nanoscale (typically below 200 nm) structures on the surface, and as a result, the generation of topographical hierarchy is usually considered of high importance in the fabrication of synthetic superhydrophobic surfaces. When one surveys the breadth of data available on naturally existing superhydrophobic surfaces, however, it can be observed that topographical hierarchy is not present on all naturally superhydrophobic surfaces; in fact, the only universal feature of these surfaces is the presence of a sophisticated nanoscale structure. Additionally, several natural surfaces, e.g. those present on rose petals and gecko feet, display high water contact angles and high adhesion of droplets, due to the pinning effect. These surfaces are not truly superhydrophobic, and lack significant degrees of nanoscale roughness. Here, we discuss the phenomena of superhydrophobicity and pseudo-superhydrophobicity in nature, and present an argument that while hierarchical surface roughness may aid in the stability of the superhydrophobic effect, it is nanoscale surface architecture alone that is the true determinant of superhydrophobicity.

  4. The Anthropocene, Ethics, and the Nature of Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trachtenberg, Z.

    2012-12-01

    For Earth scientists the Anthropocene has a strict meaning, tied to evidence that human activities have produced pervasive impacts on the Earth. But it is also significant for scholars outside the Earth sciences. Social scientists study the ways human societies transform the landscape to make it more suited to human habitation; the Anthropocene idea has already served to reveal conceptual linkages among physical and social science research programs. And the Anthropocene has important implications for normative theorists who enquire into the basis of ethical standards that, ideally, guide human activities within the environment. An influential view has held the condition of the Earth's systems in the absence of human interference as such a standard. This view emphasizes the preservation of environmental systems in (or restoration to) their "natural" condition—either because that condition is the most advantageous for human beings, or because those systems have an intrinsic moral value human beings ought to respect. However, Anthropocene research destabilizes the concept of nature. For the "natural" is typically opposed to the artificial, i.e. to the results of human action, and although nature obviously provides the context for human activity, that context is taken to be exogenously given. For virtually all of Earth's history, its systems were "natural" in this sense. However, since the appearance of life on Earth, organisms engaging in what is called niche construction have fundamentally transformed those systems up to the planetary scale. There is no reason to regard human niche construction (e.g. agriculture) as different in kind—though of course anthropogenic impacts are greater than the impacts of other species. It follows that the Anthropocene demands that we move away from an outlook based on a strict opposition between a "natural" condition and the human activities which change it, towards one that conceives of the natural not as a condition, but as a

  5. Teaching about natural background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-07-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also demonstrated to emphasize the important role of shielding in radiation protection. The measurements were carried out with a Geiger-Muller (GM)-based dosimeter and a NaI scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer, which are normally available in physics laboratories. Radioactivity in household materials was demonstrated using a gas mantle as an example.

  6. Infrasound Monitoring of Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrowsmith, S.

    2015-12-01

    Infrasound is generated by a wide variety of energetic natural and anthropogenic phenomena that originate in the solid earth, ocean, and atmosphere. Because the absorption of infrasound is low, it can propagate long distances through atmospheric waveguides, making it a valuable tool for remote monitoring of hazards. Advances in using infrasound for monitoring energetic events in the solid earth, oceans, and atmosphere are being driven by the wealth of new datasets in addition to advances in modeling source and propagation physics. This presentation provides an overview of recent advances in infrasound monitoring of natural hazards, focusing on selected hazards in the earth (earthquakes and volcanoes), ocean (tsunamis), and atmosphere (meteoroids).

  7. North American Natural Gas Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  8. The natural approach to osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Bartolozzi, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Summary Osteoporosis is normally the result of a wrong life-style (diet, physical inactivity, smoke, dental hygiene, intestinal dysbiosis,…) and environmental toxicity which stimulate the chronic expression of inflammatory genes and alter the immuno-endocrine balance. A natural approch should face all the factors involved, leading the patients to become aware of their own responsability, and helping them with natural therapies, healthy food and life-style which support their body in the process of self-healing. PMID:26604935

  9. Natural photonics for industrial inspiration.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew R

    2009-05-13

    There are two considerations for optical biomimetics: the diversity of submicrometre architectures found in the natural world, and the industrial manufacture of these. A review exists on the latter subject, where current engineering methods are considered along with those of the natural cells. Here, on the other hand, I will provide a modern review of the different categories of reflectors and antireflectors found in animals, including their optical characterization. The purpose of this is to inspire designers within the $2 billion annual optics industry.

  10. Natural fertility in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Aquino, E G

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis that modernization trends in the Philippines led to an increase in fecundity and natural fertility between 1953-1972 was tested, using data from the 1973 National Demographic Survey. More specifically, it was hypothesized that increases in education, income levels, urbanization, female labor force participation, and other factors exerted a positive influence on the population's health and nutritional status and increased the risk of pregnancy by diminishing the strength of sexual taboos and by decreasing the incidence of breastfeeding. These changes, in turn, had a positive impact on natural fertility. Natural fertility was defined as marital fertility in the absence of specific efforts to control fertility. The use of natural fertility instead of fecundity allowed for the influence of behavioral patterns, such as breastfeeding and sexual taboos, on fertility. Period analysis of age specific marital fertility rates for each 5 year period between 1953-72 and cohort analysis of age specific marital fertility rates for the birth cohorts, aged 55-59, 50-54, 45-49, 40-44, and 35-39 in 1973 were undertaken. The effect of fertility control was determined by using an index derived from an equation provided by Coale and Trussell. Findings of both the period and cohort analysis supported the hypothesis. Period analysis revealed that natural fertility increased between 1953-57 and 1969-72 by 10% and that the greatest increase occurred during the 1950s when Philippine society experienced major modernization changes. The increases in natural fertility were accompanied by corresponding increases in fertility regulation in each time period. These trends tended to cancel each other out and resulted in a relatively stable total marital fertility rate throughout the time period. Cohort analysis revealed that only the total marital fertility rate of the youngest cohort was influenced by fertility regulation. The level of natural fertility for all cohorts as a group

  11. Natural Gas Hydrates Update 1998-2000

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    Significant events have transpired on the natural gas hydrate research and development front since "Future Supply Potential of Natural Gas Hydrates" appeared in Natural Gas 1998 Issues and Trends and in the Potential Gas Committee's 1998 biennial report.

  12. It's Only Natural: Mother's Love, Mother's Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter email address Submit Home > It's Only Natural It's Only Natural Every woman’s journey to motherhood is ... a mom is how to feed your child. It's Only Natural helps African-American women and their ...

  13. Peri-saccadic natural vision.

    PubMed

    Dorr, Michael; Bex, Peter J

    2013-01-16

    The fundamental role of the visual system is to guide behavior in natural environments. To optimize information transmission, many animals have evolved a non-homogeneous retina and serially sample visual scenes by saccadic eye movements. Such eye movements, however, introduce high-speed retinal motion and decouple external and internal reference frames. Until now, these processes have only been studied with unnatural stimuli, eye movement behavior, and tasks. These experiments confound retinotopic and geotopic coordinate systems and may probe a non-representative functional range. Here we develop a real-time, gaze-contingent display with precise spatiotemporal control over high-definition natural movies. In an active condition, human observers freely watched nature documentaries and indicated the location of periodic narrow-band contrast increments relative to their gaze position. In a passive condition under central fixation, the same retinal input was replayed to each observer by updating the video's screen position. Comparison of visual sensitivity between conditions revealed three mechanisms that the visual system has adapted to compensate for peri-saccadic vision changes. Under natural conditions we show that reduced visual sensitivity during eye movements can be explained simply by the high retinal speed during a saccade without recourse to an extra-retinal mechanism of active suppression; we give evidence for enhanced sensitivity immediately after an eye movement indicative of visual receptive fields remapping in anticipation of forthcoming spatial structure; and we demonstrate that perceptual decisions can be made in world rather than retinal coordinates. PMID:23325257

  14. EIA's Natural Gas Production Data

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This special report examines the stages of natural gas processing from the wellhead to the pipeline network through which the raw product becomes ready for transportation and eventual consumption, and how this sequence is reflected in the data published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA).

  15. Readings in natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Grosz, B.J.; Jones, K.S.; Webber, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    The book presents papers on natural language processing, focusing on the central issues of representation, reasoning, and recognition. The introduction discusses theoretical issues, historical developments, and current problems and approaches. The book presents work in syntactic models (parsing and grammars), semantic interpretation, discourse interpretation, language action and intentions, language generation, and systems.

  16. Nurturing the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Carolyn; Chessin, Debby; Chambless, Martha

    2007-01-01

    Historical stories of scientists provide an excellent opportunity to help students see that science is indeed a human endeavor and demonstrate the interrelationships among science, technology, and society. A number of engaging historical accounts illustrate characteristics of the nature of science. The story of Lise Meitner leads students through…

  17. Analyzing plant defenses in nature

    PubMed Central

    Kautz, Stefanie; Heil, Martin; Hegeman, Adrian D

    2009-01-01

    A broad range of chemical plant defenses against herbivores has been studied extensively under laboratory conditions. In many of these cases there is still little understanding of their relevance in nature. In natural systems, functional analyses of plant traits are often complicated by an extreme variability, which affects the interaction with higher trophic levels. Successful analyses require consideration of the numerous sources of variation that potentially affect the plant trait of interest. In our recent study on wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) in South Mexico, we applied an integrative approach combining analyses for quantitative correlations of cyanogenic potential (HCNp; the maximum amount of cyanide that can be released from a given tissue) and herbivory in the field with subsequent feeding trials under controlled conditions. This approach allowed us to causally explain the consequences of quantitative variation of HCNp on herbivore-plant interactions in nature and highlights the importance of combining data obtained in natural systems with analyses under controlled conditions. PMID:19820300

  18. Natural history museums and cyberspace

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wemmer, C.; Erixon-Stanford, M.; Gardner, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    Natural history museums are entering the electronic age as they increasingly use computers to build accessible and shareable databases that support research and education on a world-wide basis. Museums are exploring the Internet and other shared uses of electronic media to enhance their traditional roles in education, training, identifications, technical assistance, and collections management.

  19. Natural gas monthly, January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This publication, the Natural Gas Monthly, presents the most recent data on natural gas supply, consumption, and prices from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Of special interest in this issue are two articles summarizing reports recently published by EIA. The articles are {open_quotes}Natural Gas Productive Capacity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Outlook for Natural Gas Through 2015,{close_quotes} both of which precede the {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} section. With this issue, January 1997, changes have been made to the format of the Highlights section and to several of the tabular and graphical presentations throughout the publication. The changes to the Highlights affect the discussion of developments in the industry and the presentation of weekly storage data. An overview of the developments in the industry is now presented in a brief summary followed by specific discussions of supply, end-use consumption, and prices. Spot and futures prices are discussed as appropriate in the Price section, together with wellhead and consumer prices.

  20. Natural gas monthly, March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly contains estimates for March 1999 for many natural gas data series at the national level. Estimates of national natural gas prices are available through December 1998 for most series. Highlights of the data contained in this issue are listed below. Preliminary data indicate that the national average wellhead price for 1998 declined to 16% from the previous year ($1.96 compared to $2.32 per thousand cubic feet). At the end of March, the end of the 1998--1999 heating season, the level of working gas in underground natural gas storage facilities is estimated to be 1,354 billion cubic feet, 169 billion cubic feet higher than at the end of March 1998. Gas consumption during the first 3 months of 1999 is estimated to have been 179 billion cubic feet higher than in the same period in 1998. Most of this increase (133 billion cubic feet) occurred in the residential sector due to the cooler temperatures in January and February compared to the same months last year. According to the National Weather Service, heating degree days in January 1999 were 15% greater than the previous year while February recorded a 5% increase.

  1. Using Natural Approach Teaching Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Describes a beginning foreign language class applying the principles of Stephen Krashen's "Natural Approach" and James Asher's "Total Physical Response" method. Initially students carry out the instructor's commands in the form of actions rather than being required to speak. In later stages role play and simple discussions are introduced. (LMO)

  2. Modeling Natural Variation through Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Richard; Schauble, Leona

    2004-01-01

    This design study tracks the development of student thinking about natural variation as late elementary grade students learned about distribution in the context of modeling plant growth at the population level. The data-modeling approach assisted children in coordinating their understanding of particular cases with an evolving notion of data as an…

  3. Natural Dyes. Third World Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  4. Natural products as antimitotic agents.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Natural products still play an important role in the medicinal chemistry, especially in some therapeutic areas. As example more than 60% of currently-used anticancer agents are derives from natural sources including plants, marine organisms or micro-organism. Thus natural products (NP) are an high-impact source of new "lead compounds" or new potential therapeutic agents despite the large development of biotechnology and combinatorial chemistry in the drug discovery and development. Many examples of anticancer drugs as paclitaxel, combretastatin, bryostatin and discodermolide have shown the importance of NP in the anticancer chemotherapy through many years. Many organisms have been studied as sources of drugs namely plants, micro-organisms and marine organisms and the obtained NP can be considered a group of "privileged chemical structures" evolved in nature to interact with other organisms. For this reason NP are a good starting points for pharmaceutical research and also for library design. Tubulin and microtubules are one of the most studied targets for the search of anticancer compounds. Microtubule targeting agents (MTA) also named antimitotic agents are compounds that are able to perturb mitosis but are also able to arrest cell growing during interphase. The anticancer drugs, taxanes and vinca alkaloids have established tubulin as important target in cancer therapy. More recently the vascular disrupting agents (VDA) combretastatin analogues were studied for their antimitotics properties. This review will consider the anti mitotic NP and their potential impact in the development of new therapeutic agents.

