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Sample records for lichen peltigera canina

  1. Isolation and characterization of a cyanobacterium-binding protein and its cell wall receptor in the lichen Peltigera canina

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Eva-María; Sacristán, Mara; Legaz, María-Estrella

    2009-01-01

    Peltigera canina, a cyanolichen containing Nostoc as cyanobiont, produces and secretes arginase to a medium containing arginine. Secreted arginase acts as a lectin by binding to the surface of Nostoc cells through a specific receptor which develops urease activity. The enzyme urease has been located in the cell wall of recently isolated cyanobionts. Cytochemical detection of urease is achieved by producing a black, electron-dense precipitate of cobalt sulfide proceeding from CO2 evolved from urea hydrolysis in the presence of cobalt chloride. This urease has been pre-purified by affinity chromatography on a bead of active agarose to which arginase was attached. Urease was eluted from the beads by 50 mM α-D-galactose. The experimentally probed fact that a fungal lectin developing subsidiary arginase activity acts as a recognition factor of compatible algal cells in chlorolichens can now been expanded to cyanolichens. PMID:19820309

  2. Isolation and characterization of a cyanobacterium-binding protein and its cell wall receptor in the lichen Peltigera canina.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Eva-María; Sacristán, Mara; Legaz, María-Estrella; Vicente, Carlos

    2009-07-01

    Peltigera canina, a cyanolichen containing Nostoc as cyanobiont, produces and secretes arginase to a medium containing arginine. Secreted arginase acts as a lectin by binding to the surface of Nostoc cells through a specific receptor which develops urease activity. The enzyme urease has been located in the cell wall of recently isolated cyanobionts. Cytochemical detection of urease is achieved by producing a black, electron-dense precipitate of cobalt sulfide proceeding from CO(2) evolved from urea hydrolysis in the presence of cobalt chloride. This urease has been pre-purified by affinity chromatography on a bead of active agarose to which arginase was attached. Urease was eluted from the beads by 50 mM alpha-D-galactose. The experimentally probed fact that a fungal lectin developing subsidiary arginase activity acts as a recognition factor of compatible algal cells in chlorolichens can now been expanded to cyanolichens.

  3. Fungal lectin of Peltigera canina induces chemotropism of compatible Nostoc cells by constriction-relaxation pulses of cyanobiont cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Eva Maria; Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel; Sacristan, Mara; Legaz, Maria-Estrella

    2011-01-01

    A glycosylated arginase acting as a fungal lectin from Peltigera canina is able to produce recruitment of cyanobiont Nostoc cells and their adhesion to the hyphal surface. This implies that the cyanobiont would develop organelles to motility toward the chemoattractant. However when visualized by transmission electron microscopy, Nostoc cells recently isolated from P. canina thallus do not reveal any motile, superficial organelles, although their surface was covered by small spindles and serrated layer related to gliding. The use of S-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)isothiourea, blebbistatin, phalloidin and latrunculin A provide circumstantial evidence that actin microfilaments rather than MreB, the actin-like protein from prokaryota, and probably, an ATPase which develops contractile function similar to that of myosin II, are involved in cell motility. These experimental facts, the absence of superficial elements (fimbriae, pili or flagellum) related to cell movement, and the appearance of sunken cells during of after movement verified by scanning electron microscopy, support the hypothesis that the motility of lichen cyanobionts could be achieved by contraction-relaxation episodes of the cytoskeleton induced by fungal lectin act as a chemoattractant. PMID:21897128

  4. Fungal lectin of Peltigera canina induces chemotropism of compatible Nostoc cells by constriction-relaxation pulses of cyanobiont cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Eva Maria; Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel; Sacristan, Mara; Vicente, Carlos; Legaz, Maria-Estrella

    2011-10-01

    A glycosylated arginase acting as a fungal lectin from Peltigera canina is able to produce recruitment of cyanobiont Nostoc cells and their adhesion to the hyphal surface. This implies that the cyanobiont would develop organelles to motility towards the chemoattractant. However when visualized by transmission electron microscopy, Nostoc cells recently isolated from P. canina thallus do not reveal any motile, superficial organelles, although their surface was covered by small spindles and serrated layer related to gliding. The use of S-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)isothiourea, blebbistatin, phalloidin and latrunculin A provide circumstantial evidence that actin microfilaments rather than MreB, the actin-like protein from prokaryota, and, probably, an ATPase which develops contractile function similar to that of myosin II, are involved in cell motility. These experimental facts, the absence of superficial elements (fimbriae, pili or flagellum) related to cell movement, and the appearance of sunken cells during of after movement verified by scanning electron microscopy, support the hypothesis that the motility of lichen cyanobionts could be achieved by contraction-relaxation episodes of the cytoskeleton induced by fungal lectin act as a chemoattractant.

  5. Intrinsic factors of Peltigera lichens influence the structure of the associated soil bacterial microbiota.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Diego; Clavero-León, Claudia; Carú, Margarita; Orlando, Julieta

    2016-11-01

    Definition of lichens has evolved from bi(tri)partite associations to multi-species symbioses, where bacteria would play essential roles. Besides, although soil bacterial communities are known to be affected by edaphic factors, when lichens grow upon them these could become less preponderant. We hypothesized that the structure of both the lichen microbiota and the microbiota in the soil underneath lichens is shaped by lichen intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this work, intrinsic factors corresponded to mycobiont and cyanobiont identities of Peltigera lichens, metabolite diversity and phenoloxidase activity and extrinsic factors involved the site of the forest where lichens grow. Likewise, the genetic and metabolic structure of the lichen and soil bacterial communities were analyzed by fingerprinting. Among the results, metabolite diversity was inversely related to the genetic structure of bacterial communities of lichens and soils, highlighting the far-reaching effect of these substances; while phenoloxidase activity was inversely related to the metabolic structure only of the lichen bacterial microbiota, presuming a more limited effect of the products of these enzymes. Soil bacterial microbiota was different depending on the site and, strikingly, according to the cyanobiont present in the lichen over them, which could indicate an influence of the photobiont metabolism on the availability of soil nutrients.

  6. Influence of a range of extreme environmental factors on tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa thallus viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irina, Insarova; Dyakov, Max; Ptushenko, Vasiliy; Shtaer, Oksana

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms consisting of at least two genetic different partners: a heterotrophic fungus (mycobiont) and a phototrophic alga or cyanobacterium (photobiont). Lichens are ubiquitous at global scale. These symbiotic organisms represent the dominant type of “vegetation” at 8 - 10% of land (Larson, 1987). Abiotic stress’ resistance is notable for lichens among all eukaryotes. Lichens are often called “extremophiles” for their ability to acclimate the most severe environmental conditions. These features allow regarding lichens as a group of organisms which is potentially able to keep viability under open space conditions and to survive within Mars-like atmosphere types. The research presented was carried out in the network of spacecraft Bion-1 experiments involving the investigation of physiological and ultrastructural changes in biological objects survivable under open space conditions. Similar researches were already conducted on bipartite lichen species. The most attention was paid to the influence of UV and other space radiation types on lichen viability in those works. Thus we have taken tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa as a main research object and temperature fluctuations from extremely high to extremely low values in accordance to solar and umbral orbit sides - for the main extreme environmental factors. These factors were the less studied in previous works. During the research the influence of incubation under anaerobic conditions, multi-time effects of high and low temperatures and their interchange on respiratory metabolism, photosynthetic apparatus condition and the ultrastructure of P. aphthosa thalli was assessed. The data obtained demonstrate that activity either mycobiont or photobiont in tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa keep near unchanged under influence of all stress factors explored on dry thalli.

  7. Spatial Molecular Architecture of the Microbial Community of a Peltigera Lichen.

    PubMed

    Garg, Neha; Zeng, Yi; Edlund, Anna; Melnik, Alexey V; Sanchez, Laura M; Mohimani, Hosein; Gurevich, Alexey; Miao, Vivian; Schiffler, Stefan; Lim, Yan Wei; Luzzatto-Knaan, Tal; Cai, Shengxin; Rohwer, Forest; Pevzner, Pavel A; Cichewicz, Robert H; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2016-01-01

    Microbes are commonly studied as individual species, but they exist as mixed assemblages in nature. At present, we know very little about the spatial organization of the molecules, including natural products that are produced within these microbial networks. Lichens represent a particularly specialized type of symbiotic microbial assemblage in which the component microorganisms exist together. These composite microbial assemblages are typically comprised of several types of microorganisms representing phylogenetically diverse life forms, including fungi, photosymbionts, bacteria, and other microbes. Here, we employed matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) imaging mass spectrometry to characterize the distributions of small molecules within a Peltigera lichen. In order to probe how small molecules are organized and localized within the microbial consortium, analytes were annotated and assigned to their respective producer microorganisms using mass spectrometry-based molecular networking and metagenome sequencing. The spatial analysis of the molecules not only reveals an ordered layering of molecules within the lichen but also supports the compartmentalization of unique functions attributed to various layers. These functions include chemical defense (e.g., antibiotics), light-harvesting functions associated with the cyanobacterial outer layer (e.g., chlorophyll), energy transfer (e.g., sugars) surrounding the sun-exposed cyanobacterial layer, and carbohydrates that may serve a structural or storage function and are observed with higher intensities in the non-sun-exposed areas (e.g., complex carbohydrates). IMPORTANCE Microbial communities have evolved over centuries to live symbiotically. The direct visualization of such communities at the chemical and functional level presents a challenge. Overcoming this challenge may allow one to visualize the spatial distributions of specific molecules involved in symbiosis and to define their

  8. Spatial Molecular Architecture of the Microbial Community of a Peltigera Lichen

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Neha; Zeng, Yi; Edlund, Anna; Melnik, Alexey V.; Mohimani, Hosein; Gurevich, Alexey; Miao, Vivian; Schiffler, Stefan; Lim, Yan Wei; Luzzatto-Knaan, Tal; Cai, Shengxin; Rohwer, Forest; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Cichewicz, Robert H.; Alexandrov, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbes are commonly studied as individual species, but they exist as mixed assemblages in nature. At present, we know very little about the spatial organization of the molecules, including natural products that are produced within these microbial networks. Lichens represent a particularly specialized type of symbiotic microbial assemblage in which the component microorganisms exist together. These composite microbial assemblages are typically comprised of several types of microorganisms representing phylogenetically diverse life forms, including fungi, photosymbionts, bacteria, and other microbes. Here, we employed matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) imaging mass spectrometry to characterize the distributions of small molecules within a Peltigera lichen. In order to probe how small molecules are organized and localized within the microbial consortium, analytes were annotated and assigned to their respective producer microorganisms using mass spectrometry-based molecular networking and metagenome sequencing. The spatial analysis of the molecules not only reveals an ordered layering of molecules within the lichen but also supports the compartmentalization of unique functions attributed to various layers. These functions include chemical defense (e.g., antibiotics), light-harvesting functions associated with the cyanobacterial outer layer (e.g., chlorophyll), energy transfer (e.g., sugars) surrounding the sun-exposed cyanobacterial layer, and carbohydrates that may serve a structural or storage function and are observed with higher intensities in the non-sun-exposed areas (e.g., complex carbohydrates). IMPORTANCE Microbial communities have evolved over centuries to live symbiotically. The direct visualization of such communities at the chemical and functional level presents a challenge. Overcoming this challenge may allow one to visualize the spatial distributions of specific molecules involved in symbiosis and to define

  9. Physiological adaptations in the lichens Peltigera rufescens and Cladina arbuscula var. mitis, and the moss Racomitrium lanuginosum to copper-rich substrate.

    PubMed

    Backor, Martin; Klejdus, Borivoj; Vantová, Ivana; Kovácik, Jozef

    2009-09-01

    Two lichen species (Peltigera rufescens and Cladina arbuscula subsp. mitis) and one moss species (Racomitrium lanuginosum) growing on a copper mine heaps (probably 200-300yr old) in the village of Spania dolina (Slovak Republic) were assessed for selected physiological parameters, including composition of assimilation pigments, chlorophyll a fluorescence, soluble proteins and free amino acid content. The lichen C. arbuscula subsp. mitis was collected also at a control locality where total copper concentration in the soil was approximately 3% that of the waste heaps. Concentrations of Al, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb and Zn were highest in thalli of Peltigera, while the moss Racomitrium contained the highest content of Fe and Pb. Thalli of Cladina contained less metals than the cyanolichen Peltigera, and except for Zn metal concentrations in Cladina from the control locality were lower than in thalli of the same species from copper mine heaps. Regardless of the species or locality, the composition of assimilation pigments and chlorophyll a fluorescence showed that the tested lichens and moss were in good physiological condition and adapted to increased copper levels in the soil. There were significantly different amounts of total free amino acids in Peltigera, Cladina and Racomitrium from the Cu-polluted field. However, differences in amount of free amino acids in control, as well as Cu-polluted thalli of Cladina were less pronounced.

  10. Selective isolation of potentially phosphate-mobilizing, biosurfactant-producing and biodegradative bacteria associated with a sub-Arctic, terricolous lichen, Peltigera membranacea.

    PubMed

    Sigurbjörnsdóttir, Margrét Auður; Vilhelmsson, Oddur

    2016-06-01

    Lichens are the symbiotic association of fungi and a photosynthetic partner. However, non-phototrophic bacteria are also present and thought to comprise an essential part of the lichen symbiosis, although their roles in the symbiosis are still poorly understood. In this study, we isolated and characterized 110 non-phototrophic bacterial lichen associates from thalli of the terricolous lichen Peltigera membranacea The biodegradative and other nutrient-scavenging properties studied among selected isolates were phosphate mobilization, biosurfactant production and degradation of napthalene and several biopolymers, suggesting organic and inorganic nutrient scavenging as roles for bacteria in the lichen symbiotic association. Identification by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the isolates comprised 18 genera within the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, many with high similarities with bacteria typically associated with the plant and rhizosphere environments, could suggest that plants may be important sources of terricolous lichen-associated bacteria, or vice versa.

  11. The advantage of growing on moss: facilitative effects on photosynthetic performance and growth in the cyanobacterial lichen Peltigera rufescens.

    PubMed

    Colesie, Claudia; Scheu, Sarah; Green, T G Allan; Weber, Bettina; Wirth, Rainer; Büdel, Burkhard

    2012-07-01

    Facilitative effects and plant-plant interactions are well known for higher plants, but there is a lack of information about their relevance in cryptogams. Additional information about facilitative effects between bryophytes and lichens would be an important contribution to recent research on positive plant-plant interactions, as these can have striking influences not only on the organisation of early successional terrestrial communities but also on succession dynamics by kick-starting ecosystem development through the import of key nutrients. We investigated and quantified these mechanisms between Peltigera rufescens and its associated mosses. Moss-associated thalli had a different morphology that led to several benefits from the association. They had 66% higher net photosynthetic rate and, because the majority of the gas exchange of lichen thalli took place through the lower surface, there was a further increase as the CO(2) concentration was >25% higher beneath moss-associated thalli. Microclimatic measurements showed that mean light levels were substantially lower and temperature extremes slightly ameliorated for moss-associated thalli. As a consequence, desiccation was slower which is, together with an increase in thallus thickness and water storage, the reason for extended periods of optimal net photosynthesis for the moss-associated thalli. All these benefits combined to produce a growth rate of the moss-associated thalli which was significantly higher, twice that of non-associated thalli [0.75 ± 0.4 vs. 0.30 ± 0.1 mm/month (mean ± SD)]. This appears to be the first demonstration of a strong mechanistic basis for facilitative effects between lichens and bryophytes.

  12. Lichen physiology and cell biology

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on topics relating to mineral element accumulation in bog lichens, nitrogen losses from diazotrophic lichens, influence of automobile exhaust and lead on the oxygen exchange of lichens, temporal variation in lichen element levels, and lead and uranium uptake by lichens. Other topics include the architecture of the concentric bodies in the mycobiont of Peltigera praetextata; multiple enzyme forms in lichens, photosynthesis, water relations multiple enzyme forms in lichens, photosynthesis, water relations and thallus structure of strictaceae lichens; and aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in lichens. The distribution of uranium and companion elements in lichen heath associated with undisturbed uranium deposits in the Canadian Arctic is also discussed.

  13. Phylogenetic Diversity of Peltigera Cyanolichens and Their Photobionts in Southern Chile and Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Zúñiga, Catalina; Leiva, Diego; Ramírez-Fernández, Lía; Carú, Margarita; Yahr, Rebecca; Orlando, Julieta

    2015-01-01

    The lichen genus Peltigera has been mainly revised in the Northern Hemisphere, with most species being recorded in Europe and North America. This study assessed the phylogenetic diversity of the mycobionts and cyanobionts of Peltigera cyanolichens collected in Southern Chile and Antarctica, areas in which lichens are extremely diverse but poorly studied. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of each symbiont were defined by analyzing the genetic diversity of the LSU and SSU rDNA of the mycobionts and cyanobionts, respectively, and a phylogenetic approach was used to relate these OTUs with sequences previously reported for Peltigera and Nostoc. Among the 186 samples collected, 8 Peltigera and 15 Nostoc OTUs were recognized, corresponding to sections Peltigera, Horizontales, and Polydactylon, in the case of the mycobionts, and to the Nostoc clade II, in the case of the cyanobionts. Since some of the OTUs recognized in this study had not previously been described in these areas, our results suggest that the diversity of Peltigera reported to date in the regions studied using traditional morphological surveys has underestimated the true diversity present; therefore, further explorations of these areas are recommended. PMID:25925273

  14. Environmental context shapes the bacterial community structure associated to Peltigera cyanolichens growing in Tierra del Fuego, Chile.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Fernández, Lía; Zúñiga, Catalina; Carú, Margarita; Orlando, Julieta

    2014-03-01

    The structure of the associated bacterial community of bipartite cyanolichens of the genus Peltigera from three different environmental contexts in the Karukinka Natural Park, Tierra del Fuego, Chile, was assessed. The sampling sites represent different habitat contexts: mature native forest, young native forest and grassland. Recently it has been determined that the bacterial community associated to lichens could be highly structured according to the mycobiont or photobiont identities, to the environmental context and/or to the geographic scale. However, there are some inconsistencies in defining which of these factors would be the most significant on determining the structure of the microbial communities associated with lichens, mainly because most studies compare the bacterial communities between different lichen species and/or with different photobiont types (algae vs. cyanobacteria). In this work bipartite lichens belonging to the same genus (Peltigera) symbiotically associated with cyanobacteria (Nostoc) were analyzed by TRFLP to determine the structure of the bacterial community intimately associated with the lichen thalli and the one present in the substrate where they grow. The results indicate that the bacterial community intimately associated differs from the one of the substrate, being the former more influenced by the environmental context where the lichen grows.

  15. Effects of inorganic nitrogen on C2H 2 reduction and CO 2 exchange in the Peltigera praetextata-Nostoc and Peltigera aphthosa-Coccomyxa-Nostoc symbioses.

    PubMed

    Hällbom, L; Bergman, B

    1983-04-01

    Uptake of NH 4 (+) and NO 3 (-) by the N2-fixing lichens Peltigera praetextata (two-component lichen) and P. aphthosa (three-component lichen) was studied. In addition, the effects of these ions, separately and in combination, on C2H2 reduction and CO2 exchange were examined. Both NH 4 (+) and NO 3 (-) were utilized by the lichens. NH4NO3 caused an increased liberation of NO 3 (-) from the lichens as compared to the release observed in untreated lichen thalli. NH 4 (+) and NO 3 (-) led to reduced C2H2 reduction by P. praetextata, which, however, was less pronounced than when the two ions were given in combination. In P. aphthosa the C2H2 reduction was inhibited by NH 4 (+) and NH4NO3, but not by NO 3 (-) alone. NH 4 (+) and NO 3 (-) had no effect on the net photosynthesis of P. praetextata, while, in combination, they led to inhibition, although only at a concentration higher than that inhibitory to the C2H2 reduction of P. aphthosa. The photsynthesis was inhibited by all salts, but only initially, probably a "salt effect". Effects of NH 4 (+) on the membrane potential of the cyanobiont are suggested as an important factor causing the depression of net photosynthesis.

  16. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Morteratsch Glacier (Eastern Alps, Graubünden, Switzerland)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the Morteratsch glacier to investigate lichen communities on soil in the glacier forefield. The survey yielded 13 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus. Peltigera extenuata (Nyl. ex Vain.) Lojka (Peltigerales) is new to the canton of Graubünden. PMID:26877564

  17. Phytase activity in lichens.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Niall F; Crittenden, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Phytase activity was investigated in 13 lichen species using a novel assay method. The work tested the hypothesis that phytase is a component of the suite of surface-bound lichen enzymes that hydrolyse simple organic forms of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) deposited onto the thallus surface. Hydrolysis of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6 , the substrate for phytase) and appearance of lower-order inositol phosphates (InsP5 -InsP1 ), the hydrolysis products, were measured by ion chromatography. Phytase activity in Evernia prunastri was compared among locations with contrasting rates of N deposition. Phytase activity was readily measurable in epiphytic lichens (e.g. 11.3 μmol InsP6 hydrolysed g(-1)  h(-1) in Bryoria fuscescens) but low in two terricolous species tested (Cladonia portentosa and Peltigera membranacea). Phytase and phosphomonoesterase activities were positively correlated amongst species. In E. prunastri both enzyme activities were promoted by N enrichment and phytase activity was readily released into thallus washings. InsP6 was not detected in tree canopy throughfall but was present in pollen leachate. Capacity to hydrolyse InsP6 appears widespread amongst lichens potentially promoting P capture from atmospheric deposits and plant leachates, and P cycling in forest canopies. The enzyme assay used here might find wider application in studies on plant root-fungal-soil systems.

