Science.gov

Sample records for libido erectile dysfunction

  1. Erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Yafi, Faysal A.; Jenkins, Lawrence; Albersen, Maarten; Corona, Giovanni; Isidori, Andrea M.; Goldfarb, Shari; Maggi, Mario; Nelson, Christian J.; Parish, Sharon; Salonia, Andrea; Tan, Ronny; Mulhall, John P.; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a multidimensional but common male sexual dysfunction that involves an alteration in any of the components of the erectile response, including organic, relational and psychological. Roles for nonendocrine (neurogenic, vasculogenic and iatrogenic) and endocrine pathways have been proposed. Owing to its strong association with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, cardiac assessment may be warranted in men with symptoms of erectile dysfunction. Minimally invasive interventions to relieve the symptoms of erectile dysfunction include lifestyle modifications, oral drugs, injected vasodilator agents and vacuum erection devices. Surgical therapies are reserved for the subset of patients who have contraindications to these nonsurgical interventions, those who experience adverse effects from (or are refractory to) medical therapy and those who also have penile fibrosis or penile vascular insufficiency. Erectile dysfunction can have deleterious effects on a man’s quality of life; most patients have symptoms of depression and anxiety related to sexual performance. These symptoms, in turn, affect his partner’s sexual experience and the couple’s quality of life. This Primer highlights numerous aspects of erectile dysfunction, summarizes new treatment targets and ongoing preclinical studies that evaluate new pharmacotherapies, and covers the topic of regenerative medicine, which represents the future of sexual medicine. PMID:27188339

  2. Psychogenic erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bodie, Joshua A; Beeman, William W; Monga, Manoj

    2003-01-01

    To educate healthcare professionals on the historical aspects, clinical diagnosis, and current treatment methods of psychogenic erectile dysfunction. A topic review of current literature was performed. Chief sources included primarily mainstream journals in the fields of urology, psychiatry/psychology, impotence/erectile dysfunction, epidemiology, and internal medicine. MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were utilized. Data from clinical studies, trials, and review articles concerned primarily with psychological aspects of the arousal (erectile function) phase of the male sexual response cycle were collected, analyzed, and summarized in this review article. There has been a shift in how erectile dysfunction has been perceived and treated over the past 30 years. With the current focus now on the very prevalent organic causes of ED, psychological factors are increasingly overlooked, though they remain important to the treatment of the patient as a whole. This article provides a complete, concise review of the interplay between psychological components and erectile function, reviews the work-up and diagnosis of psychogenic ED, and discusses treatment methods. Erectile dysfunction is a prevalent problem that can affect, and can be affected by, psychosocial aspects of a man's life. Medical or pharmacological interventions are often appropriate to treat ED, but the psychosocial aspects should not be ignored. It has become easier for practitioners to put aside patients' psychosocial and interpersonal concerns regarding sexual health. Clinicians provide the best possible treatment if they recognize that erectile dysfunction is a complex, multifactorial disorder, and treat accordingly.

  3. Erectile Dysfunction (ED)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talking to Your Kids About VirginityTalking to Your Kids About Sex Home Diseases and Conditions Erectile Dysfunction (ED) Condition ... Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control ... and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors ...

  4. Investigation of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Patel, D V; Halls, J; Patel, U

    2012-11-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) represents a common and debilitating condition with a wide range of organic and non-organic causes. Physical aetiologies can be divided into disorders affecting arterial inflow, the venous occlusion mechanism or the penile structure itself. Various imaging modalities can be utilised to investigate the physical causes of ED, but penile Doppler sonography (PDS) is the most informative technique, indicated in those patients with ED who do not respond to oral pharmacological agents (e.g. phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors). This review will examine the anatomical and physiological basis of penile erection, the method for performing PDS and features of specific causes of ED, and will also consider the alternative imaging modalities available.

  5. Erectile dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Ophuis, A.J.M. Oude; Nijeholt, A.A.B. Lycklama à

    2006-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a highly prevalent disease, especially in cardiovascular-compromised men. Many of the well-established risk factors for cardiovascular disease are also risk factors for erectile dysfunction. A correlation between erectile dysfunction and endothelial dysfunction is well established. It is postulated that erectile dysfunction with an arteriovascular aetiology can predate and be an indicator of potential coronary artery disease. In this paper we will attempt to increase awareness among cardiologists for the predictive value of erectile dysfunction for future cardiovascular disease in order to optimise cardiovascular risk management. The treatment of erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular interactions is also discussed in detail. ImagesFigure 1AFigure 1B PMID:25696612

  6. Erectile dysfunction. A guide to diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Arduca, Paul

    2003-06-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common age related problem best managed in general practice. The incidence of ED will thus increase as men live longer. It is only in the past decade that the pathophysiology of ED has been well understood. This article discusses the mechanisms of normal erectile function and dysfunction and the assessment and management of ED. The success of currently available and newly emerging oral agents has revolutionised the management of ED. However, the majority of men with ED remain undiagnosed and untreated and patients are often unable to distinguish between a problem of ED, desire or libido. It is particularly important for general practitioners to enquire about ED in middle aged and older men, diabetics and patients with vascular disease. Appropriate management goes beyond management of the actual condition, and involves addressing lifestyle and psychosocial issues.

  7. Nonpharmacologic Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Montague, Drogo K

    2002-01-01

    Nonpharmacologic treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED) includes sex therapy, the use of vacuum erection devices, penile prosthesis implantation, and penile vascular surgery. Sex therapy is indicated for psychogenic ED and is at times a useful adjunct for other treatments in men with mixed psychogenic and organic ED. Vacuum erection devices produce usable erections in over 90% of patients; however, patient and partner acceptability is an issue. Three-piece inflatable penile prostheses create flaccidity and an erection that comes close to that which occurs naturally. Penile vascular surgery has shown greatest efficacy in young men with vasculogenic ED resulting from pelvic or perineal trauma. PMID:16986016

  8. Herpes zoster producing temporary erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rix, G H; Carroll, D N; MacFarlane, J R

    2001-12-01

    Varicella Zoster affecting the sacral dermatomes is a rare but well recognised cause of urinary retention. Only one case of erectile dysfunction associated with Varicella Zoster has previously been described, which was longstanding, but no cases of transient erectile dysfunction following Zoster infection are recorded. We present one such case.

  9. Oral Health and Erectile Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijendra P; Nettemu, Sunil K; Nettem, Sowmya; Hosadurga, Rajesh; Nayak, Sangeeta U

    2017-01-01

    Ample evidence strongly supports the fact that periodontal disease is a major risk factor for various systemic diseases namely cardio-vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, etc. Recently, investigators focussed on exploring the link between chronic periodontitis (CP) and erectile dysfunction (ED) by contributing to the endothelial dysfunction. Both the diseases share common risk factors. Various studies conducted in different parts of the world in recent years reported the evidence linking this relationship as well as improvement in ED with periodontal treatment. Systemic exposure to the periodontal pathogen and periodontal infection-induced systemic inflammation was thought to associate with these conditions. The objective of this review was to highlight the evidence of the link between CP and ED and the importance of oral health in preventing the systemic conditions.

  10. Oral Health and Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijendra P.; Nettemu, Sunil K.; Nettem, Sowmya; Hosadurga, Rajesh; Nayak, Sangeeta U.

    2017-01-01

    Ample evidence strongly supports the fact that periodontal disease is a major risk factor for various systemic diseases namely cardio-vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, etc. Recently, investigators focussed on exploring the link between chronic periodontitis (CP) and erectile dysfunction (ED) by contributing to the endothelial dysfunction. Both the diseases share common risk factors. Various studies conducted in different parts of the world in recent years reported the evidence linking this relationship as well as improvement in ED with periodontal treatment. Systemic exposure to the periodontal pathogen and periodontal infection-induced systemic inflammation was thought to associate with these conditions. The objective of this review was to highlight the evidence of the link between CP and ED and the importance of oral health in preventing the systemic conditions. PMID:29142443

  11. Postprostatectomy Erectile Dysfunction: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Salonia, Andrea; Briganti, Alberto; Montorsi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In the current era of the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) and the development of minimally invasive surgical techniques, erectile dysfunction (ED) represents an important issue, with up to 68% of patients who undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) complaining of postoperative erectile function (EF) impairment. In this context, it is crucial to comprehensively consider all factors possibly associated with the prevention of post-RP ED throughout the entire clinical management of PCa patients. A careful assessment of both oncological and functional baseline characteristics should be carried out for each patient preoperatively. Baseline EF, together with age and the overall burden of comorbidities, has been strongly associated with the chance of post-RP EF recovery. With this goal in mind, internationally validated psychometric instruments are preferable for ensuring proper baseline EF evaluations, and questionnaires should be administered at the proper time before surgery. Careful preoperative counselling is also required, both to respect the patient's wishes and to avoid false expectations regarding eventual recovery of baseline EF. The advent of robotic surgery has led to improvements in the knowledge of prostate surgical anatomy, as reflected by the formal redefinition of nerve-sparing techniques. Overall, comparative studies have shown significantly better EF outcomes for robotic RP than for open techniques, although data from prospective trials have not always been consistent. Preclinical data and several prospective randomized trials have demonstrated the value of treating patients with oral phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5is) after surgery, with the concomitant potential benefit of early re-oxygenation of the erectile tissue, which appears to be crucial for avoiding the eventual penile structural changes that are associated with postoperative neuropraxia and ultimately result in severe ED. For patients who do not properly respond to PDE5is, proper

  12. Shockwave treatment of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gruenwald, Ilan; Appel, Boaz; Kitrey, Noam D; Vardi, Yoram

    2013-04-01

    Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy (LI-ESWT) is a novel modality that has recently been developed for treating erectile dysfunction (ED). Unlike other current treatment options for ED, all of which are palliative in nature, LI-ESWT is unique in that it aims to restore the erectile mechanism in order to enable natural or spontaneous erections. Results from basic science experiments have provided evidence that LI-ESWT induces cellular microtrauma, which in turn stimulates the release of angiogenic factors and the subsequent neovascularization of the treated tissue. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been clinically investigated and applied in several medical fields with various degrees of success. High-intensity shock wave therapy is used for lithotripsy because of its focused mechanical destructive nature, and medium-intensity shock waves have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and are used for treating a wide array of orthopedic conditions, such as non-union fractures, tendonitis, and bursitis. In contrast, LI-ESWT has angiogenetic properties and is therefore used in the management of chronic wounds, peripheral neuropathy, and in cardiac neovascularization. As a result of these characteristics we initiated a series of experiments evaluating the effect of LI-ESWT on the cavernosal tissue of patients with vasculogenic ED. The results of our studies, which also included a double-blind randomized control trial, confirm that LI-ESWT generates a significant clinical improvement of erectile function and a significant improvement in penile hemodynamics without any adverse effects. Although further extensive research is needed, LI-ESWT may create a new standard of care for men with vasculogenic ED.

  13. [Erectile dysfunction and diabetes in Conakry (Guinea): frequency and clinical characteristics from 187 diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Baldé, N M; Diallo, A B; Baldé, M C; Kaké, A; Diallo, M M; Diallo, M B; Maugendre, D

    2006-09-01

    Sexual dysfunction is frequent in the diabetic population. In Africa, medical care for erectile dysfunction is underprovided, profoundly altering the quality of life of the patients. We report the prevalence of erectile dysfunction in 187 diabetic patients followed in the department of Endocrinology of the Conakry teaching hospital. Prevalence was estimated from the French version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Erectile dysfunction concerned 90 patients (48%) of whom a severe form was observed in 54%, a moderate form in 35% and a mild form in 12%. The patients who presented erectile dysfunction were significantly older, displayed longer duration of diabetes with more complications (sensorial neuropathy and macroangiopathy) and often took drugs for associated cardiovascular diseases. In 28% of the cases, erectile dysfunction was associated with a decline in libido and in 26% with ejaculation disorders. In conclusion, erectile dysfunction is frequent and severe among diabetic patients in Guinea. The medical staff plays an essential role to initiate early diagnosis, promote psychological support and provide medication, if possible.

  14. Erectile dysfunction in the cardiovascular patient.

    PubMed

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Jackson, Graham; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Montorsi, Piero

    2013-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction is common in the patient with cardiovascular disease. It is an important component of the quality of life and it also confers an independent risk for future cardiovascular events. The usual 3-year time period between the onset of erectile dysfunction symptoms and a cardiovascular event offers an opportunity for risk mitigation. Thus, sexual function should be incorporated into cardiovascular disease risk assessment for all men. A comprehensive approach to cardiovascular risk reduction (comprising of both lifestyle changes and pharmacological treatment) improves overall vascular health, including sexual function. Proper sexual counselling improves the quality of life and increases adherence to medication. This review explores the critical connection between erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease and evaluates how this relationship may influence clinical practice. Algorithms for the management of patient with erectile dysfunction according to the risk for sexual activity and future cardiovascular events are proposed.

  15. Erectile dysfunction: physiology, causes and patient management.

    PubMed

    Steggall, Martin J

    This article examines the prevalence, causes, identification, assessment and treatment options for men with erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is thought to affect one in ten men across the UK and is often a consequence of pathology and/or pharmacology. Treatment can be offered to all patients, but the keys to management are identification, accurate assessment and focused therapy. Nurses are well placed to identify and support men who have this distressing problem.

  16. Erectile dysfunction in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Ure, Iyimser; Turan, Pakize Ayse

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common problem in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to assess the presence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in COPD patients. Ninety-three outpatients who had been diagnosed as COPD and followed in Bolvadin State Hospital, Afyon, Turkey, were included in the study. All patients underwent pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gas analysis. They completed International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Medical Research Council (MRC) Dyspnea Scale, Short Form 36-item Scale (SF-36), and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) Questionnaire. The mean age of 10 (10.8%) mild, 46 (49.5%) moderate, 28 (30.1%) severe, and 9 (9.7%) very severe COPD patients was 61.4 ± 9.8 years. Varying degrees of ED were detected in 67.7% of COPD patients. All patients with hypoxemia had ED. IPAQ score and all SF-36 parameters were low in patients with ED, while MRC score was high. Forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity, partial pressure of oxygen in blood, oxygen (O2) saturation, IPAQ score, and role-physical parameters were statistically low in ED patients (p = 0.04, 0.02, <0.01, <0.01, 0.02, and 0.04, respectively); MRC score was statistically higher in patients with ED (p = 0.02). Patients with moderate and severe ED had statistically lower score of mental health (p < 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). There was a positive correlation between IIEF score and IPAQ scores (p < 0.01), MRC scores (p = 0.01), general health (p < 0.01), role-physical (p < 0.01), role-emotional (p < 0.01), physical functioning (p < 0.01), and mental health (p < 0.01) parameters in SF-36. ED is frequently seen in COPD patients. Hypoxemia, smoking, and limitation of physical activity are thought to be associated with ED in COPD as mechanisms. Quality of life and the functional capacity are negatively affected with the presence of ED. It is important for a physician to question the sexual functions in patients with COPD. The

  17. Erectile dysfunction in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Turan, Onur; Ure, Iyimser; Turan, Pakize Ayse

    2016-02-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common problem in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to assess the presence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in COPD patients. Ninety-three outpatients who had been diagnosed as COPD and followed in Bolvadin State Hospital, Afyon, Turkey, were included in the study. All patients underwent pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gas analysis. They completed International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Medical Research Council (MRC) Dyspnea Scale, Short Form 36-item Scale (SF-36), and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) Questionnaire. The mean age of 10 (10.8%) mild, 46 (49.5%) moderate, 28 (30.1%) severe, and 9 (9.7%) very severe COPD patients was 61.4 ± 9.8 years. Varying degrees of ED were detected in 67.7% of COPD patients. All patients with hypoxemia had ED. IPAQ score and all SF-36 parameters were low in patients with ED, while MRC score was high. Forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity, partial pressure of oxygen in blood, oxygen (O2) saturation, IPAQ score, and role-physical parameters were statistically low in ED patients (p = 0.04, 0.02, <0.01, <0.01, 0.02, and 0.04, respectively); MRC score was statistically higher in patients with ED (p = 0.02). Patients with moderate and severe ED had statistically lower score of mental health (p < 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). There was a positive correlation between IIEF score and IPAQ scores (p < 0.01), MRC scores (p = 0.01), general health (p < 0.01), role-physical (p < 0.01), role-emotional (p < 0.01), physical functioning (p < 0.01), and mental health (p < 0.01) parameters in SF-36. ED is frequently seen in COPD patients. Hypoxemia, smoking, and limitation of physical activity are thought to be associated with ED in COPD as mechanisms. Quality of life and the functional capacity are negatively affected with the presence of ED. It is important for a physician to question the sexual functions in patients with COPD. The

  18. Erectile dysfunction in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Gorsane, Imen; Amri, Nadia; Younsi, Fathi; Helal, Imed; Kheder, Adel

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common problem seen among patients on hemodialysis (HD), but it is still a taboo subject in our country. The attention given to this sexual problem remained low, and the prevalence of ED among these patients has not been well characterized. We carried out this study in order to determine the prevalence and severity of ED in HD patients. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study in our HD unit in March 2013. ED was evaluated using the International Index Erection Function. Thirty patients with a mean age of 49.1 years were eligible for this study. The main causes of chronic kidney disease were hypertension (62.5%) and diabetes (41.6%). The prevalence of ED was 80%, including 33.3% severe ED. Plasma levels of gonadotropins: luteinizing hormone (LH), follicule-stimulating hormone were in the standards except for one patient who had an elevated level of LH. Prolactin was elevated in four cases. ED was present in 8.4% of patients before the discovery of renal failure and in 91.6% of patients at the beginning of dialysis. For 19 patients (79.1%), the ED had increased during the dialysis sessions. A significant number of our HD patients presented with ED of varying degrees. Nephrologists should pay attention to the problem of ED in order to improve the quality of their life.

  19. [Erectile dysfunction drugs and women].

    PubMed

    Elia, D; Grivel, T; Lachowsky, M; Costa, P; Amar, E

    2005-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is no more a taboo and the number of patients who are consulting a physician and asking for some help in this domain is growing every day. The quality of life of men presenting an ED and having access to treatments is continually improving. But what can be said concerning the partners' quality of life? Patients as much their partners clearly prefer lesser invasive therapeutics and the new oral drugs available present some advantages for the couples, and surely for a majority of female partners, willing to improve the spontaneity and the frequency of intercourse. It seems now obvious that the partner's help is one of the key points for a successful treatment. How will women facing this recovered virility react? What will they say in the secret of the consulting room? What could be exactly the role of the gynaecologist in assuming the female partner of a man treated for an ED? That is the object of the present article, dealing with quite an important matter.

  20. Stem Cell Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Matz, Ethan L; Terlecki, Ryan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Jackson, John; Atala, Anthony

    2018-04-06

    The prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) is substantial and continues to rise. Current therapeutics for ED consist of oral medications, intracavernosal injections, vacuum erection devices, and penile implants. While such options may manage the disease state, none of these modalities, however, restore function. Stem cell therapy has been evaluated for erectile restoration in animal models. These cells have been derived from multiple tissues, have varied potential, and may function via local engraftment or paracrine signaling. Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSC) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) have both been used in these models with noteworthy effects. Herein, we will review the pathophysiology of ED, animal models, current and novel stem-cell based therapeutics, clinical trials and areas for future research. The relevant literature and contemporary data using keywords, "stem cells and erectile dysfunction" was reviewed. Examination of evidence supporting the association between erectile dysfunction and adipose derived stem cells, bone marrow derived stem cells, placental stem cells, urine stem cells and stem cell therapy respectively. Placental-derived stem cells and urine-derived stem cells possess many similar properties as BMSC and ASC, but the methods of acquisition are favorable. Human clinical trials have already demonstrated successful use of stem cells for improvement of erectile function. The future of stem cell research is constantly being evaluated, although, the evidence suggests a place for stem cells in erectile dysfunction therapeutics. Matz EL, Terlecki R, Zhang Y, et al. Stem Cell Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction. Sex Med Rev 2018;XX:XXX-XXX. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction associated with soy product consumption.

    PubMed

    Siepmann, Timo; Roofeh, Joseph; Kiefer, Florian W; Edelson, David G

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has focused on the beneficial effects of soy and its active ingredients, isoflavones. For instance, soy consumption has been associated with lower cardiovascular and breast cancer risks. However, the number of reports demonstrating adverse effects of isoflavones due to their estrogenlike properties has increased. We present the case of a 19-y-old type 1 diabetic but otherwise healthy man with sudden onset of loss of libido and erectile dysfunction after the ingestion of large quantities of soy-based products in a vegan-style diet. Blood levels of free and total testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were taken at the initial presentation for examination and continuously monitored up to 2 y after discontinuation of the vegan diet. Blood concentrations of free and total testosterone were initially decreased, whereas DHEA was increased. These parameters normalized within 1 y after cessation of the vegan diet. Normalization of testosterone and DHEA levels was paralleled by a constant improvement of symptoms; full sexual function was regained 1 y after cessation of the vegan diet. This case indicates that soy product consumption is related to hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a combination of decreased free testosterone and increased DHEA blood concentrations after consuming a soy-rich diet. Hence, this case emphasizes the impact of isoflavones in the regulation of sex hormones and associated physical alterations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Erectile dysfunction and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, V N; Frank, M A; Gomzhin, A I

    2008-01-01

    Of 72 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) 32 had erectile dysfunction (ED). OSAS patients with erectile dysfunction had hypogonadism in 24 cases, in 8 men testosterone level was normal. A polysomnographic investigation with monitoring of nocturnal spontaneous erections showed that 32 patients had severe sleep fragmentation with reduced or complete absence of REM and deep sleep phases. In nocturnal penile tumescencia quantitative and qualitative characteristics were abnormal suggesting organic nature of erectile dysfunction in these patients. Eight ED and OSAS patients with normal testosterone received standard OSAS therapy with administration of FDE-5 type inhibitors. Six months later improvement of the erectile function was observed in 6 patients. OSAS patients with hypogonadism were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 (n = 5) received CPAP therapy and group 2 (n = 19) received OSAS standard therapy. Group 2 was treated with inhibitors of FDE-5 type. Three months later improvement of erectile function was seen only in 8. Group 1 received the inhibitors and testosterone replacement. Three months later all 5 patients had no ED complaints, their testosterone was normal. It is recommended to perform monitoring of nocturnal spontaneous erections in the algorithm of examination of all men with OSAS. All patients with OSAS, ED and documented hypogonadism need testosterone replacement therapy if its level persists low despite adequate therapy of OSAS.

  3. Effects of cigarette smoking on erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, J.R.; Labbate, C.; Ramasamy, R.; Tang, D.; Lipshultz, L.I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Although public policies have resulted in a decreased number of new smokers, smoking rates remain stubbornly high in certain demographics with 20% of all American middle aged men smoking. In addition to the well-established harmful effects of smoking (i.e coronary artery disease and lung cancer), the past three decades have led to a compendium of evidence being compiled into the development of a relationship between cigarette smoking and erectile dysfunction. The main physiological mechanism that appears to be affected includes the nitric oxide signal transduction pathway. This review details the recent literature linking cigarette smoking to erectile dysfunction, epidemiological associations, dose-dependency and the effects of smoking cessation on improving erectile quality. PMID:25557907

  4. Decreased Libido

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Decreased Libido Editors Bradley Anawalt, MD Maria Yialamas, MD Additional Resources: Mayo Clinic NIDDK MedlinePlus What is libido? Libido is the desire to engage in sexual ...

  5. All men with vasculogenic erectile dysfunction require a cardiovascular workup.

    PubMed

    Miner, Martin; Nehra, Ajay; Jackson, Graham; Bhasin, Shalender; Billups, Kevin; Burnett, Arthur L; Buvat, Jacques; Carson, Culley; Cunningham, Glenn; Ganz, Peter; Goldstein, Irwin; Guay, Andre; Hackett, Geoff; Kloner, Robert A; Kostis, John B; LaFlamme, K Elizabeth; Montorsi, Piero; Ramsey, Melinda; Rosen, Raymond; Sadovsky, Richard; Seftel, Allen; Shabsigh, Ridwan; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Wu, Frederick

    2014-03-01

    An association between erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease has long been recognized, and studies suggest that erectile dysfunction is an independent marker of cardiovascular disease risk. Therefore, assessment and management of erectile dysfunction may help identify and reduce the risk of future cardiovascular events, particularly in younger men. The initial erectile dysfunction evaluation should distinguish between predominantly vasculogenic erectile dysfunction and erectile dysfunction of other etiologies. For men believed to have predominantly vasculogenic erectile dysfunction, we recommend that initial cardiovascular risk stratification be based on the Framingham Risk Score. Management of men with erectile dysfunction who are at low risk for cardiovascular disease should focus on risk-factor control; men at high risk, including those with cardiovascular symptoms, should be referred to a cardiologist. Intermediate-risk men should undergo noninvasive evaluation for subclinical atherosclerosis. A growing body of evidence supports the use of emerging prognostic markers to further understand cardiovascular risk in men with erectile dysfunction, but few markers have been prospectively evaluated in this population. In conclusion, we support cardiovascular risk stratification and risk-factor management in all men with vasculogenic erectile dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Epidemiology of erectile dysfunction. Risk factors].

    PubMed

    Castro, Rafael Prieto; Hernández, Pablo Campos; Casilda, Rafael Robles; García, Jesús Ruíz; Tapia, María José Requena

    2010-10-01

    In 1993 the NIH (National Institute of Health) Consensus Conference on Impotence defined erectile dysfunction as the permanent incompetence to start or maintain an erection enough to enable satisfactory sexual intercourse. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a frequent disorder that affects negatively quality of life of males suffering it. Its prevalence varies between different countries, cultures and races. The first population studies published date from early 90's and still keep their validity. All of them show the influence of age on prevalence of ED, as well as its close relationship with cardiovascular diseases. Depending on the definition used and study design prevalence varies from 10 to 52%, mainly in men between 40-70 years, with an incidence in western countries between 25-30 new cases per 1000 inhabitants year.

  7. Cardiovascular Implications of Erectile Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... the penis are not able to dilate during sexual stimulation because of endothelial dysfunction, the penis cannot fill ... blood to the penis to dilate better during sexual stimulation. The PDE5-Is decrease blood pressure a little ...

  8. Erectile dysfunction in the elderly male

    PubMed Central

    Gökçe, Mehmet İlker; Yaman, Önder

    2017-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a health problem which mainly effects elderly men and this problem has become a more important health problem with the increased life expectancy. The basic risk factors of ED are hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerotic heart disease which also have a higher incidence in the elderly men. The aim of this review article is to highlight the age-related changes in ED together with recommendations for patient evaluation and treatment PMID:28861293

  9. Role of Nanotechnology in Erectile Dysfunction Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Alice Y; Podlasek, Carol A

    2017-01-01

    The biological importance of nanotechnology-based delivery vehicles for in vivo tissue regeneration is gaining acceptance by the medical community; however, its relevance and incorporation into the treatment of sexual dysfunction are evolving and have not been well evaluated. To provide scientific evidence examining the use of state-of-the-art nanotechnology-based delivery methodology in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) in animal models and in patients. This review assessed the current basic science literature examining the role of nanotechnology-based delivery vehicles in the development of potential ED therapies. There are four primary areas where nanotechnology has been applied for ED treatment: (i) topical delivery of drugs for on-demand erectile function, (ii) injectable gels into the penis to prevent morphologic changes after prostatectomy, (iii) hydrogels to promote cavernous nerve regeneration or neuroprotection, and (iv) encapsulation of drugs to increase erectile function (primarily of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors). Basic science studies provide evidence for a significant and evolving role for nanotechnology in the development of therapies for ED and suggest that properly administered nano-based therapies might be advantageous for treating male sexual dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Traditional Chinese medical therapy for erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Jiang, Hongyang

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), including acupuncture and Chinese herbs, is used as an alternative therapy to increase the curative effect for erectile dysfunction (ED). A large number of studies have been conducted to investigate the effect and mechanism of TCM for treating ED. The therapeutic effect of acupuncture on ED is still controversial at present. However, some Chinese herbs exhibited satisfying outcomes and they might improve erectile function by activating nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway, increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) expression, elevating testosterone level, reducing intracellular Ca2+ concentration, down-regulating transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1)/Smad2 signaling pathway, or ameliorating the oxidative stress. PMID:28540226

  11. Erectile dysfunction in patients with chronic pain treated with opioids.

    PubMed

    Ajo, Raquel; Segura, Ana; Inda, María-Del-Mar; Margarit, César; Ballester, Pura; Martínez, Emi; Ferrández, Guillermina; Sánchez-Barbie, Ángel; Peiró, Ana M

    2017-07-21

    Chronic pain is associated with comorbidities that have an impact on the quality of life of patients and, among others, affect their sexual functioning. One of the most relevant side effects of opioid analgesics is erectile dysfunction (ED), due in part to the inhibition of the gonadal-pituitary-hypothalamic axis and the decline in testosterone levels. To evaluate ED and effectiveness of treatment in men with chronic pain treated with long-term opioids. Prospective observational study lasting 3 years, where the intensity of pain (visual analogue scale, 0-10cm), erectile function (IIEF-EF, range 1-30 points), quality of life (EQ-VAS, 0-100mm), quality of sexual life (MSLQ-QOL, 0-100 points), anxiety/depression (HAD, 0-21 points) and testosterone levels, was assessed in patients who reported sexual dysfunction (ED or libido modification). A 6-month follow-up was applied to each patient after administering the usual treatment in the Andrology Unit. The study was approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee and data were statistically analyzed with the GraphPad Prism 5 software. ED was observed in 27.6% of patients (n=105, 57±12.2 years, mean dose of morphine equivalent=107.1±107.9mg/day, 84.3% adjuvant analgesics). After 6 months, 42% of patients showed a significant improvement after being treated with iPDE5 (48.5%) and/or testosterone gel (81.8%), with a resolution rate of 31% (p=0.000). A positive correlation was observed between the improvement of IIEF and quality of sexual life (55.5±25.7 points, p=0.000), as well as anxiety (7.4±4.3 points, p=0.048). No significant changes were observed in the levels of testosterone, in the levels of pain nor in the quality of life, which remained moderate. Erectile function and quality of sexual life, as well as anxiety, improved in patients treated chronically with opioids after administering andrological treatment. The management of patients with pain should include a review of their sexual health history given the

  12. Erectile Dysfunction in the Older Adult Male.

    PubMed

    Mola, Joanna R

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) in the older adult male is a significant problem affecting more than 75% of men over 70 years of age in the United States. Older men have an increased likelihood of developing ED due to chronic disease, comorbid conditions, and age-related changes. Research has demonstrated that while the prevalence and severity of ED increases with age, sexual desire often remains unchanged. This article discusses the clinical picture of ED, including relevant pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and evaluation and treatment options.

  13. Erectile Dysfunction and Undiagnosed Diabetes, Hypertension, and Hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, Sean C; Detsky, Allan S; Goldenberg, S Larry; Law, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether erectile dysfunction, a marker for future cardiovascular disease, is associated with undiagnosed cardiometabolic risk factors among US men. Identifying the presence of these risk factors could lead to earlier initiation of treatment for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed cross-sectional data from men aged 20 years and older who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2001-2004. Erectile dysfunction was determined by a single, validated survey question. We used logistic regression analyses to investigate the relationship between erectile dysfunction and undiagnosed hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. After multivariate adjustment, men with erectile dysfunction had more than double the odds of having undiagnosed diabetes (odds ratio = 2.20; 95% CI, 1.10-4.37), whereas no association was seen for undiagnosed hypertension or undiagnosed hypercholesterolemia. For the average man aged 40 to 59 years, the predicted probability of having undiagnosed diabetes increased from 1 in 50 in the absence of erectile dysfunction to 1 in 10 in the presence of erectile dysfunction. Our results underscore the importance of erectile dysfunction as a marker of undiagnosed diabetes. Erectile dysfunction should be a trigger to initiate diabetes screening, particularly among middle-aged men. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  14. Cognitive-Behavioral Erectile Dysfunction Treatment for Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Trevor A.; Schwartz, Danielle R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to assist cognitive-behavioral therapists who are treating erectile dysfunction among gay men. Little information is available to cognitive-behavioral therapists about the psychological and social effects of erectile dysfunction in this population, or how to incorporate the concerns of gay men with erectile…

  15. Erectile dysfunction is a strong predictor of poor quality of life in men with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Malavige, L S; Jayaratne, S D; Kathriarachchi, S T; Sivayogan, S; Ranasinghe, P; Levy, J C

    2014-06-01

    To identify predictors of poor quality of life among men with diabetes from a comprehensive set of sexual, clinical, socio-economic and lifestyle variables. This was a cross-sectional observational-study of 253 men with Type 2 diabetes, randomly selected from a clinic in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Erectile dysfunction was assessed using the five-item International Index of Erectile Function and quality of life was assessed using the Sri Lankan version of the 36-item short form health survey questionnaire and the disease-specific Psychological Impact of Erectile Dysfunction scale. The presence of premature ejaculation, reduced libido, socio-demographic and lifestyle data was obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Significant predictors of quality of life were identified by stepwise multivariate linear regression models for short form-36 subscales, summary scales and two scales of Psychological Impact of Erectile Dysfunction. Significant predictors on the physical summary scale of the 36-item short form were erectile dysfunction (β = 7.93, 95% CI 3.70-12.17, P < 0.001) and reduced libido (β = 5.20, 95% CI 0.82-9.59, P < 0.05). Predictors on the mental health summary scale of the 36-item short form were erectile dysfunction (β = 5.82, 95% CI 2.26-9.37, P < 0.01), BMI > 27.5 kg/m(2) (β = 9.12, 95% CI 1.38-17.44, P < 0.05), ischaemic heart disease (β = 6.39, 95% CI 0.74-12.04, P < 0.05) and insulin therapy (β = 5.28, 95% CI 0.34-10.22, P < 0.05). Significant predictors in the sexual experience scale of the Psychological Impact of Erectile Dysfunction were erectile dysfunction (β = 6.57, 95% CI 4.63-8.51, P < 0.001), reduced libido (β =4.33, 95% CI 2.34-6.32, P < 0.001) and postural hypotension (β = 3.99, 95% CI 0.13-7.85, P < 0.05). Predictors on the emotional life scale of the Psychological Impact of Erectile Dysfunction were erectile dysfunction (β = 2.96, 95% CI 1.37-4.58, P < 0.001), reduced libido 2.75 (β = 2.75, 95% CI 1.12-4.40, P < 0

  16. Male erectile dysfunction: integrating psychopharmacology and psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Eugene F; Trinidad, Anton C

    2013-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED), defined as the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance, is the most common sexual problem in men. ED arises when there is disruption of the complex interplay between vascular, neurologic, hormonal and psychologic factors necessary for normal erectile function. It may have a significant effect on quality of life and portend undetected cardiovascular disease. Risk factors for development of ED include advancing age, tobacco use, a history of pelvic irradiation or surgery and antipsychotic use (Table 1) [1]. Treatment guidelines continue to evolve for optimal management of ED. In this article, we review diagnostic and treatment strategies for ED relevant to psychiatrists. We present an integrative approach to the treatment of ED based on a review of the urologic and psychiatric literature. ED is multifactorial in origin and responsive to a variety of therapeutic interventions, including psychopharmacology and psychotherapy in which cognitive underpinnings of poor sexual performance, including diminished self-esteem, lack of confidence and perceived failures in the male role, are examined. Psychiatrists can readily perform a basic workup for ED as they integrate both a medical and therapeutic model when confronted with such patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Ultrasonic methods and semiotics in patients with vasculogenic erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Zhukov, O B; Zubarev, A R

    2001-01-01

    The authors have developed criteria for ultrasonic assessment of cavernous bodies, arterial and venous circulation in normal penile vessels and in erectile dysfunction in 125 patients; describe modern ultrasound modalities in differential diagnosis of various forms of vasculogenic erectile dysfunction basing on the experience with 92 patients; validate hydrodynamic role of the tunica albuginea in pathogenesis of venocorporal dysfunction and pathological venous drainage. Early ischemic signs of arterial insufficiency were revealed.

  18. A twin study of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Mary E; Vitek, Mary Ellen; Hedeker, Don; Henderson, William G; Jacobsen, Steven J; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-01-26

    The extent of genetic influence on erectile dysfunction (ED) is unknown. This study determines the contribution of heredity to ED in a sample of middle-aged men. A classical twin study was conducted in the Vietnam Era Twin Registry, a national sample of male-male pairs (mean birth year, 1949) who served on active duty during the Vietnam era (1965-1975). A 1999 male health survey was completed by 890 monozygotic (MZ) and 619 dizygotic (DZ) pairs. The prevalence and heritability of 2 self-report indicators of ED, difficulty in having an erection and in maintaining an erection, are estimated. The prevalence of difficulty in having an erection is 23.3% and in maintaining an erection is 26.7%. Twin correlations for dysfunction in having an erection are 0.35 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.41) in MZ and 0.17 (95% CI, 0.09-0.27) in DZ pairs. For dysfunction in maintaining an erection, the twin correlations in MZ and DZ pairs are 0.39 (95% CI, 0.32-0.45) and 0.18 (95% CI, 0.09-0.27), respectively. The estimated heritability of liability for dysfunction in having an erection is 35% and in maintaining an erection is 42%. The heritable influence on ED remained significant after adjustment for ED risk factors. The present study demonstrates an ED-specific genetic component that is independent of genetic influences from numerous ED risk factors. The results suggest that future molecular genetic studies to identify ED-related polymorphisms are warranted.

  19. Erectile dysfunction and type 2 diabetes mellitus in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ibrar; Aamir, Aziz ul Hassan; Anwar, Ejaz; Ali, Sobia Sabir; Ali, Asfhaq; Ali, Amjad

    2013-12-01

    To determine the frequency of erectile dysfunction in married male Type-2 diabetic patients. The cross-sectional observational study was carried out at the Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases Unit Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar, from July 2011 to Apr 2012, comprising 217 male married Type-2 diabetic patients. Serum samples were assayed for blood glucose, lipid profile and glycated haemoglobin A1c. Body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio was calculated. Erectile dysfunction was assessed by Sexual Health Inventory for Men questionnaire. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. A total of 217 patients were initially interviewed. The mean age was 43.1 +/- 8.160 years. The frequency of drectile dysfunction increased with age, duration of patients and increased body mass index. Overall, 6 (2.8%) patients had no erectile dysfunction, 37 (17.1%) had mild, 82 (37.8%) mild to moderate; 47 (21.7%) moderate; and 45 (20.7%) severe. Higher HbAlc levels and atherogenic dyslipidaemia were associated with erectile dysfunction. Poor glycaemic control was associated with increased erectile dysfunction risk. Duration of diabetes, older age, increased body mass index are associated with increased incidence of the condition in patients with diabetes. Intensive lifestyle changes in the beginning can add to the better management of Type-2 diabetes and prevention of erectile dysfunction.

  20. Sleep disorders in patients with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kalejaiye, Odunayo; Raheem, Amr Abdel; Moubasher, Amr; Capece, Marco; McNeillis, Sara; Muneer, Asif; Christopher, Andrew N; Garaffa, Giulio; Ralph, David J

    2017-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in men presenting with erectile dysfunction (ED) at a single centre. All men attending a specialised andrology outpatient department with a new diagnosis of ED were included in this prospective study. All patients completed three questionnaires: the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and two sleep questionnaires [the Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Screening questionnaire and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI)]. Their ED management was subsequently undertaken in accordance with local and European guidelines. An OSA diagnosis was made based on a score of ≥3 on the Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Screening questionnaire and those patients were referred for specialist management. Between February and September 2016, 129 patients with ED completed the study questionnaires. In all, 71 patients (55%) had a score of ≥3 on the Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Screening questionnaire, indicating a need for specialist sleep referral. Men who scored ≥3 on the Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Screening questionnaire were significantly older (61.4 vs 46.5 years; P < 0.001) and had a significantly higher body mass index (29.4 vs 26.7 kg/m 2 ; P < 0.001) when compared to the control group (OSA score of <3). The sleep apnoea group (OSA score of ≥3) had significantly worse IIEF-ED scores (6.2 vs 9.1; P = 0.018) and ISI scores (7.9 vs 5.5; P = 0.061). Men presenting to the andrology clinic with ED are at significant risk of having undiagnosed sleep disorders. This has serious adverse health consequences, as well as being associated with potential dangers at work and travel. The patient compliance was high with 78% completing all three questionnaires. It is feasible to screen this population for sleep disturbance and this should be part of the ED assessment. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Association between psychiatric symptoms and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Ricca, Valdo; Bandini, Elisa; Mannucci, Edoardo; Petrone, Luisa; Fisher, Alessandra D; Lotti, Francesco; Balercia, Giancarlo; Faravelli, Carlo; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2008-02-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is often associated with a wide array of psychiatric symptoms, although few studies systematically address their specific association with ED determinants. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between ED (as assessed by SIEDY Structured Interview, a 13-item tool which identifies and quantifies the contribution of organic, relational, and intrapsychic domains of ED) and different psychopathological symptoms (as assessed by the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire, a self-reported test for the screening of mental disorders in a nonpsychiatric setting). A consecutive series of 1,388 (mean age 51 +/- 13 years) male patients with ED was studied. Several hormonal and biochemical parameters were investigated, along with SIEDY Interview and the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire. Psychiatric symptoms resulted differentially associated with SIEDY domains. Depressive and phobic-anxiety symptoms were associated with the relational domain, somatization with the organic one, while free-floating anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and phobic symptoms were significantly related with higher intrapsychic SIEDY scores. In addition, relevant depressive symptomatology was associated with hypogonadism, the presence of low frequency of intercourse, hypoactive sexual desire (HSD), and conflictual relationships within the couple and the family. Patients with high free-floating anxiety symptoms were younger, and complained of an unsatisfactory work and a conflictual relationship within family. Conversely, subjects with higher phobic anxious symptoms displayed a more robust relational functioning. Similar results were observed in subjects with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, who also reported a lower prevalence of HSD. Finally, subjects with somatization symptoms showed the worst erectile function. The main value of this study is that it alters various clinicians' belief that many psychiatric symptoms can be found among ED patients. Systematic testing of

  2. Relation of Erectile Dysfunction to Subclinical Myocardial Injury.

    PubMed

    Omland, Torbjørn; Randby, Anna; Hrubos-Strøm, Harald; Røsjø, Helge; Einvik, Gunnar

    2016-12-15

    The circulating concentration of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is an index of subclinical myocardial injury in several patient populations and in the general population. Erectile dysfunction is associated with greater risk for cardiovascular events, but the association with subclinical myocardial injury is not known. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the presence and severity of erectile dysfunction is associated with greater concentrations of cTnI in the general population. The presence and severity of erectile dysfunction was assessed by administering the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire to 260 men aged 30 to 65 years recruited from a population-based study. Concentrations of cTnI were determined by a high-sensitivity (hs) assay. Hs-cTnI levels were significantly higher in subjects with than in those without erectile dysfunction (median 2.9 vs 1.6 ng/l; p <0.001). Men with erectile dysfunction (i.e., IIEF-5 sum score <22) were also significantly older; had a higher systolic blood pressure, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, higher augmentation index and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; and had a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and previous coronary artery disease than subjects without erectile dysfunction. These covariates were adjusted for in a multivariate linear regression model, yet the IIEF-5 sum score remained significantly negatively associated with the hs-cTnI concentration (standardized β -0.206; p <0.001). In conclusion, the presence and severity of erectile dysfunction is associated with circulating concentrations of hs-cTnI, indicating subclinical myocardial injury independently of cardiovascular risk factors, endothelial dysfunction and heart failure biomarkers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Laboratory evaluations of erectile dysfunction: an evidence based approach.

    PubMed

    Bodie, Joshua; Lewis, Jean; Schow, Doug; Monga, Manoj

    2003-06-01

    We evaluate the prevalence of laboratory abnormalities in men presenting for initial evaluation and therapy of erectile dysfunction. The computerized charts of men receiving treatment for erectile dysfunction from 1987 to 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. We pooled laboratory data for 3,547 men with erectile dysfunction to assess the prevalence of laboratory abnormalities. Values of the common laboratory screening tests for erectile dysfunction were recorded for testosterone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, hemoglobin A(Ic), prostate specific antigen, hemoglobin, cholesterol and creatinine. Of those patients evaluated 18.7% had low testosterone, 4.6% had increased prolactin, 14.6% had abnormal luteinizing hormone, 4.0% had increased thyroid-stimulating hormone, 8.3% had increased prostate specific antigen, 26.5% had anemia and 11.9% tested had renal insufficiency. A high percentage of patients presenting with a primary complaint of erectile dysfunction had increased hemoglobin A(Ic) and total serum cholesterol levels (52.9% and 48.4%, respectively). An evidence based approach to standardization of laboratory evaluations for men presenting with erectile dysfunction is recommended. Laboratory screening should be directed to identify those risk factors that may benefit from lifestyle modification and pharmacological intervention.

  4. Erectile dysfunction in older male stroke patients: correlation between side of hemiplegia and erectile function.

    PubMed

    Sikiru, Lamina; Shmaila, Hanif; Yusuf, Gagarawa Saidu

    2009-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of hemiplegia on erectile function in stroke patients. One hundred and five stroke patients grouped into left (61.78 +/- 7.79 years) and 55 right hemiplegic (62.11 +/- 9.32 years) and 40 age-matched controls (64.00 +/- 8.53 years). The International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire was used for data collection. One way analysis of variance and Spearman correlation tests were used in data analysis. Erectile function was significantly decreased in the both right (IIEF-5, 7.55 +/- 4.07) and left hemiplegic groups (IIEF-5, 10.40 +/- 5.70) compared with the control group (IIEF-5, 20.50 +/- 4.2 7) p < 0.05. Side of hemiplegia significantly correlated with erectile dysfunction at p < 0.01. Conclusively, stroke mostly affects erectile function of right hemiplegia.

  5. Current Diagnosis and Management of Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Pastuszak, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) affects a growing number of men in the USA and abroad, with significant impacts on sexual function and overall quality of life. The risk factors for ED are numerous and include a strong link to cardiovascular disease, such that men with ED should be screened for cardiovascular disease. The evaluation of men presenting with ED includes a comprehensive history and physical exam to aid in the identification of comorbidities as well as laboratory testing to evaluate hormone and lipid levels and sugar metabolism. Adjunct studies are also available, though their utility is often limited to specific subtypes of ED. Once the etiology of ED is established, treatment can be initiated using appropriate medical therapies, including phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, and transurethral or intracavernosal therapies, with surgical intervention via revascularization or penile prosthesis placement in men demonstrating a lack of response to medical therapy. In all cases of ED, a psychogenic component is present and referral for psychological intervention with or without medical therapy should be considered. PMID:25878565

  6. Aging and pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Corona, G; Mannucci, E; Mansani, R; Petrone, L; Bartolini, M; Giommi, R; Mancini, M; Forti, G; Maggi, M

    2004-10-01

    The prevalence and the severity of erectile dysfunction (ED) increase with advancing age; different pathogenetic factors could contribute to age-related ED. We studied organic, relational and intrapsychic components of ED as a function of patients' age in a consecutive series of 977 patients with ED, using the specifically designed structured interview SIEDY. A complete physical examination and a series of biochemical, hormonal, psychometric and penile vascular tests were also performed. Relational factors seems to be more relevant in patients aged over 60 y, while intrapsychic disturbances play a major role in younger subjects. Organic factors are the most important determinant of ED in all age groups, but their contribution is more important in older patients. In fact, basal and dynamic peak cavernosal velocity at Doppler ultrasound penile examination was reduced in older patients. Among hormonal factors, the body mass index-dependent reduction of testosterone in older patients does not seem to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of ED. No significant correlation was observed between testosterone level and the severity of ED, although patients reporting hypoactive sexual desire showed significantly lower testosterone levels when compared with the rest of the sample. A better understanding of the relative contribution of age-related pathogenetic factors of ED could be of help in the design of appropriate therapeutic approaches.

  7. Erectile dysfunction management options in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2009-04-01

    In Nigeria, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) among patients attending primary care clinics, age-standardized to the U.S. population in 2000 is 57.4%. This is considered high enough to warrant the attention of scientist for critical studies and analysis. The high ED prevalence is associated with etiologies such as psychosexual factors, chronic medical conditions, and some lifestyles. ED constitutes a major public health problem, influencing the patient's well-being and quality of life. It also leads to broken homes and marriages, psychological, social, and physical morbidity. To give an account of various ED management options in Nigeria. Review of peer-reviewed literature, questionnaire, and ethnobotanical survey to some indigenous herb sellers and herbalists. Cross cultural perspectives of ED management in Nigeria. The review suggests that traditional (phytotherapy, zootherapy, and occultism) and nontraditional, orthodox practice (drug therapy, psychological, and behavioral counseling) are applicable to ED management in Nigeria. This review should help in creating awareness into various options available for managing ED in the country, but does not recommend self medication of any form, be it the use of orthodox or herbal remedy.

  8. Coffee Intake and Incidence of Erectile Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lopez, David S; Liu, Lydia; Rimm, Eric B; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; de Oliveira Otto, Marcia; Wang, Run; Canfield, Steven; Giovannucci, Edward

    2018-05-01

    Coffee intake is suggested to have a positive impact on chronic diseases, yet its role in urological diseases such as erectile dysfunction (ED) remains unclear. We investigated the association of coffee intake with incidence of ED by conducting the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, a prospective analysis of 21,403 men aged 40-75 years old. Total, regular, and decaffeinated coffee intakes were self-reported on food frequency questionnaires. ED was assessed by mean values of questionnaires in 2000, 2004 and 2008. Multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute hazard ratios for patients with incident ED (n = 7,298). No significant differences were identified for patients with incident ED after comparing highest (≥4 cups/day) with lowest (0 cups/day) categories of total (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90, 1.11) and regular coffee intakes (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.13). When comparing the highest category with lowest category of decaffeinated coffee intake, we found a 37% increased risk of ED (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.73), with a significant trend (P trend = 0.02). Stratified analyses also showed an association among current smokers (P trend = 0.005). Overall, long-term coffee intake was not associated with risk of ED in a prospective cohort study.

  9. Udenafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min Chul; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2014-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is often perceived by both patients and sexual partners as a serious problem that can jeopardize quality of life, psychosocial or emotional well-being, and the partnership in the long term. Since their introduction, oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) have been found to be highly effective and well tolerated, and are available as the first-line therapy for the treatment of ED. Udenafil is one of the selective PDE5Is made available in recent years for the treatment of ED. Udenafil has clinical properties of both relatively rapid onset and long duration of action due to its pharmacokinetic profile, thereby providing an additional treatment option for ED men to better suit individual needs. There is positive evidence that udenafil is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of ED of a broad spectrum of etiologies or severity. Udenafil is as effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus-associated ED as other PDE5Is. Due to the clinical property of relatively long duration of action, udenafil may be another option in daily dosing treatment for ED, as suggested by its favorable efficacy and safety profile. Most adverse effects reported from clinical trials are mild or moderate in severity, without any serious adverse event, with headache and flushing being the most common. Also, the concomitant use of anti-hypertensive drugs or alpha-1-blockers does not significantly affect the efficacy and safety profile of udenafil. However, additional studies with larger cohorts including prospective, multicenter, comparative studies with patients of different ethnicities are needed to further validate the favorable findings of udenafil in the treatment of ED. PMID:24868160

  10. Risk of Erectile Dysfunction in Transfusion-naive Thalassemia Men

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Te-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Li; Dai, Ming-Shen; Ho, Ching-Liang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Based on the mechanism of pathophysiology, thalassemia major or transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients may have an increased risk of developing organic erectile dysfunction resulting from hypogonadism. However, there have been few studies investigating the association between erectile dysfunction and transfusion-naive thalassemia populations. We constructed a population-based cohort study to elucidate the association between transfusion-naive thalassemia populations and organic erectile dysfunction This nationwide population-based cohort study involved analyzing data from 1998 to 2010 obtained from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, with a follow-up period extending to the end of 2011. We identified men with transfusion-naive thalassemia and selected a comparison cohort that was frequency-matched with these according to age, and year of diagnosis thalassemia at a ratio of 1 thalassemia man to 4 control men. We analyzed the risks for transfusion-naive thalassemia men and organic erectile dysfunction by using Cox proportional hazards regression models. In this study, 588 transfusion-naive thalassemia men and 2337 controls were included. Total 12 patients were identified within the thalassaemia group and 10 within the control group. The overall risks for developing organic erectile dysfunction were 4.56-fold in patients with transfusion-naive thalassemia men compared with the comparison cohort after we adjusted for age and comorbidities. Our long-term cohort study results showed that in transfusion-naive thalassemia men, there was a higher risk for the development of organic erectile dysfunction, particularly in those patients with comorbidities. PMID:25837766

  11. Historical approach to the surgical treatment of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Jara, J; Lledó, E

    2013-01-01

    Throughout human history, erectile dysfunction has represented one of the most omnipresent health problems. This has resulted in a search for solutions that, one after the other, have been shown to be fruitless. In this context, the emergence of possible surgical solutions at the start of the 20th century represented a revolution that, even then, would take several decades to demonstrate their effectiveness. We performed a literature review that shows the process in the development of potential surgical treatments for hormonal restoration for erectile dysfunction, followed by the sudden emergence of vascular surgery, with new anastomosis techniques, and in the future, the development of penile prosthetic implants as alternative treatments. The publication of results from erectile dysfunction surgery has been lagging for decades due to a lack of objectivity, given that sexual function is a topic restricted by patients' privacy. This situation has led to a reliance on results reported by various authors whose actual credibility could not be verified, with subsequent demonstrations showing that some of these results were not reproducible. This article reviews some of the most important milestones in the progress of surgeries designed to treat erectile dysfunction. The achievements and apparent failures provide a reason for reflection on how we far we have come and how far we can go in the near future. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Erectile Dysfunction: A Sign of Heart Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... e609. Cunningham GR, et al. Overview of male sexual dysfunction. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 8, ... G, et al. The second Princeton consensus on sexual dysfunction and cardiac risk: New guidelines for sexual medicine. ...

  13. eNOS-uncoupling in age-related erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, JM; Bivalacqua, TJ; Lagoda, GA; Burnett, AL; Musicki, B

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with ED. Although age-related ED is attributed largely to increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the penis, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not fully defined. We evaluated whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in the aged rat penis is a contributing mechanism. Correlatively, we evaluated the effect of replacement with eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) on erectile function in the aged rats. Male Fischer 344 ‘young’ (4-month-old) and ‘aged’ (19-month-old) rats were treated with a BH4 precursor sepiapterin (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or vehicle for 4 days. After 1-day washout, erectile function was assessed in response to electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. Endothelial dysfunction (eNOS uncoupling) and oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) were measured by conducting western blot in penes samples. Erectile response was significantly reduced in aged rats, whereas eNOS uncoupling and TBARS production were significantly increased in the aged rat penis compared with young rats. Sepiapterin significantly improved erectile response in aged rats and prevented increase in TBARS production, but did not affect eNOS uncoupling in the penis of aged rats. These findings suggest that aging induces eNOS uncoupling in the penis, resulting in increased oxidative stress and ED. PMID:21289638

  14. Linear shock wave therapy in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pelayo-Nieto, M; Linden-Castro, E; Alias-Melgar, A; Espinosa-Pérez Grovas, D; Carreño-de la Rosa, F; Bertrand-Noriega, F; Cortez-Betancourt, R

    2015-09-01

    Linear Shock Wave Therapy (LSWT) is a new noninvasive therapy that uses low-intensity shock waves to induce local angiogenesis promising modality in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). To evaluate the effectiveness of LSWT in men with vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (ED), in a Tertiary Care Center. Included 15 men aged 45-70 years, sexually active with mild and moderate vascular ED evaluated with the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). The study was conducted in three stage: screening, treatment and results. Treatment stage: 4 weekly sessions LSWT (RENOVA ®) 5000 waves (.09mJ/mm(2)). Erectile function was assessed with IIEFF-EF, SEP (Sexual Encounter Profile) and GAQ (Global Assessment Questions) at one and six months after treatment. The rate of success was 80% (12/15). Patients with mild ED (6/15) 40% and moderate ED (9/15) 60%. We found a positive association between IIEF-Basal (average 14.23 pts) and IIEF at one month and six months after therapy (19.69 pts) a difference of 5.46 pts. (P<.013). The feasibility and tolerability of this treatment, and rehabilitation potential features, make it this an attractive new treatment option for patients with ED. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Erectile dysfunction--an observable marker of diabetes mellitus? A large national epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peter; Cameron, Ann; Seftel, Allen; Shabsigh, Ridwan; Niederberger, Craig; Guay, Andre

    2006-09-01

    We examined whether men with erectile dysfunction are more likely to have diabetes mellitus than men without erectile dysfunction, and whether erectile dysfunction can be used as an observable early marker of diabetes mellitus. Using a nationally representative managed care claims database from 51 health plans and 28 million members in the United States, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare the prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus between men with erectile dysfunction (285,436) and men without erectile dysfunction (1,584,230) during 1995 to 2001. Logistic regression models were used to isolate the effect of erectile dysfunction on the likelihood of having diabetes mellitus with adjustment for age, region and 7 concurrent diseases. The diabetes mellitus prevalence rates were 20.0% in men with erectile dysfunction and 7.5% in men without erectile dysfunction. With adjustment for age, region and concurrent diseases, the odds ratio of having diabetes mellitus between men with erectile dysfunction and without erectile dysfunction was 1.60 (p <0.0001). With adjustment for regions and concurrent diseases, the age specific odds ratios ranged from 2.94 (p <0.0001, age 26 to 35) to 1.05 (p = 0.1717, age 76 to 85). Men with erectile dysfunction were more than twice as likely to have diabetes mellitus as men without erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is an observable marker of diabetes mellitus, strongly so for men 45 years old or younger and likely for men 46 to 65 years old, but it is not a marker for men older than 66 years.

  16. Erectile dysfunction and coronary atherothrombosis in diabetic patients: pathophysiology, clinical features and treatment.

    PubMed

    Gazzaruso, Carmine

    2006-03-01

    The current review reports recent data available in the literature on the prevalence of erectile dysfunction and the association of erectile dysfunction with overt and silent coronary artery disease in patients with diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms by which erectile dysfunction is associated with coronary artery disease and potential clinical implications of this association have been extensively analysed. In particular, the role of endothelial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction and the potential clinical usefulness of erectile dysfunction to identify diabetic patients with silent coronary artery disease have been outlined. Finally, recent guidelines on the treatment of erectile dysfunction with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors in diabetic patients with and without coronary artery disease have been reported and discussed.

  17. Correlation of the erectile dysfunction with lesions of cerebrovascular accidents.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sang-Wohn; Yoo, Koo Han; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Jin Il; Lee, Choong-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    The recent human and animal studies indicate that the central supraspinal systems controlling penile erection, which are localized predominantly in the parts of the frontal lobe and limbic system, are reported to be involved in erection. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the correlation of the erectile dysfunction (ED) with lesions of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA). Forty-four men were selected among the CVA patients who had visited our hospital between March and July 2006. The audiovisual sexual stimulation (AVSS) test was conducted using Rigiscan device on the patients, whose erectile domain score of the International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire (IIEF) was less than 22. The criteria for adequate erectile function was the erectile events of > 60% rigidity for > or = 5 minutes. The CVA lesions were classified into frontal lobe, cortex except frontal lobe, basal ganglia, thalamus, and other area. Each CVA lesions of ED group and non-ED group were compared. IIEF, AVSS using Rigiscan. Thirty-eight patients' erectile domain score of IIEF were less than 22, and the AVSS test was conducted on them. Eighteen patients showed no ED, and 20 patients showed ED. The mean age of the ED group was 60.40 +/- 2.2, and the mean age of non-ED group was 55.29 +/- 1.85. There was no statistically significant difference between the mean age of both groups (P = 0.081). As each CVA lesions of both groups were compared, the CVA lesions of the thalamic area in the ED group were significantly more than in the non-ED group (P = 0.010). Patients (47.4%) who were suggestive of ED in the IIEF has no ED in the AVSS test. The patients who had CVA lesions in the thalamic area more commonly showed ED than the patients with CVA lesions of any other areas.

  18. Association of hypogonadism and type II diabetes in men attending an outpatient erectile dysfunction clinic.

    PubMed

    Corona, G; Mannucci, E; Petrone, L; Ricca, V; Balercia, G; Mansani, R; Chiarini, V; Giommi, R; Forti, G; Maggi, M

    2006-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) were more often hypogonadal than normal fasting glucose subjects. The aim of this investigation is the assessment of characteristics and psychobiological correlates of DM associated with hypogonadism (DMAH). The Structured Interview SIEDY was used along with several biochemical, psychological and instrumental investigations in a series of more than 1200 patients with erectile dysfunction (ED); 16% of whom with type II DM. Hypogonadism was defined as circulating total testosterone (T) below 10.4 nmol/l. The prevalence of hypogonadism was 24.5% in DM versus 12.6% in the rest of the sample (P < 0.0001); differences in the prevalence of hypogonadism retained significance after adjustment for age and BMI. DMAH was associated with typical hypogonadism-related symptoms, such as reduction in sexual desire, leading to a decreased number of sexual attempts, and with higher depressive symptomatology. In DMAH, testis size and LH concentrations were significantly reduced, suggesting a central origin of the disease. At penile Duplex ultrasound examination, diabetic patients and in particular hypogonadal type II diabetic patients showed lower levels of basal and dynamic (after PGE1 injection) peak systolic velocity and acceleration, when compared to the rest of the sample, even after adjustment for age and BMI. Our results show that hypogonadism is frequently associated with type II DM, at least in the 6th decade. DMAH might exacerbate sexual dysfunction by reducing libido and mood and further compromising penile vascular reactivity.

  19. Association between neuropathic pain, pregabalin treatment, and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Mehtap; Gocmez, Cuneyt; Soylemez, Haluk; Daggulli, Mansur; Em, Serda; Yildiz, Mehmet; Atar, Murat; Bozkurt, Yasar; Ozbey, Isa

    2014-07-01

    The pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction (ED) may be vasculogenic, hormonal, anatomical, neurogenic, drug-induced and/or psychogenic in origin. Neuropathic pain (NP) may facilitate ED, because it is frequently associated with anxiety, depression, and its drug, pregabalin, may also contribute ED. The objective of this study was to determine whether pregabalin treatment for patients with neuropathic pain promotes erectile dysfunction. The study sample consisted of a total of 102 male subjects that were subdivided into three groups. Group 1 patients (n = 31) had a pre-existing diagnosis of NP and was treated with 300 mg/day of pregabalin for at least 3 months. Group 2 patients (n = 34) were diagnosed with NP for at least 3 months; however, neither were they treated with pregabalin nor did they received physical therapy throughout the study. Lastly, healthy age-matched control subjects comprised group 3 (n = 37). Patients in all groups completed the International Index for Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire. Mean age and mean body mass index did not differ significantly between each of the three groups. The cause of NP and the mean duration of having a diagnosis of NP did not differ significantly in groups 1 and 2. However, IIEF scores were significantly lower for group 1 when compared to group 2 in terms of erectile function, orgasmic function, overall satisfaction and total score. Yet groups 1 and 2 did not diverge significantly in the intercourse satisfaction and sexual desire scores. Overall IIEF scores for group 3 were significantly higher than those of group 2 except for mean erectile function scores. Taking pregabalin for the treatment of neuropathic pain poses an increased risk for developing ED in male patients. Thus, clinicians prescribing pregabalin to patients diagnosed with neuropathic pain should assess for ED before and during treatment with this medication. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. Lifestyle modifications and erectile dysfunction: what can be expected?

    PubMed Central

    Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Esposito, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common medical disorder whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. Modifiable risk factors for ED include smoking, lack of physical activity, wrong diets, overweight or obesity, metabolic syndrome, and excessive alcohol consumption. Quite interestingly, all these metabolic conditions are strongly associated with a pro-inflammatory state that results in endothelial dysfunction by decreasing the availability of nitric oxide (NO), which is the driving force of the blood genital flow. Lifestyle and nutrition have been recognized as central factors influencing both vascular NO production, testosterone levels, and erectile function. Moreover, it has also been suggested that lifestyle habits that decrease low-grade clinical inflammation may have a role in the improvement of erectile function. In clinical trials, lifestyle modifications were effective in ameliorating ED or restoring absent ED in people with obesity or metabolic syndrome. Therefore, promotion of healthful lifestyles would yield great benefits in reducing the burden of sexual dysfunction. Efforts, in order to implement educative strategies for healthy lifestyle, should be addressed. PMID:25248655

  1. Psychobiological correlates of women's sexual interest as perceived by patients with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Bandini, Elisa; Fisher, Alessandra; Elisa, Maseroli; Boddi, Valentina; Balercia, Giancarlo; Sforza, Alessandra; Forti, Gianni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2010-06-01

    We have recently reported that the perceived loss of a partner's sexual desire is independently associated with an increased incidence of major cardiovascular events in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). No study has ever evaluated the specific impact of men's perception of women's sexual desire on male sexual function and lifestyle attitudes in ED subjects. To evaluate the clinical correlates of the perception of a partner's sexual desire [hypoactive sexual desire (HSD)] in a consecutive series of subjects seeking medical care for ED. A consecutive series of 2,303 heterosexual male patients (mean age 58.1 ± 10.5) was studied. Patients were interviewed with the Structured Interview on Erectile Dysfunction (SIEDY) structured interview. They also completed the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire, a brief questionnaire for the screening of the symptoms of mental disorders. Among the patients studied, 458 (19.9%) reported a mild loss of their partner's desire, 302 (13.1%) a moderate reduction of libido, while 118 (5.1%) complained of a complete absence of sexual interest on the part of their partner. After adjustment for confounding factors, the perceived women's HSD was associated with different sexual, lifestyle, and relational factors. In particular, more extra-marital affairs, a longer and more hostile couple relationship, as well as a stressful job and both alcohol and smoking abuse were all significantly associated with perceived women's HSD. In addition, the perceived women's moderate to severe HSD was significantly associated with severe ED and less frequent sexual intercourse. Finally, partner HSD was significantly associated with a stepwise increase of free-floating anxiety and depressive symptoms (adj. r = 0.081, P < 0.05 and 0.158, P < 0.0001, respectively). Perceived sexual interest (éros) on the part of the woman can be seen for men not only as a fun and enjoyable behavior, but also a safe strategy for improving a man's overall health and life

  2. Losartan improves erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients: a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Cui, S; Lin, H; Xu, Z; Zhu, W; Shi, L; Yang, R; Wang, R; Dai, Y

    2012-01-01

    The activation of cavernous local renin-angiotensin system has an important role in pathogenesis of diabetic erectile dysfunction (ED). In our primary study, we found that angiotensin Type 1 receptor blocker improved the erectile function of diabetic rats. Therefore we explored the losartan in clinical treatment for diabetic patients suffering with ED. A total of 124 diabetic patients with ED were included in this study and treated with losartan or tadalafil or losartan plus tadalafil or watch for waiting as control for 12 weeks. Erectile function was assessed by International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire, the percentage of positive responses to sexual encounter profile questions 2 (SEP2), 3 (SEP3) and the global assessment question (GAQ). Losartan or tadalafil or losartan plus tadalafil significantly improved the mean IIEF-5 scores, the percentage of successful penetrations (SEP2), the successful intercourse completions (SEP3) and GAQ (P<0.05). The combination of losartan and tadalafil is more effective than the single-use of losartan or tadalafil (P<0.05). The patients with moderate and mild ED had better response rates to losartan than patients with severe ED. This is the first clinical trial in losartan therapy on diabetic patients suffering from ED. Losartan seems to be effective and well-tolerated in diabetic ED patients, especially for mild to moderate ones. The combination therapy of losartan and tadalafil appeared to be more effective than monotherapy.

  3. Management of erectile dysfunction post-radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Alan; Abboudi, Hamid; Ghazal-Aswad, MB; Mayer, Erik K; Vale, Justin A

    2015-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy is a commonly performed procedure for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. One of the long-term complications is erectile dysfunction. There is little consensus on the optimal management; however, it is agreed that treatment must be prompt to prevent fibrosis and increase oxygenation of penile tissue. It is vital that patient expectations are discussed, a realistic time frame of treatment provided, and treatment started as close to the prostatectomy as possible. Current treatment regimens rely on phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors as a first-line therapy, with vacuum erection devices and intraurethral suppositories of alprostadil as possible treatment combination options. With nonresponders to these therapies, intracavernosal injections are resorted to. As a final measure, patients undergo the highly invasive penile prosthesis implantation. There is no uniform, objective treatment program for erectile dysfunction post-radical prostatectomy. Management plans are based on poorly conducted and often underpowered studies in combination with physician and patient preferences. They involve the aforementioned drugs and treatment methods in different sequences and doses. Prospective treatments include dietary supplements and gene therapy, which have shown promise with there proposed mechanisms of improving erectile function but are yet to be applied successfully in human patients. PMID:25750901

  4. Physical activity on endothelial and erectile dysfunction: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Leoni, Luís Antônio B; Fukushima, André R; Rocha, Leandro Y; Maifrino, Laura B M M; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-09-01

    Physical inactivity, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking and obesity were associated with imbalance in oxidative stress, leading to endothelial dysfunction. Such dysfunction is present in both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and erectile dysfunction (ED). ED is the persistent inability to achieve or sustain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance and is one of the first manifestations of endothelial damage in men with CVD risk factors. The purpose of this article is to review the results of studies involving physical activity, CVD, endothelial dysfunction and ED in order to verify its applicability for improving the health and quality of life of men with such disorders. There is consistent evidence that endothelial damage is intimately linked to ED, and this manifestation seems to be associated with the appearance CVDs. On the other hand, physical activity has been pointed out as an important clinical strategy in the prevention and treatment of CVDs and ED mainly associated with improvement of endothelial function. However, further experimental and clinical prospective investigations are needed to test the role of physical exercises in the modulation of endothelial function and their implications on erectile function and the appearance of CVDs.

  5. Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation: interrelationships and psychosexual factors.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2015-02-01

    Both erectile dysfunction (ED) and premature ejaculation (PE) impair the quality of sexual intercourse for both men and their female partners. This study aims to examine with a large representative sample the interrelationships of measures of ED, PE, typical intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), men's perceived relationship quality with their mother, and age of first being in love. In this cross-sectional study, a nationally representative sample of 960 Czech coitally experienced men (aged 15-84), provided age, International Index of Erectile Function 5-item (IIEF-5), Index of Premature Ejaculation (IPE) scores, IELT, rating of relationship with their mother, and age at first being in love. Correlations, partial correlations adjusting for age, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and multiple regression statistical methods were used. IIEF-5, IPE, and IELT were significantly intercorrelated (IIEF-5 and IPE: r=0.64). Better IIEF-5 scores were associated with younger age at first (and ever) being in love. Poorer IPE score, shorter IELT, and mild-moderate ED were associated with poorer perceived mother relationship (which was also associated with first being in love at an older age). Multiple regression analyses revealed that: (i) greater IELT was associated with better erectile function and better mother relationship, but not with age; and (ii) IELT of <1 minute was associated with poorer perceived mother relationship and poorer IIEF-5, but marginally with age. History of homosexual activity was unrelated to IIEF-5, IPE, IELT, and perceived mother relationship scores. The findings suggest that degrees of ED and PE are often comorbid, and both ED and PE are associated with less favorable early experiences with women. Brody S and Weiss P. Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation: Interrelationships and psychosexual factors. J Sex Med 2015;12:398-404. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Resolution of erectile dysfunction after an andrological visit in a selected population of patients affected by psychogenic erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether some patients with psychogenic erectile dysfunction (PED) who chose psychotherapy spontaneously improved their sexual function immediately after diagnosis. Two hundred eighty-five patients with PED were retrospectively studied. Complete resolution of PED was analyzed regarding age, primary or secondary PED, marital status, domestic status, prevailing attitude of the female partner to the dysfunction, duration of their partnership, social status, duration of PED, International Index of Erectile Function score, and prevailing attitude of the patient after a diagnosis of PED. The data were analyzed using post-hoc tests. PED was resolved in 32.3% of the patients immediately after diagnosis. These patients were older, more frequently affected by secondary ED, more frequently living with their partner, and more frequently resigned or happy with the diagnosis of PED than the patients who did not resolve their PED. A nonchalant or cooperative female attitude to PED improved the possibility of PED resolution. The other variables did not influence PED resolution. Our data showed that a clear-cut diagnosis of psychogenic erectile deficiency and some psychosocial factors were critical for the management of some patients with PED.