  5. Integrating the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Ingrid; Blieden, Katherine; Akerson, Valarie

    2014-01-01

    The nature of science (NOS) describes what science is and how knowledge in science is developed (NSTA 2013). To develop elementary students' understandings of how scientists explore the world, the authors--an education professor and a third-grade teacher--endeavored to integrate NOS into a third-grade life science unit. Throughout the lesson,…

  6. Aligned natural inflation with modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Hyungjin

    2016-08-01

    The weak gravity conjecture applied for the aligned natural inflation indicates that generically there can be a modulation of the inflaton potential, with a period determined by sub-Planckian axion scale. We study the oscillations in the primordial power spectrum induced by such modulation, and discuss the resulting observational constraints on the model.

  7. Natural Scientists: Observers or Participants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leopold, Estella B.

    1971-01-01

    The course a scientist takes when he turns toward activism in an ecological crisis is described. Three models of motivation, steps toward implementing the action, and the role the scientist plays in his concern for nature and the conservation movement are enumerated. (BL)

  8. Exact law of live nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel, Mark Ya.

    2005-07-01

    Exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. It includes no explicit characteristics of animal- environment interactions (metabolism etc) which are a must for life; it is universal for all animals, from single cell yeast to humans, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity; it is rapidly (within few percent of life span) reversible. Such law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment (cf. thermodynamics of liquids and glasses). The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is their specific natural law. Mortality is an instrument of natural selection and biological diversity. Its law, which is preserved in evolution of all species, is a conservation law of mortality, selection, evolution, biology. The law implies new kind of intrinsic mortality and adaptation which dominate in evolutionary unprecedented protected populations and, in contrast to species specific natural selection, proceed via universal stepwise rungs and reduce to universal cellular mechanism. The law demonstrates that intrinsic mortality and at least certain aspects of aging are disposable evolutionary byproducts, and directed genetic and/or biological changes may yield healthy and vital Methuselah lifespan. This is consistent with experiments. Universality implies that single cell yeast may provide a master key to the cellular mechanism of universal mortality, aging, selection, evolution, and its regulation in all animals. One may look for its manifestations in animal cells also, e.g., in their replicative senescence and cancer. Evolutionary origin and genetic nature of universality are suggested.

  9. A Natural Resources Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, George B.

    1977-01-01

    Three years of instruction in natural resources management (NRM) are offered at Louisa County High School, Mineral, Virginia, with 30 acres of land for use as outdoor classrooms. Instructional areas are grouped under forestry; crops and soils; and surveying, air, water, recreation, and general. Two years of basic agriculture science and mechanics…

  10. Van Allen Lecture: Nature's Palette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Like an artist's palette, Nature has a set of common physical processes to employ to make a magnetosphere. The nature of a particular work of art depends on how much of each of the colors is used and how they are combined on the canvas. In much the same way, the nature of a magnetosphere is determined by the particular properties of a given planet and how those properties influence the dynamical significance of the various processes. We will examine some of the processes in Nature's palette and see how their importance varies from magnetosphere to magnetosphere within our own solar system. Comparing actual realizations of magnetospheres to which we have in-situ access enables us to see the interplay between the physical processes and the peculiar conditions of each body. As we contemplate the extra-solar planets we are now discovering, we need to consider other possible combinations of colors from this palette: What other wonderful and exotic magnetospheres might exist throughout the universe?

  11. Nature through Science and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criswell, Susie Gwen

    From breathtaking glacial ravines of Yosemite Valley to weeds growing in neglected rain gutters, this book of activities combines art with scientific research questions. The book is designed to help educators encourage children in the upper primary grades to learn more about the natural world and in particular their local environment. Sixty…

  12. The Nature of Adventure Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousineau, Claude

    Man answers a natural call for adventure in many ways including escape into fantasy, vertigo seeking, kinetic euphoria, and by exercising the pioneer spirit. Adventure education can help equip people to satisfy their need for adventure in meaningful, enriching ways. A reaction to unsatisfactory educational milieus, adventure education has emerged…

  13. Getting in Sync with Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Diane; Novati, Alex; Schugart, Gene

    2004-01-01

    The current time "measuring system" has taken on a life of its own, bearing only an approximate resemblance to the natural occurrences it set out to measure. The "analemma equation of time" was created to precisely set our clocks by converting irregular sun time to the even, regular tempo of mean time. In this article, the equation is described in…

  14. Dimensional stability of natural fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, Mark S.

    2013-04-19

    One of the main problems associated with the use of natural fibers as reinforcing agents in composites is their uptake of moisture. Many natural fibers are lignocellulosic, which causes them to swell and shrink as the amount of available moisture changes. Swelling and shrinking can cause composites to prematurely fail. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study that considers the use of two different low molecular weight monomers, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), polymerized by electron beam ionizing radiation, to dimensionally stabilize natural fibers. Eight different treatments consisting of varying amounts of monomer, encapsulating agent, and cross-linkers, were evaluated for their ability to dimensionally stabilize sisal fiber. Results indicate that both polymerized HEA and HEMA can reduce the swelling of sisal fiber. The effectiveness of HEA and HEMA can be further enhanced with the use of a cross-linker (SR 454). The use of hydroxylated monomers to dimensionally stabilize natural fibers may play an important role in reducing delamination and improving fiber-resin adhesion in composites.

  15. Sweetening agents from natural sources.

    PubMed

    Morris, J A

    1976-01-01

    Sweetness is an important taste sensation to humans. The absence of suitable sweeteners as alternatives to cyclamates and saccharin has led to a renewed interest in sweeteners form natural sources. A brief review of the history of sweetener usage provides a basis for understanding our present heavy consumption of sweet substances. The structure of naturally-occurring compounds possessing a sweet taste range from simple sugars to complex, intensely sweet proteins. The structural types include monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, flavonoids, steroid saponins, dipeptides, and proteins. Some of these substances are not, strictly-speaking, natural but are derived from natural sources by relatively minor chemical modification. The properties of two non-sweet substances, miraculin and gymnemic acid, are included because of their close relationship to the subject of sweeteners. Miraculin causes sour substances to taste sweet and gymnemic acid selectively blocks sweet taste perception. The second part of the paper presents some of the work on monellin, the intensely sweet protein from "serendipity berries" (Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii). The physico-chemical studies of monellin provide convincing evidence that it is, indeed, a protein. Structural studies using denaturants and specific chemical modifications have provided a beginning of our understanding of the molecular basis of the sweet taste of monellin. PMID:5643

  16. Dimensional stability of natural fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Mark S.; Smith, Jennifer L.; Woods, Sean; Tiss, Kenneth J.; Larsen, L. Scott

    2013-04-01

    One of the main problems associated with the use of natural fibers as reinforcing agents in composites is their uptake of moisture. Many natural fibers are lignocellulosic, which causes them to swell and shrink as the amount of available moisture changes. Swelling and shrinking can cause composites to prematurely fail. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study that considers the use of two different low molecular weight monomers, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), polymerized by electron beam ionizing radiation, to dimensionally stabilize natural fibers. Eight different treatments consisting of varying amounts of monomer, encapsulating agent, and cross-linkers, were evaluated for their ability to dimensionally stabilize sisal fiber. Results indicate that both polymerized HEA and HEMA can reduce the swelling of sisal fiber. The effectiveness of HEA and HEMA can be further enhanced with the use of a cross-linker (SR 454). The use of hydroxylated monomers to dimensionally stabilize natural fibers may play an important role in reducing delamination and improving fiber-resin adhesion in composites.

  17. The Nature of Mathematics Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cemen, Pamala Byrd

    This paper attempts to generate a comprehensive description of the nature of mathematics anxiety through a synthesis of: (1) the general and test anxiety literatures applied to mathematics anxiety; (2) the mathematics anxiety literature, and (3) case studies developed through in-depth interviews. The indepth interviews were conducted with seven…

  18. The Nature of Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Margaret M.; Perkins, Bill

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that spending time in nature produces cognitive benefits. What if a child's exposure to the out-of-doors is considered not just a beneficial extracurricular activity, but a fundamental building block to an elementary education in math and science? The Young Achievers Science and Math Pilot School operates a 9:30 a.m.…

  19. The Nature of Organizational Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Belinda K.; Carpenter, D. Stanley

    1993-01-01

    Examines the role organizational politics play in student affairs. Sees background knowledge of politics as a concept critical to understanding idiosyncratic nature of any organization. Notes that both organizational conditions and individual behavior contribute to organization's political climate. Concludes that professionals who fail to…

  20. Staff Handbook on Natural Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorges, H. A., Ed.; Raine, L. P., Ed.

    The Department of Commerce created a Natural Gas Action Group early in the fall of 1975 to assist industrial firms and the communities they serve to cope with the effects of potentially severe and crippling curtailment situations. This action group was trained to assess a specific local situation, review the potential for remedial action and…

  1. Natural Acceleration: Supporting Creative Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, LeoNora M.

    2011-01-01

    "Natural acceleration" happens through an internal fire that burns to learn and may transcend school boundaries. Based on their passionate interests and connections with a domain, children who hunger for domain understandings outside school curricula require different types of acceleration, motivated by these interests. The lifeworks, domains, and…

  2. Natural products: DNA double whammy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, Kent S.

    2014-06-01

    The lomaiviticins are exceedingly potent antibiotic agents, but the mechanism responsible for this activity has so far been unclear. Now, efficient generation of double-strand breaks in DNA by lomaiviticin A has been linked to the remarkable cytotoxicity of these diazobenzofluorene-containg natural products.

  3. A Natural Language Graphics System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David, C.; Kwasny, Stan C.

    This report describes an experimental system for drawing simple pictures on a computer graphics terminal using natural language input. The system is capable of drawing lines, points, and circles on command from the user, as well as answering questions about system capabilities and objects on the screen. Erasures are permitted and language input…

  4. First natural occurrence of coesite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, E.C.T.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Madsen, B.M.

    1960-01-01

    Coesite, the high-pressure polymorph of SiO2, hitherto known only as a synthetic compound, is identified as an abundant mineral in sheared Coconino sandstone at Meteor Crater, Arizona. This natural occurrence has important bearing on the recognition of meteorite impact craters in quartz-bearing geologic formations.

  5. Enantiomeric Natural Products: Occurrence and Biogenesis**

    PubMed Central

    Finefield, Jennifer M.; Sherman, David H.; Kreitman, Martin; Williams, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    In Nature, chiral natural products are usually produced in optically pure form; however, on occasion Nature is known to produce enantiomerically opposite metabolites. These enantiomeric natural products can arise in Nature from a single species, or from different genera and/or species. Extensive research has been carried out over the years in an attempt to understand the biogenesis of naturally occurring enantiomers, however, many fascinating puzzles and stereochemical anomalies still remain. PMID:22555867

  6. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-07

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  7. The surface learned from nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H.; Kim, W. D.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, I would like to introduce the emerging surface of nature. The surface in nature, has the multi and optimized function with well organized structure. There are so many examples that we learn and apply to technology. First example is self-cleaning surface. Some plants (such as lotus leaf, taro leaf) and the wings of many large-winged insects (such as moth, butterfly, dragonfly) remain their surface clean in the very dirty environment. This self cleaning effect is accomplished by the superhydrophobic surfaces which exhibit the water contact angle of more than 150° with low sliding angle. Generally, the superhydrophobic surface is made up the two factors. One is the surface composition having the low surface tension energy. The other is the surface morphology of hierarchical structure of micro and nano size. Because almost nature surface have the hierarchical structures range from macro to nano size, their topography strength their function to adjust the life in nature environment. The other example is the surface to use for drag reduction. The skin friction drag causes eruptions of air or water resulting in greater drag as the speed is increased. This drag requires more energy to overcome. The shark skin having the fine sharp-edged grooves about 0.1 mm wide known riblet reduces in skin friction drag by being far away the vortex. Among a lot of fuctional surface, the most exciting surface the back of stenocara a kind of desert beetles. Stenocara use the micrometre-sized patterns of hydrophobic, wax-coated and hydrophilic, non-waxy regions on their backs to capture water from fog. This fog-collecting structure improves the water collection of fog-capture film, condenser, engine, and future building. Here, the efforts to realize these emerging functional surfaces in nature on technology are reported with the fabrication method and their properties, especially for the control of surface wettability.