  18. Characterization of the diversity of mycosporine-like amino acids in lichens from high altitude region of Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Vertika; Kumari, Rupender; Patel, Davendra K; Upreti, Dalip K

    2016-01-01

    Lichens are tolerant to a number of environmental variables including high-intensity solar radiations, which is mainly due to the presence of chemical substances in the thallus. Especially, cyanobacterial lichens synthesize a unique class of chemical substances known as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) the primary characteristic of which is strong ultraviolet (UV) absorption between 300 and 360 nm. In view of its UV-protecting potential, the applicability of mass spectral fragmentation using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis for the characterization of MAAs in lichen samples was explored. MAA compounds were characterized in four cyanobacteria-containing lichen species belonging to genus Peltigera, Stereocaulon and Lobaria. Among them, Peltigera and Lobaria are true cyanobacteria containing lichens (cyanolichens) while Stereocaulon is a tripartite lichen, as it contains both green algae (in the thallus) and cyanobacteria (in the cephalodia), collected from higher altitudes of Himalaya (Tungnath-Chopta in Garhwal Himalaya, 3432 m) from an exposed locality experiencing high light intensity. Mass spectral data of distinctive fragmentation pattern revealed that all the four species have good diversity of MAA compounds, especially Lobaria retigera was found to be enriched with highest diversity of oxo and imino MAAs. Overall, different numbers of oxo and imino MAA compounds were detected in the remaining lichen species. Good diversity of imino MAAs has ecological significance which is required to be investigated further. Moreover, the impressive diversity characterized in each lichen species suggests that lichens should be thoroughly studied for their MAAs contents.

  19. Effect of copper and lead on lipid metabolism in bryophytes and lichens.

    PubMed

    Guschina, I A; Harwood, J L

    2000-12-01

    Bryophytes and lichens have a widespread occurrence and can survive under extreme environmental conditions, such as drought, low temperatures, continuous light or prolonged darkness. It has been shown that lipid metabolism is sensitive to both metal response and metal resistance mechanisms in many organisms, including yeast, Silene cucubalus, and in the marine brown algae Fucus spp. and Ascophyllum nodosum. In the present study, the effects of lead and copper on lipid metabolism have been studied in two moss species, Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus and Dicranum scoparium, and also in the lichen Peltigera horizontalis with a cyanobacterial Nostoc photobiont.

  20. Lichen Sclerosus

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Lichen sclerosus By Mayo Clinic Staff Lichen sclerosus (LIE-kun skluh-ROW-sus) is an uncommon condition that creates patchy, white skin that's thinner than normal. Lichen sclerosus can affect skin anywhere on your body. But ...

  1. Can lichen species of BSC acclimate to changing environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Laura; Colesie, Claudia; Büdel, Burkhard

    2015-04-01

    sites. Lichen species are also analysed to investigate the variability within their morphological and physiological traits and whether this is site specific. From the transplant experiment lichen samples are analysed to find whether lichen species can readily switch their photobiont to a locally adapted symbiont and whether the morphological and physiological parameters change in order to acclimatise to the new conditions. This work is currently ongoing and here the initial results from the lichen species Psora decipiens, Fulgensia fulgens (green algal lichens) and Peltigera rufescens (cyanolichen) are presented.

  2. Female sex pheromone components ofHeliothis peltigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) : Chemical identification from gland extracts and male response.

    PubMed

    Dunkelblum, E; Kehat, M

    1989-08-01

    Ten compounds were found in the sex pheromone glands ofHeliothis peltigera (Schiff) and identified as tetradecenal, (Z)-9-tetradecenal, (Z)-9-tetradecenol, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, hexadecanal, (Z)-7-hiexadecenal, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, (Z)-11-hexadecenal, (Z)-11-hexadecenol, and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate. Behavioral tests in a wind tunnel and subsequent trapping studies conducted in the field indicated that (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (Z)-9-tetradecenal are the main pheromone components ofH. peltigera. Addition of (Z)-11-hexadecenol to the binary blend did not enhance the capture of males ofH. peltigera, but it decreased the number of males of the sympatricH. armigera. Rubber septa impregnated with a mixture of 2 mg (Z)-11-hexadecenal + 1 mg (Z)-9-tetradecenal + 0.6 mg (Z)-11-hexadecenol are recommended for monitoringH. peltigera.

  3. Lichen Nitidus

    MedlinePlus

    ... References Chu J, et al. Lichen nitidus. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2014;186:E688. Tilly JJ, ... org," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation ...

  4. Lichen planus

    MedlinePlus

    ... lower immune responses Corticosteroid shots into a sore Vitamin A as a cream or taken by mouth Other medicines that are applied to the skin Dressings placed over your skin with medicines to keep you from scratching Ultraviolet light therapy Outlook (Prognosis) Lichen planus is usually not ...

  5. [Striated lichen].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Santillán, E

    1991-02-01

    Striated lichen is a rare disease seen primarily in pediatric ages. Of more of less quick appearance, generally persisting for a year, and later spontaneously involuting. Its etiology and pathogenia are unkown. It is a disease essentially clinically diagnosed and should be differentiated from other entities of linear distribution.

  6. Oral Lichen Planus

    MedlinePlus

    Oral lichen planus Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Oral lichen planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is an ongoing (chronic) ... that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth. Oral lichen planus may appear as white, lacy patches; red, ...

  7. Lichen simplex chronicus

    MedlinePlus

    ... lichen simplex chronicus; Atopic dermatitis - lichen simplex chronicus; Psoriasis - lichen simplex chronicus ... people who have: Skin allergies Eczema (atopic dermatitis) Psoriasis Nervousness, anxiety, depression, and other emotional problems The ...

  8. [Lichen sclerosus].

    PubMed

    Monsálvez, V; Rivera, R; Vanaclocha, F

    2010-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that is highly bothersome for men and women of all ages. The exact etiology is unknown, although genetic and autoimmune factors, as well as infections, have been implicated in its pathogenesis. First-line treatment is highly potent topical corticosteroid therapy for short periods. Surgery is reserved for cases of phimosis, urethral stenosis, synechiae, and squamous cell carcinoma.

  9. [Superimposed lichen planus pigmentosus].

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, Benigno; Suarez-Amor, Óscar; Cabanillas, Miguel; de Las Heras, Cristina; Álvarez, Juan Carlos

    2014-05-16

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus that is characterized by the insidious onset of dark brown macules in sun-exposed areas and flexural folds. Superimposed linear lichen planus is an exceedingly rare disorder, but it has been found in both lichen planopilaris and lichen planus types. A 39-year-old woman is presented showing a segmental and linear lichen planus associated with non-segmental lesions meeting all criteria for the diagnosis of superimposed linear planus pigmentosus. The segmental lesions were always more pronounced.

  10. Lichen planus pigmentosus and lichen planopilaris.

    PubMed

    Cobos, Gabriela; Kim, Randie H; Meehan, Shane; Elbuluk, Nada

    2016-12-15

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory skin conditionwith characteristic histopathological findings thathas many clinical variants. Recently, there have been25 cases reported in the literature of lichen planuspigmentosus (LPPi) that preceded the developmentof frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA), which is a variantof lichen planopilaris (LPP). We review the literatureregarding LPPi, LPP, and FFA and present a case of a40-year-old African American woman with LPPi andLPP.

  11. What Is Lichen Sclerosus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sclerosus PDF Version Size: 57 KB Audio Version Time: 09:12 Size: 8.6 MB November 2014 What Is Lichen Sclerosus? Fast Facts: An Easy-to-Read Series of Publications for the Public What Is Lichen ...

  12. Lichens and lepidopterons

    SciTech Connect

    Sigal, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The newly found association of Usnea strigosa (Ach.) A. Eat. and the lichenophagous larva of the moth Zanclognatha theralis (Walker) is described. The possible biological role of lichen acids in the lichen-moth relationship is discussed.

  13. Photoprotection of green plants: a mechanism of ultra-fast thermal energy dissipation in desiccated lichens.

    PubMed

    Heber, Ulrich

    2008-09-01

    In order to survive sunlight in the absence of water, desiccation-tolerant green plants need to be protected against photooxidation. During drying of the chlorolichen Cladonia rangiformis and the cyanolichen Peltigera neckeri, chlorophyll fluorescence decreased and stable light-dependent charge separation in reaction centers of the photosynthetic apparatus was lost. The presence of light during desiccation increased loss of fluorescence in the chlorolichen more than that in the cyanolichen. Heating of desiccated Cladonia thalli, but not of Peltigera thalli, increased fluorescence emission more after the lichen had been dried in the light than after drying in darkness. Activation of zeaxanthin-dependent energy dissipation by protonation of the PsbS protein of thylakoid membranes was not responsible for the increased loss of chlorophyll fluorescence by the chlorolichen during drying in the light. Glutaraldehyde inhibited loss of chlorophyll fluorescence during drying. Desiccation-induced loss of chlorophyll fluorescence and of light-dependent charge separation are interpreted to indicate activation of a highly effective mechanism of photoprotection in the lichens. Activation is based on desiccation-induced conformational changes of a pigment-protein complex. Absorbed light energy is converted into heat within a picosecond or femtosecond time domain. When present during desiccation, light interacts with the structural changes of the protein providing increased photoprotection. Energy dissipation is inactivated and structural changes are reversed when water becomes available again. Reversibility of ultra-fast thermal dissipation of light energy avoids photo-damage in the absence of water and facilitates the use of light for photosynthesis almost as soon as water becomes available.

  14. Lichen substances prevent lichens from nutrient deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Willenbruch, Karen; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The dibenzofuran usnic acid, a widespread cortical secondary metabolite produced by lichen-forming fungi, was shown to promote the intracellular uptake of Cu(2+) in two epiphytic lichens, Evernia mesomorpha and Ramalina menziesii, from acidic, nutrient-poor bark. Higher Cu(2+) uptake in the former, which produces the depside divaricatic acid in addition to usnic acid, suggests that this depside promotes Cu(2+) uptake. Since Cu(2+) is one of the rarest micronutrients, promotion of Cu(2+) uptake by lichen substances may be crucial for the studied lichens to survive in their nutrient-poor habitats. In contrast, study of the uptake of other metals in E. mesomorpha revealed that the intracellular uptake of Mn(2+), which regularly exceeds potentially toxic concentrations in leachates of acidic tree bark, was partially inhibited by the lichen substances produced by this species. Inhibition of Mn(2+) uptake by lichen substances previously has been demonstrated in lichens. The uptake of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), which fail to reach toxic concentrations in acidic bark at unpolluted sites, although they are more common than Cu(2+), was not affected by lichen substances of E. mesomorpha.

  15. Lichen endozoochory by snails.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Werth, Silke; Rüetschi, Jörg; Fischer, Markus

    2011-04-13

    Endozoochory plays a prominent role for the dispersal of seed plants. However, for most other plant taxa it is not known whether this mode of dispersal occurs at all. Among those other taxa, lichens as symbiotic associations of algae and fungi are peculiar as their successful dispersal requires movement of propagules that leaves the symbiosis functional. However, the potential for endozoochorous dispersal of lichen fragments has been completely overlooked. We fed sterile thalli of two foliose lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria and Physcia adscendens) differing in habitat and air-quality requirements to nine snail species common in temperate Europe. We demonstrated morphologically that L. pulmonaria regenerated from 29.0% of all 379 fecal pellets, whereas P. adscendens regenerated from 40.9% of all 433 fecal pellets, showing that lichen fragments survived gut passage of all snail species. Moreover, molecular analysis of regenerated lichens confirmed the species identity for a subset of samples. Regeneration rates were higher for the generalist lichen species P. adscendens than for the specialist lichen species L. pulmonaria. Furthermore, lichen regeneration rates varied among snail species with higher rates after gut passage of heavier snail species. We suggest that gastropods generally grazing on lichen communities are important, but so far completely overlooked, as vectors for lichen dispersal. This opens new ecological perspectives and questions the traditional view of an entirely antagonistic relationship between gastropods and lichens.

  16. Lichens in the Churchyard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldershaw, Cally; Hilton, Barbara; Rocca, Alis

    2010-01-01

    The late Tom Chester, in his role as the British Lichen Society churchyard coordinator, did a great deal to encourage the use of the churchyard as an educational tool. In his honour, the Society has created an award as part of its "Lichen Project". When the Society approached the Association for Science Education (ASE) for help in…

  17. Exploiting the Lichen Liaison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raham, R. Gary

    1978-01-01

    For teachers in search of an easily obtainable, readily dissectable, and unique living specimen to arouse the interest of their students and illustrate important biological principles, lichens are the perfect selection. Background information and experiments on lichen anatomy, physiology, and chemistry are given. An appendix gives culture media.…

  18. Lichen planus pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Verma, Prashant; Bhattacharya, Sambit N; Sharma, Sonal; Rasool, Farhan

    2013-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus, a variant of lichen planus, is a disorder with conflicting taxonomy. Its worldwide recognition is still not fully understood because of insufficient contemporary evidence of the disease in the literature. The authors review the historical background, etiopathogenesis, clinical connotation, atypical variants, and histopathology to highlight its diversity.

  19. Lichens as Bioindicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory L.; Baker, Thomas R.

    2003-01-01

    Lichens, small and unobtrusive organisms, are seldom noticed as they cling to rocks, trees, and soil in fragile veils or crusts of splendid color and ornate textures. Their beauty is captivating and fascinating, and their purpose and origins are thought-provoking. Lichens make particularly good "bioindicators". They are bioindicators of sulfur…

  20. Learning about Lichens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Danny

    1982-01-01

    Provides background information and teaching suggestions for collecting and using lichens in the classroom and for conducting field investigations. Focuses on structure, reproduction, photosynthesis, and effects of air pollution. (DC)

  1. Extragenital bullous lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Linzon-Smith, Jaclyn; Beecker, Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    Lichen sclerosus is an inflammatory skin condition characterized by inflammation of the papillary dermis that leads to white scarlike plaques. It occurs classically in the genitals but also has extragenital manifestations with a variety of clinical presentations including a bullous variant. The purpose of this review is to characterize extragenital bullous lichen sclerosus, suggest that it may be more common than dermatologists realize, and discuss treatment of both routine and recalcitrant cases.

  2. [Genital lichen sclerosus].

    PubMed

    Héla, Zakraoui; Samy, Fenniche; Rym, Benmously; Hajlaoui, Khaoula; Hayet, Marrak; Mohamed, Ben Ayed; Inçaf, Mokhtar

    2005-03-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease which origin remains unknown. Its prevalence ranges from one in 300 to one in 1000 of all patients referred to a dermatology clinic in the seventeenth. Through the analysis of a hospital survey, we outline the epidemio-clinical aspects of this dermatosis. Over a 19-year period (1984-2002), we have conducted a retrospective and monocentric study of all patients with genital lichen sclerosus were examined at the dermatology department of Habib Thameur hospital. Thirty-four patients suffered from lichen sclerosus. There were 33 female and only one male (sex-ratio: 0.03). All patients underwent topical corticosteroid therapy (level I, II or IV). The recovery rate of lichen sclerosus was about 20% (7/34). An epidermoid carcinoma occurred in three patients. The frequency of lichen sclerosus in our study is estimated at 1,8 new cases per year. This frequency is probably under-estimated because of some patients' reluctance to seek help. A relatively low recovery rate of genital lichen sclerosus was found in our study. This may be related to an inadequate follow up added to an insufficient treatment adherence.

  3. Lichen planus pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Evan; Kaplan, Jennifer; Kamino, Hideko; Sanchez, Miguel; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz

    2013-12-16

    Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is an uncommon variant of lichen planus that tends to occur in middle-aged individuals with darker pigmented skin. Clinical findings include hyperpigmented, brown to gray-brown macules and patches in sun-exposed areas, typically on the head and neck. Histopathologic features include epidermal atrophy, vacuolar degeneration of the basal layer of the epidermis, perivascular lymphohistiocystic infiltrate in the upper dermis, and dermal melanophages. We present a unique case of LPP that was characterized by an atypical initial inflammatory phase and subsequent circinate lesions with central clearing.

  4. Lichen planus pigmentosus inversus*

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Hugo Rocha; de Almeida, José Roberto Paes; Dinato, Sandra Lopes Mattos e; Sementilli, Angelo; Romiti, Ney

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five year old male patient presenting with asymptomatic brown spots, on cervical, axillary, inguinal and popliteal regions, for the last nine months. Pathological examination showed hydropic degeneration of the basal layer, pigmentary incontinence and moderate inflammatory lymphocytic infiltrate in the dermis. Lichen planus pigmentosus inversus is a rare subtype of lichen planus characterized by hyperchromic, asymptomatic or mildly pruritic macules, measuring from millimeters to centimeters in diameter, with defined borders, affecting intertriginous areas, most commonly in the axillae and groin of Caucasian patients. It presents unique lichenoid histology. We report a case with typical clinical features, histology and evolution. PMID:24346904

  5. Lichen planus pigmentosus inversus.

    PubMed

    Barros, Hugo Rocha; Almeida, José Roberto Paes de; Mattos e Dinato, Sandra Lopes; Sementilli, Angelo; Romiti, Ney

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five year old male patient presenting with asymptomatic brown spots, on cervical, axillary, inguinal and popliteal regions, for the last nine months. Pathological examination showed hydropic degeneration of the basal layer, pigmentary incontinence and moderate inflammatory lymphocytic infiltrate in the dermis. Lichen planus pigmentosus inversus is a rare subtype of lichen planus characterized by hyperchromic, asymptomatic or mildly pruritic macules, measuring from millimeters to centimeters in diameter, with defined borders, affecting intertriginous areas, most commonly in the axillae and groin of Caucasian patients. It presents unique lichenoid histology. We report a case with typical clinical features, histology and evolution.

  6. Lichen planus pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Orme, Charisse M; Kim, Randie H; Brinster, Nooshin; Elbuluk, Nada; Franks, Andrew G

    2016-12-15

    Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is a type oflichenoid dermatitis with superficial dermalmelanophages that presents as symmetrical,hyperpigmented macules and patches that aredistributed over the forehead, temples, cheeks, andneck. The condition most often occurs in darkerskinned individuals and is frequently resistant totreatment. Here we present a patient of Egyptiandecent with a lacy reticulated LPP eruption on theface.

  7. Influence of extreme ambient temperatures and anaerobic conditions on Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Willd. viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyakov, M. Yu.; Insarova, I. D.; Kharabadze, D. E.; Ptushenko, V. V.; Shtaer, O. V.

    2015-11-01

    Lichen are symbiotic systems constituted by heterotrophic fungi (mycobionts) and photosynthetic microorganism (photobionts). These organisms can survive under extreme stress conditions. The aim of this work was to study the influence of low (- 70 °C) or high (+ 70 °C) temperatures, temperature fluctuations from + 70 °C to - 70 °C, and anaerobic conditions on P. aphthosa (L.) Willd. viability. None of the studied stress factors affected significantly photosynthetic and respiratory activity of the thalli. No changes in morphology or ultrastructure of the cells were revealed for both photobiont and mycobiont components after extreme temperature treatment of P. aphthosa thalli. The data show the extreme tolerance of P. aphthosa to some stress factors inherent to the space flight conditions.

  8. Coexistence of nail lichen planus and lichen planus pigmentosus*

    PubMed Central

    Lemes, Luciana Rodino; Verde, Renata Brandão Villa; Durães, Sandra Maria Barbosa; Araripe Junior, Adolpho de Alencar; Pantaleão, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    We describe a fifty-six-year old, Afro-descendent female patient showing dystrophy of her twenty nails and hyperchromic, asymptomatic macule on her face. Histopathological examination of the macule showed vacuolization of the basal layer, melanophages in the superficial dermis and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory infiltrate. Nail biopsy revealed orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variety of lichen planus. It is characterized by typical hyperpigmented macules on the face and neck. Nail changes might be present in 10% of lichen planus cases, but no associations with lichen planus pigmentosus have been described. We report a case of lichen planus in twenty nails associated with lichen planus pigmentosus on the patient's face. PMID:28300883

  9. Coexistence of nail lichen planus and lichen planus pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Lemes, Luciana Rodino; Verde, Renata Brandão Villa; Durães, Sandra Maria Barbosa; Araripe, Adolpho de Alencar; Pantaleão, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    We describe a fifty-six-year old, Afro-descendent female patient showing dystrophy of her twenty nails and hyperchromic, asymptomatic macule on her face. Histopathological examination of the macule showed vacuolization of the basal layer, melanophages in the superficial dermis and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory infiltrate. Nail biopsy revealed orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variety of lichen planus. It is characterized by typical hyperpigmented macules on the face and neck. Nail changes might be present in 10% of lichen planus cases, but no associations with lichen planus pigmentosus have been described. We report a case of lichen planus in twenty nails associated with lichen planus pigmentosus on the patient's face.

  10. The Significance of Lichens and Their Metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huneck, S.

    Lichens, symbiontic organisms of fungi and algae, synthesize numerous metabolites, the "lichen substances," which comprise aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic, and terpenic compounds. Lichens and their metabolites have a manifold biological activity: antiviral, antibiotic, antitumor, allergenic, plant growth inhibitory, antiherbivore, and enzyme inhibitory. Usnic acid, a very active lichen substance is used in pharmaceutical preparations. Large amounts of Pseudevernia furfuracea and Evernia prunastri are processed in the perfume industry, and some lichens are sensitive reagents for the evaluation of air pollution.

  11. Lignin phenols derivatives in lichens.

    PubMed

    Zavarzina, A G; Romankevich, E A; Peresypkin, V I; Ulyantzev, A S; Belyaev, N A; Zavarzin, A A

    2015-01-01

    Lignin monophenols have been measured in the cupric oxide oxidation products from lichens of different systematic groups. It is shown for the first time that syringyl structures in most lichens strongly dominate over vanillyl and p-hydroxyl ones (S/V 7-583, S/P 3-30). This distinguishes lichens from algae and mosses (p-hydroxyl phenols are dominant) and from higher plants (S/V ratios are from 0 in gymnosperms to 1.1-5.2 in angiosperms). Molecular ratios of phenols as well as the ratios of acids to aldehydes in lichens were different from lignin of higher plants, suggesting contribution of non-lignin phenols in CuO oxidation products. The contents of syringyl and vanillyl phenols in some lichen species were comparable to non-woody tissues of higher plants. Results of the study suggest that lichens can be important source of aromatic structures in soils and hydrosphere, particularly in the regions were lichens are abundant.

  12. Oral lichen planus: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Sankari, S. Leena; Masthan, K. M. K.; Rajesh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment. PMID:26015696

  13. Lichens On Galapagos Giant Tortoises.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, J R; Weber, W A

    1964-06-19

    The association of Physcia picta with the giant Galdpagos tortoise is believed to be the first reported occurrence of lichens on land animals. The habitat is restricted to specific sites on the carapace of male tortoises.