  7. Psychological determinants of erectile dysfunction among middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Aghighi, A; Grigoryan, V H; Delavar, A

    2015-01-01

    We describe psychological determinants of erectile dysfunction (ED) among middle-aged men with no identifiable medical risk factors and compare them with a sample of young individuals. Two groups of young (⩽ 30 years, n = 59) and middle-aged men (⩾ 40 years, n = 63) who scored ⩽ 25 on the erectile functioning domain of the International Index of Erectile Functioning were enrolled. Patients were included if they had no metabolic diseases, prostate problems or external genitalia abnormalities. Patients were not included if they were smokers, excessive drinkers or took medications known to cause ED. To assess psychopathology, symptom check list 90-revised (SCL-90-R) was administered. Structural equation modeling was performed to assess the relationship between psychopathology and ED. One in five men had severe ED, and the proportion was not different between the two groups. Middle-aged men had lower scores on different SCL-90-R domains. In both age groups, somatization and interpersonal sensitivity contributed to ED. Among younger individuals, anxiety and psychosis-related domains were also associated with ED. Unique contributors to ED in middle-aged men were depression and additional questions. In conclusion, among middle-aged men, psychological factors significantly contribute to ED when no medical risk factors are present. The pattern and composition of distress depicts distinct features, not seen in young age.

  8. Is there a link between soft drinks and erectile dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Jan; Drewa, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the potential role of soft drinks, particularly the sugar component, in the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction (ED). We analyzed the hypothetical link between metabolic disorders, induced by sweetened soft drinks overconsumption, and ED. High caloric intake, high refined-carbohydrates, and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) content and less satiety are main factors responsible for metabolic disorders contributing to ED development. Regular diet mistakes among human males, such as soft drink consumption, may lead to slow and asymptomatic progression of ED, finally resulting in full claimed manifestation of ED.

  9. Erectile dysfunction and central obesity: an Italian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Filippi, Sandra; Vignozzi, Linda; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a frequent complication of obesity. The aim of this review is to critically analyze the framework of obesity and ED, dissecting the connections between the two pathological entities. Current clinical evidence shows that obesity, and in particular central obesity, is associated with both arteriogenic ED and reduced testosterone (T) levels. It is conceivable that obesity-associated hypogonadism and increased cardiovascular risk might partially justify the higher prevalence of ED in overweight and obese individuals. Conversely, the psychological disturbances related to obesity do not seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related ED. However, both clinical and preclinical data show that the association between ED and visceral fat accumulation is independent from known obesity-associated comorbidities. Therefore, how visceral fat could impair penile microcirculation still remains unknown. This point is particularly relevant since central obesity in ED subjects categorizes individuals at high cardiovascular risk, especially in the youngest ones. The presence of ED in obese subjects might help healthcare professionals in convincing them to initiate a virtuous cycle, where the correction of sexual dysfunction will be the reward for improved lifestyle behavior. Unsatisfying sexual activity represents a meaningful, straightforward motivation for consulting healthcare professionals, who, in turn, should take advantage of the opportunity to encourage obese patients to treat, besides ED, the underlying unfavorable conditions, thus not only restoring erectile function, but also overall health. PMID:24713832

  10. Diagnosing erectile dysfunction: the penile dynamic colour duplex ultrasound revisited.

    PubMed

    Aversa, A; Bruzziches, R; Spera, G

    2005-12-01

    A number of disease processes of the penis including Peyronie's disease, priapism, penile fractures and tumors are clearly visualized with ultrasound. Diagnostic evaluation of erectile dysfunction (ED) by penile dynamic colour-duplex Doppler ultrasonography (D-CDDU) is actually considered a second level approach to ED patients because of the fact that intracavernous injections test IV with prostaglandin-E(1) may provide important information about the patients' erectile capacity. However, no direct vascular imaging and a high percentage of false negative diagnoses of vasculogenic ED are its major pitfalls and subsequent treatment decisions remain quite limited. The occurrence of ED and its sentinel relationship to cardiovascular disease has prompted more accurate vascular screening in all patients even in the absence of cardiovascular risk factors. The sonographic evaluation of the intima-media thickness of the carotid arteries may sometimes represent an early manifestation of diffuse atherosclerotic disease and endothelial damage. This latter finding is often the cause of failure to oral agents, i.e. phosphodiesterase inhibitors, because of inability of the dysfunctional endothelium to release nitric oxide. D-CDDU represents an accurate tool to investigate cavernous artery inflow and venous leakage when compared with more invasive diagnostic techniques i.e. selective arteriography and dynamic infusion cavernosometry along with cavernosography.

  11. Association Between Periodontal Disease and Erectile Dysfunction: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kellesarian, Sergio Varela; Kellesarian, Tammy Varela; Ros Malignaggi, Vanessa; Al-Askar, Mansour; Ghanem, Alexis; Malmstrom, Hans; Javed, Fawad

    2018-03-01

    A limited number of studies have reported an association between erectile dysfunction (ED) and chronic periodontitis (CP). The aim of the present study is to assess the association between CP and ED through a systematic review of published literature. To address the focused question, "Is there a relationship between ED and CP?" indexed databases were searched till December 2015 using various key words "erectile dysfunction," "periodontal disease," "periodontitis," "dental infection," and "impotence." Letters to the editor, commentaries, historic reviews, and experimental studies were excluded. The pattern of the present systematic review was customized to primarily summarize the pertinent data. Nine studies were included. Seven studies had a cross-sectional design and two studies were randomized control trials. The number of study participants ranged between 53 and 513,258 individuals with age ranging between 20 years and 85 years (median age ranging between 34.9 ± 4.9 years and 50.9 ± 16.6 years). In all studies, a positive relationship between CP and ED was reported. In four studies, odds ratio were reported, ranging between 1.53 and 3.35. From the literature reviewed, there seems to be a positive association between ED and CP; however, further well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed in this regard. It is emphasized that physicians should refer patients with ED to oral health care providers for a comprehensive oral evaluation and treatment.

  12. Erectile dysfunction and central obesity: an Italian perspective.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Filippi, Sandra; Vignozzi, Linda; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a frequent complication of obesity. The aim of this review is to critically analyze the framework of obesity and ED, dissecting the connections between the two pathological entities. Current clinical evidence shows that obesity, and in particular central obesity, is associated with both arteriogenic ED and reduced testosterone (T) levels. It is conceivable that obesity-associated hypogonadism and increased cardiovascular risk might partially justify the higher prevalence of ED in overweight and obese individuals. Conversely, the psychological disturbances related to obesity do not seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related ED. However, both clinical and preclinical data show that the association between ED and visceral fat accumulation is independent from known obesity-associated comorbidities. Therefore, how visceral fat could impair penile microcirculation still remains unknown. This point is particularly relevant since central obesity in ED subjects categorizes individuals at high cardiovascular risk, especially in the youngest ones. The presence of ED in obese subjects might help healthcare professionals in convincing them to initiate a virtuous cycle, where the correction of sexual dysfunction will be the reward for improved lifestyle behavior. Unsatisfying sexual activity represents a meaningful, straightforward motivation for consulting healthcare professionals, who, in turn, should take advantage of the opportunity to encourage obese patients to treat, besides ED, the underlying unfavorable conditions, thus not only restoring erectile function, but also overall health.

  13. Erectile dysfunction in chronic kidney disease: From pathophysiology to management

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou, Eirini; Varouktsi, Anna; Lazaridis, Antonios; Boutari, Chrysoula; Doumas, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is encountered in millions of people worldwide, with continuously rising incidence during the past decades, affecting their quality of life despite the increase of life expectancy in these patients. Disturbance of sexual function is common among men with CKD, as both conditions share common pathophysiological causes, such as vascular or hormonal abnormalities and are both affected by similar coexisting comorbid conditions such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The estimated prevalence of erectile dysfunction reaches 70% in end stage renal disease patients. Nevertheless, sexual dysfunction remains under-recognized and under-treated in a high proportion of these patients, a fact which should raise awareness among clinicians. A multifactorial approach in management and treatment is undoubtedly required in order to improve patients’ quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:26167462

  14. External Mechanical Devices and Vascular Surgery for Erectile Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Trost, Landon W; Munarriz, Ricardo; Wang, Run; Morey, Allen; Levine, Laurence

    2016-11-01

    The field of sexual medicine is continuously advancing, with novel outcomes reported on a regular basis. Given the rapid evolution, updated guidelines are essential to inform practicing clinicians on best practices. To summarize the current literature and provide clinical guidelines on penile traction therapy, vacuum erection devices, and penile revascularization. A consensus panel was held with leading sexual medicine experts during the 2015 International Consultation on Sexual Medicine (ICSM). Relevant literature was reviewed and graded based on Oxford criteria to develop evidence-based guideline and consensus statements. The development of clinically relevant guidelines. Penile traction therapy is a viable therapy to modestly improve penile length as a primary therapy, before penile prosthesis placement in men with decreased penile length or after surgery for Peyronie's disease. It also might have a role in the acute phase of Peyronie's disease but has inconsistent outcomes in the long-term phase. Vacuum erection devices are effective in creating an erection satisfactory for intercourse, even in difficult-to-treat populations. They also might be used in the post-prostatectomy setting to maintain penile length but have insufficient evidence as a penile rehabilitation therapy. For vasculogenic erectile dysfunction, men with suspected arterial insufficiency can be evaluated with penile Duplex Doppler ultrasonography and confirmatory angiography. Penile revascularization procedures have consistently demonstrated benefits in very select patient populations; however, inadequate data exists to suggest the superiority of one technique. Men with vascular risk factors are likely poor candidates for penile revascularization, although veno-occlusive dysfunction and age are less significant. Therapies for treating primary veno-occlusive dysfunction are not recommended and should be reserved for clinical trials. Since the prior ICSM meeting, multiple developments have

  15. Erectile dysfunction in the elderly: epidemiology, etiology and approaches to treatment.

    PubMed

    Seftel, Allen D

    2003-06-01

    Erectile dysfunction is experienced at least some of the time by most men who have reached 45 years of age, and it is projected to affect 322 million men worldwide by 2025. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction is high in men of all ages and increases greatly in the elderly. This paper reviews the epidemiology of erectile dysfunction with an emphasis on the experience of older men, normal age related changes in the structure and function of the penis that may contribute to increased risk with age, how the accumulation of risk factors with age may contribute to the high prevalence of the disease in older men, and established and emerging therapies. The normal aging process and age related risk factor accumulation contribute to the increased prevalence of erectile dysfunction in the elderly. Remarkable progress has been made in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. At present inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5 with oral agents such as sildenafil would appear to be the initial treatment of choice. These drugs have been shown to be safe and effective, and sildenafil has demonstrated efficacy in patients with many of the comorbidities observed in older men with erectile dysfunction. New treatments, in particular transfection with genes for key mediators of erectile function that are known to be down-regulated in elderly men, also hold promise. Further research into the neural, vascular and molecular mechanisms involved in penile erection will lead to the development of even safer, more effective and more convenient therapies for men with erectile dysfunction.

  16. [Clinical efficacy of the drug enerion in the treatment of patients with psychogenic (functional) erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Dmitriev, D G; Gamidov, S I; Permiakova, O V

    2005-01-01

    Twenty patients with psychogenic erectile dysfunction received the drug enerion (Hungary). After a 30-day course of enerion erectile function improved in 16 of the above patients. A mean value of the international index of erectile function (IIEF) increased in them from 17.5 to 24.8 points. Improvement of cavernous arterial blood flow after the treatment was seen in 3 of 6 patients with arterial disorders. As shown by electromyographic examinations, cavernous electric activity normalized in 8 patients. Thus, psychogenic erectile dysfunction can be effectively treated with enerion.

  17. Levels of uric acid in erectile dysfunction of different aetiology.

    PubMed

    Barassi, Alessandra; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Dozio, Elena; Damele, Clara Anna Linda; Vaccalluzzo, Liborio; Di Dario, Marco; Goi, Giancarlo; Papini, Nadia; Massaccesi, Luca; Colpi, Giovanni Maria; Melzi d'Eril, Gian Vico

    2018-01-12

    Erectile dysfunction is a common disease characterized by endothelial dysfunction. The aetiology of ED is often multifactorial but evidence is being accumulated in favor of the proper function of the vascular endothelium that is essential to achieving and maintaining penile erection. Uric acid itself causes endothelial dysfunction via decreased nitric oxide production. This study aims to evaluate the serum uric acid (SUA) levels in 180 ED patients, diagnosed with the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) and 30 non-ED control. Serum uric acid was analyzed with a commercially available kit using ModularEVO (Roche, Monza, Italy). Within-assay and between-assay variations were 3.0% and 6.0%, respectively. Out of the ED patients, 85 were classified as arteriogenic (A-ED) and 95 as non-arteriogenic (NA-ED) with penile-echo-color-Doppler. Uric acid levels (median and range in mg/dL) in A-ED patients (5.8, 4.3-7.5) were significantly higher (p < .001) than in NA-ED patients (4.4, 2.6-5.9) and in control group (4.6, 3.1-7.2). There was a significant difference (p < .001) between uric acid levels in patients with mild A-ED (IIEF-5 16-20) and severe/complete A-ED (IIEF-5 ≤ 10) that were 5.4 (range 4.3-6.5) mg/dL and 6.8 (range 6.4-7.2) mg/dL, respectively. There was no difference between the levels of uric acid in patients with different degree of NA-ED. Our findings reveal that SUA is a marker of ED but only of ED of arteriogenic aetiology.

  18. Chronic ethanol consumption induces erectile dysfunction: Role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Muniz, Jaqueline J; Leite, Letícia N; De Martinis, Bruno S; Carneiro, Fernando S; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2015-11-15

    Investigate the effects of chronic ethanol consumption on erectile function and on the corpus cavernosum (CC) reactivity to endothelin-1 (ET-1). Male Wistar rats were treated with ethanol (20% v/v) for six weeks. Ethanol-treated rats showed impaired erectile function represented by decreased intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) responses. Ethanol consumption increased the contractile response induced by ET-1 in the isolated CC. Tiron increased ET-1-induced contraction in CC from control and ethanol-treated rats. No differences in the maximal contraction to ET-1 were observed after incubation of CC with PEG-catalase. SC560 and SC236 increased ET-1-induced contraction in CC from ethanol-treated rats. Y27632 reduced the contraction induced by ET-1 in CC from control and ethanol-treated rats. Ethanol increased plasma TBARS, superoxide anion (O2(-)) levels and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the rat CC. Reduced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in CC and increased catalase (CAT) activity in plasma and CC were detected after treatment with ethanol. Ethanol decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the rat CC. Increased expression of COX-1 was observed in CC from ethanol-treated rats. Treatment with ethanol decreased COX-2 expression but did not alter the expression of Nox1, RhoA and p-RhoA (ser(188)) in the rat CC. The major new findings of our study are that ethanol consumption induces erectile dysfunction (ED) and increases the contraction induced by ET-1 in the rat CC by a mechanism that involves decreased generation of H2O2 and vasodilator prostanoids as well as increased activation of the RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic syndrome: An independent risk factor for erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sanjay, Saran; Bharti, Gupta Sona; Manish, Gutch; Rajeev, Philip; Pankaj, Agrawal; Puspalata, Agroiya; Keshavkumar, Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to determine the role of various components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as independent risk factor for erectile dysfunction (ED). Materials and Methods: A total of 113 subjects of MetS, as recommended by recent IDF and AHA/NHLBI joint interim statement were selected for study who presented for ED. After doing Anthropometric examination, fasting laboratory assay for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin, hemoglobin A1c, triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and 2 h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was done. Erectile function was assessed by completing questions one through five of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). A multiple linear regression analysis was carried out on 66 subjects with IIEF-5 score as dependent variable and components of MetS FPG, 2 h OGTT, TG, HDL, and waist circumference as independent variables. Results: Using a multiple linear regression analysis, we observed that presence of the various components of MetS was associated with ED and a decrease IIEF-5 score and this effect was greater than the effect associated with any of the individual components. Of the individual components of the MetS, HDL (B = 0.136; P = 0.004) and FPG (B = −0.069; P = 0.007) conferred the strongest effect on IIEF-5 score. However, overall age had most significant effect on IIEF-5 score. Conclusion: It is crucial to formulate strategies and implement them to prevent or control the epidemic of the MetS and its consequences. The early identification and treatment of risk factors might be helpful to prevent ED and secondary cardiovascular disease, including diet and lifestyle interventions. PMID:25729692

  20. Metabolic syndrome: An independent risk factor for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sanjay, Saran; Bharti, Gupta Sona; Manish, Gutch; Rajeev, Philip; Pankaj, Agrawal; Puspalata, Agroiya; Keshavkumar, Gupta

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to determine the role of various components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as independent risk factor for erectile dysfunction (ED). A total of 113 subjects of MetS, as recommended by recent IDF and AHA/NHLBI joint interim statement were selected for study who presented for ED. After doing Anthropometric examination, fasting laboratory assay for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin, hemoglobin A1c, triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and 2 h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was done. Erectile function was assessed by completing questions one through five of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). A multiple linear regression analysis was carried out on 66 subjects with IIEF-5 score as dependent variable and components of MetS FPG, 2 h OGTT, TG, HDL, and waist circumference as independent variables. Using a multiple linear regression analysis, we observed that presence of the various components of MetS was associated with ED and a decrease IIEF-5 score and this effect was greater than the effect associated with any of the individual components. Of the individual components of the MetS, HDL (B = 0.136; P = 0.004) and FPG (B = -0.069; P = 0.007) conferred the strongest effect on IIEF-5 score. However, overall age had most significant effect on IIEF-5 score. It is crucial to formulate strategies and implement them to prevent or control the epidemic of the MetS and its consequences. The early identification and treatment of risk factors might be helpful to prevent ED and secondary cardiovascular disease, including diet and lifestyle interventions.

  1. Emerging drugs for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Peak, Taylor C; Yafi, Faysal A; Sangkum, Premsant; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2015-06-01

    Erectile dysfunction adversely affects the lives of millions of men, and is the most commonly treated sexual disorder today. The erectile process has been extensively investigated, with major advances made in elucidating many of the complex molecular pathways involved. These advances have allowed researchers to design and study drug formulations that target various aspects of this complex process. The initial culmination of this research was the introduction of phosphodiesterase 5-inhibitors. While effective in many patients, they are not satisfactory for all afflicted men. As a result, researchers are developing novel drugs that target different molecular pathways. The paper will review these pathways, and the potential agents that target them. More specifically, first dopaminergic and melanocortin receptor agonists that act centrally will be covered. Then, the paper will examine the "second-generation" phosphodiesterase 5-inhibitors, soluble guanylate cyclases, rho-kinase inhibitors, and maxi-k channel activators that act peripherally. Most of these novel drugs have yet to reach Phase III studies. However, it is likely that in years to come, patients will be selectively treated with these novel agents as a monotherapy or in combination with others acting in a synergistic manner.

  2. Combination therapy for erectile dysfunction: an update review.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Rohit R; Lin, Hao-Cheng; Canfield, Steven E; Wang, Run

    2011-05-01

    The introduction of oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) in the late 1990s and early 2000s revolutionized the field of sexual medicine and PDE5Is are currently first-line monotherapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). However, a significant proportion of patients with complex ED will be therapeutic non-responders to PDE5I monotherapy. Combination therapy has recently been adopted for more refractory cases of ED, but a critical evaluation of current combination therapies is lacking. A thorough PubMed and Cochrane Library search was conducted focusing on the effectiveness of combination therapies for ED in therapeutic non-responders to PDE5I therapy. Journal articles spanning the time period between January 1990 and December 2010 were reviewed. Criteria included all pertinent review articles, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies and retrospective analyses. References from retrieved articles were also manually scanned for additional relevant publications. Published combination therapies include PDE5I plus vacuum erectile device (VED), intraurethral medication, intracavernosal injection (ICI), androgen supplement, α-blocker or miscellaneous combinations. Based on this review, some of these combination treatments appeared to be quite effective in preliminary testing. Caution must be advised, however, as the majority of combination therapy articles in the last decade have numerous limitations including study biases and small subject size. Regardless of limitations, present combination therapy research provides a solid foundation for future studies in complex ED management.

  3. Recent advances in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mobley, David F; Khera, Mohit; Baum, Neil

    2017-11-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is one of the most common conditions affecting middle-aged and older men. Nearly every primary care physician, internist and geriatrician will be called upon to manage this condition or to make referrals to urologists, endocrinologists and cardiologists who will assist in the treatment of ED. This article will briefly discuss the diagnosis and management of ED. In addition, emerging concepts in ED management will be discussed, such as the use of testosterone to treat ED, the role of the endothelium in men with ED and treating the partner of the man with ED. Finally, future potential therapies for ED will be discussed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Erectile dysfunction, metabolic syndrome and arterial disease. Clinical-pathological relation by carotid ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Arrabal-Polo, M A; Vera-Arroyo, B; Lahoz-García, C; Valderrama-Illana, P; Cámara-Ortega, M; Arrabal-Martín, M; Zuluaga-Gomez, A; Lopez-Carmona Pintado, F

    2014-04-01

    Different studies have shown the relationship between erectile dysfunction, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of arteriopathy performing carotid ultrasound in patients with and without erectile dysfunction. We conducted a case-control study with 44 patients consulting for erectile dysfunction and 20 controls. All subjects completed the IIEF-5 test and we studied the criteria for metabolic syndrome, and a carotid ultrasound to study the intima-media thickness and the presence of atherosclerotic plaques was performed. Mean intima-media thickness was .71mm±.21 for the right and of .71±.17 for the left carotid in patients with erectile dysfunction. In the control group, the means were .54±0.11 and 0.59±0.15mm respectively, statistically significant differences (P=.02 and P=.05 respectively). No plaque was found in any control, but in 25% of both carotid arteries of patients with erectile dysfunction (P=.01). As metabolic syndrome, according to the American Heart Association, were diagnosed 52.8% of patients with erectile dysfunction, and 16.7% of controls, and according to the International Diabetes Federation, 52.3% of patients with erectile dysfunction and 25% of controls met diagnostic criteria. In both cases there were significant differences (P<.01 and P=.02 respectively). We found a positive linear correlation between waist circumference and the intima-media thickness in both carotid (P<.05). Patients with erectile dysfunction may be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, as determined by the presence of arterial disease in the carotid arteries, which indicates that we should made a more thorough and comprehensive study of patients with erectile dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Association Between Periodontal Disease and Erectile Dysfunction: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kellesarian, Sergio Varela; Kellesarian, Tammy Varela; Ros Malignaggi, Vanessa; Al-Askar, Mansour; Ghanem, Alexis; Malmstrom, Hans; Javed, Fawad

    2016-01-01

    A limited number of studies have reported an association between erectile dysfunction (ED) and chronic periodontitis (CP). The aim of the present study is to assess the association between CP and ED through a systematic review of published literature. To address the focused question, “Is there a relationship between ED and CP?” indexed databases were searched till December 2015 using various key words “erectile dysfunction,” “periodontal disease,” “periodontitis,” “dental infection,” and “impotence.” Letters to the editor, commentaries, historic reviews, and experimental studies were excluded. The pattern of the present systematic review was customized to primarily summarize the pertinent data. Nine studies were included. Seven studies had a cross-sectional design and two studies were randomized control trials. The number of study participants ranged between 53 and 513,258 individuals with age ranging between 20 years and 85 years (median age ranging between 34.9 ± 4.9 years and 50.9 ± 16.6 years). In all studies, a positive relationship between CP and ED was reported. In four studies, odds ratio were reported, ranging between 1.53 and 3.35. From the literature reviewed, there seems to be a positive association between ED and CP; however, further well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed in this regard. It is emphasized that physicians should refer patients with ED to oral health care providers for a comprehensive oral evaluation and treatment. PMID:27030114

  6. Dietary flavonoid intake and incidence of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Aedín; Franz, Mary; Rimm, Eric B

    2016-02-01

    The predominant etiology for erectile dysfunction (ED) is vascular, but limited data are available on the role of diet. A higher intake of several flavonoids reduces diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk, but no studies have examined associations between flavonoids and erectile function. This study examined the relation between habitual flavonoid subclass intakes and incidence of ED. We conducted a prospective study among 25,096 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Total flavonoid and subclass intakes were calculated from food-frequency questionnaires collected every 4 y. Participants rated their erectile function in 2000 (with historical reporting from 1986) and again in 2004 and 2008. During 10 y of follow-up, 35.6% reported incident ED. After multivariate adjustment, including classic cardiovascular disease risk factors, several subclasses were associated with reduced ED incidence, specifically flavones (RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.97; P-trend = 0.006), flavanones (RR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.95; P-trend = 0.0009), and anthocyanins (RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.98; P-trend = 0.002) comparing extreme intakes. The results remained statistically significant after additional adjustment for a composite dietary intake score. In analyses stratified by age, a higher intake of flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavones was significantly associated with a reduction in risk of ED only in men <70 y old and not older men (11-16% reduction in risk; P-interaction = 0.002, 0.03, and 0.007 for flavones, flavanones, and anthocyanins, respectively). In food-based analysis, higher total intake of fruit, a major source of anthocyanins and flavanones, was associated with a 14% reduction in risk of ED (RR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.92; P = 0.002). These data suggest that a higher habitual intake of specific flavonoid-rich foods is associated with reduced ED incidence. Intervention trials are needed to further examine the impact of increasing intakes of commonly consumed

  7. Incidentally diagnosed Peyronie's disease in men presenting with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, A; Oktar, T; Kandirali, E; Kendirci, M; Sanli, O; Ozsoy, C

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze characteristics of patients with Peyronie's disease (PD) diagnosed during a standard evaluation for erectile dysfunction (ED) and compare them with patients presenting with the classical complaints of PD. During a 10-y period, a total of 448 patients were evaluated at our two outpatient clinics, directed by the same author (AK). They were divided into two groups: group I consisted of patients, who presented with only ED and were unaware of their penile deformity, and group II consisted of patients with the classical features of the disease. The clinical characteristics, penile deformities, erectile status and the presence of comorbidities were determined in the two groups. Of 448 Peyronie's patients, 16% (n=71) were detected during diagnostic work-up for ED. In this group of patients, ED was the presenting symptom for a mean period of 31.3+/-9.7 months. The mean age of men was 57.54+/-8.75 and 52.21+/-10.27 y in groups I and II, respectively (P=0.0001). The mean degree of deformity was 31.5+/-12.66 degrees in group I and 41.16+/-19.14 degrees in group II (P=0.0001). In group I (n=71), 69% (n=49) of the patients had a poor erectile response to the combined injection and stimulation (CIS) test. Also, in this group, the mean degrees of deformity in CIS-positive and -negative patients were 27.05+/-12.50 and 33.80+/-12.03 degrees , respectively (P=0.033). Diabetes mellitus (40%) was the leading comorbidity in group I, while at least one comorbidity was observed in 73% of the cases (P=0.001). A remarkable percent of Peyronie's patients (16%) were detected during a standard evaluation for ED. This study analyzed, for the first time, the frequency and the characteristics of incidentally diagnosed Peyronie's patients who presented with only ED. Our data indicate that one should always consider the possibility of PD in older patients with diabetes, presenting with only ED.

  8. Hypogonadism in DM1 and its relationship to erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Giovanni; Clemenzi, Alessandro; Bucci, Elisabetta; De Marco, Emanuela; Morino, Stefania; Di Pasquale, Antonella; Latino, Pamela; Ruga, Gilda; Lenzi, Andrea; Vanacore, Nicola; Radicioni, Antonio F

    2011-07-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is characterized by both a premature appearance of age-related phenotypes and multiple organ involvement, which affects skeletal and smooth muscle as well as the eye, heart, central nervous system, and endocrine system. Although erectile dysfunction (ED) is a frequent complaint in patients with DM1, it has not been investigated in great depth. Hypogonadism, which is reported to be one of the physical causes of ED in the general population, frequently occurs in DM1. We planned this case-control study to evaluate the relationship between hypogonadism, as defined by the sexual hormone profile (FSH, LH, testosterone (T) and prolactin) and ED, as assessed by means of an internationally validated self-administered questionnaire (IIEF). DM1 patients had significantly increased mean levels of both gonadotropins (FSH and LH) (p < 0.0001) and a reduced mean level of T (p < 0.0001) when compared to controls. Twelve patients were eugonadic (normal LH, T, and FSH), while 18 displayed hormonal evidence of hypogonadism, characterized by tubular failure (increased FSH) in all the subjects and associated with interstitial failure in 14 subjects: seven with primary hypogonadism (increased LH and reduced T) and seven with compensated hypogonadism (increased LH and normal T). Patients with hormonal evidence of interstitial failure had a larger CTG expansion (p = 0.008), longer disease duration (p = 0.013), higher grade of disease (p = 0.004) and lower erectile function score (p = 0.02) than eugonadic patients. Impotence occurred in 13/14 hypogonadic patients with interstitial failure and in 5/12 eugonadic patients (p = 0.017, OR = 18.2).

  9. Randomised Trial of CPAP and Vardenafil on Erectile and Arterial Function in Men with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Erectile Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Melehan, Kerri L; Hoyos, Camilla M; Hamilton, Garun S; Wong, Keith K; Yee, Brendon J; McLachlan, Rob I; O'Meagher, Shamus; Celermajer, David; Ng, Martin K; Grunstein, Ronald R; Liu, Peter Y

    2018-02-01

    Erectile function is important for life satisfaction and is often impaired in men with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Uncontrolled studies show that treating OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves erectile function. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (e.g. vardenafil) are the first-line therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED), but may worsen OSA. To assess the effects of CPAP and vardenafil on ED. Sixty one men with moderate-to-severe OSA and ED were randomised to 12 weeks of CPAP or sham CPAP, and 10mg daily vardenafil or placebo, in a 2x2 factorial design. International Index of Erectile Function (primary endpoint), treatment and relationship satisfaction, sleep related erections, sexual function, endothelial function, arterial stiffness, quality of life, and sleep-disordered breathing. CPAP increased the frequency of sleep-related-erections, overall sexual satisfaction, and arterial stiffness but did not change erectile function or treatment satisfaction or relationship satisfaction. Vardenafil did not alter erectile function, endothelial function, arterial stiffness or sleep disordered breathing, but did improve overall self-esteem and relationship satisfaction, other aspects of sexual function and treatment satisfaction. Adherent CPAP improved erectile function, sexual desire, overall sexual, self-esteem and relationship, and treatment satisfaction, as well as sleepiness, and quality of life. Adherent vardenafil use did not consistently change nocturnal erection quality. CPAP improves overall sexual satisfaction, sleep related erections, and arterial stiffness. Low dose daily vardenafil improves certain aspects of sexual function, and did not worsen OSA. Adherent CPAP or vardenafil use further improves ED and quality of life. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society

  10. Impact of erectile dysfunction and its subsequent treatment with sildenafil: qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, John; Wright, David

    2004-05-01

    To determine the effects of erectile dysfunction and to explore the impact of treatment with sildenafil (Viagra). An exploratory qualitative study with semistructured interviews. Men's health clinic in NHS hospital. 40 men who had had erectile dysfunction and had attended the clinic during the year before interview. Impact of erectile dysfunction on men, their expectations of sildenafil, and impact of treatment on men and their relationships. Issues explored with exploratory qualitative approach. Erectile dysfunction caused serious distress to all those men who experienced it, with marked effects on their self esteem and their relationships. Sildenafil, when it worked, caused a great improvement in wellbeing. The expectations raised by media hyperbole with the launch of sildenafil had an adverse effect on the morale of those who found it did not work. When, according to the patient, treatment did not work, the distress was severe and for many confirmed their lack of self worth. Further study is needed to explore the feelings of men affected by erectile dysfunction and their perception of treatment. Health professionals should be aware of the extreme distress erectile dysfunction can cause.

  11. Sexual history taking and sexually transmitted infection screening in patients initiating erectile dysfunction medication therapy.

    PubMed

    Holman, Katherine M; Carr, James Andrew; Baddley, John W; Hook, Edward W

    2013-11-01

    Erectile dysfunction medications are being prescribed frequently; however, little is known about the amount of sexual health screening occurring in this setting. A retrospective cohort study evaluating sexual health and sexually transmitted infection screening occurring in veterans receiving initial erectile dysfunction medication prescription was conducted. A total of 252 patients received initial erectile dysfunction medication prescriptions between October 1, 2009, and December 31, 2009; had at least 1 health care provider visit 12 months before the date of initial prescription; and had no documentation of previous erectile dysfunction medication use. Approximately 3% of these patients had any aspect of a sexual history recorded in the 24 months surrounding initial erectile dysfunction medication prescription. Sexually transmitted infection screening was 9.9% for syphilis, 4.8% for HIV, and 4.3% for gonorrhea/chlamydia before prescription, with only a slight increase in HIV screening after prescription. Minimal sexual health assessment is being performed during the time surrounding initial prescription of erectile dysfunction medication. Further work needs to evaluate patient and provider barriers to basic elements of sexual health care, such as taking sexual histories or screening for sexually transmitted infections.

  12. Association of Areca Nut Chewing With Risk of Erectile Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yung-Jui; Jiann, Bang-Ping

    2017-09-01

    Areca nut chewing has been shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but its association with erectile dysfunction (ED) has not been investigated. To investigate the association between areca nut chewing and risk of ED. Consecutive men at public health centers for oral malignancy screening or health checkup were invited to complete a questionnaire. The Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM). Of the 2,652 respondents, 1,038 (mean age = 43.8 ± 11.1 years) were eligible for the areca nut chewing group and 1,090 non-areca nut chewers were selected as the age-matched control group. In the areca nut group, the mean duration of chewing was 13.2 ± 9.6 years, 61.7% consumed more than 10 portions per day, and 76.2% used it with betel leaf, 16.7% used it with betel inflorescence, and 7.1% used it with betel leaf and inflorescence. Smoking, alcohol drinking, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes were more predominant in areca nut chewers compared with controls. ED defined by self-report and by SHIM score was more prevalent in areca nut chewers than in controls (13.7% vs 9.8% and 48.7% vs 43.3%, respectively; P < .05 for the two comparisons). Areca nut use with betel inflorescence was associated with a higher risk of ED (odds ratio = 2.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.55-3.28) with a dose-dependent effect, whereas using it with betel leaf was not (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% confidence interval = 0.79-1.26) after adjustment of possible confounders. Areca nut chewing with betel inflorescence was associated with an increased risk of ED. These findings warrant further studies. Huang Y-J, Jiann B-P. Association of Areca Nut Chewing With Risk of Erectile Dysfunction. Sex Med 2017;5:e163-e168. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Is there a relationship between chronic periodontitis and erectile dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Fatih; Eltas, Abubekir; Beytur, Ali; Akdemir, Ender; Uslu, Mustafa Özay; Güneş, Ali

    2013-03-01

    Chronic periodontitis (CP) is characterized with inflammation of the gingival tissues, which causes endothelial dysfunction in different organs. In this study, we investigated the association of CP with the erectile dysfunction (ED). The study group included 80 male patients with ED and 82 male patients without ED (control), aged between 30 and 40 years. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire was used to assess male sexual function, particularly the presence or absence of ED. The patients in the study and control groups were statistically compared according to their plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BoP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL). In the non-ED and the ED groups, the mean age was 35.7 ± 4.8 and 34.9 ± 4.9 years, respectively. Patients' characteristics including body mass index, household income, and education status were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). Nineteen patients (23%) had severe CP in the non-ED group; 42 patients (53%) had severe CP in the ED group. Logistic regression analysis showed a significantly high association between ED and the severity of CP (odds ratio: 3.29, 95% confidence interval: 1.36-9.55, P < 0.01). The mean values of PI, BoP, and the percentages of sites with PD >4 mm and sites with CAL >4 mm were significantly higher in the ED group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The mean values of PD and CAL were not significantly different in the two groups (P > 0.05). The decayed, missing, filled teeth scores were also significantly higher in the ED group than in the non-ED group (P < 0.05).   Our results have suggested that CP had a high association with ED in young adults at 30-40 years. We think that it will be of benefit to consider periodontal disease as a causative clinical condition of ED in such patients. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Mechanistic link between erectile dysfunction and systemic endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Musicki, Biljana; Hannan, Johanna L.; Lagoda, Gwen; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2016-01-01

    Men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and erectile dysfunction (ED) have greater risk of cardiovascular events than T2DM men without ED, suggesting ED as a predictor of cardiovascular events in diabetic men. However, molecular mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction in the diabetic penis explaining these clinical observations are not known. We evaluated whether the temporal relationship between ED and endothelial dysfunction in the systemic vasculature in T2DM involves earlier redox imbalance and endothelial nitric oxidase synthase (eNOS) dysfunction in the penis than in the systemic vasculature, such as the carotid artery. Rats were rendered T2DM by high-fat diet for 2 weeks, followed by an injection with low-dose streptozotocin. After 3 weeks, erectile function (intracavernosal pressure) was measured and penes and carotid arteries were collected for molecular analyses of eNOS uncoupling, protein S-glutathionylation, oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, 4-HNE), protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox, endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the carotid artery, and non-andrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) mediated cavernosal relaxation. Erectile response to electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve and NANC mediated cavernosal relaxation were decreased (p<0.05), while relaxation of the carotid artery to acetylcholine was not impaired in T2DM rats. eNOS monomerization, protein expressions of 4-HNE and gp91phox, and protein S-glutathionylation, were increased (p<0.05) in the penis, but not in the carotid artery, of T2DM compared to nondiabetic rats. In conclusion, redox imbalance, increased oxidative stress by NADPH oxidase, and eNOS uncoupling, occur early in T2DM in the penis, but not in the carotid artery. These molecular changes contribute to T2DM ED, while vascular function in the systemic vasculature remains preserved. PMID:27153512

  15. Chronic periodontitis is associated with erectile dysfunction. A case-control study in european population.

    PubMed

    Martín, Amada; Bravo, Manuel; Arrabal, Miguel; Magán-Fernández, Antonio; Mesa, Francisco

    2018-07-01

    To determine the association between chronic periodontitis and erectile dysfunction adjusting for biochemical markers and other comorbidities. A case-control study was conducted on 158 male patients; 80 cases with erectile dysfunction according to the International Index of Erectile Function and 78 controls. Sociodemographic data were gathered, and a periodontal examination was performed. Testosterone, lipid profile, C-reactive protein and glycaemic parameters were assessed. All variables were compared between groups, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. 74% of the cases were diagnosed with chronic periodontitis. Number of sites with pocket probing depth 4-6 mm (p = 0.05) and number of sites with clinical attachment loss >3 mm (p < 0.01) were higher in the cases. Triglycerides (p < 0.01), C-reactive protein (p = 0.02) and glycosylated haemoglobin (p = 0.04) were also higher in the cases. Logistic regression showed that patients with chronic periodontitis were more likely to have erectile dysfunction (OR=2.17; 95% CI (1.06-4.43); p = 0.03) independently of other confounders. Patients with erectile dysfunction showed worse periodontal condition. Chronic periodontitis seems to play a key role as a risk factor in the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction independently of other morbidities. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Gene therapy as future treatment of erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Naoki; Kato, Ryuichi; Chencellor, Michael B.; Nelson, Joel B.; Glorioso, Joseph C.

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a major men’s health problem. Although the high success rate of treating ED by phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors has been reported, there are a significant number of ED patients who do not respond to currently available treatment modalities. Areas covered in this review To understand the current status of gene therapy application for ED, gene therapy approaches for ED treatment are reviewed. What the reader will gain Gene therapy strategies that can enhance nitric oxide (NO) production or NO-mediated signaling pathways, growth factor-mediated nerve regeneration or K+ channel activity in the smooth muscle could be promising approaches for the treatment of ED. Although the majority of gene therapy studies are still in the preclinical phase, the first clinical trial using non-viral gene transfer of Ca2+-activated, large-conductance K+ channels into the corpus cavernosum of ED patients showed positive results. Take home message Gene therapy represents an exciting future treatment option for ED, especially for people with severe ED unresponsive to current first-line therapies such as PDE5 inhibitors although the long-term safety of both viral and non-viral gene therapies should be established. PMID:20662742

  17. The management of erectile dysfunction: innovations and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Rosario; Alemanni, Matteo

    2011-03-01

    Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are recommended as first line therapy for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). To date, three PDE5 inhibitors are on the market: sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil. These compounds are available as oral tablets; they are rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and are excreted mainly in the fces and to a lexer extent in the urine. Recently, an orodisnersible formulation of feces and, to a lesser extent, in the urine. Recently, an orodispersible formulation of vardenafil (vardenafil ODT) has been developed, which is able to dissolve in the mouth within seconds, releasing a minty flavor, without the need of being swallowed with water. The clinical studies so far performed showed that vardenafil ODT has a bioavailability superior to the traditional film-coated tablet. Among the other PDE5 inhibitors under development we report mirodenafil, lodenafil carbonate, avalafil and SLx-2101 It is likely that in the future molecules that act on pathways other than the one of NO/cGMP will be available. Such as Rho-kinase inhibitors, which inhibit the mechanism that leads to smooth muscle contraction thus allowing erection and hydrogen sulphide (H2S), an endogenous molecule synthesized from cysteine that can be both a vasodilator and a vasoconstrictor according to its concentration.

  18. The safety of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Capogrosso, Paolo; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) are the leading drugs for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED), being recommended as a first line treatment by both the European and US urological guidelines. PDE5Is are highly effective as compared to placebo, well tolerated and have a very low, though not negligible, rate of severe treatment-related adverse events. This paper reviews the safety profile of currently available PDE5Is, comparing them in a broad spectrum ED population and outlining a number of real-life aspects of importance in the real-life everyday clinical setting. Guidelines unanimously agree in considering PDE5Is as first line treatments for ED when well-tolerated and not contraindicated. Despite the fact that no high-grade evidence comparing the efficacy and the safety for PDE5Is is currently available, published data seem to suggest that there are no major differences in their safety profiles. Moreover, although oral PDE5Is were shown to cause more AEs than placebo, they were generally mild and well tolerated.

  19. The dosimetry of brachytherapy-induced erectile dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Merrick, Gregory S.; Butler, Wayne M

    2003-12-31

    There is emerging evidence that brachytherapy-induced erectile dysfunction (ED) is technique-related and may be minimized by careful attention to source placement. Herein, we review the relationship between radiation doses to the prostate gland/surrounding structures and the development of brachytherapy-induced ED. The permanent prostate brachytherapy literature was reviewed using MEDLINE searches to ensure completeness. Although the site-specific structure associated with brachytherapy-induced ED remains unknown, there is an increasing body of data implicating the proximal penis. With day 0 CT-based dosimetry, the dose to 50% (D{sub 50}) and 25% (D{sub 25}) of the bulb of the penis should be maintained below 40%more » and 60% mPD, respectively, while the crura D{sub 50} should be maintained below 28% mPD to maximize post-brachytherapy potency. To date, there is no data to suggest that either radiation doses to the neurovascular bundles or choice of isotope is associated with brachytherapy-induced ED, while conflicting data has been reported regarding radiation dose to the prostate and the use of supplemental external beam radiation therapy. Although the etiology of brachytherapy-induced ED is likely multifactorial, the available data supports the proximal penis as an important site-specific structure. Refinements in implant technique, including preplanning and intraoperative seed placement, will result in lower radiation doses to the proximal penis with potential improvement in potency preservation.« less

  20. Increased risk of osteoporosis in patients with erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Lu, Ying-Yi; Chai, Chee-Yin; Su, Yu-Feng; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Tsai, Feng-Ji; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we aimed to investigate the risk of osteoporosis in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) by analyzing data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). From the Taiwan NHIRD, we analyzed data on 4460 patients aged ≥40 years diagnosed with ED between 1996 and 2010. In total, 17,480 age-matched patients without ED in a 1:4 ratio were randomly selected as the non-ED group. The relationship between ED and the risk of osteoporosis was estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. During the follow-up period, 264 patients with ED (5.92%) and 651 patients without ED (3.65%) developed osteoporosis. The overall incidence of osteoporosis was 3.04-fold higher in the ED group than in the non-ED group (9.74 vs 2.47 per 1000 person-years) after controlling for covariates. Compared with patients without ED, patients with psychogenic and organic ED were 3.19- and 3.03-fold more likely to develop osteoporosis. Our results indicate that patients with a history of ED, particularly younger men, had a high risk of osteoporosis. Patients with ED should be examined for bone mineral density, and men with osteoporosis should be evaluated for ED. PMID:27368024

  1. Does vitamin D deficiency contribute to erectile dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, Marc; Grant, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a multifactorial disease, and its causes can be neurogenic, psychogenic, hormonal and vascular. ED is often an important indicator of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a powerful early marker for asymptomatic CVD. Erection is a vascular event, and ED is often a vascular disease caused by endothelial damage and subsequent inhibition of vasodilation. We show here that risk factors associated with a higher CVD risk also associate with a higher ED risk. Such factors include diabetes mellitus, hypertension, arterial calcification and Inflammation in the vascular endothelium. Vitamin D deficiency is one of several dynamics that associates with increased CVD risk, but to our knowledge, it has not been studied as a possible contributor to ED. Here we examine research linking ED and CVD and discuss how vitamin D influences CVD and its classic risk factors—factors that also associate to increased ED risk. We also summarize research indicating that vitamin D associates with reduced risk of several nonvascular contributing factors for ED. We conclude that VDD contributes to ED. This hypothesis should be tested through observational and intervention studies. PMID:22928068

  2. Vasculogenesis and Diabetic Erectile Dysfunction: How Relevant Is Glycemic Control?

    PubMed

    Castela, Angela; Gomes, Pedro; Silvestre, Ricardo; Guardão, Luísa; Leite, Liliana; Chilro, Rui; Rodrigues, Ilda; Vendeira, Pedro; Virag, Ronald; Costa, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a complication of diabetes, condition responsible for causing endothelial dysfunction (EDys) and hampering repair mechanisms. However, scarce information is available linking vasculogenesis mediated by Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) and diabetes-associated ED. Furthermore, it remains to be elucidated if glycemic control plays a role on EPCs functions, EPCs modulators, and penile vascular health. We evaluated the effects of diabetes and insulin therapy on bone marrow (BM) and circulating EPCs, testosterone, and systemic/penile Stromal Derived Factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α) expression. Male Wistar rats were divided into groups: age-matched controls, 8-weeks streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetics, and insulin-treated 8-weeks diabetics. EPCs were identified by flow cytometry for CD34/CD133/VEGFR2/CXCR4 antigens. Systemic SDF-1α and testosterone levels were evaluated by ELISA. Penile SDF-1α protein expression was assessed, in experimental and human diabetic cavernosal samples, by immunohistochemical techniques. Diabetic animals presented a reduction of BM-derived EPCs and an increase in putative circulating endothelial cells (CECs) sloughed from vessels wall. These alterations were rescued by insulin therapy. In addition, glycemic control promoted an increase in systemic testosterone and SDF-1α levels, which were significantly decreased in animals with diabetes. SDF-1α protein expression was reduced in experimental and human cavernosal diabetic samples, an effect prevented by insulin in treated animals. Insulin administration rescued the effects of diabetes on BM function, CECs levels, testosterone, and plasmatic/penile SDF-1α protein expression. This emphasizes the importance of glycemic control in the prevention of diabetes-induced systemic and penile EDys, by the amelioration of endothelial damage, and increase in protective pathways. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 82-91, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Sildenafil citrate for erectile dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yousheng; Wang, Jin; Luo, Hongye

    2012-04-18

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common sexual disease in male patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Sildenafil citrate is considered as an effective drug in the treatment of male ED in the general population, but it has not been systematically reviewed in patients with MS. To assess the efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate for ED in patients with MS. We searched the Cochrane (November 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 4 of 4, 2011), MEDLINE (PubMed) (January 1966 to November 2011), EMBASE (January 1974 to November 2011) and the China Biological Medicine Database (CBM) (1979 to November 2011). We searched trials registers and conference proceedings and contacted pharmaceutical company and authors of included studies for additional data. There were no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials comparing sildenafil citrate with placebo or no treatment for ED in patients with MS. Two review authors independently selected articles for inclusion, extracted data and assessed trial quality. Disagreements were resolved by discussion between review authors. Authors of included studies were contacted for additional information. Results were presented as relative risks (RR) or mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Two randomised controlled trials involving a total of 420 patients were identified. Both trials investigated the short-term efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate for ED in patients with MS. Patients taking sildenafil citrate were more likely to improve their ability to achieve and maintain an erection measured by International Index of Erectile Function and achieve vaginal penetration ( (RR 1.28, 95%CI 0.92 to 1.78) and complete intercourse measured by Sexual Encounter Profile diary (RR RR 1.38, 95%CI 1.00 to 1.90). and receive A global well respond measured by Global Assessment Question (RR 2.72, 95%CI 1.40 to 5.28) was reported. One trial showed sildenafil citrate is

  4. AB028. Current status of pharmacotherapy for erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Adaikan, P Ganesan

    2016-01-01

    The advent of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibition as oral therapy has significantly revolutionized both clinical and basic research in the area of erectile dysfunction (ED). Much of this progress is due to a better understanding in the last three decades of the various pathophysiological and cellular mechanisms contributing to ED. Apart from the three available PDE5 inhibitors viz., sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil globally at the turn of this century, four other PDE inhibitors have joined the armament in recent time; these include avanafil, lodenafil, mirodenafil and udenafil. All seven PDE inhibitors are effective therapies for the treatment of ED in men. There is no significant difference among them with respect to efficacy, safety profile and tolerability. As such, good safety profiles have widened the horizon in patient choice, selectivity and efficacy. With the ease of oral administration and better patient compliance, other measures of the past, including intracavernosal injections and non-pharmacological treatments have been relegated to second-line therapy for most patients with ED. But, PDE inhibitors as first-line oral therapies are effective in about 75% of male patients diagnosed with ED. Intracavernous injection (IC) therapy with PGE1 (alprostadil) for about 10% patient-usage in general is a well-known effective and well tolerated treatment for men with ED. It is also recommended as a second line therapy for ED along with urethral and topical PGE1. Transurethral PGE1 is less effective compared to IC PGE1. Also the transurethral dosage options are 125 to 1,000 µg, while the IC dosage options are 5 to 40 µg. The topical PGE1 (300 µg in 100 mg of the cream) is also less effective compared to IC PGE1. Topical cream is not approved in many countries as yet. Other existing vasoactive agents such as papaverine, and alpha adrenergic blockers and their combinations and the ever increasing number of other agents in the pipeline including nitric

  5. Prescription opioids for back pain and use of medications for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Deyo, Richard A; Smith, David H M; Johnson, Eric S; Tillotson, Carrie J; Donovan, Marilee; Yang, Xiuhai; Petrik, Amanda; Morasco, Benjamin J; Dobscha, Steven K

    2013-05-15

    Cross-sectional analysis of electronic medical and pharmacy records. To examine associations between use of medication for erectile dysfunction or testosterone replacement and use of opioid therapy, patient age, depression, and smoking status. Males with chronic pain may experience erectile dysfunction related to depression, smoking, age, or opioid-related hypogonadism. The prevalence of this problem in back pain populations and the relative importance of several risk factors are unknown. We examined electronic pharmacy and medical records for males with back pain in a large group model health maintenance organization during 2004. Relevant prescriptions were considered for 6 months before and after the index visit. There were 11,327 males with a diagnosis of back pain. Males who received medications for erectile dysfunction or testosterone replacement (n = 909) were significantly older than those who did not and had greater comorbidity, depression, smoking, and use of sedative-hypnotics. In logistic regressions, the long-term use of opioids was associated with greater use of medications for erectile dysfunction or testosterone replacement compared with no opioid use (odds ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.87, P < 0.01). Age, comorbidity, depression, and use of sedative-hypnotics were also independently associated with the use of medications for erectile dysfunction or testosterone replacement. Patients prescribed daily opioid doses of 120 mg of morphine-equivalents or more had greater use of medication for erectile dysfunction or testosterone replacement than patients without opioid use (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.43), even with adjustment for the duration of opioid therapy. Dose and duration of opioid use, as well as age, comorbidity, depression, and use of sedative-hypnotics, were associated with evidence of erectile dysfunction. These findings may be important in the process of decision making for the long-term use of opioids. 4.

  6. Persistent erectile dysfunction in men exposed to the 5α-reductase inhibitors, finasteride, or dutasteride

    PubMed Central

    Yarnold, Paul R.; Cashy, John; Brannigan, Robert E.; Nardone, Beatrice; Micali, Giuseppe; West, Dennis Paul

    2017-01-01

    Importance Case reports describe persistent erectile dysfunction (PED) associated with exposure to 5α-reductase inhibitors (5α-RIs). Clinical trial reports and the manufacturers’ full prescribing information (FPI) for finasteride and dutasteride state that risk of sexual adverse effects is not increased by longer duration of 5α-RI exposure and that sexual adverse effects of 5α-RIs resolve in men who discontinue exposure. Objective Our chief objective was to assess whether longer duration of 5α-RI exposure increases risk of PED, independent of age and other known risk factors. Men with shorter 5α-RI exposure served as a comparison control group for those with longer exposure. Design We used a single-group study design and classification tree analysis (CTA) to model PED (lasting ≥90 days after stopping 5α-RI). Covariates included subject attributes, diseases, and drug exposures associated with sexual dysfunction. Setting Our data source was the electronic medical record data repository for Northwestern Medicine. Subjects The analysis cohorts comprised all men exposed to finasteride or dutasteride or combination products containing one of these drugs, and the subgroup of men 16–42 years old and exposed to finasteride ≤1.25 mg/day. Main outcome and measures Our main outcome measure was diagnosis of PED beginning after first 5α-RI exposure, continuing for at least 90 days after stopping 5α-RI, and with contemporaneous treatment with a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE5I). Other outcome measures were erectile dysfunction (ED) and low libido. PED was determined by manual review of medical narratives for all subjects with ED. Risk of an adverse effect was expressed as number needed to harm (NNH). Results Among men with 5α-RI exposure, 167 of 11,909 (1.4%) developed PED (persistence median 1,348 days after stopping 5α-RI, interquartile range (IQR) 631.5–2320.5 days); the multivariable model predicting PED had four variables: prostate disease, duration

  7. Effects of moclobemide on sexual performance and nocturnal erections in psychogenic erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mann, K; Pankok, J; Leissner, J; Benkert, O

    2001-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the selective reversible MAO-A inhibitor moclobemide has a specific therapeutic effect on erectile dysfunction independent of its antidepressive properties. In a double-blind placebo controlled study, 12 male outpatients suffering from psychogenic erectile dysfunction without any other psychiatric disorder were investigated. Based on comprehensive diagnosis before the beginning of the study, organic factors relevant for sexual function were excluded. The treatment period was 8 weeks. Half the patients received 450 mg moclobemide during the first week, and 600 mg afterwards; the others received placebo. Apart from assessment of erectile function by means of the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale, nocturnal erections were measured under polysomnographic control at baseline and at the end of the treatment period. The evaluation of the CGI scale revealed a clearly stronger improvement under moclobemide compared to placebo during the study period. The therapeutic efficacy found on the subjective level had no clear correlate on the neurophysiological level. No alterations of nocturnal erectile parameters were obvious under treatment, neither were clinically relevant alterations found regarding sleep EEG parameters. The medication was well tolerated without serious adverse events. The findings support the hypothesis that moclobemide has a specific effect on erectile dysfunction. Thus, patients suffering from psychogenic erectile dysfunction who are not depressed might benefit from moclobemide without relevant side effects.

  8. Efficacy and tolerability of vardenafil for treatment of erectile dysfunction in patient subgroups.

    PubMed

    Porst, Hartmut; Young, Jay M; Schmidt, Abraham C; Buvat, Jacques

    2003-09-01

    To assess whether vardenafil would improve erectile function irrespective of etiology, baseline severity, or patient age. The consistency of the response over time was also evaluated. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled at-home study of vardenafil treatment (5, 10, and 20 mg) was performed. This secondary analysis compared the mean International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) erectile function domain scores of various subgroups at 12 weeks of treatment. These populations included organic, psychogenic, or mixed etiologies; mild, moderate, or severe baseline severity; and four age groups (younger than 45, 45 to 55, 56 to 65, and older than 65 years). In addition, all IIEF domains were compared at sequential 4-week periods, before and during treatment. In the 580 men of the intent-to-treat population, the mean erectile function domain scores were statistically greater than placebo, irrespective of etiology, baseline severity, or age. This was seen at all dosages. Compared with placebo, vardenafil statistically improved the IIEF domain scores of erectile function, orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction after 4 weeks of treatment, and these improvements were maintained for 12 weeks. The rates of the most common adverse events (headache, flushing, and dyspepsia) were either constant or declined over time; they were generally mild to moderate and transient in nature. Vardenafil improved erectile function regardless of the general etiology, baseline severity of erectile dysfunction, or patient age. Improvements in erectile function and other key IIEF domains were consistently seen throughout the study.

  9. Erectile Dysfunction in Male Adults With Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Egeberg, Alexander; Hansen, Peter R; Gislason, Gunnar H; Skov, Lone; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-03-01

    Patients with psoriasis have increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but data on atopic dermatitis (AD) are less clear-cut. However, it is well-established that erectile dysfunction (ED) can serve as a risk marker for coronary disease. To investigate the incidence, prevalence, and risk of ED in men with psoriasis and AD. The sample included all Danish men at least 30 years old. In patients with AD and psoriasis, we determined disease severity based on use of systemic therapy. We performed a cross-sectional study (January 1, 2008) using logistic regression to estimate the prevalence and odds ratio of ED. Moreover, in a cohort study design, patients were followed from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2012, and Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios of new-onset ED. Models were adjusted for potential confounding factors, including age, socioeconomic status, health care consumption, smoking, alcohol abuse, diabetes, and cholesterol-lowering drug use. The outcome was initiation of pharmacotherapy used for treatment of ED. The sample consisted of 1,756,679 Danish men (age range = 30-100 years), of which 2,373 and 26,536 had adult AD (mild = 1,072; severe = 1,301) and psoriasis (mild = 21,775; severe = 4,761), respectively. Mean ages (SDs) were 53.0 (14.6), 46.7 (12.0), and 56.3 (13.8) years for the general population, patients with AD, and patients with psoriasis, respectively. Prevalences of ED were 8.7%, 6.7%, and 12.8% for the general population, patients with AD, and patients with psoriasis, respectively. Adjusted odds ratios (logistic regression) of ED were decreased in patients with AD (0.68; 0.57-0.80) but increased in those with psoriasis (1.15; 1.11-1.20). Adjusted odds ratios for mild and severe AD were 0.63 (0.48-0.82) and 0.72 (0.58-0.88), respectively, and those for psoriasis these were 1.16 (1.11-1.21) and 1.13 (1.03-1.23). Adjusted hazard ratios (Cox regression) were 0.92 (0.76-1.11) for AD and 1.14 (1.08-1.20) for

  10. Combination therapy for male erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Zafirakis, Helen; Wang, Run; Westney, O Lenaine

    2008-01-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) and erectile dysfunction (ED) are both very prevalent conditions. Insertion of an artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) and penile prosthesis (PP) is an effective and proven method of treatment for both conditions. With advancing age, as well as with increasing populations of patients radically treated for prostate cancer, the occurrence of both conditions found in the same patient is increasing. The purpose of this article was to analyze the available evidence for simultaneous surgical management of male ED and UI using prosthetic devices. The existing literature pertaining to dual implantation of AUS and PP was reviewed. The concomitant insertion of the PP with the male perineal sling was also considered. Concurrent ED and UI are increasingly seen in the post radical prostatectomy population, who are often younger and less willing to suffer with these conditions. Insertion of an AUS and PP, either simultaneously or as a two-stage procedure, appears to be a safe, efficacious and long-lasting method of treatment. The improvements in design of both the AUS and PP as well as the development of the single transverse scrotal incision have made simultaneous insertion of these prostheses possible. Dual implantation of the PP and male sling looks promising in a selected population. In conclusion, the insertion of the AUS and PP for the treatment of concurrent UI and ED is safe and effective. Simultaneous insertion of these prostheses in the same patient offers potential advantages in operative and recovery time and is associated with high patient satisfaction. Combination therapy should therefore be included in the arsenal of treatment of these conditions.

  11. Does educational status affect a patient's behavior toward erectile dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Salonia, Andrea; Abdollah, Firas; Gallina, Andrea; Pellucchi, Federico; Castillejos Molina, Ricardo Alonso; Maccagnano, Carmen; Rocchini, Lorenzo; Zanni, Giuseppe; Rigatti, Patrizio; Montorsi, Francesco

    2008-08-01

    Educational status has been investigated rarely as a potential factor affecting the behavior of patients with new onset erectile dysfunction (ED) toward seeking first medical help and subsequent compliance with prescribed phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5) therapy. To test whether the educational status of patients with new onset ED and naïve to PDE5 therapy may have a significant impact on the delay before seeking first medical help (DSH) and compliance with the suggested PDE5. Assessing DSH and compliance with PDE5 in new onset ED patients according to their educational status by means of detailed logistic regression analyses. Data from 302 consecutive patients with new onset ED and naïve to PDE5s were comprehensively analyzed. Patients were segregated according to their educational status into low (elementary and/or secondary school education) and high (high school and/or university degrees) educational levels. Complete data were available for 231 assessable patients. Univariate (UVA) and multivariate (MVA) logistic regression analyses addressed the association between educational status and DSH after adjusting for age, relationship status, and Sexual Health Inventory for Men score. Likewise, UVA and MVA were performed to test the association between educational status and patient compliance with PDE5 at the 9-month median follow-up. Median DSH was 24 months (range 1-350; mean 38.1 +/- 42.8). The lower the educational status, the shorter the DSH (P = 0.03). In contrast, a significantly (P < 0.0001) greater proportion of patients with a higher educational status showed compliance with the suggested PDE5 at the 9-month follow-up. Overall, educational status was not an independent predictor of either DSH or patient compliance with PDE5 therapy. After adjusting for other variables, our findings suggest that in new onset ED patients, educational status does not independently affect the DSH and patient compliance with PDE5 therapy.

  12. Erectile Dysfunction in Brazilian Primary Health Care: Dealing with Medicalization

    PubMed Central

    Modesto, Antônio Augusto Dall’Agnol; Couto, Marcia Thereza

    2017-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common sexual problem and has been attracting growing interest from the field of medicine. The pharmaceutical industry works together with medical associations to popularize the theme, emphasizing individual enhancement and medication, besides reinforcing an idea of a male sexuality defined by the ability to have an erection and penetrate. Patients worried about erection problems search for general practitioners (GPs), frequently without a clear complaint, and a comprehensive primary health care (PHC) must be capable of dealing with these issues considering medicalization and disease mongering. This article discusses how PHC physicians take (and might take) care of men with erection problems, and how users perceive it and search for help in two cities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The qualitative research, performed in five PHC services, included semistructured interviews with 16 GPs and 15 adult male users. The adult male users were invited by their doctors during consultations where questions about prostate, ED, or other sexual problems arose. Interviews were transcribed and submitted for content analysis. In addition, the five participating services were observed with help of a specific script. Results indicate that ED is frequently a hidden agenda and that doctors have trouble approaching the problem, usually focusing on the biological aspects. Based on empirical data and literature, this work indicates some measures to qualify the care of men with ED in PHC which includes contemplating users’ questions, respecting their autonomy, avoiding an antidrug stance, and considering drug and nondrug approaches as a continuum of resources. PMID:29076407

  13. Increased Risk of Dementia in Patients With Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun-Ming; Shen, Yuan-Chi; Weng, Shih-Feng; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Tien, Kai-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a well-known predictor for future cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. However, the relationship between ED and dementia has rarely been examined. This study investigates the longitudinal risk for Alzheimer's disease and non-Alzheimer dementia in patients with ED. We collected a random sample of 1,000,000 individuals from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database. From this sample, we identified 4153 patients with newly diagnosed ED between 2000 and 2009 and compared them with a matched cohort of 20,765 patients without ED. All patients were tracked for 7 years from the index date to identify which of them subsequently developed dementia. During the 7-year follow-up period, the incidence rate of dementia in the ED cohort was 35.33 per 10,000 person-years. In the comparison groups, it was 21.67 per 10,000 person-years. After adjustment for patients characteristics and comorbidities, patients with ED were 1.68-times more likely to develop dementia than patients without ED (95% CI = 1.34–2.10, P < 0.0001). In addition, older patients and those with diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, stroke, depression, and anxiety were found to be at increased risk for dementia. Analyzing the data by dementia type, we found the hazard risk for Alzheimer's disease and non-Alzheimer dementia to be greater in patients with ED (adjusted HR 1.68, 95% CI = 1.31–2.16, P < 0.0001 and 1.63, 95% CI = 1.02–2.62, P = 0.0429, respectively). Log-rank test revealed that patients with ED had significantly higher cumulative incidence rates of dementia than those without (P < 0.0001). Patients with ED are at an increased risk for dementia later in life. PMID:26091478

  14. Association between erectile dysfunction and chronic periodontitis: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Ranjit Singh; Bhandari, Rajat; Singh, Karanparkash

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, evidence has come forth supporting the notion that localized infectious diseases such as periodontal disease may indeed influence a number of systemic diseases. Erectile dysfunction (ED) and chronic periodontitis have common risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, cardiac diseases and smoking etc. The aim was to evaluate the periodontal status of the subjects suffering from ED and to find association between vasculogenic ED and chronic periodontitis, if any. A total of 53 subjects suffering from vasculogenic ED were enrolled for the study and were divided into three groups on the basis of severity of ED. The clinical (probing pocket depth) and radiographic parameters (alveolar bone loss) were recorded and periodontal status of three groups was evaluated, compared and an attempt was made to find an association between ED and chronic periodontitis. Karl Pearson's correlation was used to assess an association between the two conditions. One-way ANOVA and Scheffe's test were used to find the significant difference of chronic periodontitis with severity of ED. Karl Pearson's correlation was used to find an association between chronic periodontitis and ED. Statistically significant mean differences of 1.73 mm, 0.56 mm and 1.17 mm were recorded when comparison was made among Group I and III, Group I and II and Group II and III, respectively. Mean differences in bone loss among three groups were also statistically significant. Both the diseases were positively correlated to each other. It may be concluded that chronic periodontitis and ED are associated with each other. However, further large scale studies with confounder analysis and longitudinal follow-up are warranted to explore the link between these two diseases.

  15. Prevalence of androgen deficiency in men with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Tobias S; Kim, Johnny; Feia, Kendall; Bodie, Josh; Johnson, Nick; Makhlouf, Antoine; Monga, Manoj

    2008-04-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) and androgen deficiency in aging men are two separate clinical entities that often overlap. Controversy exists regarding the most appropriate total testosterone level that defines androgen deficiency in aging men, and its prevalence in men with ED is still uncertain. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of low and low-normal testosterone levels in men presenting for an initial ED evaluation. The computerized charts from 1987 to 2002 of 2794 men aged 25 to 80 years and presenting with a primary complaint of ED who also had serum total testosterone levels measured were retrospectively reviewed. Multiple testosterone level cutpoints and a linear regression model (including age, diabetes, cholesterol, anemia, creatinine, and prostate-specific antigen) were used to analyze the factors that correlated with hypogonadism. The prevalence of androgen deficiency was 7%, 23%, 33%, and 47% for testosterone levels of less than 200, less than 300, less than 346, and less than 400 ng/dL, respectively. An abrupt increase in hypogonadism prevalence occurred in men aged 45 to 50, beyond which a plateau of prevalence was maintained until older than 80 years of age. Age, the presence of uncontrolled diabetes, high total cholesterol, and anemia all correlated with significantly decreased testosterone levels in men with ED. The prostate-specific antigen level and creatinine did not affect the testosterone levels. Androgen deficiency was quite common in men presenting with ED and correlated significantly with age, uncontrolled diabetes, hypercholesteremia, and anemia. Although additional prospective studies evaluating the effect of testosterone supplementation in this population are needed, clinicians, including urologists, should be keenly aware of the large overlap of patients with ED who might also have the entity, androgen deficiency in the aging male.

  16. Low Intensity Shock Wave Treatment for Erectile Dysfunction-How Long Does the Effect Last?

    PubMed

    Kitrey, Noam D; Vardi, Yoram; Appel, Boaz; Shechter, Arik; Massarwi, Omar; Abu-Ghanem, Yasmin; Gruenwald, Ilan

    2018-03-01

    We studied the long-term efficacy of penile low intensity shock wave treatment 2 years after an initially successful outcome. Men with a successful outcome of low intensity shock wave treatment according to the minimal clinically important difference on the IIEF-EF (International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function) questionnaire were followed at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Efficacy was assessed by the IIEF-EF. Failure during followup was defined as a decrease in the IIEF-EF below the minimal clinically important difference. We screened a total of 156 patients who underwent the same treatment protocol but participated in different clinical studies. At 1 month treatment was successful in 99 patients (63.5%). During followup a gradual decrease in efficacy was observed. The beneficial effect was maintained after 2 years in only 53 of the 99 patients (53.5%) in whom success was initially achieved. Patients with severe erectile dysfunction were prone to earlier failure than those with nonsevere erectile dysfunction. During the 2-year followup the effect of low intensity shock wave treatment was lost in all patients with diabetes who had severe erectile dysfunction at baseline. On the other hand, patients with milder forms of erectile dysfunction without diabetes had a 76% chance that the beneficial effect of low intensity shock wave treatment would be preserved after 2 years. Low intensity shock wave treatment is effective in the short term but treatment efficacy was maintained after 2 years in only half of the patients. In patients with milder forms of erectile dysfunction the beneficial effect is more likely to be preserved. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression of the apelin-APJ pathway and effects on erectile function in a mouse model of vasculogenic erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mi-Hye; Tuvshintur, Buyankhuu; Kim, Woo Jean; Jin, Hai-Rong; Yin, Guo Nan; Song, Kang-Moon; Choi, Min Ji; Kwon, Ki-Dong; Batbold, Dulguun; Ryu, Ji-Kan; Suh, Jun-Kyu

    2013-12-01

    Much attention has recently been focused on therapeutic angiogenesis as a treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). The apelin and apelin receptor (APJ) system is known to cause endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and to be involved in angiogenesis. To examine the differential expression of apelin and APJ in animal models of vasculogenic ED and to determine whether and how enhancement of apelin-APJ signaling restores erectile function in hypercholesterolemic mice. Acute cavernous ischemia was induced in C57BL/6J mice by bilateral occlusion of internal iliac arteries, and chronic vasculogenic ED was induced by feeding a high-cholesterol diet or by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of apelin and APJ were determined in cavernous tissue of each vasculogenic ED model by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We evaluated erectile function by electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve in hypercholesterolemic mice 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after a single intracavernous injection of apelin protein (5 μg/20 μL). The penis was harvested for histologic examinations and Western blot analysis. The cavernous mRNA expression of apelin and APJ was up-regulated in acute ischemia model and down-regulated in chronic vasculogenic ED models. A significant restoration of erectile function was noted 1 day after injection of apelin protein into the penis of hypercholesterolemic mice; however, erectile function returned to baseline values thereafter. The beneficial effects of apelin on erectile function resulted mainly from an activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and increase in nitric oxide bioavailability through reduction in reactive oxygen species-mediated endothelial apoptosis rather than through direct endothelial cell proliferation. These findings suggest that apelin-APJ signaling is a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of vasculogenic ED. Further studies are needed to develop a potent

  18. [Levitra (oral dispersible tablet)--an innovative drug for the treatment of patients with erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Korneev, I A

    2013-01-01

    The arsenal of professionals providing assistance to men with erectile dysfunction includes a new, mouth dissolving dosage form of the vardenafil--levitra ODT. This form is effective, safe, and has a higher bioavailability as compared to vardenafil in the form of coated tablets. POTENT I and POTENT II studies revealed that levitra ODT equally successfully corrects erectile dysfunction in men younger and older than 65 years regardless of concomitant diseases and metabolic disorders: hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia. In addition, it was found that this drug helped to successfully carry out sexual intercourse in the first 15 minutes after dosing in 62.5% of patients. This allows to widely recommend levitra ODT for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in young men and older men.

  19. Sildenafil citrate for the management of antidepressant-associated erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Nurnberg, H George; Hensley, Paula L

    2003-01-01

    Sexual side effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as antidepressant-associated erectile dysfunction, are common and negatively impact treatment compliance. Current management approaches have important limitations, and most lack clear and meaningful efficacy in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. A MEDLINE search (English language, 1966-2003) was performed using the terms antidepressive agents, erectile dysfunction, and sildenafil. Emphasis was placed on studies that used specific sexual function measurements and were placebo controlled. Sildenafil citrate, a selective and competitive inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5, enhances the cyclic guanosine monophosphate-mediated relaxation of cavernosal smooth muscles in response to sexual stimulation, permitting vascular engorgement and penile erection. The efficacy and tolerability of sildenafil in the treatment of antidepressant-associated erectile dysfunction have been confirmed in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

  20. Carotid artery intima-media thickness and erectile dysfunction in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Unal, Mustafa; Aksoy, Duygu Yazgan; Aydın, Yusuf; Tanriover, Mine Durusu; Berker, Dilek; Karakaya, Jale; Guler, Serdar

    2014-05-29

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) has become a pandemic in Turkey, as is the case globally. Increase in carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and erectile dysfunction (ED) may be evident before the clinical signs of cardiovascular disease appear. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of increased CIMT and ED as markers of atherosclerotic disease in patients with MS. Thirty-two patients with MS and 29 healthy controls were included. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, along with total testosterone (TT), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), were recorded. Carotid artery intima-media thickness was measured. Erectile dysfunction was assessed with International Index of Erectile Function. Patients with MS had higher BMI, fasting plasma glucose, post-prandial plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides, hs-CRP, and CIMT, whereas TT levels were lower (p<0.0001). The prevalence and severity of erectile dysfunction were higher in patients with MS (p<0.0001). Erectile dysfunction scores correlated inversely with CIMT. MS patients with ED were older and had higher CIMT compared to those without ED. Increase in age and HOMA and decrease in TT increased the risk of ED. When KIMT exceeding the 95th percentile of healthy controls was accepted as a risk factor for CVD, presence of ED was the only determinant for this increase. Erectile dysfunction was more prevalent and severe in patients with MS and correlated with subclinical endothelial dysfunction. Total testosterone deficiency was prominent among MS patients. Presence of ED points to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease when MS is present.