  8. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  9. Boudinage in nature and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Fernando O.; Fonseca, Pedro D.; Lechmann, Sarah; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Marques, Ana S.; Andrade, Alexandre J. M.; Alves, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    Deformation of rocks produces structures at all scales that are in many cases periodic (folding or boudinage), with variable amplitude and wavelength. Here we focus on boudinage, a process of primordial importance for tectonics. In the present study, we carried out measurements of natural boudins and experimentally tested the effects of two variables on boudinage: layer thickness and compression rate. The models were made of a competent layer (mostly brittle, as in nature) of either elastic (soft paper) or viscoelastoplastic (clay) material embedded in a ductile matrix of linear viscous silicone putty. The competent layer lied with its greatest surface normal to the principal shortening axis and greatest length parallel to the principal stretching axis. The model was then subjected to pure shear at constant piston velocity and variable competent layer thickness (Model 1), or at different piston velocity and constant layer thickness (Model 2). The results of Model 1 show an exponential dependence of boudin width on competent layer thickness, in disagreement with data from the studied natural occurrence. This indicates that variables other than competent layer thickness are hidden in the linear relationship obtained for the natural boudinage. The results of Model 2 show that the higher the velocity the smaller the boudin width, following a power-law with exponent very similar to that of analytical predictions. The studied natural boudinage occasionally occurs in two orthogonal directions. This chocolate tablet boudinage can be the result of two successive stages of deformation: buckling followed by stretching of competent sandstone layers, or buckling followed by rotation of reverse limbs into the extensional field of simple shear.

  10. Natural radioactivity in phosphates, phosphogypsum and natural waters in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Azouazi, M; Ouahidi, Y; Fakhi, S; Andres, Y; Abbe, J C; Benmansour, M

    2001-01-01

    The contents of natural radionuclides (uranium, actinium and thorium series) were measured in sedimentary phosphate rock samples using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Data obtained for uranium content (ppm) were compared with the results obtained by a method based on the measurements using solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) in the same samples. The potential leaching of radionuclides from sedimentary phosphate rock during the industrial production of the phosphoric acid was studied. The process of leaching of the radioisotopes from phosphogypsum was discussed. A method for the direct alpha counting of 226Ra thin source, elaborated by the deposition of Ra from aqueous solutions on manganese oxides film deposited on polyvinyl support, have been developed and applied for the determination of 226Ra in natural water samples. The results show that only the water sample from the mine area reveals the presence of 226Ra at a level of about 0.2 Bq l-1. PMID:11378917

  11. Natural radioactivity in phosphates, phosphogypsum and natural waters in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Azouazi, M; Ouahidi, Y; Fakhi, S; Andres, Y; Abbe, J C; Benmansour, M

    2001-01-01

    The contents of natural radionuclides (uranium, actinium and thorium series) were measured in sedimentary phosphate rock samples using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Data obtained for uranium content (ppm) were compared with the results obtained by a method based on the measurements using solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) in the same samples. The potential leaching of radionuclides from sedimentary phosphate rock during the industrial production of the phosphoric acid was studied. The process of leaching of the radioisotopes from phosphogypsum was discussed. A method for the direct alpha counting of 226Ra thin source, elaborated by the deposition of Ra from aqueous solutions on manganese oxides film deposited on polyvinyl support, have been developed and applied for the determination of 226Ra in natural water samples. The results show that only the water sample from the mine area reveals the presence of 226Ra at a level of about 0.2 Bq l-1.

  12. Establishing Natural Nootropics: Recent Molecular Enhancement Influenced by Natural Nootropic.

    PubMed

    Suliman, Noor Azuin; Mat Taib, Che Norma; Mohd Moklas, Mohamad Aris; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Hidayat Baharuldin, Mohamad Taufik; Basir, Rusliza

    2016-01-01

    Nootropics or smart drugs are well-known compounds or supplements that enhance the cognitive performance. They work by increasing the mental function such as memory, creativity, motivation, and attention. Recent researches were focused on establishing a new potential nootropic derived from synthetic and natural products. The influence of nootropic in the brain has been studied widely. The nootropic affects the brain performances through number of mechanisms or pathways, for example, dopaminergic pathway. Previous researches have reported the influence of nootropics on treating memory disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Those disorders are observed to impair the same pathways of the nootropics. Thus, recent established nootropics are designed sensitively and effectively towards the pathways. Natural nootropics such as Ginkgo biloba have been widely studied to support the beneficial effects of the compounds. Present review is concentrated on the main pathways, namely, dopaminergic and cholinergic system, and the involvement of amyloid precursor protein and secondary messenger in improving the cognitive performance.

  13. On the Nature of Consciousness—On Consciousness in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Eric

    2010-11-01

    The study of consciousness has considerably increased in the last few years. Research has been mainly focused on its neurological aspects, but the intrinsic nature of consciousness is usually completely neglected. In this contribution, we present a new onto-epistemological general metamodel that we developed to interpret complex partly autonomous systems (like living systems). Our metamodel is not based on the usual space-time-energy framework of mainstream Newtonian science, but involves two elemental categories: the domain of objects and the domain of relations. Furthermore, and most importantly, we show that the combination of these two aspects gives rise to the system as a holistic, self-referential and existential entity. We will then use this onto-epistemology to interpret the nature of consciousness, which, in this model, is a meta-physical, meta-relational self-referential entity.

  14. Establishing Natural Nootropics: Recent Molecular Enhancement Influenced by Natural Nootropic

    PubMed Central

    Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Hidayat Baharuldin, Mohamad Taufik

    2016-01-01

    Nootropics or smart drugs are well-known compounds or supplements that enhance the cognitive performance. They work by increasing the mental function such as memory, creativity, motivation, and attention. Recent researches were focused on establishing a new potential nootropic derived from synthetic and natural products. The influence of nootropic in the brain has been studied widely. The nootropic affects the brain performances through number of mechanisms or pathways, for example, dopaminergic pathway. Previous researches have reported the influence of nootropics on treating memory disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Those disorders are observed to impair the same pathways of the nootropics. Thus, recent established nootropics are designed sensitively and effectively towards the pathways. Natural nootropics such as Ginkgo biloba have been widely studied to support the beneficial effects of the compounds. Present review is concentrated on the main pathways, namely, dopaminergic and cholinergic system, and the involvement of amyloid precursor protein and secondary messenger in improving the cognitive performance.

  15. Why are natural disasters not 'natural' for victims?

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, Yoshitaka; Edwards, John; Carroll, Matthew S. . E-mail: carroll@mail.wsu.edu

    2006-01-15

    Some type of formal or informal social assessment is often carried out in the wake of natural disasters. One often-observed phenomenon in such situations is that disaster victims and their sympathizers tend to focus on those elements of disasters that might have been avoided or mitigated by human intervention and thus assign 'undue' levels of responsibility to human agents. Often the responsibility or blame is directed at the very government agencies charged with helping people cope with and recover from the event. This phenomenon presents particular challenges for those trying to understand the social impacts of such events because of the reflexive nature of such analysis. Often the social analyst or even the government agency manager must sort through such perceptions and behavior and (at least implicitly) make judgments about which assignments of responsibility may have some validity and which are largely the result of the psychology of the disaster itself. This article presents a conceptual framework derived largely from social psychology to help develop a better understand such perceptions and behavior. While no 'magic bullet' formula for evaluating the validity of disaster victims' claims is presented, the conceptual framework is presented as a starting point for understanding this particular aspect of the psychology of natural disasters.

  16. Bodies in nature: Associations between exposure to nature, connectedness to nature, and body image in U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Barron, David; Weis, Laura; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    Here, we sought to replicate previous work showing a relationship between connectedness to nature and body appreciation, and extend it by examining associations between exposure to natural environments and other body image-related variables. An online sample of 399 U.S. women and men (Mage=34.55 years) completed measures of body appreciation, connectedness to nature, nature exposure, appearance investment, sociocultural attitudes towards appearance, and self-esteem. Path analysis showed that nature exposure and connectedness to nature, respectively, were associated with body appreciation in women and men, both directly and indirectly via self-esteem. Connectedness to nature also mediated the link between nature exposure and body appreciation. In men, but not women, the link between connectedness to nature and body appreciation was also mediated by appearance investment and internalisation of a muscular ideal. These results may point to novel methods for promoting more positive body image in adults through engagement with nature.

  17. Bodies in nature: Associations between exposure to nature, connectedness to nature, and body image in U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Barron, David; Weis, Laura; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    Here, we sought to replicate previous work showing a relationship between connectedness to nature and body appreciation, and extend it by examining associations between exposure to natural environments and other body image-related variables. An online sample of 399 U.S. women and men (Mage=34.55 years) completed measures of body appreciation, connectedness to nature, nature exposure, appearance investment, sociocultural attitudes towards appearance, and self-esteem. Path analysis showed that nature exposure and connectedness to nature, respectively, were associated with body appreciation in women and men, both directly and indirectly via self-esteem. Connectedness to nature also mediated the link between nature exposure and body appreciation. In men, but not women, the link between connectedness to nature and body appreciation was also mediated by appearance investment and internalisation of a muscular ideal. These results may point to novel methods for promoting more positive body image in adults through engagement with nature. PMID:27476147

  18. Natural Environment Capabilities at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard; Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    The Natural Environments Branch at Marshall Space Flight Center is integral in developing, maintaining, and investigating NASA missions such as Space Launch Systems (SLS), currently under development, as well as many NASA and other agency satellite missions. We present the space environment capabilities of the Natural Environments Branch at MSFC. These in-house capabilities include model development, analysis of space and terrestrial related data, spacecraft charging anomaly investigations, surface charging modeling including Nascap-2k, space environment definition and radiation parts assessment. All aspects of space and terrestrial design are implemented with the goal of devising missions to be successful at launch and in the space environment of LEO, polar, GEO, and interplanetary orbits. In this poster, we show examples of recent applications of branch capabilities to NASA missions.

  19. Punishment and cooperation in nature.

    PubMed

    Raihani, Nichola J; Thornton, Alex; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-05-01

    Humans use punishment to promote cooperation in laboratory experiments but evidence that punishment plays a similar role in non-human animals is comparatively rare. In this article, we examine why this may be the case by reviewing evidence from both laboratory experiments on humans and ecologically relevant studies on non-human animals. Generally, punishment appears to be most probable if players differ in strength or strategic options. Although these conditions are common in nature, punishment (unlike other forms of aggression) involves immediate payoff reductions to both punisher and target, with net benefits to punishers contingent on cheats behaving more cooperatively in future interactions. In many cases, aggression yielding immediate benefits may suffice to deter cheats and might explain the relative scarcity of punishment in nature. PMID:22284810

  20. Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, V.T.

    1984-04-27

    The proven reserves of natural gas in Prudhoe Bay remain the single largest block of reserves under US control. The sponsors of the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, including The Williams Companies, remain convinced that Alaskan gas will be increasingly important to meet future needs here in the lower 48 states. Both Canada and the US will increasingly have to turn to more costly supplies of gas as the closer, traditional areas of gas supply are exhausted. A principal motivation for Canada's participation in the ANGTS was the prospect of a jointly sponsored pipeline through Canada which would facilitate bringing frontier gas to market - through the so-called Dempster lateral. The high cost of transportation systems in the Artic necessitates pipelines with large capacities in order to minimize the cost of transportation per unit of gas delivered. It is clear that Canada still strongly supports the ANGTS project as a means of opening up the frontier resources of both Alaska and Canada.

  1. A vision for natural photonics.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew R

    2004-12-15

    The structural colours of animals have provided an attractive means of marketing for those reflectors designed and manufactured by humans. Over the past 30 years, optics well known to the physicist have emerged, example after example, in nature. But now the tables are turning and animals are becoming the first stage in the optical design process. Biologists and physicists have begun collaborative optics-based projects where the data will be supplied by nature. The real trigger of this surge in interest is the recent identification of 'photonic crystals' in animals. Animals, it would seem, have plenty to teach us, not only in terms of the design of their optical structures, but also their engineering. A familiar message, perhaps, except now action is underway.

  2. Microbial Flocculant for Nature Soda

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Peiyong; Zhang, Tong; Chen, Cuixian

    2004-03-31

    Microbial flocculant for nature soda has been studied. Lactobacillus TRJ21, which was able to produce an excellent biopolymer flocculant for nature soda, was obtained in our lab. The microbial flocculant was mainly produced when the bacteria laid in stationary growth phase. Fructose or glucose, as carbon sources, were more favorable for the bacterial growth and flocculant production. The bacteria was able to use ammonium sulfate or Urea as nitrogen to produce flocculant, but was not able to use peptone effectively. High C/N ratio was more favorable to Lactobacillus TRJ21 growth and flocculant production than low C/N ratio. The biopolymer flocculant was mainly composed of polysaccharide and protein with a molecular weight 1.38x106 by gel permeation chromatography. It was able to be easily purified from the culture medium by acetone. Protein in the flocculant was tested for the flocculating activity ingredient by heating the flocculant.