  14. Erosive lichen planus: a therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Romero, Williams; Giesen, Laura; Navajas-Galimany, Lucas; Gonzalez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Erosive lichen planus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus. Chronic erosions of the soles, accompanied by intense and disabling pain, are some of its most characteristic manifestations. We present the case of a woman who developed oral and plantar erosive lichen planus associated with lichen planus pigmentosus and ungueal lichen planus that were diagnosed after several years. The patient failed to respond to multiple therapies requiring longstanding medication but remained refractory. Knowledge of the treatment options for erosive lichen planus is insufficient. Further research is required to clarify their effectiveness, ideally adopting an evidence-based methodology.

  15. Erosive lichen planus: a therapeutic challenge*

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Williams; Giesen, Laura; Navajas-Galimany, Lucas; Gonzalez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Erosive lichen planus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus. Chronic erosions of the soles, accompanied by intense and disabling pain, are some of its most characteristic manifestations. We present the case of a woman who developed oral and plantar erosive lichen planus associated with lichen planus pigmentosus and ungueal lichen planus that were diagnosed after several years. The patient failed to respond to multiple therapies requiring longstanding medication but remained refractory. Knowledge of the treatment options for erosive lichen planus is insufficient. Further research is required to clarify their effectiveness, ideally adopting an evidence-based methodology. PMID:26982784

  16. Exploring symbiont management in lichens.

    PubMed

    Grube, Martin; Spribille, Toby

    2012-07-01

    Lichens are unique among fungal symbioses in that their mycelial structures are compact and exposed to the light as thallus structures. The myriad intersections of unique fungal species with photosynthetic partner organisms (green algae in 90% of lichens) produce a wide variety of diverse shapes and colours of the fully synthesized lichen thallus when growing in nature. This characteristic complex morphology is, however, not achieved in the fungal axenic state. Even under ideal environmental conditions, the lichen life cycle faces considerable odds: first, meiotic spores are only produced on well-established thalli and often only after achieving considerable age in a stable environment, and second, even then in vivo resynthesis requires the presence of compatible algal strains where fungal spores germinate. Many lichen species have evolved a way around the resynthesis bottleneck by producing asexual propagules for joint propagation of symbionts. These different dispersal strategies ostensibly shape the population genetic structure of lichen symbioses, but the relative contributions of vertical (joint) and horizontal (independent) symbiont transmission have long eluded lichen evolutionary biologists. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Dal Grande et al. (2012) close in on this question with the lung lichen, Lobaria pulmonaria, a flagship species in the conservation of old growth forests. By capitalizing on available microsatellite markers for both fungal and algal symbionts, they show that while vertical transmission is the predominant mode of reproduction, horizontal transmission is demonstrable and actively shapes population genetic structure. The resulting mixed propagation system is a highly successful balance of safe recruitment of symbiotic clones and endless possibilities for fungal recombination and symbiont shuffling.

  17. Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  18. Lichen simplex chronicus on the ankle (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Lichen simplex chronicus on the ankle: Lichen simplex chronicus is also known as neurodermatitis. A minor itch may encourage scratching which increases the irritation, leading to more scratching. This ...

  19. Hepatoprotective effect of Rosa canina fruit extract against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rat

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Heibatollah; Hosseinzadeh, Saleh; Akbartabar Touri, Mehdi; Ghavamzadeh, Mehdi; Jafari Barmak, Mehrzad; sayahi, Moslem; Sadeghi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of hydro-ethanolic fruit extract of Rosa canina (R. canina) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups of 8 animals of each, including control, toxic (CCl4), R. canina 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg + CCl4 and R. canina 750 mg/kg alone. R. canina (p.o., daily) and CCl4 (1 ml/kg twice a week, 50% v/v in olive oil, i.p.) were administered to animals for six weeks. Serum analysis was performed to assay the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin (ALB), total protein (TP) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Biochemical observations were also supplemented with histopathological examination (haematoxylin and eosin staining) of liver section. Results: Hepatotoxicity was evidenced by considerable increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decrease in levels of ALB and TP. Injection of CCL4 also induced congestion in central vein, and lymphocyte infiltration. Treatment with hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina at doses of 500 and 750 mg/kg significantly reduced CCl4-elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP and MDA (p<0.01). The extract also increased the serum levels of ALB and TP compared to CCl4 group (p<0.01) at the indicated dose Histopathological studies supported the biochemical finding. Conclusion: Our finding indicated hepatoprotective effects of the hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats and suggested that these effects may be produced through reducing oxidative stress. PMID:27222831

  20. Segmental lichen planus pigmentosus: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Y Hari Kishan; Babu, Anagha Ramesh

    2014-04-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is a distinct clinical entity commonly encountered in the Indian population. It is considered a variant of lichen planus (LP). A 40-year-old male presented with asymptomatic hyperpigmented macules in a segmental distribution since 10 years that were clinically and histopathologically suggestive of LPP. We propose the terminology "segmental lichen planus pigmentosus" and report this unusual presentation.

  1. Bacterial communities associated with the lichen symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Bates, Scott T; Cropsey, Garrett W G; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2011-02-01

    Lichens are commonly described as a mutualistic symbiosis between fungi and "algae" (Chlorophyta or Cyanobacteria); however, they also have internal bacterial communities. Recent research suggests that lichen-associated microbes are an integral component of lichen thalli and that the classical view of this symbiotic relationship should be expanded to include bacteria. However, we still have a limited understanding of the phylogenetic structure of these communities and their variability across lichen species. To address these knowledge gaps, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to survey the bacterial communities associated with lichens. Bacterial sequences obtained from four lichen species at multiple locations on rock outcrops suggested that each lichen species harbored a distinct community and that all communities were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria. Across all samples, we recovered numerous bacterial phylotypes that were closely related to sequences isolated from lichens in prior investigations, including those from a lichen-associated Rhizobiales lineage (LAR1; putative N(2) fixers). LAR1-related phylotypes were relatively abundant and were found in all four lichen species, and many sequences closely related to other known N(2) fixers (e.g., Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, and Frankia) were recovered. Our findings confirm the presence of highly structured bacterial communities within lichens and provide additional evidence that these bacteria may serve distinct functional roles within lichen symbioses.

  2. Lichen sclerosus and lichen planus in women and girls.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Bethanee J; Mirowski, Ginat W

    2015-03-01

    Lichen planus and lichen sclerosus are common, chronic inflammatory vulvar dermatoses with significant morbidity. The course may wax and wane but disease often persists for decades. These autoimmune diseases have varied clinical presentations that extend beyond the genitalia. Management is best undertaken using a multidisciplinary approach and active patient involvement. The first-line treatment of both conditions is superpotent topical corticosteroids. Supportive measures and adjunct therapies can optimize patient outcomes. Patients who fail to improve despite correct medication use should be re-evaluated, and clinicians should be vigilant in detecting concomitant contact dermatitis, secondary infection, and malignancy.

  3. Xanthones of Lichen Source: A 2016 Update.

    PubMed

    Le Pogam, Pierre; Boustie, Joël

    2016-03-02

    An update of xanthones encountered in lichens is proposed as more than 20 new xanthones have been described since the publication of the compendium of lichen metabolites by Huneck and Yoshimura in 1996. The last decades witnessed major advances regarding the elucidation of biosynthetic schemes leading to these fascinating compounds, accounting for the unique substitution patterns of a very vast majority of lichen xanthones. Besides a comprehensive analysis of the structures of xanthones described in lichens, their bioactivities and the emerging analytical strategies used to pinpoint them within lichens are presented here together with physico-chemical properties (including NMR data) as reported since 1996.

  4. Water isotopes in desiccating lichens

    PubMed Central

    Cuntz, Matthias; Máguas, Cristina; Lakatos, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The stable isotopic composition of water is routinely used as a tracer to study water exchange processes in vascular plants and ecosystems. To date, no study has focussed on isotope processes in non-vascular, poikilohydric organisms such as lichens and bryophytes. To understand basic isotope exchange processes of non-vascular plants, thallus water isotopic composition was studied in various green-algal lichens exposed to desiccation. The study indicates that lichens equilibrate with the isotopic composition of surrounding water vapour. A model was developed as a proof of concept that accounts for the specific water relations of these poikilohydric organisms. The approach incorporates first their variable thallus water potential and second a compartmentation of the thallus water into two isotopically distinct but connected water pools. Moreover, the results represent first steps towards the development of poikilohydric organisms as a recorder of ambient vapour isotopic composition. PMID:19888598

  5. Clinical recommendation: pediatric lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Bercaw-Pratt, Jennifer L; Boardman, Lori A; Simms-Cendan, Judith S

    2014-04-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the anogenital region that may present in the prepubertal or adolescent patient. Clinical presentations include significant pruritus, labial adhesions, and loss of pigmentation. Treatment includes topical anti-inflammatory agents and long-term follow-up as there is a high risk of recurrence and an increased risk of vulvar cancer in adult women with history of lichen sclerosus. These recommendations are intended for pediatricians, gynecologists, nurse practitioners and others who care for pediatric/adolescent girls in order to facilitate diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Recognition and management of vulvar dermatologic conditions: lichen sclerosus, lichen planus, and lichen simplex chronicus.

    PubMed

    Thorstensen, Katrina Alef; Birenbaum, Debra L

    2012-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus, lichen planus, and lichen simplex chronicus are dermatologic conditions that can affect the vulva. Symptoms include vulvar itching, irritation, burning, and pain, which may be chronic or recurrent and can lead to significant physical discomfort and emotional distress that can affect mood and sexual relationships. With symptoms similar to common vaginal infections, women often seek care from gynecological providers and may be treated for vaginal infections without relief. Recognition and treatment of these vulvar conditions is important for symptom relief, sexual function, prevention of progressive vulvar scarring, and to provide surveillance for associated vulvar cancer. This article reviews these conditions including signs and symptoms, the process of evaluation, treatment, and follow-up, with attention to education and guidelines for vulvar care and hygiene.

  7. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.

  8. High penetrance of a pan-canina type rDNA family in intersection Rosa hybrids suggests strong selection of bivalent chromosomes in the section Caninae.

    PubMed

    Crhak Khaitova, Lucie; Werlemark, Gun; Kovarikova, Alena; Nybom, Hilde; Kovarik, Ales

    2014-01-01

    All dogroses (Rosa sect. Caninae) are characterized by the peculiar canina meiosis in which genetic material is unevenly distributed between female and male gametes. The pan-canina rDNA family (termed beta) appears to be conserved in all dogroses analyzed so far. Here, we have studied rDNAs in experimental hybrids obtained from open pollination of F1 plants derived from 2 independent intersectional crosses between the pentaploid dogrose species (2n = 5x = 35) Rosa rubiginosa as female parent (producing 4x egg cells due to the unique asymmetrical canina meiosis) and the tetraploid (2n = 4x = 28) garden rose R. hybrida 'André Brichet' as male parent (producing 2x pollen after normal meiosis). We analyzed the structure of rDNA units by molecular methods [CAPS and extensive sequencing of internal transcribed spacers (ITS)] and determined the number of loci on chromosomes by FISH. FISH showed that R. rubiginosa and 'André Brichet' harbored 5 and 4 highly heteromorphic rDNA loci, respectively. In the second generation of hybrid lines, we observed a reduced number of loci (4 and 5 instead of the expected 6). In R. rubiginosa and 'André Brichet', 2-3 major ITS types were found which is consistent with a weak homogenization pressure maintaining high diversity of ITS types in this genus. In contrast to expectation (the null hypothesis of Mendelian inheritance of ITS families), we observed reduced ITS diversity in some individuals of the second generation which might derive from self-fertilization or from a backcross to R. rubiginosa. In these individuals, the pan-canina beta family appeared to be markedly enriched, while the paternal families were lost or diminished in copies. Although the mechanism of biased meiotic transmission of certain rDNA types is currently unknown, we speculate that the bivalent-forming chromosomes carrying the beta rDNA family exhibit extraordinary pairing efficiency and/or are subjected to strong selection in Caninae polyploids.

  9. [Lichen planus and lichen planus pigmentosus following gold therapy--case reports and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Ingber, A; Weissmann-Katzenelson, V; David, M; Bialowons, M; Feuerman, E J

    1986-03-01

    We report on two typical cases of lichen planus and lichen pigmentosus appearing after gold therapy. The characteristics of lichen planus induced by drugs are emphasized, and the literature is reviewed.

  10. [Linear lichen planopilaris of the face].

    PubMed

    Cañadas, Nadia G; Luna, Paula C; Etcheverry, Mauro D; Nocito, Mabel J; Castellanos Posse, Maria L; Marchesi, Carolina; Garuti, Romina A; Carmona Cuello, Lucía E; Carabajal, Graciela; Mazzini, Miguel A

    2010-07-15

    Linear lichen planopilaris of the face is a rare variant of lichen plano- pilaris. Asymptomatic follicular papules in a linear configuration are the characteristic clinical features. The incidence is still unknown, but there are a few cases reported exclusively in male adults. We present the case of a fourteen-year-old girl with linear lichen planopilaris of the face. Improvement was obtained with the use of tacrolimus 0.03 percent ointment.

  11. Segmental lichen planus pigmentosus: An unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Y Hari Kishan; Babu, Anagha Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is a distinct clinical entity commonly encountered in the Indian population. It is considered a variant of lichen planus (LP). A 40-year-old male presented with asymptomatic hyperpigmented macules in a segmental distribution since 10 years that were clinically and histopathologically suggestive of LPP. We propose the terminology “segmental lichen planus pigmentosus” and report this unusual presentation. PMID:24860750

  12. Lichens: unexpected anti-prion agents?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Cynthia M; Bennett, James P; Johnson, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    The prion diseases sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease are transmitted, in part, via an environmental reservoir of infectivity; prions released from infected animals persist in the environment and can cause disease years later. Central to controlling disease transmission is the identification of methods capable of inactivating these agents on the landscape. We have found that certain lichens, common, ubiquitous, symbiotic organisms, possess a serine protease capable of degrading prion protein (PrP) from prion-infected animals. The protease functions against a range of prion strains from various hosts and reduces levels of abnormal PrP by at least two logs. We have now tested more than twenty lichen species from several geographical locations and from various taxa and found that approximately half of these species degrade PrP. Critical next steps include examining the effect of lichens on prion infectivity and cloning the protease responsible for PrP degradation. The impact of lichens on prions in the environment remains unknown. We speculate that lichens could have the potential to degrade prions when they are shed from infected animals onto lichens or into environments where lichens are abundant. In addition, lichens are frequently consumed by cervids and many other animals and the effect of dietary lichens on prion disease transmission should also be considered.

  13. Cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis associated with lichen planus

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Susan; Channa, Prabjot

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a case of cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis associated with lichen planus. Methods: Case report. Results: To our knowledge, this is the sixth reported case of cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis associated with lichen planus. A 73-year-old woman had persistent cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis. Histopathologic studies of the buccal mucosa biopsy specimen revealed lichen planus. Conclusion: Lichen planus is a possible cause of cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis. Topical cyclosporine may stabilize the ocular surface, and additional systemic immunosuppression may be needed in severe cases. A correct diagnosis through biopsy is essential to start aggressive anti-inflammatory treatment to avoid vision loss. PMID:27625952

  14. Linear lichen planus in children - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Marcia Raquel; Vidal, Marcela de Lima; Resende, Manuela Oliveira; Teixeira, Márcia Almeida Galvão; Cavalcanti, Silvana Maria de Morais; de Alencar, Eliane Ruth Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Lichen planus is an uncommon disease in children, and only 2 to 3% of affected patients are under twenty years of age. This dermatosis may appear in several clinical forms, which vary according to the morphology and distribution of lesions. In less than 0.2% of all lichen planus cases, the lesions are distributed along the lines of Blaschko, and is a variant called linear lichen planus. This is a case report of a patient aged two years and eight months, who presented keratotic violaceous papules, affecting the abdomen, buttocks and right thigh, distributed along the lines of Blaschko. Histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of linear lichen planus. PMID:24346902

  15. Lichens: unexpected anti-prion agents?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Bennett, James P.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The prion diseases sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease are transmitted, in part, via an environmental reservoir of infectivity; prions released from infected animals persist in the environment and can cause disease years later. Central to controlling disease transmission is the identification of methods capable of inactivating these agents on the landscape. We have found that certain lichens, common, ubiquitous, symbiotic organisms, possess a serine protease capable of degrading prion protein (PrP) from prion-infected animals. The protease functions against a range of prion strains from various hosts and reduces levels of abnormal PrP by at least two logs. We have now tested more than 20 lichen species from several geographical locations and from various taxa and found that approximately half of these species degrade PrP. Critical next steps include examining the effect of lichens on prion infectivity and cloning the protease responsible for PrP degradation. The impact of lichens on prions in the environment remains unknown. We speculate that lichens could have the potential to degrade prions when they are shed from infected animals onto lichens or into environments where lichens are abundant. In addition, lichens are frequently consumed by cervids and many other animals and the effect of dietary lichens on prion disease transmission should also be considered.

  16. Lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus.

    PubMed

    Pock, L; Jelínková, L; Drlík, L; Abrhámová, S; Vojtechovská, S; Sezemská, D; Borodácová, I; Hercogová, J

    2001-09-01

    We examined seven patients with lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) clinically and microscopically. Clinically, all patients had a striking predominance of lesions in an intertriginous location, with most of them in the axillae. Microscopically, two biopsies were of significance. Except for the regressive lichen planus, which is usual in LPP, the active inflammatory phase was also present. In these biopsies the very intensive hydropic degeneration of basal keratinocytes was combined with the absence of compensatory increased proliferation of keratinocytes, i.e. without acanthosis. The short duration of this process probably led to the quick transformation into a long noninflammatory regressive phase with incontinence of the pigment. These specific morphogenetic dynamics are possibly why most of the morphs of LPP present as brown, non-pruritic, small inflammatory macules. Because of the highly characteristic inverse location of the lesions in our patients we propose the designation LPP-inversus for this variant of the disease.

  17. Bilateral zosteriform extragenital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Jha, Abhijeet Kumar; Mallik, Sambeet Kumar; Raihan, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with asymptomatic eruption on both forearms and lower aspects of the legs for 6 months. The lesions first appeared on his inner aspects of the wrist, the dorsal surface of the hands, and legs and progressed to involve proximal aspects of the extremities. There was no significant past history. On examination, multiple pearly white papules and depigmented atrophic plaques were found bilaterally on the flexors of the arms and the extensors of the legs. The lesions were arranged in a linear manner, following the lines of Blaschko (Figures 1 and 2). The surface of the atrophic plaques was notable for prominent telangiectasia, giving an erythematous appearance. The genitalia, oral cavity, palms, and soles were spared. Systemic examination was noncontributory. Lichen striatus and extragenital lichen sclerosus (ELS) were considered the differential diagnosis. Clinically, the age of the patient, the absence of scaling, and the presence of atrophic plaques and telangiectasia were in favor of ELS. A punch biopsy from an atrophic plaque was performed, and it revealed hyperkeratosis, atrophic epidermis, basal layer vacuolar degeneration, mild lymphocytic infiltration in the dermis, edema, and homogenization of collagen of the upper portion of the dermis (Figures 3 and Figure 4). Histopathologic findings were consistent with lichen sclerosus. A diagnosis of bilateral zosteriform ELS was made.

  18. The "Ride for Russia" Tree Lichen Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from…

  19. [How lichen was translated as Chii].

    PubMed

    Kubo, Teruyuki

    2009-01-01

    Chii, the Japanese term for 'lichen', is widely used in contemporary East Asia. However, precisely when and by whom this term was first used to refer to lichen is not known. In addition, Japanese botanists from the 1880s to the 1950s had doubts regarding whether Chii was an accurate translation of lichen, given that Chii originally referred to moss that grows on the ground, whereas most species of lichens grow on barks of trees or on rocks. In this paper, the author shows that Li Shanlan and A. Williamson et al., in the late Qing dynasty of China, first used the term Chii to refer to lichen in Zhiwuxue, published in 1858. In Japan, Tanaka Yoshio, who was influenced by Zhiwuxue, first used the term Chii in 1872. However, further investigations led to the discovery that ITO Keisuke translated lichen as Risen in 1829. In 1836, UDAGAWA Yoan also translated lichen as Risen by using a different kanji (Chinese character) to represent sen. In 1888, in his article, MIYOSHI Manabu suggested a new equivalent term, Kisoukin, to refer to lichen (algae-parasitized fungi). In the article, he proposed the term Kyosei as the Japanese translation of symbiosis. Ever since the late 1880s, Kyosei has been used as the Japanese biological term for symbiosis.

  20. Verrucous Lichen Planus: A Rare Presentation of a Common Condition

    PubMed Central

    Audhya, Moutusi; Varughese, Jenny S.; Nakhwa, Yuti C.

    2014-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic papulosquamous dermatoses in which both skin and mucosae are involved. There are various morphological forms of lichen planus. Hypertrophic lichen planus is one of the rare clinical variants. Herein, we report a very unusual presentation of hypertrophic lichen planus. A similar presentation has not been reported in literature yet, to the best of our knowledge. PMID:25386324

  1. Unilateral Blaschkoid lichen planus in successive pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shiva; Okade, Rajendra; Rahman, Yasmin Abdul

    2011-01-01

    A number of genetic, congenital and acquired dermatoses have been known to follow Blaschko's lines. A common disorder like lichen planus can very rarely present with pruritic lesions in atypical patterns such as unilateral distribution, painful eruptions and along Blaschko's lines. Various triggering factors varying from viral infections and vaccinations to trauma have been implicated in lichen planus. We describe a female patient in the second trimester of her second pregnancy who developed unilateral lichen planus along Blaschko's lines during both pregnancies. No case of lichen planus along Blaschko's lines recurring during pregnancy is reported so far. Could pregnancy itself be a contributory factor towards onset of lichen planus in this case? PMID:25386287

  2. [Lichen sclerosus and squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Pascual, M; Vicente-Martín, F J; López-Estebaranz, J L

    2012-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease that can progress to malignancy. The literature indicates an association with anogenital squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma. Two pathogenic pathways, differentiated vulvar and penile intraepithelial neoplasias, which have recently been described in relation to squamous cell carcinoma, are both highly associated with genital lichen sclerosus independently of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. Furthermore, tumor-promoting molecular changes unrelated to HPV infection have been demonstrated and may explain the malignant potential of lichen sclerosus. The possible relationship between HPV and genital lichen sclerosus currently remains open to discussion, and the prognostic importance of the overlapping of these 2 diseases is still unclear. This review considers the relationship between lichen sclerosus and squamous cell and verrucous carcinomas, the possible oncogenic mechanisms involved, and their possible association with HPV infection.