  1. Molecular targets for diabetes mellitus-associated erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yohannes, Elizabeth; Chang, Jinsook; Tar, Moses T; Davies, Kelvin P; Chance, Mark R

    2010-03-01

    Protein expression profiles in rat corporal smooth muscle tissue were compared between animal models of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (STZ-DM) and age-matched controls (AMCs) at 1 week and 2 months after induction of hyperglycemia with STZ treatment. At each time point, protein samples from four STZ-DM and four AMC rat corpora tissues were prepared independently and analyzed together across multiple quantitative two-dimensional gels using a pooled internal standard sample to quantify expression changes with statistical confidence. A total of 170 spots were differential expressed among the four experimental groups. A subsequent mass spectrometry analysis of the 170 spots identified a total of 57 unique proteins. Network analysis of these proteins using MetaCore suggested altered activity of transcriptional factors that are of too low abundance to be detected by the two-dimensional gel method. The proteins that were down-regulated with diabetes include isoforms of collagen that are precursors to fibril-forming collagen type 1; Hsp47, which assists and mediates the proper folding of procollagen; and several proteins whose abundance is controlled by sex hormones (e.g. CRP1 and A2U). On the other hand, proteins seen or predicted to be up-regulated include proteins involved in cell apoptosis (e.g. p53, 14-3-3-gamma, Serpinf1, Cct4, Cct5, and Sepina3n), proteins that neutralize the biological activity of nerve growth factor (e.g. anti-NGF 30), and proteins involved in lipid metabolism (e.g. apoA-I and apoA-IV). Subsequent Western blot validation analysis of p53, 14-3-3-gamma, and Hsp47 confirmed increased p53 and 14-3-3-gamma and decreased Hsp47 levels in separate samples. According to the results from the Western blot analysis, Hsp47 protein showed a approximately 3-fold decrease at 1 week and was virtually undetectable at 2 months in diabetic versus control. Taken together, our results identify novel candidate proteins playing a role in erectile dysfunction

  2. Molecular Targets for Diabetes Mellitus-associated Erectile Dysfunction*

    PubMed Central

    Yohannes, Elizabeth; Chang, Jinsook; Tar, Moses T.; Davies, Kelvin P.; Chance, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Protein expression profiles in rat corporal smooth muscle tissue were compared between animal models of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (STZ-DM) and age-matched controls (AMCs) at 1 week and 2 months after induction of hyperglycemia with STZ treatment. At each time point, protein samples from four STZ-DM and four AMC rat corpora tissues were prepared independently and analyzed together across multiple quantitative two-dimensional gels using a pooled internal standard sample to quantify expression changes with statistical confidence. A total of 170 spots were differential expressed among the four experimental groups. A subsequent mass spectrometry analysis of the 170 spots identified a total of 57 unique proteins. Network analysis of these proteins using MetaCoreTM suggested altered activity of transcriptional factors that are of too low abundance to be detected by the two-dimensional gel method. The proteins that were down-regulated with diabetes include isoforms of collagen that are precursors to fibril-forming collagen type 1; Hsp47, which assists and mediates the proper folding of procollagen; and several proteins whose abundance is controlled by sex hormones (e.g. CRP1 and A2U). On the other hand, proteins seen or predicted to be up-regulated include proteins involved in cell apoptosis (e.g. p53, 14-3-3-γ, Serpinf1, Cct4, Cct5, and Sepina3n), proteins that neutralize the biological activity of nerve growth factor (e.g. anti-NGF 30), and proteins involved in lipid metabolism (e.g. apoA-I and apoA-IV). Subsequent Western blot validation analysis of p53, 14-3-3-γ, and Hsp47 confirmed increased p53 and 14-3-3-γ and decreased Hsp47 levels in separate samples. According to the results from the Western blot analysis, Hsp47 protein showed a ∼3-fold decrease at 1 week and was virtually undetectable at 2 months in diabetic versus control. Taken together, our results identify novel candidate proteins playing a role in erectile dysfunction in diabetes

  3. Modifying Risk Factors in the Management of Erectile Dysfunction: A Review

    PubMed Central

    DeLay, Kenneth J; Haney, Nora

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is prevalent among men and its presence is often an indicator of systemic disease. Risk factors for ED include cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), tobacco use, hyperlipidemia, hypogonadism, lower urinary tract symptoms, metabolic syndrome, and depression. Addressing the modifiable risk factors frequently improves a patient's overall health and increases lifespan. The literature suggests that smoking cessation, treatment of hyperlipidemia, and increasing physical activity will improve erectile function in many patients. How the treatment of DM, depression, and hypogonadism impacts erectile function is less clear. Clinicians need to be aware that certain antihypertensive agents can adversely impact erectile function. The treatment of men with ED needs to address the underlying risk factors to ameliorate the disease process. PMID:27574592

  4. SOP conservative (medical and mechanical) treatment of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Porst, Hartmut; Burnett, Arthur; Brock, Gerald; Ghanem, Hussein; Giuliano, Francois; Glina, Sidney; Hellstrom, Wayne; Martin-Morales, Antonio; Salonia, Andrea; Sharlip, Ira

    2013-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most frequently treated male sexual dysfunction worldwide. ED is a chronic condition that exerts a negative impact on male self-esteem and nearly all life domains including interpersonal, family, and business relationships. The aim of this study is to provide an updated overview on currently used and available conservative treatment options for ED with a special focus on their efficacy, tolerability, safety, merits, and limitations including the role of combination therapies for monotherapy failures. The methods used were PubMed and MEDLINE searches using the following keywords: ED, phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, oral drug therapy, intracavernosal injection therapy, transurethral therapy, topical therapy, and vacuum-erection therapy/constriction devices. Additionally, expert opinions by the authors of this article are included. Level 1 evidence exists that changes in sedentary lifestyle with weight loss and optimal treatment of concomitant diseases/risk factors (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) can either improve ED or add to the efficacy of ED-specific therapies, e.g., PDE5 inhibitors. Level 1 evidence also exists that treatment of hypogonadism with total testosterone < 300 ng/dL (10.4 nmol/L) can either improve ED or add to the efficacy of PDE5 inhibitors. There is level 1 evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of the following monotherapies in a spectrum-wide range of ED populations: PDE5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injection therapy with prostaglandin E1 (PGE1, synonymous alprostadil) or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/phentolamine, and transurethral PGE1 therapy. There is level 2 evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of the following ED treatments: vacuum-erection therapy in a wide range of ED populations, oral L-arginine (3-5 g), topical PGE1 in special ED populations, intracavernosal injection therapy with papaverine/phentolamine (bimix), or papaverine/phentolamine/PGE1 (trimix

  5. Central obesity is an independent predictor of erectile dysfunction in older men.

    PubMed

    Riedner, Charles Edison; Rhoden, Ernani Luis; Ribeiro, Eduardo Porto; Fuchs, Sandra Costa

    2006-10-01

    There is a growing body of evidence in the literature correlating erectile dysfunction to obesity. We investigated the correlation of different anthropometric indexes of central obesity to erectile dysfunction. A cross-sectional study was performed including 256 consecutive men 40 years old or older. All men completed the International Index of Erectile Function, and were evaluated routinely with a clinical history, physical examination and blood analysis for fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and serum testosterone. Anthropometric measures included body mass index, waist circumference, sagittal abdominal diameter, maximal abdominal circumference, and waist-hip, waist-thigh, waist-height, sagittal abdominal diameter-thigh and sagittal abdominal diameter-height indexes. In men 40 to 60 years old the different anthropometric indexes of central obesity were not correlated with the presence of erectile dysfunction (p > 0.05). Men older than 60 years (41%, range 61 to 81) demonstrated an association among erectile dysfunction and waist-hip index (p = 0.04), waist-thigh index (p = 0.02), sagittal abdominal diameter (p = 0.03), sagittal abdominal diameter-height index (p = 0.02) and maximal abdominal circumference (p = 0.04). After logistic regression analysis an independent effect on the presence of erectile dysfunction was observed for waist-hip index (OR 8.56, 95% CI 1.44-50.73), sagittal abdominal diameter (OR 7.87, 95% CI 1.24-49.75), sagittal abdominal diameter-height index (OR 14.21, 95% CI 1.11-182.32), maximum abdominal circumference (OR 11.72, 95% CI 1.73-79.18) and waist circumference (OR 19.37, 95% CI 1.15-326.55). This study suggests that central obesity, assessed by several anthropometric indicators, is associated to the presence of erectile dysfunction in men older than 60 years. Sagittal abdominal diameter, sagittal abdominal diameter-height index, maximum abdominal circumference, waist circumference and waist-hip index were useful indicators to predict

  6. History of erectile dysfunction as a predictor of poor physical performance after an acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Compostella, Leonida; Compostella, Caterina; Truong, Li Van Stella; Russo, Nicola; Setzu, Tiziana; Iliceto, Sabino; Bellotto, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    Background Erectile dysfunction may predict future cardiovascular events and indicate the severity of coronary artery disease in middle-aged men. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether erectile dysfunction (expression of generalized macro- and micro-vascular pathology) could predict reduced effort tolerance in patients after an acute myocardial infarction. Patients and methods One hundred and thirty-nine male patients (60 ± 12 years old), admitted to intensive cardiac rehabilitation 13 days after a complicated acute myocardial infarction, were evaluated for history of erectile dysfunction using the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire. Their physical performance was assessed by means of two six-minute walk tests (performed two weeks apart) and by a symptom limited cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). Results Patients with erectile dysfunction (57% of cases) demonstrated poorer physical performance, significantly correlated to the degree of erectile dysfunction. After cardiac rehabilitation, they walked shorter distances at the final six-minute walk test (490 ± 119 vs. 564 ± 94 m; p < 0.001); at CPET they sustained lower workload (79 ± 28 vs. 109 ± 34 W; p < 0.001) and reached lower oxygen uptake at peak effort (18 ± 5 vs. 21 ± 5 ml/kg per min; p = 0.003) and at anaerobic threshold (13 ± 3 vs.16 ± 4 ml/kg per min; p = 0.001). The positive predictive value of presence of erectile dysfunction was 0.71 for low peak oxygen uptake (<20 ml/kg per min) and 0.69 for reduced effort capacity (W-max <100 W). Conclusions As indicators of generalized underlying vascular pathology, presence and degree of erectile dysfunction may predict the severity of deterioration of effort tolerance in post-acute myocardial infarction patients. In the attempt to reduce the possibly associated long-term risk, an optimization of type, intensity and duration of cardiac rehabilitation should be

  7. Interactions between lower urinary tract symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors determine distinct patterns of erectile dysfunction: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, João A B A; Muracca, Eduardo; Nakano, Élcio; Assalin, Adriana R; Cordeiro, Paulo; Paranhos, Mario; Cury, José; Srougi, Miguel; Antunes, Alberto A

    2013-12-01

    An epidemiological association between lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction is well established. However, interactions among multiple risk factors and the role of each in pathological mechanisms are not fully elucidated We enrolled 898 men undergoing prostate cancer screening for evaluation with the International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) and simplified International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaires. Age, race, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, serum hormones and anthropometric parameters were also evaluated. Risk factors for erectile dysfunction were identified by logistic regression. The 333 men with at least mild to moderate erectile dysfunction (IIEF 16 or less) were included in a latent class model to identify relationships across erectile dysfunction risk factors. Age, hypertension, diabetes, lower urinary tract symptoms and cardiovascular event were independent predictors of erectile dysfunction (p<0.05). We identified 3 latent classes of patients with erectile dysfunction (R2 entropy=0.82). Latent class 1 had younger men at low cardiovascular risk and a moderate/high prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms. Latent class 2 had the oldest patients at moderate cardiovascular risk with an increased prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms. Latent class 3 had men of intermediate age with the highest prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and lower urinary tract symptoms. Erectile dysfunction severity and lower urinary tract symptoms increased from latent class 1 to 3. Risk factor interactions determined different severities of lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction. The effect of lower urinary tract symptoms and cardiovascular risk outweighed that of age. While in the youngest patients lower urinary tract symptoms acted as a single risk factor for erectile dysfunction, the contribution of vascular disease resulted in significantly more severe

  8. Cavernosal arterial insufficiency is a major component of erectile dysfunction in some recipients of high-dose chemotherapy/chemo-radiotherapy for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, R; Andrews, H O; McGarrigle, H H; Kottaridis, P D; Lees, W R; Mackinnon, S; Ralph, D J; Goldstone, A H

    2000-06-01

    We studied 24 male patients aged 26-62 years (median 41) prospectively presenting over a 5 year period with clinical features of hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction (ED), who had been treated with autologous or allogeneic bone marrow/stem cell transplant for a variety of haematological malignancies and had received either high-dose chemotherapy or high-dose chemotherapy combined with total body irradiation (TBI). Ten healthy adult controls (aged 35-50 years) were also studied. Erectile dysfunction (ED) was assessed clinically and by colour flow Doppler studies of the cavernosal vessels. Testicular function was assessed by testicular volume including orchidometry, FSH, LH and testosterone measurements. Libido and ejaculatory function were also recorded. Patients had severe hypogonadism as evidenced by low mean testicular volume (7.0 +/- 2.4 ml vs 20 +/- 2.0 ml; P < 0.001), elevated gonadotrophins (FSH = 18.54 +/- 7.61 vs 5 IU/l (P < 0.001); LH = 8.02 +/- 2.89 vs 3. 9 IU/l (P < 0.001)) and low normal mean testosterone levels (16.4 nmol/l +/- 9.1 vs 22.4 nmol/l (P < 0.5)). Cavernosal arterial insufficiency was found in 11/14 of TBI-treated and in 3/10 HDC-treated patients, indicative of vasculogenic damage to corpora cavernosal vessels. Patients were given a therapeutic trial with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). Those who had diminished libido had a marked improvement in their symptoms but the effect of TRT on ED was equivocal. In conclusion, this is the first report to show vasculogenic insufficiency in patients with haematological malignancies treated by BMT. Although hypogonadism can account for diminished libido, arteriogenic insufficiency is likely to be an important factor accounting for ED in these patients, especially those treated by TBI. We recommend a comprehensive assessment including endocrine profile and colour flow Doppler study in formulating the best management plan in recipients of high-dose therapy presenting after transplant with ED.

  9. Erectile dysfunction in patients with chronic viral hepatitis: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Ferdinando; D'Anzeo, Gianluca; Rossi, Andrea; Sciorio, Carmine; Buonomo, Antonio Riccardo; d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Borgia, Guglielmo; Mirone, Vincenzo; Gentile, Ivan

    2013-12-01

    This article reviews the literature on epidemiology and pathogenetic factors of erectile dysfunction in patients with chronic viral hepatic (CVH) diseases in men and the potential implications for diagnosis and treatment. A search to identify original articles, reviews and any other article suitable for the purposes of this review was conducted by combining the following terms: erectile dysfunction and/or sexual dysfunction, chronic viral hepatitis, hepatitis B virus infection and hepatitis C virus infection. The results of this review have led to the following main observations: i) there is scarce documentation on the association between CVH and sexual dysfunction; ii) hormonal impairment seems to be a major component in the development of erectile dysfunction in CVH; however, published evidence concerning the contribution of other pathogenetic factors is rare and inconclusive and iii) available treatment options for CVH potentially contribute to the development of sexual dysfunction in these patients. Due to the scarce body of evidence, more research is needed to better clarify the mechanisms underlying the association between CVH and sexual dysfunction, the impact of therapy and associated comorbidities on sexual dysfunction and the role of pharmacological treatments in the management of these patients.

  10. hSMR3A as a Marker for Patients With Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yuehong; Tar, Moses; Monrose, Val; DiSanto, Michael; Melman, Arnold; Davies, Kelvin P.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose We recently reported that Vcsa1 is one of the most down-regulated genes in the corpora of rats in 3 distinct models of erectile dysfunction. Since gene transfer of plasmids expressing Vcsa1 or intracorporeal injection of its mature peptide product sialorphin into the corpora of aging rats was shown to restore erectile function, we proposed that the Vcsa1 gene has a direct role in erectile function. To determine if similar changes in gene expression occur in the corpora of human subjects with erectile dysfunction we identified a human homologue of Vcsa1 (hSMR3A) and determined the level of expression of hSMR3A in patients. Materials and Methods hSMR3A was identified as a homologue of Vcsa1 by searching protein databases for proteins with similarity. hSMR3A cDNA was generated and subcloned into the plasmid pVAX to generate pVAX-hSMR3A. pVAX-hSMR3A (25 or 100 μg) was intracorporeally injected into aging rats. The effect on erectile physiology was compared histologically and by measuring intracorporeal pressure/blood pressure with controls treated with the empty plasmid pVAX. Total RNA was extracted from human corporeal tissue obtained from patients undergoing previously scheduled penile surgery. Patients were grouped according to normal erectile function (3), erectile dysfunction and diabetes (5) and patients without diabetes but with erectile dysfunction (5). Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the hSMR3A expression level. Results Intracorporeal injection of 25 μg pVAX-hSMR3A was able to significantly increase the intracorporeal pressure-to-blood pressure ratio in aging rats compared to age matched controls. Higher amounts (100 μg) of gene transfer of the plasmid caused less of an improvement in the intracorporeal pressure-to-blood pressure ratio compared to controls, although there was histological and visual evidence that the animals were post-priapitic. These physiological effects were similar to previously

  11. hSMR3A as a marker for patients with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yuehong; Tar, Moses; Monrose, Val; DiSanto, Michael; Melman, Arnold; Davies, Kelvin P

    2007-07-01

    We recently reported that Vcsa1 is one of the most down-regulated genes in the corpora of rats in 3 distinct models of erectile dysfunction. Since gene transfer of plasmids expressing Vcsa1 or intracorporeal injection of its mature peptide product sialorphin into the corpora of aging rats was shown to restore erectile function, we proposed that the Vcsa1 gene has a direct role in erectile function. To determine if similar changes in gene expression occur in the corpora of human subjects with erectile dysfunction we identified a human homologue of Vcsa1 (hSMR3A) and determined the level of expression of hSMR3A in patients. hSMR3A was identified as a homologue of Vcsa1 by searching protein databases for proteins with similarity. hSMR3A cDNA was generated and subcloned into the plasmid pVAX to generate pVAX-hSMR3A. pVAX-hSMR3A (25 or 100 microg) was intracorporeally injected into aging rats. The effect on erectile physiology was compared histologically and by measuring intracorporeal pressure/blood pressure with controls treated with the empty plasmid pVAX. Total RNA was extracted from human corporeal tissue obtained from patients undergoing previously scheduled penile surgery. Patients were grouped according to normal erectile function (3), erectile dysfunction and diabetes (5) and patients without diabetes but with erectile dysfunction (5). Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the hSMR3A expression level. Intracorporeal injection of 25 microg pVAX-hSMR3A was able to significantly increase the intracorporeal pressure-to-blood pressure ratio in aging rats compared to age matched controls. Higher amounts (100 microg) of gene transfer of the plasmid caused less of an improvement in the intracorporeal pressure-to-blood pressure ratio compared to controls, although there was histological and visual evidence that the animals were post-priapitic. These physiological effects were similar to previously reported effects of

  12. [Transcranial magneto- and electrostimulation in patients with obesity and erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Ponomarenko, G N; Bin'iash, T G; Raĭgorodskiĭ, Iu M; Guliaev, A S; Shul'diakov, V A; Kiriliuk, A M; Vartanova, L Iu

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate therapeutic efficiency of transcranial magnetotherapy (TcMT) and electric stimulation (ES) included in the combined treatment of 143 patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and abdominal obesity. The majority of the patients had waist circumference over 102 cm. An AMO-ATOS complex was used to stimulate the hypothalamic region and other brain structures. Transdermal myostimulation of the abdominal and femoral regions was achieved with a Miovolna device. It was shown that both TcM and ES improved lipid metabolism and erectile function; moreover, they exerted hypotensive and sedative action. Specifically, the testosterone level in the patients increased by a mean of 27% compared with the pre-treatment values while the number of patients complaining of erectile dysfunction decreased by 31%.

  13. Measurement of endothelial dysfunction via peripheral arterial tonometry predicts vasculogenic erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Jason R.; Gomez, Lissette; Smith, Ryan P.; Coward, Robert M.; Gonzales, Marshall A.; Khera, Mohit; Lamb, Dolores J.; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Endothelial cell dysfunction is associated with cardiovascular disease and vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (ED). Measured via Peripheral Artery Tonometry (PAT), endothelial dysfunction in the penis is an independent predictor of future cardiovascular events. Aim Determine whether measurement of endothelial dysfunction differentiates men with vasculogenic ED identified by duplex ultrasound from those without. Methods A total of 142 men were retrospectively assessed using patient history, penile duplex ultrasonography (US) and PAT (EndoPAT 2000). ED was self reported and identified on history. Vasculogenic ED was identified in men who exhibited a peak systolic velocity (PSV) of ≤25 cm/s obtained 15 minutes following vasodilator injection. The reactive hyperemia index (RHI), a measurement of endothelial dysfunction in medium/small arteries and the Augmentation Index (AI), a measurement of arterial stiffness, were recorded via PAT. Results Penile duplex US separated men into those with ED (n=111) and without (n=31). The cohort with ED had a PSV of 21±1 cm/s (left cavernous artery) and 22±1 cm/s (Right). The control group without ED had values of 39±2 cm/s (Left) and 39±2 (Right). Given the potential for altered endothelial function in diabetes mellitus, we confirmed that hemoglobin A1c, urinary microalbumin, and vibration pulse threshold were not different in men with vasculogenic ED and those without. RHI in patients with ED (1.85±0.06) was significantly decreased compared to controls (2.15±0.2) (p<0.05). The AI was unchanged when examined in isolation, and when standardized to heart rate. Conclusions Measurement of endothelial function with EndoPAT differentiates men with vasculogenic ED from those without. RHI could be used as a non-invasive surrogate in the assessment of vasculogenic ED and to identify those patients with higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:24784889

  14. Pyrano-isoflavones with erectile-dysfunction activity from Eriosema kraussianum.

    PubMed

    Drewes, Siegfried E; Horn, Marion M; Munro, Orde Q; Dhlamini, Jabu T B; Meyer, J J Marion; Rakuambo, N Christopher

    2002-04-01

    Five pyrano-isoflavones have been isolated from the rootstock of Eriosema kraussianum N. E. Br (Papilionaceae). Spectral data and single crystal X-ray analyses were used for structural elucidation. The most active of the compounds had an activity of 75% of that found in Viagra in the erectile dysfunction test on rabbit penile smooth muscle.

  15. A case of erectile dysfunction and risk factors for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kloner, R A

    2005-12-01

    The hypothetical case of a man with erectile dysfunction and multiple cardiovascular risk factors is presented to illustrate the use of the second Princeton Consensus Conference Guidelines. Methods to optimize efficacy of the phosphodiesterase inhibitors are described. The overall cardiovascular safety of the phosphodiesterase inhibitors and their interaction with organic nitrates and alpha blockers are discussed.

  16. Brain structural network topological alterations of the left prefrontal and limbic cortex in psychogenic erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianhuai; Chen, Yun; Gao, Qingqiang; Chen, Guotao; Dai, Yutian; Yao, Zhijian; Lu, Qing

    2018-05-01

    Despite increasing understanding of the cerebral functional changes and structural abnormalities in erectile dysfunction, alterations in the topological organization of brain networks underlying psychogenic erectile dysfunction remain unclear. Here, based on the diffusion tensor image data of 25 patients and 26 healthy controls, we investigated the topological organization of brain structural networks and its correlations with the clinical variables using the graph theoretical analysis. Patients displayed a preserved overall small-world organization and exhibited a less connectivity strength in the left inferior frontal gyrus, amygdale and the right inferior temporal gyrus. Moreover, an abnormal hub pattern was observed in patients, which might disturb the information interactions of the remaining brain network. Additionally, the clustering coefficient of the left hippocampus was positively correlated with the duration of patients and the normalized betweenness centrality of the right anterior cingulate gyrus and the left calcarine fissure were negatively correlated with the sum scores of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. These findings suggested that the damaged white matter and the abnormal hub distribution of the left prefrontal and limbic cortex might contribute to the pathogenesis of psychogenic erectile dysfunction and provided new insights into the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of psychogenic erectile dysfunction.

  17. Evaluation and treatment of erectile dysfunction in the aging male: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Albersen, Maarten; Orabi, Hazem; Lue, Tom F

    2012-01-01

    Before the 20th century, individuals often did not live beyond the reproductive years, and sexuality of the elderly was not an issue. However, in the current era it is known that as life expectancy improves, both men and women are seeking to preserve their sexuality into old age. While the appreciation of sexuality persists with aging, a decline in sexual activity is typically seen with, and can be attributed to both general health problems as well as specific sexual dysfunctions. Erectile dysfunction is the most frequently diagnosed sexual dysfunction in the older male population. This mini-review provides an overview of contemporary literature concerning epidemiology, pathophysiology, assessment and treatment of erectile dysfunction in the aging male. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Does penile rehabilitation have a role in the treatment of erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Blecher, Gideon; Almekaty, Khaled; Kalejaiye, Odunayo; Minhas, Suks

    2017-01-01

    In men undergoing radical treatment for prostate cancer, erectile function is one of the most important health-related quality-of-life outcomes influencing patient choice in treatment. Penile rehabilitation has emerged as a therapeutic measure to prevent erectile dysfunction and expedite return of erectile function after radical prostatectomy. Penile rehabilitation involves a program designed to increase the likelihood of return to baseline-level erectile function, as opposed to treatment, which implies the therapeutic treatment of symptoms, a key component of post–radical prostatectomy management. Several pathological theories form the basis for rehabilitation, and a plethora of treatments are currently in widespread use. However, whilst there is some evidence supporting the concept of penile rehabilitation from animal studies, randomised controlled trials are contradictory in outcomes. Similarly, urological guidelines are conflicted in terms of recommendations. Furthermore, it is clear that in spite of the lack of evidence for the role of penile rehabilitation, many urologists continue to employ some form of rehabilitation in their patients after radical prostatectomy. This is a significant burden to health resources in public-funded health economies, and no effective cost-benefit analysis has been undertaken to support this practice. Thus, further research is warranted to provide both scientific and clinical evidence for this contemporary practice and the development of preventative strategies in treating erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy. PMID:29152231

  19. Does penile rehabilitation have a role in the treatment of erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy?

    PubMed

    Blecher, Gideon; Almekaty, Khaled; Kalejaiye, Odunayo; Minhas, Suks

    2017-01-01

    In men undergoing radical treatment for prostate cancer, erectile function is one of the most important health-related quality-of-life outcomes influencing patient choice in treatment. Penile rehabilitation has emerged as a therapeutic measure to prevent erectile dysfunction and expedite return of erectile function after radical prostatectomy. Penile rehabilitation involves a program designed to increase the likelihood of return to baseline-level erectile function, as opposed to treatment, which implies the therapeutic treatment of symptoms, a key component of post-radical prostatectomy management. Several pathological theories form the basis for rehabilitation, and a plethora of treatments are currently in widespread use. However, whilst there is some evidence supporting the concept of penile rehabilitation from animal studies, randomised controlled trials are contradictory in outcomes. Similarly, urological guidelines are conflicted in terms of recommendations. Furthermore, it is clear that in spite of the lack of evidence for the role of penile rehabilitation, many urologists continue to employ some form of rehabilitation in their patients after radical prostatectomy. This is a significant burden to health resources in public-funded health economies, and no effective cost-benefit analysis has been undertaken to support this practice. Thus, further research is warranted to provide both scientific and clinical evidence for this contemporary practice and the development of preventative strategies in treating erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy.

  20. Evaluation of the Causes of Erectile Dysfunction in Patients Undergoing Penile Doppler Ultrasonography in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khanzada, Usman; Khan, Sohail Ahmed; Hussain, Munawar; Adel, Hatem; Masood, Kamran; Manohar, Murli

    2017-01-01

    Purpose In patients with erectile dysfunction, it is important to differentiate psychogenic from organic causes. Penile Doppler ultrasonography is a relatively inexpensive and minimally invasive tool for this purpose. This study was conducted to evaluate the causes of erectile dysfunction in an adult male population, using penile Doppler ultrasonography. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was conducted in a single center. All patients who presented with complaints of erectile dysfunction and underwent penile Doppler ultrasonography between July 2014 and June 2016 were included in this study. All examinations were performed using GE Voluson S6 and GE Logiq P5 devices. Following baseline scans, an intracavernosal injection of 20 µg of prostaglandin E1 was given. Peak systolic and end diastolic velocities were measured in each cavernosal artery. Patients with a peak systolic velocity of <25 cm/s were considered to have arterial insufficiency, while an end diastolic velocity of >5 cm/s was considered to indicate venous incompetence. Results Out of 97 patients (mean age, 37.09±11.59 years; range, 19~69 years), 50 patients (51.5%) had normal findings, 24 patients (24.7%) had arterial insufficiency, 15 patients (15.5%) had a venous leak, and 8 patients (8.2%) patients had arterial insufficiency with a venous leak. Psychogenic erectile dysfunction was significantly higher among patients aged ≤40 years, while arterial insufficiency with or without a venous leak was significantly higher among patients aged >40 years (p=0.022). Conclusions A majority of the studied individuals demonstrated no organic cause of erectile dysfunction, thus confirming a high prevalence of the psychogenic etiology, particularly in relatively young individuals. PMID:28459144

  1. Focus on phosphodiesterase inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in older men.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mary

    2011-11-01

    Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDEIs) are the drugs of choice for the medical management of erectile dysfunction independent of the etiology of the disorder. This review focuses on specific aspects of clinical use of PDEIs in older men with erectile dysfunction. An electronic search of MEDLINE was conducted for articles published between January 1990 and January 2011 using the terms erectile dysfunction and PDEIs and limited to articles in English, humans, and males aged ≥45 years. The search was also conducted in EMBASE using the same search criteria for literature indexed between 1990 and 2010. A total of 1341 articles were identified. Of these, ∼91 were selected for this review. Sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil are considered equally effective for erectile dysfunction, but they differ in some ways. Tadalafil's 36-hour duration of action allows for repeated sexual intercourse without the need to take additional medication in some patients, which is distinctly different from the shorter-acting sildenafil and vardenafil. Unlike tadalafil, the rate and extent of oral absorption of sildenafil and vardenafil are reduced by consumption of high-fat meals. Although headache, flushing, and rhinitis occur with all 3 PDEIs, cyanopsia is more common with sildenafil and vardenafil, and back pain is more common with tadalafil. Approximately 40% to 50% of patients who initially fail to respond to PDEIs can be salvaged with education and up-titration of dosing. PDEIs can be used in addition to antihypertensive medications in patients with well-controlled essential hypertension without producing clinically significant hypotension. Use of PDEIs in patients with cardiovascular disease is guided by the recommendations of the Second Princeton Consensus Conference. For the management of lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia, PDEIs may reduce obstructive voiding symptoms, but they do not increase urinary flow rate. PDEIs are effective for

  2. Erectile Dysfunction: A Review of Historical Treatments With a Focus on the Development of the Inflatable Penile Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gurtner, Kristen; Saltzman, Amanda; Hebert, Kristi; Laborde, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction has been a concern for men since the beginning of written history. For many men it can lead to severe psychological distress and humiliation. The treatment of erectile dysfunction has advanced significantly over the past 200 years. Men today are presented with many more viable therapy options leading to improved efficacy and more satisfactory sex lives. The objective of this article is to explore historical options for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, with particular emphasis on the development and progression of the inflatable penile prosthesis. PMID:26206161

  3. Sildenafil improves erectile hardness in Chinese men with erectile dysfunction: a real-life study analyzed on age stratification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Xu, Ben; Liu, Defeng; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Jichuan; Deng, Chunhua; Jin, Jie; Jiang, Hui

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of sildenafil for the improvement of penile erection hardness in erectile dysfunction (ED) patients and to determine the relationship between this improvement in erection hardness and social and psychological functioning. From 2007 to 2008, a total of 4507 men diagnosed with ED were enrolled from 46 centers in China; 4039 of these patients were treated with sildenafil and asked to complete the Erectile Function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function, Erection Hardness Score, and Quality of Erection Questionnaire. The patients were divided into 5 groups on the basis of their age (group A: 20-30 years; group B: 31-40 years; group C: 41-50 years; group D: 51-60 years; and group E: >60 years). A total of 3837 (95.0%) patients completed the entire study. After sildenafil treatment, the vast majority (96.3%) of the men were able to achieve grade 3-4 erection hardness. Patients with a better baseline erection hardness were more able to achieve grade 4 hardness after treatment (P <.001). Comparisons of the Erection Hardness Score improvement before and after treatment between the age-categorized groups also showed that the erection hardness improvement was much greater in men older than 50 years. Sildenafil can help the vast majority of Chinese ED patients achieve grade 3-4 erection hardness. Grade 4 hardness can improve the patients' sexual life to a greater extent than grade 3 hardness. A marked improvement in erection hardness can be achieved in patients older than 50 years. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of vascular endothelial growth factor on a rat model of traumatic arteriogenic erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Chan; El-Sakka, Ahmed I; Graziottin, Tulio M; Ho, Hao-Chung; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Lue, Tom F

    2002-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that intracavernous injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can restore erectile function in a rat model of traumatic arteriogenic erectile dysfunction. Exploration of bilateral internal iliac arteries was performed in 50, 3-month-old male rats. A total of 44 rats underwent bilateral ligation of the internal iliac arteries and 6 that underwent exploration only served as the sham operated group. Minutes later intracavernous injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) plus bovine serum albumin in 16 rats, 2 microg. VEGF plus PBS plus BSA in 12 and 4 microg. VEGF plus PBS plus BSA in 16 was performed. At weeks 1, 2 and 6 about a third of the rats in each group underwent electrostimulation of the cavernous nerves to assess erectile function and were then sacrificed. Penile tissues were collected for histochemical and electron microscopy examinations. No impairment of erectile function was noted in sham operated rats. Immediately after arterial ligation all rats showed little or no erectile response to neurostimulation. In PBS treated rats modest recovery of erectile function was noted at week 6. Significant recovery of erectile function was noted in VEGF treated rats at weeks 1 and 2 in the 4 microg. group only and at week 6 in the 2 and 4 microg. groups. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase staining showed a reduction in neuronal nitric oxide synthase positive nerve fibers in the dorsal or intracavernous nerves at week 1. Moderate recovery of neuronal nitric oxide synthase positive nerve fibers was noted in the 2 and 4microg. VEGF treated groups but not in the PBS treated group. Electron microscopy revealed no pathological change in sham operated rats. In dorsal nerves the atrophy of myelinated and nonmyelinated nerve fibers was noted in ligated plus PBS treated rats. Partial recovery was observed in VEGF treated rats. Scattered atrophic smooth muscle cells were seen in PBS and occasionally in VEGF treated rats but not in the sham

  5. [Sex, erectile dysfunction, and the heart: a growing problem].

    PubMed

    Görge, Günter; Flüchter, Stephan; Kirstein, Michael; Kunz, Thomas

    2003-06-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the inability to attain and/or maintain penile erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. ED may also be an early sign of cardiovascular disease. The main risk factors for coronary heart disease (high LDL, smoking, hypertension, diabetes) and ED are the same. ED after the diagnosis of coronary artery disease or myocardial infarction is also common. Cardiac and metabolic expenditures during sexual intercourse will vary depending on the type of sexual activity. When oxygen uptake was measured in men, an average metabolic expenditure during stimulation and orgasm of 2.5 metabolic equivalents (METs) was found for woman-on-top coitus, and of 3.3 METs for man-on-top coitus (range 2.0-5.4 METs). However, coital death is rare, encompassing only 0.6% of all sudden death cases. A retrospective case-crossover study has shown that although sexual activity can trigger the onset of myocardial infarction, the relative risk in the 2 h after sexual activity was low (2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-3.7). Sexual activity was a likely contributor to the onset of myocardial infarction only 0.9% of the time. Regular exercise appears to prevent triggering. It has to be cautioned that these reassuring data should not be extrapolated to patients taking sildenafil, if they perform at higher cardiac and metabolic expenditures during coitus. The hemodynamic changes associated with sexual activity may be far greater with an unfamiliar partner, in unfamiliar settings, and after excessive eating and drinking. The Princeton Consensus Table for estimation of cardiovascular risk during sexual intercourse gives a first orientation regarding the question which patients can perform sex safely and which subgroup needs further diagnosis and treatment. PHOSPHODIESTERASE-5 INHIBITORS FOR ED TREATMENT: The introduction of sildenafil has been a valuable contribution to the treatment of ED. Sildenafil acts as a selective inhibitor of cyclic

  6. Sacral neuromodulation for lower urinary tract dysfunction and impact on erectile function.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Giuseppe; Mondaini, Nicola; Giubilei, Gianluca; Macchiarella, Angelo; Lecconi, Filippo; Del Popolo, Giulio

    2008-09-01

    The first sacral nerve stimulators were for urinary urgency incontinence, urgency-frequency, and nonobstructive urinary retention. Since then, observations have been made for benefits beyond voiding disorders. To evaluate if sacral neuromodulation (SNM) using the InterStim system (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) improves erectile function. From January 1999 to January 2007, 54 males, mean age 42.8, underwent a permanent SNM for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Pre-SNM only subjects with concomitant erectile impairment according to the five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5), with normal blood sexual hormonal status, and responding to an intracavernous injection test 10 microg were enrolled in our study. Three months after permanent implantation, the IIEF-5 was completed again. Those who benefited significantly in erectile function completed the IIEF-5 semiannually. A final checkup was performed in July 2007. A score of IIEF-5 equal to or higher than 25% compared to baseline indicated remarkable clinical enhancement. Presurgery, two patients were excluded. Overall, 22 subjects (42.3%) showed erectile impairment (14 were neurogenic). In the first visit post-SNM, five retentionists of neurogenic origin and two with overactive bladder syndrome of idiopathic origin achieved noticeable erectile improvement. Their median IIEF-5 score shifted from 14.6 to 22.2, and 15.5 to 22.5, respectively. During follow-up, two neurogenics lost the benefits concerning voiding and erection and recovered them after a new implant in the contralateral sacral S3 root. In the final visit, the seven responders reached an IIEF-5 score of at least 22. Our study showed a clinically important benefit of sexual function mainly for neurogenic retentionists. Future research should test SNM in a larger sample of subjects, exclusively with sexual dysfunctions, in order to better understand the mechanism of action of SNM on erectile function.

  7. Basic Science Evidence for the Link Between Erectile Dysfunction and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Musicki, Biljana; Bella, Anthony J.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Davies, Kelvin P.; DiSanto, Michael E.; Gonzalez-Cadavid, Nestor F.; Hannan, Johanna L.; Kim, Noel N.; Podlasek, Carol A.; Wingard, Christopher J.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although clinical evidence supports an association between cardiovascular/metabolic diseases (CVMD) and erectile dysfunction (ED), scientific evidence for this link is incompletely elucidated. Aim This study aims to provide scientific evidence for the link between CVMD and ED. Methods In this White Paper, the Basic Science Committee of the Sexual Medicine Society of North America assessed the current literature on basic scientific support for a mechanistic link between ED and CVMD, and deficiencies in this regard with a critical assessment of current preclinical models of disease. Results A link exists between ED and CVMD on several grounds: the endothelium (endothelium-derived nitric oxide and oxidative stress imbalance); smooth muscle (SM) (SM abundance and altered molecular regulation of SM contractility); autonomic innervation (autonomic neuropathy and decreased neuronal-derived nitric oxide); hormones (impaired testosterone release and actions); and metabolics (hyperlipidemia, advanced glycation end product formation). Conclusion Basic science evidence supports the link between ED and CVMD. The Committee also highlighted gaps in knowledge and provided recommendations for guiding further scientific study defining this risk relationship. This endeavor serves to develop novel strategic directions for therapeutic interventions. PMID:26646025

  8. [Erectile dysfunction: results of the Brazilian Sexual Life Study].

    PubMed

    Abdo, Carmita Helena Najjar; Oliveira, Waldemar Mendes de; Scanavino, Marco de Tubino; Martins, Fernando Gonini

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of ED and related risk factors in a sample of the Brazilian male population. Cross-sectional study was carried out with a convenience sample of 2,862 men, 18 years of age or older, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. ED prevalence in the sample was obtained by a general question which was directly derived from the ED definition. Data were submitted to chi-square or Student's t tests. Logistic regression analyses were used for risk factor calculations. The prevalence of ED was 45.1% (31.2% mild, 12.2% moderate and 1.7% complete). Subjects with ED presented lower self-esteem, hindered interpersonal relationships, fewer sexual intercourses per week, more extra-marital relationships, complaints of lack of libido and premature ejaculation. When compared with men aged 18-39 years, men aged 60-69 presented 2.2 higher risk of ED (95% CI; 1.4-3.4; p < 0.01), whereas men aged 70 or older presented 3.0 higher risk of ED (95% CI; 1.4-6.3; p < 0.01). Level of education was inversely proportional to risk of ED. Yellow race, unemployment, religious affiliation, prostate tumor, hypertension and depression were variables that increased ED risk. The prevalence of ED was high and comparable to that found in other studies. Subjects with ED suffer from less sexual activity and poorer quality of life. Age and lower socioeconomic level are directly proportional to ED risk. Therapeutic and preventive measures should be implemented to minimize the negative impact of this condition, especially in developing countries.

  9. Pharmacological Prevention and Reversion of Erectile Dysfunction After Radical Prostatectomy, by Modulation of Nitric Oxide/cGMP Pathways

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    then sacrificed, body weights obtained, and paraffin-embedded tissue sections from the skin - denuded penile shaft were subjected to Masson trichrome...responsible for vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (ED) associated with aging , smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and post-radical prostatectomy. These...Pending. PI: Gonzalez-Cadavid NF (2009). Erectile Dysfunction and Nitric Oxide Synthase in Aging . RO1 DK53069-07 (resubmission). 11/09-10/14. No

  10. Erectile Dysfunction Precedes Coronary Artery Endothelial Dysfunction in Rats Fed a High-Fat, High-Sucrose, Western Pattern Diet

    PubMed Central

    La Favor, Justin D.; Anderson, Ethan J.; Hickner, Robert C.; Wingard, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It is suggested that erectile dysfunction (ED) may be an early risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Aim The goal of this study was to determine whether development of ED precedes the onset of coronary artery endothelial dysfunction in response to a Western diet (WD), thereby establishing whether the WD differentially impacts the endothelium in a time-dependent manner. Additionally, a goal was to determine if diet-induced ED is reversible with intracavernosal sepiapterin treatment. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a WD for 4, 8, or 12 weeks, or a control diet for 8 weeks. Erectile function was evaluated by measuring the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and intracavernosal pressure (ICP) in response to electrical field stimulation of the cavernosal nerve near the major pelvic ganglion, in the absence and presence of sepiapterin. Coronary artery endothelial function was evaluated ex vivo with cumulative doses of acetylcholine (ACh) applied to segments of the left anterior descending coronary artery preconstricted with serotonin. Main Outcome Measures Erectile function was assessed as the ICP response to electrical field stimulation (EFS), normalized to MAP. Coronary artery endothelial function was assessed as the effective concentration producing 50% of a maximal response (EC50) of the ACh response. Results The ICP/MAP response to EFS was significantly attenuated following both 8 and 12 weeks of the WD compared with the control diet (P < 0.05). Sepiapterin treatment augmented the ICP/MAP response in all WD groups (P < 0.05). The coronary artery EC50 of the ACh response was not different from control following 4 or 8 weeks but was significantly elevated following 12 weeks of the WD (P < 0.01). Conclusions These data suggest that erectile function is reduced prior to coronary artery endothelial function in response to the WD. Improvement of erectile function with sepiapterin in WD rats indicates that nitric oxide synthase uncoupling is a key

  11. Advances in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: what’s new and upcoming?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Chintan K.; Bennett, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction adversely affects up to 20% of all men and is the most commonly treated sexual disorder. The public health implications of this condition are significant and represent a challenge for our healthcare system. The physiological pathways responsible for erections have been extensively studied, and much advancement has been made since the introduction of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors. Newer agents, such as dopaminergic and melanocortin receptor agonists, which target central erectogenic pathways, are under investigation. Newer formulations and delivery methods of existing medications such as alprostadil will also be introduced in the near future. Furthermore, low-intensity shockwave lithotripsy and stem cell regenerative techniques are innovative approaches to the treatment of erectile dysfunction. PMID:27516878

  12. High Triglycerides Predicts Arteriogenic Erectile Dysfunction and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Subjects With Sexual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Cipriani, Sarah; Rastrelli, Giulia; Sforza, Alessandra; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2016-09-01

    The atherogenic role of triglycerides (TG) remains controversial. The aim of the present study is to analyze the contribution of TG in the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction (ED) and to verify the value of elevated TG in predicting major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). An unselected series of 3,990 men attending our outpatient clinic for sexual dysfunction was retrospectively studied. A subset of this sample (n = 1,687) was enrolled in a longitudinal study. Several clinical, biochemical, and instrumental (penile color Doppler ultrasound; PCDU) factors were evaluated. Among the patients studied, after adjustment for confounders, higher TG levels were associated with arteriogenic ED and a higher risk of clinical and biochemical hypogonadism. Conversely, no association between TG and other sexual dysfunctions was observed. When pathological PCDU parameters-including flaccid acceleration (<1.17 m/sec(2)) or dynamic peak systolic velocity (PSV <35 cm/sec)-were considered, the negative association between impaired penile flow and higher TG levels was confirmed, even when subjects taking lipid-lowering drugs or those with diabetes were excluded from the analysis (OR = 6.343 [1.243;32.362], P = .026 and 3.576 [1.104;11.578]; P = .34 for impaired acceleration and PSV, respectively). Similarly, when the same adjusted models were applied, TG levels were associated with a higher risk of hypogonadism, independently of the definition criteria (OR = 2.892 [1.643;5.410], P < .0001 and 4.853 [1.965;11.990]; P = .001 for total T <12 and 8 nM, respectively). In the longitudinal study, after adjusting for confounders, elevated TG levels (upper quartile: 162-1686 mg/dL) were independently associated with a higher incidence of MACE (HR = 2.469 [1.019;5.981]; P = .045), when compared to the rest of the sample. Our data suggest an association between elevated TG and arteriogenic ED and its cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification. Whether the use of TG lowering drugs

  13. Variable coding sequence protein A1 as a marker for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yuehong; Tar, Moses; Davelman, Felix; Christ, George; Melman, Arnold; Davies, Kelvin P

    2006-08-01

    To investigate whether variable coding sequence protein A1 (Vcsa1) is down-regulated in rat models of diabetes and ageing, and to investigate the role of Vcsa1 in erectile function, as Vcsa1 is the most down-regulated gene in the corpora of a rat model of neurogenic erectile dysfunction (ED). Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain reaction was used to determine Vcsa1 expression in the corpora of rats in three models of ED, i.e. streptozotocin-induced diabetes, retired breeder (old), and neurogenic (bilaterally ligated cavernosal nerves), and in control rats. To confirm a physiological role of Vcsa1 in erectile function, we carried out gene transfer studies using a plasmid in which Vcsa1 was expressed from a cytomegalovirus promoter (pVAX-Vcsa1). This plasmid was injected intracorporally into old rats, and the effect on physiology of corporal tissue was analysed by intracorporal/blood pressure (ICP/BP) measurement and histological analysis, and compared with the effects of a positive control plasmid (pVAX-hSlo, which we previously reported to restore erectile function in diabetic and ageing rats) and a negative control plasmid (pVAX). In each rat model of ED there was a significant down-regulation of the Vcsa1 transcript of at least 10-fold in corporal tissue. Remarkably, intracorporal injection with 80 microg pVAX-Vcsa1 caused priapism, as indicated by visible prolonged erection, histological appearance, and elevated resting ICP/BP. Lower doses of pVAX-Vcsa1 (5 and 25 microg) increased ICP/BP over that in untreated controls. These results show that Vcsa1 has a role in erectile function and might be a molecular marker for organic ED. The role of Vcsa1 in erectile function suggests that it could represent a novel therapeutic target for treating ED.

  14. Efficacy and safety of vardenafil in men with erectile dysfunction caused by spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, F; Rubio-Aurioles, E; Kennelly, M; Montorsi, F; Kim, E D; Finkbeiner, A E; Pommerville, P J; Colopy, M W; Wilkins, H J; Wachs, B H

    2006-01-24

    To assess the efficacy and tolerability of vardenafil in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) due to traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group 12-week study, 418 men aged 18 years and older with ED for more than 6 months consequent to SCI were randomized to vardenafil (n = 207) or placebo (n = 211) (10 mg for 4 weeks, then maintained or titrated to 5 or 20 mg at weeks 4 and 8). Efficacy assessments included the erectile function (EF) domain score of the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire and diary questions regarding penetration, maintenance of erection to completion of intercourse, and ejaculation. Baseline patient characteristics were similar in the vardenafil (mean age 40 years) and placebo (mean age 39 years) groups. Mean baseline EF domain scores were 11.6 in the vardenafil group and 12.1 (moderate ED) in the placebo group. EF domain score in the vardenafil group improved to 22.0 (mild ED) at last observation carried forward vs 13.5 in the placebo group (p < 0.001). Over 12 weeks of treatment, mean per-patient penetration (76% vs 41%), maintenance (59% vs 22%), and ejaculation (19% vs 10%) success rates were significantly greater vs placebo (all p < 0.001). The most frequently reported drug-related adverse events were headache (vardenafil 15%, placebo 4%), flushing (vardenafil 6%, placebo 0%), nasal congestion (vardenafil 5%, placebo 0%), and dyspepsia (vardenafil 4%, placebo 0%). Vardenafil significantly improved erectile and ejaculatory function and was generally well tolerated in men with erectile dysfunction due to spinal cord injury.

  15. [Evaluation of visual stimulation combined with intracavernous injections for the treatment of severe erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Galiano, Marc; Rouprêt, Morgan; Beley, Sébastien; Gattegno, Bernard; Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel; Richard, François

    2007-04-01

    To assess the value of visual sexual stimulation combined with intracavernous injections (ICI) in patients treated for severe erectile dysfunction. All patients with severe erectile dysfunction were prospectively included in this study between 2005 and 2006. The outpatient protocol consisted of comparing the efficacy of alprostadil ICI alone on D0 and ICI combined with erotic stimulation on D8. End-points were: time to onset and rigidity of erection. A subjective score (1 to 5) was used to quantify erection. Forty patients with a mean age of 64.5 years (range: 52-70 years) were included in the study. All patients had an IIEF5 score less than 15. Erectile dysfunction was secondary to urological surgery in 35% of cases. The mean time to onset of erection was 10 min 18 s (range: 2-20 min) on D0 and 10 min 50 s (range: 2-20 min) on D8. No significant difference for rigidity and quality of erection was observed between D0 and D8 and erections were scored as 5 in 30 cases (75%), 4 in 8 cases (20%) and 3 in 2 cases (5%) at each visit. Visual sexual stimulation has not been demonstrated to be truly effective in the hospital setting in combination with intracavernous injections. In order to increase the patient satisfaction rate, the urologist must above all educate the patient in the intracavernous injection technique in an appropriate environment.

  16. [Combined treatment of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Tomilov, A A; Golubtsova, E N

    2013-01-01

    In men of middle and older age group, urination disorders and erectile dysfunction are often combined. The role of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in the treatment of these patients remains uninvestigated. Prospective study included 38 patients with urination disorders and erectile dysfunction. The average age of the patients was 63.6 +/- 5.3 years. During first three months of observation, all patients have received alpha-adrenoblocker doxazosin at a dose of 4 mg once daily per os, the next three months--phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor udenafil at a dose of 50 mg once daily per os was added to doxazosin. 3 months after treatment, majority of patients reported improvement of urination. The statistically significant changes in BP and heart rate were not recorded, indicating a satisfactory tolerability and safety of doxazosin. Against the background of combined treatment during next 3 months, progressive improvement of erectile function (IIEF score 12.8 +/- 3.4 vs 18.4 +/- 3.7; p < 0.05), and regression of urination disorders, according to IPSS score (13.4 +/- 1.2 vs 11.2 +/- 1.7; p < 0.05) were observed. Uroflowmetric indicators were not significantly changed. Based on experimental and clinical studies, it was suggested that the dysregulation of NO--cGMP system, pathological activation of Rho-kinase pathways, hyperactivity of autonomic innervation, atherosclerosis and impaired blood flow in the pelvic organs are the common pathophysiological mechanisms for LUTS and erectile dysfunction. The clinical efficacy of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in the treatment of patients with these diseases is explained by its effects on these mechanisms.

  17. Clinical characteristics of older male military veterans seeking treatment for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Beaudreau, Sherry A; Rideaux, Tiffany; Zeiss, Robert A

    2011-02-01

    Male sexual dysfunction is a significant international public health issue affecting both middle-aged and older adults. To date, however, no studies have compared age differences in psychiatric issues, frequency of sexual activity and treatment recommendations between older and middle-aged male military Veterans seeking treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED) in the U.S.A. Data were collected between 1982 and 2003 at the Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Andrology Clinic. The 1,250 participants, aged 22 to 87 years (median = 63), completed a semi-structured interview. Using multiple linear regressions, we examined age differences in five domains: medical and endocrine risk factors; psychiatric and psychosocial risk factors; frequency of sexual behaviors; self-reported and objectively measured erectile function; and treatment recommendations. Compared with middle-aged adults, older adults were more likely to present for ED treatment with medical risk factors and were more often recommended a vacuum pump treatment. Middle-aged male Veterans were more likely to experience psychiatric risk factors for ED and were more sexually active than older Veterans. Despite greater objective erectile ability in middle-aged adults, there were no age differences in maximum self-reported erectile functioning. These results provide some evidence of age-related characteristics and treatment needs of male patients seeking treatment for sexual dysfunction. We encourage health care professionals working with adults across the lifespan to consider ways to individualize psychoeducation and brief psychotherapy for the treatment of ED to the specific needs of the patient, which may vary between middle-aged and older cohorts of patients.

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life in Men with Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, Mark S; Nied, Robert J; Dhanani, Nasreen

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in men with erectile dysfunction. DESIGN Descriptive survey with general and disease-specific measures. The instrument contained three established, validated HRQOL measures, a validated comorbidity checklist, and sociodemographics. The RAND 36-Item Health Survey 1.0 (SF-36) was used to assess general HRQOL. Sexual function and sexual bother were assessed using the UCLA Prostate Cancer Index. The marital interaction scale from the Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System Short Form (CARES-SF) was used to assess each patient's relationship with his sexual partner. SETTING Urology clinics at a university medical center and the affiliated Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-five (67%) of 54 consecutive university patients presenting for erectile dysfunction and 22 (42%) of 52 VA patients who were awaiting a previously prescribed vacuum erection device participated. MAIN RESULTS The university respondents scored slightly lower than population normals in social function, role limitations due to emotional problems, and emotional well-being. The VA respondents scored lower than expected in all eight domains. Scores for the VA population were significantly lower than those for the university population in physical function, role limitations due to physical problems, bodily pain, and social function. A significant correlation was seen between marital interaction and sexual function (r = −.33, p = .01) but not between marital interaction and sexual bother (r = −.15, p = .26) in the total sample. Sexual function also correlated significantly with general health perceptions (r = .34, p = .01), role limitations due to physical problems (r = .29, p = .03), and role limitations due to emotional problems (r = .30, p = .03). Sexual bother did not correlate with any of the general HRQOL domains. Affluent men reported better sexual function (p = .03). CONCLUSIONS The emotional domains of the SF-36 are

  19. Testosterone and Erectile Function: From Basic Research to a New Clinical Paradigm for Managing Men with Androgen Insufficiency and Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Traish, Abdulmaged M.; Goldstein, Irwin; Kim, Noel N.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Androgens are essential for the development and growth of the penis, and they regulate erectile physiology by multiple mechanisms. Our goal is to provide a concise overview of the basic research and how this knowledge can be translated into a new clinical paradigm for patient management. In addition, this new paradigm may serve as a basis for stimulating constructive debate regarding the use of testosterone in men, and to promote new, innovative basic and clinical research to further understand the underlying mechanisms of androgen action in restoring erectile physiology. Methods A literature review was performed utilizing the US National Library of Medicine's PubMed database. Results On the basis of evidence derived from laboratory animal studies and clinical data, we postulate that androgen insufficiency disrupts cellular-signaling pathways and produces pathologic alterations in penile tissues, leading to erectile dysfunction. In this review, we discuss androgen-dependent cellular, molecular, and physiologic mechanisms modulating erectile function in the animal model, and the implication of this knowledge in testosterone use in the clinical setting to treat erectile dysfunction. The new clinical paradigm incorporates many of the consensed points of view discussed in traditional consensed algorithms exclusively designed for men with androgen insufficiency. There are, however, novel and innovative differences with this new clinical paradigm. This paradigm represents a fresh effort to provide mandatory and optional management strategies for men with both androgen insufficiency and erectile dysfunction. Conclusions The new clinical paradigm is evidence-based and represents one of the first attempts to address a logical management plan for men with concomitant hormonal and sexual health concerns. PMID:17329016

  20. Nanoparticles as a Novel Delivery Vehicle for Therapeutics Targeting Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Han, George; Tar, Moses; Kuppam, Dwaraka S. R.; Friedman, Adam; Melman, Arnold; Friedman, Joel; Davies, Kelvin P.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Nanoparticles represent a potential novel mechanism for transdermal delivery of erectogenic agents directly to the penis. Aim To determine if nanoparticles encapsulating known erectogenic agents (tadalafil, sialorphin, and nitric oxide [NO]) can improve erectile function in a rat model of erectile dysfunction (ED) as a result of aging (the Sprague-Dawley retired breeder rat). Methods Nanoparticles encapsulating the erectogenic agents were applied as a gel to the glans and penile shaft of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats and the intracorporal pressure/blood pressure (ICP/BP) monitored for up to 2 hours with or without stimulation of the cavernous nerve. Control nanoparticles were made without encapsulating erectogenic agents and applied in a similar manner in separate experiments. Results Nanoparticles encapsulating NO caused spontaneous visible erections in the rat, with an average time of onset of 4.5 minutes, duration of 1.42 minutes, and ICP/BP of 0.67 ± 0.14. The sialorphin nanoparticles also caused visible spontaneous erections after an average of 4.5 minutes, with a duration of 8 minutes and ICP/BP ratio of 0.72 ± 0.13. The difference in the erectile response between groups of animals treated with NO or sialorphin nanoparticles was significantly different from the control group treated with empty nanoparticles (P < 0.05) Tadalafil nanoparticles showed a significant increase in the mean ICP/BP (0.737 ± 0.029) following stimulation of the cavernous nerve (4 mA) 1 hour after application of the nanoparticles with a visibly improved erectile response. Conclusions Nanoparticles encapsulating three different erectogenic agents resulted in increased erectile function when applied to the penis of a rat model of ED. Nanoparticles represent a potential novel route for topical delivery of erectogenic agents which could improve the safety profile for existing orally administered drugs by avoiding effects of absorption and first-pass metabolism, and would

  1. Nanoparticles as a novel delivery vehicle for therapeutics targeting erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Han, George; Tar, Moses; Kuppam, Dwaraka S R; Friedman, Adam; Melman, Arnold; Friedman, Joel; Davies, Kelvin P

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticles represent a potential novel mechanism for transdermal delivery of erectogenic agents directly to the penis. To determine if nanoparticles encapsulating known erectogenic agents (tadalafil, sialorphin, and nitric oxide [NO]) can improve erectile function in a rat model of erectile dysfunction (ED) as a result of aging (the Sprague-Dawley retired breeder rat). Nanoparticles encapsulating the erectogenic agents were applied as a gel to the glans and penile shaft of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats and the intracorporal pressure/blood pressure (ICP/BP) monitored for up to 2 hours with or without stimulation of the cavernous nerve. Control nanoparticles were made without encapsulating erectogenic agents and applied in a similar manner in separate experiments. Nanoparticles encapsulating NO caused spontaneous visible erections in the rat, with an average time of onset of 4.5 minutes, duration of 1.42 minutes, and ICP/BP of 0.67 +/- 0.14. The sialorphin nanoparticles also caused visible spontaneous erections after an average of 4.5 minutes, with a duration of 8 minutes and ICP/BP ratio of 0.72 +/- 0.13. The difference in the erectile response between groups of animals treated with NO or sialorphin nanoparticles was significantly different from the control group treated with empty nanoparticles (P < 0.05) Tadalafil nanoparticles showed a significant increase in the mean ICP/BP (0.737 +/- 0.029) following stimulation of the cavernous nerve (4 mA) 1 hour after application of the nanoparticles with a visibly improved erectile response. Nanoparticles encapsulating three different erectogenic agents resulted in increased erectile function when applied to the penis of a rat model of ED. Nanoparticles represent a potential novel route for topical delivery of erectogenic agents which could improve the safety profile for existing orally administered drugs by avoiding effects of absorption and first-pass metabolism, and would be less hazardous than injection.

  2. Self-Esteem, Confidence, and Relationships in Men Treated with Sildenafil Citrate for Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Althof, Stanley E; O' Leary, Michael P; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Glina, Sidney; King, Rosie; Tseng, Li-Jung; Bowler, Jessica L

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Men with erectile dysfunction (ED) often have low self-esteem, confidence, and sexual relationship satisfaction. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the impact of sildenafil citrate and its generalizability across cultures on self-esteem, confidence, and sexual relationship satisfaction in men with ED using the Self-Esteem And Relationship (SEAR) questionnaire. DESIGN Pooled analysis of 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose trials of sildenafil with identical protocols: 1 was conducted in the United States and the other in Mexico, Brazil, Australia, and Japan. PATIENTS Men ≥18 years old with ED. MEASUREMENTS The impact of treatment on psychosocial factors associated with ED was determined by patient responses to the SEAR questionnaire. Erectile function was determined using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and a global efficacy question. Successful sexual intercourse attempts were derived from event logs of sexual activity. Treatment effect sizes were calculated for all study outcomes. RESULTS Compared with patients who received placebo (n = 274), patients who received sildenafil (n = 279) reported significantly greater improvements (P<.0001) in self-esteem, confidence, sexual relationship satisfaction, and in all sexual function domains of the IIEF. Treatment effect sizes were large (range, 0.7 to 1.2) for all SEAR components, and improvement in psychosocial measures showed moderate to high correlations (range, 0.50 to 0.83, P<.0001) with improvement in erectile function, percentage of successful intercourse attempts, and global efficacy. CONCLUSIONS In men with ED from 5 different nations, sildenafil produced substantial improvements in self-esteem, confidence, and sexual relationship satisfaction. Improvements in these psychosocial factors were observed crossculturally and correlated significantly and tangibly with improvements in erectile function. PMID:16836626

  3. Incidence of De Novo Erectile Dysfunction after Urethroplasty: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Sachin, Dharwadkar; ChikkaMoga Siddaiah, Manohar; Chandrashekar Sidaramappa, Ratkal; Ramaiah, Keshavamurthy

    2017-01-01

    Purpose De novo erectile dysfunction (ED) is a known complication after urethroplasty. Incidence and natural history of de novo ED after urethroplasty is underreported. We assessed the incidence of de novo ED after urethroplasty. Materials and Methods Consecutive consenting urethroplasty (n=48) patients aged 21 to 50 years from February 2014 to July 2016 with normal preoperative erectile function as determined by an International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) score ≥22 were included and interviewed at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results In patients with anterior stricture (n=40), substitution urethroplasty (SU) was performed in 22 patients (55.0%) and end-to-end anastomotic urethroplasty (EEAU) in 18 patients (45.0%). Their mean IIEF-5 score was 24.15±0.8 preoperatively, 20.10±4.2 at 3 months (p<0.001), 22.70±2.3 at 6 months (p=0.0012), and 23.70±1.7 at 12 months (p=0.03), showing a recovery of erectile function with time. All 8 patients with pelvic fracture urethral injury (PFUI) underwent progressive perineal urethroplasty. Their mean IIEF score was 24.0±1.2 preoperatively, 18.8±5.4 at 3 months (p=0.002), 20.9±3.5 at 6 months (p=0.37), and 22.0±1.5 at 12 months (p=0.427). The incidence of ED was similar at 1 year postoperatively between patients with anterior stricture and PFUI and between patients who underwent EEAU or SU for anterior stricture. Conclusions Incidence of ED at 1 year after PFUI is similar to that after surgery for anterior stricture in patients with normal preoperative erectile function. Among the cases of anterior stricture, recovery was better with SU at 3 months and was similar between SU and EEAU at 1 year. PMID:28868817

  4. Tribulus terrestris versus placebo in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: A prospective, randomized, double blind study.

    PubMed

    Santos, C A; Reis, L O; Destro-Saade, R; Luiza-Reis, A; Fregonesi, A

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the possible effects of Tribulus terrestris herbal medicine in the erectile dysfunction treatment and to quantify its potential impact on serum testosterone levels. Prospective, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study including thirty healthy men selected from 100 patients who presented themselves spontaneously complaining of erectile dysfunction, ≥ 40 years of age, nonsmokers, not undergoing treatment for prostate cancer or erectile dysfunction, no dyslipidemia, no phosphodiesterase inhibitor use, no hormonal manipulation and, if present hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus should be controlled. International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and serum testosterone were obtained before randomization and after 30 days of study. Patients were randomized into two groups of fifteen subjects each. The study group received 800 mg of Tribulus terrestris, divided into two doses per day for thirty days and the control group received placebo administered in the same way. The groups were statistically equivalent in all aspects evaluated. The mean (SD) age was 60 (9.4) and 62.9 (7.9), P = .36 for intervention and placebo groups, respectively. Before treatment, the intervention group showed mean IIEF-5 of 13.2 (5-21) and mean total testosterone 417.1 ng/dl (270.7-548.4 ng/dl); the placebo group showed mean IIEF-5 of 11.6 (6-21) and mean total testosterone 442.7 ng/dl (301-609.1 ng/dl). After treatment, the intervention group showed mean IIEF-5 of 15.3 (5-21) and mean total testosterone 409.3 ng/dl (216.9-760.8 ng/dl); the placebo group showed mean IIEF-5 of 13.7 (6-21) and mean total testosterone 466.3 ng/dl (264.3-934.3 ng/dl). The time factor caused statistically significant changes in both groups for IIEF-5 only (P = .0004), however, there was no difference between the two groups (P = .7914). At the dose and interval studied, Tribulus terrestris was not more effective than placebo on improving symptoms of erectile dysfunction or serum total

  5. Perceptions of erectile dysfunction and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy in a qualitative study of men and women in affected relationships.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Sarah A; Rosen, Raymond C; Althof, Stanley E; Dunn, Marian; Cameron, Ann; Wong, David

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction negatively affects men and women in relationships; however, the subjective experience of erectile dysfunction and phosphodiesterase-type 5 inhibitor therapy remains poorly understood. The authors therefore characterized participants' subjective understanding of erectile dysfunction and phosphodiesterase-type 5 inhibitor therapy using individual interviews with affected heterosexual men (n = 58) and women (n = 65). Responses were characterized by 6 psychosocial domains: explanation of the experience, emotional responses, socially expected responses, value of sex, communication with the partner, and treatment expectations. The findings may aid clinicians in relating to men with erectile dysfunction and thus potentially improve effectiveness of therapy.

  6. Neuroprotective and Nerve Regenerative Approaches for Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction after Cavernous Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Jeffrey D.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2017-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a significant cause of reduced quality of life in men and their partners. Cavernous nerve injury (CNI) during pelvic surgery results in ED in greater than 50% of patients, regardless of additional patient factors. ED related to CNI is difficult to treat and typically poorly responsive to first- and second-line therapeutic options. Recently, a significant amount of research has been devoted to exploring neuroprotective and neuroregenerative approaches to salvage erectile function in patients with CNI. In addition, therapeutic options such as neuregulins, immunophilin ligands, gene therapy, stem cell therapy and novel surgical strategies, have shown benefit in pre-clinical, and limited clinical studies. In the era of personalized medicine, these new therapeutic technologies will be the future of ED treatment and are described in this review. PMID:28820434

  7. Avanafil for erectile dysfunction in elderly and younger adults: differential pharmacology and clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Eric G; Tan, Ronny BW; Rittenberg, Daniel; Hellstrom, Wayne J

    2014-01-01

    The treatment modalities of erectile dysfunction range from oral pharmacotherapy to intracavernosal injections, intraurethral pellets, vacuum erectile devices, and the surgical option of penile prosthesis insertion. Oral phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors still remain the preferred treatment for patients since they are the least invasive, not to mention that they can be prescribed by non-urologists. Due to these factors, there has been development of newer drugs with fewer side effects. This is a review of the second generation phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, avanafil, looking into its pharmacology as well as its clinical utility. Avanafil’s faster onset and shorter duration of action has made it preferred as compared to other PDE5 inhibitors for patients with multiple comorbidities. PMID:25210457

  8. Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy in Vascular Disease and Erectile Dysfunction: Theory and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gruenwald, Ilan; Kitrey, Noam D; Appel, Boaz; Vardi, Yoram

    2013-07-01

    Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy (LI-ESWT) to the penis has recently emerged as a new and promising modality in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). To review the published literature on the mechanism of action of LI-ESWT; and to report our clinical data on its efficacy in men with vasculogenic ED. A Medline search using the relevant keywords on this topic has been done. From the results of numerous preclinical and animal studies that have been done to date, sufficient evidence shows that the underlying mechanism of action of LI-ESWT is probably neovascularization. Therefore, local application of LI-ESWT to the corpora cavernosa may potentially act in the same mechanism and increase corporal blood flow. We found that the application of LI-ESWT to patients who responded to oral therapy (PDE5i) eliminated their dependence on PDE5i and they were able to successfully achieve erections and vaginal penetration (60-75%). Furthermore, PDE5i non-responders became responders and capable of vaginal penetration (72%). Additionally, LI-ESWT resulted in long-term improvement of the erectile mechanism. LI-ESWT has the potential to improve and permanently restore erectile function by reinstating the penile blood flow. Although these results on LI-ESWT are promising, further multi- centered studies with longer follow-up are needed to confirm these findings. Gruenwald I, Kitrey ND, Appel B, and Vardi Y. Stem low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy in vascular disease and erectile dysfunction: Theory and outcomes. Sex Med Rev 2013;1:83-90. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Sodium ferulate treatment and interventional mechanism reverse erectile dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Hong; Tan, Fu-Qing; Zhao, Tong-Feng; Hu, Hua; Xiao, Kun; Gu, Wei

    2009-06-23

    To investigate the effect and mechanism of sodium ferulate (SF) on reversing erectile dysfunction in diabetes mellitus (DM) rats. Forty-four male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were induced for diabetes by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Then the successful models were randomly divided into DM + SF group and DM group (22 rats each respectively). The rats in DM +SF group were treated with sodium ferulate (100 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) through a daily gastric lavage. At Week 12, the erectile function of all rats was evaluated and serum samples were harvested. The SOD, CAT, NOS, MDA and NO levels in corpus cavernosum and serum were all measured. The pathologic change in penile cavernous body was observed microscopically. The diabetic rat models were successfully established. The erectile function was much better in normal control group and DM + SF group than that in DM group. And the penile erection rates in three groups were 100%, 66% and 22% respectively. The activity levels of SOD, CAT and NOS were markedly decreased in DM group as compared to those in normal control group and DM + SF group (P < 0.01). The NO content was approximately equal in normal control group and DM + SF group (112 +/- 28) nmol/ml vs (137 +/- 25) nmol/ml. But both were much higher than that in DM group (56 +/- 10) nmol/ml, both P < 0.01. The MDA content was markedly increased in DM group as compared to those in normal control group and DM + SF group (both P < 0.01). Microscopically, muscle fibers in penile cavernous body arranged disorderly, muscular mantle damaged and desmoplasia scattered among muscle fibers in DM group. Sodium ferulate may play interventional roles in reversing diabetic erectile dysfunction through metabolic regulation of free radicals, antagonism of oxidative insults and enhancement of NO production.