  3. Natural Products from Mangrove Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong-Bo; Ye, Wan-Wan; Han, Ying; Deng, Zi-Xin; Hong, Kui

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are woody plants located in tropical and subtropical intertidal coastal regions. The mangrove ecosystem is becoming a hot spot for natural product discovery and bioactivity survey. Diverse mangrove actinomycetes as promising and productive sources are worth being explored and uncovered. At the time of writing, we report 73 novel compounds and 49 known compounds isolated from mangrove actinomycetes including alkaloids, benzene derivatives, cyclopentenone derivatives, dilactones, macrolides, 2-pyranones and sesquiterpenes. Attractive structures such as salinosporamides, xiamycins and novel indolocarbazoles are highlighted. Many exciting compounds have been proven as potential new antibiotics, antitumor and antiviral agents, anti-fibrotic agents and antioxidants. Furthermore, some of their biosynthetic pathways have also been revealed. This review is an attempt to consolidate and summarize the past and the latest studies on mangrove actinomycetes natural product discovery and to draw attention to their immense potential as novel and bioactive compounds for marine drugs discovery. PMID:24798926

  4. Microbiological quality of natural waters.

    PubMed

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  5. Cosmetic benefits of natural ingredients.

    PubMed

    Bowe, Whitney P; Pugliese, Silvina

    2014-09-01

    Photoaging is a leading concern for patients and many of these patients will express a desire to utilize natural ingredients as treatment. Mushrooms, feverfew, green tea, licorice, olive oil, soy, and coffee berry have been shown to have antioxidant properties and may play a role in the treatment and prevention of photoaging. In this manuscript, the most recent select basic science and clinical studies examining the mechanisms and efficacy of these ingredients will be discussed.

  6. Nitrogen removal from natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    According to a 1991 Energy Information Administration estimate, U.S. reserves of natural gas are about 165 trillion cubic feet (TCF). To meet the long-term demand for natural gas, new gas fields from these reserves will have to be developed. Gas Research Institute studies reveal that 14% (or about 19 TCF) of known reserves in the United States are subquality due to high nitrogen content. Nitrogen-contaminated natural gas has a low Btu value and must be upgraded by removing the nitrogen. In response to the problem, the Department of Energy is seeking innovative, efficient nitrogen-removal methods. Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required nitrogen/methane separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeable membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make denitrogenation by a membrane process viable. The objective of Phase I of this project was to show that membranes with this target selectivity can be developed, and that the economics of the process based on these membranes would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below - 20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, higher-nitrogen-content streams.

  7. Exact law of live nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel‧, Mark Ya.

    2005-08-01

    The exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. It includes no explicit characteristics of animal-environment interactions (metabolism, etc.) which are a must for life; it is universal for all animals, from single-cell yeast to humans, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity; it is rapidly (within few percent of life span) reversible. Such a law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment (cf. thermodynamics of liquids and glasses). The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is their specific natural law. Mortality is an instrument of natural selection and biological diversity. Its law, which is preserved in evolution of all species, is a conservation law of mortality, selection, evolution, biology. The law implies new kinds of intrinsic mortality and adaptation which dominate in evolutionary unprecedented protected populations and, in contrast to species-specific natural selection, proceed via universal stepwise rungs and reduce to universal cellular mechanism. The law demonstrates that intrinsic mortality and at least certain aspects of aging are disposable evolutionary byproducts, and directed genetic and/or biological changes may yield healthy and vital Methuselah lifespan. This is consistent with experiments. Universality implies that single-cell yeast may provide a master key to the cellular mechanism of universal mortality, aging, selection, evolution, and its regulation in all animals. One may look for its manifestations in animal cells also, e.g., in their replicative senescence and cancer. Evolutionary origin and genetic nature of universality are suggested.

  8. Ion association in natural brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Jones, B.F.

    1969-01-01

    Natural brines, both surface and subsurface, are highly associated aqueous solutions. Ion complexes in brines may be ion pairs in which the cation remains fully hydrated and the bond between the ions is essentially electrostatic, or coordination complexes in which one or more of the hydration water molecules are replaced by covalent bonds to the anion. Except for Cl-, the major simple ions in natural brines form ion pairs; trace and minor metals in brines form mainly coordination complexes. Limitations of the Debye-Hu??ckel relations for activity coefficients and lack of data on definition and stability of all associated species in concentrated solutions tend to produce underestimates of the degree of ion association, except where the brines contain a very high proportion of Cl-. Data and calculations on closed basin brines of highly varied composition have been coupled with electrode measurements of single-ion activities in an attempt to quantify the degree of ion association. Such data emphasize the role of magnesium complexes. Trace metal contents of closed basin brines are related to complexes formed with major anions. Alkaline sulfo- or chlorocarbonate brines (western Great Basin) carry significant trace metal contents apparently as hydroxides or hydroxy polyions. Neutral high chloride brines (Bonneville Basin) are generally deficient in trace metals. With a knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of a natural water, many possible reactions with other phases (solids, gases, other liquids) may be predicted. A knowledge of these reactions is particularly important in the study of natural brines which may be saturated with many solid phases (silicates, carbonates, sulfates, etc.), which may have a high pH and bring about dissolution of other phases (silica, amphoteric hydroxides, CO2, etc.), and which because of their high density may form relatively stable interfaces with dilute waters. ?? 1969.

  9. Costs to transport natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Leibson, I.; Davenport, S.T.; Muenzier, M.H.

    1987-04-01

    Relative Economics are discussed for transporting natural gas by four ways: converting to LNG and using LNG tankers, as a gas using on-land and subsea pipelines, converting to methanol and using conventional tankers, and compressing and using tankers with pressurized containers. Distances and routes are important factors when determining cost. Specific examples are given for transportation between : Arabian Gulf and Europe, Africa and Europe, and Islands separated by short distances.

  10. Insights from nature for cybersecurity.

    PubMed

    Rzeszutko, Elżbieta; Mazurczyk, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The alarming rise in the quantity of malware in the past few years poses a serious challenge to the security community and requires urgent response. However, current countermeasures seem no longer to be effective. Thus, it is our belief that it is now time for researchers and security experts to turn to nature in the search for novel inspiration for defense systems. Nature has provided species with a whole range of offensive and defensive techniques, which have been developing and improving over the course of billions of years of evolution. Extremely diverse living conditions have promoted a large variation in the devised biosecurity solutions. In this article we introduce a novel Protection framework in which common denominators of the encountered offensive and defensive means are proposed and presented. The bio-inspired solutions are discussed in the context of cybersecurity, where some principles have already been adopted. The deployment of the whole nature-based framework should aid in the design and improvement of modern cyberdefense systems. PMID:25813971

  11. Natural organobromine in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leri, Alessandra C.; Myneni, Satish C. B.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that bromine undergoes biogeochemical cycling involving natural formation and degradation of organobromine compounds in marine systems. In the terrestrial environment, where background bromine levels tend to be low, the biogeochemistry of this element remains largely unexamined. We traced the path of bromine through plant growth, senescence, and decay of leaf litter on the forest floor. Using sensitive X-ray spectroscopic techniques, we show that all bromine in humified plant material, organic-rich surface soils, and isolated humic substances is bonded to carbon. Analysis of bromide-enriched plants suggests that bromide absorbed by the growing plants ultimately converts to organobromine when the plant litter decays. Application of isolated chloroperoxidase, a halogenating enzyme, to healthy plant material results in extensive bromination, with organobromine formed preferentially over organochlorine. The relative ease of bromide oxidation appears to promote biogeochemical transformations of Br from inorganic to organic forms, leading to its incorporation into soil organic matter through enzymatic processes related to plant litter decomposition. In combination with low concentration and susceptibility to leaching and plant uptake, natural bromination processes lead to the exhaustion of inorganic bromide in surface soils, making organic matter a reservoir of bromine in the terrestrial environment. This study provides the first detailed look into the terrestrial bromine cycle and lays the foundation for future studies of natural organobromine degradation, which may shed light on the fate of anthropogenic organobromine pollutants in the soil environment.

  12. Origin of the Natural Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Milo; Haselhurst, Geoff

    2000-05-01

    Before the wave theory of matter natural laws were observed, but not predicted by a physical cause. Their existence was faith in Nature, a God. Now, using a spherical wave structure of the electron-positron, natural laws are predicted exactly as observed - not God-given, but a consequence of the wave structure of matter. The prediction of laws, of electron spin, of Feynman diagrams, the Pauli Principle, etc.from physical waves is over-whelming proof that the wave description is correct. Just three Principles are used: I - A scalar wave equation whose spherical solutions are the electron; II - A prescription for density of the quantum wave medium (a quantitative Mach's Principle); III - A Minimum Amplitude Principle for waves in space. The Schroedinger Equation and Special Relativity are a Doppler of motion between wave structures. The inertia law and momentum conservation result from Principle II. Energy conservation is an exchange mechanism implicit in II. Spin arises from wave rotation at centers. General relativity is the large scale equivalent of the 3 principles. References: http://members/tripod.com/mwolff

  13. Major natural disaster afteraction assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    In recent years, a wide variety of natural disasters has disrupted energy supplies. Some incidents occurred in the continental US, others in offshore US territory, and still others in foreign countries. Each locale provided a unique backdrop against which energy emergency activities were conducted. Minimizing the consequences of these incidents is considered to be both good business and in national interest. It is often achieved through a combination of emergency preparedness and emergency response activities, usually taken in coordination and as appropriate, by industry, State and local government and Federal agencies. This project was undertaken to capture the experience gained during recent natural disasters, subject it to careful scrutiny, and thereby improve future energy emergency preparedness, response, and recovery activities. It considered the emergency activities actually undertaken, the level and effectiveness of coordination between the various agents engaged in the response, and the appropriateness of established roles and responsibilities of each. The material forming the basis for this assessment was obtained through numerous in-depth interviews with personnel involved at all levels of response activities, afteraction reports by others, and articles in the technical and general press. Energy types considered were electricity, natural gas and petroleum products. Major attention was focused on telecommunications and military interdependencies with the energy supply infrastructure.

  14. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours

    PubMed Central

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

  15. Scales of Natural Flood Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Alex; Quinn, Paul; Owen, Gareth; Hetherington, David; Piedra Lara, Miguel; O'Donnell, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The scientific field of Natural flood Management (NFM) is receiving much attention and is now widely seen as a valid solution to sustainably manage flood risk whilst offering significant multiple benefits. However, few examples exist looking at NFM on a large scale (>10km2). Well-implemented NFM has the effect of restoring more natural catchment hydrological and sedimentological processes, which in turn can have significant flood risk and WFD benefits for catchment waterbodies. These catchment scale improvements in-turn allow more 'natural' processes to be returned to rivers and streams, creating a more resilient system. Although certain NFM interventions may appear distant and disconnected from main stem waterbodies, they will undoubtedly be contributing to WFD at the catchment waterbody scale. This paper offers examples of NFM, and explains how they can be maximised through practical design across many scales (from feature up to the whole catchment). New tools to assist in the selection of measures and their location, and to appreciate firstly, the flooding benefit at the local catchment scale and then show a Flood Impact Model that can best reflect the impacts of local changes further downstream. The tools will be discussed in the context of our most recent experiences on NFM projects including river catchments in the north east of England and in Scotland. This work has encouraged a more integrated approach to flood management planning that can use both traditional and novel NFM strategies in an effective and convincing way.

  16. Natural-gas price puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.

    1983-02-01

    Rectifying natural-gas underpricing and distortions in production has benefited the overall economy, but transition costs are large, and problems and strains continue. The natural-gas price story began with the 1954 price controls that developed into a wasteful, inefficient, and unfair system of too-low gas prices that resulted in the 1978 Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA). While meeting a number of goals, NGPA has also led to current large increases in gas prices, ironically at a time when producers complain of more gas than they can sell. This glut, however, may be a surplus of short-run deliverability rather than an increase in supply. Prices have not fallen even temporarily because long-term contracts common between pipelines and producers typically prevent downward adjustment of prices to meet demand fluctuations, and the economy (hence the consumer) cannot escape the costof sustaining capacity through up-and-down demand. Transportation and delivery costs that, while getting smaller in relation to wellhead prices, are rising, and inflation, higher interest rates, and costs of uncollectables add to the price. In addition, while a straightforward supply, demand, and cost explanation of the price picture is accurate enough on a national basis, the average cost of gas as it enters a particular pipeline is affected by such complexities as historical accident, location, timing, bargaining power, and management decisions.

  17. Insights from nature for cybersecurity.

    PubMed

    Rzeszutko, Elżbieta; Mazurczyk, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The alarming rise in the quantity of malware in the past few years poses a serious challenge to the security community and requires urgent response. However, current countermeasures seem no longer to be effective. Thus, it is our belief that it is now time for researchers and security experts to turn to nature in the search for novel inspiration for defense systems. Nature has provided species with a whole range of offensive and defensive techniques, which have been developing and improving over the course of billions of years of evolution. Extremely diverse living conditions have promoted a large variation in the devised biosecurity solutions. In this article we introduce a novel Protection framework in which common denominators of the encountered offensive and defensive means are proposed and presented. The bio-inspired solutions are discussed in the context of cybersecurity, where some principles have already been adopted. The deployment of the whole nature-based framework should aid in the design and improvement of modern cyberdefense systems.