  3. Lichen sclerosus and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Pascual, M; Vicente-Martín, F J; López-Estebaranz, J L

    2012-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease that can progress to malignancy. The literature indicates an association with anogenital squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma. Two pathogenic pathways, differentiated vulvar and penile intraepithelial neoplasias, which have recently been described in relation to squamous cell carcinoma, are both highly associated with genital lichen sclerosus independently of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. Furthermore, tumor-promoting molecular changes unrelated to HPV infection have been demonstrated and may explain the malignant potential of lichen sclerosus. The possible relationship between HPV and genital lichen sclerosus currently remains open to discussion, and the prognostic importance of the overlapping of these 2 diseases is still unclear. This review considers the relationship between lichen sclerosus and squamous cell and verrucous carcinomas, the possible oncogenic mechanisms involved, and their possible association with HPV infection.

  4. Microbiome change by symbiotic invasion in lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Stefanie; Wedin, Mats; Fernandez-Brime, Samantha; Cronholm, Bodil; Westberg, Martin; Weber, Bettina; Grube, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSC) seal the soil surface from erosive forces in many habitats where plants cannot compete. Lichens symbioses of fungi and algae often form significant fraction of these microbial assemblages. In addition to the fungal symbiont, many species of other fungi can inhabit the lichenic structures and interact with their hosts in different ways, ranging from commensalism to parasitism. More than 1800 species of lichenicolous (lichen-inhabiting) fungi are known to science. One example is Diploschistes muscorum, a common species in lichen-dominated BSC that infects lichens of the genus Cladonia. D. muscorum starts as a lichenicolous fungus, invading the lichen Cladonia symphycarpa and gradually develops an independent Diploschistes lichen thallus. Furthermore, bacterial groups, such as Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria, have been consistently recovered from lichen thalli and evidence is rapidly accumulating that these microbes may generally play integral roles in the lichen symbiosis. Here we describe lichen microbiome dynamics as the parasitic lichen D. muscorum takes over C. symphycarpa. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and photobiont-specific ITS rDNA sequencing to track bacterial and algal transitions during the infection process, and employed fluorescence in situ hybridization to localize bacteria in the Cladonia and Diploschistes lichen thalli. We sampled four transitional stages, at sites in Sweden and Germany: A) Cladonia with no visible infection, B) early infection stage defined by the first visible Diploschistes thallus, C) late-stage infection with parts of the Cladonia thallus still identifiable, and D) final stage with a fully developed Diploschistes thallus, A gradual microbiome shift occurred during the transition, but fractions of Cladonia-associated bacteria were retained during the process of symbiotic reorganization. Consistent changes observed across sites included a notable decrease in the relative abundance of

  5. Case for diagnosis. Lichen myxedematosus*

    PubMed Central

    Rebellato, Priscila Regina Orso; Carbonar, Mauren Beatriz Frazon; Tabuti, Nicole Iasmin Magario; Rastelli, Graziela Junges Crescente

    2016-01-01

    Scleromyxedema or lichen myxedematosus is a rare papular mucinosis of chronic and progressive course and unknown etiology. It is commonly associated with monoclonal gammopathy and may show extracutaneous manifestations, affecting the heart, lung, kidney, and nerves. The diagnosis is based on four criteria: generalized papular and sclerodermoid lesions; mucin deposition, fibroblast proliferation, and fibrosis in the histopathology; monoclonal gammopathy; and no thyroid disorders. This article reports the case of a scleromyxedema patient with a recent history of acute myocardial infarction and monoclonal gammopathy. PMID:28099617

  6. Microbiome change by symbiotic invasion in lichens.

    PubMed

    Wedin, Mats; Maier, Stefanie; Fernandez-Brime, Samantha; Cronholm, Bodil; Westberg, Martin; Grube, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Lichens are obligate symbioses between fungi and green algae or cyanobacteria. Most lichens resynthesize their symbiotic thalli from propagules, but some develop within the structures of already existing lichen symbioses. Diploschistes muscorum starts as a parasite infecting the lichen Cladonia symphycarpa and gradually develops an independent Diploschistes lichen thallus. Here we studied how this process influences lichen-associated microbiomes and photobionts by sampling four transitional stages, at sites in Sweden and Germany, and characterizing their microbial communities using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and photobiont-specific ITS rDNA sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. A gradual microbiome shift occurred during the transition, but fractions of Cladonia-associated bacteria were retained during the process of symbiotic reorganization. Consistent changes observed across sites included a notable decrease in the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria with a concomitant increase in Betaproteobacteria. Armatimonadia, Spartobacteria and Acidobacteria also decreased during the infection of Cladonia by Diploschistes. The lichens differed in photobiont specificity. Cladonia symphycarpa was associated with the same algal species at all sites, but Diploschistes muscorum had a flexible strategy with different photobiont combinations at each site. This symbiotic invasion system suggests that partners can be reorganized and selected for maintaining potential roles rather than depending on particular species.

  7. Covariance of lichen and vascular plant floras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    The geographic relationships among taxonomic groups are important to study to determine patterns of biodiversity and whether or not associations occur between large groups, e.g., birds and vascular plants. This study was undertaken to determine relationships between higher plants and lower plants, specifically vascular plant and lichen floras in nine national parks of the Great Lakes region. No significant relationship was found between vascular plant floras and lichen floras in this area, which spans 1200 km longitudinally, or between an additional 19 areas from North America that were less than 1000 km(2) in area. For areas larger than 1000 km(2), however, a significant positive relationship existed for 33 areas that span one to approximately 150 million km(2). The ratio of numbers of vascular plants to lichens appeared to average just over 6 across the 33 areas. In the Great Lakes parks, between 28-30% of either the vascular plant or lichen species were singletons (occurring in only one park), but the parks that contained the most singletons were not congruent: Isle Royale had the most singleton lichens, while Indiana Dunes had the most vascular plant singletons. Fewer lichen species (2%) than vascular plants (4%) occurred in all nine parks. Latitude appeared to explain some of the variation between the two groups: vascular plants decreased with increasing latitude, while lichens increased.

  8. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Biosca, Elena G.; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D.; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Lichens, self-supporting mutualistic associations between a fungal partner and one or more photosynthetic partners, also harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria. The diversity and contribution of these bacteria to the functioning of lichen symbiosis have recently begun to be studied, often by culture-independent techniques due to difficulties in their isolation and culture. However, culturing as yet unculturable lichenic bacteria is critical to unravel their potential functional roles in lichen symbiogenesis, to explore and exploit their biotechnological potential and for the description of new taxa. Our objective was to improve the recovery of lichen associated bacteria by developing novel isolation and culture approaches, initially using the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. We evaluated the effect of newly developed media enriched with novel lichen extracts, as well as the influence of thalli washing time and different disinfection and processing protocols of thalli. The developed methodology included: i) the use of lichen enriched media to mimic lichen nutrients, supplemented with the fungicide natamycin; ii) an extended washing of thalli to increase the recovery of ectolichenic bacteria, thus allowing the disinfection of thalli to be discarded, hence enhancing endolichenic bacteria recovery; and iii) the use of an antioxidant buffer to prevent or reduce oxidative stress during thalli disruption. The optimized methodology allowed significant increases in the number and diversity of culturable bacteria associated with P. furfuracea, and it was also successfully applied to the lichens Ramalina farinacea and Parmotrema pseudotinctorum. Furthermore, we provide, for the first time, data on the abundance of culturable ecto- and endolichenic bacteria that naturally colonize P. furfuracea, R. farinacea and P. pseudotinctorum, some of which were only able to grow on lichen enriched media. This innovative methodology is also applicable to other microorganisms inhabiting these

  9. Rosa canina Extracts Have Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Effects on Caco-2 Human Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Sandra; Gascón, Sonia; Luquin, Asunción; Laguna, Mariano; Ancin-Azpilicueta, Carmen; Rodríguez-Yoldi, María Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant effects of different fractions of Rosa canina hips on human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2) was studied. The compounds tested were total extract (fraction 1), vitamin C (fraction 2), neutral polyphenols (fraction 3) and acidic polyphenols (fraction 4). All the extracts showed high cytotoxicity after 72 h, both low and high concentrations. The flow cytometric analysis revealed that all the fractions produce disturbances in the cell cycle resulting in a concomitant cell death by an apoptotic pathway. Changes in the redox status of Caco-2 cells in response to Rosa canina hips were determined. Cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide in presence of plant fractions and the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) was significantly decreased. Therefore, our data demonstrate that rosehip extracts are a powerful antioxidant that produces an antiproliferative effect in Caco-2 cells. Therefore, these results predict a promising future for Rosa canina as a therapeutic agent. Thus, this natural plant could be an effective component of functional foods addressed towards colorectal carcinoma. PMID:27467555

  10. Lichen planus pigmentosus-like ashy dermatosis

    PubMed Central

    Cutrì, Francesco Tripodi; Ruocco, Eleonora; Pettinato, Guido; Ciancia, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Ashy dermatosis, also known as erythema dyschromicum perstans, is an idiopathic dermal melanosis of unknown etiology. We here describe an unusual case of 63-year-old Caucasian male with ashy dermatosis and skin lesion of lichen pigmentosus-like. No treatment was tried because the lesions were totally asymptomatic. After a control, three months later, all lesions had cleared up. This case is of interest because it proves the existence of ashy dermatosis with clinical aspect lichen planus pigmentosus-like. This is the first case in the literature of lichen planus pigmentosus-like ashy dermatosis confirming the view that ashy dermatosis is a variant of lichen planus without the typically band-like infiltrate and Max Joseph spaces. PMID:25386298

  11. Lichen planus pigmentosus-like ashy dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Cutrì, Francesco Tripodi; Ruocco, Eleonora; Pettinato, Guido; Ciancia, Giuseppe

    2011-10-05

    Ashy dermatosis, also known as erythema dyschromicum perstans, is an idiopathic dermal melanosis of unknown etiology. We here describe an unusual case of 63-year-old Caucasian male with ashy dermatosis and skin lesion of lichen pigmentosus-like. No treatment was tried because the lesions were totally asymptomatic. After a control, three months later, all lesions had cleared up. This case is of interest because it proves the existence of ashy dermatosis with clinical aspect lichen planus pigmentosus-like. This is the first case in the literature of lichen planus pigmentosus-like ashy dermatosis confirming the view that ashy dermatosis is a variant of lichen planus without the typically band-like infiltrate and Max Joseph spaces.

  12. Distribution of lichen flora on South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Harada, Hiroshi; Oh, Soon-Ok; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Kang, Eui-Sung; Lee, Seung Mi; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2004-06-01

    After an overview on the temporary situation of the lichenology in South Korea, localities of 95 macrolichen taxa are reported for South Korea. In this revised lichen flora of South Korea, 16 species are apparently new to the territory. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and duplicates have also been donated to the National History Museum and Institute, in Chiba, (CBM) Japan.

  13. Recent advances in understanding urethral lichen sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Mangera, Altaf; Osman, Nadir; Chapple, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus affecting the male genitalia is a poorly understood but potentially devastating condition. The natural history of the condition is beginning to be understood better with longer follow-up of patients. Recent long-term data suggest that circumcision for lichen sclerosus limited to the prepuce may not be curative as was once thought. In addition, surgical treatments should be followed up for longer periods as recurrences may occur after urethroplasty and perineal urethrostomy. PMID:26918163

  14. Recent advances in understanding urethral lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Mangera, Altaf; Osman, Nadir; Chapple, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus affecting the male genitalia is a poorly understood but potentially devastating condition. The natural history of the condition is beginning to be understood better with longer follow-up of patients. Recent long-term data suggest that circumcision for lichen sclerosus limited to the prepuce may not be curative as was once thought. In addition, surgical treatments should be followed up for longer periods as recurrences may occur after urethroplasty and perineal urethrostomy.

  15. Algal and fungal diversity in Antarctic lichens.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Elvebakk, Arve; Kim, Ok-Sun; Jeong, Gajin; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The composition of lichen ecosystems except mycobiont and photobiont has not been evaluated intensively. In addition, recent studies to identify algal genotypes have raised questions about the specific relationship between mycobiont and photobiont. In the current study, we analyzed algal and fungal community structures in lichen species from King George Island, Antarctica, by pyrosequencing of eukaryotic large subunit (LSU) and algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of the nuclear rRNA gene. The sequencing results of LSU and ITS regions indicated that each lichen thallus contained diverse algal species. The major algal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) defined at a 99% similarity cutoff of LSU sequences accounted for 78.7-100% of the total algal community in each sample. In several cases, the major OTUs defined by LSU sequences were represented by two closely related OTUs defined by 98% sequence similarity of ITS domain. The results of LSU sequences indicated that lichen-associated fungi belonged to the Arthoniomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes of the Ascomycota, and Tremellomycetes and Cystobasidiomycetes of the Basidiomycota. The composition of major photobiont species and lichen-associated fungal community were mostly related to the mycobiont species. The contribution of growth forms or substrates on composition of photobiont and lichen-associated fungi was not evident.

  16. Metabolic Profiling of Alpine and Ecuadorian Lichens.

    PubMed

    Mittermeier, Verena K; Schmitt, Nicola; Volk, Lukas P M; Suárez, Juan Pablo; Beck, Andreas; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Non-targeted ¹H-NMR methods were used to determine metabolite profiles from crude extracts of Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens collected from their natural habitats. In control experiments, the robustness of metabolite detection and quantification was estimated using replicate measurements of Stereocaulon alpinum extracts. The deviations in the overall metabolite fingerprints were low when analyzing S. alpinum collections from different locations or during different annual and seasonal periods. In contrast, metabolite profiles observed from extracts of different Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens clearly revealed genus- and species-specific profiles. The discriminating functions determining cluster formation in principle component analysis (PCA) were due to differences in the amounts of genus-specific compounds such as sticticin from the Sticta species, but also in the amounts of ubiquitous metabolites, such as sugar alcohols or trehalose. However, varying concentrations of these metabolites from the same lichen species e.g., due to different environmental conditions appeared of minor relevance for the overall cluster formation in PCA. The metabolic clusters matched phylogenetic analyses using nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of lichen mycobionts, as exemplified for the genus Sticta. It can be concluded that NMR-based non-targeted metabolic profiling is a useful tool in the chemo-taxonomy of lichens. The same approach could also facilitate the discovery of novel lichen metabolites on a rapid and systematical basis.

  17. Major fungal lineages are derived from lichen symbiotic ancestors.

    PubMed

    Lutzoni, F; Pagel, M; Reeb, V

    2001-06-21

    About one-fifth of all known extant fungal species form obligate symbiotic associations with green algae, cyanobacteria or with both photobionts. These symbioses, known as lichens, are one way for fungi to meet their requirement for carbohydrates. Lichens are widely believed to have arisen independently on several occasions, accounting for the high diversity and mixed occurrence of lichenized and non-lichenized (42 and 58%, respectively) fungal species within the Ascomycota. Depending on the taxonomic classification chosen, 15-18 orders of the Ascomycota include lichen-forming taxa, and 8-11 of these orders (representing about 60% of the Ascomycota species) contain both lichenized and non-lichenized species. Here we report a phylogenetic comparative analysis of the Ascomycota, a phylum that includes greater than 98% of known lichenized fungal species. Using a Bayesian phylogenetic tree sampling methodology combined with a statistical model of trait evolution, we take into account uncertainty about the phylogenetic tree and ancestral state reconstructions. Our results show that lichens evolved earlier than believed, and that gains of lichenization have been infrequent during Ascomycota evolution, but have been followed by multiple independent losses of the lichen symbiosis. As a consequence, major Ascomycota lineages of exclusively non-lichen-forming species are derived from lichen-forming ancestors. These species include taxa with important benefits and detriments to humans, such as Penicillium and Aspergillus.

  18. Oxidoreductases and cellulases in lichens: possible roles in lichen biology and soil organic matter turnover.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Richard P; Zavarzina, Anna G; Liers, Christiane

    2013-06-01

    Lichens are symbiotic associations of a fungus (usually an Ascomycete) with green algae and/or a cyanobacterium. They dominate on 8 % of the world's land surface, mainly in Arctic and Antarctic regions, tundra, high mountain elevations and as components of dryland crusts. In many ecosystems, lichens are the pioneers on the bare rock or soil following disturbance, presumably because of their tolerance to desiccation and high temperature. Lichens have long been recognized as agents of mineral weathering and fine-earth stabilization. Being dominant biomass producers in extreme environments they contribute to primary accumulation of soil organic matter. However, biochemical role of lichens in soil processes is unknown. Our recent research has demonstrated that Peltigeralean lichens contain redox enzymes which in free-living fungi participate in lignocellulose degradation and humification. Thus lichen enzymes may catalyse formation and degradation of soil organic matter, particularly in high-stress communities dominated by lower plants. In the present review we synthesize recently published data on lichen phenol oxidases, peroxidases, and cellulases and discuss their possible roles in lichen physiology and soil organic matter transformations.

  19. Profile of lichen planus in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khondker, L; Wahab, M A; Khan, S I

    2010-04-01

    Lichen planus is one of the common inflammatory disorders of skin, mucous membrane, nail and hair characterized by violaceous, polish, pruritic, polygonal, flat-topped papules usually distributed bilaterally symmetrically over the extremities. Our objectives in this study were to explore the prevalence of lichen planus in large area of Dhaka in Bangladesh and to establish the clinical characteristics of lichen planus. This descriptive type of cross sectional study was carried out from September 2006 to August 2008 in the Department of Dermatology and Venereology of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) and Combined Military Hospital (CMH) in Dhaka. Patients suffering from lichen planus were selected as study population. By face to face interview and clinical observations, data were collected from sample. A total 120 patients of lichen planus were selected, on the basis of age, 30(25%) were 10-30 years of age, 75(62.56%) were 30-50 years and 16(13.33%) were over 50 years of age. The mean age of the patient was 40+/-4 years. Out of 120 patients, 80(66.66%) were male and 60(33.33%) were female and eight patients (6.67%) had positive family history among highest age group (30 to 50 years). In case of duration of disease, highest percentage (68%) of cases was 15 days to 6 months and considering clinical sign, koebnerization was present 45(37.5%) cases and Wickhams striae 22(18.33%) cases. Regarding site of onset of lesion, lesions were highest 100(83.33%) in upper limbs, next lower limbs, trunk, oral mucosa etc. The distribution of clinical pattern of lichen planus showing classic pattern (68.33%) was the most common type, followed by hypertrophic, actinic, ashy dermatoses, lichen plano-pilaris, erosive or ulcerative etc. This clinico-epidemiological study of lichen planus attending in the different hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh has shown that lichen planus is usually associated with 30 to 50 years of age group, with

  20. Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from the Albanian Alps (Kosovo, Montenegro)

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Eva A.; Hafellner, Josef; Stešević, Danijela; Geci, Fehmi; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    396 taxa (381 species) of lichenized and 45 species of lichenicolous fungi from the upper montane, subalpine and alpine belts of the Albanian Alps (= Prokletije Mountain Range, Bjeshkët e Nemuna) are presented. 92 lichenized and 26 lichenicolous fungi are new to Montenegro, 165 lichenized and 24 lichenicolous fungi are new to Kosovo, and 25 lichenized fungi (23 species) are new for the Balkan Peninsula. PMID:26869727

  1. Lichens from Simeonof Wilderness, Shumagin Island, Southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Thomson, J.W.; Daniels, F.J.A.; Schofield, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    One hundred eighty-eight taxa of lichens are reported from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands of southwestern Alaska. Wide-ranging arctic-alpine and boreal species dominate the lichens; a coastal element is moderately represented, while amphi-Beringian species form a minor element. The lichen component of Empetrum nigrum dwarf shrub heath, the dominant vegetation type, was analyzed to identify the most frequently occurring lichens within this community.

  2. Treatment modalities of palmoplantar lichen planus: a brief review

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoobi, Reza; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Palmoplantar lichen planus is a localized and uncommon variant of lichen planus which is mostly resistant to treatment. Our purpose was to discuss all treatment modalities proposed and tested for palmoplantar lichen planus in the literature. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate evidence regarding all treatment modalities proposed and tested for palmoplantar lichen planus in the literature. Two major databases (PubMed, Google scholar) were searched. The review included all case reports, letters and original articles reporting any treatment for palmoplantar lichen planus but not treatment used in the other type of lichen planus, generalized lichen planus or other type of palmoplantar dermatoses. We have gone over more than 50 articles. There are many drugs that have been used in the treatment of lichen planus and generalized lichen planus but the palmoplantar type is a rare variety of lichen planus. That is why we could not find any clinical trial on the subject and just case reports have been described in this manuscript. In spite of plentiful investigations carried out on lichen planus, there is no treatment modality that has proved to be utterly satisfactory in treatment of palmoplantar lichen planus. PMID:28035216

  3. Treatment modalities of palmoplantar lichen planus: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Feily, Amir; Yaghoobi, Reza; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2016-12-01

    Palmoplantar lichen planus is a localized and uncommon variant of lichen planus which is mostly resistant to treatment. Our purpose was to discuss all treatment modalities proposed and tested for palmoplantar lichen planus in the literature. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate evidence regarding all treatment modalities proposed and tested for palmoplantar lichen planus in the literature. Two major databases (PubMed, Google scholar) were searched. The review included all case reports, letters and original articles reporting any treatment for palmoplantar lichen planus but not treatment used in the other type of lichen planus, generalized lichen planus or other type of palmoplantar dermatoses. We have gone over more than 50 articles. There are many drugs that have been used in the treatment of lichen planus and generalized lichen planus but the palmoplantar type is a rare variety of lichen planus. That is why we could not find any clinical trial on the subject and just case reports have been described in this manuscript. In spite of plentiful investigations carried out on lichen planus, there is no treatment modality that has proved to be utterly satisfactory in treatment of palmoplantar lichen planus.