  10. Sexual activity, erectile dysfunction and their correlates among 1,566 older Chinese men in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wong, Samuel Yeung Shan; Leung, Jason Chi Shun; Woo, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Few studies on sexuality and its correlates in adults have been conducted in Asia; most studies in Asia have focused instead on erectile dysfunction in men rather than sexuality or sexual activities. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sexual activity and erectile dysfunction in elderly Chinese men aged 65 years and above. Sexual activity and sexual functions were assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function-5. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Chinese version of the Geriatric Depression Scale. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were measured by the International Prostatic Symptom Score. Cross-sectional data from a large prospective cohort study of Chinese elderly men were used in this study. A questionnaire that included demographic, lifestyle, and medical risk factors and physical examination were administered to 1566 Chinese men aged between 65 to 92 years in Hong Kong. Only 30.7% of men were sexually active in the previous 6 months in this sample and among those who were sexually active, 88% had some form of erectile dysfunction. Being sexually inactive in the previous 6 months was associated with being older (odds ratio [OR] = 1.80; confidence interval [CI]: 1.56-2.09), single (OR = 1.87; CI = 1.19-2.94) and the presence of peripheral arterial disease (OR = 2.43; CI: 1.25-4.71). In multiple multinomial logistic regression, having clinically relevant depressive symptoms (OR = 3.37; CI: 1.31-8.70) and having moderate to severe LUTS (OR = 1.63; CI: 1.01-2.64) were independently associated with increased risk of having erectile dysfunction. We showed that a large proportion of elderly men were not sexually active in Hong Kong. For those who were sexually active, most suffered from some degree of erectile dysfunction. Having clinically relevant depressive symptoms and LUTS were independently associated with increased risk of erectile dysfunction.

  11. Centrally Mediated Erectile Dysfunction in Rats with Type 1 Diabetes: Role of Angiotensin II and Superoxide

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hong; Liu, Xuefei; Patel, Kaushik P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Erectile dysfunction is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus. Apart from the peripheral actions, central mechanisms are also responsible for penile erection. Aim To determine the contribution of angiotensin (ANG) II in the dysfunction of central N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-nitric oxide (NO)-induced erectile responses in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic (T1D) rats. Methods Three weeks after streptozotocin injections, rats were randomly treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-enalapril, or the ANG II type 1 receptor blocker, losartan, or the superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol or vehicle via chronic intracerebroventricular infusion by osmotic mini-pump for 2 weeks. Main Outcome Measure Central NMDA receptor stimulation or the administration of the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced penile erectile responses and concurrent behavioral responses were monitored in conscious rats. Results Two weeks of enalapril, losartan or tempol treatment significantly improved the erectile responses to central microinjection of both NMDA and SNP in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of conscious T1D rats (NMDA responses – T1D+enalapril: 1.7 ± 0.6, T1D+losartan: 2.0 ± 0.3, T1D+tempol: 2.0 ± 0.6 vs. T1D+vehicle: 0.6 ± 0.3 penile erections/rat in the first 20 min, P < 0.05; SNP responses – T1D+enalapril: 0.9 ± 0.3, T1D+losartan: 1.3 ± 0.3, T1D+tempol: 1.4 ± 0.4 vs. T1D+vehicle: 0.4 ± 0.2 penile erections/rat in the first 20 min, P < 0.05). Concurrent behavioral responses including yawning and stretching, induced by central NMDA and SNP microinjections were also significantly increased in T1D rats after enalapril, losartan or tempol treatments. Neuronal NO synthase expression within the PVN was also significantly increased and superoxide production was reduced in T1D rats after these treatments. Conclusions These data strongly support the contention that enhanced ANG II mechanism/s within the PVN of T1D rats contributes

  12. [Disorders of libido from the gynecological view point].

    PubMed

    Eicher, W

    1976-12-02

    Sexual dysfunctions are differentiated according to the following symptoms: libido dysfunction, orgasmic dysfunction, vaginism, algopareunia and polysymptomatic dysfunction. In the out-patient service for sexual and other psychosomatic disorders of the University of Heidelberg's Women's Hospital 90 women with libido dysfunction were treated with conflict-centered psychotherapy after exclusion of organic diseases which could explain the reduction of libido and after exclusion of a depression where the loss of libido is a regular symptom. The success-rate was 63%. It was attempted to reinforce the ego of the patient which enables him to experience his surroundings with less conflicts. Neurotic anxieties and symptoms are decreased and loos their importance so that the patient is able to handle his sexual disturbance. Among the psychosocial factors, i.e. focal causes, responsible for the libido dysfunction we found: In 48% of the cases the relationship between parents and children had been disturbed, which caused difficulties in the identification process (lack of father or mother, cool mother, divorce, borken home). Problems with the partners were found in 42%. 2/3 of these women had not grown up in intact families, which seems to predestinate difficulties in communication later on. Psychodynamically the loss of libido means sexual resistance which can lead to aversion or disgust. When there is no excitement the vasocongestion and lubrication do not take place: cohabitation pain (algopareunia) results. On the other hand the reduction of libido can also be a result of chronic algopareunia, i.e. secondary. Psychogenic bleedings ("aversion-bleeding") during or after intercourse occasionally occur in combination with algopareunia and lack of libido.

  13. Chronic vardenafil treatment improves erectile function via structural maintenance of penile corpora cavernosa in rats with acute arteriogenic erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Yuji; Hattori, Mayuko; Kataoka, Tomoya; Ohno, Risa; Mikumo, Mayumi; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Kazunori

    2011-03-01

    Chronic phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor treatment may be useful in reversing erectile dysfunction (ED). However, the mechanisms of this improvement remain unknown. The aim of this article was to determine the mechanisms of the improvement by chronic vardenafil treatment for acute arteriogenic ED in rats. Eight-week-old male Wistar-ST rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated rats (Control group) and rats with acute arteriogenic ED induced by ligating bilateral internal iliac arteries (Ligation group), subsequently treated with low-dose (0.4 mg/kg/day; VL group) or high-dose (4.0 mg/kg/day; VH group) vardenafil for 20 days from 1 week after ligature. Erectile function was assessed based on changes of intracavernous pressure (ICP) followed by electrostimulation of the cavernous nerves and was evaluated by the area under the curve of ICP/area under the curve of mean arterial pressure (area of ICP/MAP). Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β(1), vascular endothelial growth factor-A, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible NOS, and neuronal NOS mRNA expression levels in penile corpus cavernosum were determined by real-time PCR. Western blotting for TGF-β(1) protein levels and Masson trichrome staining of penile tissues were performed in each at group 4 weeks after surgery. In the VH group, area of ICP/MAP was significantly improved when compared with the Ligation group (P < 0.01). The smooth muscle (SM)/collagen ratio in the VH group was significantly higher than in the Ligation group (P < 0.05), and was comparable with that in the Control group. TGF-β(1) mRNA and protein levels in the VH group were significantly lower when compared with the Ligation group (P < 0.05). Chronic vardenafil administration ameliorates impairment of penile hemodynamics and maintains normal SM to collagen ratio in cavernous tissues after acute arterial injury in rats. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. A dual physiological character for sexual function: libido and sexual pheromones.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G

    2009-12-01

    Human sexual response is a complex function involving many cerebral, spinal and peripheral aspects; the last are relatively known and benefit from good pharmacological control, as in the case of erectile dysfunction. Spinal cord sexual reflexes also have a good theoretical and experimental description. There is minimal understanding of the cerebral sexual processes (libido, sexual arousal, orgasm). The initial perspective was that the cerebral areas implied in sexuality exert descending stimulatory and inhibitory influences on spinal cord sexual centres/reflexes. This was a wrong supposition, which inhibited progress in this subject, with a considerable impact on a subject's individual and social life. A new approach to sexual function arises from the idea that simple neurological structures can support only simple functions, while a more complex function requires correspondingly complex anatomical structures. For this reason the spinal cord would not be able to realise the integration of multiple (spinal and psychosensorial) stimuli into a unique and coherent ejaculation response. Consequently, all mechanisms implied in human sexuality would be cerebral processes, ejaculation reflexes ascending in evolution to the cerebral level. This new evolutionary concept was developed after 2001 in five distinct articles on the cerebral duality of sexual arousal, sexual hormones, ejaculation and serotonergic receptors. During this period other published results suggested a possible cerebral duality for sexual pheromones and libido in humans. All these dual physiological aspects are integrated in this review into one neurophysiological model, thus trying to further develop the new concepts of sexual function and perhaps relational behaviour. In conclusion, ejaculation is a dual cerebral process with arousal sensation (hormonally modulated) and libido perception (pheromonally modulated) as the afferent part. Two neurophysiological axes could exist in both men and women. In this

  15. Outcome of penile revascularization for arteriogenic erectile dysfunction after pelvic fracture urethral injuries.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Jack M; McCammon, Kurt A; Tisdale, Britton E; Colen, Larry; Uroskie, Ted; McAdams, Paul; Jordan, Gerald H

    2012-12-01

    To review our experience with penile revascularization for patients with bilateral occlusion of the deep internal pudendal arteries after pelvic fracture urethral injury (PFUI). We identified 17 patients who had undergone penile revascularization with end-to-side anastomosis of the deep inferior epigastric artery to the dorsal penile artery from July 1991 to December 2010. Success was defined as achieving erections sufficient for intercourse with or without pharmacologic assistance. All patients had had a PFUI causing arterial insufficiency and erectile dysfunction not responsive to pharmacologic intervention. Of the 17 patients, 4 (24%) underwent revascularization before and 13 (76%) after PFUI repair. The mean age at revascularization was 32.7 years (range 17-54). At an average follow-up of 3.1 years, the surgery was successful in 14 of the 17 patients (82%). In patients with erectile dysfunction as an indication for surgery, successful erections were achieved in 11 of 13. For those who underwent revascularization to prevent ischemic stenosis of the urethral repair, 3 of 4 achieved successful erections, and all subsequent urethral surgeries were successful. The penile duplex ultrasound parameters showed clinically and statistically significant improvements after revascularization. No operative complications developed. The average hospital length of stay was 4.7 days. Four patients experienced early postoperative complications, including an abdominal wall hematoma requiring evacuation in one, penile edema in two, and a superficial surgical site infection in one. No late complications occurred. Penile arterial revascularization in select patients can allow for successful treatment of PFUIs and the refractory erectile dysfunction caused by them. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Validity of midday total testosterone levels in older men with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Welliver, R Charles; Wiser, Herbert J; Brannigan, Robert E; Feia, Kendall; Monga, Manoj; Köhler, Tobias S

    2014-07-01

    Based on studies showing the circadian rhythmicity of testosterone the optimal time of day to draw total testosterone in men has classically been reported as between 8 and 11 a.m. However, further studies demonstrated that the testosterone circadian rhythmicity becomes blunted with age. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 2,569 men who presented with erectile dysfunction for total testosterone and draw times. We compared the men by age group, including less than 40 years and 5-year groupings after age 40 years. Total testosterone was analyzed for variability during the most common draw time hours (7 a.m. to 2 p.m.). Mean total testosterone at 7 to 9 a.m. and 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. clinically and statistically differed only in men younger than 40 vs 40 to 44 years old (mean difference 207 ng/dl, 95% CI 98-315, p = 0.0004 vs 149 ng/dl, 95% CI 36-262, p = 0.01). No other group showed a clinically and statistically significant difference between those periods. Total testosterone in men with erectile dysfunction who are younger than 45 years should be drawn as close to 7 a.m. as possible because a statistically and clinically relevant decrease in testosterone will occur during the course of the day. Men older than 45 years with erectile dysfunction can have total testosterone drawn at any time before 2 p.m. without misleading results. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Erectile dysfunction and correlated factors in Brazilian men aged 18-40 years.

    PubMed

    Martins, Fernando Gonini; Abdo, Carmita Helena Najjar

    2010-06-01

    Few population-based studies in erectile dysfunction (ED) included subjects less than 40 years old and analyzed the several factors and consequences potentially associated with this condition. Evaluation of the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) and associated factors in a sample of Brazilian men aged 18 to 40 years old. Cross-sectional study in which subjects were contacted in public places of 18 major Brazilian cities and interviewed using an anonymous questionnaire. Survey data were submitted to chi-squared, student's t-test and logistic regression analyses. The data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire with 87 questions about sociodemographic variables, general health, habits and lifestyle-related factors, sexual behavior and sexual difficulties, including ED which was assessed by a single question. Prevalence of ED in 1,947 men was 35.0% (73.7% mild, 26.3% moderate/complete). Greater frequency of ED was seen in subjects that never had information about sex, experienced difficulties in the beginning of sexual life and have never masturbated. ED was associated to lower level of education, but not to race, sexual orientation, employment or marital status. Also, no association was found between ED and smoking, alcoholism, obesity, sedentary life, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, depression or anxiety. ED caused negative impact in men's self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, work and leisure activities, and in sexual life satisfaction. Less than 10% of men with ED had received medical treatment for this problem. Prevalence of ED in this young population was high, mostly of mild severity. Low education and psychosocial problems were associated to ED and, due probably to the sample subjects' young age, no association was found with organic problems. Measures in the fields of education and psychosocial difficulties prevention would have a positive impact in the control of erectile dysfunction in the young

  18. Use of medications for erectile dysfunction in the United States, 1996 through 2001.

    PubMed

    Wysowski, Diane K; Swann, Joslyn

    2003-03-01

    We describe the use during 1996 through 2001 of the primary medications approved in the United States for treatment of erectile dysfunction, namely alprostadil injection and urethral suppository, and sildenafil. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two pharmaceutical research data bases, the National Prescription Audit Plus, and National Disease and Therapeutic Index, were accessed and analyzed. Ancillary data were obtained from 2 health plans. Increases in the number of dispensed prescriptions for alprostadil injection and urethral suppository marketed in 1995 and 1996, respectively, were reversed in 1998 by the marketing of sildenafil. From 1998 through 2001 the estimated number of prescriptions for sildenafil increased 1.87-fold or 87% from 7.5 million to 14 million, while those for alprostadil injection decreased 33% from 239,000 to 159,000 and those for alprostadil suppository decreased 67% from 400,000 to 132,000. Sildenafil was prescribed proportionately more frequently for younger men than alprostadil injection or suppository (p <0.0001). Compared with men for whom sildenafil was prescribed in 1998 those prescribed the drug in 2001 were younger (p <0.0001). Alprostadil injection and suppository were prescribed proportionately more frequently by urologists than sildenafil. Ancillary data from 2 health plans indicated a 173% increase in 1 plan and a 25% decrease in the other due to restrictions in sildenafil prescriptions from 1998 through 2001. Due to the marketing of sildenafil in 1998 through 2001 the use of 2 approved medications for erectile dysfunction, namely alprostadil injection and alprostadil urethral suppository, decreased, while the use of sildenafil increased. Sildenafil was prescribed proportionately more frequently for younger men than alprostadil injection or suppository. Alprostadil was prescribed proportionately more frequently by urologists than sildenafil, which was most commonly prescribed by family and general practitioners, and internists. The data

  19. Penile Low-Intensity Shock Wave Therapy: A Promising Novel Modality for Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kitrey, Noam D.; Gruenwald, Ilan; Appel, Boaz; Vardi, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    Penile extracorporeal low-intensity shock wave therapy (LIST) to the penis has recently emerged as a novel and promising modality in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). LIST has angiogenic properties and stimulates neovascularization. If applied to the corpora cavernosa, LIST can improve penile blood flow and endothelial function. In a series of clinical trials, including randomized double-blind sham-controlled studies, LIST has been shown to have a substantial effect on penile hemodynamics and erectile function in patients with vasculogenic ED. LIST is effective in patients who are responsive to phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) and can also convert PDE5i nonresponders to responders. The response to LIST wanes gradually over time, and after 2 years, about half of the patients maintain their function. Extensive research is needed to understand the effect of LIST on erectile tissue, to modify the treatment protocol to maximize its outcomes, and to identify the patients who will benefit the most from this treatment. PMID:24868332

  20. The effect of statins on erectile dysfunction: a meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Kostis, John B; Dobrzynski, Jeanne M

    2014-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is common in older men, especially those with comorbidities such as diabetes and atherosclerotic disease, conditions where statins are frequently prescribed. To examine the effect of statin therapy on ED using the five-item version of the International Inventory of Erectile Function (IIEF). We performed a random-effects meta-analysis of studies identified by a systematic search of MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Examination of the 186 retrieved citations resulted in the selection of 11 randomized trials for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Change in the IIEF score. IIEF increased by 3.4 points (95% CI 1.7-5.0, P = 0.0001) with statins compared to control. This effect remained statistically significant after multiple sensitivity analyses, including analysis for publication bias, a cumulative meta-analysis, and 11 repeated analyses with each study omitted sequentially. The increase in IIEF with statins was approximately one-third to one-half of that previously reported with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and larger than the effect of lifestyle modification. Metaregression showed an increase in benefit with decreasing lipophilicity. The average age of participants and the degree of LDL cholesterol lowering did not alter the effect on IIEF. Statins cause a clinically relevant improvement of erectile function as measured by the five-item version of the IIEF. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Penile low-intensity shock wave therapy: a promising novel modality for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ghanem, Yasmin; Kitrey, Noam D; Gruenwald, Ilan; Appel, Boaz; Vardi, Yoram

    2014-05-01

    Penile extracorporeal low-intensity shock wave therapy (LIST) to the penis has recently emerged as a novel and promising modality in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). LIST has angiogenic properties and stimulates neovascularization. If applied to the corpora cavernosa, LIST can improve penile blood flow and endothelial function. In a series of clinical trials, including randomized double-blind sham-controlled studies, LIST has been shown to have a substantial effect on penile hemodynamics and erectile function in patients with vasculogenic ED. LIST is effective in patients who are responsive to phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) and can also convert PDE5i nonresponders to responders. The response to LIST wanes gradually over time, and after 2 years, about half of the patients maintain their function. Extensive research is needed to understand the effect of LIST on erectile tissue, to modify the treatment protocol to maximize its outcomes, and to identify the patients who will benefit the most from this treatment.

  2. Pharmacologic Therapy in Men's Health: Hypogonadism, Erectile Dysfunction, and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Berkseth, Kathryn E; Thirumalai, Arthi; Amory, John K

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews current pharmacologic treatment options for 3 common men's health concerns: hypogonadism, erectile dysfunction (ED), and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Specific topics addressed include: management of male hypogonadism using testosterone replacement therapy, use of oral phosphodiesterase inhibitors as first-line therapy for men with ED and the utility of intraurethral and intrapenile alprostadil injections for patients who do not respond to oral medications, and the role of alpha1-adrenergic antagonists, 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors, anticholinergic agents, and herbal therapies in the management of BPH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multicenter pathophysiologic investigation of erectile dysfunction in clinic outpatients in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongjie; Jiang, Xianzhen; Zhang, Xiaobo; Yi, Lu; Zhu, Xiangsheng; Zeng, Xiangyang; Guo, Xiaoliang; Tang, Yuxin

    2012-03-01

    To assess the pathophysiologic composition and age structure of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men visiting outpatient clinics in China. We studied 3327 consecutive ED outpatients (median age 39 years) from 2006 to 2010 in the 5 training hospitals in China. Every patient was independently evaluated by an experienced urologist/andrologist using comprehensive diagnostic procedures. The simplified International Index of Erectile Function was used to assess the severity of ED. Most patients (95.0%) were <60 years old, and none were >70 years old. The psychogenic patients were younger and had greater percentage than any other patients. Vasculogenic factors were a major etiology of organic ED. A significant difference was found in the age distribution between the patients with psychogenic ED and those with organic ED (P = .000). Diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and hyperlipidemia played significant roles in affecting the severity of ED in a statistical model, including age. The International Index of Erectile Function scores decreased with age (rs = -0.199, P = .000). Moreover, the percentage of severe and moderate cases increased with age (P = .003 and P = .002, respectively). However, the constituent ratio of patients sharply declined from 30.3% to 4.5% with age. The number of men visiting outpatient clinics with psychological ED is greater than the number with organic causes in China. The age of the Chinese patients with ED who seek medical help is young and this is mainly because of inadequate sex education to young men and because most older patients are reluctant to visit the hospital just for the loss of erectile function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Does renal transplantation improve erectile dysfunction in hemodialysed patients? What is the role of associated factors?

    PubMed

    Pourmand, G; Emamzadeh, A; Moosavi, S; Mehrsai, A; Taherimahmoudi, M; Nikoobakht, M; Saraji, A; Salem, S

    2007-05-01

    To assess the effect of successful renal transplantation on improvement of erectile function in hemodialysis (HD) patients and the relationship between the degree of patient response and other factors. From September 2002 to November 2005, erectile function of 64 patients on HD for at least 6 months was evaluated pretransplantation and 6 months posttransplantation by International Index of Erectile Function, version 5 (IIEF-5). Sixty four age-matched persons without renal impairment were enrolled as control group to compare erectile dysfunction (ED) prevalence with the HD group. We evaluated duration of HD, age, and site of arterial anastomosis. In an attempt to find predictors of improvement of ED, after kidney transplantation, we performed linear regression analysis with a backward method. The prevalence of ED in HD patients was 87.5%. Although there were some differences in the prevalence of ED between patients older versus younger than 50 years, the difference was not statistically significant. There was no relationship between the duration of dialysis and the severity of ED in HD group. Compared to the pretransplant IIEF-5 score (13.59), there was significant improvement (19.16). In an attempt to find predictors of ED improvement, we used a linear regression analysis with backward method. Pretransplant IIEF-5 score, age at the time of transplant, and anastomosis to the common iliac artery showed significant associations with improvement, but the duration of dialysis and anastomosis to internal iliac or external iliac artery did not. The incidence of ED among hemodialyzed patients is high. Kidney transplantation is the key treatment for this complaint. ED has a major negative impact on the quality of life and family relations. Its treatment is associated with improvement of psychogenic factors. ED is a sensitive topic and many patients will not spontaneously discuss it with their physician, so better to include potency evaluation in posttransplantation list

  5. Risk of Erectile Dysfunction Induced by Arsenic Exposure through Well Water Consumption in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Fang-I; Hwang, Ti-Sheng; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lo, Hsiu-Chiung; Su, Chien-Tien; Hsu, Hui-Shing; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2008-01-01

    Background Erectile dysfunction (ED) has a profound impact on the quality of life of many men. Many risk factors are associated with ED, such as aging, sex hormone levels, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes mellitus. Arsenic exposure could damage peripheral vessels and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between arsenic exposure and ED has seldom been evaluated. Objectives In this study we aimed to investigate whether exposure to arsenic enhances the risk of ED. Methods We recruited 177 males ≥ 50 years of age through health examinations conducted in three hospitals in Taiwan. We used a questionnaire (International Index of Erectile Function-5) to measure the level of erectile function. Sex hormones, including total testosterone and sex hormone–binding globulin, were determined by radioimmunoassay. We used another standardized questionnaire to collect background and behavioral information (e.g., cigarette smoking; alcohol, tea, or coffee drinking; and physical activity). Results The prevalence of ED was greater in the arsenic-endemic area (83.3%) than in the non–arsenic-endemic area (66.7%). Subjects with arsenic exposure > 50 ppb had a significantly higher risk of developing ED than those with exposure ≤ 50 ppb, after adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease [odds ratio (OR) = 3.4]. Results also showed that the risk of developing severe ED was drastically enhanced by arsenic exposure (OR = 7.5), after adjusting for free testosterone and traditional risk factors of ED. Conclusions Results suggested that chronic arsenic exposure has a negative impact on erectile function. PMID:18414639

  6. Safety and efficacy of low intensity shockwave (LISW) treatment in patients with erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ruffo, A.; Capece, M.; Prezioso, D.; Romeo, G.; Illiano, E.; Romis, L.; Lauro, G. Di; Iacono, F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The primary goal in the management strategy of a patient with ED would be to determine its etiology and cure it when possible, and not just to treat the symptoms alone. One of the new therapeutic strategies is the use of low intensity extracorporeal shockwave (LISW) therapy. The mechanism of shockwave therapy is not completely clear. It is suggested that LISW induces neovascularization and improvement of cavernosal arterial flow which can lead to an improvement of erectile function by releasing NO, VEGF and PCNA. Materials and Methods: 31 patients between February and June 2013 with mild to severe ED and non-Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors responders were enrolled. Patients underwent four weekly treatment sessions. During each session 3600 shocks at 0.09mJ/ mm2 were given, 900 shocks at each anatomical area (right and left corpus cavernosum, right and left crus). Improvement of the erectile function was evaluated using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF), the Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) diaries (SEP-Questions 2 and 3) and Global Assessment Questions (GAQ-Q1 and GAQ-Q2). Results: At 3-month follow-up IIEF-EF scores improved from 16.54±6.35 at baseline to 21.03±6.38. Patients answering ‘yes’ to the SEP-Q2 elevated from 61% to 89% and from 32% to 62% in the SEP-Q3. A statistically significant improvement was reported to the Global Assessment Questions (GAQ-Q1 and GAQ-Q2). Conclusion: In conclusion, we can affirm that LISW is a confirmed therapeutic approach to erectile dysfunction that definitely needs more long-term trials to be clarified and further verified. PMID:26689523

  7. [Efficacy and safety of vardenafil in patients with erectile dysfunction. Results of the Mexican Multicentric Study].

    PubMed

    Sotomayor-de-Zavaleta, Mariano; Rubio-Aurioles, Eusebio; Feria-Bernal, Guillermo; Mendoza-Valdés, Arturo; Quinzaños-Sordo, Luis Fernando; Ugarte-y-Romano, Fernando; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Telich-Vidal, Martín; Barreto-Fernández, Miguel Angel; Tapia-Serrano, María del Rosario; Ureta-Sánchez, Sergio Ermen; Jaspersen-Gastelum, Jorge; Pacheco-Gahbler, Carlos; Sentíes-Hernández, Ignacio R; Olguin, Jorge; Pérez-García, Javier

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy and safety of a fixed dose of vardenafil in the treatment of patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). This was an open label, prospective and multicentric trial. After a 4-week wash out period, all patients received 20 mg of vardenafil given on demand for 12 weeks. Primary efficacy variables were the erectile function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), answers to questions 2 and 3 of the Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) and the Global Assessment Question (GAQ). All adverse events were recorded and reported. 229 patients were screened. 177 received at least one dose of vardenafil and were included in the safety analysis. Mean age was 54.4 years old. Etiology of ED was organic or mixed in 77% of the patients. Erectile function domain of the IIEF changed from a basal mean score of 14.8 to 25.5 at the end of the study. 80.5% of the patients reported erections of rigidity and duration enough for satisfactory sexual intercourse and 93.3% improved their erections at the end of the study. Adverse events were mild to moderate and the most common were headache, dyspepsia, rhinitis and facial flushing. The drop out rate due to adverse events was 1.7%. This multicenter study confirms the high efficacy of this new phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, vardenafil. There was a low rate of discontinuations due to adverse events and a favorable safety profile. The results of this study are similar to the results of other studies conducted in other parts of the world.

  8. Risk of erectile dysfunction in transfusion-naive thalassemia men: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Te-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Li; Dai, Ming-Shen; Ho, Ching-Liang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-04-01

    Based on the mechanism of pathophysiology, thalassemia major or transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients may have an increased risk of developing organic erectile dysfunction resulting from hypogonadism. However, there have been few studies investigating the association between erectile dysfunction and transfusion-naive thalassemia populations. We constructed a population-based cohort study to elucidate the association between transfusion-naive thalassemia populations and organic erectile dysfunction. This nationwide population-based cohort study involved analyzing data from 1998 to 2010 obtained from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, with a follow-up period extending to the end of 2011. We identified men with transfusion-naive thalassemia and selected a comparison cohort that was frequency-matched with these according to age, and year of diagnosis thalassemia at a ratio of 1 thalassemia man to 4 control men. We analyzed the risks for transfusion-naive thalassemia men and organic erectile dysfunction by using Cox proportional hazards regression models. In this study, 588 transfusion-naive thalassemia men and 2337 controls were included. Total 12 patients were identified within the thalassaemia group and 10 within the control group. The overall risks for developing organic erectile dysfunction were 4.56-fold in patients with transfusion-naive thalassemia men compared with the comparison cohort after we adjusted for age and comorbidities. Our long-term cohort study results showed that in transfusion-naive thalassemia men, there was a higher risk for the development of organic erectile dysfunction, particularly in those patients with comorbidities.

  9. A novel experimental model of erectile dysfunction in rats with heart failure using volume overload.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fábio Henrique; Veiga, Frederico José Reis; Mora, Aline Gonçalves; Heck, Rodrigo Sader; De Oliveira, Caroline Candida; Gambero, Alessandra; Franco-Penteado, Carla Fernanda; Antunes, Edson; Gardner, Jason D; Priviero, Fernanda Bruschi Marinho; Claudino, Mário Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) display erectile dysfunction (ED). However, the pathophysiology of ED during HF remains poorly investigated. This study aimed to characterize the aortocaval fistula (ACF) rat model associated with HF as a novel experimental model of ED. We have undertaken molecular and functional studies to evaluate the alterations of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway, autonomic nervous system and oxidative stress in the penis. Male rats were submitted to ACF for HF induction. Intracavernosal pressure in anesthetized rats was evaluated. Concentration-response curves to contractile (phenylephrine) and relaxant agents (sodium nitroprusside; SNP), as well as to electrical field stimulation (EFS), were obtained in the cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM) strips from sham and HF rats. Protein expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) and phosphodiestarese-5 in CSM were evaluated, as well as NOX2 (gp91phox) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA expression. SOD activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) were also performed in plasma. HF rats display erectile dysfunction represented by decreased ICP responses compared to sham rats. The neurogenic contractile responses elicited by EFS were greater in CSM from the HF group. Likewise, phenylephrine-induced contractions were greater in CSM from HF rats. Nitrergic response induced by EFS were decreased in the cavernosal tissue, along with lower eNOS, nNOS and phosphodiestarese-5 protein expressions. An increase of NOX2 and SOD mRNA expression in CSM and plasma TBARs of HF group were detected. Plasma SOD activity was decreased in HF rats. ED in HF rats is associated with decreased NO bioavailability in erectile tissue due to eNOS/nNOS dowregulation and NOX2 upregulation, as well as hypercontractility of the penis. This rat model of ACF could be a useful tool to evaluate the molecular alterations of ED associated with HF.

  10. A novel experimental model of erectile dysfunction in rats with heart failure using volume overload

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Fábio Henrique; Veiga, Frederico José Reis; Mora, Aline Gonçalves; Heck, Rodrigo Sader; De Oliveira, Caroline Candida; Gambero, Alessandra; Franco-Penteado, Carla Fernanda; Antunes, Edson; Gardner, Jason D.; Priviero, Fernanda Bruschi Marinho

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with heart failure (HF) display erectile dysfunction (ED). However, the pathophysiology of ED during HF remains poorly investigated. Objective This study aimed to characterize the aortocaval fistula (ACF) rat model associated with HF as a novel experimental model of ED. We have undertaken molecular and functional studies to evaluate the alterations of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway, autonomic nervous system and oxidative stress in the penis. Methods Male rats were submitted to ACF for HF induction. Intracavernosal pressure in anesthetized rats was evaluated. Concentration-response curves to contractile (phenylephrine) and relaxant agents (sodium nitroprusside; SNP), as well as to electrical field stimulation (EFS), were obtained in the cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM) strips from sham and HF rats. Protein expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) and phosphodiestarese-5 in CSM were evaluated, as well as NOX2 (gp91phox) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA expression. SOD activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) were also performed in plasma. Results HF rats display erectile dysfunction represented by decreased ICP responses compared to sham rats. The neurogenic contractile responses elicited by EFS were greater in CSM from the HF group. Likewise, phenylephrine-induced contractions were greater in CSM from HF rats. Nitrergic response induced by EFS were decreased in the cavernosal tissue, along with lower eNOS, nNOS and phosphodiestarese-5 protein expressions. An increase of NOX2 and SOD mRNA expression in CSM and plasma TBARs of HF group were detected. Plasma SOD activity was decreased in HF rats. Conclusion ED in HF rats is associated with decreased NO bioavailability in erectile tissue due to eNOS/nNOS dowregulation and NOX2 upregulation, as well as hypercontractility of the penis. This rat model of ACF could be a useful tool to evaluate the molecular alterations of ED associated with HF. PMID

  11. Hypercaloric Diet Establishes Erectile Dysfunction in Rat: Mechanisms Underlying the Endothelial Damage

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Iara L. L.; Barros, Bárbara C.; de Oliveira, Giuliana A.; Queiroga, Fernando R.; Toscano, Lydiane T.; Silva, Alexandre S.; Silva, Patrícia M.; Interaminense, Leylliane F. L.; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade; da Silva, Bagnólia A.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by an excessive increase in body mass, leading to endothelial damage that may favor the development of erectile dysfunction (ED). ED is defined as the inability to achieve or maintain a penile erection long enough to have a sexual intercourse. In this context, different ED models were developed, however the high price of special animals or the long period to establish the disease has limited studies in this field. Therefore, this study proposed to establish and characterize a novel model of ED in rats associated to a hypercaloric diet consumption. Animals were randomly divided into control group (CG), which received a standard diet, and obese group (OG), fed with a hypercaloric diet during 8 weeks. Rat's erectile function was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Food and caloric intake of OG were reduced compared to CG, due to an increased diet energy efficiency. However, OG presented an increased body mass, inguinal, retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissues, as well as body adiposity index at the end of experimental protocol. In erectile function analysis, there was a decrease in the number and the latency of penile erections in OG. Additionally, the contractile reactivity of corpus cavernosum was increased in OG, favoring penile detumescence and related to a reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and an increased in contractile prostaglandins levels as a consequence of endothelial damage. Moreover, the endothelium-relaxation reactivity of corpus cavernosum was attenuated in OG associated to the oxidative stress. Thus, it was provided a model for advances in sexual dysfunction field and drug discovery for ED treatment. PMID:29085300

  12. The vascular and neurogenic factors associated with erectile dysfunction in patients after pelvic fractures.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yong; Wendong, Sun; Zhao, Shengtian; Liu, Tongyan; Liu, Yuqiang; Zhang, Xiulin; Yuan, Mingzhen

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common complication of pelvic fractures. To identify the vascular and neurogenic factors associated with ED, 120 patients admitted with ED after traumatic pelvic fracture between January 2009 and June 2013 were enrolled in this study. All patients answered the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire. Nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) testing confirmed the occurrence of ED in 96 (80%) patients on whom penile duplex ultrasound and neurophysiological testing were further performed. Of these ED patients 29 (30%) were demonstrated only with vascular abnormality, 41 (42.7%) were detected only with neural abnormality, 26 (27.1%) revealed mixed abnormalities. Of the 55 patients (29+26) with vascular problems, 7 patients (12.7%) with abnormal arterial response to intracavernous injection of Bimix (15mg papaverine and 1mg phentolamine), 31 (56.4%) with corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction and 17 (30.9%) had both problems. Of the 67 (41+26) patients with abnormal neurophysiological outcomes, 51 (76.1%) with abnormal bulbocavernosus re?ex (BCR), 20 (29.9%) with pathological pudendal nerve evoked potentials (PDEPs) and 25 (37.3%) with abnormal posterior tibial somatosensory nerve evoked potentials (PTSSEPs). Our observation indicated that neurogenic factors are important for the generation of ED in patients with pelvic fracture; venous impotence is more common than arteriogenic ED.

  13. The vascular and neurogenic factors associated with erectile dysfunction in patients after pelvic fractures

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yong; Wendong, Sun; Zhao, Shengtian; Liu, Tongyan; Liu, Yuqiang; Zhang, Xiulin; Yuan, Mingzhen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common complication of pelvic fractures. To identify the vascular and neurogenic factors associated with ED, 120 patients admitted with ED after traumatic pelvic fracture between January 2009 and June 2013 were enrolled in this study. All patients answered the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire. Nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) testing confirmed the occurrence of ED in 96 (80%) patients on whom penile duplex ultrasound and neurophysiological testing were further performed. Of these ED patients 29 (30%) were demonstrated only with vascular abnormality, 41 (42.7%) were detected only with neural abnormality, 26 (27.1%) revealed mixed abnormalities. Of the 55 patients (29+26) with vascular problems, 7 patients (12.7%) with abnormal arterial response to intracavernous injection of Bimix (15mg papaverine and 1mg phentolamine), 31 (56.4%) with corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction and 17 (30.9%) had both problems. Of the 67 (41+26) patients with abnormal neurophysiological outcomes, 51 (76.1%) with abnormal bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR), 20 (29.9%) with pathological pudendal nerve evoked potentials (PDEPs) and 25 (37.3%) with abnormal posterior tibial somatosensory nerve evoked potentials (PTSSEPs). Our observation indicated that neurogenic factors are important for the generation of ED in patients with pelvic fracture; venous impotence is more common than arteriogenic ED. PMID:26689522

  14. Hypogonadism as a possible link between metabolic diseases and erectile dysfunction in aging men.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Bianchini, Silvia; Sforza, Alessandra; Vignozzi, Linda; Maggi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence demonstrating that sexual complaints represent the most specific symptoms associated with late onset hypogonadism, while central obesity is the most specific sign. In obese men, hypogonadism can further worsen the metabolic profile and increase abdominal fat. In addition, although hypogonadism can exacerbate obesity-associated erectile dysfunction (ED), recent data suggest that a direct contribution of fat-derived factors could be hypothesized. In particular, an animal model recently documented that fat accumulation induces several hepatic pro-inflammatory genes closely linked to corpora cavernosa endothelial dysfunction. Lifestyle modifications and weight loss are the first steps in the treatment of ED patients with obesity or metabolic diseases. In symptomatic hypogonadal men with metabolic impairment and obesity, combining the effect of testosterone substitution with lifestyle modifications could result in better outcomes.

  15. Efficacy and treatment satisfaction with on-demand tadalafil (Cialis) in men with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Skoumal, René; Chen, Juza; Kula, Krzysztof; Breza, Jan; Calomfirescu, Nicolae; Basson, Bruce R; Kopernicky, Vladimir

    2004-09-01

    Tadalafil (Cialis) is an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5, which mediates relaxation of vascular smooth muscle in the corpus cavernosum thus facilitating erection. The purpose of this multicentre, randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate efficacy and treatment satisfaction of on-demand Cialis in men with mild-to-severe erectile dysfunction (ED). Following a 4-week treatment-free run in period, patients stratified into three severity groups by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) Erectile Function (EF) domain score were randomized to receive either placebo or Cialis 20 mg taken on demand over a 12-week period. Efficacy endpoints were change from baseline in IIEF EF domain scores, responses to Sexual Encounter Profile diary (SEP) questions, and responses to the Global Assessment Questions (GAQ). Treatment satisfaction was evaluated using the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) questionnaire in two of seven participating countries where validated translations were available. Of the 443 men who entered the trial, 409 (mean age, 52 years) formed the intent-to-treat population. Mean baseline demographics and ED severity measures were balanced between treatment groups except for a higher percentage of patients naïve to sildenafil in the tadalafil group compared to placebo (50% versus 36%). The percentage of patients in each IIEF EF severity class (mild, moderate and severe) was 47%, 30% and 23% for placebo patients and 48%, 29% and 23% for tadalafil patients, respectively. Tadalafil was significantly superior to placebo on all primary efficacy measures (IIEF EF domain scores, SEP15, GAQ1; p < 0.001); notably 64% of tadalafil patients achieved a normal IIEF EF domain score at endpoint compared to 16% of placebo patients (p < 0.001). Of the 185 patients completing the EDITS questionnaire (137 receiving Cialis and 48 receiving placebo), tadalafil-treated patients had a median EDITS

  16. Erectile Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prostate Enlargement (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) Urinary Diversion Urinary Retention Urine Blockage in Newborns Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) The ... Coordinating Committees Strategic Plans & Reports Research Areas FAQs Jobs at NIDDK Visit Us Contact Us News News ...

  17. Erectile Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... steps to manage your diabetes. Ask about other health problems. It's common for men with diabetes to have ... to make sure you're addressing any other health problems. Check your medications. Ask your doctor if you' ...

  18. Erectile Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us The Story of PCF A Legacy of Leadership About the Prostate Cancer Foundation CEO Message Why ... PCF? Support our Partners Annual Report & Financials Our Leadership Leadership Team Board Members Curing Together Patient Stories ...

  19. Erectile Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... help for anxiety, depression or other mental health concerns. By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy ...

  20. Evaluation of erectile dysfunction risk factors in young male survivors of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sendur, Mehmet A N; Aksoy, Sercan; Ozdemir, Nuriye Y; Yaman, Sebnem; Yazici, Ozan; Bulent Akinci, Muhammed; Uncu, Dogan; Zengin, Nurullah; Altundag, Kadri

    2014-01-01

    Improved long-term survival of colorectal cancer patients (CRC) treated with surgery and/or chemotherapy ± radiotherapy (RT) has led to increased awareness of long-term side effects, including effecting sexual life, which can ultimately affect the quality of life in these patients. Because the absolute risk factors of erectile dysfunction (ED) have not been defined in CRC patients, the aim of this research was to identify the severity and the absolute risk factors of ED in male CRC survivors. The medical records of 61 male survivors of CRC treated with surgery and/or chemotherapy ± RT were retrieved from the medical oncology outpatient clinics during routine follow-up visits in 2011-2012. Patients older than 55 years and those with ED history before diagnosis were excluded. International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire was filled in by the patients. The patient mean age was 47.6±6.7 years (range 18-55) at the time of filling in the questionnaire. According to the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score, 83.6% of the patients had some degree of ED. The risk factors of erectile dysfunction were advancing age (p=0.01), tumor location (p=0.01), type of surgery (p=0.02), presence of stoma (p=0.03)) and RT (p=0.005). Chemotherapy didn't impact ED (p=0.46). Also, there was no significant correlation between smoking status, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, stage of the tumor and ED. Also hormonal disturbances such as serum FSH, LH and testesterone levels did not affect the presence of ED. Overall, 83.6% of the male CRC survivors had some degree of ED according to the IIEF. The risk factors of ED were advancing age, tumor location, type of operation, presence of stoma and RT. Clinicians should be aware of these risk factors to offer their patients adequate treatment options and also come up with new treatment strategies necessary to reduce further ED in CRC survivors.

  1. Uric acid level and erectile dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Solak, Yalcin; Akilli, Hakan; Kayrak, Mehmet; Aribas, Alpay; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Turk, Suleyman; Perez-Pozo, Santos E; Covic, Adrian; McFann, Kim; Johnson, Richard J; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a frequent complaint of elderly subjects and is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Uric acid is also associated with endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and CVD, raising the hypothesis that an increased serum uric acid might predict ED in patients who are at risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aims to evaluate the association of serum uric acid levels with presence and severity of ED in patients presenting with chest pain of presumed cardiac origin. This is a cross-sectional study of 312 adult male patients with suspected CAD who underwent exercise stress test (EST) for workup of chest pain and completed a sexual health inventory for men survey form to determine the presence and severity of ED. Routine serum biochemistry (and uric acid levels) were measured. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors for ED. The short version of the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire diagnosed ED (cutoff score ≤ 21). Serum uric acid levels were determined. Patients with chest pain of suspected cardiac origin underwent an EST. One hundred forty-nine of 312 (47.7%) male subjects had ED by survey criteria. Patients with ED were older and had more frequent CAD, hypertension, diabetes and impaired renal function, and also had significantly higher levels of uric acid, fibrinogen, glucose, C-reactive protein, triglycerides compared with patients without ED. Uric acid levels were associated with ED by univariate analysis (odds ratio = 1.36, P = 0.002); however, this association was not observed in multivariate analysis adjusted for estimated glomerular filtration rate. Subjects presenting with chest pain of presumed cardiac origin are more likely to have ED if they have elevated uric acid levels. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Community-based study of erectile dysfunction and sildenafil use: the Rancho Bernardo study.

    PubMed

    Monga, Manoj; Bettencourt, Ricki; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2002-05-01

    To evaluate erectile dysfunction (ED) using a validated self-administered 5-item questionnaire (5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF-5]) and the use of sildenafil in community-dwelling older men. In October 1998, the IIEF-5 was mailed to all surviving members of an established community-based cohort of older men. The degree of ED was stratified by the erectile function domain score as complete (4 or less), severe (5 to 10), moderate (11 to 14), mild (15 to 18), or none (19 to 20). Men were also asked about sildenafil use and its effectiveness. A total of 976 men (64%) responded to the questionnaire. The internal consistency of the questionnaire construct was confirmed, with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.96 for all 5 questions. Eighty-nine percent of men younger than 50 years were sexually active compared with 37% of men older than age 80. Twenty-six percent of sexually active men reported complete (3%), severe (10.5%), or moderate (12.6%) ED. The prevalence of moderate or complete ED increased with age and was reported by 58% of men aged 75 to 79 years. Eleven percent of sexually active men had used sildenafil one or more times, with 63% reporting good or "terrific" effects and 11% reporting no benefit. The response to sildenafil deteriorated with age and increasing degree of ED. The results of this community-based study confirm the strong correlation between advancing age and the prevalence and degree of ED, with 33% of men aged 75 and older reporting at least moderate ED. Nevertheless, more than 33% of men older than 75 years remained sexually active. Of the 660 sexually active men, 81% reported satisfaction with sexual intercourse; only 11% had tried sildenafil.

  3. [Cardiovascular risk factors associated with erectile dysfunction in the region of Dakar, Senegal].

    PubMed

    Leye, M M M; Faye, A; Ka, O; Seck, I; Tal Dia, A

    2016-06-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is often a reason for consultation revealing the existence of cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study was to determine the cardiovascular risk factors associated with ED in the Dakar region. A descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study was conducted from March 18 to June 2, 2013. The study population was composed of married male subjects who sought care at the Ouakam Geriatric and Gerontology Center and the Grand Yoff General Hospital. Erectile function was assessed with the International Index of Erectile Function using the simplified five-item questionnaire (IIEF 5). R 2.2.9 software was used for the logistic regression multivariate analysis. Associations were measured using the adjusted odds ratio (ORaj) with confidence intervals. A total of 253 men were surveyed during this period. Average age was 16.7±58.2 years, range 24-90 years; 47% were aged under 60 years. ED was diagnosed in 110 patients (43.5%). ED was considered mild (33.6%), moderate (5.5%) or severe (4.3%). ED was more severe in patients older than 60 years. Cardiovascular risk factors associated with ED were diabetes ORaj=2.4 (1.24-4.68), sedentary lifestyle ORaj=3.08 (1.69-5.61), and hypertension ORaj=2.53 (1.33-4.81). These results should prompt health care providers to target patients with diabetes, hypertension and sedentary lifestyle for systematic ED screening as a routine practice in order to ensure early and effective care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. An animal model to study lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction: the hyperlipidaemic rat.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Nadeem U; Phonsombat, Surat; Bochinski, Derek; Carrion, Rafael E; Nunes, Lora; Lue, Tom F

    2007-09-01

    To present evidence that rats fed a high-fat diet could serve as a useful animal model to study both lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and erectile dysfunction (ED), as recent epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between LUTS and ED but the physiological basis behind this relationship is unknown. In all, 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: nine controls were fed a 'normal' diet and 15 were fed a high-fat diet (hyperlipidaemic rats). After 6 months all the rats had bladder and erectile functions evaluated using awake cystometry and cavernosal nerve electrostimulation, respectively. After the functional studies were completed, the penis, prostate and bladder were collected for immunohistochemical analysis. The hyperlipidaemic rats had significantly higher serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein than the controls (P < 0.05). The hyperlipidaemic rats also had significantly worse erectile function (P = 0.004) and developed more bladder overactivity (P = 0.004) than the controls. In the hyperlipidaemic rats there was significant muscle hypertrophy in the peri-urethral lobe of the prostate (P < 0.001) and in the bladder (P < 0.05). There was also greater P2X(1) (purinoceptor) staining as well as other molecular changes in the bladder of the hyperlipidaemic rats. In this hyperlipidaemic rat model three abnormalities were consistently detected: prostatic enlargement, bladder overactivity, and ED. This rat model could be a useful research tool for understanding the common causes of LUTS and ED, as well as facilitating the development of preventive measures and better therapies to treat both conditions.

  5. Short-term improvement of erectile dysfunction by viewing humorous films in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Hajime

    2008-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by eczema, pruritus and cutaneous hyperreactivity to allergic triggers. We and others have reported that psychogenic stress aggravates these symptoms, while viewing humorous films alleviates them. We have also found that many AD patients suffer from erectile dysfunction (ED). ED exhibits multifactorial etiologies, including psychogenic stress and reduction of serum testosterone levels. This study assessed the effects of viewing humorous films on ED in patients with AD. The effects of viewing humorous films on International Index Erectile Function (IIEF) domain (erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, overall satisfaction) were studied. Subjects comprised 36 AD patients with ED and their healthy wives. Randomly assigned 18 patients and their healthy wives first viewed humorous films on three consecutive days (Days 1-3). After 2 weeks, they viewed control nonhumorous weather information films on three consecutive days (Days 1-3). Alternatively, other 18 patients and their wives first viewed control films on three consecutive days, and after 2 weeks they viewed humorous films on three consecutive days. Severity of ED and serum testosterone and estradiol levels were assessed 1 day before viewing (Day -1) and 1-4 days after viewing (Days 4-7). Viewing humorous films significantly improved the IIEF domain in association with increased serum testosterone levels and decreased serum estradiol levels on Day 4, while viewing control films failed to do so. However, this effect was short-term. After 4 days of viewing (Day 7), no improvement in ED or modulation of serum sex hormone levels was observed. Viewing humorous films improved ED in AD patients in association with increased serum testosterone levels and decreased serum estradiol levels. These results may be useful for the study and treatment of ED.

  6. Penile artery shunt syndrome: a novel cause of erectile dysfunction after penile revascularization surgery.

    PubMed

    Pavlinec, Jonathan G; Hakky, Tariq S; Yang, Christopher; Massis, Kamal; Munarriz, Ricardo; Carrion, Rafael E

    2014-09-01

    Penile revascularization is a surgical treatment option for erectile dysfunction (ED) in healthy individuals due to a focal arterial occlusion in the absence of generalized vascular disease. Most described failures have been attributed to graft stenosis or disruption of the anastomosis. We report a novel phenomenon called Penile Artery Shunt Syndrome that contributed to persistent ED in a patient after penile microvascular arterial bypass surgery. A 26-year-old man presented for evaluation of long-standing ED, which was attributed to trauma sustained 12 years earlier. He had difficulty obtaining and maintaining erections despite oral pharmacotherapy. Clinical data related to the case were studied, analyzed, and reviewed with urologic and radiologic specialists at multiple centers that collaborated in the care of this patient. Penile duplex ultrasound peak systolic velocities and five-item International Index for Erectile Function questionnaire scores were the main outcome measures. Initial diagnostic workup of the patient confirmed severe insufficiency of the left cavernosal artery, with no evidence of venous leak. The patient underwent penile microvascular arterial bypass surgery with anastomosis of the left inferior epigastric artery to the left dorsal penile artery. The patient had persistence of severe ED despite patent anastomosis by penile duplex ultrasound. Subsequent arteriography revealed an arterial shunt due to an aberrant obturator artery arising from the donor inferior epigastric artery. The patient underwent embolization of the aberrant obturator artery, with resolution of the shunt and marked improvement in erectile function. The presence of an aberrant obturator artery arising from the inferior epigastric artery may predispose to persistent ED after revascularization due to the creation of a shunt phenomenon. Pelvic arteriography may be useful in identifying anomalous anatomic considerations prior to penile revascularization and to evaluate patients

  7. Low-energy Shock Wave Therapy Ameliorates Erectile Dysfunction in a Pelvic Neurovascular Injuries Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Li, Huixi; Matheu, Melanie P; Sun, Fionna; Wang, Lin; Sanford, Melissa T; Ning, Hongxiu; Banie, Lia; Lee, Yung-Chin; Xin, Zhongcheng; Guo, Yinglu; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) caused by pelvic injuries is a common complication of civil and battlefield trauma with multiple neurovascular factors involved, and no effective therapeutic approach is available. To test the effect and mechanisms of low-energy shock wave (LESW) therapy in a rat ED model induced by pelvic neurovascular injuries. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats injected with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) at newborn were divided into 4 groups: sham surgery (Sham), pelvic neurovascular injury by bilateral cavernous nerve injury and internal pudendal bundle injury (PVNI), PVNI treated with LESW at low energy (Low), and PVNI treated with LESW at high energy (High). After LESW treatment, rats underwent erectile function measurement and the tissues were harvested for histologic and molecular study. To examine the effect of LESW on Schwann cells, in vitro studies were conducted. The intracavernous pressure (ICP) measurement, histological examination, and Western blot (WB) were conducted. Cell cycle, Schwann cell activation-related markers were examined in in vitro experiments. LESW treatment improves erectile function in a rat model of pelvic neurovascular injury by leading to angiogenesis, tissue restoration, and nerve generation with more endogenous EdU(+) progenitor cells recruited to the damaged area and activation of Schwann cells. LESW facilitates more complete re-innervation of penile tissue with regeneration of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive nerves from the MPG to the penis. In vitro experiments demonstrated that LESW has a direct effect on Schwann cell proliferation. Schwann cell activation-related markers including p-Erk1/2 and p75 were upregulated after LESW treatment. LESW-induced endogenous progenitor cell recruitment and Schwann cell activation coincides with angiogenesis, tissue, and nerve generation in a rat model of pelvic neurovascular injuries. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by

  8. Treatment response to sildenafil in men with erectile dysfunction relative to concomitant comorbidities and age.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Irwin; Stecher, Vera; Carlsson, Martin

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate treatment response in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) and concomitant comorbidities. Data were pooled from 42 placebo-controlled, flexible-dose sildenafil trials. In most trials, the sildenafil dose was 50 mg, taken ~1 hour before sexual activity but not more than once daily, with adjustment to 100 or 25 mg as needed. The overall population (N=9413) was stratified by age (<45, 46-64, ≥65 years). Treatment response was defined as a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) from baseline in the International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) domain score of >2, >5 and >7 for men with mild, moderate and severe ED at baseline, respectively, or an IIEF-EF domain score ≥26 (no ED) at end-point. In the overall population, treatment response using the IIEF-EF MCID definition was significantly greater (P<.0001) with sildenafil vs placebo in men with no comorbidity (77% vs 33%), cardiovascular disease/hypertension only (71% vs 27%), diabetes only (63% vs 24%) or depression only (78% vs 29%). Using an IIEF-EF score ≥26, treatment response was significantly greater (P<.0001) with sildenafil vs placebo in men with no comorbidity (49% vs 17%), cardiovascular disease/hypertension only (48% vs 12%), diabetes only (40% vs 12%) or depression only (60% vs 17%). With each definition, the treatment response for each age and comorbidity was significantly greater (P≤.0065) with sildenafil vs placebo. The treatment response was significantly greater with sildenafil vs placebo in men with ED and each comorbidity regardless of age. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Efficacies of Papaverine and Sildenafil in the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction in Early-Stage Paraplegic Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Necmettin; Gokkaya, Nilufer Kutay Ordu; Koseoglu, Fusun; Gokkaya, Serkan; Comert, Didem

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine which vasoactive agent was more efficacious for erectile dysfunction (ED), intracavernosal papaverine or oral sildenafil, in paraplegic men within the first year after injury by using a penile color Doppler ultrasound as a quantitative imaging method and to determine the association between responses to these…

  10. Detecting internet activity for erectile dysfunction using search engine query data in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Davis, Niall F; Smyth, Lisa G; Flood, Hugh D

    2012-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Despite the increasing prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED), there is reluctance among symptomatic patients to present to healthcare providers for appropriate advice and treatment. A number of Internet campaigns have been launched by the Irish healthcare media since 2007 aiming to provide easily accessible advice on ED. Novel online technologies appear to provide a useful tool for educating the general public on the symptoms of ED because there has been a significant increase in overall Internet search activity for this term since 2007. • To assess Internet search trends for erectile dysfunction (ED) subsequent to public awareness campaigns being launched within the Republic of Ireland • To assess whether the advent of such campaigns correlates with increased Internet search activity for ED. • Google insights for search was utilized to examine Internet search trends for the term 'erectile dysfunction' across all categories between January 2005 and December 2011. • Search activity was limited to users from the Republic of Ireland within this timeframe. • Additionally, the number of Irish Internet media campaigns and Irish web pages providing information on ED was assessed between January 2005 and December 2011. • Statistical analysis of the data was performed using analysis of variance and Student's t-tests for pairwise comparisons. • There has been a significant increase in mean search activity for ED on an annual basis since 2007 (P < 0.001). • The number of Irish web pages associated with information on ED has also increased significantly on an annual basis since 2007 (P < 0.001). • There have been seven different Irish Internet media campaigns on ED since 2007 compared to two from 2005 to 2007 (P < 0.001). • There was no significant change in mean search activity for ED from 2005 to 2007 • The advent of recent Internet media campaigns and increasing number of Irish web pages is

  11. Standard operating procedures for vascular surgery in erectile dysfunction: revascularization and venous procedures.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Michael; Hatzinger, Martin; Goldstein, Irwin; Krishnamurti, Sudhakar

    2013-01-01

    The impact of penile blood supply on erectile function was recognized some 500 years ago. At the turn of the 20th century first results of penile venous ligation were published and in 1973 the first surgical attempts to restore penile arterial inflow were undertaken. Numerous techniques were published in the meantime, but inclusion criteria, patient selection, and success evaluation differed extremely between study groups. To develop evidence-based standard operating procedures (SOPs) for vascular surgery in erectile dysfunction, based on recent state of the art consensus reports and recently published articles in peer-reviewed journals. Based on the recent publication of the consensus process during the 2009 International Consultation on Sexual Medicine in Paris, recommendations are derived for diagnosis and surgical treatment of vascular erectile dysfunction. In addition several recent publications in this field not mentioned in the consensus statements are included in the discussion. The Oxford system of evidence-based review was systematically applied. Due to the generally low level of evidence in this field expert opinions were accepted, if published after a well-defined consensus process in peer-reviewed journals. Referring to penile revascularization it may be concluded, that in the face of missing randomized trials, only recommendations grade D may be given: this kind of surgery may be offered to men less than 55 years, who are nonsmokers, nondiabetic, and demonstrate isolated arterial stenoses in the absence of generalized vascular disease. The evidence level for recommendations concerning penile venous ligations may be even lower. Too many unsolved controversies exist and universal diagnostic criteria for patient selection as well as operative technique selection have not been unequivocally established. This kind of surgery is still considered investigational but may be offered in special situations on an individualized basis in an investigational or

  12. Erectile Dysfunction Among Patients on Methadone Maintenance Therapy and Its Association With Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Joni Bing Fei; Yee, Anne; Danaee, Mahmoud; Ng, Chong Guan; Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim Bin

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a problem commonly encountered by patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). This study aimed to assess the prevalence of ED among this group of patients along with its risk factors and association with quality of life (QOL). Male patients on MMT in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia were included in the study. A total of 134 patients with sexual partners were assessed for ED using the International Index of Erectile Function. Patients were assessed for substance use using Opiate Treatment Index (OTI) and depression using the Malay version of the self-rated Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-BM). QOL was evaluated using World Health Organisation Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF. The prevalence of ED among patients on MMT was 67%, with 26.1% having mild ED, 30.4% having mild-to-moderate ED, 7.0% having moderate ED, and 17.2% having severe ED. Patients with depression were 4 times more likely to have ED compared with patients without depression, whereas increasing age significantly correlated with the severity of ED. Having ED predicted a poorer QOL in the social relationships domain. Depression is highly associated with ED, which negatively influences the social aspect of QOL among patients on methadone maintenance therapy.

  13. Treatment of erectile dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease : guide to drug selection.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Graham

    2004-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is common in cardiac patients and shares the same risk factors--smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and diabetes mellitus. Sexual activity is not unduly stressful to the heart and, providing patients are properly assessed using established guidelines, sexual intercourse can be enjoyed without increased risk. The treatment of ED in patients with cardiovascular disease has been transformed by the introduction of the oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, the first of which was sildenafil. Success in restoring erectile function is possible in up to 80% of patients (depending on the aetiology) with minimal adverse effects. A synergistic hypotensive effect with nitrates, and almost certainly nicorandil, is the only major contraindication. ED in asymptomatic patients may be a marker of silent vascular disease or increased vascular risk factors and should alert the physician to the need for cardiac risk screening. ED is common in patients with cardiovascular disease and should be routinely enquired about. ED is a distressing condition for the man and his partner, and severely impairs quality of life. Patients with cardiovascular disease and patients with diabetes represent the largest group of patients with ED, the majority of whom benefit from the drug therapies currently available. Addressing ED in patients with cardiovascular disease can lead to a substantial improvement in quality of life and success is not difficult to achieve.

  14. The Current Status of Stem-Cell Therapy in Erectile Dysfunction: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Reed-Maldonado, Amanda B

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are capable of renewal and repair of tissue due to their capacity for division and differentiation. The purpose of this review is to describe recent advances in the use of stem cell (SC) therapy for male erectile dysfunction (ED). We performed a MEDLINE database search of all relevant articles regarding the use of SCs for ED. We present a concise summary of the scientific principles behind the usage of SC for ED. We discuss the different types of SCs, delivery methods, current pre-clinical literature, and published clinical trials. Four clinical trials employing SC for ED have been published. These articles are summarized in this review. All four report improvements in ED after SC therapy. SC therapy remains under investigation for the treatment of ED. It is reassuring that clinical trials thus far have reported positive effects on erectile function and few adverse events. Safety and methodical concerns about SC acquisition, preparation and delivery remain and require continued investigation prior to wide-spread application of these methods. PMID:28053944

  15. Erectile dysfunction post-radical prostatectomy – a challenge for both patient and physician

    PubMed Central

    Bratu, O; Oprea, I; Marcu, D; Spinu, D; Niculae, A; Geavlete, B; Mischianu, D

    2017-01-01

    Post-radical prostatectomy erectile dysfunction (post RP ED) is a major postoperative complication with a great impact on the quality of life of the patients. Until present, no proper algorithm or guideline based on the clinical trials has been established for the management of post RP ED. According to literature, it is better to initiate a penile rehabilitation program as soon as possible after surgery than doing nothing, in order to prevent and limit the postoperative local hypoxygenation and fibrosis. The results of numerous clinical trials regarding the effectiveness of the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors therapy on post RP ED have made them the gold standard treatment. Encouraging results have been achieved in studies with vacuum erectile devices, intraurethral suppositories with alprostadil and intracavernosal injections, but due to their side effects, especially in the cases of intracavernosal injections and intraurethral suppositories, their clinical use was limited therefore making them a second line option for the post RP ED treatment. What should not be forgotten is that penile implant prosthesis has proven very effective, numerous studies confirming high rates of satisfaction for both patients and partners. PMID:28255370

  16. Erectile dysfunction and sexual health after radical prostatectomy: impact of sexual motivation.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, R; Menard, J; Ripert, T; Parquet, H; Staerman, F

    2011-01-01

    The life expectancy of patients with localized prostate cancer at treatment initiation has increased, and post-treatment quality of life has become a key issue. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of Radical prostatectomy (RP) on patients' sexual health and satisfaction according to sexual motivation using a self-administered questionnaire completed by two groups of RP patients, with high or lower levels of sexual motivation. A total of 63 consecutive patients were included (mean age, 63.9 years), of whom 74.6% were being treated for erectile dysfunction (ED). After RP, patients reported lower sexual desire (52.4%), reduced intercourse frequency (79.4%), anorgasmia (39.7%), less satisfying orgasm (38.1%), climacturia (25.4%), greater distress (68.3%) and/or lower partner satisfaction (56.5%). Among the most sexually motivated patients, 76.0% reported loss of masculine identity, 52% loss of self-esteem and 36.0% anxiety about performance. These rates were lower among less motivated patients (52.6, 28.9, and 18.4%, respectively). Mean overall satisfaction score was 4.8 ± 2.9. The score was significantly lowered in motivated than less motivated patients (3.4 vs 5.8) (P = 0.001). In conclusion, RP adversely affected erectile and orgasmic functions but also sexual desire, self-esteem and masculinity. The more motivated patients experienced greater distress and were less satisfied.

  17. Association between coronary heart disease and erectile dysfunction in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Guo-Xiang; Li, Sheng; Liu, Tong-Zu; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Wei, Wan-Lin; Wang, Xing-Huan

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between coronary heart disease (CHD) and erectile dysfunction (ED) in Chinese Han population. Patients who went to the andrological out-patient clinic of our hospital between August 1, 2015 and May 1, 2016 and met all eligible criteria were enrolled in this study. The patients diagnosed as ED using self-administered International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire were considered as case group and others were considered as control. The cases were categorized as mild, moderate, and severe ED. Subjects were interviewed for the history of CHD. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the SPSS 18.0 software. A total of 240 participants (56 ED patients and 184 controls) were enrolled. CHD prevalence was higher in cases without statistical significance (OR = 1.20, 95%CI = 0.63-2.29; p = 0.58). Results of adjusted analysis also showed a non-significantly increased risk (OR = 1.25, 95%CI = 0.55-2.85; p = 0.59). Stratified analysis by severity of ED revealed similar results. This study suggests no significant association exists between CHD and ED in Chinese Han population. PMID:28903442

  18. Erectile Dysfunction after Radical Prostatectomy: Prevalence, Medical Treatments, and Psychosocial Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Emanu, Jessica C.; Avildsen, Isabelle K.; Nelson, Christian J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review This review will discuss erectile dysfunction (ED) in prostate cancer patients following radical prostatectomy (RP). It will focus on the prevalence and current treatments for ED as well as the emotional impact of ED and the current psychosocial interventions designed to help patients cope with this side effect. Recent findings While there is a large discrepancy in prevalence rates of ED after RP, several recent studies have cited rates as high as 85%. The concept of “penile rehabilitation” is now the standard of practice to treat ED following RP. However, many men avoid seeking help or utilizing ED treatments. This avoidance is related to the shame, frustration, and distress many men with ED and their partners experience. Recent psychosocial interventions have been developed to facilitate the use of treatments and help men cope with ED. These interventions have shown initial promise, however, continued intervention development is needed to reduce distress and improve long-term erectile function (EF) outcomes. Summary ED is a significant problem following prostate cancer surgery. While there are effective medical treatments, the development of psychosocial interventions should continue to evolve to maximize the assistance we can give to men and their partners. PMID:26808052

  19. Effect of tadalafil 5mg daily treatment on the ejaculatory times, lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile function in patients with erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Karabakan, Mehmet; Keskin, Ercument; Akdemir, Serkan; Bozkurt, Aliseydi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effect of a 5mg daily tadalafil treatment on the ejaculation time, erectile function and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with erectile dysfunction. Materials and Methods A total of 60 patients diagnosed with erectile dysfunction were retrospectively evaluated using the international index of erectile function questionnaire-5 (IIEF-5), intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and international prostate symptoms scores (IPSS). After the patients were treated with 5mg tadalafil once a day for three months, their erection, ejaculation and LUTS were assessed again. The fasting levels of blood glucose, total testosterone, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol were measured. The independent-samples t-test was used to compare the pre- and post-treatment scores of the patients. Results The mean age of the 60 participants was 50.4±7.9 and the mean baseline serum total testosterone, total cholesterol, and fasting blood sugar were 444.6±178.6ng dL-1, 188.7±29.6mg/dL-1,104 (80-360) mg dL-1, respectively. The mean baseline scores were 2.2±1.4 min for IELT, 9.5±3.7 for IIEF-5 and 14.1±4.5 for IPSS. Following the three-month daily 5mg tadalafil treatment, the scores were found to be 3.4±1.9 min, 16.1±4.7, and 10.4±3.8 for IELT, IIEF and IPSS, respectively. When the baseline and post-treatment scores were compared, a statistically significant increase was observed in the IELTs and IIEF-5 values whereas there was a significant decrease in IPSS (p<0.01). Conclusion A daily dose of 5mg tadalafil can be safely used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction and LUTS, that prolongs the ejaculatory latency time. PMID:27819758

  20. Effect of tadalafil 5mg daily treatment on the ejaculatory times, lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile function in patients with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Karabakan, Mehmet; Keskin, Ercument; Akdemir, Serkan; Bozkurt, Aliseydi

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a 5mg daily tadalafil treatment on the ejaculation time, erectile function and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with erectile dysfunction. A total of 60 patients diagnosed with erectile dysfunction were retrospectively evaluated using the international index of erectile function questionnaire-5 (IIEF-5), intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and international prostate symptoms scores (IPSS). After the patients were treated with 5mg tadalafil once a day for three months, their erection, ejaculation and LUTS were assessed again. The fasting levels of blood glucose, total testosterone, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol were measured. The independentsamples t-test was used to compare the pre- and post-treatment scores of the patients. The mean age of the 60 participants was 50.4±7.9 and the mean baseline serum total testosterone, total cholesterol, and fasting blood sugar were 444.6±178.6ng dL-1, 188.7±29.6mg/dL-1,104 (80-360) mg dL-1, respectively. The mean baseline scores were 2.2±1.4 min for IELT, 9.5±3.7 for IIEF-5 and 14.1±4.5 for IPSS. Following the three-month daily 5mg tadalafil treatment, the scores were found to be 3.4±1.9 min, 16.1±4.7, and 10.4±3.8 for IELT, IIEF and IPSS, respectively. When the baseline and post-treatment scores were compared, a statistically significant increase was observed in the IELTs and IIEF-5 values whereas there was a significant decrease in IPSS (p<0.01). A daily dose of 5mg tadalafil can be safely used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction and LUTS, that prolongs the ejaculatory latency time. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  1. Erectile dysfunction after plaque incision and grafting: short-term assessment of incidence and predictors.

    PubMed

    Flores, Stefan; Choi, Judy; Alex, Byron; Mulhall, John P

    2011-07-01

    Plaque incision and grafting (PIG) surgery for Peyronie's disease (PD) is a recognized management strategy. One of the recognized complications of PIG surgery is the development of postoperative erectile dysfunction (ED). To determine the incidence of ED after PIG surgery and attempt to define predictors of ED development. All patients underwent preoperative cavernosometry. Grafting was performed with either cadaveric pericardium (Tutoplast) or intestinal submucosa (Surgisis). Prior to 2006, the procedure used an H-type incision, whereas after this date, the Egydio approach has been used. Men undergoing PIG completed preoperative and 6-month postoperative International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires. 56 patients were analyzed. Mean patient and partner ages were 57 ± 22 and 54 ± 18 years, respectively. Mean duration of PD at the time of PIG was 22 ± 9 months. Seventy-five percent had curvature alone, 11% had hourglass/indentation deformity, and the remainder had combined curvature/indentation. Mean preoperative curvature was 52 ± 23°. Fifty-two had grafting with Tutoplast, while four had grafting with Surgisis. All men at baseline were capable of generating a penetration rigidity erection. Preoperatively, 50% of men had cavernosal insufficiency and 21% had venous leak (baseline and postoperative erectile function [EF] domain scores were 23 ± 4 and 17 ± 9, respectively [P < 0.01]). Forty-six percent of men experienced a ≥6-point decrease in EF domain score after PIG. The predictors of a ≥6-point reduction in IIEF-EF domain score on multivariable analysis were degree of preoperative curvature, type of plaque incision, patient age, and baseline venous leak. Conclusions.  Almost one-half of men had significant reduction in their erectile rigidity after PIG. Reduction was predicted by larger baseline curvature, the Egydio plaque incision technique, older patient age, and the presence of venous leak at baseline. Based on these data, we

  2. Can thromboembolic risk be associated with erectile dysfunction in atrial fibrillation patients?

    PubMed

    Szymański, Filip M; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Płatek, Anna E; Kotkowski, Marcin; Opolski, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is highly prevalent in patients with diseases of cardiovascular system, including patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Reasons for this high co-prevalence include endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative and emotional stress associated with AF. Association of AF-induced prothrombotic state and possible microthrombi in penile arteries with ED remains unclear. The present study aims to assess if probability of AF-associated risk of peripheral thromboembolism may be associated with ED in AF patients. Probability of thromboembolic complications was assessed with two commonly used risk scores CHADS₂ and CHA2DS₂-VASc in a group of continuous AF patients. All patients were also asked to fill an IIEF-5 questionnaire designed for screening for ED. Mean CHADS₂ score in the whole study group was 1.1 ± 1.0 points and CHA₂DS₂- -VASc was 1.5 ± 1.4 points. ED was present in 57.4% of the 129-person study population. In patients with ED, both CHADS₂ (0.9 ± 1.0 vs. 1.3 ± 1.1; p = 0.03) and CHA₂DS₂-VASc (1.2 ± 1.1 vs. 1.8 ± 1.5; p = 0.03) scores were significantly higher than in the group without dysfunction. After dividing the patients according to age into groups younger than 65 years vs. ≥ 65 years, observed correlation was no longer significant in the younger group (p > 0.05). In patients ≥ 65 years, in whom the risk scores are routinely used, dysfunction both CHADS₂ (1.1 ± 0.9 vs. 2.0 ± 0.9; p = 0.02) and CHA₂DS₂-VASc (2.3 ± 1.1 vs. 3.4 ± 1.3; p = 0.04) scores were higher in the group with ED. Erectile dysfunctions in AF patients are associated with elevated cardioembolic risk. We postulate that the diagnosis of ED should be considered an additional marker of prothrombotic state, and may be useful in clinical decision-making, especially in patients ≥ 65 years old.