  18. Natural supersymmetry without light Higgsinos

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cohen, Timothy; Kearney, John; Luty, Markus A.

    2015-04-08

    In this study, we present a mechanism that allows a large Higgsino mass without large fine-tuning. The Higgs is a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson (PNGB) of the global symmetry breaking pattern SO(5)→SO(4). Because of the PNGB nature of the light Higgs, the SO(5) invariant Higgsino mass does not directly contribute to the Higgs mass. Large couplings in the Higgs sector that spontaneously breaks SO(5) minimize the tuning, and are also motivated by the requirements of generating a sufficiently large Higgs quartic coupling and of maintaining a natural approximate global SO(5) symmetry. When these conditions are imposed, theories of this type predict heavymore » Higgsinos. This construction differs from composite Higgs models in that no new particles are introduced to form complete SO(5) multiplets involving the top quark—the stop is the only top partner. Compatibility with Higgs coupling measurements requires cancellations among contributions to the Higgs mass-squared parameter at the 10% level. An important implication of this construction is that the compressed region of stop and sbottom searches can still be natural.« less

  19. Natural supersymmetry without light Higgsinos

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Timothy; Kearney, John; Luty, Markus A.

    2015-04-08

    In this study, we present a mechanism that allows a large Higgsino mass without large fine-tuning. The Higgs is a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson (PNGB) of the global symmetry breaking pattern SO(5)→SO(4). Because of the PNGB nature of the light Higgs, the SO(5) invariant Higgsino mass does not directly contribute to the Higgs mass. Large couplings in the Higgs sector that spontaneously breaks SO(5) minimize the tuning, and are also motivated by the requirements of generating a sufficiently large Higgs quartic coupling and of maintaining a natural approximate global SO(5) symmetry. When these conditions are imposed, theories of this type predict heavy Higgsinos. This construction differs from composite Higgs models in that no new particles are introduced to form complete SO(5) multiplets involving the top quark—the stop is the only top partner. Compatibility with Higgs coupling measurements requires cancellations among contributions to the Higgs mass-squared parameter at the 10% level. An important implication of this construction is that the compressed region of stop and sbottom searches can still be natural.

  20. Fluorescent profiling of natural product producers.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Joel S; Fenical, William; Gulledge, Brian M; Chamberlin, A Richard; La Clair, James J

    2005-07-01

    The identification of natural product producer organisms remains a problem for both isolation and natural product classification. A concise screen is developed through fluorescent modification of a set of natural products that offer a common activity. Through real-time multicolor microscopy, the processing, storage, and effects of a natural product are rapidly screened at the level of the strain and individual organism.

  1. Is Back to Nature Always Best?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulzer-Azaroff, Beth

    1992-01-01

    This commentary on EC 603 646, a paper describing a natural reinforcement project of Communidad Los Horcones (Mexico), argues that natural reinforcement is best when the learning objective produces a natural reinforcer and when the natural reinforcer is more powerful than any competing punishers inherent in the task or reinforcers for competing…

  2. 34 CFR 303.18 - Natural environments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Natural environments. 303.18 Section 303.18 Education... DISABILITIES General Purpose, Eligibility, and Other General Provisions § 303.18 Natural environments. As used in this part, natural environments means settings that are natural or normal for the child's...

  3. 34 CFR 303.18 - Natural environments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Natural environments. 303.18 Section 303.18 Education... DISABILITIES General Purpose, Eligibility, and Other General Provisions § 303.18 Natural environments. As used in this part, natural environments means settings that are natural or normal for the child's...

  4. 7 CFR 650.23 - Natural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... alteration of the resources. (iv) Preserving unique values. Natural areas may be established to protect... maintain or restore features that the areas were established to protect. (2) Natural areas may be... natural resources encourage establishment of natural areas withdrawn from economic uses and recognition...

  5. Nature in the City. Adventure Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferbert, Mary Lou

    "Nature in the City" is a program designed to introduce young city dwellers to the wealth of nature that thrives in their urban world. The goal is not to produce botanists or zoologists, but to build attitudes and values as children increase their awareness, understanding, and appreciation of nature. Although the natural communities within cities…

  6. Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This document comprises the Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan, and is a follow-up to the `Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Program Crosscut Plans,` dated July 1995. DOE`s natural gas programs are aimed at simultaneously meeting our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy. The Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan represents a Department-wide effort on expanded development and use of natural gas and defines Federal government and US industry roles in partnering to accomplish defined strategic goals. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Program are to: (1) foster development of advanced natural gas technologies, (2) encourage adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets, (3) support removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets, and (4) foster technologies and policies to maximize environmental benefits of natural gas use.

  7. Apparatus for dispensing compressed natural gas and liquified natural gas to natural gas powered vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis A.; Clark, Michael L.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Palmer, Gary L.

    2007-05-29

    A fueling facility and method for dispensing liquid natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG) or both on-demand. The fueling facility may include a source of LNG, such as cryogenic storage vessel. A low volume high pressure pump is coupled to the source of LNG to produce a stream of pressurized LNG. The stream of pressurized LNG may be selectively directed through an LNG flow path or to a CNG flow path which includes a vaporizer configured to produce CNG from the pressurized LNG. A portion of the CNG may be drawn from the CNG flow path and introduced into the CNG flow path to control the temperature of LNG flowing therethrough. Similarly, a portion of the LNG may be drawn from the LNG flow path and introduced into the CNG flow path to control the temperature of CNG flowing therethrough.

  8. [Development of the Feelings toward Nature Scale and relationship between feelings toward nature and proximity to nature].

    PubMed

    Shibata, Seiji

    2016-04-01

    In the field of environmental psychology, there is rapidly growing interest in the concept of connectivity with nature, describing an individual's sense of being connected with nature. The author developed a new scale for assessing feelings toward nature, including connectedness. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a five-factor model consisting of restorativeness, oneness, mystery, care, and aversion. Then, the relationships among availability of nature in respondents' neighborhood, age, and each subscale score of the Feelings toward Nature Scale, were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The availability of nature in neighborhoods was assessed using a geographic information system and respondents' subjective evaluations. Results indicate that overall connectedness to nature is weaker as availability of nature decreases, as assessed by subjective evaluation. Results also suggest that aversion toward nature in younger people is relatively stronger than in older generations.

  9. Establishing Natural Nootropics: Recent Molecular Enhancement Influenced by Natural Nootropic

    PubMed Central

    Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Hidayat Baharuldin, Mohamad Taufik

    2016-01-01

    Nootropics or smart drugs are well-known compounds or supplements that enhance the cognitive performance. They work by increasing the mental function such as memory, creativity, motivation, and attention. Recent researches were focused on establishing a new potential nootropic derived from synthetic and natural products. The influence of nootropic in the brain has been studied widely. The nootropic affects the brain performances through number of mechanisms or pathways, for example, dopaminergic pathway. Previous researches have reported the influence of nootropics on treating memory disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Those disorders are observed to impair the same pathways of the nootropics. Thus, recent established nootropics are designed sensitively and effectively towards the pathways. Natural nootropics such as Ginkgo biloba have been widely studied to support the beneficial effects of the compounds. Present review is concentrated on the main pathways, namely, dopaminergic and cholinergic system, and the involvement of amyloid precursor protein and secondary messenger in improving the cognitive performance. PMID:27656235

  10. Establishing Natural Nootropics: Recent Molecular Enhancement Influenced by Natural Nootropic.

    PubMed

    Suliman, Noor Azuin; Mat Taib, Che Norma; Mohd Moklas, Mohamad Aris; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Hidayat Baharuldin, Mohamad Taufik; Basir, Rusliza

    2016-01-01

    Nootropics or smart drugs are well-known compounds or supplements that enhance the cognitive performance. They work by increasing the mental function such as memory, creativity, motivation, and attention. Recent researches were focused on establishing a new potential nootropic derived from synthetic and natural products. The influence of nootropic in the brain has been studied widely. The nootropic affects the brain performances through number of mechanisms or pathways, for example, dopaminergic pathway. Previous researches have reported the influence of nootropics on treating memory disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Those disorders are observed to impair the same pathways of the nootropics. Thus, recent established nootropics are designed sensitively and effectively towards the pathways. Natural nootropics such as Ginkgo biloba have been widely studied to support the beneficial effects of the compounds. Present review is concentrated on the main pathways, namely, dopaminergic and cholinergic system, and the involvement of amyloid precursor protein and secondary messenger in improving the cognitive performance. PMID:27656235

  11. On the Nature of Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, Sergi; Solé, Ricard V.

    At the attention of scientist, philosophers and layman alike. It was so extraordinary in fact that even today we are fascinated by it and by the no less uncommon people who got involved. The subject of this story was an amazing machine, more precisely an automaton. Known as the Turk, it was a mechanical chess player, made of wood and dressed in a Turkish-like costume (see Fig. 1). It played chess with Napoleon, inspired Charles Babbage and moved the great Edgar Allan Poe to write a critical essay about the nature of the automaton [1].

  12. Religion as a Natural Phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Dennett, Daniel

    2006-02-15

    Religion is a costly human activity that has evolved over the millennia. Why does it exist and how does it foster such powerful allegiances? To undertake a serious scientific study of religious practices and attitudes we must set aside a traditional exemption from scrutiny which religions have enjoyed. Religious adherents may not welcome this attention, but we should press ahead with it, since if we don't come to understand religion as a natural phenomenon, our attempts to deal with the problems that loom in the twenty-first century will likely be counterproductive.

  13. Natural inflation and quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Anton; Saraswat, Prashant; Sundrum, Raman

    2015-04-17

    Cosmic inflation provides an attractive framework for understanding the early Universe and the cosmic microwave background. It can readily involve energies close to the scale at which quantum gravity effects become important. General considerations of black hole quantum mechanics suggest nontrivial constraints on any effective field theory model of inflation that emerges as a low-energy limit of quantum gravity, in particular, the constraint of the weak gravity conjecture. We show that higher-dimensional gauge and gravitational dynamics can elegantly satisfy these constraints and lead to a viable, theoretically controlled and predictive class of natural inflation models. PMID:25933305

  14. Glass corrosion in natural environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, Arthur N.

    1989-01-01

    A series of studies of the effects of solutes which appear in natural aqueous environments, specifically Mg and Al, under controlled conditions, permit characterization of the retardation of silicate glass leaching in water containing such solutes. In the case of Mg the interaction with the glass appears to consist of exchange with alkali ions present in the glass to a depth of several microns. The effect of Al can be observed at much lower levels, indicating that the mechanism in the case of Al involves irreversible formation of aluminosilicate species at the glass surface.

  15. Advances in natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, Julia; Manning, Christopher D

    2015-07-17

    Natural language processing employs computational techniques for the purpose of learning, understanding, and producing human language content. Early computational approaches to language research focused on automating the analysis of the linguistic structure of language and developing basic technologies such as machine translation, speech recognition, and speech synthesis. Today's researchers refine and make use of such tools in real-world applications, creating spoken dialogue systems and speech-to-speech translation engines, mining social media for information about health or finance, and identifying sentiment and emotion toward products and services. We describe successes and challenges in this rapidly advancing area.

  16. Optical properties of natural topaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsova, V.; Mironova-Ulmane, N.; Trinkler, L.; Chikvaidze, G.

    2013-12-01

    The results of investigation of infrared, Raman and UV-Visible absorption spectra of natural topaz crystals from Ukraine before and after fast neutron irradiation are presented. We assume that the ~ 620 nm band in topaz crystals is associated with the presence of Cr3+, Fe2+ and Mn2+ impurities. The broad band with maxima at 650 cm-1 observed in Raman spectra for topaz irradiated by fast neutrons may be connected with lattice disorder. Exchange interaction between radiation defect and impurity ions during neutron irradiation leads to appearance of additional absorption band in UV-VIS spectra and bands broadening in infrared and Raman spectra of investigated crystals.

  17. From natural to artificial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Barber, James; Tran, Phong D

    2013-04-01

    Demand for energy is projected to increase at least twofold by mid-century relative to the present global consumption because of predicted population and economic growth. This demand could be met, in principle, from fossil energy resources, particularly coal. However, the cumulative nature of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions demands that stabilizing the atmospheric CO(2) levels to just twice their pre-anthropogenic values by mid-century will be extremely challenging, requiring invention, development and deployment of schemes for carbon-neutral energy production on a scale commensurate with, or larger than, the entire present-day energy supply from all sources combined. Among renewable and exploitable energy resources, nuclear fusion energy or solar energy are by far the largest. However, in both cases, technological breakthroughs are required with nuclear fusion being very difficult, if not impossible on the scale required. On the other hand, 1 h of sunlight falling on our planet is equivalent to all the energy consumed by humans in an entire year. If solar energy is to be a major primary energy source, then it must be stored and despatched on demand to the end user. An especially attractive approach is to store solar energy in the form of chemical bonds as occurs in natural photosynthesis. However, a technology is needed which has a year-round average conversion efficiency significantly higher than currently available by natural photosynthesis so as to reduce land-area requirements and to be independent of food production. Therefore, the scientific challenge is to construct an 'artificial leaf' able to efficiently capture and convert solar energy and then store it in the form of chemical bonds of a high-energy density fuel such as hydrogen while at the same time producing oxygen from water. Realistically, the efficiency target for such a technology must be 10 per cent or better. Here, we review the molecular details of the energy capturing reactions of natural

  18. Nature of type 1 Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shklovskiy, I. S.

    1980-01-01

    The nature of type 1 supernovae (SN 1) is discussed through a comparison of observational evidence and theoretical perspectives relating to both type 1 and 2 supernovae. In particular two hypotheses relating to SN 1 phenomenon are examined: the first proposing that SN 1 are components of binary systems in which, at a comparatively late stage of evolution, overflow of the mass occurs; the second considers pre-SN 1 to be recently evolved stars with a mass greater than 1.4 solar mass (white dwarfs). In addition, an explanation of the reduced frequency of flares of SN 1 in spiral galaxies as related to that in elliptical galaxies is presented.