  4. Catalogue of the Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Montenegro

    PubMed Central

    Knežević, Branka; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Summary The catalogue is based on a comprehensive evaluation of 169 published sources. The lichen mycota as currently known from Montenegro includes 681 species (with eight subspecies, nine varieties and one form) of lichenized fungi, 12 species of lichenicolous fungi, and nine non-lichenized fungi traditionally included in lichenological literature. PMID:21423858

  5. Lichen planus pigmentosus associated with acrokeratosis of Bazex.

    PubMed

    Sassolas, B; Zagnoli, A; Leroy, J P; Guillet, G

    1994-01-01

    A patient with an acquired pigmentation related to lichen planus pigmentosus is described. Features of acrokeratosis of Bazex were associated, related to a head and neck carcinoma. Both cutaneous conditions disappeared after treatment of the neoplasia. Diagnostic criteria of lichen planus pigmentosus are reviewed. The paraneoplastic nature of this original observation of lichen planus pigmentosus is discussed.

  6. Vulvovaginal-gingival Lichen Planus: Association with Lichen Planopilaris and Stratified Epithelium-specific Antinuclear Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Malgorzata; Banka-Wrona, Agnieszka; Skrok, Anna; Rakowska, Adriana; Górska, Renata; Solomon, Lynn W; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Vulvovaginal-gingival lichen planus (VVG-LP) consists of a triad of symptoms: vulval, vaginal and gingival lichen planus lesions. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of lesions in various anatomical locations in patients with VVG-LP. The study included 126 consecutive patients with lichen planus. Sixteen (12.7%) patients fulfilled the criteria of VVG-LP. In 12/16 (75%) patients with VVG-LP scalp lesions were also observed. Stratified epithelium-specific antinuclear antibodies (SES-ANA) and anti-ΔNp.3α antibodies were detected in 10/16 (75%) patients with VVG-LP and in 15/110 (13.6%) patients with other forms of lichen planus (p < 0.05). In conclusion, VVG-LP is frequently associated with lichen planopilaris. The new entity may be termed "vulvovaginal-gingival-pilar lichen planus" and our study indicates that SES-ANA is a marker of this type of lichen planus with extensive, severe and refractory-to-therapy involvement of the mucous membranes, skin and scalp.

  7. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM ECUADORIAN LICHENS.

    PubMed

    Matvieieva, N A; Pasichnyk, L A; Zhytkevych, N V; Jacinto, Pabón Garcés Galo; Pidgorskyi, V S

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic, isopropanolic, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts of the two lichen species from Ecuadorian highland, Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. were explored in vitro against bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the disc-diffusion method. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was found in DMSO extract of Usnea sp. compared to antibacterial activity of ciprfloxacin and cefazolin antibiotics. The inhibition zone was 28 mm, 30 mm, 31mm (DMSO extract, ciprfloxacin and cefazolin respectively) in case of B. subtilis usage as the test bacteria. MIC value for Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. DMSO extracts was 0.4 mg/ml. E. coli was resistant to all kinds of extracts. The S. aureus sensitivity to lichen DMSO extracts was comparable to sensitivity of these microorganisms to tetracycline and vancomycin. Thereby, most kinds of extracts (ethanol, isopropanol, hexane, DMSO and acetone solvents) from Ecuadorian lichens Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. with the exception of aqueous Stereocaulon sp. extracts possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. DMSO lichen extracts had also antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. At the same time the extracts studied didn't demonstrate antibacterial activity against the representatives of the most common and harmful phytopathogenic bacteria tested. Further investigations of Ecuadorian lichens especially study of plants collected from extremal highland biotops can be very important in study of possibility of treatment of numerous diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.

  8. Lichens of Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, westernmost Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.; Thomson, J.W.; Schofield, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    One hundred eighty-two taxa of lichens including two lichen parasites are reported from Izembek National Wildlife Refuge on the tip of the Alaska Peninsula. Metasphaeria tartarina is new to North America; Scoliciosporum umbrinum is new to Alaska. Wide-ranging, arctic-alpine, and boreal species dominate the lichen flora; a coastal element is moderately represented, while amphi-Beringian species form a minor element. Epigeic lichen abundance is described along a lowland to alpine mesotopographic gradient selected to represent major landscape variation in the refuge. Of six major community types identified, three had significant lichen components.

  9. Apoptosis in oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Neppelberg, E; Johannessen, A C; Jonsson, R

    2001-10-01

    Apoptotic cell death may be a contributory cause of basal cell destruction in oral lichen planus (OLP). Therefore. the purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis in OLP and the expression of two proteins (FasR and FasL) regulating this process. Biopsies from 18 patients with histologically diagnosed OLP were investigated, with comparison to normal oral mucosa of healthy persons. For visualisation of DNA fragmentation, the TUNEL method was used. In order to characterise the infiltrating cell population (CD3. CD4, CD8) and expression of FasR and FasL, we used an immunohistochemical technique. The results showed that T cells dominated in the subepithelial cell infiltrate. Within the epithelium the apoptotic cells were confined to the basal cell layer, and more apoptotic cells were seen in areas with basal cell degeneration and atrophic epithelium. There was a prominent expression of FasR/FasL in OLP. with a rather uniform distribution throughout the inflammatory cell infiltrate. In the epithelium, the FasR/FasL expression was more abundant in the basal cell area compared to the suprabasal cell layer. In conclusion, apoptosis within the epithelium is significantly increased in situ in OLP compared to normal oral mucosa, and seems to be related to the epithelial thickness.

  10. Genetic approaches to harvesting lichen products.

    PubMed

    Miao, V; Coëffet-LeGal, M F; Brown, D; Sinnemann, S; Donaldson, G; Davies, J

    2001-09-01

    Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi, green algae and/or cyanobacteria. They have a varied chemistry and produce many polyketide-derived compounds, including some, such as depsides and depsidones, that are rarely reported elsewhere. Although lichens have been appreciated in traditional medicines, their value has largely been ignored by the modern pharmaceutical industry because difficulties in establishing axenic cultures and conditions for rapid growth preclude their routine use in most conventional screening processes. Recently, molecular genetic techniques using PCR, genomic library construction and heterologous expression have provided an alternative approach to begin exploring the diversity of polyketide biosynthetic pathways in lichens. The techniques can be expanded to cover other pathway types and be integrated with conventional culture collection-based screening to provide a comprehensive search for novel chemical entities in these organisms.

  11. Bullous and hemorrhagic lichen sclerosus - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Raquel Sucupira Andrade; Maquiné, Gustavo Ávila; Schettini, Antônio Pedro Mendes; Santos, Mônica

    2015-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease, usually located in the genital area. The etiology of lichen sclerosus is multifactorial, with participation of genetic, autoimmune, infectious and hormonal factors. Bullous clinical form stems from hydropic degeneration of the basal membrane, constituting a less frequent variant of the disease. In this work, we report the case of a female patient, 55 years old, who in the last three years presented whitish plaques, with horny spikes, located on back and arms. Some of these lesions evolved with hemorrhagic blisters, which after histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of bullous and hemorrhagic lichen sclerosus. The patient was treated with high-potency topical corticosteroid for two months, resulting in remission of bullous and hemorrhagic lesions. PMID:26312692

  12. Lichen conservation in heavily managed boreal forests.

    PubMed

    McMullin, Richard Troy; Thompson, Ian D; Newmaster, Steven G

    2013-10-01

    Lichens are an important component of the boreal forest, where they are long lived, tend to accumulate in older stands, and are a major food source for the threatened woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). To be fully sustainable, silvicultural practices in the boreal forest must include the conservation of ecological integrity. Dominant forest management practices, however, have short-term negative effects on lichen diversity, particularly the application of herbicides. To better understand the long-term effects of forest management, we examined lichen regeneration in 35 mixed black spruce (Picea mariana) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest stands across northern Ontario to determine recovery following logging and postharvest silvicultural practices. Our forest stands were 25-40 years old and had undergone 3 common sivilcultural treatments that included harvested and planted; harvested, planted, and treated with N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine (glyphosate); and harvested, planted, and treated with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Forest stands with herbicide treatments had lower lichen biomass and higher beta and gamma diversity than planted stands that were not treated chemically or control stands. In northwestern Ontario, planted stands that were not treated chemically had significantly greater (p < 0.05) alpha diversity than stands treated with herbicides or control stands. Our results show that common silvicultural practices do not emulate natural disturbances caused by wildfires in the boreal forest for the lichen community. We suggest a reduction in the amount of chemical application be considered in areas where lichen biomass is likely to be high and where the recovery of woodland caribou is an objective.

  13. Palmoplantar lichen planus successfully treated with acitretin.

    PubMed

    Solak, Berna; Kara, Rabia Oztas; Kosem, Mustafa

    2015-09-07

    Palmoplantar lichen planus (PPL) is an uncommon type of lichen planus (LP) that exclusively affects the palms and soles. We report a case of a 50-year-old man who had palmoplantar hyperkeratotic papules and plaques. The patient was diagnosed as a case of PPL by skin biopsy, and treated with acitretin. He showed a good response to acitretin within 2 months. Clinical appearance and some features of PPL may differ from classic LP. Acitretin may be a favourable treatment option for PPL.

  14. How lichens impact on terrestrial community and ecosystem properties.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Johan; Wardle, David A

    2016-10-11

    Lichens occur in most terrestrial ecosystems; they are often present as minor contributors, but in some forests, drylands and tundras they can make up most of the ground layer biomass. As such, lichens dominate approximately 8% of the Earth's land surface. Despite their potential importance in driving ecosystem biogeochemistry, the influence of lichens on community processes and ecosystem functioning have attracted relatively little attention. Here, we review the role of lichens in terrestrial ecosystems and draw attention to the important, but often overlooked role of lichens as determinants of ecological processes. We start by assessing characteristics that vary among lichens and that may be important in determining their ecological role; these include their growth form, the types of photobionts that they contain, their key functional traits, their water-holding capacity, their colour, and the levels of secondary compounds in their thalli. We then assess how these differences among lichens influence their impacts on ecosystem and community processes. As such, we consider the consequences of these differences for determining the impacts of lichens on ecosystem nutrient inputs and fluxes, on the loss of mass and nutrients during lichen thallus decomposition, and on the role of lichenivorous invertebrates in moderating decomposition. We then consider how differences among lichens impact on their interactions with consumer organisms that utilize lichen thalli, and that range in size from microfauna (for which the primary role of lichens is habitat provision) to large mammals (for which lichens are primarily a food source). We then address how differences among lichens impact on plants, through for example increasing nutrient inputs and availability during primary succession, and serving as a filter for plant seedling establishment. Finally we identify areas in need of further work for better understanding the role of lichens in terrestrial ecosystems. These include

  15. Isolation of immunomodulatory triterpene acids from a standardized rose hip powder (Rosa canina L.).

    PubMed

    Saaby, Lasse; Jäger, Anna Katharina; Moesby, Lise; Hansen, Erik Wind; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2011-02-01

    A previously published systematic review and a metaanalysis have concluded that the consumption of standardized rose hip powder (Rosa canina L.) can reduce pain in osteoarthritis patients. Synovial inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and mainly to involve infiltration of the synovial membrane by macrophages. Therefore, the immunomodulatory effect of standardized rose hip powder of Rosa canina L. was investigated and active principles isolated using the Mono Mac 6 cell line as a model for human macrophages. Treatment of Mono Mac 6 cells with the residue of a crude dichloromethane extract of rose hip powder significantly and concentration dependently inhibited the lipopolysaccharide induced interleukin-6 release. Through bioassay-guided fractionation the immunomodulatory effect of the dichloromethane extract was correlated to a mixture of three triterpene acids; oleanolic acid, betulinic acid and ursolic acid (IC(50) 21 ± 6 µm). Further studies revealed that only oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, but not betulinic acid, could inhibit the lipopolysaccharide induced interleukin-6 release from Mono Mac 6 cells when tested separately. Combination of either oleanolic acid or ursolic acid with betulinic acid enhanced the immunomodulatory effect of the two triterpene acids.

  16. Longitudinal photosynthetic gradient in crust lichens' thalli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li; Zhang, Gaoke; Lan, Shubin; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang

    2014-05-01

    In order to evaluate the self-shading protection for inner photobionts, the photosynthetic activities of three crust lichens were detected using Microscope-Imaging-PAM. The false color images showed that longitudinal photosynthetic gradient was found in both the green algal lichen Placidium sp. and the cyanolichen Peltula sp. In longitudinal direction, all the four chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm, Yield, qP, and rETR gradually decreased with depth in the thalli of both of these two lichens. In Placidium sp., qN values decreased with depth, whereas an opposite trend was found in Peltula sp. However, no such photosynthetic heterogeneity was found in the thalli of Collema sp. in longitudinal direction. Microscope observation showed that photobiont cells are compactly arranged in Placidium sp. and Peltula sp. while loosely distributed in Collema sp. It was considered that the longitudinal photosynthetic heterogeneity was ascribed to the result of gradual decrease of incidence caused by the compact arrangement of photobiont cells in the thalli. The results indicate a good protection from the self-shading for the inner photobionts against high radiation in crust lichens.

  17. Lichen planus secondary to rabies vaccination.

    PubMed

    An, Isa; Demir, Vasfiye; İbiloğlu, İbrahim; Akdeniz, Sedat

    2017-03-15

    Lichen planus (LP) is a papulosquamous disease withdistinctive clinical manifestations. The etiology of LPremains unknown. Recently, numerous cases of LPdeveloping after hepatitis B, influenza, and combinedDTaP-IPV-MMR vaccine have been described. In thisreport, we present the second case of LP after rabiesvaccination.

  18. Occurrence patterns of lichens on stumps in young managed forests.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Måns; Dahlberg, Anders; Ranius, Thomas; Thor, Göran

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demand for forest-derived bio-fuel may decrease the amount of dead wood and hence also the amount of available substrate for saproxylic ( = dead-wood dependent) organisms. Cut stumps constitute a large portion of dead wood in managed boreal forests. The lichen flora of such stumps has received little interest. Therefore, we investigated which lichens that occur on stumps in young (4-19 years), managed forests and analyzed how species richness and occurrence of individual species were related to stump and stand characteristics. We performed lichen inventories of 576 Norway spruce stumps in 48 forest stands in two study areas in Central Sweden, recording in total 77 lichen species. Of these, 14 were obligately lignicolous, while the remaining were generalists that also grow on bark, soil or rocks. We tested the effect of characteristics reflecting successional stage, microclimate, substrate patch size, and the species pool in the surrounding area on (1) total lichen species richness, (2) species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens and (3) the occurrence of four obligately lignicolous lichen species. The most important variables were stump age, with more species on old stumps, and study area, with similar total species richness but differences in occupancy for individual species. Responses for total lichen species richness and species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens were overall similar, indicating similar ecological requirements of these two groups. Our results indicate that species richness measurements serve as poor proxies for the responses of individual, obligately lignicolous lichen species.

  19. Extremotolerance and Resistance of Lichens: Comparative Studies on Five Species Used in Astrobiological Research II. Secondary Lichen Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeßen, J.; Sánchez, F. J.; Sadowsky, A.; de la Torre, R.; Ott, S.; de Vera, J.-P.

    2013-12-01

    Lichens, which are symbioses of a fungus and one or two photoautotrophs, frequently tolerate extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems in astrobiological research to fathom the limits and limitations of eukaryotic symbioses. Various studies demonstrated the high resistance of selected extremotolerant lichens towards extreme, non-terrestrial abiotic factors including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. This study focusses on the diverse set of secondary lichen compounds (SLCs) that act as photo- and UVR-protective substances. Five lichen species used in present-day astrobiological research were compared: Buellia frigida, Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, and Pleopsidium chlorophanum. Detailed investigation of secondary substances including photosynthetic pigments was performed for whole lichen thalli but also for axenically cultivated mycobionts and photobionts by methods of UV/VIS-spectrophotometry and two types of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, a set of chemical tests is presented to confirm the formation of melanic compounds in lichen and mycobiont samples. All investigated lichens reveal various sets of SLCs, except C. gyrosa where only melanin was putatively identified. Such studies will help to assess the contribution of SLCs on lichen extremotolerance, to understand the adaptation of lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors of the respective habitat, and to form a basis for interpreting recent and future astrobiological experiments. As most of the identified SLCs demonstrated a high capacity in absorbing UVR, they may also explain the high resistance of lichens towards non-terrestrial UVR.

  20. The symbiotic playground of lichen thalli--a highly flexible photobiont association in rock-inhabiting lichens.

    PubMed

    Muggia, Lucia; Vancurova, Lucie; Škaloud, Pavel; Peksa, Ondrej; Wedin, Mats; Grube, Martin

    2013-08-01

    The development of characteristic thallus structures in lichen-forming fungi requires the association with suitable photoautotrophic partners. Previous work suggests that fungi have a specific range of compatible photobionts and that selected algal strains are also correlated with the habitat conditions. We selected the rock-inhabiting crust lichen Protoparmeliopsis muralis, which exhibits high flexibility in algal associations. We present a geographically extended and detailed analysis of algal association patterns including thalli which host superficial algal colonies. We sampled 17 localities in Europe, and investigated the photobiont genotypic diversity within and between thalli and compared the diversity of intrathalline photobionts and externally associate algal communities between washed and unwashed thalli by single-strand conformation polymorphism analyses and ITS sequence data. The results show that (1) photobiont population within the lichen thalli is homogeneous; (2) multiple photobiont genotypes occur within single areoles and lobes of individual lichens; and (3) algal communities which superficially colonize the lichen thalli host taxa known as photobionts in unrelated lichens. Photobiont association patterns are extremely flexible in this ecologically versatile crust-forming lichen. We suggest that lichen surfaces represent a potential temporary niche for free-living stages of lichen photobionts, which could facilitate the establishment of further lichens in the proximal area.

  1. Extremotolerance and resistance of lichens: comparative studies on five species used in astrobiological research II. Secondary lichen compounds.

    PubMed

    Meessen, J; Sánchez, F J; Sadowsky, A; de la Torre, R; Ott, S; de Vera, J-P

    2013-12-01

    Lichens, which are symbioses of a fungus and one or two photoautotrophs, frequently tolerate extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems in astrobiological research to fathom the limits and limitations of eukaryotic symbioses. Various studies demonstrated the high resistance of selected extremotolerant lichens towards extreme, non-terrestrial abiotic factors including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. This study focusses on the diverse set of secondary lichen compounds (SLCs) that act as photo- and UVR-protective substances. Five lichen species used in present-day astrobiological research were compared: Buellia frigida, Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, and Pleopsidium chlorophanum. Detailed investigation of secondary substances including photosynthetic pigments was performed for whole lichen thalli but also for axenically cultivated mycobionts and photobionts by methods of UV/VIS-spectrophotometry and two types of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, a set of chemical tests is presented to confirm the formation of melanic compounds in lichen and mycobiont samples. All investigated lichens reveal various sets of SLCs, except C. gyrosa where only melanin was putatively identified. Such studies will help to assess the contribution of SLCs on lichen extremotolerance, to understand the adaptation of lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors of the respective habitat, and to form a basis for interpreting recent and future astrobiological experiments. As most of the identified SLCs demonstrated a high capacity in absorbing UVR, they may also explain the high resistance of lichens towards non-terrestrial UVR.

  2. Lichen metabolism identified in Early Devonian terrestrial organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahren, A. Hope; Porter, Steven; Kuglitsch, Jeffrey J.

    2003-02-01

    We used δ13C values to identify lichen metabolism in the globally distributed Early Devonian (409 386 Ma) macrofossil Spongiophyton minutissimum, which had been alternatively interpreted as a green plant of bryophyte grade or as a lichen, based on its morphology. Extant mosses and hornworts exhibited a range of δ13Ctissue values that was discrete from that of extant lichens. The δ13Ctissue values of 96 S. minutissimum specimens coincided with δ13Ctissue values of extant lichens. In contrast, S. minutissimum δ13Ctissue values showed no similarity to bryophyte carbon isotope values. The identification of large global populations of lichens during the Early Devonian may indicate that lichen-accelerated soil formation fostered the development of Paleozoic terrestrial ecosystems.

  3. Clinical Features, Complications and Autoimmunity in Male Lichen Sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Kantere, Despina; Alvergren, Gunilla; Gillstedt, Martin; Pujol-Calderon, Fani; Tunbäck, Petra

    2017-03-10

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with substantial morbidity. Knowledge of the aetiology and progression of lichen sclerosus is therefore needed. In this cross-sectional study, 100 male patients diagnosed with lichen sclerosus were interviewed and examined. Since there is a possible link between lichen sclerosus and autoimmunity, blood tests were analysed for thyroid disease, antinuclear antibodies and antibodies to extracellular matrix protein 1, but autoimmunity was found to be infrequent. In 72 participants active genital lichen sclerosis was observed and complications were common; 27 patients had preputial constriction and 12 meatal engagement. In total, 13 patients needed a referral to the Department of Urology, including 1 patient with suspected penile cancer. In conclusion, despite available treatment with ultra-potent steroids and circumcision, lichen sclerosus in males is frequently complicated by phimosis and meatal stenosis. However, the disease can also go into remission, as seen in 27% of our patients.

  4. Lichen sclerosus associated with localized scleroderma: dermoscopy contribution*

    PubMed Central

    Nóbrega, Monisa Martins; Cabral, Fernanda; Corrêa, Mariana César; Barcaui, Carlos Baptista; Bressan, Aline Lopes; Gripp, Alexandre Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is an uncommon inflammatory dermatosis with preferential involvement of the urogenital region. The extragenital involvement is uncommon and is characterized by small rounded macules or papules, pearly white in color. The coexistence of lichen sclerosus and scleroderma plaques in most cases with extragenital location has been reported in the literature. We report a case of lichen sclerosus associated with scleroderma in children, highlighting the importance of dermoscopy in diagnosis. PMID:27579757

  5. Lichen sclerosus associated with localized scleroderma: dermoscopy contribution.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, Monisa Martins; Cabral, Fernanda; Corrêa, Mariana César; Barcaui, Carlos Baptista; Bressan, Aline Lopes; Gripp, Alexandre Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is an uncommon inflammatory dermatosis with preferential involvement of the urogenital region. The extragenital involvement is uncommon and is characterized by small rounded macules or papules, pearly white in color. The coexistence of lichen sclerosus and scleroderma plaques in most cases with extragenital location has been reported in the literature. We report a case of lichen sclerosus associated with scleroderma in children, highlighting the importance of dermoscopy in diagnosis.