  3. Amelioration of erectile dysfunction following a switch from carbamazepine to oxcarbazepine: recent clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Sachdeo, Rajesh; Sathyan, Revathi R

    2005-07-01

    Oxcarbazepine is an antiepileptic drug (AED) indicated for use as monotherapy and add-on therapy in adults and children 4 years of age and older. Despite being structurally related to carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine differs substantially in its pharmacokinetic and safety profile; oxcarbazepine has a much lower risk of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions than carbamazepine. Carbamazepine has also been shown to induce the hepatic synthesis of sex hormone-binding globulin, thus reducing free serum testosterone levels and possibly causing erectile dysfunction (ED) in some men; these effects have not been observed with oxcarbazepine. This paper provides a discussion of recent clinical experience with men who presented in private clinical practice with complaints of ED while being treated with carbamazepine for seizure disorders. The four illustrative case studies presented in this report suggest that switching AED treatment from carbamazepine to oxcarbazepine in men with epilepsy can reduce the ED side effects observed with carbamazepine.

  4. Pharmacologic therapy for erectile dysfunction and its interaction with the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Ioakeimidis, Nikolaos; Kostis, John B

    2014-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes are widely distributed throughout the body, having numerous effects and functions. The PDE type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are widely used to treat erectile dysfunction (ED). Recent, intense preclinical and clinical research with PDE5 inhibitors has shed light on new mechanisms and has revealed a number of pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. To date, PDE5 inhibition has been shown to be effective for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and both sildenafil and tadalafil are approved for this indication. However, current or future PDE5 inhibitors have the potential of becoming clinically useful in a variety of CV conditions such as heart failure, coronary artery disease, and hypertension. The present review discusses recent findings regarding pharmacologic treatment of ED and its interaction with the CV system and highlights current and future clinical applications beyond ED.

  5. Erectile dysfunction in urethral stricture and pelvic fracture urethral injury patients: diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sangkum, P; Levy, J; Yafi, F A; Hellstrom, W J G

    2015-05-01

    Urethral stricture disease, pelvic fracture urethral injury (PFUI), and their various treatment options are associated with erectile dysfunction (ED). The etiology of urethral stricture disease is multifactorial and includes trauma, inflammatory, and iatrogenic causes. Posterior urethral injuries are commonly associated with pelvic fractures. There is a spectrum in the severity of both conditions and this directly impacts the treatment options offered by the surgeon. Many published studies focus on the treatment outcomes and the relatively high recurrence rates after surgical repair. This communication reviews the current knowledge of the association between ED and urethral stricture disease, as well as PFUI. The incidence, pathophysiology, and clinical ramifications of both conditions on sexual function are discussed. The treatment options for ED in those patients are reviewed and summarized. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  6. Mirodenafil for the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jun; Moon, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Seung Wook; Lee, Won Ki; Kam, Sung Chul; Lee, Jun Ho

    2014-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are the most commonly used treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). Since the launch of sildenafil, several drugs-including mirodenafil, sildenafil citrate (sildenafil), tadalafil, vardenafil HCL (vardenafil), udenafil, and avanafil-have become available. Mirodenafil is a newly developed pyrrolopyrimidinone compound, which is a potent, reversible, and selective oral PDE5 inhibitor. Mirodenafil was launched in Korea in 2007, and an orally disintegrating film of mirodenafil was developed in 2011 for benefitting patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets. This study aimed to review the pharmacokinetic characteristic profile of mirodenafil and report evidence on its efficacy in the case of ED. In addition, we reviewed randomized controlled studies of mirodenafil's daily administration and efficacy for lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:24872948

  7. Development of UK recommendations on treatment for post-surgical erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, M G; White, I D; Butcher, J; Challacombe, B; Coe, J; Grover, L; Hegarty, P; Jackson, G; Lowndes, A; Payne, H; Rees, J; Sangar, V; Thompson, A

    2014-01-01

    Aim To develop a management strategy (rehabilitation programme) for postsurgical erectile dysfunction (ED) among men experiencing ED associated with treatment of prostate, bladder or rectal cancer that is suitable for use in a UK NHS healthcare context. Methods PubMed literature searches of ED management together with a survey of 13 experts in the management of ED from across the UK were conducted. Results Data from 37 articles and completed questionnaires were collated. The results discussed in this study demonstrate improved objective and subjective clinical outcomes for physical parameters, sexual satisfaction, and rates of both spontaneous erections and those associated with ED treatment strategies. Conclusion Based on the literature and survey analysis, recommendations are proposed for the standardisation of management strategies employed for postsurgical ED. PMID:24188207

  8. SOP: physical examination and laboratory testing for men with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Hussein M; Salonia, Andrea; Martin-Morales, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Physical examination and laboratory evaluation of men with erectile dysfunction (ED) are opportunities to identify potentially life-threatening etiologies and comorbid conditions. To review genital anatomy, identify any physical abnormalities, assess for comorbid conditions, and reveal significant risk factors for ED. Expert opinion was based on evidence-based medical literature and consensus discussions between members of this International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) standards committee. For men with ED, a general examination including blood pressure and pulse measurements and a focused genital exam are advised. Fasting blood sugar, serum total testosterone, prolactin levels, and a lipid profile may reveal significant comorbid conditions. Though physical examination and laboratory evaluation of most men with ED may not reveal the exact diagnosis, these opportunities to identify critical comorbid conditions should not be missed. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Erectile dysfunction treatment and traditional medicine-can East and West medicine coexist?

    PubMed

    Lee, Joe K C; Tan, Ronny B W; Chung, Eric

    2017-02-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common sexual problem affecting many men irrespective of cultures, beliefs and nationalities. While medical therapy for ED has been revolutionized by the advent of oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and intracavernosal injection of vasoactive agents, recent technological advances such stem cell therapy, low intensity shock wave and newer generation of penile prosthesis implant offer hope to men who do not respond to conventional medical therapy. In contrast, traditional and complementary medicine (TCM) focuses on the restoration and better overall bodily regulation with the use of various herbal and animal products as well as exercises to invigorate qi (energy) in vital organs. Western medicine involves an analysis of ED symptom and underlying causes that contribute to ED, while TCM emphases the concept of holism and harmonization of body organs to achieve natural sexual life. The following article reviews our current understanding regarding the philosophical approach, and evaluates the evidence surrounding various ED therapies between mainstream Western Medicine and TCM.

  10. Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shock Wave as a Novel Treatment for Erectile Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pan, Michael M; Raees, Ayman; Kovac, Jason R

    2016-03-01

    The paradigm of erectile dysfunction (ED) treatment was fundamentally altered following the introduction of oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. Unfortunately, a significant number of men exhibit a suboptimal response and require additional management strategies. One of the novel, minimally invasive strategies being developed is low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy. Used in the hope of delaying placement of an inflatable penile prosthesis, the final phase of ED treatment, low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy is a unique application of an established technology that may hopefully one day expand the medical options for patients with ED. This commentary will highlight the physiology underlying this technique and summarize the most recent studies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Erectile dysfunction and the internet: drug company manipulation of public and professional opinion.

    PubMed

    Read, John; Mati, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Given that the Internet is now a major source of information regarding health and mental health problems, and that it is in the interest of the pharmaceutical industry to influence public and professional opinion, this study evaluated 70 websites about erectile dysfunction. The 31 drug company-funded websites (44%) were, compared with the 39 websites that are not industry funded, significantly more biased toward biological factors in general, and toward medication in particular (p < .01). The high proportion of websites that are industry sponsored, and the bias of those websites, confirms previous studies on depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and demonstrates that drug companies are using their financial might to manipulate public and professional opinion on the Internet.

  12. The Natural History of Erectile Dysfunction After Prostatic Radiotherapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Thomas W; Awad, Mohannad A; Osterberg, E Charles; Murphy, Gregory P; Allen, Isabel E; Chang, Albert; Rosen, Raymond C; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2017-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) after treatment for prostate cancer with radiotherapy (RT) is well known, and pooled estimates of ED after RT will provide more accurate patient education. To systematically evaluate the natural history of ED in men with previous erectile function after prostate RT and to determine clinical factors associated with ED. We performed a review of the PubMed and Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases in April 2016 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. Identified reports included a measurement of ED before and after prostate RT. Two hundred seventy-eight abstracts were screened and 105 publications met the criteria for inclusion. Only men with known erectile function before RT were included in the analysis. ED after RT of the prostate. In total, 17,057 men underwent brachytherapy (65%), 8,166 men underwent external-beam RT (31%), and 1,046 men underwent both (4%). Seven common instruments were used to measure ED, including 23 different cutoffs for ED. The Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) was used in 31 studies (30%). Pooled estimates of SHIM-confirmed ED (score <10-17) suggested the prevalence of ED after RT is 34% of men (95% CI = 0.29-0.39) at 1 year and 57% (95% CI = 0.53-0.61) at 5.5 years. Compared with brachytherapy, studies of the two types of radiation increased the proportion of new-onset ED found by 12.3% of studies (95% CI = 2.3-22.4). For every 10% who were lost to follow-up, the proportion of ED reported increased by 2.3% (95% CI = 0.03-4.7). ED is common regardless of RT modality and increases during each year of follow-up. Using the SHIM, ED is found in approximately 50% patients at 5 years. The strengths of this systematic review include strict inclusion criteria of studies that measured baseline erectile function, no evidence for large effect size bias, and a large number of studies, which allow for modeling techniques. However

  13. Interplay Between Premature Ejaculation and Erectile Dysfunction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Limoncin, Erika; Sforza, Alessandra; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Maggi, Mario

    2015-12-01

    The specific determinants and underlying factors linking erectile dysfunction (ED) and premature ejaculation (PE) have yet to be clearly identified. The aim of this study was to review and meta-analyze all available data regarding the link between ED and PE. An extensive Medline Embase and Cochrane search was performed including the following words: "premature ejaculation" and "erectile dysfunction". All observational trials comparing the risk of ED in relation to PE were included. Data extraction was performed independently by two of the authors (G.R, G.C.), and conflicts resolved by the third investigator (M.M.). Out of 474 retrieved articles, 18 were included in the study for a total of 57,229 patients, of which 12,144 (21.2%) had PE. The presence of PE, however defined, was associated with a significant increase in ED risk (odds ratio: 3.68[2.61;5.18]; P < 0.0001). Meta-regression analysis showed that the risk of ED in PE subjects was higher in older individuals as well as in those with a lower level of education and in those who reported a stable relationship less frequently. In addition, subjects with PE and ED more often reported anxiety and depressive symptoms and a lower prevalence of organic associated morbidities, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. All the latter associations were confirmed even after adjustment for age. Finally the risk of PE-related ED increased with the increased proportion of acquired ejaculatory problems (adj r = 0.414; P < 0.0001 after the adjustment for age). In conclusion, the present data showed that ED and PE are not distinctly separate entities, but should be considered from a dimensional point of view. Understanding this dimensional perspective might help sexual health care professionals in providing the most appropriate therapeutic approach to realistically increase patient related outcomes in sexual medicine. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Pudendal Nerve and Internal Pudendal Artery Damage May Contribute to Radiation-Induced Erectile Dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, Michael W., E-mail: mwnolan@ncsu.edu; Department of Environmental and Radiologic Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado; Marolf, Angela J.

    Purpose/Objectives: Erectile dysfunction is common after radiation therapy for prostate cancer; yet, the etiopathology of radiation-induced erectile dysfunction (RI-ED) remains poorly understood. A novel animal model was developed to study RI-ED, wherein stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) was used to irradiate the prostate, neurovascular bundles (NVB), and penile bulb (PB) of dogs. The purpose was to describe vascular and neurogenic injuries after the irradiation of only the NVB or the PB, and after irradiation of all 3 sites (prostate, NVB, and PB) with varying doses of radiation. Methods and Materials: Dogs were treated with 50, 40, or 30 Gy to themore » prostate, NVB, and PB, or 50 Gy to either the NVB or the PB, by 5-fraction SBRT. Electrophysiologic studies of the pudendal nerve and bulbospongiosus muscles and ultrasound studies of pelvic perfusion were performed before and after SBRT. The results of these bioassays were correlated with histopathologic changes. Results: SBRT caused slowing of the systolic rise time, which corresponded to decreased arterial patency. Alterations in the response of the internal pudendal artery to vasoactive drugs were observed, wherein SBRT caused a paradoxical response to papaverine, slowing the systolic rise time after 40 and 50 Gy; these changes appeared to have some dose dependency. The neurofilament content of penile nerves was also decreased at high doses and was more profound when the PB was irradiated than when the NVB was irradiated. These findings are coincident with slowing of motor nerve conduction velocities in the pudendal nerve after SBRT. Conclusions: This is the first report in which prostatic irradiation was shown to cause morphologic arterial damage that was coincident with altered internal pudendal arterial tone, and in which decreased motor function in the pudendal nerve was attributed to axonal degeneration and loss. Further investigation of the role played by damage to these structures in RI

  15. Standardization of vascular assessment of erectile dysfunction: standard operating procedures for duplex ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Sikka, Suresh C; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Brock, Gerald; Morales, Antonio Martin

    2013-01-01

    In-office evaluation of erectile dysfunction by color duplex Doppler ultrasound (CDDU) may benefit the decision-making process in regard to choosing the most appropriate therapy. Unfortunately, there is no uniform standardization in performing CDDU resulting in high variability in data expression and interpretation when comparing results among various centers, especially when conducting multicenter trials. Establishing standard operating procedures (SOPs) is a major step that will help minimize such variability. This SOP describes CDDU procedure with focus on establishing uniformity and normative parameters. Measure intra-arterial diameter, peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, and resistive index for each cavernosal artery. After initial discussion with the patient about his history and International Index of Erectile Function evaluation describe procedural steps to the patient. Perform the CDDU in a relaxed state, scanning the entire penis (in B-mode image) using a 7.5- to 12-MHz linear array ultrasound probe. An intracorporal injection of a single or combination of vasoactive agents (e.g., prostaglandin E1, phentolamine, and papaverine) is then administered and CDDU performed at various time points, preferably with audiovisual sexual stimulation (AVSS). Monitor penile erection response (tumescence and rigidity) near peak blood flow. Self-stimulation or AVSS leaving the patient alone in room or redosing may be considered to decrease any anxiety and help achieve a maximum rigid erection. Considering the complexity and heterogeneity of CDDU evaluation, this communication will help in standardization and establish uniformity in such data interpretation. When indicated, invasive diagnostic testing involving (i) penile angiography and (ii) cavernosography/cavernosometry to establish veno-occlusive dysfunction may be recommended to facilitate further treatment options. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Autoeroticism, mental health, and organic disturbances in patients with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Ricca, Valdo; Boddi, Valentina; Bandini, Elisa; Lotti, Francesco; Fisher, Alessandra D; Sforza, Alessandra; Forti, Gianni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Masturbation is a common, but often neglected, male sexual behavior. To investigate the psychobiological correlates of self-reported masturbation in the last 3 months. A consecutive series of 2,786 heterosexual male patients (mean age 48.4 +/- 13.2) consulting an outpatient clinic for erectile dysfunction (ED) was studied. Several hormonal, biochemical and instrumental parameters (penile Doppler ultrasound [PDU]) were investigated. Patients were interviewed, prior to the beginning of any treatment, with Structured Interview on Erectile Dysfunction (SIEDY) and ANDROTEST structured interviews. They also completed the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire, a brief self-reported questionnaire for the screening of the symptoms of mental disorders in a nonpsychiatric setting. Among the patients studied, 1,781 (61.9%) reported they had masturbated at least once per month in the preceding 3 months. The frequency of masturbation was inversely related to age (r = -0.329; P < 0.0001) and directly associated with education level (adj r = 0.052, P < 0.05 after adjustment for age). A feeling of guilt during masturbation was reported by 274 (15.4%) patients. After adjusting for age, masturbation was positively associated with testosterone levels, stressful conditions, and both unstable and long-lasting couple relationship. Urogenital problems such as varicocele and prostate abnormalities also increased the chance of masturbation. Reported guiltiness during autoeroticism was associated with psychological disturbances, low prolactin, low testosterone, and increased relational problems. An erection not normal during masturbation was declared by 1,361 (76.4%) patients and associated with a prevalent organic component of ED, because of lower peak systolic velocity PDU and higher SIEDY Scale 1 scores. This study indicates that masturbation is a relatively frequent behavior in male subjects with ED. Inquiring about this sexual behavior is an important issue for understanding overall patients

  17. Percutaneous Perineal Electrostimulation Induces Erection: Clinical Significance in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury and Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Shafik, Ahmed; Shafik, Ali A; Shafik, Ismail A; Sibai, Olfat El

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Approximately one third to one half of the penis is embedded in the pelvis and can be felt through the scrotum and in the perineum. The main arteries and nerves enter the penis through this perineal part of the penis, which seems to represent a highly sensitive area. We investigated the hypothesis that percutaneous perineal stimulation evokes erection in patients with neurogenic erectile dysfunction. Methods: Percutaneous electrostimulation of the perineum (PESP) with synchronous intracorporeal pressure (ICP) recording was performed in 28 healthy volunteers (age 36.3 ± 7.4 y) and 18 patients (age 36.6 ± 6.8 y) with complete neurogenic erectile dysfunction (NED). Current was delivered in a sine wave summation fashion. Average maximal voltages and number of stimulations delivered per session were 15 to 18 volts and 15 to 25 stimulations, respectively. Results: PESP of healthy volunteers effected an ICP increase (P < 0.0001), which returned to the basal value upon stimulation cessation. The latent period recorded was 2.5 ± 0.2 seconds. Results were reproducible on repeated PESP in the same subject but with an increase of the latent period. Patients with NED recorded an ICP increase that was lower (P < 0.05) and a latent period that was longer (P < 0.0001) than those of healthy volunteers. Conclusion: PESP effected ICP increase in the healthy volunteers and patients with NED. The ICP was significantly higher and latent period shorter in the healthy volunteers than in the NED patients. PESP may be of value in the treatment of patients with NED, provided that further studies are performed to reproduce these results. PMID:18533410

  18. Radiation-induced erectile dysfunction using prostate-confined modern radiotherapy in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Masaki; Yan, Hui; Rabbani, Zahid; Satoh, Takefumi; Baba, Shiro; Yin, Fang-fang; Polascik, Thomas J; Donatucci, Craig F; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Koontz, Bridget F

    2011-08-01

    The mechanisms of radiation-induced erectile dysfunction (ED) are unclear, as clinical studies are limited, and previous animal models were based on wide-field irradiation, which does not model current radiotherapy (RT) techniques. To perform functional and morphological analyses of erectile function (EF) utilizing image-guided stereotactic prostate-confined RT in a rat model. Sixty young adult male rats aged 10-12 weeks old were divided into age-matched sham and RT groups. A single 20-Gy fraction to the prostate was delivered to RT animals. Penile bulb, shaft, and testes were excluded from treatment fields. Bioassay and intracavernous pressure (ICP) measurements were conducted at 2, 4, and 9 weeks following RT. Perfusion analysis of the corpora cavernosa (CC) was conducted using Hoechst injected prior to sacrifice. Penile shaft and cavernous nerve (CN) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Plasma testosterone level was analyzed using a testosterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay kit. Irradiated animals demonstrated statistically significant time-dependent functional impairment of EF by bioassay and ICP measurement from 4 weeks. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression was decreased in CN by 4 weeks. In CC, expression levels of anti-alpha smooth muscle actin and endothelial NOS were significantly decreased at 9 weeks. In penile dorsal vessels, smooth muscle/collagen ratio was significantly decreased at 4 and 9 weeks. Additionally, Hoechst perfusion showed time-dependent decrease in CC of RT animals, whereas CD31 expression was not affected. No toxicities were noted; testosterone levels were similar in both groups. We demonstrated time-dependent ED following image-guided stereotactic RT. Our results imply that reduction of neuronal NOS expression in cavernous nerve could trigger consecutive reduction of smooth muscle content as well as blood perfusion in CC that resulted in corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction. Present study could be a

  19. Relationship between gut microbiota and type 2 diabetic erectile dysfunction in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Qi, Tao; Huang, Zhan-Sen; Ying, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Bo; Ye, Lei; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Di-Ling; Chen, Jun

    2017-08-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between gut microbiota and type 2 diabetic erectile dysfunction (T2DED), we analyzed the characteristics of gut microbiota in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with T2DED. Thirty-five SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n=15) with normal diet, and experimental group (n=20) with construction of T2D model. Faecal and serum samples were collected at 2nd and 8th week after establishment of T2D model, respectively. Faecal samples were used for analysis of gut microbiota, and serum samples for detection of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and inflammatory factors like interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-2, IL-10, and monocyte chemoattractantprotein-1 (MCP-1). The main compositions of gut microbiota were Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes at the phylum level, and Oscillospira, Allobaculum, Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, SMB53, Prevotella, Coprococcus, Sutterella and Blautia at the genus level with relatively higher abundance in all SD rats. The relative abundance of Enterococcus, Corynebacterium, Aerococcus, Facklamia (opportunistic pathogens in most case) increased, and that of Allobaculum, Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, Anaerotruncus (beneficial bacteria) decreased in T2DED group as compared with that at 2nd week after establishment of T2D model (T2D2 group). The serum contents of TMAO, LPS, IL-1, IL-2, IL-10 and MCP-1 in T2DED group were significantly higher than those in control group. The gut microbiota of T2DED rats was inhibited. The gut microbiota of T2DED rats had changed, as the relative abundance of beneficial bacterium was decreased while that of opportunistic pathogens was increased. The variations of gut microbiota might lead to inflammation and prompt the emergence of erectile dysfunction in the rats with T2D. TMAO might play an important role in the formation of T2DED.

  20. [Assessment of sexual function in men with idiopathic Parkinson's disease using the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction (IIEF-15)].

    PubMed

    Roumiguié, M; Guillotreau, J; Castel-Lacanal, E; Malavaud, B; De Boissezon, X; Marque, P; Rischmann, P; Gamé, X

    2011-01-01

    to assess the sexual function in men with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. a cross-sectional study was performed in 35 men, mean age 68 ± 9 years, with idiopathic Parkinson's disease followed in a single urological department. The 15 questions International Index of the Erectile Function was sent by postal mail. the answer's rate was 42.9% (15 patients). The mean age of the responders was 68.7 ± 10.0 years. Mean duration of the disease was 10.4 ± 6.8 years. Sexual dysfunction was the second cause for consultation in urology. Despite a sustained sexual desire, patients had an altered sexual function with low erectile function, orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction and total satisfaction scores. According to the Cappelleri's classification, the erectile dysfunction was severe in 54% of the cases and moderate in 26.6%. Age, institutionalization and overactive bladder symptoms were associated with erectile, orgasmic function and intercourse satisfaction alteration, sexual desire alteration, intercourse and global satisfaction alteration, respectively. men with idiopathic Parkinson's disease had a severe sexual dysfunction. The sexual desire was usually maintained but all the other domains were severely altered. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder in Turkish alcohol-dependent inpatients: relationship with depression, anxiety and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Can, Suat; Evren, Bilge; Saatcioglu, Omer; Cakmak, Duran

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Turkish male alcohol-dependent inpatients, and to investigate the relationship of lifetime PTSD diagnosis with anxiety, depression, hopelessness, erectile dysfunction and psychosocial problems related with alcohol dependency. Eighty-two male inpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence and 48 subjects without substance use disorder as a control group were included in the study. Subjects were applied the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Rate of lifetime PTSD diagnosis was found to be 26.8% among alcohol-dependent inpatients. The mean age of patients with lifetime PTSD was lower than in patients without this diagnosis, while there were no significant differences between these two groups in terms of age of first alcohol use, lifetime major depression, current depression, presence and severity of erectile dysfunction. Mean scores of HAM-D, HAM-A, BHS and MAST in the group with lifetime PTSD were significantly higher than the group without this diagnosis. There was a positive relationship between lifetime PTSD diagnosis and depression, anxiety, hopelessness and severity of psychosocial problems related to alcohol dependency, while there was no relationship between lifetime PTSD comorbidity and erectile dysfunction in alcohol-dependent patients.

  2. The future is today: emerging drugs for the treatment of erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Albersen, Maarten; Shindel, Alan; Mwamukonda, Kuwong; Lue, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Erectile Dysfunction (ED) is the most common male sexual dysfunction presented for treatment, and the most thoroughly studied sexual dysfunction in men. In the late 20th century, important discoveries were made regarding both the physiologic processes of penile erection and the pathophysiology of ED. These discoveries led to the commercial introduction of the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5I), a class of medications which now accounts for the largest segment of the ED market. While these drugs are highly efficacious for many men, a relatively large subset of ED patients who do not respond to PDE5I has been identified. Recognition of this subset of the ED population and the ageing of the population has driven researchers to investigate novel treatment targets for ED. Increased research efforts have resulted in the development of several orally available compounds that combine high efficacy with low rates of adverse events. In this review we report on various compounds that regulate penile erection both centrally (Clavulanic acid, Dopamine and Melanocortin receptor agonists) and peripherally (novel PDE5I, soluble and particulate Guanylil Cyclase activators, Rho-kinase inhibitors and Maxi-K channel openers), and discuss the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the development of these emerging drugs for ED. PMID:20415601

  3. Association of erectile dysfunction with depression in patients with chronic viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bong Oh; Shim, Sang Goon; Yang, Hae Jin

    2015-05-14

    To investigate the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) and its association with depression in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. This single center cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2013 through January 2014. All outpatients with chronic viral hepatitis in our liver clinic between 18 and 80 years of age were considered eligible for this study. The exclusion criteria included well-established causes of ED, such as diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, alcohol abuse, liver cirrhosis, ischemic heart disease, renal disease, neurologic disease, and malignancy. We also excluded the patients who had incompletely answered the questionnaires. ED was assessed using the validated Korean version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) scale. The Korean version of the self-administered Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scale was used to assess depression in the patients. Demographic and medical data were obtained from the patients' medical records. Current or past history of psychiatric diagnosis and drug history including the use of an antiviral agent and an antidepressant were also recorded. A total of 727 patients met the initial eligibility criteria. Six hundred seventeen patients were excluded because their medical records contained one or more of the previously determined exclusion criteria. The remaining 110 patients were assessed based on the BDI and IIEF-5 questionnaires. Based on the IIEF-5 scale, the prevalence of ED among patients with chronic viral hepatitis was 40%. Compared with the non-ED group, patients in the ED group were older. The proportion of patients in the ED group who had a job or who were naïve peg-interferon users was lower than that in patients in the non-ED group. Patients with ED had significantly lower scores on the IIEF-5 scale than patients without ED (11.75 ± 4.88 vs 21.33 ± 1.86, P = 0.000). Patients with ED rated significantly higher scores on the BDI scale compared with patients without ED (12.59

  4. Using Statistics and Data Mining Approaches to Analyze Male Sexual Behaviors and Use of Erectile Dysfunction Drugs Based on Large Questionnaire Data.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhi; Li, Xiang; Liu, Haifeng; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Junyang; Xie, Guotong; Qin, Nan; Jiang, Hui; Lin, Haocheng

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) has been extensively studied worldwide. Erectile dysfunction drugs has shown great efficacy in preventing male erectile dysfunction. In order to help doctors know drug taken preference of patients and better prescribe, it is crucial to analyze who actually take erectile dysfunction drugs and the relation between sexual behaviors and drug use. Existing clinical studies usually used descriptive statistics and regression analysis based on small volume of data. In this paper, based on big volume of data (48,630 questionnaires), we use data mining approaches besides statistics and regression analysis to comprehensively analyze the relation between male sexual behaviors and use of erectile dysfunction drugs for unravelling the characteristic of patients who take erectile dysfunction drugs. We firstly analyze the impact of multiple sexual behavior factors on whether to use the erectile dysfunction drugs. Then, we explore to mine the Decision Rules for Stratification to discover patients who are more likely to take drugs. Based on the decision rules, the patients can be partitioned into four potential groups for use of erectile dysfunction: high potential group, intermediate potential-1 group, intermediate potential-2 group and low potential group. Experimental results show 1) the sexual behavior factors, erectile hardness and time length to prepare (how long to prepares for sexual behaviors ahead of time), have bigger impacts both in correlation analysis and potential drug taking patients discovering; 2) odds ratio between patients identified as low potential and high potential was 6.098 (95% confidence interval, 5.159-7.209) with statistically significant differences in taking drug potential detected between all potential groups.

  5. Nebivolol dilates human penile arteries and reverses erectile dysfunction in diabetic rats through enhancement of nitric oxide signaling.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Javier; Wright, Harold M; Cuevas, Pedro; González-Corrochano, Rocío; Fernández, Argentina; Cuevas, Begoña; La Fuente, José M; Gupta, Sandeep; Sáenz de Tejada, Iñigo

    2010-08-01

    Traditional beta-blockers have sometimes been associated with erectile dysfunction (ED). Nebivolol is a cardioselective β(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist that promotes vasodilation through a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism. We evaluated the effects of nebivolol on the NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway, on erectile function and dysfunction, and in human penile vascular tissues. Erectile response to cavernosal nerve electrical stimulation in control and diabetes-induced ED rats were evaluated, along with serum nitrite/nitrate (NOx) concentration and plasma/tissue cGMP levels. Endothelium-dependent and sildenafil-induced relaxation of isolated human corpus cavernosum (HCC) and human penile resistance arteries (HPRA) were also determined. The effects of nebivolol on erectile function and dysfunction and on NO/cGMP-mediated responses. Treatment with nebivolol significantly potentiated erectile response in control rats, regardless of its effects on blood pressure. Nebivolol increased NOx and plasma cGMP by 3-fold and 2.75-fold, respectively, and significantly augmented the elevation of plasma cGMP produced by sildenafil. Nebivolol enhanced endothelium-dependent and sildenafil-induced relaxations of HCC tissue, and produced endothelium-dependent vasodilation of HPRA. Nebivolol, but not atenolol, significantly improved erectile response in diabetic rats (51.6%, 53.2%, and 87.1% of response at 3 Hz in nondiabetic rats, for vehicle-treated, atenolol-treated, and nebivolol-treated diabetic rats, respectively); after sildenafil administration, ED was completely reversed in nebivolol-treated diabetic rats (69.6% and 112% for diabetic rats treated with sildenafil and nebivolol plus sildenafil, respectively). Accordingly, nebivolol restored systemic NOx levels and cGMP content in penile tissue from these animals. Nebivolol in vivo activated the NO/cGMP pathway, enhanced erectile response and reversed ED in diabetic rats. Moreover, nebivolol in vitro

  6. Effects of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) extract on male patients with erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hwan; Jeon, Seung Hyun; Hahn, Eun-Joo; Paek, Kee-Yoeup; Park, Jong Kwan; Youn, Nae Young; Lee, Hyung-Lae

    2009-01-01

    Korean ginseng and mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) are important traditional herbal plants whose ginsenosides are generally accepted as serving to improve sexual functions, such as penile erection. We investigated the effects of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng extract (TMGE) on male patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 143 patients experiencing ED. Over the course of 8 weeks, one group took 1 000 mg of TMGE twice a day, and the other group took 1 000 mg of placebo twice a day. The effects of the TMGE and the placebo were analyzed using the Korean version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire. A total of 86 patients completed 8 weeks of treatment. The scores on the five domains of the IIEF after medication were significantly higher than the baseline scores in the group treated with TMGE (P < 0.05), whereas no significant improvement was observed in the placebo group (P > 0.05). Erectile function and overall satisfaction scores after medication were significantly higher in the TMGE group than in the placebo group (P < 0.05). Erectile function of patients in the TMGE-treated group significantly improved, suggesting that TMGE could be utilized for improving erectile function in male patients. PMID:19234482

  7. Effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on bladder and erectile (dys)function in the same rat in vivo.

    PubMed

    Christ, George J; Hsieh, Yi; Zhao, Weixin; Schenk, Gregory; Venkateswarlu, Karicheti; Wang, Hong-Zhan; Tar, Moses T; Melman, Arnold

    2006-05-01

    To establish the methods, feasibility and utility of evaluating the impact of diabetes on bladder and erectile function in the same rat, as more than half of diabetic patients have bladder dysfunction, and half of diabetic men have erectile dysfunction, but the severity of coincident disease has not been rigorously assessed. In all, 16 F-344 rats had diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ), and were divided into insulin-treated (five) and untreated (11), and compared with age-matched controls (10), all assessed in parallel. All STZ rats were diabetic for 8-11 weeks. Cystometric studies were conducted on all rats, with cavernosometric studies conducted on a subset of rats. There were insulin-reversible increases in the following cystometric variables; bladder weight, bladder capacity, micturition volume, residual volume, micturition pressure and spontaneous activity (P < 0.05, in all, one-way analysis of variance, anova). Cavernosometry showed a diabetes-related, insulin-reversible decline in the cavernosal nerve-stimulated intracavernosal pressure (ICP) response at all levels of current stimulation (P < 0.05, in all one-way anova). Plotting erectile capacity (i.e. ICP) against bladder capacity showed no correlation between the extent of the decline in erectile capacity and the magnitude of the increase in bladder capacity. These studies extend previous work to indicate that the extent of diabetes-related bladder and erectile dysfunction can vary in the same rat. As such, these findings highlight the importance of evaluating the impact of diabetes on multiple organ systems in the lower urinary tract. Future studies using this model system should lead to a better understanding of the initiation, development, progression and coincidence of these common diabetic complications.

  8. Herbal Dietary Supplements for Erectile Dysfunction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Francesca; Colalto, Cristiano; Delfino, Domenico V; Iriti, Marcello; Izzo, Angelo A

    2018-04-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition that significantly affects quality of life and interpersonal relationships. Our objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of herbal dietary supplements in the treatment of ED. We searched five databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the clinical efficacy of herbal medicines in ED. Quality was assessed and risk of bias was estimated using the Jadad score and the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. In total, 24 RCTs, including 2080 patients with ED, were identified. Among these, 12 evaluated monopreparations (five ginseng [n = 399], three saffron [n = 397], two Tribulus terrestris [n = 202], and one each Pinus pinaster [n = 21] and Lepidium meyenii [n = 50]), seven evaluated formulations (n = 544), and five investigated dietary supplements in combination with pure compounds (n = 410). Ginseng significantly improved erectile function (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF]-5 score: 140 ginseng, 96 placebo; standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-0.70; P < 0.01; I 2  = 0), P. pinaster and L. meyenii showed very preliminary positive results, and saffron and T. terrestris treatment produced mixed results. Several herbal formulations were associated with a decrease of IIEF-5 or IIEF-15, although the results were preliminary. The quality of the included studies varied, with only seven having a prevalent low risk of bias. The median methodological quality Jadad score was three out of a maximum of five. Adverse events were recorded in 19 of 24 trials, with no significant differences between placebo and verum in placebo-controlled studies. Encouraging evidence suggests that ginseng may be an effective herbal treatment for ED. However, further, larger, and high-quality studies are required before firm conclusions can be drawn. Promising (although very preliminary) results have also

  9. Low-Intensity Shock Wave Therapy and Its Application to Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hongen; Liu, Jing; Li, Huixi; Wang, Lin; Xu, Yongde; Tian, Wenjie; Lin, Guiting

    2013-01-01

    Although phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) are a revolution in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) and have been marketed since 1998, they cannot restore pathological changes in the penis. Low-energy shock wave therapy (LESWT) has been developed for treating ED, and clinical studies have shown that LESWT has the potential to affect PDE5I non-responders with ED with few adverse effects. Animal studies have shown that LESWT significantly improves penile hemodynamics and restores pathological changes in the penis of diabetic ED animal models. Although the mechanisms remain to be investigated, recent studies have reported that LESWT could partially restore corpus cavernosum fibromuscular pathological changes, endothelial dysfunction, and peripheral neuropathy. LESWT could be a novel modality for treating ED, and particularly PDE5I non-responders with organic ED, in the near future. However, further extensive evidence-based basic and clinical studies are needed. This review intends to summarize the scientific background underlying the effect of LESWT on ED. PMID:24459653

  10. Low-intensity shock wave therapy and its application to erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hongen; Liu, Jing; Li, Huixi; Wang, Lin; Xu, Yongde; Tian, Wenjie; Lin, Guiting; Xin, Zhongcheng

    2013-12-01

    Although phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) are a revolution in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) and have been marketed since 1998, they cannot restore pathological changes in the penis. Low-energy shock wave therapy (LESWT) has been developed for treating ED, and clinical studies have shown that LESWT has the potential to affect PDE5I non-responders with ED with few adverse effects. Animal studies have shown that LESWT significantly improves penile hemodynamics and restores pathological changes in the penis of diabetic ED animal models. Although the mechanisms remain to be investigated, recent studies have reported that LESWT could partially restore corpus cavernosum fibromuscular pathological changes, endothelial dysfunction, and peripheral neuropathy. LESWT could be a novel modality for treating ED, and particularly PDE5I non-responders with organic ED, in the near future. However, further extensive evidence-based basic and clinical studies are needed. This review intends to summarize the scientific background underlying the effect of LESWT on ED.

  11. Erectile dysfunction might be associated with chronic periodontal disease: two ends of the cardiovascular spectrum.

    PubMed

    Zadik, Yehuda; Bechor, Ron; Galor, Shay; Justo, Dan; Heruti, Rafi J

    2009-04-01

    Both chronic periodontal disease (CPD) and erectile dysfunction (ED) are associated with cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, including smoking and diabetes mellitus. However, the association between ED and CPD has never been studied. To study the association between ED and CPD. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Prevalence of ED, prevalence of CPD, ED severity. The study population consisted of 305 men who filled the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) questionnaire in order to detect ED and assess its severity, and underwent a pair of standardized posterior dental bitewing radiographs in order to detect CPD. SHIM questionnaire scores 21 or less represented ED. Alveolar bone loss of >or=6 mm represented CPD. The mean age of included men was 39.5 +/- 6.7 years. Overall, 70 (22.9%) men had ED and 13 (4.3%) had CPD. CPD was significantly more prevalent among men with mild ED (P = 0.004) and moderate to severe ED (P = 0.007) in comparison to men without ED. ED might be associated with CPD. These preliminary findings are consistent with theories that associate these conditions with systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and atherosclerosis.

  12. Clinical and Emotional Factors Related to Erectile Dysfunction in HIV-Infected Men.

    PubMed

    Fumaz, Carmina R; Ayestaran, Aintzane; Perez-Alvarez, Nuria; Muñoz-Moreno, Jose A; Ferrer, Maria Jose; Negredo, Eugenia; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2017-05-01

    The prevalence and associated factors of erectile dysfunction (ED) in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected men remain controversial. The authors evaluated ED, clinical, and emotional variables in a group of 501 HIV-infected men in a cross-sectional 4-month observational study. ED was assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function-5 and emotional status using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire. Median age (interquartile range) was 42 (35, 48) years. Time since HIV diagnosis was 6.3 (2.6, 17.1) years, 92% were taking antiretroviral treatment and 81.8% had an HIV-RNA viral load <50 copies. The prevalence of ED was 58.5%. ED was mild in 30.1%, mild to moderate in 19.5%, moderate in 6.1%, and severe in 2.5%. ED medications were used by 19% of men. In the univariate analysis, the variables associated with all degrees of ED were older age, longer time since HIV diagnosis, higher scores in HAD, not taking efavirenz, taking etravirine, taking ritonavir, HIV/Hepatitis C Virus coinfection, and taking a protease inhibitor-containing regimen. For mild to moderate, moderate, and severe ED, the same variables were significant, as were lower nadir CD4 cell count, lower social support, taking atazanavir, concomitant conditions, and concomitant treatments. The variables that remained significant in the multivariate analyses, considering all degrees of ED or excluding mild ED were the following: older age and higher scores in HAD total. In summary, ED affected more than half of this cohort of well controlled HIV-infected men. Age and emotional status seemed to play a fundamental role in its presence.

  13. Help-seeking behavior for erectile dysfunction: a clinic-based survey in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Yu, Wei; He, Zhan-Ju; Jin, Jie

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of Chinese patients seeking help for erectile dysfunction (ED) has not been described in detail. This was an observational study conducted using an outpatient clinic-based questionnaire survey of ED patients. From 2008 to 2009, physicians in 10 medical centers in China enrolled 2693 men (aged 25-70 years) diagnosed with ED. The diagnosis was based on the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF-5) Questionnaire. The men completed a survey that asked questions about demographics, marital status, education level and household income as well as help-seeking behavior and awareness of medical therapy. The mean age of the 2693 men was 43.4 ± 5.3 years; 73% were <50-years-old and 49% had a high household income. The mean time between noticing ED and taking the first treatment was 4.3 ± 2.1 months. Of the 2577 respondents, physicians (54%) and the internet (52%) were most frequently consulted sources for information about ED. Young ED patients preferred using the internet and older patients preferred consulting with physicians. Western medicine (19%) and traditional Chinese medicine (16%) were most frequently used for treatment. Young ED patients preferred to first search the internet for information, whereas older patients first asked physicians for help. Side effects of treatment were the greatest concern, especially for older patients. Physicians and the internet are frequently consulted for ED information and therapy. On the basis of these survey results, we believe that physicians in China should enhance health education about ED, especially via the internet.

  14. Prevalence and predictors of erectile dysfunction in adult male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Rusli Bin; Soni, Trived; Kaur, Amrina; Loh, Kean Por; Miranda, Shashi

    2018-05-18

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a serious burden globally that affects men as well as their partners. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of ED among male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study of Malaysian men aged 18 and older attending two major outpatient clinics in Johor Bahru and Segamat between 1 January and 31 March 2016 was undertaken. Subjects were chosen via simple random sampling and a sample size of 400 was recruited. The study instrument was a survey form that consisted of three sections: sociodemographic and comorbid profile, validated English and Malay version of the 15-item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15) and 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). The overall prevalence of self-reported ED was 81.5%. The prevalence of ED according to severity was as follows: mild (17%), mild to moderate (23.8%), moderate (11.3%), and severe (29.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that ED was associated with increasing age (odds ratio [OR] 4.023, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.633-9.913), Indians as compared to Malays (OR 3.252, 95% CI 1.280-8.262), secondary as compared to tertiary education (OR 2.171, 95% CI 1.203-3.919), single as compared to married status (OR 6.119, 95% CI 2.542-14.734), and stress (OR 4.259, 95% CI 1.793-10.114). There is significant prevalence and severity of ED among adult male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor. Increasing age, Indian ethnicity, lower educational level, being single, and stress were significant predictors of ED.

  15. Nailfold capillary abnormalities in erectile dysfunction of systemic sclerosis: a EUSTAR group analysis.

    PubMed

    Keck, Andrea D; Foocharoen, Chingching; Rosato, Edoardo; Smith, Vanessa; Allanore, Yannick; Distler, Oliver; Stamenkovic, Bojana; Pereira Da Silva, José Antonio; Hadj Khelifa, Sondess; Denisov, Lev N; Hachulla, Eric; García de la Peña Lefebvre, Paloma; Sibilia, Jean; Airò, Paolo; Caramaschi, Paola; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Wiland, Piotr; Walker, Ulrich A

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse an association between nailfold capillary abnormalities and the presence and severity of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men with SSc. A cross-sectional analysis of the prospective European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Scleroderma Trial and Research database was performed. Men with SSc were included if they had undergone nailfold capillaroscopy and simultaneous ED assessment with the 5-item International Index for Erectile Function (IIEF-5). Eighty-six men met the inclusion criteria. Eight men (9.3%) had not had sexual intercourse and could not be assigned an IIEF-5 score. Sixty-nine of the 78 men (88.5%) with an IIEF-5 score had nailfold capillary abnormalities, of whom 54 (78.3%) suffered from ED. Nine men (11.5%) had no nailfold capillary abnormalities, of whom six (66.7%) had ED (P = 0.44). ED was more frequent in older men (P = 0.002) and in men with diffuse disease (P = 0.06). Men with abnormal capillaroscopy had a higher median EULAR disease activity than men without (P = 0.02), a lower diffusing capacity of the lung (P = 0.001) and a higher modified Rodnan skin score (P = 0.04), but mean IIEF-5 scores did not differ [15.7 (S.D. 6.2) vs 15.7 (S.D. 6.3)]. IIEF-5 scores did not differ between men with early (n = 12), active (n = 27) or late (n = 27) patterns (IIEF-5 scores of 17.9, 16.3 and 14.7, respectively). There were no differences in the prevalence of early, active and late capillaroscopy patterns between men with or without ED. Neither the presence or absence of abnormal capillaroscopy findings nor the subdivision into early, active and late patterns is associated with coexistent ED in SSc.

  16. Cigarette Smoking and Erectile Dysfunction: Focus on NO Bioavailability and ROS Generation

    PubMed Central

    Tostes, Rita C.; Carneiro, Fernando S.; Lee, Anthony J.; Giachini, Fernanda R.C.; Leite, Romulo; Osawa, Yoichi; Webb, R. Clinton

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Thirty million men in the United States suffer from erectile dysfunction (ED) and this number is expected to double by 2025. Considered a major public health problem, which seriously affects the quality of life of patients and their partners, ED becomes increasingly prevalent with age and chronic smoking is a major risk factor in the development of ED. Aim To review available evidence concerning the effects of cigarette smoking on vascular changes associated with decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Methods We examined epidemiological and clinical data linking cigarette smoking and ED, and the effects of smoking on vascular NO bioavailability and ROS generation. Main Outcome Measures There are strong parallels between smoking and ED and considerable evidence supporting the concept that smoking-related ED is associated with reduced bioavailability of NO because of increased ROS. Results Cigarette smoking-induced ED in human and animal models is associated with impaired arterial flow to the penis or acute vasospasm of the penile arteries. Long-term smoking produces detrimental effects on the vascular endothelium and peripheral nerves and also causes ultrastructural damage to the corporal tissue, all considered to play a role in chronic smoking-induced ED. Clinical and basic science studies provide strong indirect evidence that smoking may affect penile erection by the impairment of endothelium-dependent smooth muscle relaxation or more specifically by affecting NO production via increased ROS generation. Whether nicotine or other products of cigarette smoke mediate all effects related to vascular damage is still unknown. Conclusions Smoking prevention represents an important approach for reducing the risk of ED. The characterization of the components of cigarette smoke leading to ED and the mechanisms by which these components alter signaling pathways activated in erectile responses are

  17. Nitric oxide synthase gene transfer for erectile dysfunction in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Chancellor, M B; Tirney, S; Mattes, C E; Tzeng, E; Birder, L A; Kanai, A J; de Groat, W C; Huard, J; Yoshimura, N

    2003-05-01

    To determine whether over-expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the corpus cavernosum of the penis improves erectile function, as NO is an important transmitter for genitourinary tract function, mediating smooth muscle relaxation and being essential for penile erection. The inducible form of the enzyme NOS (iNOS) was introduced into the corpus cavernosum of adult Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) by injecting a solution of plasmid, adenovirus or adenovirus-transduced myoblast cells (adeno-myoblasts). Plasmid, adenovirus and adeno-myoblasts encoding the expression of the beta-galactosidase reporter gene were also injected into rats. Throughout the corpora cavernosum there was expression of beta-galactosidase after injecting each of the three solutions. Maximum staining was greatest for adeno-myoblast, then adenovirus and then plasmid. The mean (sd) basal intracavernosal pressure (ICP) of iNOS-treated animals (adenovirus and adeno-myoblast) increased to 55 (23) cmH2O, compared with naive animals with a basal ICP of 5 (6) cmH2O (P = 0.001). Stimulating the cavernosal nerve (15 Hz, 1.5 ms, 10-40 V, 1 min) resulted in a doubling of the ICP (adenovirus and adeno-myoblast) from the basal level of the iNOS-treated animals. Direct in situ measurement of NO showed the release of 1-1.3 micro mol/L in the adeno-myoblast penis. Myoblast-mediated gene therapy was more successful for delivering iNOS into the corpus cavernosum than direct adenovirus injection or plasmid transfection. Surprisingly, implanting muscle cells into the penis is not only feasible but also beneficial. Gene therapy for NOS may open new avenues of treatment for erectile dysfunction. Control of NOS expression would be necessary to prevent priapism.

  18. Can the Mean Platelet Volume Be a Risk Factor for Vasculogenic Erectile Dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Yeni, Ercan; Demir, Mehmet; Yagmur, Ismail; Gümüş, Kemal; Celik, Hakim; Savas, Murat; Gulum, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The mean platelet volume (MPV) is a marker of the platelet activity and is reported to increase in vascular diseases. We aimed to investigate the association between MPV and vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (ED). Materials and Methods MPV and platelet (PLT) levels were measured in 50 cases of ED and 40 healthy controls. The diagnosis of vasculogenic ED was based on a detailed sexual history, physical examination, laboratory assessment, and color Doppler ultrasonography. The results are given as mean±standard deviation of the mean. Results The mean ages of the patient and the control groups were 53.70±12.39 years (range 24~77 years) and 53.85±9.5 years (range 30~73 years), respectively (p=0.947). The MPV and PLT values were significantly higher in the patients with ED than those of the controls (7.49±1.4), (6.85±1.2), (262.97±68), (252.89±82) respectively, p<0.001). However, the MPV values were not statistically significantly different in the patients with severe ED according to the International Index of Erectile Function than in those with mild ED, p>0.05), and there was no correlation between MPV and either age of patients (p=0.905) or duration of ED (p=0.583). Conclusions The platelet count and MPV was detected to be increased in patients with vasculogenic ED. This finding suggests a role for platelets in the pathogenesis of vascular complications and that the MPV would be useful in monitoring disease progression. PMID:24459654

  19. Penile Dimensions of Diabetic and Nondiabetic Men With Erectile Dysfunction: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Salama, Nader

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to report penile dimensions in diabetic and nondiabetic men with erectile dysfunction (ED) and correlate their dimensions with other study variables. A case-control study was designed through retrospective data analysis of diabetic and nondiabetic patients consulting for ED and a control group ( n = 105, each group). Study data retrieved included history, clinical evaluation, and penile dimensions (pendulous length [PL], total length [TL], and circumference [CF]) at flaccid and erect states. Results identified that patients had lower values (mean, cm) for almost all penile dimensions. The diabetic patients identified significant differences in most dimensions, whether in flaccid (PL: 7.46 vs. 7.51 and 7.81, p = .11; TL: 11.8 vs. 12.77 and 12.88, p = .000; CF: 8.84 vs. 9.1 and 9.14, p = .016) or erect state (PL: 9.66 vs. 9.61 and 10, p = .092; TL: 13.96 vs. 14.88 and 15.04, p = .000; CF: 11.56 vs. 12.06 and 11.92, p = .018) as compared with the nondiabetic patients and controls, respectively. No significant correlation was detected between the dimensions and age, durations of diabetes and ED, or erectile function scores. In conclusion, diabetic and nondiabetic patients with ED presented, in varying degrees, significant decline in their penile dimensions, and this was more prevalent in diabetic patients. As changes in penile size could be a silent corollary of comorbidities, monitoring the changes in penile dimensions should be an important component of the clinical checkup of any patient with ED, especially a diabetic patient.

  20. Penile Dimensions of Diabetic and Nondiabetic Men With Erectile Dysfunction: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Nader

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to report penile dimensions in diabetic and nondiabetic men with erectile dysfunction (ED) and correlate their dimensions with other study variables. A case–control study was designed through retrospective data analysis of diabetic and nondiabetic patients consulting for ED and a control group (n = 105, each group). Study data retrieved included history, clinical evaluation, and penile dimensions (pendulous length [PL], total length [TL], and circumference [CF]) at flaccid and erect states. Results identified that patients had lower values (mean, cm) for almost all penile dimensions. The diabetic patients identified significant differences in most dimensions, whether in flaccid (PL: 7.46 vs. 7.51 and 7.81, p = .11; TL: 11.8 vs. 12.77 and 12.88, p = .000; CF: 8.84 vs. 9.1 and 9.14, p = .016) or erect state (PL: 9.66 vs. 9.61 and 10, p = .092; TL: 13.96 vs. 14.88 and 15.04, p = .000; CF: 11.56 vs. 12.06 and 11.92, p = .018) as compared with the nondiabetic patients and controls, respectively. No significant correlation was detected between the dimensions and age, durations of diabetes and ED, or erectile function scores. In conclusion, diabetic and nondiabetic patients with ED presented, in varying degrees, significant decline in their penile dimensions, and this was more prevalent in diabetic patients. As changes in penile size could be a silent corollary of comorbidities, monitoring the changes in penile dimensions should be an important component of the clinical checkup of any patient with ED, especially a diabetic patient. PMID:26130730

  1. Abdominal obesity and physical inactivity are associated with erectile dysfunction independent of body mass index.

    PubMed

    Janiszewski, Peter M; Janssen, Ian; Ross, Robert

    2009-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is common among men with an elevated body mass index (BMI). However, a high waist circumference (WC) and low levels of physical activity may predict ED independently of BMI. We investigated the independent relationships between BMI, WC, and physical activity with ED. Subjects consisted of 3,941 adult men (age > or = 20 years) with no history of prostate cancer from the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relative odds of ED association with categories of BMI, WC, and physical activity. Established thresholds were used to divide subjects into three WC and BMI categories. Physical activity level was divided into active (> or =150 min/week), moderately active (30-149 min/week), and inactive (<30 min/week) categories. A single survey question was used to assess the presence of ED. After control for potential confounders, men with either a high WC or an obese BMI had an approximately 50% higher odds of having ED compared with men with a low WC or a normal BMI, respectively. Further, moderately active or inactive men had an approximately 40-60% greater odds of ED compared with active men. When all three predictors (WC, BMI, and physical activity level) were entered into the same logistic regression model, both a high WC and low physical activity level (moderately active and inactive) were independently associated with a greater odds of ED, whereas BMI level was not. Maintaining a WC level below 102 cm and achieving the recommended amount of moderate-intensity physical activity (>or =150 min/week) is associated with the maintenance of proper erectile function, regardless of BMI level. These findings suggest that the clinical screening for ED risk should include the assessment of WC and physical activity level in addition to BMI.

  2. Effect of the selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor sildenafil on erectile dysfunction in the anesthetized dog.

    PubMed

    Carter, A J; Ballard, S A; Naylor, A M

    1998-07-01

    The effects of sildenafil, a highly selective inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-specific phosphodiesterase type 5, on erectile function in the anesthetized dog were evaluated. In pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs, increases in intracavernosal pressure in the corpus cavernosum and penile blood flow were induced by pelvic nerve stimulation over a frequency range of 1 to 16 hertz. The effects of increasing doses of sildenafil on electrically stimulated intracavernosal pressure, penile blood flow, blood pressure, and heart-rate were evaluated. In parallel experiments, the effects of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N omega-Nitro-L-Arginine (L-NOArg) on these same parameters also were assessed. The effects of nerve stimulation on intracavernosal pressure and blood flow to the penis were blocked by L-NOArg, 0.1-3 mg./kg., in a dose-related manner, confirming the important role of nitric oxide in producing erections. Sildenafil, 1-100 microg./kg administered intravenously, had no direct effect on intracavernosal pressure but potentiated the increase in intracavernosal pressure induced by nerve stimulation. This potentiation occurred at sildenafil plasma concentrations consistent with its relaxation effect on isolated human cavernosal tissue and its inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 5 in vitro. Sildenafil had no significant effect on blood pressure or heart rate. By inhibiting cyclic guanosine monophosphate-specific phosphodiesterase type 5, sildenafil augments the neuronal mechanism responsible for penile erection. This mechanism explains the significant improvements reported in the rigidity and duration of erections seen in patients with erectile dysfunction who have been treated with oral sildenafil.

  3. Severity of erectile dysfunction is highly correlated with the syntax score in patients undergoing coronariography

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Weslley Santiago; Oliveira, Paulo; Laydner, Humberto; Ferreira, Eduardo Jose Pereira; Barreto, Jose Augusto Soares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the association between the severity of erectile dysfunction (ED) and coronary artery disease (CAD) in men undergoing coronary angiography for angina or acute myocardial infarct (AMI). Material and Methods We studied 132 males who underwent coronary angiography for first time between January and November 2010. ED severity was assessed by the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) and CAD severity was assessed by the Syntax score. Patients with CAD (cases) and without CAD (controls) had their IIEF-5 compared. In the group with CAD, their IIEF-5 scores were compared to their Syntax score results. Results We identified 86 patients with and 46 without CAD. The IIEF-5 score of the group without CAD (22.6±0.8) was significantly higher than the group with CAD (12.5±0.5; p<0.0001). In patients without ED, the Syntax score average was 6.3±3.5, while those with moderate or severe ED had a mean Syntax score of 39.0±11.1. After adjustment, ED was independently associated to CAD, with an odds ratio of 40.6 (CI 95%, 14.3-115.3, p<0.0001). The accuracy of the logistic model to correctly identify presence or absence of CAD was 87%, with 92% sensitivity and 78% specificity. The average time that ED was present in patients with CAD was 38.8±2.3 months before coronary symptoms, about twice as high as patients without CAD (18.0±5.1 months). Conclusions ED severity is strongly and independently correlated with CAD complexity, as assessed by the Syntax score in patients undergoing coronariography for evaluation of new onset coronary symptoms. PMID:27136478

  4. Heat shock protein 9-mediated inflammation reaction in patients with chronic prostatitis with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H-F; Li, X; Jiang, X-Z

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the role of heat shock protein (HSP)-9 on the inflammation reaction present in patients with chronic prostatitis with erectile dysfunction (ED). A total of 160 participants in the study were assigned to one of four groups of the same size. Group A had patients with chronic prostatitis and ED. Group B had patients with simple chronic prostatitis. Group C had patients with ED. And group D had healthy volunteers. The serum levels of HSP-9, CRP, TNF-a, IL-6 and CD3 in each individual's serum were tested by ELISA. Additionally, the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) scores were recorded for each case. The serum levels of HSP-9, CRP, TNF-a, IL-6 and CD3 in the serum of groups A and B were distinctly higher than those of groups C and D (p<0.05). While comparisons between groups A and B, or between groups C and D yielded no significant differences. Nevertheless, the NIH-CPSI scores in the group A were significantly higher (mostly moderately severe) than in the group B (mild to moderate). Furthermore, the IIEF-5 scores in the group A were also significantly higher than those in the group C. The serum levels of HSP-9, CRP, TNF-a, IL-6 and CD3 in the sera of patients with chronic prostatitis with ED were clearly increased, reflecting a high degree of inflammation which may be related to the clinical manifestations in patients with chronic prostatitis and ED.

  5. Feasibility study of an intensity-modulated radiation model for the study of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Koontz, Bridget F; Yan, Hui; Kimura, Masaki; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Donatucci, Craig; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2011-02-01

    Preclinical studies of radiotherapy (RT) induced erectile dysfunction (ED) have been limited by radiation toxicity when using large fields. To develop a protocol of rat prostate irradiation using techniques mimicking the current clinical standard of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Quality assurance (QA) testing of plan accuracy, animal health 9 weeks after RT, and intracavernosal pressure (ICP) measurement on cavernosal nerve stimulation. Computed tomography-based planning was used to develop a stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment plan for five young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Two treatment planning strategies were utilized to deliver 20 Gy in a single fraction: three-dimensional dynamic conformal arc and intensity-modulated arc (RapidArc). QA testing was performed for each plan type. Treatment was delivered using a NovalisTX (Varian Medical Systems) with high-definition multi-leaf collimators using on-board imaging prior to treatment. Each animal was evaluated for ED 2 months after treatment by nerve stimulation and ICP measurement. The mean prostate volume and target volume (5 mm expansion of prostate) for the five animals was 0.36 and 0.66 cm3, respectively. Both conformal and RapidArc plans provided at least 95% coverage of the target volume, with rapid dose fall-off. QA plans demonstrated strong agreement between doses of calculated and delivered plans, although the conformal arc plan was more homogenous in treatment delivery. Treatment was well tolerated by the animals with no toxicity out to 9 weeks. Compared with control animals, significant reduction in ICP/mean arterial pressure, maximum ICP, and ICP area under the curve were noted. Tightly conformal dynamic arc prostate irradiation is feasible and results in minimal toxicity and measurable changes in erectile function. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Clinical and Emotional Factors Related to Erectile Dysfunction in HIV-Infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Fumaz, Carmina R.; Ayestaran, Aintzane; Perez-Alvarez, Nuria; Muñoz-Moreno, Jose A.; Ferrer, Maria Jose; Negredo, Eugenia; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and associated factors of erectile dysfunction (ED) in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)–infected men remain controversial. The authors evaluated ED, clinical, and emotional variables in a group of 501 HIV-infected men in a cross-sectional 4-month observational study. ED was assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function–5 and emotional status using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire. Median age (interquartile range) was 42 (35, 48) years. Time since HIV diagnosis was 6.3 (2.6, 17.1) years, 92% were taking antiretroviral treatment and 81.8% had an HIV-RNA viral load <50 copies. The prevalence of ED was 58.5%. ED was mild in 30.1%, mild to moderate in 19.5%, moderate in 6.1%, and severe in 2.5%. ED medications were used by 19% of men. In the univariate analysis, the variables associated with all degrees of ED were older age, longer time since HIV diagnosis, higher scores in HAD, not taking efavirenz, taking etravirine, taking ritonavir, HIV/Hepatitis C Virus coinfection, and taking a protease inhibitor-containing regimen. For mild to moderate, moderate, and severe ED, the same variables were significant, as were lower nadir CD4 cell count, lower social support, taking atazanavir, concomitant conditions, and concomitant treatments. The variables that remained significant in the multivariate analyses, considering all degrees of ED or excluding mild ED were the following: older age and higher scores in HAD total. In summary, ED affected more than half of this cohort of well controlled HIV-infected men. Age and emotional status seemed to play a fundamental role in its presence. PMID:27645512

  7. Genital image, sexual anxiety, and erectile dysfunction among young male military personnel.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Sherrie L; Redmond, Sarah; Davis, Teaniese L

    2015-06-01

    More than a third of young military personnel report experiencing some level of erectile dysfunction (ED). Preoccupation with body image, particularly genitals, is a distraction that can influence sexual anxiety (SA) and sexual functioning problems (SFPs), particularly ED. This study assessed the relationships between male genital self-image (MGSI), SA, and ED in a sample of male military personnel age 40 or younger. Data were from a larger study on SFPs in military populations. This sample consisted of 367 male military personnel age 40 or younger. Hierarchical regression analyses and process modeling using mediation analysis were performed to examine the effects of MGSI on ED with SA as an intermediate variable. We predicted that SA would mediate the relationship between MGSI and ED. ED severity was assessed with the International Index of Erectile Function. MGSI was assessed using the MGSI Scale. SA was assessed with the SA subscale of the Sexual Needs Scale. As hypothesized, greater satisfaction with MGSI was predictive of significantly lower SA (F[8, 352] = 4.07, P = 0.001) and lower ED (F[8, 352] = 13.20, P = 0.001). Lower levels of SA were predictive of lower levels of ED (F[8, 354] = 21.35, P < 0.001). Additionally, results also revealed a significant indirect effect of MGSI on ED through SA (b = -0.07, standard error = 0.03, confidence interval = [-0.14,-0.02], P < 0.05), indicating mediation of MGSI on ED via SA. This study underscores the complex etiologic basis of SFPs, particularly ED, and highlights the importance of considering psychologic contributors to ED, such as SA and MGSI. Strategies aimed at reducing SA may be useful in improving ED in young military populations and are worth considering as complements to strategies that improve SFPs. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. The relationship between vitamin D level and erectile dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Basat, Sema; Sivritepe, Rıdvan; Ortaboz, Damla; Sevim Çalık, Ecem; Küçük, Eyüp Veli; Şimşek, Berkan; Atay, Sabri; Çalışgan, Arzu

    2018-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested that a relationship could exist between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency and erectile dysfunction (ED). The present study evaluated the relationship between 25(OH)D levels and ED in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The study included 98 patients with type 2 DM aged between 18-80 years. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) Questionnaire was administered. The patients were divided into three groups according to IIEF-5 scoring: IIEF-5 score between 5-10, severe ED; IIEF-5 score between 11-20, moderate ED; IIEF-5 score between 21-25, no ED. Biochemical parameters, 25(OH)D and hormonal analysis tests were obtained in all patients. All parameters were compared between these three groups. Of 98 patients included in the study, 32 had severe ED, 45 had moderate ED and 21 had no ED. The mean age was 55.12 ± 9.39 years and the mean 25(OH)D level was 13.69 ± 8.15 ng/ml. When the three groups were compared, 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in patients with the IIEF-5 score between 5-10 (p = 0.020). There was a moderate positive relationship between IIEF-5 score and 25(OH)D level (r = 0.21, p = 0.038). The patients with severe ED have considerably lower 25(OH)D levels.

  9. Small-fibre neuropathy in men with type 1 diabetes and erectile dysfunction: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Shazli; Ferdousi, Maryam; Alam, Uazman; Petropoulos, Ioannis N; Ponirakis, Georgios; Marshall, Andrew; Asghar, Omar; Fadavi, Hassan; Jones, Wendy; Tavakoli, Mitra; Boulton, Andrew J M; Jeziorska, Maria; Soran, Handrean; Efron, Nathan; Malik, Rayaz A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the contribution of small- and large-fibre neuropathy to erectile dysfunction in men with type 1 diabetes mellitus. A total of 70 participants (29 without and 41 with erectile dysfunction) with type 1 diabetes and 34 age-matched control participants underwent a comprehensive assessment of large- and small-fibre neuropathy. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction in participants with type 1 diabetes was 58.6%. After adjusting for age, participants with type 1 diabetes and erectile dysfunction had a significantly higher score on the Neuropathy Symptom Profile (mean ± SEM 5.3 ± 0.9 vs 1.8 ± 1.2, p = 0.03), a higher vibration perception threshold (18.3 ± 1.9 vs 10.7 ± 2.4 V, p = 0.02), and a lower sural nerve amplitude (5.0 ± 1.1 vs 11.7 ± 1.5 mV, p = 0.002), peroneal nerve amplitude (2.1 ± 0.4 vs 4.7 ± 0.5 mV, p < 0.001) and peroneal nerve conduction velocity (34.8 ± 1.5 vs 41.9 ± 2.0 m/s, p = 0.01) compared with those without erectile dysfunction. There was also evidence of a marked small-fibre neuropathy with an impaired cold threshold (19.7 ± 1.4°C vs 27.3 ± 1.8°C, p = 0.003), warm threshold (42.9 ± 0.8°C vs 39.0 ± 0.9°C, p = 0.005) and heart rate variability (21.5 ± 3.1 vs 30.0 ± 3.7 beats/min, p = 0.001) and reduced intraepidermal nerve fibre density (2.8 ± 0.7 vs 5.9 ± 0.7/mm, p = 0.008), corneal nerve fibre density (12.6 ± 1.5 vs 23.9 ± 2.0/mm 2 , p < 0.001), corneal nerve branch density (12.7 ± 2.5 vs 31.6 ± 3.3/mm 2 , p < 0.001) and corneal nerve fibre length (8.3 ± 0.7 vs 14.5 ± 1.0 mm/mm 2 , p < 0.001) in participants with type 1 diabetes and erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction correlated significantly with measures of both large- and small-fibre neuropathy. Small-fibre neuropathy is prominent in patients with type 1 diabetes, and is associated with erectile dysfunction and can be objectively quantified

  10. Pharmacological Prevention and Reversion of Erectile Dysfunction After Radical Prostatectomy, by Modulation of Nitric Oxide/cGMP Pathways

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    cancer in men. Now, we have shown that much lower doses of sildenafil, combined or not with a nitric oxide donor, molsidomine, also correct the CVOD...ED) subsequent to radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer can be prevented and even reversed by long-term sustained treatment with PDE5...erectile dysfunction subsequent to radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer , based on the long term sustained administration of PDE5 inhibitors. Our

  11. Urinary retention, erectile dysfunction and meningitis due to sacral herpes zoster: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Erol, B; Avci, A; Eken, C; Ozgok, Y

    2009-01-01

    Zona zoster infection is often associated with painful erythematous vesicular eruptions of the skin or mucous membranes. Varicella zoster virus which stays latent in the sensorial root ganglia causes zona zoster infection. The most recognized feature of zona zoster is the dermatomal distribution of vesicular rashes. In the present case report, we state an unusual presentation of sacral zona zoster with urinary retention, erectile dysfunction and meningitis. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Impact of aging and comorbidity on the efficacy of low-intensity shock wave therapy for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hisasue, Shin-ichi; China, Toshiyuki; Horiuchi, Akira; Kimura, Masaki; Saito, Keisuke; Isotani, Shuji; Ide, Hisamitsu; Muto, Satoru; Yamaguchi, Raizo; Horie, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of low-intensity shock wave therapy and to identify the predictive factors of its efficacy in Japanese patients with erectile dysfunction. The present study included 57 patients with erectile dysfunction who satisfied all the following conditions: more than 6-months history of erectile dysfunction, sexual health inventory for men score of ≤ 12 without phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, erection hardness score grade 1 or 2, mean penile circumferential change by erectometer assessing sleep related erection of < 25 mm and non-neurological pathology. Patients were treated by a low-energy shock waves generator (ED1000; Medispec, Gaithersburg, MD, USA). A total of 12 shock wave treatments were applied. Sexual health inventory for men score, erection hardness score with or without phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, and mean penile circumferential change were assessed at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months after the termination of low-intensity shock wave therapy. Of 57 patients who were assigned for the low-intensity shock wave therapy trial, 56 patients were analyzed. Patients had a median age of 64 years. The sexual health inventory for men and erection hardness score (with and without phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor) were significantly increased (P < 0.001) at each time-point. The mean penile circumferential change was also increased from 13.1 to 20.2 mm after low-intensity shock wave therapy (P < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, age and the number of concomitant comorbidities were statistically significant predictors for the efficacy. Low-intensity shock wave therapy seems to be an effective physical therapy for erectile dysfunction. Age and comorbidities are negative predictive factors of therapeutic response. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  13. Association Between Opioid Use and Risk of Erectile Dysfunction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shankun; Deng, Tuo; Luo, Lianmin; Wang, Jiamin; Li, Ermao; Liu, Luhao; Li, Futian; Luo, Jintai; Zhao, Zhigang

    2017-10-01

    Opioid analgesics have been widely used to relieve chronic pain conditions; however, a connection between opioid analgesic administration and increased susceptibility to erectile dysfunction (ED) has been hypothesized. To evaluate whether opioid use was a risk factor for ED in a systematic review and meta-analysis. The PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were searched to identify eligible studies concerning opioid use and risk of ED from inception to April 2017. The association between opioid use and risk of ED was summarized using the relative risk with 95% CI. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess potential bias. The Begg and Egger tests were used for publication bias analysis. The GRADE evidence profile tool was used to assess the quality of the evidence. The overall combined risk estimates for the effect of opioid use on ED were calculated using a random-effects model. This meta-analysis included 8,829 men (mean age = 41.6 years) from 10 studies, 2,456 of whom received opioid management (duration of intervention = 4 months to 9.5 years). Pooled results demonstrated that the use of opioids was significantly associated with an increased risk of ED (relative risk = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.66-2.32, P < .001). Estimates of the total effects were generally consistent in the sensitivity analysis. No evidence of publication bias was observed. The overall quality of evidence was rated as low. We found that men with opioid use had a significantly increased prevalence of ED, which suggests that patients and clinicians should be aware of the potential role played by opioid administration in the development of ED. This is the first meta-analysis performed to describe the relation between opioid use and ED risk based on all available epidemiologic studies. However, the direction of causality between opioid use and risk of ED should be interpreted with caution because most included studies used a cross-sectional design. Evidence from the included

  14. A population pharmacokinetic analysis of sildenafil citrate in patients with erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Milligan, Peter A; Marshall, Scott F; Karlsson, Mats O

    2002-01-01

    Aims To analyse the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil citrate in patients with erectile dysfunction in order to characterize covariate relationships and assist in the development of rational dosage strategies. Methods A population pharmacokinetic sampling strategy was incorporated into five phase III clinical study protocols. Overall, 2077 patients, 1335 of whom received sildenafil, were asked to take an additional dose of study drug before their scheduled clinic visits on four or five occasions throughout the study duration. A single plasma sample was obtained at random times postdose (range 1–7 h), and a total of 4582 samples were assayed (average 3.4 samples per individual). Results For the population average patient (age 58 years; aspartate transaminase [AST], 24 IU l−1; weight, 87 kg; not receiving CYP3A4 potential inhibitors), typical values for sildenafil (mean±SE) were 58.5±1.4 l h−1 for apparent clearance (CL/F), 310±6.92 l for volume of distribution (V/F), and 2.6±0.176 h−1 for first-order absorption constant (ka). The value for ka is associated with meal consumption within 2 h predose, at all other times ka was equivalent to an instantaneous bolus administration. The interindividual variabilities were 29% for CL/F, 20% for V/F, and 210% for ka. Over a dose range of 25–100 mg sildenafil, the pharmacokinetics exhibited dose proportionality. There was evidence of nonproportionality (40% increase on average) in relative bioavailability with respect to the 200-mg dose (P < 0.001) relative to the other doses. Age, AST concentration, and co-administration with CYP3A4 potential inhibitors significantly influenced CL/F of sildenafil (P < 0.001, for each relationship). For age and AST, the extent of the linear relationships (extrapolated from population average values) included a 4% decrease in CL/F for every decade increase and a 6% decrease in CL/F for every 10-unit increase, respectively. Following co-administration of CYP3A4 potential inhibitors, a

  15. Direct effects of tadalafil on lower urinary tract symptoms versus indirect effects mediated through erectile dysfunction symptom improvement: integrated data analyses from 4 placebo controlled clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Brock, Gerald B; McVary, Kevin T; Roehrborn, Claus G; Watts, Steven; Ni, Xiao; Viktrup, Lars; Wong, David G; Donatucci, Craig

    2014-02-01

    Tadalafil has regulatory approval for the treatment of men with signs/symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia with and without erectile dysfunction. We assessed whether the effects of treatment with tadalafil for lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia are independent of improvements in erectile dysfunction. Four separate analyses used integrated data from 4 randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled studies in men with lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia with and without erectile dysfunction to test whether total I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) improvement was due to improvement in IIEF-EF (International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function domain score). Unidirectional and bidirectional path analysis models determined direct and indirect treatment effects mediated by improvements in lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia and erectile dysfunction symptoms. A total of 1,496 men, of whom 77% had erectile dysfunction, received at least 1 dose of tadalafil 5 mg once daily or placebo. The placebo adjusted treatment effect for men with erectile dysfunction was represented by a mean decrease of -2.3 (p <0.0001) in total I-PSS vs -2.2 (p = 0.0007) for men without erectile dysfunction. The correlation between change from baseline in total I-PSS and IIEF-EF was weak (r(2) = 0.08, p <0.0001). The unidirectional path analysis model suggested that the total treatment effect on total I-PSS score improvement (2.25) was derived from a direct treatment effect of 1.57 (70%, p <0.001) and an indirect treatment effect of 0.67 (30% via IIEF-EF improvement, p <0.001). Bidirectional path analysis showed that total I-PSS improvement was largely attributed to direct (92.5%, p <0.001) vs indirect (7.5%, p = 0.32) treatment effects via IIEF-EF improvement. Regardless of the analytical approach, self-reported erectile dysfunction status did not appreciably influence tadalafil treatment response in men with

  16. Comparison of the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy and a vacuum erectile device on penile erectile dysfunction: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Tao; Ye, Lei; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: This randomized clinical trial (October 2012–December 2013) compared extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and a vacuum erectile device (VED) for management of erectile dysfunction (ED). Methods: Consecutive Chinese patients (20–55 years) with ED, abnormal nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity (NPTR), and international index of erectile function-5 items (IIEF-5) score <22 were randomized to receive ESWT or VED (twice weekly, 4 weeks). Primary outcomes were treatment efficacy and success rate 4 weeks after completion of therapy. Secondary outcomes included changes in IIEF-5 score, sex encounter profile (SEP) score, erection hardness score (EHS) and NPTR assessments 4 weeks post-therapy. All enrolled patients (n = 30 per group) completed the study. At baseline, age, IIEF-5 score, SEP score, EHS, and NPTR assessments were similar between groups. Results: Four weeks post-therapy, IIEF-5 score increased in the ESWT (15.03 ± 3.00 vs. 11.60 ± 2.28) and VED (15.10 ± 3.06 vs. 11.53 ± 2.27) groups, as did SEP score, EHS, and NPTR measures (all P < .05). Efficacy in the ESWT and VED groups was excellent in 10% and 13.3%, respectively, and moderate in 63.3% and 53.3%, respectively. Treatment success rate in the ESWT and VED groups was 73.3% and 67.7%, respectively. Conclusion: VED use and ESWT have comparable efficacies in the treatment of ED in Chinese patients. PMID:29095274

  17. Comparison of the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy and a vacuum erectile device on penile erectile dysfunction: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Qi, Tao; Ye, Lei; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Jun

    2017-11-01

    This randomized clinical trial (October 2012-December 2013) compared extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and a vacuum erectile device (VED) for management of erectile dysfunction (ED). Consecutive Chinese patients (20-55 years) with ED, abnormal nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity (NPTR), and international index of erectile function-5 items (IIEF-5) score <22 were randomized to receive ESWT or VED (twice weekly, 4 weeks). Primary outcomes were treatment efficacy and success rate 4 weeks after completion of therapy. Secondary outcomes included changes in IIEF-5 score, sex encounter profile (SEP) score, erection hardness score (EHS) and NPTR assessments 4 weeks post-therapy. All enrolled patients (n = 30 per group) completed the study. At baseline, age, IIEF-5 score, SEP score, EHS, and NPTR assessments were similar between groups. Four weeks post-therapy, IIEF-5 score increased in the ESWT (15.03 ± 3.00 vs. 11.60 ± 2.28) and VED (15.10 ± 3.06 vs. 11.53 ± 2.27) groups, as did SEP score, EHS, and NPTR measures (all P < .05). Efficacy in the ESWT and VED groups was excellent in 10% and 13.3%, respectively, and moderate in 63.3% and 53.3%, respectively. Treatment success rate in the ESWT and VED groups was 73.3% and 67.7%, respectively. VED use and ESWT have comparable efficacies in the treatment of ED in Chinese patients.