  19. Religion as a Natural Phenomenon

    ScienceCinema

    Dennett, Daniel [Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

    2016-07-12

    Religion is a costly human activity that has evolved over the millennia. Why does it exist and how does it foster such powerful allegiances? To undertake a serious scientific study of religious practices and attitudes we must set aside a traditional exemption from scrutiny which religions have enjoyed. Religious adherents may not welcome this attention, but we should press ahead with it, since if we don't come to understand religion as a natural phenomenon, our attempts to deal with the problems that loom in the twenty-first century will likely be counterproductive.

  20. From natural to artificial photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Barber, James; Tran, Phong D.

    2013-01-01

    Demand for energy is projected to increase at least twofold by mid-century relative to the present global consumption because of predicted population and economic growth. This demand could be met, in principle, from fossil energy resources, particularly coal. However, the cumulative nature of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions demands that stabilizing the atmospheric CO2 levels to just twice their pre-anthropogenic values by mid-century will be extremely challenging, requiring invention, development and deployment of schemes for carbon-neutral energy production on a scale commensurate with, or larger than, the entire present-day energy supply from all sources combined. Among renewable and exploitable energy resources, nuclear fusion energy or solar energy are by far the largest. However, in both cases, technological breakthroughs are required with nuclear fusion being very difficult, if not impossible on the scale required. On the other hand, 1 h of sunlight falling on our planet is equivalent to all the energy consumed by humans in an entire year. If solar energy is to be a major primary energy source, then it must be stored and despatched on demand to the end user. An especially attractive approach is to store solar energy in the form of chemical bonds as occurs in natural photosynthesis. However, a technology is needed which has a year-round average conversion efficiency significantly higher than currently available by natural photosynthesis so as to reduce land-area requirements and to be independent of food production. Therefore, the scientific challenge is to construct an ‘artificial leaf’ able to efficiently capture and convert solar energy and then store it in the form of chemical bonds of a high-energy density fuel such as hydrogen while at the same time producing oxygen from water. Realistically, the efficiency target for such a technology must be 10 per cent or better. Here, we review the molecular details of the energy capturing reactions of natural

  1. Natural history of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Arturo Novoa

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a disease laden with paradigms, and it is a serious health problem. It is important to know its natural history, as it is multifactorial in origin, and also to understand its behaviour given its risk factors which can lead to death from metastasis in patients. It continues to be a challenge for oncologists. An analytical literature review was performed to update the latest concepts of its origin, evolution, risk factors, pre-clinical horizon, and its clinical manifestations; until the death of the patient. PMID:25371706

  2. Regulations against the human nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizondo-Garza, Fernando J.

    2001-05-01

    The discussion around the concept of the addiction to noise has evidenced the importance of noise for the human being and explains why in some cases the regulations fail to control the noise in cities. In this presentation the different uses, consciously or unconsciously, of the noise will be analyzed, uses that go from habits to maybe addictions. Also discussed are the implications of establishing regulations against the human nature as well as the importance of education to manage the noise and design acoustically instead of trying to ban the noise in some social circumstances.

  3. Readings in natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Grosz, B.J.; Jones, K.S.; Webber, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    The papers assembled fall naturally into six groups dealing respectively with parsing and grammars, semantic interpretation, discourse interpretation (covering, for example, anaphor resolution), language actions and the intentions underlying them, language generation, and systems (notably interface systems). The chapter headings are treated broadly and are taken to imply either that the authors are adopting a particular position about the way processing, and particularly input processing, should be done, or that problems and solutions assigned to one category have no relevance elsewhere. Many individual papers, placed in their most appropriate categories, also contribute to other areas.

  4. Natural inflation and quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Anton; Saraswat, Prashant; Sundrum, Raman

    2015-04-17

    Cosmic inflation provides an attractive framework for understanding the early Universe and the cosmic microwave background. It can readily involve energies close to the scale at which quantum gravity effects become important. General considerations of black hole quantum mechanics suggest nontrivial constraints on any effective field theory model of inflation that emerges as a low-energy limit of quantum gravity, in particular, the constraint of the weak gravity conjecture. We show that higher-dimensional gauge and gravitational dynamics can elegantly satisfy these constraints and lead to a viable, theoretically controlled and predictive class of natural inflation models.

  5. Biocommunication and natural genome editing

    PubMed Central

    Witzany, Guenther

    2010-01-01

    The biocommunicative approach investigates communication processes within and among cells, tissues, organs and organisms as sign-mediated interactions, and nucleotide sequences as code, i.e. language-like text, which follows in parallel three kinds of rules: combinatorial (syntactic), context-sensitive (pragmatic), and content-specific (semantic). Natural genome editing from a biocommunicative perspective is competent agent-driven generation and integration of meaningful nucleotide sequences into pre-existing genomic content arrangements and the ability to (re-)combine and (re-)regulate them according to context-dependent (i.e. adaptational) purposes of the host organism. PMID:21537469

  6. Natural history of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Arturo Novoa

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a disease laden with paradigms, and it is a serious health problem. It is important to know its natural history, as it is multifactorial in origin, and also to understand its behaviour given its risk factors which can lead to death from metastasis in patients. It continues to be a challenge for oncologists. An analytical literature review was performed to update the latest concepts of its origin, evolution, risk factors, pre-clinical horizon, and its clinical manifestations; until the death of the patient.

  7. Das Studium: Vom Start zum Ziel: Lei(d)tfaden für Studierende

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messing, Barbara

    Wer studieren will, hat viele Fragen und muss viele Entscheidungen treffen. Dieser Leitfaden hilft, eine Wahl zutreffen, sich an der Hochschule zurecht zu finden und Hürden rechtzeitig zu erkennen und zu bewältigen. Es geht um Fragen wie: Wer unterstützt mich finanziell? Studentenwohnheim oder WG? Was bringt eine Vorlesung? Wie komme ich an eine Abschlussarbeit - und wie schreibe ich sie? Weitere Themen sind: Struktur der Hochschule, Lebensabschnitt Studium, Motivation beim Lernen, Zeitmanagement im Studium, Recherchieren und Lesen, Verstehen und Entwickeln, Mathematik im Studium, Vorträge halten und Prüfungen bestehen.

  8. The economics of natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallegatte, S.

    2007-05-01

    Mitigating natural disasters is probably more important for society than it can be inferred from direct losses. Total economic losses, indeed, can be much larger than direct losses, especially for large disasters, which affect the economy for extended periods of time (e.g., New Orleans after Katrina), and represent an important obstacle to economic development in certain regions (e.g. Central America). A series of recent modelling exercises highlights several findings. First, total economic losses due to an event are increasing nonlinearly as a function of its direct losses, because destructions both increase reconstruction needs and reduce reconstruction capacity. Second, endogenous economic dynamics has to be taken into account in the assessment of disaster consequences. More particularly, an economy in the expansion phase of its business cycle appears to be more vulnerable to extreme events than an economy in recession. This result is supported by the fact that worker availability is found to be one of the main obstacles to a rapid and efficient reconstruction. Third, natural disasters can create poverty traps for poor countries, which have a lower ability to fund and carry out reconstruction. As a consequence, climate change impacts from extreme events may be significant, and will depend on how societies are able to adapt their reconstruction capacity to new levels of risk.

  9. Natural quasicrystal with decagonal symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Bindi, Luca; Yao, Nan; Lin, Chaney; Hollister, Lincoln S.; Andronicos, Christopher L.; Distler, Vadim V.; Eddy, Michael P.; Kostin, Alexander; Kryachko, Valery; MacPherson, Glenn J.; Steinhardt, William M.; Yudovskaya, Marina; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first occurrence of a natural quasicrystal with decagonal symmetry. The quasicrystal, with composition Al71Ni24Fe5, was discovered in the Khatyrka meteorite, a recently described CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. Icosahedrite, Al63Cu24Fe13, the first natural quasicrystal to be identified, was found in the same meteorite. The new quasicrystal was found associated with steinhardtite (Al38Ni32Fe30), Fe-poor steinhardtite (Al50Ni40Fe10), Al-bearing trevorite (NiFe2O4) and Al-bearing taenite (FeNi). Laboratory studies of decagonal Al71Ni24Fe5 have shown that it is stable over a narrow range of temperatures, 1120 K to 1200 K at standard pressure, providing support for our earlier conclusion that the Khatyrka meteorite reached heterogeneous high temperatures [1100 < T(K) ≤ 1500] and then rapidly cooled after being heated during an impact-induced shock that occurred in outer space 4.5 Gya. The occurrences of metallic Al alloyed with Cu, Ni, and Fe raises new questions regarding conditions that can be achieved in the early solar nebula. PMID:25765857

  10. Natural products for cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Demain, Arnold L.; Vaishnav, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Summary For over 40 years, natural products have served us well in combating cancer. The main sources of these successful compounds are microbes and plants from the terrestrial and marine environments. The microbes serve as a major source of natural products with anti‐tumour activity. A number of these products were first discovered as antibiotics. Another major contribution comes from plant alkaloids, taxoids and podophyllotoxins. A vast array of biological metabolites can be obtained from the marine world, which can be used for effective cancer treatment. The search for novel drugs is still a priority goal for cancer therapy, due to the rapid development of resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. In addition, the high toxicity usually associated with some cancer chemotherapy drugs and their undesirable side‐effects increase the demand for novel anti‐tumour drugs active against untreatable tumours, with fewer side‐effects and/or with greater therapeutic efficiency. This review points out those technologies needed to produce the anti‐tumour compounds of the future. PMID:21375717

  11. Natural look in volume restoration.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Mary P

    2008-09-01

    Filling and volumizing injection procedures are currently widely used for facial augmentation and re-establishing a youthful appearance. Aesthetic physicians have advanced from the practice of treating single lines and wrinkles towards filling large facial areas to globally restore natural facial contours and meet patient demand for nonsurgical rejuvenation. This review describes the different categories of fillers and volumizers based on their duration of action and ability to create a natural looking effect; they can be broadly classified as temporary or long-lasting biodegradable agents, or permanent nonbiodegradable agents. Temporary fillers are effective to correct lines and wrinkles, but may not adequately meet the need for global facial rejuvenation and volume replacement in a long-term, cost-efficient manner. Permanent fillers for global restoration pose the issue of long-term safety, and may not be compatible with changes in facial architecture with continued aging. Longer lasting volumizers provide patients with a durable, effective option for the restoration of facial volume and the re-establishment of youthful facial contours. Temporary fillers and volumizers may also be used in combination to provide a wide source of options for the global restoration and rejuvenation of the face.

  12. Visual processing during natural reading.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Béla; Knakker, Balázs; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Reading is a unique human ability that plays a pivotal role in the development and functioning of our modern society. However, its neural basis remains poorly understood since previous research was focused on reading words with fixed gaze. Here we developed a methodological framework for single-trial analysis of fixation onset-related EEG activity (FOREA) that enabled us to investigate visual information processing during natural reading. To reveal the effect of reading skills on orthographic processing during natural reading, we measured how altering the configural properties of the written text by modifying inter-letter spacing affects FOREA. We found that orthographic processing is reflected in FOREA in three consecutive time windows (120-175 ms, 230-265 ms, 345-380 ms after fixation onset) and the magnitude of FOREA effects in the two later time intervals showed a close association with the participants' reading speed: FOREA effects were larger in fast than in slow readers. Furthermore, these expertise-driven configural effects were clearly dissociable from the FOREA signatures of visual perceptual processes engaged to handle the increased crowding (155-220 ms) as a result of decreasing letter spacing. Our findings revealed that with increased reading skills orthographic processing becomes more sensitive to the configural properties of the written text.