  6. Lichen secondary metabolites affect growth of Physcomitrella patens by allelopathy.

    PubMed

    Goga, Michal; Antreich, Sebastian J; Bačkor, Martin; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Lang, Ingeborg

    2016-09-19

    Lichen secondary metabolites can function as allelochemicals and affect the development and growth of neighboring bryophytes, fungi, vascular plants, microorganisms, and even other lichens. Lichen overgrowth on bryophytes is frequently observed in nature even though mosses grow faster than lichens, but there is still little information on the interactions between lichens and bryophytes.In the present study, we used extracts from six lichen thalli containing secondary metabolites like usnic acid, protocetraric acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, nortistic acid, and thamnolic acid. To observe the influence of these metabolites on bryophytes, the moss Physcomitrella patens was cultivated for 5 weeks under laboratory conditions and treated with lichen extracts. Toxicity of natural mixtures of secondary metabolites was tested at three selected doses (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 %). When the mixture contained substantial amounts of usnic acid, we observed growth inhibition of protonemata and reduced development of gametophores. Significant differences in cell lengths and widths were also noticed. Furthermore, usnic acid had a strong effect on cell division in protonemata suggesting a strong impact on the early stages of bryophyte development by allelochemicals contained in the lichen secondary metabolites.Biological activities of lichen secondary metabolites were confirmed in several studies such as antiviral, antibacterial, antitumor, antiherbivore, antioxidant, antipyretic, and analgetic action or photoprotection. This work aimed to expand the knowledge on allelopathic effects on bryophyte growth.

  7. Ice encapsulation protects rather than disturbs the freezing lichen.

    PubMed

    Bjerke, J W

    2009-03-01

    Arctic and alpine terricolous lichens are adapted to harsh environments and are tolerant to extremely low temperatures when metabolically inactive. However, there are reports indicating that freezing can be lethal to metabolically active lichens. With a projected warmer and more unstable climate, winter precipitation at high latitudes will fall more frequently as rain, causing snowmelt and encapsulating terricolous lichens in ice or exposing them to large temperature fluctuations. Lichens are a major winter food source for reindeer in most parts of the circumpolar region. A laboratory experiment tested how three hydrated reindeer forage lichen species covered by snow, encapsulated in ice, or uncovered responded to storage at freezing temperatures and subsequent warming. Photosynthetic performance (maximal fluorescence of dark-adapted samples and net photosynthetic rates) was significantly lower in lichens not insulated by snow or ice, whereas there were few differences between the snow and ice treatments. It is suggested that snow and ice provide sufficiently moist environments to improve extracellular and reduce intracellular ice nucleation activity. Ice encapsulation, which is often lethal to vascular plants, did not have any negative effects on the studied lichens. The results indicate that complete snow and ice melt followed by refreezing can be detrimental to terricolous lichen ecosystems. Reduced lichen biomass will have a negative effect both on reindeer winter survival and the indigenous peoples who herd reindeer.

  8. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus induced by carbamazepine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pranteda, G; Muscianese, M; Grimaldi, M; Fidanza, L; Pranteda, G; Narcisi, A; Nistico, S; Bottoni, U

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of Lichen Sclerosus in a 73-year-old man who had been treated for epilepsy with carbamazepine. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA), also called lichen sclerosus (LS), is a chronic inflammatory cutaneous condition characterized by white plaques with epidermal atrophy and scarring. To date no cases of LSA has been linked to carbamazepine, although in a few cases lichenoid eruptions but without sclero-atrophy have been described after exposure to this drug. Therefore, to our knowledge, this is the first report of a Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus induced by carbamazepine.

  9. A Unique Ocular Presentation of Extragenital Lichen Sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Radke, Phillip M; Maltry, Amanda C; Mokhtarzadeh, Ali; Harrison, Andrew R

    2016-03-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic, debilitating, and recurring disease that is most commonly seen affecting the anogenital region. Extragenital locations of lichen sclerosus has been well documented, frequently seen in the shoulders, neck, trunk, breasts, and arms, however, infrequently of the face. Specifically, extragenital lichen sclerosus has been reported in several cases to be involving the infraorbital region, but to our knowledge it has never been found affecting the adnexa of the eye. To our understanding, this is the first documented report of a patient with extragenital lichen sclerosus of an eyelid.

  10. Investigation of Polyhenolic Content of Rose Hip (Rosa canina L.) Tea Extracts: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    İlbay, Zeynep; Şahin, Selin; Kırbaşlar, Ş. İsmail

    2013-01-01

    Three different brands of Rose hip (Rosa canina L.) tea were extracted with water, ethanol (EtOH), methanol (MeOH), and aqueous mixtures (50%, v/v) by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and Soxhlet methods. Total phenolic content was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results were presented by means of the extract yields and total phenolic contents, expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per g of dried matter (DM). The greatest amount of extract observed in tea samples was obtained by UAE through water with the value of 619.37 ± 0.58 mg/g DM. Regarding the phenolic content, the best result was achieved by the Soxhlet method through 50% MeOH mixture (59.69 ± 0.89 mg GAE/g DM), followed by the UAE method with water (48.59 ± 0.29 mg GAE/g DM). PMID:28239095

  11. Scanning electron microscopy of lichen sclerosus*

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Bicca, Eduardo de Barros Coelho; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar; Rocha, Nara Moreira; Silva, Ricardo Marques e

    2013-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is an acquired inflammatory condition characterized by whitish fibrotic plaques, with a predilection for the genital skin. We performed scanning electron microscopy of the dermis from a lesion of lichen sclerosus. Normal collagen fibers could be easily found in deeper layers of the specimen, as well as the transition to pathologic area, which seems homogenized. With higher magnifications in this transitional area collagen fibers are adherent to each other, and with very high magnifications a pearl chain aspect became evident along the collagen fibers. In the superficial dermis this homogenization is even more evident, collagen fibers are packed together and round structures are also observed. Rupture of collagen fibers and inflammatory cells were not found. These autoimmune changes of the extracellular matrix lead to the aggregation of immune complexes and/or changed matrix proteins along the collagen fibers, the reason why they seem hyalinized when examined by light microscopy. PMID:23739707

  12. Oral lichen planus: study of 21 cases*

    PubMed Central

    Werneck, Juliana Tristão; Costa, Taiara de Oliveira; Stibich, Christian Abreu; Leite, Cristhiane Almeida; Dias, Eliane Pedra; Silva Junior, Arley

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lichen planus is considered to be the most common dermatological disease involving the oral mucosa. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the profile, clinical features, and the presence of dysplasia and candidiasis in patients with oral lichen planus. METHODS: A total of 21 patients were selected from 258 patients at risk for oral cancer development. RESULTS: Most of the patients were white (76,2%), female (66,6%), with mean age of 58.8 years. Eight were smokers and seven were alcohol consumers. The buccal mucosa was the most affected site, followed by the tongue and the gingiva. The reticular pattern was the most common appearance. Histopathology depicted dysplasia in nine cases and cytopathology was positive for Candida in eight cases in the first appointment. CONCLUSION: Our data are similar to the literature. Cytopathology was important for the diagnosis of candidiasis. Although the presence of dysplasia was verified, further studies are necessary to clarify the importance of this finding. PMID:26131860

  13. [Zosteriform lichen aureus. Pediatric clinical case].

    PubMed

    Rivera-Rodríguez, Álvaro; Hernández Ostiz, Sergio; Morales-Moya, Ana L; Prieto-Torres, Lucía; Álvarez-Salafranca, Marcial; Ara Martín, Mariano

    2017-04-01

    Lichen aureus is a rare pigmented purpuric dermatosis. We present an unusual case because of the pediatric age and the great number of lesions with zosteriform distribution. He is a 10-yearold boy, with a brownish, smaller than 1 cm, sharp edges, lichenified surface, asymptomatic macule, over the inner aspect of the left leg with a zosteriform distribution. The histology showed a band-like inflammatory infiltrate in the superficial dermis, composed of lymphocytes, histiocytes, erythrocytes and haemosiderin. He was diagnosed with zosteriform lichen aureus and was treated with topical mometasone furoate during 3 weeks resulting in partial lightening of the macules. Lesions have remained 2 years later, and new ones have appeared in the ipsilateral ankle. We must consider differential diagnosis with other pigmented purpuric dermatitis and pigmented purpuric mycosis fungoides. There are many therapeutic options and it tends to disappear spontaneously, so new studies are necessary.

  14. Lichen planus pigmentosus presenting in zosteriform pattern.

    PubMed

    Cho, S; Whang, K K

    1997-03-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) has thus far been described as a condition of unknown etiology which clinically differs from the classical lichen planus (LP) by exhibiting dark brown macules and/or papules mostly in exposed areas and flexural folds and a longer clinical course without pruritus or scalp, nail or mucosal involvement. Histopathologically, LPP shows the typical changes seen in LP, but with thinning of epidermis. We report a case of LPP that developed in a unilateral, zosteriform pattern on the left flank of a 49-year-old man. This case seems to lie in the middle of the spectrum between classical LP and ashy dermatosis, and, to the best of our knowledge, is the first report of LPP presenting in the zosteriform pattern.

  15. A case of linear lichen planus pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jong Keun; Lee, Hyun Jae; Lee, Deborah; Choi, Joon Hee; Sung, Ho-Suck

    2010-08-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is chronic pigmentary disorder that shows diffuse or reticulated hyperpigmented, dark brown macules on the sun-exposed areas such as the face, neck and other flexural folds. Clinically, it is different from classical lichen planus because LPP has a longer clinical course and it manifests with dark brown macules. In case of LPP, involvement of the scalp, nail or mucosal area is rare. The histopathological findings of the lesions show an atrophic epidermis, the presence of melanophages and a vacuolar alteration of the basal cell layer with a sparse lymphohistiocytic lichenoid infiltration. Although there have been a few reports of LPP, there have only 3 cases of linear LPP along the lines of Blaschko in the Korean dermatologic literature. Our patient had lesions on the neck and chin with a linear pattern. In this report, we describe a very rare case of LPP with a linear distribution related to Blaschko's lines on the neck and chin areas.

  16. Extensive bullous lichen sclerosus et atrophicus*

    PubMed Central

    Vukicevic, Jelica

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic disease of unknown etiology characterized by atrophic and sclerotic plaques in both genital and extragenital regions. Extensive bullous lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (BLSA) is a severe variant of the disease with no widely accepted treatment. We present a 63-year-old woman with extensive extragenital, ivory-colored, atrophic plaques on her trunk and extremities and disseminated hemorrhagic bullae. The patient was unsuccessfully treated with standard topical corticosteroid therapy, doxycycline and chloroquine. According to the literature, there is little evidence of the efficacy of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of BLSA. We report a rare case of extensive BLSA that is unresponsive to these drugs. PMID:28300903

  17. Lichen planus: an update and review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit; Białynicki-Birula, Rafał; Schwartz, Robert A; Janniger, Camila K

    2012-07-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a papulosquamous eruption of the skin, scalp, nails, and mucous membranes. Although LP is more common in adults, it has become an established pediatric disorder. Its classic presentation is characterized by 4 p's: purple, polygonal, pruritic papules. Histopathologic examination reveals characteristic interface dermatitis. Although its pathogenesis is not fully understood, there is evidence that an imbalance of immunologic cellular reactivity is central. Lichen planus usually resolves within a few months. Treatment that primarily consists of topical and/or oral steroids will expedite recovery and alleviate symptoms. Resolution of this cutaneous disease often is accompanied by postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Long-term sequelae of LP in the pediatric population are rare, but cutaneous atrophy and pterygium unguis may occur.

  18. Aloe vera as cure for lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Patil, Bharati A; Bhaskar, Hebbar Pragati; Pol, Jyoti S; Sodhi, Amandeep; Madhu, Asha V

    2013-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a difficult condition to treat because of its chronic nature. Various treatment modalities have resulted in partial regression of symptoms but not a complete cure. Aloe vera, a product with minimal adverse effects, can be tried to treat this disorder. A 38-year-old male patient diagnosed with lichen planus of the skin and the oral mucosa was suffering from severe pain and a burning sensation intraorally and pruritus of the skin lesions. Considering the extensive involvement, an herbal alternative was considered. The patient was prescribed aloe vera juice and gel application for two months. At the nine-month follow-up, the patient was symptom-free and totally cured of the intraoral and skin lesions.

  19. [Erosive oral lichen planus: case report].

    PubMed

    Belinga, L Essama Eno; Njifou, A; Noa, S Ananga; Ateba, G R; Ngan, W Bell

    2013-09-01

    Erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology associated with cell-mediated immunological dysfunction. Rare among Blacks and Asian subjects, it is at the origin of symptoms ranging from burning pain during meals up to the inability to absorb solid foods or to ensure adequate oral hygiene. Its diagnosis is before all clinical, then confirmed by histopathological examination. Chronic and recurrent forms developments can cause malignant transformation where the importance of being known by any clinicians compared to other oral diseases. Treatment is difficult and aimed at palliation rather than cure. We report the only case of erosive oral lichen planus received and supported in the service of Stomatology of General Hospital in Douala during the last ten years and whose etiology is discussed.

  20. THE AUTOIMMUNE CONSTELLATION IN LICHEN AMYLOIDOSIS.

    PubMed

    Andrese, Elena; Vâţă, D; Ciobanu, Delia; Stătescu, Laura; Solovăstru, Laura Gheucă

    2015-01-01

    Localized cutaneous amyloidosis is a rare disease among white people, being more common in South-Asia, China and South America. The disease is characterized by deposition of amyloid material in the papillary dermis without visceral involvement. Nevertheless, there is a growing list of immune-mediated disorders that have been linked to cutaneous amyloidosis. We present two cases of concomitant occurrence of lichen amyloidosis and autoimmune thyroiditis/atopic dermatitis in two Caucasian women.

  1. Geochemical Study of Lichens in Tatun Volcano Group, North Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Ssu-Yu

    2015-04-01

    Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is located in the northwest of Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. Although the last activity was 200000 years ago, it is critical to monitor TVG because it is nearby metropolitan area. This study is part of the monitoring program and attempts to observe the geochemical relationship between lichen and volcanic gas. Lichens have been extensively used for monitoring atmospheric quality. Lichen can live in critical environments and can accumulate metals from atmosphere due to lack of excretion mechanism. Moreover, lichen can live long and growth in a low rate; therefore, lichen geochemistry can represent an average in a long term manner. In TVG, fruticose lichen can be seldom found due to the high concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere. However, foliose lichen and crustose lichen are not rare in the study area. In this study, lichens were collected from TVG and Nan-ao Trail which is in non-volcanic area. The cations were measured by ICP-MS. The geochemical results were analyzed by principal components analysis (PCA). It shows that there is no significant difference among non-volcanic lichens and the non-volcanic lichens are located at an end-member of two distinct trends. It is believed that the non-volcanic lichens indicate a geochemical baseline in north Taiwan and two trends may represent the mixing between two different types of volcanic gases in TVG and geochemical baseline. In this study, rare earth elements (REEs) were also measured. The results of non-volcanic and TVG lichens were normalized by North America Shale and TVG andesite, respectively. Both obtain a flat REE pattern, which confirm that TVG lichens receive metals from volcanic origin and non-volcanic lichens give information of background geochemistry in north Taiwan. In addition, a middle REE enrichment and distinct Ce negative anomaly can be observed. According to the previous studies, middle REE enrichment may be achieved by the selected adsorption of middle REEs by organic

  2. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of some lichens and their constituents.

    PubMed

    Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the acetone, methanol, and aqueous extracts of the lichens Cladonia furcata (many-forked Cladonia), Hypogymnia physodes (puffed lichen), and Umbilicaria polyphylla (manyleaf navel lichen) and the antimicrobial activity of fumarprotocetraric acid, gyrophoric acid, and physodic acid isolated from the respective lichen species. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by five different methods: free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power, determination of total phenolic compounds, and determination of total flavonoid content. U. polyphyla exhibited more powerful antioxidant activities than the other lichen species examined: methanol extracts of U. polyphyla showed 90.08% free radical scavenging activities (the ratio was greater than those of standard antioxidants). Moreover, the extracts tested had effective reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging. Total contents of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalents and as rutin equivalents, respectively. A significant strong relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was observed. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method against six species of bacteria and 10 species of fungi. In general, the lichen extracts tested and their respective acids had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms tested. The present study shows that the lichen species tested demonstrated strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The results suggest that lichens may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating various diseases.

  3. Palmoplantar hyperkeratotic lesions: a rare presentation of lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Almodovar-Real, Ana; Aneiros-Fernández, Jose; Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Fernandez-Pugnaire, Ma Antonia

    2015-03-15

    Palmoplantar lichen planus is a localized and rare subtype of lichen planus (LP) often underdiagnosed. Several morphological types of palmoplantar lesions have been defined in LP. We present an unusual case of the palmoplantar kyperkeratotic variant of LP. Histopathology examination confirmed our diagnosis. We emphasize the importance of this rare entity in the differential diagnosis of palmoplantar dermatoses.

  4. Lichens promote flowering Opuntia fragilis in west-central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Bornar, C.R.; Harrington, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Clumps of the cactus Opuntia fragilis growing in association with mats of the lichens Cladina mitis, Cladina rangiferina and a spikemoss, Selaginella rupestris, were discovered in an agricultural field in Pepin County, Wisconsin, that had been abandoned for over 50 y. The association appeared to be beneficial to the cactus, which flowered almost exclusively in the presence of lichens. Of 294 cactus clumps examined in 2001, 127 grew in the presence of lichen mats and, of these, 24 flowered, producing 91 flowers, while none of the cacti growing in the absence of lichens flowered. In 2002, 19 out of 265 cactus clumps flowered, all but one in the presence of lichens. All sizes of cacti in the presence of lichens flowered and the probability of flowering increased with cactus size. In addition, the cacti that flowered had cladodes that were on average 19% heavier than those of cacti that did not flower. The presence of lichens lowered summer soil temperatures 2a??4 C compared to soil temperatures in the absence of lichens. Cooler soil temperatures conserve soil moisture better, which may enhance flowering in these cacti.

  5. Bryophytes and lichens: Small but indispensable forest dwellers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutten, Martin; Woodward, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    * What is a Bryophyte? * Bryophytes are the small green plants commonly known as mosses, liverworts and hornworts. Compared to plants, they have primitive tissues for conducting food and water, and they lack a protective outer surface to maintain water balance. Most bryophytes, because they lack tissues such as roots, obtain their water through direct surface contact with their environment. During dry weather they have the capacity to withstand complete dehydration. Bryophytes that are dry may appear dead but will regain normal function when moisture is available. Instead of producing seeds, bryophytes can either reproduce sexually by means of spores, or asexually when small pieces break off and grow into new individuals. * What is a Lichen? * Lichens are dual organisms consisting of a fungus and an alga or a cyanobacterium. The fungus provides the alga with structure, protection, nutrients, and water absorbed from the atmosphere and the substrate (e.g., soil, rotten logs, tree branches). In return, the alga provides carbohydrates from photosynthesis to the fungus. Algae from some lichens grow independently of the fungus, but in lichen form, the algae can inhabit more challenging environments than when growing alone. Most lichens can reproduce asexually. They either produce specialized propagules containing both partners, or parts of the lichen simply break, allowing both the fungus and the alga to disperse together. In some lichens, the fungal partner reproduces sexually by releasing spores, but the partner alga must be present in order for a lichen to reform.

  6. Lichen planus pigmentosus presenting as diffuse facial melanosis.

    PubMed

    Namazi, M R

    2004-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmmentosus (LPP), an uncommon variant of lichen planus, has been characterized by hyperpigmented, dark brown macules in sun-exposed areas and flexural folds. In this paper, an unusual case of LPP showing diffuse darkening of the face without the presence of any lichenoid or macular lesion is presented.

  7. [Extragenital lichen sclerosus et atrophicus: about a case].

    PubMed

    Zemmez, Youssef; Amraoui, Mohammed El; Bouhamidi, Ahmed; Azhari, Jaouad El; Ismaili, Nadia; Benzekri, Laila; Meziane, Mariame; Hassam, Badreddine; Senouci, Karima

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis, characterized by a specific external genital mucosal tissue tropism. Isolated cutaneous manifestation is rare. We report a case of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus in a woman with purely cutaneous involvement, in order to highlight the importance of evoking this diagnosis in the absence of obvious genital involvement.

  8. Bryophytes and lichens: small but indispensable forest dwellers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutten, Martin; Woodward, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    * What is a Bryophyte? * Bryophytes are the small green plants commonly known as mosses, liverworts and hornworts. Compared to plants, they have primitive tissues for conducting food and water, and they lack a protective outer surface to maintain water balance. Most bryophytes, because they lack tissues such as roots, obtain their water through direct surface contact with their environment. During dry weather they have the capacity to withstand complete dehydration. Bryophytes that are dry may appear dead but will regain normal function when moisture is available. Instead of producing seeds, bryophytes can either reproduce sexually by means of spores, or asexually when small pieces break off and grow into new individuals. * What is a Lichen? * Lichens are dual organisms consisting of a fungus and an alga or a cyanobacterium. The fungus provides the alga with structure, protection, nutrients, and water absorbed from the atmosphere and the substrate (e.g., soil, rotten logs, tree branches). In return, the alga provides carbohydrates from photosynthesis to the fungus. Algae from some lichens grow independently of the fungus, but in lichen form, the algae can inhabit more challenging environments than when growing alone. Most lichens can reproduce asexually. They either produce specialized propagules containing both partners, or parts of the lichen simply break, allowing both the fungus and the alga to disperse together. In some lichens, the fungal partner reproduces sexually by releasing spores, but the partner alga must be present in order for a lichen to reform.

  9. Topical Tacrolimus and Oral Dapsone Combination Regimen in Lichen Planus Pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Verma, Prashant; Pandhi, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is a well-recognized variant of lichen planus; however, its etiopathogenesis is still unclear. An effective and safe treatment for lichen planus pigmentosus is needed; therefore, the authors examined a series of five patients with lichen planus pigmentosus with successful response to a combination of topical tacrolimus and oral dapsone.