  18. The efficacy and safety of on-demand Elonza; a generic product of sildenafil in Thai men with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wijitsettakul, Udomsak; Pempongkosol, Sompol

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Elonza (generic product of sildenafil) 100 mg, a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, in Thai men with erectile dysfunction (ED). This prospective, Cohort study was conducted for eight weeks. Two hundred ten male patients, older than 20 years of age with ED were enrolled to receive generic product of sildenafil 100 mg taken as needed. Efficacy is evaluated through the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores for the five separate response domains, erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction domain. After sildenafil administration, erectile function domain scores were significantly increased from baseline, 5.02 (p < 0.001) and 7.19 (p < 0.001) in one month and two months, respectively. Intercourse satisfaction domain scores and overall satisfaction domain scores were significantly increased from baseline, 3.17 (p < 0.001) and 1.74 (p < 0.001) in two months, respectively. Most treatment emergent adverse events were mild or moderate. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events were flushing (13.2%), nasal congestion (9.8%), abnormal vision (4.9%), headache (4.4%), dizziness (2.9%), and dyspepsia (0.5%). Elonza, a generic product of sildenafil, was an effective and well-tolerated treatment for ED in Thai men.

  19. Haemorrhoids are associated with erectile dysfunction: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Keller, J J; Lin, H-C

    2012-12-01

    Haemorrhoids are associated with regional vascular abnormalities and rectal pain, which are hypothesized to increase the risk of erectile dysfunction (ED); however, few studies have investigated the association between ED and haemorrhoids. This case-control study aimed to estimate the association between haemorrhoids and ED by using a population-based data in Taiwan. We identified 6,310 patients with ED as cases and randomly selected 31,550 controls. Conditional logistic regression was performed to compute the odds ratio (OR) for having been previously diagnosed with haemorrhoids between cases and controls. The results show that haemorrhoids were found to be present among 1,572 (24.9%) cases and 4,491 (14.20%) controls. The OR for prior haemorrhoids among cases was 1.90 (95% CI = 1.78-2.03) when compared with controls after adjusting for monthly income, geographical location, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia, obesity and alcohol abuse/alcohol dependence syndrome. Younger cases demonstrated a higher risk for prior haemorrhoids when compared with controls. In particular, the adjusted OR among cases <30 years old was 3.71 (95% CI = 2.74-5.02) when compared with controls. We concluded that there was an association between ED and a prior diagnosis of haemorrhoids. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2012 European Academy of Andrology.

  20. Erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms: a consensus on the importance of co-diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, M; Chapple, C; Jackson, G; Eardley, I; Edwards, D; Hackett, G; Ralph, D; Rees, J; Speakman, M; Spinks, J; Wylie, K

    2013-01-01

    Despite differences in design, many large epidemiological studies using well-powered multivariate analyses consistently provide overwhelming evidence of a link between erectile dysfunction (ED) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Preclinical evidence suggests that several common pathophysiological mechanisms are involved in the development of both ED and LUTS. We recommend that patients seeking consultation for one condition should always be screened for the other condition. We propose that co-diagnosis would ensure that patient management accounts for all possible co-morbid and associated conditions. Medical, socio-demographic and lifestyle risk factors can help to inform diagnoses and should be taken into consideration during the initial consultation. Awareness of risk factors may alert physicians to patients at risk of ED or LUTS and so allow them to manage patients accordingly; early diagnosis of ED in patients with LUTS, for example, could help reduce the risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Prescribing physicians should be aware of the sexual adverse effects of many treatments currently recommended for LUTS; sexual function should be evaluated prior to commencement of treatment, and monitored throughout treatment to ensure that the choice of drug is appropriate. PMID:23617950

  1. Chronic Rhinosinusitis Associated with Erectile Dysfunction: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Tai, Shu-Yu; Wang, Ling-Feng; Tai, Chih-Feng; Huang, Yu-Ting; Chien, Chen-Yu

    2016-08-31

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and erectile dysfunction (ED). This case-control study aimed to investigate the association between CRS and the risk of ED in a large national sample. Tapping Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified people 30 years or older with a new primary diagnosis of CRS between 1996 and 2007. The cases were compared with sex- and age-matched controls. We identified 14 039 cases and recruited 140 387 matched controls. Both groups were followed up in the same database until the end of 2007 for instances of ED. Of those with CRS, 294 (2.1%) developed ED during a mean (SD) follow-up of 3.20 (2.33) years, while 1 661 (1.2%) of the matched controls developed ED, mean follow up 2.97 (2.39) years. Cox regression analyses were performed adjusting for sex, age, insurance premium, residence, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, allergic rhinitis, arrhythmia, ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and medications. CRS was revealed to be an independent predictor of ED in the fully adjusted model (HR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.33-1.73; P < 0.0001).

  2. Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction and Associated Factors in Korean Older Adults With Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Son, Youn-Jung; Jang, Miyoun; Jun, Eun-Young

    2016-10-01

    The current study aimed to identify the prevalence and associated factors of erectile dysfunction (ED) among 161 Korean adults 60 and older with coronary artery disease (CAD). ED was diagnosed in 72.2% of patients-the prevalence of which was significantly associated with age, education, employment, monthly income, frequency of sexual intercourse, body mass index, and low-density lipoprotein. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was lower in patients with ED than in those without ED (p < 0.001). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that ED significantly influenced HRQoL in patients with CAD after adjusting for sociodemographic and disease-related characteristic variables (p < 0.001). Interventions and training courses for health care providers should focus on improving caregivers' knowledge and communication skills with patients and spouses regarding sexual health. Furthermore, guidelines to improve HRQoL in patients with CAD should consider incorporating sexual counseling. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(10), 32-41.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Sexual desire, erectile dysfunction and the biomedicalization of sex in older heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Gledhill, Susan; Schweitzer, Robert D

    2014-04-01

    To examine sexual desire in older age and the use of pharmaceuticals for sexual enhancement in the context of erectile dysfunction. The ability of the older person to fulfil sexual desire has not been well supported in Western society. The paper draws on themes that emerged during a phenomenological study of sexual desire in older age. Narratives were collected between 2008-2010 from in-depth interviews with six men and two women aged 65-84 years who were part of a larger Australian study of sexual desire in older age. Emergent themes reveal that for some older people, the biomedicalization of sex can be a disappointing experience. The findings illuminate the need for nurses who are at the front line of health care, health policy makers and educators, to consider sexual desire experienced in older age in the context of sexual health and healthy ageing. This study will contribute to a growing body of knowledge about sexual desire in older age. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Erectile dysfunction treatment and traditional medicine—can East and West medicine coexist?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joe K. C.; Tan, Ronny B. W.

    2017-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common sexual problem affecting many men irrespective of cultures, beliefs and nationalities. While medical therapy for ED has been revolutionized by the advent of oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and intracavernosal injection of vasoactive agents, recent technological advances such stem cell therapy, low intensity shock wave and newer generation of penile prosthesis implant offer hope to men who do not respond to conventional medical therapy. In contrast, traditional and complementary medicine (TCM) focuses on the restoration and better overall bodily regulation with the use of various herbal and animal products as well as exercises to invigorate qi (energy) in vital organs. Western medicine involves an analysis of ED symptom and underlying causes that contribute to ED, while TCM emphases the concept of holism and harmonization of body organs to achieve natural sexual life. The following article reviews our current understanding regarding the philosophical approach, and evaluates the evidence surrounding various ED therapies between mainstream Western Medicine and TCM. PMID:28217454

  5. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and associated factors among men without concomitant diseases: a population study.

    PubMed

    Nicolosi, A; Glasser, D B; Moreira, E D; Villa, M

    2003-08-01

    We interviewed a population sample of 2412 men aged 40-70 y in Brazil, Italy, Japan and Malaysia about medical history, lifestyle habits and sexual behavior. Men were classified as having moderate or complete erectile dysfunction (ED) if they reported to be sometimes or never able to achieve and maintain an erection satisfactory for sexual intercourse, respectively. There were 1335 men with no diagnosis of cardiovascular or prostate diseases, diabetes, ulcer or depression, nor taking hormones. The prevalence of ED was 16.1%. ED was associated with age (the risk increased 8% per y), moderate (odds ratio (OR)=2.2) or severe (OR=4.9) lower urinary tract symptoms and smoking (OR=2.3 for >30 cigarettes/day). It was inversely associated with physical activity (OR=0.5) and higher educational levels. Between the ages of 40 and 70 y, almost one in six 'healthy' men is affected by ED. Further research should look at preclinical disease stages and genetic factors.

  6. Avanafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction: initial data and clinical key properties.

    PubMed

    Kedia, George T; Uckert, Stefan; Assadi-Pour, Farhang; Kuczyk, Markus A; Albrecht, Knut

    2013-02-01

    Orally active, selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE 5, cyclic GMP PDE), such as sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil, are currently the first-choice treatment options for the clinical management of erectile dysfunction (ED) of various etiologies and severities. However, a significant number of patients remain dissatisfied with the available therapies due a lack of efficacy or discomfort arising from adverse events. Several new PDE5 inhibitors, among which are avanafil (TA-1790), lodenafil, mirodenafil, udenafil, SLX-2101, JNJ-10280205 and JNJ-10287069, have recently been approved and introduced into the market or are in the final stages of their clinical development. Avanafil (marketed in the US under the brand name STENDRA(™)) has been developed by VIVUS Inc. (Mountain View, CA, USA) and has recently received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the treatment of male ED. The drug has demonstrated improved selectivity for PDE5, is rapidly absorbed after oral administration with a fast onset of action and a plasma half-life that is comparable to sildenfil and vardenafil. In phase II and phase III clinical trials that included a large number of patients, avanafil has been shown to be effective and well tolerated. Owing to its favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile, avanafil is considered as a promising new option in the treatment of ED. The present article summarizes the initial data and clinical key properties of avanafil.

  7. Avanafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction: initial data and clinical key properties

    PubMed Central

    Ückert, Stefan; Assadi-Pour, Farhang; Kuczyk, Markus A.; Albrecht, Knut

    2013-01-01

    Orally active, selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE 5, cyclic GMP PDE), such as sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil, are currently the first-choice treatment options for the clinical management of erectile dysfunction (ED) of various etiologies and severities. However, a significant number of patients remain dissatisfied with the available therapies due a lack of efficacy or discomfort arising from adverse events. Several new PDE5 inhibitors, among which are avanafil (TA-1790), lodenafil, mirodenafil, udenafil, SLX-2101, JNJ-10280205 and JNJ-10287069, have recently been approved and introduced into the market or are in the final stages of their clinical development. Avanafil (marketed in the US under the brand name STENDRA™) has been developed by VIVUS Inc. (Mountain View, CA, USA) and has recently received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the treatment of male ED. The drug has demonstrated improved selectivity for PDE5, is rapidly absorbed after oral administration with a fast onset of action and a plasma half-life that is comparable to sildenfil and vardenafil. In phase II and phase III clinical trials that included a large number of patients, avanafil has been shown to be effective and well tolerated. Owing to its favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile, avanafil is considered as a promising new option in the treatment of ED. The present article summarizes the initial data and clinical key properties of avanafil. PMID:23372609

  8. Erectile dysfunction and fruit/vegetable consumption among diabetic Canadian men.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Dai, Sulan; Wang, Mingdong; Morrison, Howard

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the association between fruit/vegetable consumption and erectile dysfunction (ED) among Canadian men with diabetes. Data from the 2011 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada - Diabetes Component were analyzed using Statistical Analysis System Enterprise Guide (SAS EG). Respondents were asked a series questions related to their sociodemographics, lifestyle, and chronic health conditions. The association between fruit/vegetable consumption and ED was examined using logistic regression after controlling for potential confounding factors. Bootstrap procedure was used to estimate sample distribution and calculate confidence intervals. Overall, 26.2% of respondents reported having ED. The prevalence increased with age and duration of diabetes. Compared with respondents without ED, those with ED were more likely to be obese, smokers, physically inactive, and either divorced, widowed, or separated. Diabetes complications such as nerve damage, circulation problems, and kidney failure or kidney disease were also significantly associated with ED. After controlling for potential confounding factors, a 10% risk reduction of ED was found with each additional daily serving of fruit/vegetable consumed. ED is common among Canadian men with diabetes. ED was highly associated with age, duration of diabetes, obesity, smoking, and the presence of other diabetes-related complications. Fruit and vegetable consumption might have a protective effect against ED. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and validation of the Self-Esteem And Relationship (SEAR) questionnaire in erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cappelleri, J C; Althof, S E; Siegel, R L; Shpilsky, A; Bell, S S; Duttagupta, S

    2004-02-01

    Development and validation of a patient-reported measure of psychosocial variables in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) is described. Literature review, focus groups, and medical specialists identified 86 potential items. Redundant, ambiguous, or low item-to-total correlation items were removed. Data from 98 men reporting diagnosed ED and 94 controls assisted in final item selection and psychometric evaluation. Treatment responsiveness was evaluated in 93 men with ED in a 10-week open-label trial of sildenafil citrate (Viagra). The 14 chosen items resolved into two domains: Sexual Relationship (eight items) and Confidence (six items), the latter comprising Self-Esteem (four items) and Overall Relationship (two items) subscales. The resulting Self-Esteem And Relationship (SEAR) questionnaire demonstrated validity and reliability. The intervention study demonstrated responsiveness to beneficial treatment with significant improvement in scores (P=0.0001). The SEAR questionnaire possesses strong psychometric properties that support its validity and reliability for measuring sexual relationship, confidence, and particularly self-esteem.

  10. A study of the management of erectile dysfunction in general practice.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, L; Bush, N; Mottram, D; Armstrong, D

    2005-06-01

    The Department of Health issued guidelines for the NHS treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE 5 inhibitors) in 1999. There has been an increasing trend in the prescribing of PDE 5 inhibitors within Bebington and West Wirral Primary Care Trust (PCT) over the 3-year period from February 2001 to January 2004. The objective of the study was to investigate implementation of Government guidelines on prescribing of PDE 5 inhibitors for ED and the cost of prescribing outside these guidelines. Practice data were collected for all patients prescribed a PDE 5 inhibitor in 16 surgeries within Bebington and West Wirral Primary Care Trust, from November 2002 to December 2003. The data were evaluated with respect to adherence to UK Government guidelines. Analysis was made on the cost to the PCT with respect to treatment provided outside the guidelines. Prescribing for 78% of patients was within Government guidelines. With respect to frequency of prescribing, 89% of patients in the PCT received less than or equal to the recommended frequency of one tablet per week. The percentage range for practices was 67-100%. The cost to the PCT for PDE 5 inhibitor treatment provided outside the guidelines was 19,060 pounds sterling over the period of study. Prescribers generally follow Government guidelines, however, stricter adherence to guidelines could result in more efficient use of National Health Service resources.

  11. Recruiting endogenous stem cells: a novel therapeutic approach for erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhong-Cheng; Xu, Yong-De; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F; Guo, Ying-Lu

    2016-01-01

    Transplanted stem cells (SCs), owing to their regenerative capacity, represent one of the most promising methods to restore erectile dysfunction (ED). However, insufficient source, invasive procedures, ethical and regulatory issues hamper their use in clinical applications. The endogenous SCs/progenitor cells resident in organ and tissues play critical roles for organogenesis during development and for tissue homeostasis in adulthood. Even without any therapeutic intervention, human body has a robust self-healing capability to repair the damaged tissues or organs. Therefore, SCs-for-ED therapy should not be limited to a supply-side approach. The resident endogenous SCs existing in patients could also be a potential target for ED therapy. The aim of this review was to summarize contemporary evidence regarding: (1) SC niche and SC biological features in vitro; (2) localization and mobilization of endogenous SCs; (3) existing evidence of penile endogenous SCs and their possible mode of mobilization. We performed a search on PubMed for articles related to these aspects in a wide range of basic studies. Together, numerous evidences hold the promise that endogenous SCs would be a novel therapeutic approach for the therapy of ED. PMID:25926601

  12. Association Between Financial Conflicts of Interests and Supportive Opinions for Erectile Dysfunction Treatment.

    PubMed

    Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Montisci, Massimo; Secco, Silvia; D'Elia, Carolina; Snenghi, Rosella; Viel, Guido; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2016-09-01

    A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person has competing loyalties or interests that make it difficult to fulfil his or her duties impartially. Conflict of interest is not categorically improper in itself but requires proper management. A SCOPUS literature search was performed for publications on the efficacy/safety of Phospho-Di-Esterase Inhibitors (PDEIs) for treating erectile dysfunction. A categorization tool (CoOpCaT) was used to review and classify the publications as supportive/not-supportive for the discussed active ingredient and reporting or not reporting a COI for that specific drug or for the remaining PDEIs (i.e. competitors). Multivariable binary logistic regression was performed. In the 419 selected records the prevalence of supportive opinions was higher when a COI for the index label was declared. The CoOpCaT showed good internal consistency, discriminative validity and intra/inter-rater agreement. The strongest predictor for a supportive opinion was the total number of financial COIs for the index label. A mild protective effect of the total number of financial COIs for any competitor label was noted. Financial COIs have frequently been associated with bias, and the measures currently adopted to restrain it lack effectiveness. Some evidence for monitoring and/or compensating this bias is reported here, but the ultimate solution remains distant.

  13. Do vardenafil and tadalafil have advantages over sildenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Doggrell, S

    2007-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) affects up to 50% of men between the ages of 40 and 70 years of age. Sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil have all been shown to be similarly effective in the treatment of men with ED of vary etiologies, to have similar adverse effects profiles, and to improve quality-of-life by similar amounts. As these phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors all increase the hypotensive effects of nitrates, they are not suitable for use in patients taking nitrates for the treatment of ischaemic heart disease. All three inhibitors must be used with caution in patients taking alpha(1)-adrenoceptors antagonists for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Although nonarteritic anterior ischaemic neuropathy has been reported in some users of the PDE5 inhibitors, there is no conclusive evidence that PDE5 inhibitors cause this rare effect. Tadalafil has a longer half-life than sildenafil or vardenafil, and a longer duration of action than sildenafil and vardenafil. Most preference studies have shown tadalafil to be preferred, but there are serious limitations to some of these studies. One approach to treatment is to give each patient a short- and long-acting agent, and for individuals to decide their preference.

  14. Lower self-reported depression in patients with erectile dysfunction after treatment with sildenafil.

    PubMed

    Müller, M J; Benkert, O

    2001-10-01

    Depressive symptoms in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) may improve under successful ED treatment. Self-reported depressive symptoms were compared in men with ED after sildenafil treatment to a group of untreated patients. In an open study, self-reported depressive symptoms of 54 men after successful treatment with sildenafil (>4 weeks) and 51 men awaiting ED treatment were investigated with the Center of Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). CES-D items were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis and group differences in CES-D items and factors were analyzed. Groups were comparable with respect to demographic characteristics and illness duration. CES-D total scores were lower in the group treated with sildenafil. Substantial differences were found in favor of the group treated with sildenafil, particularly in scores on a "positive affect" factor. The findings emphasize the relevance of depression associated with ED and the importance of effective ED treatment. Although depression was generally low in this sample, hedonistic aspects were substantially enhanced in the group of ED patients after sildenafil treatment. The open and cross-sectional study design does not permit causal inference. Selection bias and motivational aspects to participate in the study can not completely be ruled out.

  15. The Princeton III Consensus Recommendations for the Management of Erectile Dysfunction and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nehra, Ajay; Jackson, Graham; Miner, Martin; Billups, Kevin L.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Buvat, Jacques; Carson, Culley C.; Cunningham, Glenn R.; Ganz, Peter; Goldstein, Irwin; Guay, Andre T.; Hackett, Geoff; Kloner, Robert A.; Kostis, John; Montorsi, Piero; Ramsey, Melinda; Rosen, Raymond; Sadovsky, Richard; Seftel, Allen D.; Shabsigh, Ridwan; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Wu, Frederick C.W.

    2012-01-01

    The Princeton Consensus (Expert Panel) Conference is a multispecialty collaborative tradition dedicated to optimizing sexual function and preserving cardiovascular health. The third Princeton Consensus met November 8 to 10, 2010, and had 2 primary objectives. The first objective focused on the evaluation and management of cardiovascular risk in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) and no known cardiovascular disease (CVD), with particular emphasis on identification of men with ED who may require additional cardiologic work-up. The second objective focused on reevaluation and modification of previous recommendations for evaluation of cardiac risk associated with sexual activity in men with known CVD. The Panel's recommendations build on those developed during the first and second Princeton Consensus Conferences, first emphasizing the use of exercise ability and stress testing to ensure that each man's cardiovascular health is consistent with the physical demands of sexual activity before prescribing treatment for ED, and second highlighting the link between ED and CVD, which may be asymptomatic and may benefit from cardiovascular risk reduction. PMID:22862865

  16. The dangers of sexual enhancement supplements and counterfeit drugs to "treat" erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Jason; Yafi, Faysal A; Dorsey, Philip J; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2017-02-01

    Counterfeit phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) are an increasing problem. Already in widespread use, the market for PDE-5i is steadily growing as the population ages. Counterfeiters are taking advantage of this growing market by developing illicit and counterfeit PDE-5i products. Many factors are contributing to the rapid growth of the illicit market, such as the low risk of prosecution, potentially high financial reward, and ease of distribution via Internet pharmacies. Consumers of illicit PDE-5i often do not realize they are using counterfeit products and placing themselves at an unnecessary health risk. Others seek to bypass the legitimate healthcare system due to either embarrassment of the underlying condition or desire for cheaper alternatives. However, taking illicit PDE-5i may harm consumers directly, as many illicit products contain detrimental contaminants and inaccurate amounts of the active ingredient without the appropriate warnings. Bypassing the legitimate healthcare system also endangers consumers indirectly, as erectile dysfunction (ED) is often associated with other medical comorbidities that patients should be screened for. Furthermore, PDE-5i can have potentially dangerous interactions with other pharmaceuticals that are rarely warned against with counterfeit PDE-5i. This communication reviews the literature regarding counterfeit PDE-5i, and summarizes both the scope and dangers of the illicit PDE-5i market.

  17. Association between periodontal flap surgery for periodontitis and vasculogenic erectile dysfunction in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hong; Choi, Jung-Kyu; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Kyung-Hyun; Kim, Young-Taek; Choi, Seong-Ho; Jung, Ui-Won

    2017-04-01

    The National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort and medical checkup data from 2002 to 2013 were used to evaluate the association between periodontal surgery for the treatment of periodontitis (PSTP) and vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (VED). Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to a longitudinal retrospective database to assess the association between PSTP and VED while adjusting for the potential confounding effects of sociodemographic factors (age, household income, insurance status, health status, residence area, and smoking status) and comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, cerebral infarction, and myocardial infarction). Among the 7,148 PSTP within the 268,296 recruited subjects, the overall prevalence of VED in PSTP was 1.43% (n=102). The bivariate analysis showed that VED was significantly related to PSTP (odds ratio [OR], 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-2.06; P <0.001), and this was confirmed in the multivariate analysis after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and comorbidities (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.06-1.58; P =0.002). Subjects with a history of periodontal flap surgery had a significantly higher risk of VED, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Further studies are required to identify the key mechanisms underlying the association between severe periodontal disease and VED.

  18. Association between periodontal flap surgery for periodontitis and vasculogenic erectile dysfunction in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort and medical checkup data from 2002 to 2013 were used to evaluate the association between periodontal surgery for the treatment of periodontitis (PSTP) and vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (VED). Methods Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to a longitudinal retrospective database to assess the association between PSTP and VED while adjusting for the potential confounding effects of sociodemographic factors (age, household income, insurance status, health status, residence area, and smoking status) and comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, cerebral infarction, and myocardial infarction). Results Among the 7,148 PSTP within the 268,296 recruited subjects, the overall prevalence of VED in PSTP was 1.43% (n=102). The bivariate analysis showed that VED was significantly related to PSTP (odds ratio [OR], 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38–2.06; P<0.001), and this was confirmed in the multivariate analysis after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and comorbidities (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.06–1.58; P=0.002). Conclusions Subjects with a history of periodontal flap surgery had a significantly higher risk of VED, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Further studies are required to identify the key mechanisms underlying the association between severe periodontal disease and VED. PMID:28462008

  19. Hyperthyroidism and erectile dysfunction: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Keller, J; Chen, Y-K; Lin, H-C

    2012-01-01

    Dysthyroidism has been highlighted as a common endocrine disorder associated with erectile dysfunction (ED); however, to date, no large-scale population-based study has investigated the association between hyperthyroidism and ED. This case-control study aimed to explore the association between ED and hyperthyroidism using a population-based data set. In total, 6310 adult patients who received new diagnoses of ED were recruited as cases together with 18 930 matched enrollees with no history of ED who served as controls. Conditional logistic regressions were conducted to explore the association between ED and having been previously diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. In total, 569 (2.3%) of the 25 240 sampled subjects had been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism before the index date; hyperthyroidism was found in 207 (3.3%) cases and 362 (1.90%) controls. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the odds ratio (OR) of prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 1.64 (95% confidence interval=1.37-1.96, P<0.001) than that of controls. No association was detected between prior hyperthyroidism and ED for the 18-30, 30-39 and >70 age groups. Subjects aged between 60 and 69 years had the highest ORs for prior hyperthyroidism among cases when compared to controls (OR=1.84; 95% confidence interval=1.20-2.84; P<0.001). Our study further confirms the existence of an association between ED and prior hyperthyroidism.

  20. The application of color Doppler flow imaging in the diagnosis and therapeutic effect evaluation of erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Xu-Jun; Bai, Gang; Zhang, Cai-Xia; Xu, Chao; Lu, Fu-Ding; Peng, Yang; Ma, Gang; Han, Cong-Hui; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We aim to investigate the correlations between hemodynamic parameters, penile rigidity grading, and the therapeutic effects of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors using color Doppler flow imaging after intracavernosal injection in patients with erectile dysfunction. This study involved 164 patients. After intracavernosal injection with a mixture of papaverine (60 mg), prostaglandin E1 (10 μg), and lidocaine (2%, 0.5–1 ml), the penile vessels were assessed using color Doppler flow imaging. Penile rigidity was classified based on the Erection Hardness Score system as Grades 4, 3, 2 or 1 (corresponding to Schramek Grades V to II). Then, the patients were given oral sildenafil (50–100 mg) and scored according to the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire. The number of patients with penile rigidities of Schramek Grades II to V was 14, 18, 21, and 111, respectively. The IIEF-5 score was positively correlated with the refilling index of the penile cavernosal artery (r = 0.79, P < 0.05), the peak systolic velocity (r = 0.45, P < 0.05), and penile rigidity (r = 0.75, P < 0.05), and was negatively correlated with the end diastolic velocity (r = −0.74, P < 0.05). For patients with erectile dysfunction, both the IIEF-5 score after sildenafil administration, which is correlated with penile rigidity, and the hemodynamic parameters detected using color Doppler flow imaging may predict the effects of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor treatment and could provide a reasonable model for the targeted-treatment of erectile dysfunction. PMID:25994651

  1. Testosterone deficiency in patients with erectile dysfunction: when should a higher cardiovascular risk be considered?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Jabaloyas, José M

    2014-08-01

    Low testosterone levels (low T) increase the cardiovascular (CV) risk of men with erectile dysfunction (ED). T levels associated with a higher CV risk are unknown. To determine the prevalence of CV risk factors associated with low T as defined by European Guidelines and their contribution to low T, overall and at different ages. Multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study conducted in Spain among men with ED aged ≥ 18 years visiting Urology/Andrology offices for sexual dysfunction. Anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory data, including total T (TT) values, were collected for 1,278 men. Risk factors were assessed in men with TT ≤ 8, 8-12, and ≥ 12 nmol/L, and two-group comparisons were made. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios for low T after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Mean age (standard deviation) was 58.0 (9.2) years. Age and prevalence of CV risk factors was similar in men with TT ≤ 8 nmol/L or 8-12 nmol/L and significantly higher than in men with TT >12 nmol/L. Low T was therefore considered as TT ≤ 12 nmol/L, with a prevalence of 33.3%. Obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and severe ED were the variables most strongly associated with low T: obesity in middle-aged men; hyperlipidemia, and hypertension in older men. Severe ED was a risk factor in both groups. Hypolipidemic therapy had the greater effect in young men. Multivariate analysis showed that severe ED and obesity were the strongest predictors of low T. T levels associated with increased CV risk could go as high as 12 nmol/L in men with ED, with distribution of risk factors showing differences according to age. Obesity and severe ED are the best predictors of low T-related CV risk. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Brain networks during free viewing of complex erotic movie: new insights on psychogenic erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cera, Nicoletta; Di Pierro, Ezio Domenico; Ferretti, Antonio; Tartaro, Armando; Romani, Gian Luca; Perrucci, Mauro Gianni

    2014-01-01

    Psychogenic erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a persistent or recurrent inability to attain adequate penile erection due predominantly or exclusively to psychological or interpersonal factors. Previous fMRI studies were based on the common occurrence in the male sexual behaviour represented by the sexual arousal and penile erection related to viewing of erotic movies. However, there is no experimental evidence of altered brain networks in psychogenic ED patients (EDp). Some studies showed that fMRI activity collected during non sexual movie viewing can be analyzed in a reliable manner with independent component analysis (ICA) and that the resulting brain networks are consistent with previous resting state neuroimaging studies. In the present study, we investigated the modification of the brain networks in EDp compared to healthy controls (HC), using whole-brain fMRI during free viewing of an erotic video clip. Sixteen EDp and nineteen HC were recruited after RigiScan evaluation, psychiatric, and general medical evaluations. The performed ICA showed that visual network (VN), default-mode network (DMN), fronto-parietal network (FPN) and salience network (SN) were spatially consistent across EDp and HC. However, between-group differences in functional connectivity were observed in the DMN and in the SN. In the DMN, EDp showed decreased connectivity values in the inferior parietal lobes, posterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex, whereas in the SN decreased and increased connectivity was observed in the right insula and in the anterior cingulate cortex respectively. The decreased levels of intrinsic functional connectivity principally involved the subsystem of DMN relevant for the self relevant mental simulation that concerns remembering of past experiences, thinking to the future and conceiving the viewpoint of the other's actions. Moreover, the between group differences in the SN nodes suggested a

  3. Brain Networks during Free Viewing of Complex Erotic Movie: New Insights on Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Cera, Nicoletta; Di Pierro, Ezio Domenico; Ferretti, Antonio; Tartaro, Armando; Romani, Gian Luca; Perrucci, Mauro Gianni

    2014-01-01

    Psychogenic erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a persistent or recurrent inability to attain adequate penile erection due predominantly or exclusively to psychological or interpersonal factors. Previous fMRI studies were based on the common occurrence in the male sexual behaviour represented by the sexual arousal and penile erection related to viewing of erotic movies. However, there is no experimental evidence of altered brain networks in psychogenic ED patients (EDp). Some studies showed that fMRI activity collected during non sexual movie viewing can be analyzed in a reliable manner with independent component analysis (ICA) and that the resulting brain networks are consistent with previous resting state neuroimaging studies. In the present study, we investigated the modification of the brain networks in EDp compared to healthy controls (HC), using whole-brain fMRI during free viewing of an erotic video clip. Sixteen EDp and nineteen HC were recruited after RigiScan evaluation, psychiatric, and general medical evaluations. The performed ICA showed that visual network (VN), default-mode network (DMN), fronto-parietal network (FPN) and salience network (SN) were spatially consistent across EDp and HC. However, between-group differences in functional connectivity were observed in the DMN and in the SN. In the DMN, EDp showed decreased connectivity values in the inferior parietal lobes, posterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex, whereas in the SN decreased and increased connectivity was observed in the right insula and in the anterior cingulate cortex respectively. The decreased levels of intrinsic functional connectivity principally involved the subsystem of DMN relevant for the self relevant mental simulation that concerns remembering of past experiences, thinking to the future and conceiving the viewpoint of the other’s actions. Moreover, the between group differences in the SN nodes suggested a

  4. SIEDY scale 3, a new instrument to detect psychological component in subjects with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Ricca, Valdo; Bandini, Elisa; Rastrelli, Giulia; Casale, Helen; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Sforza, Alessandra; Forti, Gianni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2012-08-01

    We previously developed and validated a structured interview (SIEDY) dealing with the organic (Scale 1), relational (Scale 2), and psychological (Scale 3) components of erectile dysfunction (ED). To identify a pathological threshold for SIEDY Scale 3 and to analyze Scale 3 score with biological and psychological correlates in subjects with sexual dysfunction. A pathological threshold of SIEDY Scale 3 score in predicting subjects with a medical history of psychopathology and using psychiatric drugs was identified through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis in a sample of 484 patients (Sample A). Sensitivity and specificity, along with possible interactions with biological and psychological (Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire, MHQ-score) correlates were verified in a further sample of 1,275 patients (Sample B). In sample A, 39 (8%) and 60 (12.4%) subjects reported a positive medical history for psychiatric disturbances or for the use of psychotropic medication, respectively. The association with both conditions was present in 28 (5.8%) subjects. ROC curve showed that SIEDY Scale 3 score predicts psychopathology with an accuracy of 69.5 ± 5.9% (P<0.002), when a threshold of 3 was chosen. When the same threshold was applied in Sample B, it identified a higher ranking in MHQ-A (free-floating anxiety), MHQ-S (somatized anxiety) and MHQ-D (depressive symptoms) subscales, even after adjustment for age and Σ-MHQ (a broader index of general psychopathology). In the same sample, we also confirmed that pathological Scale 3 score was related to a higher risk of psychopathology at medical history or to the use of psychotropic drugs as well as with risky lifestyle behaviors, including smoking and alcohol abuse, and elevated BMI. SIEDY represents an easy tool for the identification of patients with a relevant intra-psychic component who should be considered for psychological/psychiatric treatment. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Usefulness of electromyography of the cavernous corpora (CC EMG) in the diagnosis of arterial erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Virseda-Chamorro, M; Lopez-Garcia-Moreno, A M; Salinas-Casado, J; Esteban-Fuertes, M

    2012-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) of the corpora cavernosa (CC-EMG) is able to record the activity of the erectile tissue during erection, and thus has been used as a diagnostic technique in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). The present study examines the usefulness of the technique in the diagnosis of arterial ED. A cross-sectional study was made of 35 males with a mean age of 48.5 years (s.d. 11.34), referred to our center with ED for >1 year. The patients were subjected to CC-EMG and a penile Doppler ultrasound study following the injection of 20 μg of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). The patients were divided into three groups according to their response to the intracavernous injection of PGE1: Group 1 (adequate erection and reduction/suppression of EMG activity); Group 2 (insufficient erection and persistence of EMG activity); and Group 3 (insufficient erection and reduction/suppression of EMG activity). Patient classification according to response to the intracavernous injection of PGE1 was as follows: Group 1: six patients (17%), Group 2: 18 patients (51%), and Group 3: 11 patients (31%). Patients diagnosed with arterial insufficiency according to Doppler ultrasound (systolic arterial peak velocity <30 mm s(-1) in both arteries) were significantly older than those without such damage (54.5 versus 41.8 years, respectively; s.d. 11.12). The patients in Group 3 showed a significantly lower maximum systolic velocity in both arteries than the subjects belonging to Group 2. Likewise, a statistically significant relationship was observed between the diagnosis of arterial insufficiency and patient classification in Group 3. The confirmation of insufficient erection associated with reduction/suppression of EMG activity showed a sensitivity of 66.7% (confidence interval between 50 and 84%) and a specificity of 92.9% (confidence interval between 84 and 100%) in the diagnosis of arterial ED. Owing to the high specificity of CC-EMG response to the injection of PGE1, this test is

  6. Factors associated with sex hormones and erectile dysfunction in male Taiwanese participants with obesity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ming-Der; Chao, Jian-Kang; Ma, Mi-Chia; Hao, Lyh-Jyh; Chao, I-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has been receiving an increasing amount of attention recently, but investigations regarding the potential impact of obesity, sexual behaviors, and sex hormones on erectile dysfunction (ED) in men have not completely clarified the association. To identify the relationship between ED, sexual behavior, sexual satisfaction, sex hormones, and obesity in older adult males in Taiwan. Data were obtained from a baseline survey of 476 older adult males (≧40 years old). Their demographic data, body mass index (BMI), sex hormones, sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, and ED status were assessed. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5), Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI), and Sexual Satisfaction Scale (SSS) were used to assess ED, sexual desire, and sexual satisfaction. In all, 476 men were available for analysis. The mean age of the sample was 51.34 ± 7.84 years (range 40 to 70 years). The IIEF total score had a mean of 19.44 ± 4.98; 264 (55.5%) subjects had ED, 250 (52.9%) were currently obese (BMI ≧27), and 297 (62.4%) had metabolic syndrome. The results showed an increased risk of ED among obese men and subjects with lower levels of sex hormones and lower sexual desire. Testosterone levels were lower in subjects with obesity (P < 0.001). Among the predictors of ED, obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.07-2.44, P = 0.021), abnormal high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (OR = 10.59, 95% CI = 4.70-23.87, P < 0.001), and lower serum full testosterone (OR = 3.27, 95% CI = 2.16-4.93, P < 0.001) were significantly independent factors. This study supports the idea of a close relationship between low levels of sex hormones, sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, obesity, and ED, and also shows that low free testosterone and hs-CRP may predict ED, even in obese populations. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Erectile dysfunction and comorbidities in aging men: an urban cross-sectional study in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Ee Ming; Tan, Hui Meng; Low, Wah Yun

    2008-12-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), cardiovascular disease (CVD), depression, and androgen deficiency are common conditions affecting aging men over 50 years. However, data were limited in developing countries. To investigate the prevalence of ED, LUTS, chronic diseases, depression, androgen deficiency symptoms, and lifestyle of aging men in Malaysia, and to examine their associations with sociodemographic factors. ED, LUTS, chronic diseases, depression, positive Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire A randomized survey of 351 men using structured questionnaires consisting of self-reported medical conditions, International Index for Erectile Function-5, International Prostate Symptom Score, Geriatric Depression Scale-15, and St Louis University questionnaire for ADAM. Blood samples were taken for glucose, lipid, prostate specific antigen (PSA), and hormones. Mean age was 58+/-7 years. Prevalence of ED was 70.1% (mild ED 32.8%, mild to moderate ED 17.7%, moderate ED 5.1%, and severe ED 14.5%). There were 29% of men with moderate and severe LUTS; 11.1% had severe depression; 25.4% scored positive on ADAM questionnaire; 30.2% self-reported hypertension, 21.4% self-reported diabetes mellitus; 10.8% self-reported coronary artery disease; 19.1% were smokers; and 34% consumed alcohol. There were 78.6% of men that are overweight and obese; 28.8% had a fasting blood sugar (FBS) >or=6.1 mmol/L, 70.1% had total cholesterol >5.2 mmol/L, 19.1% had total testosterone >or=11.0 nmoL/L, 14.0% had calculated free testosterone <0.0225 nmoL/dL; 4% had PSA >4 microg/L; 9.4% had insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level below age specific range, 5.1% had abnormal sex hormone binding globulin (<15 nmoL/L and >70 nmol/L). ED was found to be significantly associated with LUTS, depression (P<0.001 respectively). Similarly, LUTS was significantly associated with depression and ADAM questionnaire status (P<0.001 respectively); and ADAM

  8. [Evaluation of the management of erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction in a series of 90 patients with spinal cord injuries].

    PubMed

    Hadiji, N; Benbouzid, R; Previnaire, J G; Leblond, C; Mieusset, R; Enjalbert, M; Soler, J M

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory on patients injured in conus medullaris (CMI) and the efficacy of treatment. Ninety patients with injured conus medullaris underwent a retrospective and monocentric study. They have all an assessment of erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15) and a clinic scenario. We evaluated the erection by a clinical scoring scale (Shrameck). Seventy-seven out of 90 (85.55%) had therapeutic tests to restore erection: prostaglandin (PGE1), phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5) and Papaverine. Seventy-four out of 90 (82.22%) underwent a penile stimulation tests (VM) more or less associated with Midodrine(®) (alpha mimetic) to cause ejaculation with a systematic search of spermatozoa in urine. Data were entered and analyzed using Microsoft Office Excel. Ninety patients with a complete lesion of the sacral metameres (S2S3S4) were included. They were responding to PGE1, PDE5, respectively 81.63% and 30.76%. The association VM/Midodrine(®) improves ejaculation in 52.63% of cases. Orgasm is absent in all our CMI. In this series of BCM patients, we observed a good efficacy of PGE1 and PDE 5 on erection. We also observed positive results of vibromassage and alpha-agonists on ejaculation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and determinants of erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients attending in hospitals of central and northwestern zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Seid, Awole; Gerensea, Hadgu; Tarko, Shambel; Zenebe, Yosef; Mezemir, Rahel

    2017-03-15

    The prevalence of erectile dysfunction among diabetic men varies between 35-90%. Although erectile dysfunction is widespread among men with diabetes, the condition often remains undiagnosed and demands appropriate assessment and prompt treatment. Erectile dysfunction can affect all aspects of a patient's life including physical, emotional, social, sexual, and relationships. The main aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and determinants of erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients attending hospitals in the Central and Northwest zone of Tigray, Ethiopia. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted on 249 male diabetic patients attending five hospitals in the Central and Northwestern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia using systematic random sampling. The data was collected from January 1 - February 30, 2016 and was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Correlation and multivariate logistic regression was employed to test associations between independent and outcome variables. The mean age of study participants was 43.39 years and the mean duration of diabetes diagnosis was 6.22 years. The overall prevalence of erectile dysfunction was 69.9%, with 32.9% suffering from mild, 31.7% moderate, and 5.2% severe erectile dysfunction. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that erective dysfunction was significantly predicted by old age (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] =15.013, CI:3.212-70.166), longer duration of diabetes (AOR = 3.77, CI:1.291-11.051), and lower monthly income (AOR = 0.285, CI:0.132-0.615). No association was found with body mass index, co-morbidity, glycemic control, and alcohol consumption. The prevalence of erective dysfunction in this study population was very high. Age, income, and duration of diabetes were the independent predictors of erectile dysfunction. Nearly all of the patients in the sample (97%) had not been screened or treated for erectile dysfunction. Assessment and management of erectile dysfunction in the

  10. Efficacy of low-intensity shock wave therapy for erectile dysfunction: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Angulo, J C; Arance, I; de Las Heras, M M; Meilán, E; Esquinas, C; Andrés, E M

    2017-10-01

    The low-intensity shockwave (LISW) therapy is a recently developed modality for treating erectile dysfunction. To assess the efficacy of LISW therapy for treating erectile dysfunction as described in the literature. Two independent reviewers identified studies eligible for a systematic review and meta-analysis of various sources written in English and Spanish, using the databases of PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science. We excluded studies on Peyronie's disease. We employed the DerSimonian-Laird method for defining heterogeneity, calculating the grouped standard deviation of the mean (SDM). The primary objective of this review is to assess efficacy based on the change in the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) over baseline at 1 month from the start of treatment, both for the treatment arm and the placebo arm. The secondary objective is focused on analysing IIEF-EF at 3-6 months from the start of the therapy. The pooled data of 636 patients from 12 studies showed that treatment with LISW resulted in a significant increase in IIEF-EF at 1 month with respect to baseline (SDM, -2.92; P=.000), to a greater degree than placebo (SDM, -.99; P=.000). The IIEF-EF at 3-6 months for the treated patients was significantly greater than baseline (SDM, -2.78; P=.000). Only one study compared the efficacy of placebo at 3-6 months versus baseline (SDM, -9.14). The comparison between LISW and placebo favours active treatment (SDM, 2.53; P=.000) at 1 month. There are insufficient data in the literature to assess the response over placebo at 3-6 months. According to the literature, treatment with LISW for erectile dysfunction is effective, both in the short and medium term. LISW has been described as more effective than placebo in the short term. The long-term efficacy data are insufficient. More studies are needed to explain the role of this therapy according to specific causes of erectile dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All

  11. [Efficacy and tolerance of PDE-5 in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in schizophrenic patients: A literature review].

    PubMed

    Bacconi, L; Gressier, F

    2017-02-01

    Sexual dysfunction is an important public health problem in men and is associated with reduced quality of life. It is more common in patients with schizophrenia. It is well-established that antipsychotic drugs cause sexual dysfunction with consequences on the quality of life of patients, adherence to treatment, and public health costs. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5 inhibitors) are indicated for the management of erectile dysfunction. However, there is little information on such treatment in schizophrenic patients. This literature review aimed to summarize the current data on the efficacy and tolerability of PDE-5 inhibitors in the erectile dysfunction in schizophrenic patients. PubMed, PsycInfo and Cochrane databases were searched for studies published until August 2014. Only 6 studies met the inclusion criteria. Three were randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trials and three were open studies. Various scales were used to measure erectile and orgasmic function, desire, satisfaction during intercourse, overall satisfaction, quality of life and intensity of schizophrenic symptoms. In the 3 randomized studies (one with sildenafil 25-50 mg, one with lodenafil carbonate 80 mg/j and the last one with tadalafil 10 mg), the rate of participants who completed the trial was high (around 95 %). All three included patients with schizophrenia or schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Patients reported significant improvement on sexual dysfunction. However, no statistical difference was reported between lodenafil and placebo, on different scales, suggesting a very important placebo effect in patients with schizophrenia. All three found a good tolerance of PDE-5 inhibitors. Side effects were rare and were mainly nasal congestion, headaches, nausea and dizziness. There were no major side effects or drug interactions. Considering the 3 open studies, 2 involved sildenafil and one tadalafil. All concluded in improved erectile and orgasmic

  12. Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy for erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy: a review of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zi-Jun; Liang, Jia-Yu; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Gao, Rui; Lu, Yi-Ping

    2018-02-01

    Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy (LI-ESWT) is a novel treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). Its ability to improve erectile function has been shown in patients with vasculogenic ED by many randomized-controlled trials against sham procedures. However, the role of LI-ESWT in ED caused by radical prostatectomy (RP) is still questionable because this type of ED was excluded from nearly all clinical studies; it has been investigated in only a few small single-arm trials. This review summarizes preclinical studies on mechanisms of action of LI-ESWT for ED and neurological diseases to explore the potential of this treatment for nerve-impaired ED after RP.

  13. Tadalafil once daily and extracorporeal shock wave therapy in the management of patients with Peyronie's disease and erectile dysfunction: results from a prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, A; Imbimbo, C; Creta, M; Verze, P; Fusco, F; Mirone, V

    2012-04-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy improves erectile function in patients with Peyronie's disease. However, erectile dysfunction still persists in many cases. We aimed to investigate the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy plus tadalafil 5 mg once daily in the management of patients with Peyronie's disease and erectile dysfunction not previously treated. One hundred patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, controlled study. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either extracorporeal shock wave therapy alone for 4 weeks (n = 50) or extracorporeal shock wave therapy plus tadalafil 5 mg once daily for 4 weeks (n = 50). Main outcome measures were: erectile function (evaluated through the shortened version of the International Index of Erectile Function), pain during erection (evaluated through a Visual Analog Scale), plaque size, penile curvature and quality of life (evaluated through an internal questionnaire). Follow-up evaluations were performed after 12 and 24 weeks. In both groups, at 12 weeks follow-up, mean Visual Analog Scale score, mean International Index of Erectile Function score and mean quality of life score ameliorated significantly while mean plaque size and mean curvature degree were unchanged. Intergroup analysis revealed a significantly higher mean International Index of Erectile Function score and quality of life score in patients receiving the combination. After 24 weeks, intergroup analysis revealed a significantly higher mean International Index of Erectile Function score and mean quality of life score in patients that received extracorporeal shock wave therapy plus tadalafil. In conclusion extracorporeal shock wave therapy plus tadalafil 5 mg once daily may represent a valid conservative strategy for the management of patients with Peyronie's disease and erectile dysfunction. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.

  14. Constitutive NOS uncoupling and NADPH oxidase upregulation in the penis of type 2 diabetic men with erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Musicki, Biljana; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) involves dysfunctional nitric oxide (NO) signaling and increased oxidative stress in the penis. However, the mechanisms of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) dysregulation, and the sources of oxidative stress, are not well defined, particularly at the human level. The objective of this study was to define whether uncoupled eNOS and nNOS, and NADPH oxidase upregulation, contribute to the pathogenesis of ED in T2DM men. Penile erectile tissue was obtained from 9 T2DM patients with ED who underwent penile prosthesis surgery for ED, and from 6 control patients without T2DM or ED who underwent penectomy for penile cancer. The dimer-to-monomer protein expression ratio, an indicator of uncoupling for both eNOS and nNOS, total protein expressions of eNOS and nNOS, as well as protein expressions of NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit gp91phox (an enzymatic source of oxidative stress) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [4-HNE] and nitrotyrosine (markers of oxidative stress) were measured by Western blot in this tissue. In the erectile tissue of T2DM men, eNOS and nNOS uncoupling and protein expressions of NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox, 4-HNE- and nitrotyrosine-modified proteins were significantly (p<0.05) increased compared to control values. Total eNOS and nNOS protein expressions were not significantly different between the groups. In conclusion, mechanisms of T2DM-associated ED in the human penis may involve uncoupled eNOS and nNOS and NADPH oxidase upregulation. Our description of molecular factors contributing to the pathogenesis of T2DM-associated ED at the human level is relevant for advancing clinically therapeutic approaches to restore erectile function in T2DM patients. PMID:28076881

  15. Erectile dysfunction and extramarital sex induced by timed intercourse: a prospective study of 439 men.

    PubMed

    Bak, Chong Won; Lyu, Sang Woo; Seok, Hyun Ha; Byun, Jae Sang; Lee, Jee Han; Shim, Sung Han; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2012-01-01

    During the fertile window of a woman's menstrual cycle, the effect of impending timed intercourse (TI) on the psychological well-being and behavior of male partners has not been thoroughly investigated, despite the fact that men comprise one half of each couple endeavoring to achieve natural conception. This prospective study consisting of 439 men was conducted during a 3-year period between July 1, 2008, and June 30, 2011. Various characteristics were evaluated, including newly acquired erectile dysfunction (ED); extramarital sex (EMS); intake of soft drinks (SD); levels of hormones, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), prolactin, and estradiol (E2); and semen parameters. A total of 188 men (42.8%) experienced ED and 47 men (10.7%) engaged in EMS. As the number of TI episodes increased, the number of men with ED and EMS and those who wanted to avoid TI also increased (all, P < .0001). All 47 men who reported EMS experienced ED with their spouses. Men who consumed SDs produced significantly smaller volumes of semen (P = .0363). Among the hormones investigated, the levels of LH, T, and E2 were significantly lower in men with ED (all, P < .05) whereas the level of FSH was higher in contrast to E2, which was significantly higher in men who had EMS (both, P < .01). TI imposes a great deal of stress on male partners evoking ED and, in some cases, causing these men to seek EMS. Physicians and clinicians should acknowledge the potential harmful effects of TI on men. Furthermore, both female and male partners should also be cautioned about the increased possibilities of ED and EMS as TI incidents increase.

  16. Importance of Different Grades of Abdominal Obesity on Testosterone Level, Erectile Dysfunction, and Clinical Coincidence.

    PubMed

    Fillo, Juraj; Levcikova, Michaela; Ondrusova, Martina; Breza, Jan; Labas, Peter

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of different grades of abdominal obesity (AO) on the prevalence of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS), erectile dysfunction (ED), and metabolic syndrome (MetS). In a cross-sectional descriptive study, a total of 216 males underwent a complete urological, internal, and hormonal evaluation. Males were divided according to waist circumference into five groups: less than 94 cm (Grade [G] 0), 94 to 101 cm (G1), 102 to 109 cm (G2), 110 to 119 cm (G3), and more than 120 cm (G4). Incidence of ED, TDS, and MetS was compared in these groups and in participants without AO. Some degree of ED was identified in 74.7% of males with AO. In G1, there were 61% of males with ED, in G2 68%, in G3 83%, and in G4 87%. A strong correlation between testosterone (TST) level and AO was identified. Ninety-eight out of 198 (49.5%) males with AO and 1/18 (5.5%) males without AO had TDS. There were significant differences between individual groups. In the group of males with AO G4 (more than 120 cm), 87.1% had TDS. MetS was diagnosed in 105/198 (53.0%) males with AO, but in G4, 83.9% of males with AO had MetS. Males older than 40 years of age with AO have a higher incidence of ED, TDS, and MetS. Dividing males into five groups according to waist circumference seems to be reasonable. With growing AO, there were significantly more males with ED, TDS, and MetS.

  17. Erectile dysfunction in fit and healthy young men: psychological or pathological?

    PubMed Central

    Rastrelli, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently show that prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) increases with ageing. Nonetheless, complaints of ED even in younger men are becoming more and more frequent. Healthcare professionals working in Sexual Medicine but even those operating in different clinical contexts might be adequately prepared to answer this increasing requirement. ED in younger men is likely to be overlooked and dismissed without performing any medical assessment, even the most basic ones, such as collection of medical history and physical exam. This is due to the widespread assumption that ED in younger individuals is a self-limiting condition, which does not deserve any clinical evaluation or therapy and can be managed only with patient reassurance. However, evidence shows that, in younger subjects, organic, psychological and relational conditions can contribute to the pathogenesis of ED and all these conditions might be evaluated and treated, whenever necessary. Among the organic conditions contributing to the onset of ED, metabolic and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors are surprisingly of particular relevance in this age group. In fact, in younger men with ED, even more than in older ones, recognizing CV risk factors or conditions suggestive of cardio-metabolic derangements can help identifying men who, although at low absolute risk due to young age, carry a high relative risk for development of CV events. In this view, the assessment of a possible organic component of ED even in younger individuals acquires a pivotal importance, because it offers the unique opportunity to unearth the presence of CV risk factors, thus allowing effective and high quality preventive interventions. PMID:28217453

  18. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction among hypertensive and prehypertensive men aged 25-40 years.

    PubMed

    Heruti, Rafi J; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Arbel, Yaron; Shochat, Tzipi; Swartzon, Michael; Brenner, Galit; Justo, Dan

    2007-05-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) and hypertension (HTN) are common and associated among men aged 40-70 years. Data on the prevalence of ED among younger hypertensive and prehypertensive men are limited. To study the prevalence of ED in a large-scale population of hypertensive and prehypertensive men aged 25-40 years. ED severity, systolic blood pressures (SBPs), diastolic blood pressures (DBPs), and mean arterial blood pressures (MAPs). Israel Defense Force personnel, aged 25 years and older, go through routine health checks at the Staff Periodic Health Examination Center (SPEC) every 3-5 years, including measuring blood pressure and completing the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) questionnaire in order to detect HTN and ED, respectively, and assess its severity. Pre-HTN was defined as SBP 120-139 mm Hg or DBP 80-89 mm Hg. HTN was defined as SBP >/or140 mm Hg and/or DBP >or=90 mm Hg. During 2001-2004, an overall of 11,252 men, aged 25-40 years, reported to the SPEC, and 5,860 (52.1%) men filled out the SHIM questionnaire. Among responders to the SHIM questionnaire, 1,278 (21.8%) men had low scores (

  19. Erectile dysfunction and target organ damage in the early stages of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kakkavas, Apostolos; Tsioufis, Costas; Tsiachris, Dimitris; Thomopoulos, Costas; Dimitriadis, Kyriakos; Milkas, Anastasios; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Kallikazaros, Ioannis; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-09-01

    The authors investigated whether erectile dysfunction (ED) in the early stages of hypertension is associated with heightened end-organ damage. A total of 174 consecutive men with untreated, newly diagnosed essential hypertension (aged 50.3 years, office blood pressure [BP] 150/98 mm Hg) were studied. All participants underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, blood examination, albumin-creatinine ratio, carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity assessment, and echocardiography for estimation of left ventricular mass index and diastolic function. Hypertensive men with ED (n=43, 24.7%) compared with those without ED were older (by 6.4 years, P<.05), had greater 24-hour pulse pressure (by 4.3 mm Hg, P=.011) and a greater prevalence of nondipping status (72.2% vs 46.7%, P=.008), while the two groups did not differ in plasma glucose, lipid, creatinine, and albumin/creatinine ratio levels. Regarding cardiac adaptations, hypertensive men with ED exhibited only significantly lower tissue Doppler imaging-derived Em (by 1.6 cm/s, adjusted P=.035), while no difference in left ventricular mass index or pulse wave velocity were detected. ED in the setting of untreated newly diagnosed essential hypertension does not have an unfavorable impact on traditional markers of target organ damage. This finding suggests that ED assessment might not refine the traditional risk stratification procedure at least in the early stages of hypertensive disease. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The Phosphodiesterase 5-Inhibitors (PDE-5i) for ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION (ED): A Therapeutic Challenge For Psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Koon, Chong Siew; Sidi, Hatta; Kumar, Jaya; Das, Srijit; Xi, Ong Wan; Hatta, Muhammad Hizri; Alfonso, Cesar

    2017-02-15

    Erectile function (EF) is a prerequisite for satisfactory sexual intercourse (SI) and central to male sexual functioning. Satisfactory SI eventually leads to orgasm - a biopsychophysiological state of euphoria - leading to a sense of bliss, enjoyment and positive mental well being. For a psychiatrist, treating ED is self-propelled to harmonize these pleasurable experiences alongside with encouragement of physical wellness and sensuality. Hence, the role of PDE-5i is pivotal in the context of treating ED constitutes a therapeutic challenge. PDE-5i work via the dopaminergic-oxytocin-nitric oxide pathway by increasing the availability of endothelial's guanosine monophosphate (GMP), immediately causing relaxation of the penile smooth muscle and an erection. The PDE-5i, like sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil, are effective in the treatment of ED with some benefits and disadvantages compared to other treatment modalities. Prescribed PDE-5i exclusively improve EF, fostering male's self-confidence and self-esteem. Treatment failures are associated with factors such as absent (or insufficient) sexual stimulation, psychosexual conflicts and the co-existence of medical disorders. Managing ED requires dealing with underlying medical diseases, addressing other co-morbid sexual dysfunctions like premature ejaculation (PE), and educating the patient on healthy life-styles beside being cautious with the potential side-effects and drug-drug interactions. Furthermore, by dealing with interpersonal dynamics within the couple and embracing adequate lifestyles (managing stress and revising one's sexual scripts), PDE-5i treatment benefits may be enhanced. In this review, we propose a holistic conceptual framework approach for psychiatric management of patients with ED. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Association between plasma fluorescent oxidation products and erectile dysfunction: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuman; Giovannucci, Edward; Bracken, Bruce; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Wu, Tianying

    2015-08-14

    Existing epidemiological studies of the association between oxidative stress and erectile dysfunction (ED) are sparse and inconclusive, which is likely due to cross-sectional design and small sample size. Therefore, we investigated the association between biomarkers of oxidative stress and ED in prospective setting among a relatively large sample size of men. We conducted the prospective study among 917 men ages between 47 and 80 years at the time of blood draw, which is a part of nested prospective case-control study of prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Plasma fluorescent oxidation products (FlOPs), a global biomarker for oxidative stress, were measured at three excitation/emission wavelengths (360/420 nm named as FlOP_360; 320/420 nm named as FlOP_320 and 400/475 nm named as FlOP_400). Approximately 35% of men developed ED during follow-up. We did not find an independent association between FlOP_360, FlOP_320, FlOP_400 and risk of ED in the multivariable adjusted model (Tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: odds ratio [OR] = 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.61-1.34, P(trend) = 0.54 for FlOP_360; OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.49-1.07, P(trend) = 0.27 for FlOP_320; and OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.66-1.45, P(trend) = 0.72 for FlOP_400). Further analysis of the association between FlOPs and ED in the fasting samples or controls only (free of prostate cancer incidence) did not change the results appreciably. Plasma FlOPs were not associated with the risk of ED, suggesting oxidative stress may not be an independent risk factor for ED.

  2. [Transperineal ultrasound imaging of the internal pudendal artery in arteriogenic erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Povelitsa, E; Dosta, N I; Parhomenko, O V; Nitkin, D M; Shesternja, A M; Anichkin, V V

    2017-09-01

    To determine the practical and diagnostic value of transperineal ultrasound imaging of the internal pudendal artery (IPA) in patients with arteriogenic erectile dysfunction (ED). Transperineal IPA and penile Doppler ultrasonography was performed in 50 healthy young male volunteers aged 23.6+/-3.4 years without ED (IIEF-5 score of 21-22) and 60 patients with ED (IIEF-5 score of 6-18, mean age 49+/-4.6 years), including 30 men with prostate cancer (PCa) after comprehensive treatment and 30 patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. To determine the diagnostic value of the transperineal IPA imaging, the results were compared with the findings of magnetic resonance or contrast-enhanced dynamic CT angiography of the iliac arteries. In all healthy men no abnormalities were found in the perineal primary arterial blood flow, in 100% of cases perineal branch of IPA was rectilinear, while patients with arteriogenic ED had low IPA and penile peak systolic blood flow velocity (<0.05), pathologically altered type of blood flow and non-rectilinear course of IPA, stenosis and occlusion in the pelvic and extrapelvic branches of IPA. When comparing the findings of IPA Doppler ultrasound and angiography studies of the small pelvis in healthy men, they completely matched, showing satisfactory arterial IPA perfusion, absence of stenoses or occlusions. Sensitivity and specificity of the transperineal IPA ultrasound imaging were 95% and 90%, respectively. Transperineal IPA ultrasound imaging allows to assess the important morphometric features of the perineal branches of IPA - the arterial diameter, the response to stimulation, the course of the artery, the type of arterial blood flow, the presence or absence of arterial stenoses and occlusions, and to measure peak systolic blood flow velocity.

  3. Gout and subsequent erectile dysfunction: a population-based cohort study from England.

    PubMed

    Abdul Sultan, Alyshah; Mallen, Christian; Hayward, Richard; Muller, Sara; Whittle, Rebecca; Hotston, Matthew; Roddy, Edward

    2017-06-06

    An association has been suggested between gout and erectile dysfunction (ED), however studies quantifying the risk of ED amongst gout patients are lacking. We aimed to precisely determine the population-level absolute and relative rate of ED reporting among men with gout over a decade in England. We utilised the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink to identify 9653 men with incident gout age- and practice-matched to 38,218 controls. Absolute and relative rates of incident ED were calculated using Cox regression models. Absolute rates within specific time periods before and after gout diagnosis were compared to control using a Poisson regression model. Overall, the absolute rate of ED post-gout diagnosis was 193 (95% confidence interval (CI): 184-202) per 10,000 person-years. This corresponded to a 31% (hazard ratio (HR): 1.31 95%CI: 1.24-1.40) increased relative risk and 0.6% excess absolute risk compared to those without gout. We did not observe statistically significant differences in the risk of ED among those prescribed ULT within 1 and 3 years after gout diagnosis. Compared to those unexposed, the risk of ED was also high in the year before gout diagnosis (relative rate = 1.63 95%CI 1.27-2.08). Similar findings were also observed for severe ED warranting pharmacological intervention. We have shown a statistically significant increased risk of ED among men with gout. Our findings will have important implications in planning a multidisciplinary approach to managing patients with gout.

  4. Oral sildenafil citrate (viagra) for erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of harms.

    PubMed

    Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Yazdi, Fatemeh; Fink, Howard A; MacDonald, Roderick; Wilt, Timothy J; Bella, Anthony J; Ansari, Mohammed T; Garritty, Chantelle; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Daniel, Raymond; Sampson, Margaret; Moher, David

    2009-10-01

    To summarize and compare evidence on harms in sildenafil- and placebo-treated men with erectile dysfunction (ED) in a systematic review and meta-analysis. Randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) were identified using an electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, and Cochrane CENTRAL. The rates of any adverse events (AEs), most commonly reported AEs, withdrawals because of adverse events, and serious adverse events were ascertained and compared between sildenafil and placebo groups. The results of men with ED were stratified by clinical condition(s). Statistical heterogeneity was explored. Meta-analyses based on random-effects model were also performed. A total of 49 RCTs were included. Sildenafil-treated men had a higher risk for all-cause AEs (RR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.38, 1.76), headache, flushing, dyspepsia, and visual disturbances compared with placebo-treated men. The magnitude of excess risk was greater in fixed- than in flexible-dose trials. The rates of serious adverse events and withdrawals because of adverse events did not differ in sildenafil vs placebo groups. A higher dose of sildenafil corresponded to a greater risk of AEs. The increased risk of harms was observed within and across clinically defined specific groups of patients. There was a lack of RCTs reporting long-term (>6 months) harms data. In short-term trials, men with ED randomized to sildenafil had an increased risk of all-cause any AEs, headache, flushing, dyspepsia, and visual disturbances. The exploration of different modes of dose optimization of sildenafil may be warranted.

  5. Non-invasive Management Options for Erectile Dysfunction When a Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitor Fails.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mary; Sharifi, Roohollah

    2018-03-01

    Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) are the drug of choice for medical management of erectile dysfunction (ED). On-demand PDE5Is have an overall efficacy of 60-70% for ED; 30-35% of patients fail to respond to a PDE5I, and 30-50% of non-responders can be salvaged with detailed counseling on proper use and physician follow-up to ensure that the patient has been prescribed an appropriate and full PDE5I clinical trial. True non-responders may be offered intracavernosal injections of erectogenic drugs, intraurethral alprostadil, or surgical insertion of a penile prosthesis. Such options are not discreet and are associated with more adverse effects than PDE5Is. Thus patients may request additional non-invasive medical management options. This review describes published literature on patients who failed to respond to an on-demand PDE5I regimen and were treated with a non-invasive PDEI-based regimen, including switching from one PDE5I to another; increasing the dose of PDE5I above the labeled dosage range; using two PDE5Is concurrently; using a daily PDE5I regimen; or combining a PDE5I with a testosterone supplement, α-adrenergic antagonist, intraurethral or intracavernosal alprostadil, vacuum erection device, or low-intensity shock wave therapy. The limitations of published clinical trials do not allow for sufficient evidence to recommend one option over another. Therefore, in PDE5I-refractory patients, the choice of a specific next step should be individualized based on the preference of the patient and his sexual partner, the advantages and disadvantages of the various options, the concurrent medical illnesses and medications of the patient, and the patient's response to treatment.

  6. Informational content of official pharmaceutical industry web sites about treatments for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Waack, Katherine E; Ernst, Michael E; Graber, Mark A

    2004-12-01

    In the last 5 years, several treatments have become available for erectile dysfunction (ED). During this same period, consumer use of the Internet for health information has increased rapidly. In traditional direct-to-consumer advertisements, viewers are often referred to a pharmaceutical company Web site for further information. To evaluate the accessibility and informational content of 5 pharmaceutical company Web sites about ED treatments. Using 10 popular search engines and 1 specialized search engine, the accessibility of the official pharmaceutical company-sponsored Web site was determined by searching under brand and generic names. One company also manufactures an ED device; this site was also included. A structured, explicit review of information found on these sites was conducted. Of 110 searches (1 for each treatment, including corresponding generic drug name, using each search engine), 68 yielded the official pharmaceutical company Web site within the first 10 links. Removal of outliers (for both brand and generic name searches) resulted in 68 of 77 searches producing the pharmaceutical company Web site for the brand-name drug in the top 10 links. Although all pharmaceutical company Web sites contained general information on adverse effects and contraindications to use, only 2 sites gave actual percentages. Three sites provided references for their materials or discussed other treatment or drug options, while 4 of the sites contained profound advertising or emotive content. None mentioned cost of the therapy. The information contained on pharmaceutical company Web sites for ED treatments is superficial and aimed primarily at consumers. It is largely promotional and provides only limited information needed to effectively compare treatment options.