  13. Natural monoclonal antibodies and cancer.

    PubMed

    Vollmers, Peter H; Brändlein, Stephanie

    2008-06-01

    Immunity is responsible for recognition and elimination of infectious particles and for removal of cellular waste, modified self structures and transformed cells. Innate or natural immunity acts as a first line defense and is also the link to acquired immunity and memory. By using the human hybridoma technology, a series of monoclonal antibodies and several new tumor-specific targets could be identified. A striking phenomenon of immunity against malignant cells is that all so far isolated tumor-specific antibodies were germ-line coded natural IgM antibodies. And neither in animals nor in humans affinity-maturated tumor-specific IgG antibodies have been detected so far. These IgM's preferentially bind to carbohydrate epitopes on post-transcriptionally modified surface receptors, which are recently patented and preferentially remove malignant cells by inducing apoptosis to avoid inflammatory processes. Our "biology-" or "function-driven" method represents a unique yet powerful approach compared to the typical approaches on screening compounds or antibodies against non-validated targets (mostly differentially expressed). Moreover, the approach creates a competitive patenting strategy of creating proprietary antibodies and validated targets at the same time, which has the potential of further streamlining the discovery of new cancer therapies. PMID:18537750

  14. Natural quintessence in string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, Michele; Pedro, Francisco G.; Tasinato, Gianmassimo E-mail: f.pedro1@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2012-07-01

    We introduce a natural model of quintessence in string theory where the light rolling scalar is radiatively stable and couples to Standard Model matter with weaker-than-Planckian strength. The model is embedded in an anisotropic type IIB compactification with two exponentially large extra dimensions and TeV-scale gravity. The bulk turns out to be nearly supersymmetric since the scale of the gravitino mass is of the order of the observed value of the cosmological constant. The quintessence field is a modulus parameterising the size of an internal four-cycle which naturally develops a potential of the order (gravitino mass){sup 4}, leading to a small dark energy scale without tunings. The mass of the quintessence field is also radiatively stable since it is protected by supersymmetry in the bulk. Moreover, this light scalar couples to ordinary matter via its mixing with the volume mode. Due to the fact that the quintessence field is a flat direction at leading order, this mixing is very small, resulting in a suppressed coupling to Standard Model particles which avoids stringent fifth-force constraints. On the other hand, if dark matter is realised in terms of Kaluza-Klein states, unsuppressed couplings between dark energy and dark matter can emerge, leading to a scenario of coupled quintessence within string theory. We study the dynamics of quintessence in our set-up, showing that its main features make it compatible with observations.

  15. Visual processing during natural reading

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Béla; Knakker, Balázs; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Reading is a unique human ability that plays a pivotal role in the development and functioning of our modern society. However, its neural basis remains poorly understood since previous research was focused on reading words with fixed gaze. Here we developed a methodological framework for single-trial analysis of fixation onset-related EEG activity (FOREA) that enabled us to investigate visual information processing during natural reading. To reveal the effect of reading skills on orthographic processing during natural reading, we measured how altering the configural properties of the written text by modifying inter-letter spacing affects FOREA. We found that orthographic processing is reflected in FOREA in three consecutive time windows (120–175 ms, 230–265 ms, 345–380 ms after fixation onset) and the magnitude of FOREA effects in the two later time intervals showed a close association with the participants’ reading speed: FOREA effects were larger in fast than in slow readers. Furthermore, these expertise-driven configural effects were clearly dissociable from the FOREA signatures of visual perceptual processes engaged to handle the increased crowding (155–220 ms) as a result of decreasing letter spacing. Our findings revealed that with increased reading skills orthographic processing becomes more sensitive to the configural properties of the written text. PMID:27231193

  16. Visual processing during natural reading.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Béla; Knakker, Balázs; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Reading is a unique human ability that plays a pivotal role in the development and functioning of our modern society. However, its neural basis remains poorly understood since previous research was focused on reading words with fixed gaze. Here we developed a methodological framework for single-trial analysis of fixation onset-related EEG activity (FOREA) that enabled us to investigate visual information processing during natural reading. To reveal the effect of reading skills on orthographic processing during natural reading, we measured how altering the configural properties of the written text by modifying inter-letter spacing affects FOREA. We found that orthographic processing is reflected in FOREA in three consecutive time windows (120-175 ms, 230-265 ms, 345-380 ms after fixation onset) and the magnitude of FOREA effects in the two later time intervals showed a close association with the participants' reading speed: FOREA effects were larger in fast than in slow readers. Furthermore, these expertise-driven configural effects were clearly dissociable from the FOREA signatures of visual perceptual processes engaged to handle the increased crowding (155-220 ms) as a result of decreasing letter spacing. Our findings revealed that with increased reading skills orthographic processing becomes more sensitive to the configural properties of the written text. PMID:27231193

  17. [Symbolism on "natural" in food].

    PubMed

    da Veiga Soares Carvalho, Maria Claudia; Luz, Madel Therezinha

    2011-01-01

    The incorporated senses represent a set of possibilities for future life able to build individual and collective identities. This work deepens the habitus, in Bourdieu's terms, associated with "natural" and fast-food styles, making an interpretative analysis of symbolic exchanges of elements reproduced in feeding practices. We believe that this bricolage arrangement of elements enables bartering and hybridism, marked by a tension that reflects the insecurity of technological innovations. The "natural" style represents an ideal of self-sustainability, non-polluting production, which faces the sanitary and ecologic crisis of the planet, against the large-scale industrialization and fast urbanization, defined as depredation factors of basic living conditions. The exchanges happen in a symbolic game connected with the global economic game, in which social actors make bets, illusio, according to particular intentions in concrete action. There is a chance to reformulate the rules of the game in the "game", although with a precarious balance of forces, in which the weaker side loses, an agent may have the possibility of not reproducing the pressures of globalized feeding, which is far from what might seem supernatural.

  18. Development of new natural extracts.

    PubMed

    Lavoine-Hanneguelle, Sophie; Périchet, Christine; Schnaebele, Nicolas; Humbert, Marina

    2014-11-01

    For over the past 20 years, a remarkable development in the study and search of natural products has been observed. This is linked to a new market trend towards ecology and also due to new regulations. This could be a rupture, but also a real booster for creativity. Usually, in the flavor and fragrance field, creativity was boosted by the arrival of new synthetic molecules. Naturals remained the traditional, century-old products, protected by secrecy and specific know-how from each company. Regulatory restrictions or eco-friendly certification constraints like hexane-free processes triggered an important brainstorming in the industry. As a result, we developed new eco-friendly processes including supercritical CO2 extraction, allowing fresh plants to be used to obtain industrial flower extracts (Jasmine Grandiflorum, Jasmine Sambac, Orange blossom). These extracts are analyzed by GC, GC/MS, GCO, and HPTLC techniques. New or unusual raw materials can also be explored, but the resulting extracts have to be tested for safety reasons. Some examples are described.

  19. Natural quasicrystal with decagonal symmetry.

    PubMed

    Bindi, Luca; Yao, Nan; Lin, Chaney; Hollister, Lincoln S; Andronicos, Christopher L; Distler, Vadim V; Eddy, Michael P; Kostin, Alexander; Kryachko, Valery; MacPherson, Glenn J; Steinhardt, William M; Yudovskaya, Marina; Steinhardt, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    We report the first occurrence of a natural quasicrystal with decagonal symmetry. The quasicrystal, with composition Al71Ni24Fe5, was discovered in the Khatyrka meteorite, a recently described CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. Icosahedrite, Al63Cu24Fe13, the first natural quasicrystal to be identified, was found in the same meteorite. The new quasicrystal was found associated with steinhardtite (Al38Ni32Fe30), Fe-poor steinhardtite (Al50Ni40Fe10), Al-bearing trevorite (NiFe2O4) and Al-bearing taenite (FeNi). Laboratory studies of decagonal Al71Ni24Fe5 have shown that it is stable over a narrow range of temperatures, 1120 K to 1200 K at standard pressure, providing support for our earlier conclusion that the Khatyrka meteorite reached heterogeneous high temperatures [1100 < T(K) ≤ 1500] and then rapidly cooled after being heated during an impact-induced shock that occurred in outer space 4.5 Gya. The occurrences of metallic Al alloyed with Cu, Ni, and Fe raises new questions regarding conditions that can be achieved in the early solar nebula. PMID:25765857

  20. Antimalarial natural products: a review

    PubMed Central

    Mojab, Faraz

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Malaria is an infectious disease commonplace in tropical countries. For many years, major antimalarial drugs consisted of natural products, but since 1930s these drugs have been largely replaced with a series of synthetic drugs. This article tries to briefly indicate that some plants which previously were used to treat malaria, as a result of deficiencies of synthetic drugs, have revived into useful products once more. It also attempts to describe some tests which can be used to evaluate plant extracts for antimalarial activity. Materials and Methods: By referring to some recent literatures, data were collected about plants used for the treatment of malaria, evaluation of plant extracts for antimalarial activity, modes of action of natural antimalarial agents, and recent research on antimalarial plants in Iran and other countries. Results and Conclusion: There is an urgent need for the development of new treatments for malaria. Many countries have a vast precedence in the use of medicinal plants and the required knowledge spans many centuries. Although malaria is controlled in Iran, some researchers tend to study malaria and related subjects. In vitro biological tests for the detection of antimalarial activities in plant extracts are currently available. It is vital that the efficacy and safety of traditional medicines be validated and their active constituents be identified in order to establish reliable quality control measures. PMID:25050231

  1. Nature of Science Contextualized: Studying Nature of Science with Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tala, Suvi; Vesterinen, Veli-Matti

    2015-05-01

    Understanding nature of science (NOS) is widely considered an important educational objective and views of NOS are closely linked to science teaching and learning. Thus there is a lively discussion about what understanding NOS means and how it is reached. As a result of analyses in educational, philosophical, sociological and historical research, a worldwide consensus about the content of NOS teaching is said to be reached. This consensus content is listed as a general statement of science, which students are supposed to understand during their education. Unfortunately, decades of research has demonstrated that teachers and students alike do not possess an appropriate understanding of NOS, at least as far as it is defined at the general level. One reason for such failure might be that formal statements about the NOS and scientific knowledge can really be understood after having been contextualized in the actual cases. Typically NOS is studied as contextualized in the reconstructed historical case stories. When the objective is to educate scientifically and technologically literate citizens, as well as scientists of the near future, studying NOS in the contexts of contemporary science is encouraged. Such contextualizations call for revision of the characterization of NOS and the goals of teaching about NOS. As a consequence, this article gives two examples for studying NOS in the contexts of scientific practices with practicing scientists: an interview study with nanomodellers considering NOS in the context of their actual practices and a course on nature of scientific modelling for science teachers employing the same interview method as a studying method. Such scrutinization opens rarely discussed areas and viewpoints to NOS as well as aspects that practising scientists consider as important.

  2. Glycosylation and Activities of Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gangliang; Lv, Meijiao; Hu, Jinchuan; Huang, Kunlin; Xu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Natural products are widely found in nature, their number and variety are numerous, the structures are complex and diverse. These natural products have many physiological and pharmacological activities. Glycosylation can increase the diversity of structure and function of natural product, it has become the focus of drug research and development. The impacts of glycosylation of natural products to water solubility, pharmacological activities, bioavailability, or others were described in this review, which provides a reference for the development and application of glycosylated natural products. PMID:27499190

  3. Marketing time predicts naturalization of horticultural plants.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, Robert W; Liu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Horticulture is an important source of naturalized plants, but our knowledge about naturalization frequencies and potential patterns of naturalization in horticultural plants is limited. We analyzed a unique set of data derived from the detailed sales catalogs (1887-1930) of the most important early Florida, USA, plant nursery (Royal Palm Nursery) to detect naturalization patterns of these horticultural plants in the state. Of the 1903 nonnative species sold by the nursery, 15% naturalized. The probability of plants becoming naturalized increases significantly with the number of years the plants were marketed. Plants that became invasive and naturalized were sold for an average of 19.6 and 14.8 years, respectively, compared to 6.8 years for non-naturalized plants, and the naturalization of plants sold for 30 years or more is 70%. Unexpectedly, plants that were sold earlier were less likely to naturalize than those sold later. The nursery's inexperience, which caused them to grow and market many plants unsuited to Florida during their early period, may account for this pattern. Plants with pantropical distributions and those native to both Africa and Asia were more likely to naturalize (42%), than were plants native to other smaller regions, suggesting that plants with large native ranges were more likely to naturalize. Naturalization percentages also differed according to plant life form, with the most naturalization occurring in aquatic herbs (36.8%) and vines (30.8%). Plants belonging to the families Araceae, Apocynaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Oleaceae, and Verbenaceae had higher than expected naturalization. Information theoretic model selection indicated that the number of years a plant was sold, alone or together with the first year a plant was sold, was the strongest predictor of naturalization. Because continued importation and marketing of nonnative horticultural plants will lead to additional plant naturalization and invasion, a comprehensive approach

  4. Breast-feeding: nature's contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Short, R V

    1985-01-01

    contraception that should be culturally acceptable to all societies. Breastfeeding is preferable to natural family planning methods, because the contraceptive protection afforded by breastfeeding requires no equipment apart from a baby and places no constraints on intercourse at any time. There is no question which of the two represents the more natural form of family planning. Clearly, breastfeeding is nature's contraceptive.