  10. The role of fungal parasites in tri-trophic interactions involving lichens and lichen-feeding snails.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Johan; Gauslaa, Yngvar; Merinero, Sonia

    2016-09-01

    Lichens are hosts for a variety of lichenicolous fungi. By investigating two lichens with specialized parasites, we will test the hypothesis that these parasites reduce lichen fitness by increasing the palatability of their respective hosts. The palatability of Lobarina scrobiculata and Lobaria pulmonaria with or without galls of the lichenicolous fungi, Plectocarpon scrobiculatae and P. lichenum, respectively, were quantified in a feeding-preference experiment with grazing snails (Cepaea hortensis). We repeated the experiment for pairs with or without gall in which the carbon-based secondary compounds (CBSCs) had been reduced nondestructively by acetone rinsing. Lichens with galls had lower concentration of CBSCs than those without, but this contrast disappeared after acetone rinsing. In the lichen high in nitrogen (N) (the cyanolichen L. scrobiculata), the grazing was low, and the snails did not discriminate between specimens with and without Plectocarpon-galls. In L. pulmonaria low in N (green algae as main photobiont), the parasite reduced the lichen C : N ratio and the snails strongly preferred specimens with Plectocarpon-galls, regardless of whether CBSC concentration had been reduced or not. In conclusion, some lichen parasites can indirectly reduce lichen fitness by increasing its palatability and thus the grazing pressure from snails, whereas other parasites do not affect grazing preferences.

  11. Biomonitoring air pollution with the desert lichen Ramalina maciformis.

    PubMed

    Garty, Jacob; Levin, Tal; Cohen, Yehudit; Lehr, Haya

    2002-06-01

    To investigate the environmental impact of anthropogenic activity in the Negev Desert, we monitored the following in order to determine the physiological integrity of the epilithic fruticose lichen Ramalina maciformis: (1) production of ethylene; (2) potential quantum yield of photosystem II expressed as chlorophyll fluorescence ratio Fv/Fm; and (3) electrolyte leakage of cell membranes in terms of electric conductivity. The degree of pollution was assessed by measuring the amounts of B, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr and Zn in the lichen thallus. Some of the lichen-carrying stones collected in the relatively unpolluted control site were relocated on the same hill, to test the possible impact of relocation. An additional amount of lichen-carrying stones was marked as controls. The greater part of the lichen-carrying stones was transferred to 10 biomonitoring sites in and around Ramat Hovav, an industrial area in the Negev Desert, Israel. Transplanted lichen in polluted sites contained higher amounts of mineral elements than lichens in the control site after an exposure period of 7 months. Statistical analysis revealed positive correlation of ethylene production and Ni content, negative correlation of Fv/Fm ratios and B, Cu, Mn, Na, Ni, Sr and Zn, and positive correlation of electric conductivity and B, Mn, Ni and Sr. Both elemental content and physiological alterations in transferred samples of R. maciformis point to a high degree of contamination in Ramat Hovav. The present study suggests that the lichen R. maciformis should be classified as a sensitive species endangered by anthropogenic activity in the desert. Furthermore, this lichen species is likely to be suitable as a bioindicator of pollution in other parts of the Negev Desert. Ethylene production and electric conductivity as parameters of lichen-vitality, indicated stress in 5 of the 12 biomonitoring sites (42%) and may therefore be considered as more sensitive than the Fv/Fm ratio, which

  12. A Process-based Model of Global Lichen Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porada, P.; Kleidon, A.

    2012-04-01

    Lichens and biotic crusts are abundant in most ecosystems of the world. They are the main autotrophic organisms in many deserts and at high altitudes and they can also be found in large amounts as epiphytes in some forests, especially in the boreal zone. They are characterised by a great variety of physiological properties, such as growth form, productivity or color. Due to the vast land surface areas covered by lichens, they may contribute significantly to the global terrestrial net carbon uptake. Furthermore, they potentially play an important role with respect to nutrient cycles in some ecosystems and they have the ability to enhance weathering at the surface on which they grow. A possible way to quantify these processes at the global scale is presented here in form of a process-based lichen model. This approach is based on the concepts used in many dynamical vegetation models and extends these methods to account for the specific properties of lichens. Hence, processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and water exchange are implemented as well as important trade-offs like photosynthetic capacity versus respiratory load and water content versus CO2 conductivity. The great physiological variability of lichens is incorporated directly into the model through ranges of possible parameter values, which are randomly sampled. In this way, many artificial lichen "species" are created and climate then acts as a filter to determine the species which are able to survive permanently. By averaging over the surviving "species", the model predicts lichen productivity as a function of climate input data such as temperature, radiation and precipitation at the global scale. Consequently, the contribution of lichens to the global carbon balance can be quantified. Moreover, global patterns of lichen biodiversity and other properties can be illustrated. The model can be extended to account for the nutrient dynamics of lichens, such as nitrogen fixation and the acquisition and

  13. Oral lichen planus and lichenoid mucositis.

    PubMed

    De Rossi, Scott S; Ciarrocca, Katharine

    2014-04-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is commonly found in middle-aged women. Although the cause is unknown, research points to several complex immunologic events and cells that are responsible for the inflammatory destruction and chronicity of these lesions. Biopsy for histologic diagnosis is recommended. The mainstay of treatment remains topical corticosteroids; however, newer therapies such as immunomodulating agents are available for recalcitrant lesions. In cases of lichenoid mucositis or reactions, treatment should be directed at identifying and removing the presumed cause. Given the apparent risk of squamous cell carcinoma in these patients, frequent follow-up and repeat biopsy are vital.

  14. Dibenzofurans and derivatives from lichens and ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Millot, Marion; Dieu, Amandine; Tomasi, Sophie

    2016-06-02

    Covering: up to 2016.When looking for dibenzofuran in the biochemical databases, most papers and reviews deal with pollutants and polychlorinated dibenzofurans like dioxins. But dibenzofurans are also biosynthetized by a wide diversity of organisms in nature. Even if dibenzofurans from natural sources represent a small class of secondary metabolites, compared to flavonoids, xanthones or terpenoids, they are often endowed with interesting biological properties which have been recently described. This review provides an update on papers describing dibenzofurans from lichens, ascomycetes and cultured mycobionts. Other sources, such as basidiomycetes, myxomycetes or plants produce sporadically interesting dibenzofurans in terms of structures and activities.

  15. [Lichen sclerosus--clinical and therapeutic aspects].

    PubMed

    Manolova, G; Pehlivanov, G; Bakardzhiev, I; Saleva, M; Yungareva, I; Lozanova, P; Prisadashka, K; Karagiozova, Zh

    2014-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a lymphocyte-mediated inflammatory dermatosis with a characteristic location (85-98%) in the anogenital region. The authors point out the main features in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of the disease and the possible approach to neoplastic development. Expanded differential diagnosis of LS sparked not only dermatologists but also gynecologists, urologists and GPs. Points are the chronic course of the disease and resistance to therapy. Discuss the results of the treatment of LS with less potent topical corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, phototherapy and photodynamic therapy, surgery.

  16. [Lichen sclerosus--a neglected disease].

    PubMed

    Sander, Bente Braad; Damsgaard, Knud

    2011-11-14

    We present a small review of lichen sclerosus in women and an update on the newest knowledge, e.g. on calcineurin inhibitors as a choice of treatment. The goal is to put more focus on the disease in Denmark because it is so often diagnosed only with a great delay. We further emphasize the importance of follow-up on these patients, due to the risk of cancer, the great influence of the disease on quality of life and the risk of structural changes in the vulva region.

  17. Understanding Phenotypical Character Evolution in Parmelioid Lichenized Fungi (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Divakar, Pradeep K.; Kauff, Frank; Crespo, Ana; Leavitt, Steven D.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Parmelioid lichens form a species-rich group of predominantly foliose and fruticose lichenized fungi encompassing a broad range of morphological and chemical diversity. Using a multilocus approach, we reconstructed a phylogeny including 323 OTUs of parmelioid lichens and employed ancestral character reconstruction methods to understand the phenotypical evolution within this speciose group of lichen-forming fungi. Specifically, we were interested in the evolution of growth form, epicortex structure, and cortical chemistry. Since previous studies have shown that results may differ depending on the reconstruction method used, here we employed both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood approaches to reconstruct ancestral character states. We have also implemented binary and multistate coding of characters and performed parallel analyses with both coding types to assess for potential coding-based biases. We reconstructed the ancestral states for nine well-supported major clades in the parmelioid group, two higher-level sister groups and the ancestral character state for all parmelioid lichens. We found that different methods for coding phenotypical characters and different ancestral character state reconstruction methods mostly resulted in identical reconstructions but yield conflicting inferences of ancestral states, in some cases. However, we found support for the ancestor of parmelioid lichens having been a foliose lichen with a non-pored epicortex and pseudocyphellae. Our data suggest that some traits exhibit patterns of evolution consistent with adaptive radiation. PMID:24312438

  18. Understanding phenotypical character evolution in parmelioid lichenized fungi (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Divakar, Pradeep K; Kauff, Frank; Crespo, Ana; Leavitt, Steven D; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Parmelioid lichens form a species-rich group of predominantly foliose and fruticose lichenized fungi encompassing a broad range of morphological and chemical diversity. Using a multilocus approach, we reconstructed a phylogeny including 323 OTUs of parmelioid lichens and employed ancestral character reconstruction methods to understand the phenotypical evolution within this speciose group of lichen-forming fungi. Specifically, we were interested in the evolution of growth form, epicortex structure, and cortical chemistry. Since previous studies have shown that results may differ depending on the reconstruction method used, here we employed both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood approaches to reconstruct ancestral character states. We have also implemented binary and multistate coding of characters and performed parallel analyses with both coding types to assess for potential coding-based biases. We reconstructed the ancestral states for nine well-supported major clades in the parmelioid group, two higher-level sister groups and the ancestral character state for all parmelioid lichens. We found that different methods for coding phenotypical characters and different ancestral character state reconstruction methods mostly resulted in identical reconstructions but yield conflicting inferences of ancestral states, in some cases. However, we found support for the ancestor of parmelioid lichens having been a foliose lichen with a non-pored epicortex and pseudocyphellae. Our data suggest that some traits exhibit patterns of evolution consistent with adaptive radiation.

  19. The immunostimulating role of lichen polysaccharides: a review.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Gajendra; St Clair, Larry L; O'Neill, Kim L

    2015-03-01

    The immune system has capacity to suppress the development or progression of various malignancies including cancer. Research on the immunomodulating properties of polysaccharides obtained from plants, microorganisms, marine organisms, and fungi is growing rapidly. Among the various potential sources, lichens, symbiotic systems involving a fungus and an alga and/or a cyanobacterium, show promise as a potential source of immunomodulating compounds. It is well known that lichens produce an abundance of structurally diverse polysaccharides. However, only a limited number of studies have explored the immunostimulating properties of lichen polysaccharides. Published studies have shown that some lichen polysaccharides enhance production of nitrous oxide (NO) by macrophages and also alter the production levels of various proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-12, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-α/β) by macrophages and dendritic cells. Although there are only a limited number of studies examining the role of lichen polysaccharides, all results suggest that lichen polysaccharides can induce immunomodulatory responses in macrophages and dendritic cells. Thus, a detailed evaluation of immunomodulatory capacity of lichen polysaccharides could provide a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents.

  20. High acidity tolerance in lichens with fumarprotocetraric, perlatolic or thamnolic acids is correlated with low pKa1 values of these lichen substances.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Huneck, Siegfried; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-10-01

    The depsidone fumarprotocetraric acid as well as the depsides perlatolic and thamnolic acids are lichen secondary metabolites. Their first dissociation constants (pK(a1)) in methanol were determined to be 2.7 for perlatolic acid and 2.8 for fumarprotocetraric and thamnolic acids by UV spectroscopy. Lower pK(a1) values are, so far, not known from lichen substances. Several lichens producing at least one of these compounds are known for their outstanding tolerance to acidic air pollution. This is demonstrated by evaluating published pH preferences for central European lichens. The low pK(a1) values suggest that strong dissociation of the studied lichen substances is a prerequisite for the occurrence of lichens with these compounds on very acidic substrata, as protonated lichen substances of different chemical groups, but not their conjugated bases, are known to shuttle protons into the cytoplasm and thereby apparently damage lichens.

  1. A systematic review on the Rosa canina effect and efficacy profiles.

    PubMed

    Chrubasik, Cosima; Roufogalis, Basil D; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2008-06-01

    Rose hip, rose hip and seed and rose hip seed, all were negatively monographed by the German Commission E due to insufficient evidence of effects and effectiveness. Therefore a comprehensive review of the literature was conducted to summarize the pharmacological and clinical effects of Rosa canina L. to reevaluate its usefulness in traditional medicine. For various preparations of rose hip and rose hip and seed, antioxidative and antiinflammatory effects have been demonstrated. Lipophilic constituents are involved in those mechanisms of action. The proprietary rose hip and seed powder Litozin has been employed successfully in a number of exploratory studies in patients suffering from osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and low back pain. However, the sizes of the clinical effects for the different indications need to be determined to assure clinical significance. There is also a rationale behind the use of Litozin as part of a hypocaloric diet based on the rose hip probiotic, stool regulating and smooth muscle-relaxing actions, as well as the rose hip seed lipid-lowering, antiobese and antiulcerogenic effects. Further research is needed to clarify the importance of the reported promising experimental effects in clinical use and to characterize the optimum rose hip seed oil preparation for topical use in the treatment of skin diseases.

  2. The effects of the hydroalcohol extract of Rosa canina L. fruit on experimentally nephrolithiasic Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tayefi-Nasrabadi, Hossein; Sadigh-Eteghad, Saeed; Aghdam, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    This research evaluated the possible therapeutic potential of Rosa canina (RC) as a preventive agent in experimentally induced calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis with ethylene glycol (1% EG) in rats. In this experiment, 50 Wistar rats were divided randomly into five groups (n = 10). These groups received tap drinking water (group I), 1% EG (group II), 250 mg/kg RC + 1% EG (group III), 500 mg/kg RC + 1% EG (group IV), or 2.5 g/kg potassium citrate + 1% EG (group V) for a period of 30 days. Blood and urine were collected for biochemical analysis, and the liver and kidneys were prepared for total lipid peroxides, calcium content and histological evaluation. The extract was analysed for total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, citric acid and radical scavenger activity. The supplementation of the hydromethanol RC extract contributed to reducing the kidney and liver lipid peroxides to optimum levels in rats that had been treated with EG-induced CaOx lithiasis. The extract also decreased renal and urinary calcium contents, decreased the size and number of CaOx calculi in the kidneys, and significantly increased citrate excretion without changing the volume, pH, or urinary concentrations of oxalate in comparison with the control group. According to these results, RC can be useful as a preventive agent against the formation of CaOx kidney stones.

  3. A potential peptide pathway from viruses to oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Alberta

    2015-06-01

    Oral lichen planus is an idiopathic inflammatory disease of oral mucous membranes, characterized by an autoimmune epidermis attack by T cells. It remains unknown, however, how such aggressive T cells are activated in vivo to cause epidermal damage. This study analyzes the relationship at the peptide level between viruses and oral lichen planus disease. Four potentially immunogenic peptides (SSSSSSS, QEQLEKA, LLLLLLA, and MLSGNAG) are found to be shared between HCV, EBV, HHV-7, HSV-1, and CMV and three human proteins (namely pinin, desmoglein-3, and plectin). The described peptide sharing might be of help in deciphering the still unexplained immunopathogenic pathway that leads to oral lichen planus.

  4. Fractional carbon dioxide laser in recalcitrant vulval lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew; Lim, Adrian; Fischer, Gayle

    2016-02-01

    Vulval lichen sclerosus is an uncommon skin condition that can usually be managed with topical corticosteroids to maintain remission. However, there is a subset of patients in whom it remains recalcitrant despite treatment with super-potent topical corticosteroids. We report a case series of four patients undergoing fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing and one with ablative carbon dioxide laser for severe, hyperkeratotic vulval lichen sclerosus not responding to super-potent topical corticosteroids. In these patients, carbon dioxide laser was successful in achieving remission. Their vulval lichen sclerosus was subsequently able to be maintained with topical corticosteroid treatment.

  5. Lichens of the U. S. national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Over 26,100 records of lichens present in 144 U.S. national park units were assembled from various sources into a database and analyzed. Within these 144 park units 2,435 species and 375 genera are reported, representing 63% and 74% of the North American flora, respectively. The park units are located in 41 states and Washington, D.C. The average number of species in a park is 104, but the median is 60, indicating there are many parks with a small number of species and a few with high numbers. Isle Royale National Park has the most species, 611, and twelve parks have only one species reported. The number of records of lichens present ranged from one for 25 parks, to 1,623 for Isle Royale. Physcia aipolia is the most frequently observed species, being found in 65 parks. One fourth of the park units are classified cultural resource parks, while the remainder are considered natural resource parks. This study was based on 453 sources, including literature citations, park reports and collections in the University of Minnesota Herbarium. Copyright ?? 2005 by the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.

  6. A Case of Linear Lichen Planus Pigmentosus

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jong Keun; Lee, Hyun Jae; Choi, Joon Hee; Sung, Ho-Suck

    2010-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is chronic pigmentary disorder that shows diffuse or reticulated hyperpigmented, dark brown macules on the sun-exposed areas such as the face, neck and other flexural folds. Clinically, it is different from classical lichen planus because LPP has a longer clinical course and it manifests with dark brown macules. In case of LPP, involvement of the scalp, nail or mucosal area is rare. The histopathological findings of the lesions show an atrophic epidermis, the presence of melanophages and a vacuolar alteration of the basal cell layer with a sparse lymphohistiocytic lichenoid infiltration. Although there have been a few reports of LPP, there have only 3 cases of linear LPP along the lines of Blaschko in the Korean dermatologic literature. Our patient had lesions on the neck and chin with a linear pattern. In this report, we describe a very rare case of LPP with a linear distribution related to Blaschko's lines on the neck and chin areas. PMID:20711271

  7. [Dynamic concept of oral lichen planus. The diagnosis easy at early stages may become difficult in ancient lichen planus].

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Tommaso; Küffer, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Dynamic concept of oral lichen planus. The diagnosis easy at early stages may become difficult in ancient lichen planus. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of the skin, skin appendages and mucous membranes, which frequently affects the oral mucosa. Its aetiology still remains unknown, and currently accepted pathogenesis is that of an autoimmune cell-mediated disease. To the contrary of skin lichen planus, oral lichen planus is a long-term chronic disease with dynamic evolution, in which progressive and profound changes of the clinical and histopathological aspects occur over time and under the influence of various exogenous factors. By convention, in the history of the oral lichen planus four successive stages can be distinguished without well-defined boundaries between them. These stages can be defined as an initial phase; a long intermediate phase with alternating periods of activity and quiescence, which has a gradually increasing risk of malignant transformation; a late stage which activity is traditionally diminished; and a post-lichen cicatricial stage with an absent or negligible and undetectable activity, often undiagnosed because clinically unrecognized; in this stage, the lesion does not respond to usual treatments, but retains the same risk of malignant transformation.

  8. Extra Genital Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus With Cutaneous Distribution and Morphology Simulating Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bhumi; Gupta, Rajat; Vora, V Rita

    2015-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) also known as Csillag's disease, characterized by small, porcelain white, sclerotic areas occur at any site on the skin including mucosa. There is strong association of autoimmune disorders with LSA. Lichen planus (LP) is an inflammatory, papulosquamous disorder characterized by erythematous to violaceous, flat topped, polygonal, pruritic papules distributed mainly on flexural aspects like wrist, around ankles, lumbar region, trunk and neck and also involves mucous membranes, hair, and nail. LP and LSA share similar clinical and pathological features. There have been a few reported cases in the literature of the coexistence of LP and LSA. We reported a case of 39-years-old female having LSA with cutaneous distribution and morphologically simulating LP. PMID:25657434

  9. Extra genital lichen sclerosus et atrophicus with cutaneous distribution and morphology simulating lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhumi; Gupta, Rajat; Vora, V Rita

    2015-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) also known as Csillag's disease, characterized by small, porcelain white, sclerotic areas occur at any site on the skin including mucosa. There is strong association of autoimmune disorders with LSA. Lichen planus (LP) is an inflammatory, papulosquamous disorder characterized by erythematous to violaceous, flat topped, polygonal, pruritic papules distributed mainly on flexural aspects like wrist, around ankles, lumbar region, trunk and neck and also involves mucous membranes, hair, and nail. LP and LSA share similar clinical and pathological features. There have been a few reported cases in the literature of the coexistence of LP and LSA. We reported a case of 39-years-old female having LSA with cutaneous distribution and morphologically simulating LP.

  10. [Secondary fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) in lichens of different taxonomic groups].

    PubMed

    Burkin, A A; Kononenko, G P

    2014-01-01

    Secondary fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) in 22 lichen species of the families Parmeliaceae, Nephromataceae, Umbilicariaceae, Ramalinaceae, Cladoniaceae, Peltigeraceae, and Teloschistaceae were identified determined by enzyme immunoassay enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The following mycotoxins were identified found in these lichens in a broad concentration range with a frequency of 70-100%: sterigmatocystin (7-2090 ng/g), alternariol (20-6460 ng/g), and emodin (45-94500 ng/g). Mycophenolic acid frequently occurred in 19 lichen species; citrinin, in 17 species; diacetoxyscirpenol, in 11 species; cyclopiazonic acid, in 10 species; and zearalenone, in 9 species. PR toxin was regularly detected in three lichen species; deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, and ochratoxin A, in two species; and T-2 toxin and ergot alkaloids, in one species. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in only six species with a frequency of 2-42%, whereas roridin A was identified present in 10% of Hypogymnia physodes samples.