  7. Evaluation of serum oxidative and antioxidative status in patients with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Aldemir, M; Okulu, E; Neşelioğlu, S; Erel, O; Ener, K; Kayıgil, Ö

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated and compared serum oxidative and antioxidative parameters of patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and control subjects. Twenty married male patients with ED for at least 12 months (Group 1) and 20 volunteer healthy, sexually active, married and age-matched men (Group 2) were included in the study. Group 1 and 2 were compared concerning serum mean total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), paraoxonase1 (PON1), arylesterase, total thiol and oxidative stress index (OSI). Mean patient age was 47.9 ± 8.1 and 44.4 ± 10.6, respectively, in Group 1 and 2. Serum TAC levels were 1.7 ± 0.5 and 2.3 ± 0.3, respectively, in Group 1 and 2 (P = 0.002). Serum TOS levels were 21.8 ± 20.5 and 11.7 ± 2.2, respectively, in Group 1 and 2 (P = 0.035). Serum PON1 levels were 69.8 ± 13.1 and 164.9 ± 56.5, respectively, in Group 1 and 2 (P < 0.001). Serum arylesterase levels were 336 ± 12 and 370.4 ± 47.9, respectively, in Group 1 and 2 (P = 0.003). Serum total thiol levels were 733.1 ± 253 and 885.5 ± 95.3, respectively, in Group 1 and 2 (P = 0.016). Serum OSI was 0.14 ± 0.17 and 0.05 ± 0.11, respectively, in Group 1 and 2 (P = 0.021). Mean blood platelet count was significantly higher in Group 1 (P = 0.001). A positive correlation between platelets and oxidative state and a negative correlation between platelets and antioxidative state were found. Oxidative stress was detected to be increased, whereas antioxidative parameters were detected to be decreased in patients with ED. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Vardenafil improves ejaculation success rates and self-confidence in men with erectile dysfunction due to spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Francois; Rubio-Aurioles, Eusebio; Kennelly, Michael; Montorsi, Francesco; Kim, Edward D; Finkbeiner, Alex E; Pommerville, Peter J; Colopy, Michael W; Wachs, Barton H

    2008-04-01

    Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. To assess the effect of the oral phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, vardenafil, on ejaculation rates and self-confidence in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Spinal command of male sexual functions is often seriously impaired by traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). A high proportion of men with SCI cannot ejaculate during sexual intercourse. SCI-related ejaculatory disorders are often responsible for male infertility. Sexual dysfunction associated with SCI can also affect men's self-confidence. In this 12-week study, 418 men aged >or=18 years with erectile dysfunction >6 months resulting from a traumatic SCI were randomized to vardenafil (n = 207) or placebo (n = 211) 10 mg for 4 weeks, then maintained or titrated to 5 or 20 mg at weeks 4 and 8. Assessments included questions of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) about ejaculation success and orgasmic perception; the Global Confidence Question; and quality-of-life scales to measure psychological well-being, self-esteem, depression, and mental health status. Overall per patient ejaculation success rates were significantly greater with vardenafil than placebo over 12 weeks of treatment (19% vs. 10%; P < 0.001). At last observation carried forward, the IIEF "orgasmic function" score increased from 2.9 at baseline to 4.0 for vardenafil and from 3.0 at baseline to 3.4 for placebo. Sixteen percent of men receiving vardenafil and 8% receiving placebo felt orgasm "almost always" or "always" at weeks 8-12, compared with 4% and 6%, respectively, at baseline. Significant improvements in confidence scores were observed with vardenafil compared with placebo (P < 0.0001). There were no clinically significant differences between vardenafil and placebo in the quality-of-life measures at the study endpoint, but these had been in the normal range at baseline. Vardenafil significantly improved ejaculation and self-confidence in men with erectile

  9. Buttock Claudication and Erectile Dysfunction After Internal Iliac Artery Embolization in Patients Prior to Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Rayt, H. S., E-mail: hsrayt@hotmail.com; Bown, M. J.; Lambert, K. V.

    2008-07-15

    Coil embolization of the internal iliac artery (IIA) is used to extend the application of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in cases of challenging iliac anatomy. Pelvic ischemia is a complication of the technique, but reports vary as to the rate and severity. This study reports our experience with IIA embolization and compares the results to those of other published series. The vascular unit database of the Leicester Royal Infirmary was used to identify patients who had undergone IIA coil embolization prior to EVAR. Data were collected from hospital case notes and by telephone interviews. Thirty-eight patients were identified; 29 ofmore » these were contactable by telephone. A literature search was performed for other studies of IIA embolization and the results were pooled. In this series buttock claudication occurred in 55% (16 of 29 patients) overall: in 52% of unilateral embolizations (11 of 21) and 63% of bilateral embolizations (5 of 8). New erectile dysfunction occurred in 46% (6 of 13 patients) overall: in 38% of unilateral embolizations (3 of 8) and 60% of bilateral embolizations (3 of 5). The literature review identified 18 relevant studies. The results were pooled with our results, to give 634 patients in total. Buttock claudication occurred in 28% overall (178 of 634 patients): in 31% of unilateral embolizations (99 of 322) and 35% of bilateral embolizations (34 of 98) (p = 0.46, Fisher's exact test). New erectile dysfunction occurred in 17% overall (27 of 159 patients): in 17% of unilateral embolizations (16 of 97) and 24% of bilateral embolizations (9 of 38) (p = 0.33). We conclude that buttock claudication and erectile dysfunction are frequent complications of IIA embolization and patients should be counseled accordingly.« less

  10. Effects of Nonlinear Aerobic Training on Erectile Dysfunction and Cardiovascular Function Following Radical Prostatectomy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lee W.; Hornsby, Whitney E.; Freedland, Stephen J.; Lane, Amy; West, Miranda J.; Moul, Judd W.; Ferrandino, Michael N.; Allen, Jason D.; Kenjale, Aarti A.; Thomas, Samantha M.; Herndon, James E.; Koontz, Bridget F.; Chan, June M.; Khouri, Michel G.; Douglas, Pamela S.; Eves, Neil D.

    2014-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a major adverse effect of radical prostatectomy (RP). We conducted a randomized controlled trial to examine the efficacy of aerobic training (AT) compared with usual care (UC) on ED prevalence in 50 men (n = 25 per group) after RP. AT consisted of five walking sessions per week at 55– 100% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) for 30–60 min per session following a nonlinear prescription. The primary outcome was change in the prevalence of ED, as measured by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), from baseline to 6 mo. Secondary outcomes were brachial artery flow–mediated dilation (FMD), VO2peak, cardiovascular (CV) risk profile (eg, lipid profile, body composition), and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). The prevalence of ED (IIEF score ≤21) decreased by 20% in the AT group and by 24% in the UC group (difference: p = 0.406). There were no significant between-group differences in any erectile function subscale (p > 0.05). Significant between-group differences were observed for changes in FMD and VO2peak, favoring AT. There were no group differences in other markers of CV risk profile or PROs. In summary, nonlinear AT does not improve ED in men with localized prostate cancer in the acute period following RP. PMID:24315706

  11. Sexual and relationship characteristics among an internet-based sample of U.S. men with and without erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Ann; Rosen, Raymond C; Swindle, Ralph W

    2005-01-01

    Sexual and relationship characteristics of men in the general population, particularly those with erectile dysfunction (ED), are not well established. This Internet-based survey (N = 700) examined demographic, sexual, and relationship characteristics of two groups of men aged 40-70: those with no ED (n = 589) and those with probable ED (n = 111). Compared to men without ED, men in the ED sample were significantly older, had more medical conditions, and had significantly worse sexual, psychological, and relationship function. Sexual function and relationship and psychological characteristics were significant predictors of overall sexual satisfaction and relationship satisfaction.

  12. The Beneficial Effect of Fesoterodine, a Competitive Muscarinic Receptor Antagonist on Erectile Dysfunction in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz-Oral, Didem; Bayatli, Nur; Gur, Serap

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the possible role of fesoterodine (a competitive muscarinic receptor antagonist) on erectile dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A total of 16 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into control and diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (25-35 mg/kg). In vivo erectile responses were evaluated by the stimulation of cavernosal nerves, and measurements were repeated after the intracavernosal injection of fesoterodine (1 µM) in rats. The relaxation responses to fesoterodine were examined via incubation with various inhibitors. The relaxant responses of corpus cavernosum (CC) strips were observed in the presence or the absence of fesoterodine (10 µM). Intracavernous administration of fesoterodine restored in vivo erectile response at 5.0- and 7.5-V levels, except for 2.5 V in diabetic rats. Basal intracavernosal pressure (5.4 ± 0.9 mm Hg) in diabetic rats was markedly increased after injection of fesoterodine (33.9 ± 7.9 mm Hg, P <.001). In bath studies, fesoterodine resulted in a relaxation of CC in a concentration-dependent manner, which was reduced in diabetic rats. Nifedipine (l-type Ca 2+ channel blocker) inhibited maximum fesoterodine-induced relaxation by 58%. The nonselective K + channel blocker tetraethylammonium and glibenclamide incubation did not change the relaxant response to fesoterodine. The relaxant responses to acetylcholine (10 µM), electrical field stimulation (10 Hz), and sodium nitroprusside (0.01 µM) in diabetic rats were increased after incubation with fesoterodine (10 µM). Fesoterodine improved erectile function and relaxation of isolated strips of rat CC. The underlying mechanism of fesoterodine is likely due to the blocking of l-type calcium channels independent of the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway. Further investigations are warranted to fully elucidate the restorative effects of

  13. Impact of erectile function and age in men with lower urinary tract symptoms on ejaculatory dysfunction and premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Hwa, J S; Kam, S C; Choi, J H; Do, J M; Seo, D H; Hyun, J S

    2012-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) and ED are clearly correlated, but to date no correlation with ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) has been identified. Therefore, this study evaluated the impact of erectile function in men with LUTS on EjD and premature ejaculation (PE). Erectile function, PE and EjD of 239 men (mean age, 53.0 ± 10.65 years), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), International Index of Erection Function (IIEF), intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and the seven-item Male Sexual Health questionnaire (MSHQ)-EjD were used to compare with the degree of LUTS. Ages were divided into five groups (<40, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and >70 years). The IPSS categorized patients into three symptom groups: mild, 1-7; moderate, 8-19; and severe, >19. ED was classified into five categories based on IIEF-EF scores: severe (0-6), moderate (7-12), mild-to-moderate (13-18), mild (19-24) and normal (25-30). The correlations among age, IIEF-EF, IELT and the MSHQ-EjD domain were studied through regression and cross-tabulation analyses. The results revealed that aging significantly affected each item of the MSHQ-EjD (P<0.05). The IIEF-EF domain was also correlated with each question on the MSHQ-EjD (P<0.05). PE (IELT <1 min) increased in incidence as patients got older but was not linked to IIEF-EF (P>0.05). These results indicate that EjD is closely related to age and erectile function, and that PE is closely related to age, although PE is not related to erectile function.

  14. A Holistic Treatment Approach to Male Erectile Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millner, Vaughn S.; Ullery, Elizabeth K.

    2002-01-01

    This article offers information about erectile functioning, provides a DSM-IV-TR interpretation of erectile dysfunction, and discusses a biophysical approach to erectile dysfunction treatment. (Contains 36 references.) (GCP)

  15. Erectile dysfunction and exposure to ambient Air pollution in a nationally representative cohort of older Men.

    PubMed

    Tallon, Lindsay A; Manjourides, Justin; Pun, Vivian C; Mittleman, Murray A; Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Coull, Brent; Suh, Helen

    2017-02-17

    Little is known about the association between air pollution and erectile dysfunction (ED), a disorder occurring in 64% of men over the age of 70, and to date, no studies have been published. To address this significant knowledge gap, we explored the relationship between ED and air pollution in a group of older men who were part of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative cohort study of older Americans. We obtained incident ED status and participant data for 412 men (age 57-85). Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) exposures were estimated using spatio-temporal models based on participants' geocoded addresses, while nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and ozone (O 3 ) concentrations were estimated using nearest measurements from the Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System. The association between air pollution and incident ED (newly developed in Wave 2) was examined and logistic regression models were run with adjusted models controlling for race, education, season, smoking, obesity, diabetes, depression, and median household income of census tract. We found positive, although statistically insignificant, associations between PM 2.5 , NO 2 , and O 3 exposures and odds of incident ED for each of our examined exposure windows, including 1 to 7 year moving averages. Odds ratios (OR) for 1 and 7 year moving averages equaled 1.16 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.55) and 1.16 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.46), respectively, for an IQR increase in PM 2.5 exposures. Observed associations were robust to model specifications and were not significantly modified by any of the examined risk factors for ED. We found associations between PM 2.5 , NO 2 , and O 3 exposures and odds of developing ED that did not reach nominal statistical significance, although exposures to each pollutant were consistently associated with higher odds of developing ED. While more research is needed, our findings suggest a relationship between air pollutant exposure and incident

  16. A comparative review of the options for treatment of erectile dysfunction: which treatment for which patient?

    PubMed

    Hatzimouratidis, Konstantinos; Hatzichristou, Dimitrios G

    2005-01-01

    The field of erectile dysfunction (ED) has been revolutionised over the last two decades. Several treatment options are available today, most of which are associated with high efficacy rates and favourable safety profiles. A MEDLINE search was undertaken in order to evaluate all currently available data on treatment modalities for ED. Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil) are currently the first-choice of most physicians and patients for the treatment of ED. PDE5 inhibitors have differences in their pharmacological profiles, the most obvious being the long duration of action of tadalafil, but there are no data supporting superiority for any one of them in terms of efficacy or safety. Sublingual apomorphine has limited efficacy compared with the PDE5 inhibitors, and its use is limited to patients with mild ED. Treatment failures with oral drugs may be due to medication, clinician and patient issues. The physician needs to address all of these issues in order to identify true treatment failures. Patients who are truly unresponsive to oral drugs may be offered other treatment options.Intracavernous injections of alprostadil alone, or in combination with other vasoactive agents (papaverine and phentolamine), remain an excellent treatment option, with proven efficacy and safety over time. Topical pharmacotherapy is appealing in nature, but currently available formulations have limited efficacy. Vacuum constriction devices may be offered mainly to elderly patients with occasional intercourse attempts, as younger patients show limited preference because of the unnatural erection that is associated with this treatment modality. Penile prostheses are generally the last treatment option offered, because of invasiveness, cost and non-reversibility; however, they are associated with high satisfaction rates in properly selected patients. All treatment options are associated with particular strengths and weaknesses. A patient

  17. Off-Target Effect of Sildenafil on Postsurgical Erectile Dysfunction: Alternate Pathways and Localized Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Salmasi, Amirali; Lee, Geun Taek; Patel, Neal; Goyal, Ritu; Dinizo, Michael; Kwon, Young Suk; Modi, Part K; Faiena, Izak; Kim, Hee-Jin; Lee, Nara; Hannan, Johanna L; Kohn, Joachim; Kim, Isaac Yi

    2016-12-01

    There is no consensus on the best oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5I) for patients undergoing penile rehabilitation after surgical nerve injury. To determine the mechanism of PDE5I on cultured neuronal cells and the effectiveness of local drug delivery using nanospheres (NSPs) to sites of nerve injury in a rat model of bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI). The effects of sildenafil, tadalafil, and vardenafil on cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, and cell survival after exposure to hypoxia and H 2 O 2 were measured in PC12, SH-SY5Y, and NTERA-2 (NT2) cell cultures. The effects of phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor (PDE4I) and PDE5I on neuronal cell survival were evaluated. Male rats underwent BCNI and were untreated (BCNI), immediately treated with application of empty NSPs (BCNI + NSP), NSPs containing sildenafil (Sild + NSP), or NSPs containing rolipram (Rol + NSP). Viability of neuronal cells was measured. Intracavernous pressure changes after cavernous nerve electrostimulation and expression of neurofilament, nitric oxide synthase, and actin in mid-shaft of penis were analyzed 14 days after injury. Sildenafil and rolipram significantly decreased cell death after exposure to H 2 O 2 and hypoxia in PC12, SH-SY5Y, and NT2 cells. PC12 cells did not express PDE5 and knockdown of PDE4 significantly increased cell viability in PC12, SH-SY5Y, and NT2 cells exposed to hypoxia. The ratio of intracavernous pressure to mean arterial pressure and expression of penile neurofilament, nitric oxide synthase, and actin were significantly higher in the Sild + NSP and Rol + NSP groups than in the BCNI and BCNI + NSP groups. Limitations included analysis in only two PDE families using only a single dose. Sildenafil showed the most profound neuroprotective effect compared with tadalafil and vardenafil. Sildenafil- or rolipram-loaded NSP delivery to the site of nerve injury prevented erectile dysfunction and led to increased

  18. Role of oxidative stress in a rat model of radiation-induced erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Masaki; Rabbani, Zahid N; Zodda, Andrew R; Yan, Hui; Jackson, Isabel L; Polascik, Thomas J; Donatucci, Craig F; Moul, Judd W; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Koontz, Bridget F

    2012-06-01

    Chronic oxidative stress is one of the major factors playing an important role in radiation-induced normal tissue injury. However, the role of oxidative stress in radiation-induced erectile dysfunction (ED) has not been fully investigated. Aims.  To investigate role of oxidative stress after prostate-confined irradiation in a rat model of radiation-induced ED. Fifty-four young adult male rats (10-12 weeks of age) were divided into age-matched sham radiotherapy (RT) and RT groups. Irradiated animals received prostate-confined radiation in a single 20 Gy fraction. Intracavernous pressure (ICP) measurements with cavernous nerve electrical stimulation were conducted at 2, 4, and 9 weeks following RT. The protein expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits (Nox4 and gp91(phox)), markers of oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]), lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxynonenal [4HNE]), and inflammatory response including inducible nitric oxide synthase, macrophage activation (ED-1), and nitrotyrosine, and endogenous antioxidant defense by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) were evaluated in irradiated prostate tissue and corpora cavernosa (CC). In addition, we investigated the relationships between results of ICP/mean arterial pressure (MAP) ratios and expression level of oxidative stress markers. In the RT group, hemodynamic functional studies demonstrated a significant time-dependent decrease in ICP. Increased expression of Nox4, gp91(phox), 8-OHdG, and 4HNE were observed in the prostate and CC after RT. Similarly, expressions of inflammatory markers were significantly increased. There was a trend for increased Nrf2 after 4 weeks. ICP/MAP ratio negatively correlated with higher expression level of oxidative markers. NADPH oxidase activation and chronic oxidative stress were observed in irradiated prostate tissue and CC, which correlated with lower ICP/MAP ratio. Persistent inflammatory responses were also

  19. Erectile Dysfunction in Patients with Sleep Apnea--A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Min; Tsai, Ming-Ju; Wei, Po-Ju; Su, Yu-Chung; Yang, Chih-Jen; Wu, Meng-Ni; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chong, Inn-Wen; Huang, Ming-Shyan

    2015-01-01

    Increased incidence of erectile dysfunction (ED) has been reported among patients with sleep apnea (SA). However, this association has not been confirmed in a large-scale study. We therefore performed a population-based cohort study using Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) database to investigate the association of SA and ED. From the database of one million representative subjects randomly sampled from individuals enrolled in the NHI system in 2010, we identified adult patients having SA and excluded those having a diagnosis of ED prior to SA. From these suspected SA patients, those having SA diagnosis after polysomnography were defined as probable SA patients. The dates of their first SA diagnosis were defined as their index dates. Each SA patient was matched to 30 randomly-selected, age-matched control subjects without any SA diagnosis. The control subjects were assigned index dates as their corresponding SA patients, and were ensured having no ED diagnosis prior to their index dates. Totally, 4,835 male patients with suspected SA (including 1,946 probable SA patients) were matched to 145,050 control subjects (including 58,380 subjects matched to probable SA patients). The incidence rate of ED was significantly higher in probable SA patients as compared with the corresponding control subjects (5.7 vs. 2.3 per 1000 patient-year; adjusted incidence rate ratio = 2.0 [95% CI: 1.8-2.2], p<0.0001). The cumulative incidence was also significantly higher in the probable SA patients (p<0.0001). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, probable SA remained a significant risk factor for the development of ED after adjusting for age, residency, income level and comorbidities (hazard ratio = 2.0 [95%CI: 1.5-2.7], p<0.0001). In line with previous studies, this population-based large-scale study confirmed an increased ED incidence in SA patients in Chinese population. Physicians need to pay attention to the possible underlying SA while treating ED patients.

  20. Evaluation of a multi-herb supplement for erectile dysfunction: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Gaurang R; Chaudhari, Manojkumar V; Patankar, Suresh B; Pensalwar, Shrikant V; Sabale, Vilas P; Sonawane, Navneet A

    2012-09-15

    Evidence is lacking for multi-ingredient herbal supplements claiming therapeutic effect in sexual dysfunction in men. We examined the safety and efficacy of VigRX Plus (VXP) - a proprietary polyherbal preparation for improving male sexual function, in a double blind, randomized placebo-controlled, parallel groups, multi-centre study. 78 men aged 25-50 years of age; suffering from mild to moderate erectile dysfunction (ED), participated in this study. Subjects were randomized to receive VXP or placebo at a dose of two capsules twice daily for 12 weeks. The international index of erectile function (IIEF) was the primary outcome measure of efficacy. Other efficacy measures were: Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS), Serum testosterone, Semen analysis, Investigator's Global assessment and Subjects' opinion. In subjects receiving VXP, the IIEF-Erectile Function (EF) scores improved significantly as compared to placebo. After 12 weeks of treatment, the mean (sd) IIEF-EF score at baseline increased from 16.08 (2.87) to 25.08 (4.56) in the VXP group versus 15.86 (3.24) to 16.47 (4.25) in the placebo group (P < 0.0001). Similar results were observed in each of the remaining four domains of the IIEF (orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction).There was a significant difference for VXP versus placebo comparison of mean (sd) EDITS scores of patients: 82.31(20.23) vs 36.78(22.53) and partners :(82.75(9.8) vs 18.50(9.44);P < 0.001. Thirty-five out of 39 (90%) subjects from the VXP group and one (3%) from the placebo group wished to continue with the treatment they received. Investigator's global assessment rated VXP therapy as very good to excellent in more than 50% patients and placebo therapy as fair to good in about 25% of patients. Incidence of side effects and subject's rating for tolerability of treatment was similar in both groups. VigRX Plus was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in

  1. Uroflowmetric assessment of acute effects of sildenafil on the voiding of men with erectile dysfunction and symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Guven, Esref O; Balbay, Mevlana D; Mete, Kilciler; Serefoglu, Ege C

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the acute effects of sildenafil (50 mg) on the micturation of men with erectile dysfunction (ED) and concomitant benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) using uroflowmetric parameters. A total of 68 male patients randomized into two groups (36 treatment, 32 control groups) with International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) greater than 7 and International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-erectile function domain score lower than 26 were enrolled in the study. Patients in the treatment group received a single dose of 50 mg of oral sildenafil. Patients in the control group received no treatment. Prevoiding urine volumes determined ultrasonographically and voided urine volumes were also recorded. Statistical comparisons were made with the use of analysis of variance (ANOVA). Mean ages were similar between treatment and control groups (60.4 +/- 9.8 and 58.6 +/- 8.3 years, respectively, P = 0.430). In the treatment group the maximum and average flow rates increased significantly (Q (max) from 15.6 +/- 6.8 cc/s to 19.3 +/- 7.2 cc/s, P < 0.0001; Q (avg) from 7.3 +/- 3.0 cc/s to 9.1 +/- 3.0 cc/s, P < 0.0001) with sildenafil administration, while other parameters studied remained unchanged. Despite the limitations of variations of uroflowmetry, this study showed that sildenafil improves Q (max) and Q (avg) in patients suffering from ED with concomitant BPH-LUTS. Long-term studies are needed to evaluate the effects on IPSS, side effects, and drug interactions.

  2. Treatment with CB2 Agonist JWH-133 Reduces Histological Features Associated with Erectile Dysfunction in Hypercholesterolemic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo Araujo; Costa-Fraga, Fabiana Pereira; Faye, Younouss; Savergnini, Silvia Quintao; Lenglet, Sébastien; Mach, François; Steffens, Sabine; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Souza dos Santos, Robson Augusto; da Silva, Rafaela Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most important risk factors for erectile dysfunction, mostly due to the impairment of oxidative stress and endothelial function in the penis. The cannabinoid system might regulate peripheral mechanisms of sexual function; however, its role is still poorly understood. We investigated the effects of CB2 activation on oxidative stress and fibrosis within the corpus cavernosum of hypercholesterolemic mice. Apolipoprotein-E-knockout mice were fed with a western-type diet for 11 weeks and treated with JWH-133 (selective CB2 agonist) or vehicle during the last 3 weeks. CB2 receptor expression, total collagen content, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production within the penis were assessed. In vitro corpus cavernosum strips preparation was performed to evaluate the nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. CB2 protein expression was shown in cavernosal endothelial and smooth muscle cells of wild type and hypercholesterolemic mice. Treatment with JWH-133 reduced ROS production and NADPH-oxidase expression in hypercholesterolemic mice penis. Furthermore, JWH-133 increased endothelial NO synthase expression in the corpus cavernosum and augmented NO bioavailability. The decrease in oxidative stress levels was accompanied with a reduction in corpus cavernosum collagen content. In summary, CB2 activation decreased histological features, which were associated with erectile dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:24302957

  3. Efficacy and safety of tadalafil in men with erectile dysfunction with a high prevalence of comorbid conditions: results from MOMENTUS: multiple observations in men with erectile dysfunction in National Tadalafil Study in the US.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Irwin; Kim, Edward; Steers, William D; Pryor, Jon L; Wilde, Dixon W; Natanegara, Fanni; Wong, David G; Ahuja, Sanjeev

    2007-01-01

    Limited efficacy and safety data exist from open-label clinical trials of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) and multiple comorbid (MCM) conditions, historically a difficult group to treat. A multicenter study (Multiple Observations in Men with Erectile Dysfunction in National Tadalafil Study in the US) assessed efficacy and safety of tadalafil in men with ED and MCM conditions. The primary end point was change from baseline in the erectile function (EF) domain of the International Index of Erectile Function. Secondary end points included the Sexual Encounter Profile, Global Assessment Questions, and Sexual Self-Confidence and Spontaneity Domains of the Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scales. This was an open-label, multicenter study in men with ED. Tadalafil 20 mg was administered as needed prior to sexual activity, up to once/day, for 12 weeks following a 4-week ED-treatment-free period. The MCM group was 155 of 1,911 men enrolled in this study. Men in the MCM group met eligibility criteria but could not be included in other predefined groups: (i) Caucasian; (ii) Black American; (iii) Hispanic (groups 1-3, < or =65 years, no diabetes or depression); (iv) depression, < or =65 years, no diabetes; (v) diabetes, < or =65 years, no depression; (vi) >65 years, no diabetes or depression; and (vii) ED subsequent to traumatic spinal cord injury. Mean baseline EF domain score in MCM (mean age 65 +/- 9 years) was 12.2 +/- 6.5; 52% of subjects had severe ED; 72% diabetes mellitus; 67% cardiovascular disease (including hypertension); 49% hyperlipidemia; 38% depression; 84% had two or more comorbidities. At end point, there was a significant (P < 0.001) mean change of 7.6 from baseline in mean EF domain score. Among men with severe ED, 22% achieved an EF domain score > or =26. Most common adverse events were headache 5.2%; flushing 3.9% and nasal congestion 3.2%; 3% discontinued use because of an adverse event. In this open

  4. Screening for erectile dysfunction in men with lifelong premature ejaculation--Is the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) reliable?

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G

    2009-02-01

    Some men with premature ejaculation (PE) and normal erectile function record contradictory response/s to The Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) and may be incorrectly categorized as suffering from erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of false positive SHIM diagnosis of ED in men with lifelong PE. SHIM, stopwatch intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT). A prospective observational study of men with normal erectile function and lifelong PE, diagnosed using the ISSM definition of lifelong PE, was conducted. The SHIM was self-administered at Visit 1. Mean per subject stopwatch IELT was determined from four subsequent intercourse attempts. Seventy-eight subjects with a mean age of 33.2 +/- 8.3 years and a geometric mean IELT of 15.9 +/- 2.3 seconds were enrolled. The mean SHIM score for all subjects was 20.4 +/- 6.0. Fifty-two subjects (66.7%) have SHIM scores of >21 (mean 24.3 +/- 1.1), consistent with normal erectile function, and a geometric mean IELT of 18.3 +/- 2.2 seconds. Twenty-six subjects (33.3%) had SHIM scores <22 (mean 12.7 +/- 3.7), consistent with a false positive diagnosis of ED, and a geometric mean IELT of 10.5 +/- 2.3 seconds. The incidence of false positive SHIM diagnosis of ED (SHIM < 22) was inversely related to the IELT. Although the geometric mean IELT for subjects with SHIM scores <22 was significantly less than that of all subjects and subjects with SHIM scores >21, there were no significant differences between the geometric mean IELT or the IELT distribution of all subjects vs. the normal erectile function IELT (SHIM > 21) cohort. This study demonstrates a 33.3% false positive SHIM diagnosis of ED in men with PE. This is likely to limit subject recruitment in clinical trials by exclusion of subjects with low-range IELTs but is unlikely to result in significantly different baseline IELTs or IELT distributions.

  5. Effects of Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy on Erectile Dysfunction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Clavijo, Raul I; Kohn, Taylor P; Kohn, Jaden R; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2017-01-01

    Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy (Li-ESWT) has been proposed as an effective non-invasive treatment option for erectile dysfunction (ED). To use systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of Li-ESWT by comparing change in erectile function as assessed by the erectile function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) in men undergoing Li-ESWT vs sham therapy for the treatment of ED. Systematic search was conducted of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomized controlled trials that were published in peer-reviewed journals or presented in abstract form of Li-ESWT used for the treatment of ED from January 2010 through March 2016. Randomized controlled trials were eligible for inclusion if they were published in the peer-reviewed literature and assessed erectile function outcomes using the IIEF-EF score. Estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Change in IIEF-EF score after treatment with Li-ESWT in patients treated with active treatment vs sham Li-ESWT probes. Data were extracted from seven trials involving 602 participants. The average age was 60.7 years and the average follow-up was 19.8 weeks. There was a statistically significant improvement in pooled change in IIEF-EF score from baseline to follow-up in men undergoing Li-ESWT vs those undergoing sham therapy (6.40 points; 95% CI = 1.78-11.02; I 2  = 98.7%; P < .0001 vs 1.65 points; 95% CI = 0.92-2.39; I 2  = 64.6%; P < .0001; between-group difference, P = .047). Significant between-group differences were found for total treatment shocks received by patients (P < .0001). In this meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials, treatment of ED with Li-ESWT resulted in a significant increase in IIEF-EF scores. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychometric validation of a sexual quality of life questionnaire for use in men with premature ejaculation or erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Lucy; Symonds, Tara; Morris, Mark F

    2008-03-01

    An instrument that can systematically capture the impact of sexual dysfunction on quality of life (QoL) in men is needed. To psychometrically validate a sexual QoL instrument for men (SQOL-M) with premature ejaculation (PE) or erectile dysfunction (ED). The main assessment populations were men participating in clinical trials of treatments for PE or ED. Men with PE had a confirmed intravaginal ejaculatory latency time of < or = 2 minutes in > or = 70% of attempts. Men with ED had a score of > 21 on the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Confirmatory psychometric testing was conducted in further groups of men with PE. The internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, test-retest reliability, and known-groups validity of the instrument were assessed. An 11-item version of the SQOL-M was produced following factor analyses on men with either PE or ED. Psychometric testing showed no overlap between items and good item-total correlations. Factor analysis confirmed a one-factor solution. Excellent internal consistency was demonstrated, with a Cronbach's alpha of > or = 0.82 in all groups. In men reporting no change in their symptoms, the SQOL-M showed excellent test-retest reliability: the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.77 for men with PE, and 0.79 for men with ED. Convergent validity was also good. In men with PE, the SQOL-M correlated with the satisfaction and distress domains of the Index of Premature Ejaculation. In men with ED, the SQOL-M correlated with the overall satisfaction domain of the IIEF. The measure also demonstrated excellent discriminant validity between men with PE or ED and men with no sexual dysfunction (P < 0.0001). The SQOL-M instrument is a useful tool for evaluating sexual QoL in men with PE and ED.

  7. Increased Risk of Osteoporosis in Depressive Patients with Erectile Dysfunction: A Cross-sectional Study from Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Nahas, Abdul Rahman Fata; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed

    2017-01-01

    Background: Depression imposes numerous changes on depressive men, promoting for low bone mineral density (BMD) and erectile dysfunction (ED), yet no published data on exploring the possible association between these two disorders among depressive men. We therefore investigated whether low BMD is associated with ED among depressive men and highlighted the possible mutual underlying factors that might give rise to these two disorders in this specific group of patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 119 depressive men were recruited and their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were obtained. Erectile function was evaluated using the 5-item International Index of Erectile Function. All patients received a calcaneal BMD scanning. Chi-square test was conducted to determine if a significant association exists between ED and low BMD. Results: Of the study participants, ninety patients reported ED, while 29 patients reported no ED. Within the ED group, there was a significantly higher proportion of patients with low BMD compared to the non-ED group (85.6% vs. 62.1%, P = 0.006). In addition, among younger participants (i.e., aged < 50 years old), the difference in T-score between ED patients (Md = −2.2, n = 41) and non-ED patients (Md = −1.3, n = 20) was significant (P = 0.001); but held no significance among older participants. Conclusions: While our findings are considered prefatory, we reported that low BMD was significantly associated with ED in depressive men and that only among young depressive patients, BMD was significantly lower in ED patients compared to non-ED patients. More research investigating these findings and the possible underlying mechanisms for such association are warranted. PMID:28979072

  8. Increased Risk of Osteoporosis in Depressive Patients with Erectile Dysfunction: A Cross-sectional Study from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nahas, Abdul Rahman Fata; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed

    2017-01-01

    Depression imposes numerous changes on depressive men, promoting for low bone mineral density (BMD) and erectile dysfunction (ED), yet no published data on exploring the possible association between these two disorders among depressive men. We therefore investigated whether low BMD is associated with ED among depressive men and highlighted the possible mutual underlying factors that might give rise to these two disorders in this specific group of patients. In this cross-sectional study, 119 depressive men were recruited and their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were obtained. Erectile function was evaluated using the 5-item International Index of Erectile Function. All patients received a calcaneal BMD scanning. Chi-square test was conducted to determine if a significant association exists between ED and low BMD. Of the study participants, ninety patients reported ED, while 29 patients reported no ED. Within the ED group, there was a significantly higher proportion of patients with low BMD compared to the non-ED group (85.6% vs. 62.1%, P = 0.006). In addition, among younger participants (i.e., aged < 50 years old), the difference in T-score between ED patients ( Md = -2.2, n = 41) and non-ED patients ( Md = -1.3, n = 20) was significant ( P = 0.001); but held no significance among older participants. While our findings are considered prefatory, we reported that low BMD was significantly associated with ED in depressive men and that only among young depressive patients, BMD was significantly lower in ED patients compared to non-ED patients. More research investigating these findings and the possible underlying mechanisms for such association are warranted.

  9. Can Eosinophil Count, Platelet Count, and Mean Platelet Volume Be a Positive Predictive Factor in Penile Arteriogenic Erectile Dysfunction Etiopathogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Sönmez, Mehmet Giray; Göğer, Yunus Emre; Sönmez, Leyla Öztürk; Aydın, Arif; Balasar, Mehmet; Kara, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    Blood count parameters of patients referring with erectile dysfunction (ED) were examined in this study and it was investigated whether eosinophil count (EC), platelet count (PC), and mean platelet volume values among the suspected predictive parameters which may play a role in especially penile arteriogenic ED etiopathogenesis had a contribution on pathogenesis. Patients referring with ED complaint were evaluated. Depending on the medical story, ED degree was determined by measuring International Index of Erectile Function. Penile Doppler ultrasonography was taken in patients suspected to have vasculogenic ED. According to penile Doppler ultrasonography result, patients with arterial deficiency were included in the penile arteriogenic ED group and the patients with normal results were included in the nonvasculogenic ED group. A total of 36 patients participated in the study from the penile arteriogenic ED group and 32 patients from the nonvasculogenic ED group. Compared with the nonvasculogenic ED group, the penile arteriogenic ED group’s low International Index of Erectile Function score, high EC, mean platelet volume and PC values were detected to be statistically significant (p < .001, p = .021, p = .018, p = .034, respectively). No statistically significant difference was observed among the two groups when age, white blood cells, red blood cells, and hemoglobin values were considered. Pansystolic volume velocities were detected as statistically significantly low compared with the nonvasculogenic ED group in the measurements made in 5th, 10th, 15th, and 20th minutes on the right and left sides in the penile arteriogenic ED group. High MPV value and PC is a significant predictive factor for penile arteriogenic ED and vasculogenic ED and high EC is specifically predictive of arteriogenic ED. PMID:27895254

  10. Erectile Dysfunction Medication Use in Veterans Eligible for Medicare Part D.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Samantha H; Suda, Katie J; Smith, Bridget M; Huo, Zhiping; Bailey, Lauren; Stroupe, Kevin T

    2016-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) medications are therapeutically effective and associated with satisfaction. Medicare Part D included ED medications on the formulary during 2006 and inadvertently in 2007-2008. To characterize phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE-5) medication use among veterans who were dually eligible for Veterans Affairs (VA) and Medicare Part D benefits. Veterans aged > 66 years who received PDE-5 inhibitors between 2005 and 2009 were included. Veterans were categorized by PDE-5 inhibitor claims: VA-only, Part D-only, or dual users of VA and Part D-reimbursed pharmacies. T-tests and chi-square tests were applied as appropriate. From 2005 to 2009, the majority (85.2%) of veterans used VA benefits exclusively for their PDE-5 inhibitors; 11.4% used Medicare Part D exclusively; and 3.4% were dual users. The Part D-only group was older, more frequently not black, had a VA copay, and had a higher income (P < 0.03). The VA group was more likely to have comorbidities, smoke, and have a history of substance abuse (P < 0.001). With the inception of Medicare Part D in 2006, the number of patients filling prescriptions for PDE-5 inhibitors (-68%) and total number of PDE-5 inhibitor 30-day equivalents dispensed (-86.7%) from the VA decreased. Part D prescriptions increased through 2006 (full coverage period) and 2007 (accidental partial coverage) and decreased in 2008. While Part D accounted for only 10% of PDE-5 inhibitor 30-day equivalents, it equaled 29.2% of dispensed tablets. In October 2007, VA PDE-5 inhibitor use returned to 2005 levels. Implementation of Medicare Part D reduced VA PDE-5 inhibitor acquisition. However, after removal of PDE-5 inhibitors from the Part D formulary, use of VA pharmacies for PDE-5 inhibitors resumed. Medication policies outside the VA can affect medication use. Veterans with access to non-VA health care may obtain medications from the private sector because of VA restrictions. This may be especially true for nonformulary and

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and erectile dysfunction: does long term continuous positive airway pressure therapy improve erections?

    PubMed

    Husnu, Tokgoz; Ersoz, Akyurek; Bulent, Erol; Tacettin, Ornek; Remzi, Altin; Bulent, Akduman; Aydin, Mungan

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this age-matched, controlled, prospective clinical study was to investigate frequency and degree of erectile dysfunction (ED) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and to evaluate the results of only continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on ED in patients with OSAS. A total of 90 patients were evaluated for potential OSAS. They were given an International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire (IIEF) and Beck Depression Inventory. Sixty-two patients with the diagnosis of OSAS were regarded as study group. Twenty-eight patients in whom the OSAS was excluded, were regarded as the control group. Biochemical and hormonal laboratory evaluation were performed. Then all patients underwent a full-night in laboratory polysomnography examination. The degree of OSAS were evaluated by an expert from chest diseases department. When compared to the control group, a decrease in IIEF-5 scores was found in patients with OSAS. However, this decrease was not statistically significant. After 3 months of CPAP usage in patients with mild to moderate and severe degree OSAS, improvement in IIEF-5 scores was statistically significant. Mean value of IIEF-5 score was 16.63±5.91 before CPAP and were improved up to 20.92±6.79 (P=0.001). It is not certainly possible to say that OSAS is clearly associated with ED. However, after 3 months of regular CPAP usage, ED complaints in patients with OSAS might improve positively. Trials with larger series may give more conclusive data.

  12. Lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction associated with depression among Japanese patients with late-onset hypogonadism symptoms.

    PubMed

    Takao, Tetsuya; Tsujimura, Akira; Okuda, Hidenobu; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), erectile dysfunction (ED) and depression in Japanese patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) symptoms. The study comprised 87 Japanese patients with LOH symptoms (>27 points on the Aging Males Symptoms Scale). Thirty-four patients were diagnosed as having depression and the remaining 53 patients were diagnosed as not having depression by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. We compared the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) 5, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS quality-of-life (QOL) index, King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), endocrinological data, and free uroflow study between depression and non-depression patients and performed multiple logistic regression analysis. IIEF5 scores of depression patients were significantly lower than those of non-depression patients. In KHQ, only the category of general health perceptions was significantly higher in depression patients than non-depression patients. However, IPSS, QOL index, and endocrinological and uroflowmetric data showed no significant difference between the groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed moderate and severe ED to be risk factors for depression. However, LUTS are not related to depression. Moderate and severe ED is correlated with depression, whereas LUTS are not related to depression in Japanese LOH patients.

  13. Therapeutic effects of adipose-derived stem cells-based microtissues on erectile dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Feng; Hui, Yu; Xin, Hua; Xu, Yong-De; Lei, Hong-En; Yang, Bi-Cheng; Guan, Rui-Li; Li, Meng; Hou, Jian-Quan; Xin, Zhong-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the therapeutic effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs)-based microtissues (MTs) on erectile dysfunction (ED) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Fifty-six 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg kg−1), and 8 weeks later, the determined diabetic rats randomly received intracavernous (IC) injection of phosphate buffer solution (PBS), ADSCs, or MTs. Another eight normal rats equally got IC injection of PBS. MTs were generated with a hanging drop method, and the injected cells were tracked in ADSC- and MT-injected rats. Four weeks after the treatments, intracavernous pressure (ICP), histopathological changes in corpus cavernosum (CC), and functional proteins were measured. Rat cytokine antibody array was used to detect ADSCs or MTs lysate. The results showed that MTs expressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6). MTs injection had a higher retention than ADSCs injection and MTs treatment improved ICP, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression, smooth muscle, and endothelial contents in diabetic rats, ameliorated local inflammation in CC better. Thus, our findings demonstrate that IC injection of MTs improves erectile function and histopathological changes in STZ-induced diabetic rats and appears to be more promising than traditional ADSCs. The underlying mechanisms involve increased cell retention accompanied with neuroprotection and anti-inflammatory behaviors of the paracrine factors. PMID:27345005

  14. Efficacy and tolerability of lodenafil carbonate for oral therapy of erectile dysfunction: a phase III clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Glina, Sidney; Fonseca, Gilvan N; Bertero, Eduardo B; Damião, Ronaldo; Rocha, Luíz C A; Jardim, Carlos R F; Cairoli, Carlos E; Teloken, Cláudio; Torres, Luiz O; Faria, Geraldo E; da Silva, Marcelo B; Pagani, Eduardo

    2010-05-01

    This is a phase III, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on lodenafil carbonate (LC), a novel phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor developed in Brazil. Expanding information on LC efficacy and safety. International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) erectile domain, positive answers to the sexual encounter profile (SEP)-2 and SEP-3 questions and incidence of adverse events (AEs). A total of 350 men with erectile dysfunction (ED) of all degrees were randomized to placebo, LC 40 mg or LC 80 mg and followed for 4 weeks. They completed the IIEF and answered the SEP questions 2 and 3 after each intercourse without and with the use of LC. IIEF Erectile Domain scores without and with the use of medication were the following (mean [M] +/- standard deviation [SD]): placebo = 13.9 +/- 5.2 and 14.8 +/- 7.8; LC 40 mg = 13.6 +/- 5.3 and 18.6 +/- 8.0; LC 80 mg = 13.4 +/- 4.9 and 20.6 +/- 7.7 (analysis of variance [ANOVA] P < 0.01). Positive answers to SEP-2 without and with the use of medication were the following (M +/- SD): placebo = 55.3 +/- 43.2% and 52.1 +/- 41.4%; LC 40 mg = 46.4 +/- 44.3% and 63.5 +/- 42.0%; LC 80 mg = 50.2 +/- 40.9% and 80.8 +/- 32.3% (ANOVA P < 0.01). Positive answers to SEP-3 were the following: placebo = 20.2 +/- 32.3% and 29.7 +/- 38.1%; LC 40 mg = 19.6 +/- 34.3% and 50.8 +/- 44.4%; LC 80 mg = 20.8 +/- 33.2% and 66.0 +/- 39.3% (ANOVA P < 0.01). The patients with at least one AE were placebo = 28.7%, LC 40 mg = 40.9%, and LC 80 mg = 49.5%. AEs whose incidence was significantly higher with LC than with placebo included rhinitis, headache, flushing, visual disorder, and dizziness. LC showed a satisfactory efficacy-safety profile for oral therapy of ED.

  15. Adjunctive treatment with lodenafil carbonate for erectile dysfunction in outpatients with schizophrenia and spectrum: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Luciana Vargas Alves; Lacaz, Fernando Sargo; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Nunes, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Alves; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2013-04-01

    INTRODUCTION.: Evidence is accumulating to support the presence of erectile dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia. This dysregulation may be amenable to therapeutic intervention to improve adherence and quality of life of patients who suffer from schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. AIM.: We aimed to evaluate the use of adjunctive medication lodenafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in outpatients with schizophrenia and spectrum. METHODS.: The design was a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial with lodenafil and it was carried at the Schizophrenia Outpatients Program. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES.: The measures used to assess sexual dysfunction were Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Quality of Life Scale (QLS) were also used. The measures included the levels of prolactin, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin, free testosterone, and total testosterone at baseline and end point. Lodenafil and placebo pills were used by the patients for 16 weeks. RESULTS.: Fifty male outpatients fulfilled the criteria and 94% of the participants completed the study. Lodenafil and placebo produced improvement in ASEX, IIEF scale, PANSS, and QLS, and there was no statistical difference between lodenafil and placebo groups in all sexual domains in the results of PANSS and QLS and in the results of hormone levels. CONCLUSION.: These results indicate that both lodenafil and placebo were effective in the treatment of erectile dysfunction for schizophrenia. Placebo effect is very important in patients with schizophrenia and this study showed the importance of discussing sexuality and trying to treat these patients. Further studies designed to test treatments of erectile dysfunction in patients who suffer from schizophrenia are necessary. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. A phase 3, placebo controlled study of the safety and efficacy of avanafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction after nerve sparing radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Mulhall, John P; Burnett, Arthur L; Wang, Run; McVary, Kevin T; Moul, Judd W; Bowden, Charles H; DiDonato, Karen; Shih, Winnie; Day, Wesley W

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of 100 and 200 mg avanafil for the treatment of adult males with erectile dysfunction after bilateral nerve sparing radical prostatectomy. This was a double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel group, phase 3 study in males age 18 to 70 years with a history of erectile dysfunction of 6 months or more after bilateral nerve sparing radical prostatectomy. Patients were randomized to 100 or 200 mg avanafil or placebo (taken 30 minutes before sexual activity) for 12 weeks. Primary end points included successful vaginal insertion (Sexual Encounter Profile [SEP] question 2), successful intercourse (SEP3) and change in score on the erectile function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) questionnaire. A total of 298 patients were randomized and 84.6% completed the study. At baseline 16.1% were age 65 years or older and 71.5% had severe erectile dysfunction (mean overall IIEF-EF domain score 9.2). After 12 weeks there were significantly greater increases in SEP2 and SEP3 and change in mean IIEF-EF domain score with 100 and 200 mg avanafil vs placebo (p <0.01). Following dosing with avanafil 36.4% (28 of 77) of sexual attempts (SEP3) at 15 minutes or less were successful vs 4.5% (2 of 44) for placebo (p <0.01). Avanafil was generally well tolerated. No serious adverse events were reported and fewer than 2% of patients discontinued the study due to an adverse event. Avanafil in 100 and 200 mg doses was effective and well tolerated in improving erectile function after prostatectomy. Results suggest a rapid onset of action and sustained duration of effect, with all 3 primary end points being achieved at both dose levels. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The devil is in the details: an analysis of the subtleties between phosphodiesterase inhibitors for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Smith-Harrison, L I; Patel, Abhishek; Smith, Ryan P

    2016-04-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common sexual disorder with numerous etiologies involving multiple organ systems that leads to significant distress and decreased quality of life for the affected men. Fortunately, there are several modalities and interventions for treating ED. Oral medications, intra-urethral compounds, intracorporeal injections, vacuum-assist devices and surgically implanted prostheses are all part of the treatment algorithm. One of the first-lines and certainly the most widely used options for treating ED is the family of oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5I). The introduction of these medications in the late 1990s revolutionized the field of sexual medicine. Currently there are no guidelines and minimal literature to help providers choose among drugs in this class. This review will address differences in efficacy and side effects between various members of the oral selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor class of drugs.

  18. Peptide amphiphile nanofiber hydrogel delivery of sonic hedgehog protein to the cavernous nerve to promote regeneration and prevent erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Choe, Shawn; Bond, Christopher W; Harrington, Daniel A; Stupp, Samuel I; McVary, Kevin T; Podlasek, Carol A

    2017-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) has high impact on quality of life in prostatectomy, diabetic and aging patients. An underlying mechanism is cavernous nerve (CN) injury, which causes ED in up to 80% of prostatectomy patients. We examine how sonic hedgehog (SHH) treatment with innovative peptide amphiphile nanofiber hydrogels (PA), promotes CN regeneration after injury. SHH and its receptors patched (PTCH1) and smoothened (SMO) are localized in PG neurons and glia. SMO undergoes anterograde transport to signal to downstream targets. With crush injury, PG neurons degenerate and undergo apoptosis. SHH protein decreases, SMO localization changes to the neuronal cell surface, and anterograde transport stops. With SHH treatment SHH is taken up at the injury site and undergoes retrograde transport to PG neurons, allowing SMO transport to occur, and neurons remain intact. SHH treatment prevents neuronal degeneration, maintains neuronal, glial and downstream target signaling, and is significant as a regenerative therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Low-energy Shock Wave Therapy-A Novel Treatment Option for Erectile Dysfunction in Men With Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Kałka, Dariusz; Gebala, Jana; Smoliński, Ryszard; Rusiecki, Lesław; Pilecki, Witold; Zdrojowy, Romuald

    2017-11-01

    Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are prone to developing erectile dysfunction (ED) owing to the common risk factors and pathogenesis underlying ED and CVD. As a result, ED affects nearly 80% of male patients with CVD. The efficacy of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, vacuum erection devices, or intracavernosal injection of vasodilating agents is well established in the treatment of ED; however, their use is limited. Low-energy shock wave therapy is a novel modality that may become a causative treatment for ED. This review aims to assess the efficacy and safety of low-energy shock wave therapy in the treatment of ED in men with CVD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding the cellular basis and pathophysiology of Peyronie’s disease to optimize treatment for erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Alzubaidi, Raidh

    2017-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition that significantly impacts a man’s physical and psychological well-being. ED is often associated with Peyronie’s disease (PD), which is an abnormal curvature of the penis. Delayed treatment of or surgical invention for PD often results in ED and therefore unsatisfied patients. The pathophysiology of PD is incompletely understood, but has been studied extensively and based on our current understanding of PD physiology, many medical treatment options have been proposed. In this paper, we will review what is known about the pathophysiology of PD and the medical treatment options that have been trialed as a result. More investigations in regards to the basic science of PD need to be carried out in order to elucidate the exact mechanisms of the fibrosis, and propose new, more successful treatment options which should be implemented prior to the onset of ED. PMID:28217450

  1. [TECAR therapy for Peyronie’s disease: a phase-one prospective study. Great evidence in patients with erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Pavone, Carlo; Castrianni, Davide; Romeo, Salvatore; Napoli, Enrica; Usala, Manuela; Gambino, Giuseppa; Scaturro, Dalila; Letizia Mauro, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    Our phase-one prospective study wants to evaluate the safety and tolerability of TECAR therapy in the treatment of Peyronie’s disease. From June 2011 to September 2012 we enrolled 70 patients. Each patient had been previously subjected to andrological examination, to a questionnaire for the evaluation of IPP and ED, and the SF-36 (V1) for the evaluation of the general state of health. The evaluation of pain was made using the VAS scale of pain. Every patient was subjected to TECAR treatment of the fibrotic plaque (both in resistive mode and in capacitive mode) for a total of three sessions carried out on consecutive days. We recorded a good compliance by patients; none of them reported side effects. Pain was decreased by the technique in 80% of the cases.The whole sample completed the study. Surprisingly enough those patients who complained also of erectile dysfunction, reported an improvement in sexual potency.

  2. Comparing Sildenafil alone vs. Sildenafil plus brief couple sex therapy on erectile dysfunction and couples' sexual and marital quality of life: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Sylvie; Heiman, Julia R; Berger, Richard E; Murallo, A V; Yung-Wen, Liu

    2009-01-01

    Treatment options for managing erectile dysfunction (ED) include medical and psychological interventions. The present study examined the effectiveness of a drug-only vs. combined treatment approach on erectile function as well as other domains of sexual function and cognition, couple intimacy and adaptation, and treatment satisfaction. Couples with ED were randomly assigned to either Viagra-only (VO) or Viagra plus sex therapy (VST). Sexual and relationship variables were measured at specific time points. Despite limitations, study findings extend previous conclusions and provide empirical support for the effectiveness and satisfaction with the combined treatment approach for treating men with ED of mixed etiology.

  3. Topically Applied Curcumin-Loaded Nanoparticles Treat Erectile Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Type-2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Draganski, Andrew; Tar, Moses T; Villegas, Guillermo; Friedman, Joel M; Davies, Kelvin P

    2018-05-01

    Curcumin, a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory compound, has shown promise in pre-clinical studies to treat erectile dysfunction (ED) associated with type-1 diabetes. However, poor bioavailability following oral administration limits its efficacy. The present study evaluated the potential of topical application of curcumin-loaded nanoparticles (curc-np) to treat ED in a rat model of type-2 diabetes (T2D). Determine if topical application of curc-np treats ED in a T2D rat model and modulates expression of inflammatory markers. Curc-np (4 mg curcumin) or blank nanoparticles were applied every 2 days for 2 weeks to the shaved abdomen of 20-week-old Zucker diabetic fatty male rats (N = 5 per group). Lean Zucker diabetic fatty male rat controls were treated with blank nanoparticles (N = 5). Penetration of nanoparticles and curcumin release were confirmed by 2-photon fluorescence microscopy and histology. Erectile function was determined by measuring intracorporal pressure (ICP) normalized to systemic blood pressure (ICP/BP) following cavernous nerve stimulation. Corporal tissue was excised and reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction used to determine expression of the following markers: nuclear factor (NF)-κβ, NF-κβ-activating protein (Nkap), NF erythroid 2-related factor-2, Kelch-like enoyl-CoA hydratase-associated protein-1, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), variable coding sequence-A1, phosphodiesterase-5, endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase, Ras homolog gene family member A, and Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinases-1 and -2. Erectile function by determination of ICP/BP and expression of molecular markers in corporal tissue by RT-qPCR. Nanoparticles penetrated the abdominal epidermis and persisted in hair follicles for 24 hours. Curc-np-treated animals exhibited higher average ICP/BP than animals treated with blank nanoparticles at all levels of stimulation and this was statistically significant (P < .05) at 0.75 m

  4. [Phytotherapy in urology. Current scientific evidence of its application in urolithiasis, chronic pelvic pain, erectile dysfunction and urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Morán, E; Budía, A; Broseta, E; Boronat, F

    2013-03-01

    To assess the usefulness of phytotherapy in urolitiasis, urinary tract infections, erectile dysfunction (ED) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain (CP/CPP). Systematic review of the evidence published until January 2011 using the following scientific terms:phytotherapy, urinary lithiasis, Chronic prostatitis, chronic pelvic pain, erectile dysfunction, urinary tract infection, cystitis and the scientific names of compounds following the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. The databases used were Medline and The Cochrane Library.We included articles published until January 2011 written in English and Spanish. We included studies in Vitro/in vivo on animal models or human beings. Exclusion criteria were literature not in English and Spanish or articles with serious methodological flaws. We included 86 articles selecting 40 that met the inclusion criteria. In Urolitiasis there are few works in humans. The phytate has its main use as prevention and in reducing the growth of residual fragments after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). In CP/CPP the only compound that has shown effectiveness was the extract of pollen in a field of multimodal treatment. In DE ther is no evidence for the use of herbal medicine.Most of the works have limitations in the design or low sample size. In urinary tract infections most of the products are diuretics .There is only evidence for the cranberry as prevention in young or pregnant women. It must not be used as a treatment for urinary tract infections. Phytotherapy is usefull in repeat urinary tract infections and the CP/CPP. It has some role in the urolitiasis and lacks useful in the DE. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of written information material on help-seeking behavior in patients with erectile dysfunction: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Berner, Michael M; Leiber, Christian; Kriston, Levente; Stodden, Vera; Günzler, Cindy

    2008-02-01

    Neither men with erectile dysfunction (ED) nor their physicians are willing to discuss sexual problem sufficiently. Written information material could facilitate a dialogue and encourage men to seek treatment. The central task of this article was to determine the effectiveness and acceptance of patient information material for sexual dysfunction. Through an information campaign, men received informational material. Eight thousand men also received a first survey, which asked about the intention to seek treatment and to discuss the sexual problem with a physician or partner. A second follow-up questionnaire, 3-6 months after the first one, asked for the implementation of these intentions. Descriptive and regression-based analyses were applied. Help-seeking behavior, subjective assessment of change in disease severity and partnership quality, satisfaction. Four hundred forty-three men participated in both surveys. Nearly 90% of them became active after reading the information material. More than half talked with their partner (57.8%) and a physician (65%), and one-third sought treatment (31.8%). Especially discussing the problem with the partner and receiving treatment improved erectile functioning and led to an increase in the quality of partnership (P

  6. Penile Doppler sonographic and clinical characteristics in Peyronie's disease and/or erectile dysfunction: an analysis of 1500 men with male sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eric; Yan, Hanmu; De Young, Ling; Brock, Gerald B

    2012-10-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Penile colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) can be an invaluable investigative tool to characterize penile abnormalities to complement clinical history and physical examination in the evaluation of men with Peyronie's disease (PD) and/or erectile dysfunction (ED). Although CDU findings between men with PD and those with ED were not markedly different, subtle differences were observed. The classic penile CDU findings in men with PD comprise tunical thickening, intracavernosal fibrosis, septal fibrosis and intracavernosal calcification, while, in men with ED, low peak systolic velocity and high end-diastolic velocity are found on penile haemodynamics. Previously published studies have focused predominantly on either ED or PD exclusively, or examine the risk of progression to ED in the PD population. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most comprehensive analysis of penile CDU and clinical findings in men with PD and/or ED. The large sample size and multivariable analysis allow meaningful interpretation of the results. This study has found some substantial differences in the penile CDU findings of men with PD and/or ED that have not previously been reported. Although the risk factors of ED may be greater than those for PD, there is crossover in age, cardiovascular risk factors, trauma and penile CDU findings in men with PD and/or ED. To explore the differences in penile colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) findings between men with Peyronie's disease (PD) and those with erectile dysfunction (ED). Patients presenting with PD and/or ED who underwent penile CDU were recruited to the study. Patient demographics, comorbidities, International Index of Erectile Function-5 scores, previous therapies and physical findings were documented. Penile curvature, presence of tunical thickening, septal fibrosis, intracavernosal fibrosis and calcification, and cavernosal vascular status were recorded. A total of 1500 men

  7. Bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Ryuji; Kishi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Emina; Tateno, Fuyuki; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yamanishi, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Bladder dysfunction (urinary urgency/frequency), bowel dysfunction (constipation), and sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction) (also called "pelvic organ" dysfunctions) are common nonmotor disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD). In contrast to motor disorders, pelvic organ autonomic dysfunctions are often nonresponsive to levodopa treatment. The brain pathology causing the bladder dysfunction (appearance of overactivity) involves an altered dopamine-basal ganglia circuit, which normally suppresses the micturition reflex. By contrast, peripheral myenteric pathology causing slowed colonic transit (loss of rectal contractions) and central pathology causing weak strain and paradoxical anal sphincter contraction on defecation (PSD, also called as anismus) are responsible for the bowel dysfunction. In addition, hypothalamic dysfunction is mostly responsible for the sexual dysfunction (decrease in libido and erection) in PD, via altered dopamine-oxytocin pathways, which normally promote libido and erection. The pathophysiology of the pelvic organ dysfunction in PD differs from that in multiple system atrophy; therefore, it might aid in differential diagnosis. Anticholinergic agents are used to treat bladder dysfunction in PD, although these drugs should be used with caution particularly in elderly patients who have cognitive decline. Dietary fibers, laxatives, and "prokinetic" drugs such as serotonergic agonists are used to treat bowel dysfunction in PD. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are used to treat sexual dysfunction in PD. These treatments might be beneficial in maximizing the patients' quality of life.

  8. Bladder, Bowel, and Sexual Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Ryuji; Kishi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Emina; Tateno, Fuyuki; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yamanishi, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Bladder dysfunction (urinary urgency/frequency), bowel dysfunction (constipation), and sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction) (also called “pelvic organ” dysfunctions) are common nonmotor disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD). In contrast to motor disorders, pelvic organ autonomic dysfunctions are often nonresponsive to levodopa treatment. The brain pathology causing the bladder dysfunction (appearance of overactivity) involves an altered dopamine-basal ganglia circuit, which normally suppresses the micturition reflex. By contrast, peripheral myenteric pathology causing slowed colonic transit (loss of rectal contractions) and central pathology causing weak strain and paradoxical anal sphincter contraction on defecation (PSD, also called as anismus) are responsible for the bowel dysfunction. In addition, hypothalamic dysfunction is mostly responsible for the sexual dysfunction (decrease in libido and erection) in PD, via altered dopamine-oxytocin pathways, which normally promote libido and erection. The pathophysiology of the pelvic organ dysfunction in PD differs from that in multiple system atrophy; therefore, it might aid in differential diagnosis. Anticholinergic agents are used to treat bladder dysfunction in PD, although these drugs should be used with caution particularly in elderly patients who have cognitive decline. Dietary fibers, laxatives, and “prokinetic” drugs such as serotonergic agonists are used to treat bowel dysfunction in PD. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are used to treat sexual dysfunction in PD. These treatments might be beneficial in maximizing the patients' quality of life. PMID:21918729

  9. Sex Hormones Predict the Incidence of Erectile Dysfunction: From a Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study (FAMHES).

    PubMed

    Luo, Yawen; Zhang, Haiying; Liao, Ming; Tang, Qin; Huang, Yuzhen; Xie, Jinling; Tang, Yan; Tan, Aihua; Gao, Yong; Lu, Zheng; Yao, Ziting; Jiang, Yonghua; Lin, Xinggu; Wu, Chunlei; Yang, Xiaobo; Mo, Zengnan

    2015-05-01

    The decline of testosterone has been known to be associated with the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED), but the causal relationship between sex hormones and ED is still uncertain. To prove the association between sex hormones and ED, we carried out a prospective cohort study based on our previous cross-sectional study. We performed a prospective cohort study of 733 Chinese men who participated in Fangchenggang Area Males Health and Examination Survey from September 2009 to December 2009 and were followed for 4 years. Erectile function was estimated by scores of the five-item International Index of Erectile Dysfunction (IIEF-5) and relative ratios (RRs) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Data were collected at follow-up visit and included sex hormone measurements, IIEF-5 scores, physical examination, and health questionnaires. Men with the highest tertile of free testosterone (FT) (RR = 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.09-0.46) and the lowest tertile of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (RR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.19-0.73) had decreased risk of ED. In young men (aged 21-40), a decreased risk was observed with the increase of FT and bioavailable testosterone (BT) (adjusted RR and 95% CI: 0.78 [0.67-0.92] and 0.75 [0.62-0.95], respectively). Total testosterone (TT) (RR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.81-0.98) was inversely associated with ED after adjusting for SHBG, while SHBG (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02-1.06) remained positively associated with ED after further adjusting for TT. Men with both low FT and high SHBG had highest ED risk (adjusted RR = 4.61, 95% CI: 1.33-16.0). High FT and BT levels independently predicted a decreased risk of ED in young men. Further studies are urgently needed to clarify the molecular mechanisms of testosterone acting on ED. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. α1A-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonism Improves Erectile and Cavernosal Responses in Rats With Cavernous Nerve Injury and Enhances Neurogenic Responses in Human Corpus Cavernosum From Patients With Erectile Dysfunction Secondary to Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Salamanca, Juan I; La Fuente, José M; Martínez-Salamanca, Eduardo; Fernández, Argentina; Pepe-Cardoso, Augusto J; Louro, Nuno; Carballido, Joaquín; Angulo, Javier

    2016-12-01

    Cavernous nerve injury (CNI) in rats and radical prostatectomy (RP) in men result in loss of nitrergic function and increased adrenergic-neurogenic contractions of cavernosal tissue. To evaluate the modulation of the α-adrenergic system as a strategy to relieve erectile dysfunction (ED) and functional cavernosal alterations induced by CNI. A non-selective α-blocker (phentolamine 1 mg/kg daily), a selective α 1A -blocker (silodosin [SILOD] 0.1 mg/kg daily), or vehicle was orally administered for 4 weeks after bilateral crush CNI (BCNI). Erectile and neurogenic responses of the corpus cavernosum (CC) were evaluated. The acute effects of SILOD also were evaluated in vivo (0.03 mg/kg intravenously) and ex vivo (10 nmol/L). The effects of SILOD and tadalafil (TAD) on nitrergic relaxations were determined in human CC from patients with ED with a vascular etiology or ED secondary to RP. Erectile responses in vivo in rats and neurogenic contractions and relaxations of rat and human CC. Long-term treatment with SILOD significantly improved erectile responses and allowed for the potentiation of erectile responses by acute treatment with TAD (0.3 mg/kg intravenously) in rats with BCNI. SILOD partly recovered nitrergic relaxations and normalized neurogenic contractions in CC from rats with BCNI. Long-term treatment with SILOD partly prevented BCNI-induced decreases in neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression. Acute administration of SILOD (0.03 mg/kg intravenously) improved erectile responses in vivo and potentiated nitrergic relaxation and decreased neurogenic contractions ex vivo in CC from rats with BCNI. In human CC from patients with ED with a vascular etiology, TAD (30 nmol/L), SILOD (10 nmol/L), or their combination increased nitrergic relaxations. Potentiation by TAD was lost in human CC from patients with ED after RP but was recovered after co-treatment with SILOD. α-Adrenergic modulation, especially selective α 1A -blockade, improves erectile and

  11. Association between body size and composition and erectile dysfunction in older men: Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study.

    PubMed

    Garimella, Pranav S; Paudel, Misti L; Ensrud, Kristine E; Marshall, Lynn M; Taylor, Brent C; Fink, Howard A

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association between body size and composition and erectile dysfunction (ED) in older men. Cross-sectional analysis of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study. Six U.S. clinical sites. Community-dwelling men aged 65 and older. Body composition measures using anthropometry (body weight, body mass index (BMI)) and dual X-ray absorptiometry (total body fat percentage, trunk fat percentage, ratio of trunk and total body fat). ED was assessed using the single-item Massachusetts Male Aging Study (MMAS) scale and the five-item International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire (IIEF-5). In men completing the MMAS scale (n = 4,108), prevalence of complete ED was 42%. In sexually active men completing the IIEF-5 questionnaire (n = 1,659), prevalence of moderate to severe ED was 56%. In multivariate-adjusted analyses reporting prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), the prevalence of MMAS-defined complete ED was significantly greater in men in the highest quartile of body weight (PR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.16-1.34), total body fat percentage (PR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.13-1.40), and trunk fat percentage (PR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.15-1.38), and was greater in men with a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m(2) than in those with BMI of 22.0 to 24.9 kg/m(2) (PR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.05-1.31). Associations appeared similar for IIEF-5-defined moderate to severe ED in analyses adjusted for age and study site. In a cohort of older men, high body weight, BMI, and total body fat percentage were independently associated with greater prevalence of moderate to severe and complete ED. Future studies should investigate whether interventions to promote weight loss and fat loss will improve erectile function in older men. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Effects of a water-soluble curcumin protein conjugate vs. pure curcumin in a diabetic model of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Abdel Aziz, Mohamed Talaat; Motawi, Tarek; Rezq, Ameen; Mostafa, Taymour; Fouad, Hanan H; Ahmed, Hanan H; Rashed, Laila; Sabry, Dina; Senbel, Amira; Al-Malki, A; El-Shafiey, Raghda

    2012-07-01

    Curcumin is involved in erectile signaling via elevation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Assessment of the effects of water-soluble curcumin in erectile dysfunction (ED). One hundred twenty male white albino rats were divided into: 1st and 2nd control groups with or without administration of Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), 3rd and 4th diabetic groups with or without ZnPP, 5th diabetic group on single oral dose of pure curcumin, 6th diabetic group on pure curcumin administered daily for 12 weeks, 7th and 8th diabetic groups on single dose of water-soluble curcumin administered with or without ZnPP, 9th and 10th diabetic groups on water-soluble curcumin administered daily for 12 weeks with or without ZnPP. All curcumin dosage schedules were administered after induction of diabetes. Quantitative gene expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), neuronal NOS (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), nuclear transcription factor-erythroid2 (Nrf2), NF-Кβ, and p38. Cavernous tissue levels of HO and NOS enzyme activities, cGMP and intracavernosal pressure (ICP). Twelve weeks after induction of diabetes, ED was confirmed by the significant decrease in ICP. There was a significant decrease in cGMP, NOS, HO enzymes, a significant decrease in eNOS, nNOS, HO-1 genes and a significant elevation of NF-Кβ, p38, iNOS genes. Administration of pure curcumin or its water-soluble conjugate led to a significant elevation in ICP, cGMP levels, a significant increase in HO-1 and NOS enzymes, a significant increase in eNOS, nNOS, HO-1, and Nrf2 genes, and a significant decrease in NF-Кβ, p38, and iNOS genes. Water-soluble curcumin showed significant superiority and more prolonged duration of action. Repeated doses regimens were superior to single dose regimen. Administration of ZnPP significantly reduced HO enzyme, cGMP, ICP/ mean arterial pressure (MAP), HO-1 genes in diabetic groups. Water-soluble curcumin could enhance erectile function with more

  13. Efficacy and tolerability of lodenafil carbonate for oral therapy in erectile dysfunction: a phase II clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Glina, Sidney; Toscano, Iderpol; Gomatzky, Celso; de Góes, Plínio Moreira; Júnior, Archimedes Nardozza; Claro, Joaquim Francisco de Almeida; Pagani, Eduardo

    2009-02-01

    Oral treatment with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5) is considered the first-line treatment for patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). Lodenafil carbonate (LC) is a novel PDE5. This is a phase II, prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo controlled clinical trial of LC. Efficacy end points were International Index of Sexual Function (IIEF) erectile domain, IIEF questions 3 and 4, and Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) questions 2 and 3, before and after the use of LC or placebo. Seventy-two men older than 18 years, with ED for at least 6 months with stable sexual relationship were enrolled. Patients were randomized to placebo or LC 80 mg, 40 mg, or 20 mg and followed for 4 weeks. IIEF erectile domain scores before and after the use of medications were (mean +/- standard deviation [SD]): placebo: 11.9 +/- 3.4 and 12.6 +/- 5.5; LC 20 mg: 15.8 +/- 4.1 and 18.9 +/- 6.6; LC 40 mg: 11.9 +/- 4.4 and 15.4 +/- 8.1; LC 80 mg: 14.2 +/- 4.7 and 22.8 +/- 6.0 (ANOVA P < 0.01). The SEP-2 scores before and after the use of medications were (Mean +/- SD): placebo: 71.0 +/- 33.1 and 51.2 +/- 43.1; LC 20 mg 70.3 +/- 34.2 and 75.5 +/- 31.5; LC 40 mg: 48.4 +/- 42.1 and 60.8 +/- 42.5; LC 80 mg: 68.6 +/- 33.5 and 89.6 +/- 26.0. The SEP-3 scores were: placebo 23.3 +/- 27.6 and 33.6 +/- 42.3; LC 20 mg: 32.3 +/- 38.9 and 51.2 +/- 41.7; LC 40 mg: 39.7 +/- 44.7 and 46.7 +/- 41.1; LC 80 mg* 17.2 +/- 29.5 and 74.3 +/- 36.4 (*P < 0.05 for difference to placebo). The drug was well tolerated. Adverse reactions were mild and self-limited and included headache, rhinitis, flushing, color visual disorders, and dyspepsia. This study showed that the dosage of 80 mg of LC was significantly more efficacious than placebo and well tolerated.