  5. Natural history of Christianson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schroer, Richard J; Holden, Kenton R; Tarpey, Patrick S; Matheus, Maria Giselle; Griesemer, David A; Friez, Michael J; Fan, Jane Zheng; Simensen, Richard J; Strømme, Petter; Stevenson, Roger E; Stratton, Michael R; Schwartz, Charles E

    2010-11-01

    Christianson syndrome is an X-linked mental retardation syndrome characterized by microcephaly, impaired ocular movement, severe global developmental delay, hypotonia which progresses to spasticity, and early onset seizures of variable types. Gilfillan et al.2008] reported mutations in SLC9A6, the gene encoding the sodium/hydrogen exchanger NHE6, in the family first reported and in three others. They also noted the clinical similarities to Angelman syndrome and found cerebellar atrophy on MRI and elevated glutamate/glutamine in the basal ganglia on MRS. Here we report on nonsense mutations in two additional families. The natural history is detailed in childhood and adult life, the similarities to Angelman syndrome confirmed, and the MRI/MRS findings documented in three affected boys. PMID:20949524

  6. Natural history of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Spergel, J M; Fiedler, J M

    2001-12-01

    Peanut allergy raises major concerns and requires diligence in families because of the possibility of severe reactions, the perceived inability to outgrow peanut allergy, and the widespread availability of peanuts in the Western diet. However, studies in the past year have shown that a subset of patients with peanut allergy can become tolerant to peanut. The patients with the milder reactions on presentation have a better chance to develop tolerance to peanuts than the patients whose first reaction is anaphylaxis. This review will focus on the mechanism of allergic sensitization to peanuts and the natural history of peanut allergy as it is currently evolving. The effects of cooking and altering peanut allergens are discussed as are potential treatment modalities.

  7. Unsupervised learning of natural languages

    PubMed Central

    Solan, Zach; Horn, David; Ruppin, Eytan; Edelman, Shimon

    2005-01-01

    We address the problem, fundamental to linguistics, bioinformatics, and certain other disciplines, of using corpora of raw symbolic sequential data to infer underlying rules that govern their production. Given a corpus of strings (such as text, transcribed speech, chromosome or protein sequence data, sheet music, etc.), our unsupervised algorithm recursively distills from it hierarchically structured patterns. The adios (automatic distillation of structure) algorithm relies on a statistical method for pattern extraction and on structured generalization, two processes that have been implicated in language acquisition. It has been evaluated on artificial context-free grammars with thousands of rules, on natural languages as diverse as English and Chinese, and on protein data correlating sequence with function. This unsupervised algorithm is capable of learning complex syntax, generating grammatical novel sentences, and proving useful in other fields that call for structure discovery from raw data, such as bioinformatics. PMID:16087885

  8. Natural analogs for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, W.M.

    1995-11-01

    High-level radioactive waste in the US, spent fuels from commercial reactors and nuclear materials generated by defense activities, will remain potentially hazardous for thousands of years. Demonstrable long-term stability of certain geologic and geochemical systems motivates and sustains the concept that high-level waste can be safely isolated in geologic repositories for requisite periods of time. Each geologic repository is unique in its properties and performance with reguard to isolation of nuclear wastes. Studies of processes analogous to waste-form alteration and radioelement transport in environments analogous to Yucca Mountain are being conducted at two sites, described in this article to illustrate uses of natural analog data: the Nopal I uranium deposit in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico, and the Akrotiri archaeological site on the island of Santorini, Greece.

  9. Reports from Other Journals: Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinhorst, Sabine; Cannon, Gordon

    1997-05-01

    The first Nature issue of the new year (January 2, 1997, pp 13-16) featured the annual commentary on anniversaries of scientific discoveries and inventions through the centuries, a brief tour de force in the history of science. This year's enlightening list includes, among other things, the discovery of the electron (1897) and of mountains on the moon (1647), and the first description of Herba inebrians, now commonly known as tobacco (1497). A new book reviewed in the January 16 issue (pp 215-216), The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists, Past and Present, describes lives and scientific contributions of the 100 most important scientists, as perceived by author John Simmons. "Top-of-the-line" scientists include Isaac Newton (No. 1), Niels Bohr (3),

  10. Wastewater Treatment: The Natural Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc. is widely acclaimed for innovative work in natural water purification which involves use of aquatic plants to remove pollutants from wastewater at a relatively low-cost. Haughton, Louisiana, visited Wolverton's artificial marsh test site and decided to use this method of wastewater treatment. They built an 11 acre sewage lagoon with a 70 by 900 foot artificial marsh called a vascular aquatic plant microbial filter cell. In the cell, microorganisms and rooted aquatic plants combine to absorb and digest wastewater pollutants, thereby converting sewage to relatively clean water. Raw waste water, after a period in the sewage lagoon, flows over a rock bed populated by microbes that digest nutrients and minerals from the sewage thus partially cleaning it. Additional treatment is provided by the aquatic plants growing in the rock bed, which absorb more of the pollutants and help deodorize the sewage.

  11. Rheometry of natural sediment slurries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, Jon J.; ,

    1993-01-01

    Recent experimental analyses of natural sediment slurries yield diverse results yet exhibit broad commonality of rheological responses under a range of conditions and shear rates. Results show that the relation between shear stress and shear rate is primarily nonlinear, that the relation can display marked hysteresis, that minimum shear stress can occur following yield, that physical properties of slurries are extremely sensitive to sediment concentration, and the concept of slurry yield strength is still debated. New rheometric analyses have probed viscoelastic behavior of sediment slurries. Results show that slurries composed of particles ??? 125 ?? m exhibit viscoelastic responses, and that shear stresses are relaxed over a range of time scales rather than by a single response time.

  12. Nature of the Physical Observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osoroma, Drahcir S.

    2010-12-01

    The nature of the observer has long plagued physical science. Here we review the current status of cognitive science in the context of a cosmology of mind in an Anthropic Multiverse. The concept of an élan vital or life force has long been considered the elementary action principle driving the evolution of living-systems by theologically minded scientists and individuals. Sufficiently extending Einstein's original model of a Static Universe, to a Holographic Anthropic Multiverse (HAM), provides a context for solving this centuries old problem for introducing this type of teleological principle into Physics, Biology, Medicine and Psychology. This means the contemporary framework of biological mechanism should no longer be considered the formal philosophical basis for describing living systems and contemporary allopathic (scientific) medicine. The new noetic action principle has far reaching implications for medicine and transpersonal psychology.

  13. Morin: A Promising Natural Drug.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Anna; Cirri, Paolo; Santi, Alice; Paoli, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Morin is a natural polyphenol, originally isolated from members of the Moraceae family that can be extracted from leaves, fruits, stems and branches of numerous plants. Several evidence have demonstrated that Morin could have a beneficial effect on several human diseases. In fact, Morin exerts antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, antihypertensive, antibacterial, hypouricemic, and neuroprotective effects, by modulating the activity of many enzymes. In some cases, Morin shows a systemic protective action, reducing negative side effects of several drugs, without interfering with their functions. In addition, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that Morin exhibits very low toxicity levels and its chronic administration is well tolerated. All these findings suggest that Morin could be used, either alone or in combination with other drugs, to prevent many human pathologies.

  14. Biofoams and natural protein surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2010-01-01

    Naturally occurring foam constituent and surfactant proteins with intriguing structures and functions are now being identified from a variety of biological sources. The ranaspumins from tropical frog foam nests comprise a range of proteins with a mixture of surfactant, carbohydrate binding and antimicrobial activities that together provide a stable, biocompatible, protective foam environment for developing eggs and embryos. Ranasmurfin, a blue protein from a different species of frog, displays a novel structure with a unique chromophoric crosslink. Latherin, primarily from horse sweat, but with similarities to salivary, oral and upper respiratory tract proteins, illustrates several potential roles for surfactant proteins in mammalian systems. These proteins, together with the previously discovered hydrophobins of fungi, throw new light on biomolecular processes at air–water and other interfaces. This review provides a perspective on these recent findings, focussing on structure and biophysical properties. PMID:20615601

  15. Natural language processing: an introduction

    PubMed Central

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Chapman, Wendy W

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To provide an overview and tutorial of natural language processing (NLP) and modern NLP-system design. Target audience This tutorial targets the medical informatics generalist who has limited acquaintance with the principles behind NLP and/or limited knowledge of the current state of the art. Scope We describe the historical evolution of NLP, and summarize common NLP sub-problems in this extensive field. We then provide a synopsis of selected highlights of medical NLP efforts. After providing a brief description of common machine-learning approaches that are being used for diverse NLP sub-problems, we discuss how modern NLP architectures are designed, with a summary of the Apache Foundation's Unstructured Information Management Architecture. We finally consider possible future directions for NLP, and reflect on the possible impact of IBM Watson on the medical field. PMID:21846786

  16. Natural restoration basics for wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    Around the world, dams, diversions, and drainage systems reengineer rivers for navigation, farming, and urban development, and this has caused vast changes in the environmental conditions of the flood plains adjacent to these rivers (Middleton, 2002). Even though “flood pulses,” the periodic overflow of these rivers, were once the most important hydrological factor regulating all functions of the flood plain (Junk and others, 1986), now they have been reduced or eliminated along many of the world’s waterways (Sparks and others, 1998). These changes in river channels have created a hydrologic setting on flood plains that has not been conducive to restoration and nature conservation (Middleton, 2002). Consequently, USGS scientists are studying the long-term effects of hydrologic changes on flood plains, such as how the restoration of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps has been hindered because seeds cannot disperse or germinate without the seasonally driven high and low water levels associated with the flood pulse.

  17. Natural Laminar Flow Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steers, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    A supercritical airfoil section was designed with favorable pressure gradients on both the upper and lower surfaces. Wind tunnel tests were conducted in the Langley 8 Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. The outer wing panels of the F-111 TACT airplane were modified to incorporate partial span test gloves having the natural laminar, flow profile. Instrumentation was installed to provide surface pressure data as well as to determine transition location and boundary layer characteristics. The flight experiment encompassed 19 flights conducted with and without transition fixed at several locations for wing leading edge sweep angles which varied from 10 to 26 at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 0.85 and altitudes of 7620 meters and 9144 meters. Preliminary results indicate that a large portion of the test chord experienced laminar flow.

  18. Isolation of marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Houssen, Wael E; Jaspars, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Marine macro- and micro-biota offer a wealth of chemically diverse compounds that have been evolutionary preselected to modulate biochemical pathways. Many industrial and academic groups are accessing this source using advanced technology platforms. The previous edition of this chapter offered some practical guidance in the process of extraction and isolation of marine natural products with more emphasis on the procedures adapted to the physical and chemical characteristics of the isolated compounds. Automation and direct integration of the isolation technology into high-throughput screening (HTS) systems were also reported. In this edition, we refer to some new topics which are heavily represented in the literature. These include methods for sampling the deep ocean and the procedures for culturing high-pressure-adapted (piezophilic) marine microorganisms to be amenable to laboratory investigation. A brief discussion on genomic-guided approaches to detect the presence of biosynthetic loci even those that are silent or cryptic is also included.

  19. Natural outlet of flue gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adámek, Karel; Kolář, Jan; Peukert, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Many incidents of poisoning all the time became due to bad natural exhaust of burnt product from heating devices. The aim of this article is to simulate some reasons of it, therefore the content is focused on some influences, only - the vertical and horizontal shape of the outlet channel, the design of the chimney cap, situation of the surrounding walls, combined with the wind influence etc. It does not solve the possible bad maintaining of both chimney and device, bad supply of the combustion air etc. As main results of simulation there is presented an optimum cap shape of the chimney and an unsuitable influence of the unsteady starting of the flow just after the burner ignition.

  20. Natural disasters and gender dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roder, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide statistics reveal that the increasing number of risks and disaster impacts within the last decades have caused highly severe damages, with high death toll and huge economic damages (World Bank, 2010). As a consequence people's vulnerabilities have increased disproportionally in recent years. Individuals' ability to anticipate, prepare, cope, respond and recover from disasters differs according to some socio-economic attributes present in each community. The research on natural disasters in a gendered perspective is fairly limited compared to other variables. In fact, the need to track social vulnerabilities and investigate gender dynamics into all levels of the disaster life cycle has been recognized only recently, during the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (March 2015). For this purpose, we propose a review of the literature regarding the ways men and women conceptualise natural disasters, prepare and react, both physically and psychologically, to catastrophic events. This work tries to give some interpretation to these subjects analysing the social context in which sex discrepancies are developed, in different countries, cultures and in various socio-economic backgrounds. Findings highlighted that women perceived more the risk, and they have developed personal strategies to better react and withstand the impacts of negative occurrences. Being at home, working in the house and caring the children have been always placed them at a higher exposure to disasters. However, these circumstances, they gave them the means to organize the family for evacuations thanks to their deep knowledge of the territory they live and the neighbourhood networks they create. Women seem to be not sole victims, but valuable resources able to take leading roles in building disaster resilience. Some case studies, however, continue to demonstrate a female's higher fear and powerless face hazardous events than their counterparts, showing various mental health disorders