  14. Erectile Dysfunction in Male Survivors of Childhood Cancer-A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    PubMed

    Ritenour, Chad W M; Seidel, Kristy D; Leisenring, Wendy; Mertens, Ann C; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Sklar, Charles A; Whitton, John A; Stovall, Marilyn; Constine, Louis S; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Meacham, Lillian R

    2016-06-01

    With survival rates higher than 80%, the number of survivors from pediatric cancer continues to increase. Late effects resulting from cancer and cancer therapy are being characterized, but little information exists on sexual health for men who have survived childhood cancer. To assess erectile dysfunction (ED) in men who survived childhood and adolescent cancers and to identify potential risk factors for ED. In total, 1,622 men and 271 eligible brothers in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort completed the Male Health Questionnaire, which provided information on sexual practices and sexual function. Combined with demographic, cancer, and treatment information from medical record abstraction, results of the Male Health Questionnaire were analyzed using multivariable modeling. The International Index of Erectile Function was used to identify ED in subjects. International Index of Erectile Function. Survivors (mean age = 37.4 years, SD = 7.3 years) reported significantly lower sexual activity in the year before the survey than the brothers (mean age = 38.8 years, SD = 8.5 years) without cancer. ED was reported by 12.3% (95% CI = 10.4-14.3) of survivors and 4.2% (95% CI = 2.0-7.9) of brothers. Survivors showed significantly higher relative risk (RR) for ED (RR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.40-4.97). In addition to older age, survivors who were exposed to higher-dose (≥10 Gy) testicular radiation (RR = 3.55, 95% CI = 1.53-8.24), had surgery on the spinal cord or nerves (RR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.36-6.05), prostate surgery (RR = 6.56, 95% CI = 3.84-11.20), or pelvic surgery (RR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.04-4.98) were at higher risk for ED. Men who have survived childhood cancer have a greater than 2.6-fold increased risk for ED and certain cancer-specific treatments are associated with increased risk. Attention to sexual health, with its physical and emotional implications, and opportunities for early detection and intervention in these individuals could be important

  15. Efficacy of vardenafil and influence on self-esteem and self-confidence in patients with severe erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Martin-Morales, Antonio; Meijide, Fernando; García, Nicolás; Artes, Maite; Muñoz, Ana

    2007-03-01

    To assess the efficacy of vardenafil in a population of Spanish men with erectile dysfunction (ED), its influence on patients' self-esteem and self-confidence, and its effect on their quality of life. Efficacy was assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) domain, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, the Johnson and McCoy Self-Confidence scale, the Medical Outcome Short Form (SF-36) scale, items 2 and 3 of the Sexual Encounter Profile questionnaire, and the Global Assessment Question (GAQ). Safety assessments included laboratory tests, physical exam, electrocardiogram, vital signs, and adverse events. This was a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled study. After a 4-week treatment-free period, patients received flexible-dose vardenafil or placebo for 12 weeks. The initial dose was 10 mg, which could be titrated up to 20 mg or down to 5 mg at weeks 4 and 8. A total of 121 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis (61 on vardenafil and 60 on placebo). Of these, 16 in the vardenafil group and 14 in the placebo group had severe ED. There was a greater improvement in IIEF-EF domain score with vardenafil vs. placebo for all patients (score change of 10.9 vs. 1.6, respectively, P < 0.001) and for patients with severe ED (score change of 13.4 vs. 2.2, respectively, P = 0.011). A significant difference in favor of vardenafil was also observed for positive responses to the GAQ (73.8% vs. 25.0%, P < 0.001). After 12 weeks, vardenafil-treated patients with severe ED showed a significant improvement in their self-esteem compared with patients receiving placebo (change from baseline -1.51 vs. 3.54, respectively, P = 0.036). Vardenafil treatment was well tolerated. Vardenafil was highly effective for improving EF in all patients with ED, and resulted in significant improvements in self-esteem in patients with severe ED.

  16. Predictive factors for erectile dysfunction in men with prostate cancer after brachytherapy: Is dose to the penile bulb important?

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, A. Graham; Keyes, Mira; Kruk, Alexandra

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: To determine predictive factors for postimplant erectile dysfunction (ED) in a cohort of patients, according to prospectively collected data; specifically, to assess the impact of penile bulb volume and D50 and D95 (dose covering 50% and 95% of the penile bulb volume, respectively) on ED. Methods and Materials: Three hundred forty-two patients were identified who were potent before implant and who had at least 2 years' follow-up. Patient, tumor, treatment, and dosimetric data were collected on all patients. Postimplant ED was defined according to both physician-documented and patient-documented outcome data. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to create multivariablemore » models of predictors for ED at 1, 2, and 3 years after implant. Results: Physician-documented rates of ED were 57%, 48%, and 38% at 1, 2, and 3 years after implant, respectively. Patient-documented rates of ED were 70% and 66% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Multivariable analyses revealed age and degree of preimplant erectile function to be consistently significant predictors of ED. Use of hormones was significant at the 1-year physician-documented ED endpoint but not thereafter, in keeping with the time course of testosterone recovery. Penile bulb volume, D50, and D95 were not found to be predictive for ED at any time point, in contrast to previous studies. In addition, planning ultrasound target volume, number of needles, and institutional case sequence number were significant predictors of ED at various time points, consistent with a traumatic etiology of ED. Conclusions: We found no evidence to support penile bulb dosimetry as an independent predictive factor for ED after implant, using physician-documented or patient-documented outcomes.« less

  17. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms, Erectile Dysfunction, and Quality of Life in Poststroke Men: A Controlled Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Gard, Gunvor; Dehlendorff, Christian; Iversen, Helle K; Biering-Soerensen, Fin; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), erectile dysfunction (ED), and quality of life (QoL) in poststroke and healthy men. Thirty poststroke men with stroke-related LUTS, and as controls, 96 healthy men participated in this controlled, cross-sectional study. Participants filled in the Danish Prostate Symptom Score (DAN-PSS-1) Questionnaire, the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5), the 36-Item Short Form (SF-36), the Nocturia Quality-of-Life (N-QoL) Questionnaire. In the age group ≤55 years, comparing poststroke men with healthy controls both with LUTS, the results indicated DAN-PSS-1, total score median 13 (4-17) versus 3 (2-6), p = .05; IIEF-5 25 (14-25) versus 24 (23-25), p = .06; SF-12, total score 499 (360-679) versus 695 (644-734), p = .02; and N-QoL 98 (70-100) versus 96 (90-100), p = .65. In the age group >55 years, comparing poststroke men with healthy controls both with LUTS, the results indicated DAN-PSS-1, total score 13 (8-24) versus 5 (2-7), p < .01; IIEF-5 13 (5-20) versus 25 (24-25), p < .01; SF-36, total score 585 (456-718) versus 742 (687-772), p < .01; and N-QoL, total score 81 (66-95) versus 98 (80-100), p < .01. The results demonstrated that in age group above, but not below 55 years, poststroke men with LUTS had significantly higher frequency of severe and bothersome LUTS and ED than the healthy controls with LUTS, while QoL and N-QoL were significantly lower in comparison. It is recommended to identify and assess older poststroke men for LUTS, ED, and QoL.

  18. Clinical and psychosocial factors associated with quality of life in alcohol-dependent men with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ponizovsky, Alexander M

    2008-10-01

    Men with alcohol dependence (AD) commonly suffer from alcohol-induced sexual (erectile) dysfunction (ED) and have poor quality of life (Qol). Knowledge about the factors associated with Qol in such patients is lacking. To identify in men who sought medical help for both AD and ED the variables that best predicted feelings of satisfaction with life and with specific life domains. The Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q). Secondary study measures were the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Rosenberg's General Self-Esteem Scale (RGSES), and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Within an open-label sildenafil trial, 101 men aged 18-50 years with an International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition diagnosis of AD and concomitant ED were interviewed and completed the questionnaires. Multivariate analyses were applied to establish predictors of life satisfaction and factors mediating the relation between ED and life satisfaction. ED and self-rated depressive symptoms, emotional distress, self-esteem, and perceived social support were found to be significantly associated with Qol and its component domains. Altogether they explained 18-38% of the variance in the Qol ratings. Depressive symptomatology, distress, and self-esteem, individually, demonstrated a mediating effect on the relation between ED and Qol. Finally, self-esteem was shown to be the primary mediator in this relationship. The results of the study show that self-esteem is the primary factor, and depressive symptoms and severe emotional distress are secondary factors mediating the effects of ED on Qol in male patients seeking medical help for both AD and ED. An integrated pharmacopsychosocial approach targeting the underlying ED as well as the mediating emotional conditions could improve Qol of these patients and thus help them to stop using alcohol.

  19. Prevalence, correlates, attitude and treatment seeking of erectile dysfunction among type 2 diabetic Chinese men attending primary care outpatient clinics

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wai Hon; Fu, Sau Nga; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Chen, Ee San

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence, correlates, attitude and treatment seeking behavior of erectile dysfunction (ED) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in the primary care setting, a multi-center cross-sectional survey using a structured anonymous self-administered questionnaire was performed in 10 general outpatient clinics. Of the 603 subjects (91% response rate), the prevalence of ED men, as defined by the International Index of Erectile Function, was 79.1%. Most subjects had mild ED (28.9%), followed by mild-to-moderate ED (27.9%), then moderate ED (13.4%) and severe ED (9%). Nearly 55% of those with ED did not consider themselves as having ED. Less than 10% of them had ever sought medical treatment, although 76.1% of them wished to receive management from doctor(s) should they be diagnosed with ED. They considered the most important management from doctors to be clinical assessment (41.7%), followed by management of potential underlying cause (37.8%), referral to specialist (27.5%), education (23.9%), prescription of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (16.9%) and referral to counseling service (6.7%). The prevalence of ED was strongly associated with subjects who thought they had ED (odds ratio (OR) = 90.49 (20.00–409.48, P< 0.001)) and were from the older age group (OR = 1.043 (1.011–1.076, P = 0.008)). In conclusion, ED is highly prevalent among T2DM men. The majority of them wanted management from doctors should they have ED, but only a minority would actually voice out the request. Screening of ED among T2DM men using structural questionnaire allowed the diagnosis of more than half of the ED cases, which otherwise would have gone undiagnosed. PMID:24759587

  20. Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Man, Libo; Li, Guizhong

    2017-09-26

    To use systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of low-energy extracorporeal shockwave therapy (LI-ESWT) for erectile dysfunction (ED) was undertaken with a meta-analysis to identify the efficacy of the treatment modality. A comprehensive search of the PubMed, Cochrane Register and Embase databases to March 2017 was performed for randomized controlled trials reporting on patients with ED treated with LI- ESWT. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and the Erection Hardness Score (EHS) were the most commonly used tools to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of LI-ESWT. There were 9 studies including 637 patients from 2005 to 2017. The meta-analysis revealed that LI-ESWT could significantly improve IIEF (mean difference [MD]: 2.54; 95% CI, 0.83-4.25; p= 0. 004) and EHS (risk difference[RD]: 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-0.28; p = 0.01)). Therapeutic efficacy could last at least 3 mo (MD: 4.15; 95% CI, 1.40-6.90; p =0.003). Lower energy density(0.09mj/mm 2 , MD: 4.14; 95% CI, 0.87-7.42; p = 0.01) increased number of pulses (3000 pulses per treatment, MD: 5.11; 95% CI, 3.18-7.05, p < 0.0001) and shorter total treatment courses( <6 weeks, MD: 3.73; 95% CI, 0.54-6.93; p = 0.02) resulted in better therapeutic efficacy. These studies suggest that LI-ESWT could significantly improve the IIEF and EHS of ED patients. The publication of robust evidence from additional RCTs and longer-term follow-up would provide more confidence regarding use of LI-ESWT for ED patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. [Clinical efficacy of Shuganyiyang capsule combined with Western medicine for the treatment of type III prostatitis complicated by erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Feng, Yi-Geng; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Zhi-Heng

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the clinical efficacy of Shuganyiyang Capsule combined with conventional Western medicine (tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained release tablets + prostat tablets) for the treatment of type III prostatitis complicated by erectile dysfunction (ED). Eighty patients with type III prostatitis complicated by ED were equally randomized to an experimental and a control group, the former treated with Shuganyiyang Capsule combined with tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained release tablets and prostat tablets, while the latter with tamsulosin hydrochloride and prostat only, both for 8 weeks. Then the prostatitis symptoms, erectile function and psychological conditions of the patients were evaluated using NIH-CPSI, IIEF-5, and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADA and HADD) respectively. The rates of recovery, excellence, effectiveness and ineffectiveness were calculated. The scores on NIH-CPSI, IIEF-5, HADA and HADD obtained at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment showed statistically significant differences between the two time points as well as from the baseline (P < 0.01). At 8 weeks, the scores on NIH-CPSI, IIEF-5, HADA and HADD were 6.83 +/- 4.96, 21.03 +/- 2.54, 6.05 +/- 1.62, and 5.35 +/- 3.30 in the experimental group, as compared with 7.55 +/- 4.89, 17.68 +/- 4.15, 6.88 +/- 2.45, and 7.85 +/- 3.77 in the control (P < 0.05). The rate of effectiveness was significantly higher in the experimental than in the control group (90% [36/40] vs 70% [28/40], P < 0.05). Shuganyiyang Capsule combined with conventional Western medicine, such as alpha blockers and galenica, produces definite effect on chronic prostatitis complicated by ED, improves the psychological conditions of the patient, and enhances the therapeutic efficiency of chronic prostatits.

  2. Association between preoperative erectile dysfunction and prostate cancer features--an analysis from the Duke Prostate Center Database.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Masaki; Bañez, Lionel L; Gerber, Leah; Qi, Jim; Tsivian, Matvey; Freedland, Stephen J; Satoh, Takefumi; Polascik, Thomas J; Baba, Shiro; Moul, Judd W

    2012-04-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is related to several co-morbidities including obesity, metabolic syndrome, cigarette smoking, and low testosterone, all of which have been reported to be associated with adverse prostate cancer features. To examine whether preoperative ED has a relationship with adverse prostate cancer features in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). We analyzed data from our institution on 676 patients who underwent RP between 2001 and 2010. Crude and adjusted logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between preoperative ED and several pathological parameters. The log-rank test and multivariate proportional hazards model were conducted to determine the association of preoperative ED with biochemical recurrence (BCR). The expanded prostate cancer index composite (EPIC) instrument was used to evaluate preoperative erectile function (EF). Preoperative normal EF was defined as EPIC-SF ≥ 60 points while ED was defined as preoperative EPIC-SF lower than 60 points. Preoperatively, a total of 343 (50.7%) men had normal EF and 333 (49.3%) men had ED. After adjusting for covariates, preoperative ED was identified a risk factor for positive extracapsular extension (OR 1.57; P = 0.029) and high percentage of tumor involvement (OR 1.56; P = 0.047). In a Kaplan-Meier curve, a trend was identified that patients with ED had higher incidence of BCR than men with normal EF (P = 0.091). Moreover, using a multivariate Cox model, higher preoperative EF was negatively associated with BCR (HR 0.99; P = 0.014). These results suggest that the likelihood for adverse pathological outcomes as well as BCR following prostatectomy is higher among men with preoperative ED, though these results require validation in larger datasets. The present study indicates that preoperative ED might be a surrogate for adverse prostate cancer outcomes following RP. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms, Erectile Dysfunction, and Quality of Life in Poststroke Men: A Controlled Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Gard, Gunvor; Dehlendorff, Christian; Iversen, Helle K.; Biering-Soerensen, Fin; Jensen, Rigmor H.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), erectile dysfunction (ED), and quality of life (QoL) in poststroke and healthy men. Thirty poststroke men with stroke-related LUTS, and as controls, 96 healthy men participated in this controlled, cross-sectional study. Participants filled in the Danish Prostate Symptom Score (DAN-PSS-1) Questionnaire, the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5), the 36-Item Short Form (SF-36), the Nocturia Quality-of-Life (N-QoL) Questionnaire. In the age group ≤55 years, comparing poststroke men with healthy controls both with LUTS, the results indicated DAN-PSS-1, total score median 13 (4-17) versus 3 (2-6), p = .05; IIEF-5 25 (14-25) versus 24 (23-25), p = .06; SF-12, total score 499 (360-679) versus 695 (644-734), p = .02; and N-QoL 98 (70-100) versus 96 (90-100), p = .65. In the age group >55 years, comparing poststroke men with healthy controls both with LUTS, the results indicated DAN-PSS-1, total score 13 (8-24) versus 5 (2-7), p < .01; IIEF-5 13 (5-20) versus 25 (24-25), p < .01; SF-36, total score 585 (456-718) versus 742 (687-772), p < .01; and N-QoL, total score 81 (66-95) versus 98 (80-100), p < .01. The results demonstrated that in age group above, but not below 55 years, poststroke men with LUTS had significantly higher frequency of severe and bothersome LUTS and ED than the healthy controls with LUTS, while QoL and N-QoL were significantly lower in comparison. It is recommended to identify and assess older poststroke men for LUTS, ED, and QoL. PMID:28193128

  4. [The use of acupuncture in combined balneotherapy of erectile dysfunction in patients with lumbosacral osteochondrosis].

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, I E; Tereshin, A T

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate effects of therapeutic and preventive measures on restoration of compromised erectile function in patients with osteochondrosis of the lumbosacral spine segment (LSSS). The patients were treated using corporal and auricular acupuncture, Narzan mineral water baths, manual therapy, remedial gymnastics, and psychotherapeutic correction of sexual dysadaptation. This combined treatment resulted in the elimination of algic syndrome in 77.5% of the patients, restoration of sexual function in 62.5%, and normalization of hemodynamics in cavernous bodies in 65.2%. The functional activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis was normalized in 65% of the LSSS patients of strong and moderate sexual constitution. Introduction of acupuncture in the combined medicamentous therapy increased its efficiency by 15%. In 57.5% of the patients with strong and moderate sexual constitution, the restored sexual function persisted for at least 12 months.

  5. MicroRNA-200a is up-regulated in aged rats with erectile dysfunction and could attenuate endothelial function via SIRT1 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Feng; Qiu, Xue-Feng; Yu, Wen; Zhang, Qi-Peng; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Chen, Yun; Pan, Lian-Jun; Zhang, Ai-Xia; Dai, Yu-Tian

    2016-01-01

    MiR-200a was shown to be upregulated in the corpus cavernosum (CC) of rats with aging-related erectile dysfunction (A-ED) in our previous study. Among its target genes, SIRT1 was also reported as a protective factor in erectile function by our groups previously. Thus, miR-200a might attenuate the erectile function in A-ED via SIRT1 inhibition. In the present study, three animal groups were included: aged rats with ED (group AE, n = 8), aged rats with normal erectile function (group AN, n = 8), and young rats as normal controls (group YN, n = 8). CCs from each group were collected for histological and molecular measurements to validate the dysregulation of miR-200a and SIRT1. After that, the cavernous endothelial cells (CECs) from CC of aged rats with normal erectile function were transfected with miR-200a in vitro. Then the expression of SIRT1 and molecules within the eNOS/NO/PKG pathway were measured to investigate whether the transfection could imitate the attenuated process of erectile function in the aged. As a result, miR-200a was upregulated while the SIRT1, the levels of eNOS and cGMP were all downregulated in the CCs from AE group. After transfection in vitro, the miR-200a was upregulated while the SIRT1 and levels of eNOS and cGMP were obviously downregulated. Finally, based on the results of our previous study, we further verify that up-regulation of miR-200a could participate in the mechanisms of A-ED via SIRT1 inhibition, and mainly attenuate endothelial function via influencing the eNOS/NO/PKGpathway. PMID:25966629

  6. Erectile Dysfunction and Sexual Hormone Levels in Men With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Efficacy of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Lin, Qi-Chang; Zeng, Hui-Qing; Jiang, Xing-Tang; Chen, Bo; Chen, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) and serum sexual hormone levels were evaluated in men with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In these patients, the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was determined. The 207 men (mean age 44.0 ± 11.1 years) enrolled in the study were stratified within four groups based on their apnea-hypopnea index score: simple snoring (n = 32), mild OSA (n = 29), moderate OSA (n = 38), and severe OSA (n = 108). The International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 (IIEF-5) score was obtained from each patient, and blood samples for the analysis of sexual hormones (prolactin, luteotropin, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, progestin, and testosterone) were drawn in the morning after polysomnography. The IIEF-5 test and serum sexual hormone measurements were repeated after 3 months of CPAP treatment in 53 men with severe OSA. The prevalence of ED was 60.6 % in OSA patients overall and 72.2 % in those with severe OSA. Compared with the simple snoring group, patients with severe OSA had significantly lower testosterone levels (14.06 ± 5.62 vs. 17.02 ± 4.68, p = .018) and lower IIEF-5 scores (16.33 ± 6.50 vs. 24.09 ± 1.94, p = .001). The differences in the other sexual hormones between groups were not significant. After 3 months of CPAP treatment, there were no significant changes in sexual hormone levels, but the IIEF-5 score had improved significantly (18.21 ± 4.05 vs. 19.21 ± 3.86, p = .001). Severe OSA patients have low testosterone concentration and high ED prevalence. IIEF-5 scores increased significantly after CPAP treatment, but there was no effect on serum testosterone levels.

  7. Effectiveness of Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors in the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction in Patients with Spinal Cord Trauma: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    García-Perdomo, Herney Andrés; Echeverría-García, Fernando; Tobías, Aurelio

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) Inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in patients with spinal trauma. A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing PDE5 inhibitors versus placebo were carried out for clinical trials conducted between 1980 and 2014 that evaluated male patients older than 18 years, diagnosed with spinal cord trauma and erectile dysfunction. We designed a search strategy for Medline, CENTRAL, EMBASE and other electronic sources. Two investigators independently and blindly screened the studies for inclusion. A random effect meta-analysis was performed. Six studies involving 963 patients were included. Male patients over 18 years with ED attributable or subsequent to traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) were included from these studies. In 4 of these studies, patients were randomized to the treatment group receiving sildenafil and the comparison group was placebo. Out of the remaining 2 trials, one compared tadalafil against the placebo and the other vardenafil versus placebo. The improvement on SCIs with PDE5 inhibitors was found to be large (standardized mean difference 0.71; 95% CI 0.39-1.03), with a high heterogeneity (I2 = 74.4%). PDE5 inhibitors are effective for the treatment of erectile dysfunction secondary to SCI. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Sexual life of Japanese patients with erectile dysfunction taking phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors: an Internet survey using the Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scales-Short Form questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Akira; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Soda, Tetsuji; Takezawa, Kentaro; Okuda, Hidenobu; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Nonomura, Norio; Miyagawa, Yasushi

    2014-08-01

    To investigate details of sexual function of erectile dysfunction in Japanese patients taking phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. A Japanese version of the Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scales-Short Form was used to carry out a nationwide survey using the Internet. A total of 556 erectile dysfunction patients (age 30-70 years) who had been prescribed a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor and had attempted sexual intercourse within the past 6 months were included in this survey. Scores were compared in relation to the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors most frequently taken within the past 6 months. In the subdomains of self-confidence and spontaneity of the Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scales-Short Form, scores for vardenafil and tadalafil were significantly higher than those for sildenafil. In the subdomain of time concern of the Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scales-Short Form, the score for tadalafil was significantly lower than that for others. Our findings support the hypothesis that Japanese patients with erectile dysfunction have high sexual self-confidence, spontaneity and low time concerns when taking tadalafil. These characteristics of tadalafil could be associated with high patient satisfaction and high preference. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  9. Inhibition of Cyclic GMP Export by Multidrug Resistance Protein 4: A New Strategy to Treat Erectile Dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Boydens, Charlotte; Pauwels, Bart; Vanden Daele, Laura; Van de Voorde, Johan

    2017-04-01

    (diabetic) erectile dysfunction. This study is the first to demonstrate an in vitro direct relaxant and an in vivo pro-erectile effect of the MRP-4 inhibitor, MK-571, on mouse corpora cavernosa. However, the functional effect of MRP-5-mediated export in mouse corpora cavernosa was not explored, which has been suggested to play the predominant role in cGMP export. Inhibition of MRP-4 increases basal and stimulated levels of cGMP, leading to corpora cavernosa relaxation and penile erection. Therefore, in addition to degradation of cGMP, export of cGMP by MRP-4 could contribute substantially to regulating cGMP levels in mouse corpora cavernosa. Boydens C, Pauwels B, Vanden Daele L, Van de Voorde J. Inhibition of Cyclic GMP Export by Multidrug Resistance Protein 4: A New Strategy to Treat Erectile Dysfunction? J Sex Med 2017;14:502-509. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of nocturnal penile erection test on response to daily sildenafil in patients with erectile dysfunction due to pelvic fracture urethral disruption: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing; Zhang, Zhichao; Cui, Wanshou; Yuan, Yiming; Gao, Bing; Song, Weidong; Xin, Zhongcheng

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the results of nocturnal penile erection test and response to daily sildenafil in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) due to pelvic fracture urethral disruption. From January 2010 to January 2012, we included 38 patients with ED due to pelvic fracture urethral disruption. The mean age was 33.1 years (range, 22-49 years). All were evaluated subjectively and objectively by the International Index of Erectile Function-5, nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity (NPTR) test, and penile Doppler ultrasonography. Patients received daily sildenafil 50 mg for 3 months. Thirty-one patients were followed up: 54.8% showed response to sildenafil defined as reporting successful vaginal penetration and intercourse. Patients with neurogenic, arterial, and venous EDs did not differ in efficiency rates (P = .587). However, the penile erectile rigidity recorded by NPTR test affected efficiency significantly (P = .046). Patients with tip rigidity >40% had the highest response rate (76.9%), but the response rate for patients with tip rigidity <20% was only 22.2%. NPTR recording can reveal resident erectile function in patients with ED due to trauma and is significant for selecting pharmacologic treatment as optimal therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Condom attitudes of heterosexual men ages 50 and older using prescribed drugs (Viagra, Cialis, Levitra) to treat erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sande Gracia; Fenkl, Eric A; Patsdaughter, Carol A Pat; Chadwell, Katherine

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore attitudes about condoms that may affect condom use by heterosexual men ages 50 and older who were sexually active and currently using prescribed oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor medications (Viagra(®), Cialis(®), or Levitra(®)) for treatment of erectile dysfunction. The study was part of a larger study that explored the need for safer-sex health promotion and education for these men. Fifty men completed factor subscales of the Condom Attitude Scale. Subscales were scored and analyzed. Positive factors were found with regard to the Interpersonal Impact, Inhibition, Perceived Risk, Perceived Seriousness, and Global Attitudes subscales. Factors with negative or neutral responses included the Effect on Sexual Experience, Relationship Safety, and Promiscuity subscales. Independent t tests revealed no differences between married and nonmarried men for the mean score on any of the subscales, but there was a difference on the Global Attitude Scale, with younger men having a more positive global attitude than older men. Study findings can be used in the development of health promotion educational activities on condom use as a safer-sex practice.

  12. Discussing a sensitive topic: Nurse practitioners' and physician assistants' communication strategies in managing patients with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Green, Roger; Kodish, Slavica

    2009-12-01

    To examine strategies used by nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) when discussing the sensitive topic of erectile dysfunction (ED) with patients. A total of 456 NPs and PAs combined responded to a 22-item online survey posted on NP and PA association websites. Four derived categories reflect communication strategies that NPs and PAs applied when addressing ED: initiating the topic directly, initiating the topic with an introduction, initiating the topic when there is a high risk factor, and allowing the patient to bring up the topic. There was also interest in continuing education on the topic of ED and a perceived need for greater emphasis on developing communication strategies within the patient-provider relationship. There is no one best way to address the topic and different situations may require an approach best suited to the specifics of the situation. Therefore, no single "best practice" of discussing sensitive topics can be identified. Critical thinking skills and the ability to comprehend the totality of the situation are likely to be of higher importance.

  13. Qualitative study of sexual functioning in couples with erectile dysfunction: prospective evaluation of the thermography diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wan Kee; Ng, Yin Kwee; Tan, Yung Khan

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the prospective use of the thermography diagnostic system in assessing sexual function in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). Thermographs were taken on 14 subjects in a clinical trial conducted at Tan Tock Seng Hospital. After a thorough clinical interview with a standardized questionnaire, patients were scanned for baseline temperature profile before being given an oral dose of sildenafil 100 mg. Subjects were scanned again in the same setting an hour later. If so desired, subjects were given visual stimulation and were allowed minimum direct stimulation, excluding the penis, to elicit erection. Temperature profiles were analyzed using the thermography analysis software in the VarioCAM camera. Three representative cases are presented to illustrate the potential for using the Infrared thermography (IR) diagnostic system in differentiating psychogenic ED. IR was able to capture a significant difference in blood flow to the corpus cavernosum. Subjects with psychogenic ED have higher surface temperatures (34.3 degrees C +/- 0.71 in the flaccid state and 35.3 degrees C +/- 0.2 during erection) compared to subjects with organic ED (33.64 degrees C +/- 0.4 in flaccid and 33.55 degrees C +/- 0.91 during erection). The difference in surface temperature between flaccid and erected states in subjects with organic ED was not significant. The proposed diagnostic test based on IR has tremendous clinical potential in differentiating psychogenic ED from organic ED. IR could potentially be a portable, noninvasive and convenient adjunct in the diagnosis and management of ED.

  14. Newly diagnosed panic disorder and the risk of erectile dysfunction: A population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao-Ting; Chen, Hsi-Han; Lin, Ching-Heng; Lee, Shih-Hsiung; Chan, Chin-Hong; Huang, Shiau-Shian

    2016-10-30

    Previous studies indicated that panic disorder is correlated with erectile dysfunction (ED). The primary aim of this study was to explore the incidence rate of ED among panic disorder patients in an Asian country. The secondary aim was to compare the risk of ED in panic disorder patients that were treated with different kinds of antidepressants, and to explore the possible mechanism between these two disorders. We identified 1393 male patients with newly diagnosed panic disorder from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database. Four matched controls per case were selected for the study group by propensity score. After adjusting for age, obesity and comorbidities, the panic disorder patients had a higher hazard ratio of ED diagnosis than the controls, especially among the untreated panic disorder patients. This retrospective dynamic cohort study supports the link between ED and prior panic disorder in a large sample of panic disorder patients. This study points out the need of early antidepressant treatment for panic disorder to prevent further ED. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Association Between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Erectile Dysfunction among a Nationally Representative Sample of American Men.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Edwards, Meghan

    2015-09-01

    Emerging work suggests an inverse association between physical activity and erectile dysfunction (ED). The majority of this cross-sectional research comes from convenience samples and all studies on this topic have employed self-report physical activity methodology. Therefore, the purpose of this brief-report, confirmatory research study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity and ED in a national sample of Americans. Data from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Six hundred ninety-two adults between the ages of 50 and 85 years (representing 33.2 million adults) constituted the analytic sample. Participants wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer (ActiGraph, Pensacola, FL, USA) for up to 7 days with ED assessed via self-report. The main outcome measure used was ED assessed via self-report. After adjustments, for every 30 min/day increase in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, participants had a 43% reduced odds of having ED (odds ratioadjusted  = 0.57; 95% confidence interval: 0.40-0.81; P = 0.004). This confirmatory study employing an objective measure of physical activity in a national sample suggests an inverse association between physical activity and ED. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Exploration of the association between chronic periodontal disease and erectile dysfunction from a population-based view point.

    PubMed

    Tsao, C-W; Liu, C-Y; Cha, T-L; Wu, S-T; Chen, S-C; Hsu, C-Y

    2015-06-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have indicated an association between chronic periodontal disease (CPD) and cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Erectile dysfunction (ED) also shares pathological mechanisms with these diseases. Using a nationwide population-based data set, we examined the association between ED and CPD and assessed the effect of dental extraction (DE) on ED prevalence in different aged CPD populations in Taiwan. We identified 5105 patients with ED and randomly selected 10 210 patients as controls. Of these patients, 2617 (17.09%) were diagnosed with CPD according to the index data: 1196 (23.43%) in the ED group and 1421 (13.92%) in the control group. After adjusting for comorbid factors, patients with ED were more likely to have been diagnosed with prior CPD than controls (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.64-1.96, P < 0.001). Moreover, the association was much stronger in the populations aged less than 30 years (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.23-3.70, P < 0.001) and more than 59 years (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.99-2.59, P < 0.001). Dental extraction seems to attenuate damage to the penile endothelial beds caused by CPD-related inflammation and overcame the process of ED in the middle-aged and older populations. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Newly diagnosed major depressive disorder and the risk of erectile dysfunction: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shiau-Shian; Lin, Ching-Heng; Chan, Chin-Hong; Loh, El-Wui; Lan, Tsuo-Hung

    2013-12-15

    The primary aim of this study was to explore the incidence rate of erectile dysfunction (ED) among major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in an Asian country. The second aim was to compare the risk of ED in MDD patients that were treated using antidepressants with a high risk-ED, antidepressants with a low risk-ED, or without treatment. We identified 4339 male patients with newly diagnosed MDD using the National Health Database. Four matched controls per case were selected for the study. The mean age of the participants was 42.3 ± 16.9. A higher crude HR of 3.6 (95% CI: 2.8-4.6) was seen in the male patients with MDD. After adjusting for obesity, monthly income, urbanization level, and comorbidity, the MDD patients had a 3.2-fold higher HR for an ED diagnosis than the controls. Patients with untreated depression had the highest risk of ED, compared to the control group (HR=3.9). Patients treated with IHiRA had a medium risk of developing ED (HR=3.6), and patients treated with ILoRA had the lowest risk of ED (HR: 2.5). This prospective cohort study found an association between ED and prior MDD. Patients with untreated depression may have the highest risk of developing ED. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Are urge incontinence and aging risk factors of erectile dysfunction in patients with male lower urinary tract symptoms?

    PubMed

    Amano, Toshiyasu; Earle, Carolyn; Imao, Tetsuya; Takemae, Katsuro

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that erectile dysfunction (ED) patients also suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). We investigated a group of men with LUTS and assessed their sexual function with the aim of being able to predict ED risk factors and introduce ED treatments earlier for this patient group. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Overactive Bladder Symptoms Score (OABSS) and Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score were obtained from 236 men with LUTS at their first out-patients visit. Clinical parameters such as body mass index, prostate volume, residual urine volume and prostate specific antigen were also evaluated. The relationship between the SHIM score and other clinical data was analyzed. According to the SHIM score, ED in men with LUTS was severe 15%, moderate 19%, moderate to mild 28%, mild 17%, normal 7% and data was incomplete in 14%. Based on the results of a multivariate analysis, aging (p < 0.001) and OAB severity (p = 0.024) were significantly correlated to severe and moderate ED. Furthermore, among OAB symptoms score items, urge urinary incontinence was a risk factor for severe and moderate ED (p = 0.005). Aging and OAB (notably urinary urge incontinence) are risk factors for severe and moderate ED in men with LUTS.

  19. Standard of care of erectile dysfunction in U.S. Air Force aircrew and active duty not on flying status.

    PubMed

    Nast, Justin B

    2014-11-01

    In 2011, over 3,000 active duty U.S. Air Force (USAF) members were prescribed a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDEI). PDEIs are first-line therapy for treating erectile dysfunction and can have significant side effects that could impact aircrew performance. In total, 200 eligible subject records were randomly sampled from the active duty USAF population of those males filling a prescription for a PDEI in June 2011; 100 of those records were from aviators. The electronic records were reviewed and scored to determine if USAF aeromedical standards for prescribing PDEIs were followed, with a minimum score of 0 for no standards met and a maximum of 3 for all standards met. The average score for both groups was 1, with no significant difference between the group scores. A proper aeromedical disposition was documented in 67% of the aviator records. Although there was no significant difference in standard of care for aviators and nonaviators, the overall documented standard of care was poor. Lack of documentation was the primary reason for the low scores and the low percentage of properly rendered aeromedical dispositions. Proper medical record documentation is important for evaluating quality of care and ensuring compliance with regulations in an Air Force aviator population. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  20. Can written information material help to increase treatment motivation in patients with erectile dysfunction? A survey of 1188 men.

    PubMed

    Günzler, C; Kriston, L; Stodden, V; Leiber, C; Berner, M M

    2007-01-01

    Although erectile dysfunction (ED) prevalence is high, patients and physicians often have problems discussing this issue. This study examines whether written information material increases motivation to seek treatment in patients with ED. For the study, persons were able to order information material about sexual problems within the context of a public campaign. From a total of 70,000 responders, 8000 persons were asked to fill out an epidemiological questionnaire. The response rate yielded 18.4%, the data of 1188 men with ED were analyzed. As a result of the information material, 28.3% of the untreated men intended to seek treatment and 38.5% of the men who had not spoken with their physician about their problem, planned to do so now. Nearly all responders were satisfied with the information material. These data reflect the usefulness of written information for men with ED. It not only serves as an informational source for patients but may also encourage them to seek treatment.

  1. The assessment of sexual functions in women with male partners complaining of erectile dysfunction: does treatment of male sexual dysfunction improve female partner's sexual functions?

    PubMed

    Cayan, Selahittin; Bozlu, Murat; Canpolat, Bülent; Akbay, Erdem

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this prospective study were to compare sexual functioning between women with male partners who have erectile dysfunction (ED) and women without partners with ED and also to investigate the effect of the treatment of male ED on female partner's sexual function. The study included 87 women and their male partners. We divided the women into two groups: 38 women with male partners complaining of ED (ED group) and 49 women with male partners who have no ED (control group). Of the men with ED, 30 were treated with penile prosthesis implantation (n = 17) or oral sildenafil citrate (n = 13). We evaluated all the men with the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF; Rosen, Cappelleri, Smith, Lipsky, & Pena, 1999), physical examination, and color penile Doppler ultrasound. We evaluated female sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI; Rosen et al., 2000) to assess sexual desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. We compared female sexual function scores between the women of the male partners with and without ED and also compared before both groups and after the treatment of male partners in the ED group. Additionally, we compare the scores according to the type of treatment given to the male partners. Sexual arousal (p = 0.009), lubrication (p = 0.001), orgasm (p = 0.006), satisfaction (p = 0.000), pain (p = 0.039), and total score (p = 0.003) were highly significantly lower in the ED group than in the control group, although sexual desire did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.515). We investigated the effect of male ED on female sexual functions and found no statistically significant differences in the presence of organic type impotence, older age, and lower erection scores on the IIEF (p = 0.53, p = 0.15, and p = 0.1, respectively). After the treatment of male ED, we observed significant improvement in sexual arousal (p = 0.001), lubrication (p = 0.002), orgasm (p = 0.000), satisfaction (p = 0.000), and pain

  2. Effects of interview mode on assessments of erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction among men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

    PubMed

    Catania, Joseph A; Oakley, Lisa P; Rosen, Raymond; Pollack, Lance M

    2013-01-01

    In a randomized experiment (N = 249; age 50 + years), this study examined if self-reports of erectile dysfunction (ED) and ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) symptomatology were influenced by the mode of interview administration (computer-assisted self-interview [CASI], audio computer-assisted self-interview [ACASI], or computer-assisted personal interview [CAPI; involving an interviewer]). This study also examined if mode moderated person variables hypothesized to impact self-reports (social desirability, age, or depressive mood). No main or moderating effects of mode were found for self-reports of EjD symptoms. However, mode effects on reports of ED symptoms were observed, and these moderated age and social desirability effects on self-reports. Significantly more older (relative to younger) men reported high levels of ED symptoms when interview administration was by a live interviewer (CAPI) than with self-administration. Alternatively, significantly more younger men reported high levels of ED symptoms when administration was by an interviewer (CAPI) or by ACASI (vs. CASI). The Mode × Social Desirability effects were complex (see the Discussion section), showing hypothesized effects under ACASI and CAPI conditions, but an opposite effect under the CASI condition. The stability of self-reported ED symptoms did not vary by mode (based on test-retest comparisons); test-retest was significantly higher for EjD symptoms within the ACASI condition. The impact of mode of administration on self-reports of ED/EjD symptoms is less predictable and dramatic than one might conclude from prior research with other types of self-report outcomes. The findings are consistent with a small, but growing, body of studies that illustrate highly situational effects of interviewing, which may depend on a complex interplay between modes, person variables, and the interview topic/target items. Self-administered methods, in particular, may not be a universal solution to response bias.

  3. Increased risk of organic erectile dysfunction in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chao, C-H; Chen, H-J; Wang, H-Y; Li, T-C; Kao, C-H

    2015-07-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex disorder characterized by profound and persistent fatigue and several comorbidities. CFS was previously reported to be associated with female sexual dysfunction. We propose that CFS might also be associated with organic erectile dysfunction (organic ED). We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database. We identified 2156 male patients who were newly diagnosed with CFS between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2006. After excluding those younger than 20 years and prevalent cases, 1976 patients were subjected to analysis, and 7904 people served as healthy controls. All study subjects were followed up from the index date to the date of organic ED diagnosis, withdrawal from the NHI program, or the end of 2011. Compared with the non-CFS cohort, the incidence density rate of organic ED was 1.88-fold higher than that in the CFS cohort (3.23 vs. 1.73 per 1000 person-years) with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.88 (95% CI = 1.26-2.81) when adjusting for sex and comorbidities. The combined impacts of patients with CFS and cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease (CKD), depression, and anxiety showed a significant by joint association with organic ED risk compared with patients with no CFS and no counterpart comorbidity. The greatest magnitude of adjusted HR of ED for CFS was observed in individuals without any comorbidity (3.87, 1.95-7.66). The incidence of organic ED is higher among males aged 40 years and over for both CFS and non-CFS cohorts. As the number of comorbidity increases, the incidence of organic ED increases in males without CFS. Higher incidence of organic ED was observed in males with CVD, DM, CKD, depression, or anxiety for both CFS and non-CFS cohorts. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  4. Abnormal brain structure as a potential biomarker for venous erectile dysfunction: evidence from multimodal MRI and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingli; Fan, Wenliang; Li, Jun; Li, Quanlin; Wang, Jin; Fan, Yang; Ye, Tianhe; Guo, Jialun; Li, Sen; Zhang, Youpeng; Cheng, Yongbiao; Tang, Yong; Zeng, Hanqing; Yang, Lian; Zhu, Zhaohui

    2018-03-29

    To investigate the cerebral structural changes related to venous erectile dysfunction (VED) and the relationship of these changes to clinical symptoms and disorder duration and distinguish patients with VED from healthy controls using a machine learning classification. 45 VED patients and 50 healthy controls were included. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM), tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and correlation analyses of VED patients and clinical variables were performed. The machine learning classification method was adopted to confirm its effectiveness in distinguishing VED patients from healthy controls. Compared to healthy control subjects, VED patients showed significantly decreased cortical volumes in the left postcentral gyrus and precentral gyrus, while only the right middle temporal gyrus showed a significant increase in cortical volume. Increased axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were observed in widespread brain regions. Certain regions of these alterations related to VED patients showed significant correlations with clinical symptoms and disorder durations. Machine learning analyses discriminated patients from controls with overall accuracy 96.7%, sensitivity 93.3% and specificity 99.0%. Cortical volume and white matter (WM) microstructural changes were observed in VED patients, and showed significant correlations with clinical symptoms and dysfunction durations. Various DTI-derived indices of some brain regions could be regarded as reliable discriminating features between VED patients and healthy control subjects, as shown by machine learning analyses. • Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging helps clinicians to assess patients with VED. • VED patients show cerebral structural alterations related to their clinical symptoms. • Machine learning analyses discriminated VED patients from controls with an excellent performance. • Machine learning classification provided a preliminary demonstration of DTI

  5. Changes in erectile dysfunction over time in relation to Framingham cardiovascular risk in the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shona C; Rosen, Raymond C; Vita, Joseph A; Ganz, Peter; Kupelian, Varant

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, the association between change in ED status over time and future underlying CVD risk is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between change in ED status and Framingham CVD risk, as well change in Framingham risk. We studied 965 men free of CVD in the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey, a longitudinal cohort study with three assessments. ED was assessed with the five-item International Index of Erectile Function at BACH I (2002-2005) and BACH II (2007-2010) and classified as no ED/transient ED/persistent ED. CVD risk was assessed with 10-year Framingham CVD risk algorithm at BACH I and BACH III (2010-2012). Linear regression models controlled for baseline age, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, as well as baseline Framingham risk. Models were also stratified by age (≥/< 50 years). Framingham CVD risk and change in Framingham CVD risk were the main outcome measures. Transient and persistent ED was significantly associated with increased Framingham risk and change in risk over time in univariate and age-adjusted models. In younger men, persistent ED was associated with a Framingham risk that was 1.58 percentage points higher (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11, 3.06) and in older men, a Framingham risk that was 2.54 percentage points higher (95% CI: -1.5, 6.59), compared with those without ED. Change in Framingham risk over time was also associated with transient and persistent ED in men <50 years, but not in older men. Data suggest that even after taking into account other CVD risk factors, transient and persistent ED is associated with Framingham CVD risk and a greater increase in Framingham risk over time, particularly in younger men. Findings further support clinical assessment of CVD risk in men presenting with ED, especially those under 50 years. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Exercise training improves erectile dysfunction (ED) in patients with metabolic syndrome on phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Maresca, Luigi; D'Agostino, Mariantonietta; Castaldo, Luigi; Vitelli, Alessandra; Mancini, Maria; Torella, Giorgio; Lucci, Rosa; Albano, Giovanna; Del Forno, Domenico; Ferro, Matteo; Altieri, Vincenzo; Giallauria, Francesco; Vigorito, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) affects about 50% of males aged 40-70 years old. ED shares with atherosclerotic disease several common risk factors; therefore, it may be considered a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. Since phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors are well known pharmacologic agents capable of significant improvement in ED, we designed this study to evaluate whether exercise training is of added value in patients with ED who are already on PDE-5 inhibitors. We recruited 20 male patients affected by ED with metabolic syndrome. At baseline, all patients underwent Cardio-Pulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) test. After the initial evaluation, patients were subdivided into two groups: tadalafil group (group T, n = 10), who were maintained only on tadalafil therapy, and a tadalafil/exercise training group (T/E group, n = 10) who continued tadalafil but in addition underwent a2-month structured exercise training program. Basal anthropometric characteristics of study population showed no significant differences. Although both-groups showed at 2 months an improvement of the IIEF score, this was more evident in the T/E group (T group: 11.2 vs 14.2, P = 0.02; T/E group: 10.8 vs 20.1, P < 0.001). There was an improvement of oxygen consumption at peak exercise (VO(2peak)) only in the T/E group patients (T group: 13.63 +/- 2.03 vs 14.24 +/- 2.98 mL/kg/min; P = 0.521; T/E group: 13.41 +/- 2.97 vs 16.58 +/- 3.17 mL/kg/min; P = 0.006). A significant correlation was found between the changes in VO(2peak) and the modifications in IIEF score (r = 0.575; P = 0.001). Exercise training in ED patients treated with PDE-5 inhibitors is of added value since further improves ED, as evaluated by IIEF score, and increases functional capacity.

  7. The prevalence of and risk factors for prostatitis-like symptoms and its relation to erectile dysfunction in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Li, Z; Yu, Q; Wu, C; Lu, Z; Zhu, F; Zhang, H; Liao, M; Li, T; Chen, W; Xian, X; Tan, A; Mo, Z

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of and risk factors for prostatitis-like symptoms and its relation to erectile dysfunction (ED) among southern Chinese men. Data were collected from 2790 men attending the Fangchenggang Area Male Healthy and Examination Survey from September 2009 to December 2009. The prostatitis-like symptoms were assessed by the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and ED was assessed using the 5-item International Index of Erectile Function. Lifestyle and demographic characteristics were obtained through a questionnaire. Prevalence of prostatitis-like symptoms was 12.4% among 2790 Chinese men aged 20-84 years. In smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes per day (age-adjusted OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.00-1.66; p = 0.04), physical inactivity (age-adjusted OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.03-1.66; p = 0.02) was a significant risk factor for prostatitis-like symptoms. Alcohol consumption (daily drinking) also was a risk factor for prostatitis-like symptoms, although the differences were not statistically significant (age-adjusted OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 0.96-1.92; p = 0.07). Those with diabetes may also be at higher risk for prostatitis-like symptoms (age-adjusted OR = 1.37; 95% CI = 0.85-2.21; p = 0.19). In addition, men with ED were more likely to have had prostatitis-like symptoms (age-adjusted OR = 1.86; 95% CI = 0.47-2.36; p < 0.0001), and the ORs increased with increasing severity of ED status (mild ED, mild to moderate ED, and moderate to severe ED were 1.57, 2.62, and 3.24, respectively. Test for trend, p = 0.0001). Our results show that prostatitis-like symptoms are prevalent in Southern China affecting men of all ages. Smoking, drinking, lack of physical activity, and elevated plasma glucose level were associated with an increased risk of prostatitis-like symptoms. In addition, our results reveal that ED accounted for a large proportion (61.5%) among men with prostatitis-like symptoms; we also confirm the magnitude of ED associated with

  8. One patient out of four with newly diagnosed erectile dysfunction is a young man--worrisome picture from the everyday clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Capogrosso, Paolo; Colicchia, Michele; Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Castagna, Giulia; Clementi, Maria Chiara; Suardi, Nazareno; Castiglione, Fabio; Briganti, Alberto; Cantiello, Francesco; Damiano, Rocco; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2013-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common complaint in men over 40 years of age, and prevalence rates increase throughout the aging period. Prevalence and risk factors of ED among young men have been scantly analyzed. Assessing sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of young men (defined as ≤ 40 years) seeking first medical help for new onset ED as their primary sexual disorder. Complete sociodemographic and clinical data from 439 consecutive patients were analyzed. Health-significant comorbidities were scored with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Patients completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Descriptive statistics tested sociodemographic and clinical differences between ED patients ≤ 40 years and >40 years. New onset ED as the primary disorder was found in 114 (26%) men ≤ 40 years (mean [standard deviation [SD

  9. Phenolic-rich extracts of Eurycoma longifolia and Cylicodiscus gabunensis inhibit enzymes responsible for the development of erectile dysfunction and are antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Adebayo, Adeniyi A; Ademosun, Ayokunle O

    2018-05-19

    Herbs have been used from ages to manage male sexual dysfunction. Hence, this study sought to investigate the effects of Eurycoma longifolia (EL) and Cylicodiscus gabunensis (CG) stem bark extracts on some enzymes implicated in erectile dysfunction in vitro. The extracts were prepared, and their effects on phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5), arginase, and angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) as well as pro-oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation were assessed. Furthermore, phenolic contents were determined, and their components were characterized and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The results revealed that the extracts inhibited PDE-5, arginase, and ACE in a concentration-dependent manner. However, IC50 values revealed that CG had higher inhibitory potential on PDE-5 (IC50=204.4 μg/mL), arginase (IC50=39.01 μg/mL), and ACE (IC50=48.81 μg/mL) than EL. In addition, the extracts inhibited pro-oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation in penile tissue homogenate. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that CG is richer in phenolic compounds than EL, and this could be responsible for higher biological activities observed in CG than EL. Hence, the observed antioxidant property and inhibitory action of CG and EL on enzymes relevant to erectile dysfunction in vitro could be part of possible mechanisms underlying their involvement in traditional medicine for the management of male sexual dysfunction.

  10. The Association of Body Size and Composition with Erectile Dysfunction in Older Men: Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Garimella, Pranav S.; Paudel, Misti L.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Marshall, Lynn M.; Taylor, Brent C.; Fink, Howard A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association of body size and composition with erectile dysfunction (ED) in older men. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study. Setting Six U.S. clinical sites. Participants Community-dwelling men aged 65 years and older. Measurements Body composition measures using anthropometry (body weight, body mass index [BMI]) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (total body fat percent, trunk fat percent, ratio of trunk and total body fat). Erectile dysfunction was assessed using the single item Massachusetts Male Aging Study (MMAS) scale and the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire (IIEF-5). Results Among men completing the MMAS scale (n=4108), prevalence of complete ED was 42%. Among sexually active men completing the IIEF-5 questionnaire (n=1659), prevalence of moderate to severe ED was 56%. In multivariate-adjusted analyses reporting prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), the prevalence of MMAS-defined complete ED was significantly increased in men in the highest quartile of increased body weight PR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.16-1.34), total body fat percentage (PR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.13-1.40), and trunk fat percentage (PR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.15-1.38), and in men with BMI >30.0 kg/m2 compared to those with BMI 22.0-24.9 kg/m2 (PR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.05-1.31). Associations appeared similar for IIEF-5 defined moderate to severe ED in analyses adjusted for age and study site. Conclusion In a cohort of older men, increased body weight, BMI, and total body fat percent were independently associated with increased prevalence of moderate to severe and complete ED. Future studies should investigate whether interventions to promote weight loss and fat loss will improve erectile function in older men. PMID:23311552

  11. Comparison of efficacy and satisfaction profile, between penile prosthesis implantation and oral PDE5 inhibitor tadalafil therapy, in men with nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Megas, Georgios; Papadopoulos, Georgios; Stathouros, Georgios; Moschonas, Dimitrios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Ntoumas, Konstantinos

    2013-07-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Erectile dysfunction after nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy constitutes a challenge to the urologist. The mainstay of medical treatment after radical prostatectomy to restore spontaneous erectile function remains phosphodiesterase (PDE5) inhibitors, despite the fact that data from animal studies suggesting that PDE5 inhibitors can prevent smooth muscle apoptosis and fibrosis have not yet been extrapolated to humans because of a lack of standardized protocols. If the above treatment fails, second-line therapies such as intraurethral prostaglandins, penile injection therapy and vacuum devices are offered. When less invasive therapies are ineffective, interventions that preserve sexual function such as penile prosthesis implantation become the treatment of choice. Our study reveals the alternative of penile prosthesis implantation as first-line treatment in erectile dysfunction after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy. It also highlights its superiority to the oral PDE5 inhibitor treatment, regarding the erection, frequency, firmness, maintenance and penetration ability. This suggests that a concept of an early penile intervention in the future would be promising for those patients who wish to remain sexually active without depending on oral formulations with doubtful and delayed results. To evaluate the outcome of penile prosthesis surgery in comparison to oral phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor administration, in men with erectile dysfunction after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy, as early penile intervention therapy. A total of 174 patients treated by nerve-sparing retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) for clinically localized prostate cancer, between January 2006 and September 2009 enrolled in the study, 153 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 69 (45%) patients presented with post-RRP erectile dysfunction 6 months after primary surgery. Fifty-four patients were disease

  12. When is a varicocele repair indicated: the dilemma of hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Dabaja, Ali A; Goldstein, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In the past, the indications for varicocelectomy are primarily for infertility with abnormal semen parameters, testicular hypotrophy/atrophy in adolescents, and/or pain. The surgical treatment of varicocele for hypogonadism is controversial and debated. Recently, multiple reports in the literature have suggested that varicocele is associated with hypogonadism and varicocele repair can increase testosterone levels. Men with hypogonadal symptoms should have at least two serum testosterone levels. Microsurgical varicocelectomy may be beneficial for men with clinically palpable varicoceles with documented hypogonadism. In this review, we summarize the most recent literature linking varicocele to hypogonadism and sexual dysfunction and the impact of repair on serum testosterone levels. We performed a search of the published English literature. The key words used were "varicocele and hypogonadism" and "varicocele surgery and testosterone." We included published studies after 1998. We, also, evaluated the effect of surgery on the changes in the serum testosterone level regardless of the indication for the varicocele repair.

  13. Age, Body Mass Index, and Frequency of Sexual Activity are Independent Predictors of Testosterone Deficiency in Men With Erectile Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Matthew J; De Fazio, Adam; Levy, Alison; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Stahl, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    To identify clinical predictors of testosterone deficiency (TD) in men with erectile dysfunction (ED), thereby identifying subgroups that are most likely to benefit from targeted testosterone screening. Retrospective review was conducted on 498 men evaluated for ED between January 2013 and July 2014. Testing for TD by early morning serum measurement was offered to all eligible men. Patients with history of prostate cancer or testosterone replacement were excluded. Univariable linear regression was conducted to analyze 19 clinical variables for associations with serum total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), and TD (T <300 ng/dL or cFT <6.5 ng/dL). Variables significant on univariable analysis were included in multiple regression models. A total of 225 men met inclusion criteria. Lower TT levels were associated with greater body mass index (BMI), less frequent sexual activity, and absence of clinical depression on multiple regression analysis. TT decreased by 49.5 ng/dL for each 5-point increase in BMI. BMI and age were the only independent predictors of cFT levels on multivariable analysis. Overall, 62 subjects (27.6%) met criteria for TD. Older age, greater BMI, and less frequent sexual activity were the only independent predictors of TD on multiple regression. We observed a 2.2-fold increase in the odds of TD for every 5-point increase in BMI, and a 1.8-fold increase for every 10 year increase in age. Men with ED and elevated BMI, advanced age, or infrequent sexual activity appear to be at high risk of TD, and such patients represent excellent potential candidates for targeted testosterone screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of erectile dysfunction course on its progress and efficacy of treatment with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, De-Feng; Jiang, Hui; Hong, Kai; Zhao, Lian-Ming; Tang, Wen-Hao; Ma, Lu-Lin

    2010-11-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common impairment among older men, and the prevalence rates increase sharply after age of 60 years. Most studies have focused on the prevalence rate or dangerous factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the basic epidemiologic data about ED patients with different ED courses. The purpose of this research was to understand the therapeutic effect of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5-I) and see how and why the ED course impact the progress of ED and the therapeutic effect of PDE5-I treatment. From June 2008 to June 2009, 4252 questionnaires (Quality of Erection Questionnaire, QEQ) were gathered from 46 centers by urology or andrology doctors all around China. Patients with ED (age ≥ 20 years) filled in first half of the questionnaires when they came for the first time, and then completed the second half 4 weeks after PDE5-I therapy. ED courses of most patients were less than 5 years (< 5 years, 74.0%; 5 - 10 years 20.8%; > 10 years, 5.2%). As ED course increasing, the incidence of the risk factors of ED, such as smoking, drinking, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease and hyperlipidemia also increase (P ≤ 0.01). PDE5-I was effective in improving the quality of sexual activities (P ≤ 0.01). Administration of PDE5-I improves satisfaction, enjoyment and frequency of sexual activities. The longer the ED course, the worse the therapeutic effect (< 5 years, 96.1%; 5 - 10 years, 94.9%; > 10 years, 89.0%) (P ≤ 0.01). The ED course greatly affected the therapeutic effect of PDE5-1, the patients with ED should consult doctor at early stage of the disease. Administration of PDE5-I effectively improves the penile erection and the quality of sexual life of the patients hence should be considered as first-line medicine in the treatment of ED.

  15. Pulse pressure independently predicts major cardiovascular events in younger but not in older subjects with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Monami, Matteo; Boddi, Valentina; Rastrelli, Giulia; Melani, Cecilia; Balzi, Daniela; Sforza, Alessandra; Forti, Gianni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Pulse pressure (PP; i.e., the arithmetic difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) has been suggested to be an independent cardiovascular risk (CV) factor in the general population. We previously also reported a negative association between PP and arteriogenic erectile dysfunction (ED). This finding has recently been questioned. To verify the association of PP with ED severity and to evaluate its role in predicting forthcoming CV events. This is an observational prospective cohort study evaluating a consecutive series of 1,687 patients attending our Andrological Unit for ED. Several hormonal and biochemical parameters were studied, along with SIEDY structured interviews and penile Doppler ultrasound. Subjects with PP in the lowest quartile (I: 20-45; II: 46-55; III: 56-62; IV: 63-115 mm Hg) had a significant reduction in the risk of severe ED (RR = 0.60[0.47-0.76]; P < 0.0001). When the same analysis was repeated as a function of age quartile (I = 17-44, II = 45-55, III = 56-62, and IV = 63-88 years old), after adjusting for testosterone levels, mean blood pressure, Chronic Disease Score, and body mass index, PP was inversely related to ED only in the youngest age group. During a mean follow up of 4.4 ± 2.6 years, 147 major cardiovascular events (MACE) were observed. In a Cox regression model, after adjusting for possible confounding factors, a lower PP was associated with a lower risk of MACE in the whole sample and in younger subjects, but not in the older ones. Checking for blood pressure in ED subjects and calculating PP should become a routine practice in sexual medicine. In younger individuals, low PP reflects not only sexual health (better erection) but also cardiovascular health (less prevalence of MACE). © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Phosphodiesterase (PDE5) inhibition assay for rapid detection of erectile dysfunction drugs and analogs in sexual enhancement products.

    PubMed

    Santillo, Michael F; Mapa, Mapa S T

    2018-02-28

    Products marketed as dietary supplements for sexual enhancement are frequently adulterated with phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors, which are erectile dysfunction drugs or their analogs that can cause adverse health effects. Due to widespread adulteration, a rapid screening assay was developed to detect PDE5 inhibitors in adulterated products. The assay employs fluorescence detection and is based on measuring inhibition of PDE5 activity, the pharmacological mechanism shared among the adulterants. Initially, the assay reaction scheme was established and characterized, followed by analysis of 9 representative PDE5 inhibitors (IC 50 , 0.4-4.0 ng mL -1 ), demonstrating sensitive detection in matrix-free solutions. Next, dietary supplements serving as matrix blanks (n = 25) were analyzed to determine matrix interference and establish a threshold value; there were no false positives. Finally, matrix blanks were spiked with 9 individual PDE5 inhibitors, along with several mixtures. All 9 adulterants were successfully detected (≤ 5 % false negative rate; n = 20) at a concentration of 1.00 mg g -1 , which is over 5 times lower than concentrations commonly encountered in adulterated products. A major distinction of the PDE5 inhibition assay is the ability to detect adulterants without prior knowledge of their chemical structures, demonstrating a broad-based detection capability that can address a continuously evolving threat of new adulterants. The PDE5 inhibition assay can analyze over 40 samples simultaneously within 15 minutes and involves a single incubation step and simple data analysis, all of which are advantageous for combating the widespread adulteration of sex-enhancement products. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. African crocus (Curculigo pilosa) and wonderful kola (Buchholzia coriacea) seeds modulate critical enzymes relevant to erectile dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Adefegha, Stephen A; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2018-05-23

    Background The seeds of African crocus (AC) (Curculigo pilosa) and wonderful kola (WK) (Buchholzia coriacea) are commonly used in folklore medicine in managing erectile dysfunction (ED) without the full understanding of the possible mechanism of actions. This study investigated and compared the effects of aqueous extracts from the seeds of AC and WK on arginase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities and some pro-oxidant [FeSO4 and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)]-induced lipid peroxidation in rat penile homogenate in vitro. Method Aqueous extracts of AC and WK were prepared, and their effects on arginase and AChE activities as well as FeSO4- and SNP-induced lipid peroxidation in rat penile homogenate were assessed. Furthermore, phenolic constituents of the extract were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD). Results Both extracts exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition on arginase (AC, IC50=0.05 mg/mL; WK, IC50=0.22 mg/mL) and AChE (AC, IC50=0.68 mg/mL; WK, IC50=0.28 mg/mL) activities. The extracts also inhibited FeSO4- and SNP-induced lipid peroxidation in rat penile homogenate. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed the presence of phenolic acids (gallic, caffeic, ellagic and coumaric acids) and flavonoids (catechin, quercetin and apigenin) in AC and WK. AC had higher arginase inhibitory and antioxidative activities but lower AChE inhibitory properties when compared with WK. Conclusions These effects could explain the possible mechanistic actions of the seeds in the management/treatment of ED and could be as a result of individual and/or synergistic effect of the constituent phenolic compounds of the seeds.

  18. Erectile dysfunction drug receipt, risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men.

    PubMed

    Cook, Robert L; McGinnis, Kathleen A; Samet, Jeffrey H; Fiellin, David A; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Rodriquez-Barradas, Maria C; Kraemer, Kevin L; Gibert, Cynthia L; Braithwaite, R Scott; Goulet, Joseph L; Mattocks, Kristin; Crystal, Stephen; Gordon, Adam J; Oursler, Krisann K; Justice, Amy C

    2010-02-01

    Health care providers may be concerned that prescribing erectile dysfunction drugs (EDD) will contribute to risky sexual behavior. To identify characteristics of men who received EDD prescriptions, determine whether EDD receipt is associated with risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and determine whether these relationships vary for certain sub-groups. Cross-sectional study. Two thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven sexually-active, HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men recruited from eight Veterans Health Affairs outpatient clinics. Data were obtained from participant surveys, electronic medical records, and administrative pharmacy data. EDD receipt was defined as two or more prescriptions for an EDD, risky sex as having unprotected sex with a partner of serodiscordant or unknown HIV status, and STDs, according to self-report. Overall, 28% of men received EDD in the previous year. Eleven percent of men reported unprotected sex with a serodiscordant/unknown partner in the past year (HIV-infected 15%, HIV-uninfected 6%, P < 0.001). Compared to men who did not receive EDD, men who received EDD were equally likely to report risky sexual behavior (11% vs. 10%, p = 0.9) and STDs (7% vs 7%, p = 0.7). In multivariate analyses, EDD receipt was not significantly associated with risky sexual behavior or STDs in the entire sample or in subgroups of substance users or men who had sex with men. EDD receipt was common but not associated with risky sexual behavior or STDs in this sample of HIV-infected and uninfected men. However, risky sexual behaviors persist in a minority of HIV-infected men, indicating ongoing need for prevention interventions.

  19. Bladder outlet obstruction triggers neural plasticity in sensory pathways and contributes to impaired sensitivity in erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Malykhina, Anna P; Lei, Qi; Chang, Shaohua; Pan, Xiao-Qing; Villamor, Antonio N; Smith, Ariana L; Seftel, Allen D

    2013-05-15

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and erectile dysfunction (ED) are common problems in aging males worldwide. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of bladder neck nerve damage induced by partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO) on sensory innervation of the corpus cavernosum (CC) and CC smooth muscle (CCSM) using a rat model of PBOO induced by a partial ligation of the bladder neck. Retrograde labeling technique was used to label dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons that innervate the urinary bladder and CC. Contractility and relaxation of the CCSM was studied in vitro, and expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was evaluated by Western blotting. Concentration of the sensory neuropeptides substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide was measured by ELISA. Partial obstruction of the bladder neck caused a significant hypertrophy of the urinary bladders (2.5-fold increase at 2 wk). Analysis of L6-S2 DRG sections determined that sensory ganglia received input from both the urinary bladder and CC with 5-7% of all neurons double labeled from both organs. The contractile responses of CC muscle strips to KCl and phenylephrine were decreased after PBOO, followed by a reduced relaxation response to nitroprusside. A significant decrease in neuronal NOS expression, but not in endothelial NOS or protein kinase G (PKG-1), was detected in the CCSM of the obstructed animals. Additionally, PBOO caused some impairment to sensory nerves as evidenced by a fivefold downregulation of SP in the CC (P ≤ 0.001). Our results provide evidence that PBOO leads to the impairment of bladder neck afferent innervation followed by a decrease in CCSM relaxation, downregulation of nNOS expression, and reduced content of sensory neuropeptides in the CC smooth muscle. These results suggest that nerve damage in PBOO may contribute to LUTS-ED comorbidity and trigger secondary changes in the contraction/relaxation mechanisms of CCSM.

  20. Optimized sildenafil citrate fast orodissolvable film: a promising formula for overcoming the barriers hindering erectile dysfunction treatment.

    PubMed

    Hosny, Khaled Mohamed; El-Say, Khalid Mohamed; Ahmed, Osama Abdelhakim

    2016-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate, a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction, is available in tablet form but has three major problems. First, the drug displays poor aqueous solubility, which delays its onset of action. Second, the drug undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low (40%) bioavailability. Third, the gastrointestinal effects of sildenafil citrate include dyspepsia and a burning sensation. The objective of this study was to prepare sildenafil citrate using a fast orodissolvable film (ODF) containing the drug in a solid dispersion (SD) to mitigate the abovementioned problems. The solubility of sildenafil citrate in β-cyclodextrin derivatives was estimated, and SDs were prepared and characterized. To develop an ODF that disintegrates rapidly and releases the maximum amount of sildenafil citrate, a 3(3) Box-Behnken experimental design was used to estimate the effects of different concentrations of film forming polymer (X1), the film modifier (X2), and the plasticizer (X3) on the responses, i.e. the disintegration time (Y1) and the amount of drug released (Y2). Pharmacokinetic studies with the optimized (ODF) were conducted on human volunteers. SD prepared using hydroxybutyl-β-cyclodextrin enhanced the solubility of sildenafil citrate by more than eightfold. The Y1 for the optimized ODF was 89 seconds, and the Y2 was 86%; this formula also exhibited a rapid onset of action, and its bioavailability was enhanced by 2.25-fold compared with that of the marketed tablet. The ODF is a promising formulation for sildenafil citrate that results in higher solubility, a rapid onset of action, and enhanced systemic bioavailability.

  1. A systematic review assessing the economic impact of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Martin, Amber L; Huelin, Rachel; Wilson, David; Foster, Talia S; Mould, Joaquin F

    2013-05-01

    Sildenafil was the first oral phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor introduced as primary therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). In the 7 years following its market launch, sildenafil was prescribed by more than 750,000 physicians to more than 23 million men worldwide. To date, few studies have evaluated the economic impact of sildenafil in treating ED. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and impact of sildenafil on health care costs for patients with ED in multiple countries. Economic outcomes including cost, cost-effectiveness, cost of illness, cost consequence, resource use, productivity, work loss, and willingness to pay (WTP) were investigated. Using keywords related to economic outcomes and sildenafil, we systematically searched literature published between July 2001 and July 2011 using MEDLINE and EMBASE. Included articles pertained to costs, WTP, and economic evaluations. In the last 10 years, 12 studies assessed economic outcomes associated with sildenafil for ED. Most studies were conducted in the United States and the United Kingdom, with one study identified in Canada and one from Mexico. Six studies evaluated cost of illness, cost consequence, or cost of care, and four studies evaluated WTP or drug pricing by country in the United States and the United Kingdom. In the United States and the United Kingdom, costs to health care systems have increased with demand for treatment. Cost analyses suggested that sildenafil would lower direct costs compared with other PDE5 inhibitors. U.S. and U.K. studies found that patients exhibited WTP for sildenafil. The two cost-effectiveness models we identified examined ED sub-groups, those with spinal cord injury and those with diabetes or hypertension. These models indicated favorable cost-effectiveness profiles for sildenafil compared with other active-treatment options in both Mexico and Canada. The relative value of sildenafil vs. surgically implanted prosthetic devices and other PDE5 inhibitors, is underscored

  2. A randomized clinical trial investigating treatment choice in Chinese men receiving sildenafil citrate and tadalafil for treating erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Wen-Jun; Li, Hong-Jun; Jin, Jian-Jun; Xu, Wen-Ping; Sebastian, Sorsaburu; Wang, Xiao-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Sildenafil and tadalafil are efficacious and well tolerated in Chinese men with erectile dysfunction (ED). Recent study results indicate that men with ED in China who were naïve to phosphodiesterase inhibitor type 5 (PDE5) therapy prefer tadalafil 20-mg (on-demand) versus sildenafil 100-mg (on-demand). Differences in psychosocial outcomes may help to explain treatment preference in favor of tadalafil. This open-label, randomized, crossover study compared psychosocial outcomes and drug attribute choices between tadalafil and sildenafil in Chinese men with ED naïve to PDE5 inhibitor therapy. Eligible patients were randomized to sequential 20-mg tadalafil/100-mg sildenafil (n = 190) or 100-mg sildenafil/20-mg tadalafil (n = 193) for 8 weeks each and were asked which treatment they preferred to take for the 8-week extension phase. Psychosocial outcomes were assessed using the Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scale (PAIRS), Drug Attributes Questionnaire (DRAQ), and Sexual Life Quality Questionnaire (SLQQ). When taking tadalafil versus sildenafil, men had a higher mean endpoint score on the PAIRS Spontaneity Domain (tadalafil = 2.86 vs sildenafil = 2.72; P < 0.001), and a lower mean endpoint score on the Time Concerns Domain (tadalafil = 2.41 vs sildenafil = 2.55; P < 0.001). A numerical increase in the Sexual Self-Confidence Domain was observed when taking tadalafil versus sildenafil (tadalafil = 2.76 vs sildenafil = 2.72; P = 0.102). The most frequently chosen drug attributes explaining treatment preference were able to get an erection long after having drug, and ability to get an erection every time. SLQQ results were comparable between treatment groups. These psychosocial outcomes may explain why more Chinese men preferr