  11. Antarctic Epilithic Lichens as Niches for Black Meristematic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Selbmann, Laura; Grube, Martin; Onofri, Silvano; Isola, Daniela; Zucconi, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Sixteen epilithic lichen samples (13 species), collected from seven locations in Northern and Southern Victoria Land in Antarctica, were investigated for the presence of black fungi. Thirteen fungal strains isolated were studied by both morphological and molecular methods. Nuclear ribosomal 18S gene sequences were used together with the most similar published and unpublished sequences of fungi from other sources, to reconstruct an ML tree. Most of the studied fungi could be grouped together with described or still unnamed rock-inhabiting species in lichen dominated Antarctic cryptoendolithic communities. At the edge of life, epilithic lichens withdraw inside the airspaces of rocks to find conditions still compatible with life; this study provides evidence, for the first time, that the same microbes associated to epilithic thalli also have the same fate and chose endolithic life. These results support the concept of lichens being complex symbiotic systems, which offer attractive and sheltered habitats for other microbes. PMID:24832808

  12. Antarctic epilithic lichens as niches for black meristematic fungi.

    PubMed

    Selbmann, Laura; Grube, Martin; Onofri, Silvano; Isola, Daniela; Zucconi, Laura

    2013-05-17

    Sixteen epilithic lichen samples (13 species), collected from seven locations in Northern and Southern Victoria Land in Antarctica, were investigated for the presence of black fungi. Thirteen fungal strains isolated were studied by both morphological and molecular methods. Nuclear ribosomal 18S gene sequences were used together with the most similar published and unpublished sequences of fungi from other sources, to reconstruct an ML tree. Most of the studied fungi could be grouped together with described or still unnamed rock-inhabiting species in lichen dominated Antarctic cryptoendolithic communities. At the edge of life, epilithic lichens withdraw inside the airspaces of rocks to find conditions still compatible with life; this study provides evidence, for the first time, that the same microbes associated to epilithic thalli also have the same fate and chose endolithic life. These results support the concept of lichens being complex symbiotic systems, which offer attractive and sheltered habitats for other microbes.

  13. Water relations, thallus structure and photosynthesis in Negev Desert lichens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, R. J. Jr; Friedmann, E. I.

    1990-01-01

    The role of lichen thallus structure in water relations and photosynthesis was studied in Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory and Teloschistes lacunosus (Rupr.) Sav. Water-vapour adsorption and photosynthesis are dependent upon thallus integrity and are significantly lower in crushed thalli. Cultured phycobiont (Trebouxia sp.) cells are capable of photosynthesis over the same relative humidity range (> 80% RH) as are intact lichens. Thus, water-vapour adsorption by the thallus and physiological adaptation of the phycobiont contribute to the ability of these lichens to photosynthesize in an arid environment. Despite differences in their anatomical structure and water-uptake characteristics, their CO2 incorporation is similar. The two lichens use liquid water differently and they occupy different niches.

  14. An Exercise Using Lichens as Indicators of Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Jeffry

    1978-01-01

    High school students learned to monitor air quality using lichens in a National Science Foundation sponsored program. In this article, monitoring procedures are discussed briefly along with means to adapt the exercise to your own area. (MA)

  15. Community assembly in epiphytic lichens in early stages of colonization.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Ivar; Blom, Hans H; Lindblom, Louise; Saetersdal, Magne; Schei, Fride Høstad

    2012-04-01

    Colonization studies may function as natural experiments and have the potential of addressing important questions about community assembly. We studied colonization for a guild of epiphytic lichens in a former treeless heathland area of 170 km2 in southwest Norway. We investigated if epiphytic lichen species richness and composition on aspen (Populus tremula) trees corresponded to a random draw of lichen individuals from the regional species pool. We compared lichen communities of isolated young (55-120 yr) and old (140-200 yr) forest patches in the heathland area to those of aspen forest in an adjacent reference area that has been forested for a long time. All thalli (lichen bodies) of 32 selected lichen species on trunks of aspen were recorded in 35 aspen sites. When data for each site category (young, old, and reference) were pooled, we found the species richness by rarefaction to be similar for reference sites and old sites, but significantly lower for young sites. The depauperated species richness of young sites was accompanied by a skew in species composition and absence of several species that were common in the reference sites. In contrast, genetic variation screened with neutral microsatellite markers in the lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria showed no significant differences between site categories. Our null hypothesis of a neutral species assembly in young sites corresponding to a random draw from the regional species pool was rejected, whereas an alternative hypothesis based on differences in colonization capacity among species was supported. The results indicate that for the habitat configuration in the heathland area (isolated patches constituting < 0.4% of the area) lichen communities may need a colonization time of 100-150 yr for species richness to level off, but given enough time, isolation will not affect species richness. We suggest that this contradiction to expectations from classical island equilibrium theory results from low extinction rates.

  16. Oral bullous lichen planus: Case report and review of management

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Archana; Prasad, Shiva; Ashok, L.; Sujatha, G. P.

    2012-01-01

    A 34-year-old female patient with the chief complaint of burning sensation in the oral cavity associated with generalized pruritis, scalp and skin lesions diagnosed as Bullous lichen planus and treated with systemic prednisolone, levamisole, benzydamine oral rinse. Patient is in follow up since 1 year and free of lesions. Here we report the case and review current modalities in the management of oral lichen planus. PMID:23293497

  17. Lichenized fungi of a chestnut grove in Livari (Rumija, Montenegro)

    PubMed Central

    Mayrhofer, Helmut; Drescher, Anton; Stešević, Danijela; Bilovitz, Peter O.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty taxa (59 species and 1 variety) of lichenized fungi are reported from a chestnut grove in Livari. The majority of them (55 species and 1 variety) occurred on Castanea sativa. The recently described Xylographa soralifera is new to the Balkan Peninsula. The lichenicolous fungus Monodictys epilepraria growing on Lepraria rigidula is new to Montenegro. The lichen mycota is compared with similar localities in Italy and Switzerland. The species composition in Livari is most similar to the Montieri site in Tuscany. PMID:26869743

  18. Two cases of lichen striatus with prolonged active phase.

    PubMed

    Feely, Meghan A; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    Lichen striatus is a localized, eczematous disorder distributed along the lines of Blaschko, primarily affecting children. In the literature, lesions have been described as having an active phase of inflamed lesions for 6 to 12 months followed by flattening and persistent pigmentary alteration. We describe two girls who had prolonged active-phase lesions for 2.5 and 3.5 years, respectively. Practitioners should be aware that lesions of lichen striatus may have a prolonged active phase.

  19. UV-protectant metabolites from lichens and their symbiotic partners.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khanh-Hung; Chollet-Krugler, Marylène; Gouault, Nicolas; Tomasi, Sophie

    2013-12-01

    Lichens are structurally complex symbiotic organisms that are exposed to a wide variety of external conditions (extreme temperatures, desiccation, UV radiation, etc.). These poikilohydric organisms have developed various mechanisms of photoprotection, such as light scattering, radiation screening, thermal dissipation, activation of antioxidant defense and macromolecules and membrane repair. These unique organisms produce a vast array of compounds, with more than 1000 secondary metabolites known. An important protective mechanism of lichens is the production of UV screening compounds, such as phenolic compounds (depsidones, depsides, diphenyl ethers), anthraquinones, xanthones or shikimic acid derivatives (calycin, mycosporines, scytonemin). Due to the harmful effects of the UVA wavelengths of sunlight, the search for new sunscreens remains important. We herein propose a review that focuses on the UV protectants from lichens and their symbiotic partners (lichenized fungi, green alga, cyanobacteria). In fact, lichens produce unique and/or efficient UV filters such as depsidones (lobaric acid, pannarin, etc.), depsides (atranorin, gyrophoric acid, etc.), diphenyl ethers (epiphorellic acids, buellin), bisxanthones (secalonic acids, etc.), mycosporines and MAAs, scytonemin along with classical pigments (melanin, carotenoids). We propose to classify these compounds with regard to their chemical structures and review the physicochemical properties that act as UV filters. While the most abundant lichen polyfunctionalized aromatic compounds, belonging to orsellinic derivatives, are UVB screens, these organisms produce strong UVA filters, e.g., calycin (pulvinic acid derivatives), bisxanthones (secalonic acids), scytonemin or mycosporines and MAAs with the latter ones exhibiting attractive properties as photoprotectants.

  20. Anticancer activities of selected species of North American lichen extracts.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Gajendra; El-Naggar, Atif M; St Clair, Larry L; O'Neill, Kim L

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of human deaths in the USA. Despite continuous efforts to treat cancer over the past 50 years, human mortality rates have not decreased significantly. Natural products, such as lichens, have been good sources of anticancer drugs. This study reports the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts of 17 lichen species against Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) cells. Out of the 17 lichen species, extracts from 14 species showed cytotoxicity against Raji cells. On the basis of IC50 values, we selected Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa and Tuckermannopsis ciliaris to study the mechanism of cell death. Viability of normal lymphocytes was not affected by the extracts of X. chlorochroa and T. ciliaris. We found that extracts from both lichens decreased proliferation, accumulated cells at the G0 /G1 stage, and caused apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Both lichen extracts also caused upregulation of p53. The T. ciliaris extract upregulated the expression of TK1 but X. chlorochroa did not. We also found that usnic, salazinic, constictic, and norstictic acids were present in the extract of X. chlorochroa, whereas protolichesterinic acid in T. ciliaris extracts. Our data demonstrate that lichen extracts merit further research as a potential source of anticancer drugs.

  1. Littoral lichens as a novel source of potentially bioactive Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Parrot, Delphine; Antony-Babu, Sanjay; Intertaglia, Laurent; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie; Suzuki, Marcelino T

    2015-10-30

    Cultivable Actinobacteria are the largest source of microbially derived bioactive molecules. The high demand for novel antibiotics highlights the need for exploring novel sources of these bacteria. Microbial symbioses with sessile macro-organisms, known to contain bioactive compounds likely of bacterial origin, represent an interesting and underexplored source of Actinobacteria. We studied the diversity and potential for bioactive-metabolite production of Actinobacteria associated with two marine lichens (Lichina confinis and L. pygmaea; from intertidal and subtidal zones) and one littoral lichen (Roccella fuciformis; from supratidal zone) from the Brittany coast (France), as well as the terrestrial lichen Collema auriforme (from a riparian zone, Austria). A total of 247 bacterial strains were isolated using two selective media. Isolates were identified and clustered into 101 OTUs (98% identity) including 51 actinobacterial OTUs. The actinobacterial families observed were: Brevibacteriaceae, Cellulomonadaceae, Gordoniaceae, Micrococcaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Nocardioidaceae, Promicromonosporaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Sanguibacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae. Interestingly, the diversity was most influenced by the selective media rather than lichen species or the level of lichen thallus association. The potential for bioactive-metabolite biosynthesis of the isolates was confirmed by screening genes coding for polyketide synthases types I and II. These results show that littoral lichens are a source of diverse potentially bioactive Actinobacteria.

  2. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of five lichen species.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Comić, Ljiljana; Dačić, Dragana; Curčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells.

  3. Prion protein degradation by lichens of the genus Cladonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, James P.; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that lichens contain a serine protease capable of degrading the pathogenic prion protein, the etiological agent of prion diseases such as sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. Limited methods are available to degrade or inactivate prion disease agents, especially in the environment, and lichens or their serine protease could prove important for management of these diseases. Scant information is available regarding the presence or absence of the protease responsible for degrading prion protein (PrP) in lichen species and, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that PrP degradation activity in lichens is phylogenetically-based by testing 44 species of Cladonia lichens, a genus for which a significant portion of the phylogeny is well established. We categorized PrP degradation activity among the 44 species (high, moderate, low or none) and found that activity in Cladonia species did not correspond with phylogenetic position of the species. Degradation of PrP did correspond, however, with three classical taxonomic characters within the genus: species with brown apothecia, no usnic acid, and the presence of a cortex. Of the 44 species studied, 18 (41%) had either high or moderate PrP degradation activity, suggesting the protease may be frequent in this genus of lichens.

  4. Littoral lichens as a novel source of potentially bioactive Actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Parrot, Delphine; Antony-Babu, Sanjay; Intertaglia, Laurent; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie; Suzuki, Marcelino T.

    2015-01-01

    Cultivable Actinobacteria are the largest source of microbially derived bioactive molecules. The high demand for novel antibiotics highlights the need for exploring novel sources of these bacteria. Microbial symbioses with sessile macro-organisms, known to contain bioactive compounds likely of bacterial origin, represent an interesting and underexplored source of Actinobacteria. We studied the diversity and potential for bioactive-metabolite production of Actinobacteria associated with two marine lichens (Lichina confinis and L. pygmaea; from intertidal and subtidal zones) and one littoral lichen (Roccella fuciformis; from supratidal zone) from the Brittany coast (France), as well as the terrestrial lichen Collema auriforme (from a riparian zone, Austria). A total of 247 bacterial strains were isolated using two selective media. Isolates were identified and clustered into 101 OTUs (98% identity) including 51 actinobacterial OTUs. The actinobacterial families observed were: Brevibacteriaceae, Cellulomonadaceae, Gordoniaceae, Micrococcaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Nocardioidaceae, Promicromonosporaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Sanguibacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae. Interestingly, the diversity was most influenced by the selective media rather than lichen species or the level of lichen thallus association. The potential for bioactive-metabolite biosynthesis of the isolates was confirmed by screening genes coding for polyketide synthases types I and II. These results show that littoral lichens are a source of diverse potentially bioactive Actinobacteria. PMID:26514347

  5. Histopathological and clinical traps in lichen sclerosus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Brănişteanu, Daciana Elena; Brănişteanu, Daniel Constantin; Stoleriu, Gabriela; Ferariu, Dan; Voicu, Cătălina Maria; Stoica, Loredana Elena; Căruntu, Constantin; Boda, Daniel; Filip-Ciubotaru, Florina Mihaela; Dimitriu, Andreea; Radu, Cezar Doru

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and limited systemic scleroderma (acrosclerosis) are inflammatory skin diseases that ultimately evolve into two distinct modes of atrophic scar formation, but which can easily be confused clinically. They are very rarely associated. The literature has reported cases in which lichen sclerosus was associated with various forms of scleroderma, but often with localized morphea. The characteristic histopathological picture of lichen sclerosus includes a thin epidermis, with orthohyperkeratosis and vascular degeneration in the basal layer, loss of elastic fibers, and band-like inflammatory infiltrate in the papillary dermis, while systemic sclerosis is characterized by excessive deposition of collagen in the dermis, accompanied by reduction in adnexal structures and their entrapment in collagen, and the presence of perivascular lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate. We present the case of a 40-year-old female patient clinically diagnosed with systemic scleroderma and lichen sclerosus involving the genital mucosa. Physical examination in conjunction with laboratory findings (elevated antinuclear, anti-Scl-70, anti-SSA antibodies and immunogram) induced the supposition of the coexistence of lichen sclerosus and systemic scleroderma, fact confirmed by pathological examination. Systemic therapy with corticosteroids, immunosuppressive and phlebotropic drugs, peripheral vasodilators and other tropic adjuvants and topically potent topical corticosteroids was initiated. The course was favorable under therapy, the hardened skin slightly regaining elasticity, relief of itching and disappearance of lichen sclerosus lesions. Our case reaffirms the uncommon association of these two disorders. The importance of history, physical and laboratory examinations in making a diagnosis of certainty in emphasized.

  6. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Lichen Species

    PubMed Central

    Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Čomić, Ljiljana; Đačić, Dragana; Ćurčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells. PMID:21954369

  7. Comparative study of biological activities and phytochemical composition of two rose hips and their preserves: Rosa canina L. and Rosa arvensis Huds.

    PubMed

    Nađpal, Jelena D; Lesjak, Marija M; Šibul, Filip S; Anačkov, Goran T; Četojević-Simin, Dragana D; Mimica-Dukić, Neda M; Beara, Ivana N

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare phenolic profile, vitamin C content, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of rose hips and the preserves (purée and jam) of two Rosa species: renowned Rosa canina L. and unexplored Rosa arvensis Huds. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 45 phenolics resulted in quantification of 14 compounds, with quercitrin, gallic and protocatechuic acids as the most dominant. High antioxidant potential of R. canina and a moderate activity of R. arvensis extracts were determined through several assays. Purée of both species and methanol extract of air-dried R. canina hips showed some anti-inflammatory (cyclooxygenase-1 and 12-lipooxygense inhibition potency) activity. Purée of R. canina exerted cytotoxic activity only against the HeLa cell line among several others (HeLa, MCF7, HT-29 and MRC-5). The presented results support traditional use of rose hips and their fruit preserves as food with health and nutritional benefits.

  8. Genome characteristics reveal the impact of lichenization on lichen-forming fungus Endocarpon pusillum Hedwig (Verrucariales, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lichen is a classic mutualistic organism and the lichenization is one of the fungal symbioses. The lichen-forming fungus Endocarpon pusillum is living in symbiosis with the green alga Diplosphaera chodatii Bialsuknia as a lichen in the arid regions. Results 454 and Illumina technologies were used to sequence the genome of E. pusillum. A total of 9,285 genes were annotated in the 37.5 Mb genome of E. pusillum. Analyses of the genes provided direct molecular evidence for certain natural characteristics, such as homothallic reproduction and drought-tolerance. Comparative genomics analysis indicated that the expansion and contraction of some protein families in the E. pusillum genome reflect the specific relationship with its photosynthetic partner (D. chodatii). Co-culture experiments using the lichen-forming fungus E. pusillum and its algal partner allowed the functional identification of genes involved in the nitrogen and carbon transfer between both symbionts, and three lectins without signal peptide domains were found to be essential for the symbiotic recognition in the lichen; interestingly, the ratio of the biomass of both lichen-forming fungus and its photosynthetic partner and their contact time were found to be important for the interaction between these two symbionts. Conclusions The present study lays a genomic analysis of the lichen-forming fungus E. pusillum for demonstrating its general biological features and the traits of the interaction between this fungus and its photosynthetic partner D. chodatii, and will provide research basis for investigating the nature of its drought resistance and symbiosis. PMID:24438332

  9. Two Cases of Lichen Planus Pigmentosus-inversus Arising from Long-standing Lichen Planus-inversus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Duck; Chi, Seong Geun; Ko, Hyun Chang; Lee, Seok Jong; Kim, Do Won

    2008-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus (LPP-inversus) is an extremely rare variant of lichen planus (LP), and only a few cases have been reported. Its course is characterized by exacerbations and remissions, and it is known to be more chronic than classical LP is. We report two cases of LPP-inversus and offer the suggestion that LPP-inversus may originate from LP of flexural areas. PMID:27303206

  10. Two Cases of Lichen Planus Pigmentosus-inversus Arising from Long-standing Lichen Planus-inversus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Soo; Park, Kyung Duck; Chi, Seong Geun; Ko, Hyun Chang; Lee, Weon Ju; Lee, Seok Jong; Kim, Do Won

    2008-12-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus (LPP-inversus) is an extremely rare variant of lichen planus (LP), and only a few cases have been reported. Its course is characterized by exacerbations and remissions, and it is known to be more chronic than classical LP is. We report two cases of LPP-inversus and offer the suggestion that LPP-inversus may originate from LP of flexural areas.

  11. Phytochemical composition and in vitro pharmacological activity of two rose hip (Rosa canina L.) preparations.

    PubMed

    Wenzig, E M; Widowitz, U; Kunert, O; Chrubasik, S; Bucar, F; Knauder, E; Bauer, R

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare powdered rose hip with and without fruits (Rosae pseudofructus cum/sine fructibus, Rosa canina L., Rosaceae) with regard to their phytochemical profile and their in vitro anti-inflammatory and radical-scavenging properties. The two powders were subsequently extracted with solvents of increasing polarity and tested for inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-1, COX-2) and of 5-LOX-mediated leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) formation as well as for DPPH-radical-scavenging capacity. While the water and methanol extracts were inactive in the COX-1, COX-2 and LTB(4) inhibition assays, the n-hexane and the dichloromethane extracts inhibited all three enzymes. In the active extracts, the triterpenoic acids ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and betulinic acid were identified, although only in minute amounts. Furthermore, oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid were identified apart from several saturated fatty acids. Even though unsaturated fatty acids are known to be good inhibitors of COX-1, COX-2 and LT formation, no clear correlation between their concentration in the extracts and their activity was found. We suggest that other, yet unidentified, lipophilic constituents might play a more important role for the observed in vitro inhibitory activity on arachidonic acid metabolism. Some of the extracts also showed considerable DPPH radical scavenging activity, the methanolic extracts being most potent. The radical scavenging activity of the extracts correlated very well with their total phenolic content, while ascorbic acid contributes only little to the radical-scavenging activity due to its low concentration present in the extracts. In summary, extracts derived from powdered rose hip without fruits were more effective in all assays carried out compared with extracts derived from powdered rose hip with fruits.

  12. Which factors are responsible for the changing lichen floras of London?

    PubMed

    Purvis, O W; Chimonides, J; Din, V; Erotokritou, L; Jeffries, T; Jones, G C; Louwhoff, S; Read, H; Spiro, B

    2003-07-01

    SO(2) is no longer the principal factor influencing the vitality and composition of lichen assemblages in London. We provide direct evidence for an impact on lichen growth during episodic high exhaust emissions coupled with unusual climatic conditions. This suggests a combination of particles and nitrogen plays a major role in influencing lichen growth. Nitrogen from traffic emissions may be at least as important as agriculture in influencing the composition of lichen assemblages.

  13. Bilateral Linear Lichen Planus Pigmentosus Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Vachiramon, Vasanop; Suchonwanit, Poonkiat; Thadanipon, Kunlawat

    2010-09-11

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is a rare subtype of lichen planus. We report a first case of lichen planus pigmentosus with bilateral linear distribution associated with hepatitis C virus infection. The lesion was improved after sun avoidance and treatment of hepatitis C virus infection with a combination of interferon and ribavirin. This case stresses the importance of screening for hepatitis C virus infection as lichen planus pigmentosus can be an associated condition.

  14. Bilateral Linear Lichen Planus Pigmentosus Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vachiramon, Vasanop; Suchonwanit, Poonkiat; Thadanipon, Kunlawat

    2010-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is a rare subtype of lichen planus. We report a first case of lichen planus pigmentosus with bilateral linear distribution associated with hepatitis C virus infection. The lesion was improved after sun avoidance and treatment of hepatitis C virus infection with a combination of interferon and ribavirin. This case stresses the importance of screening for hepatitis C virus infection as lichen planus pigmentosus can be an associated condition. PMID:21060775

  15. Terricolous lichens in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Tutzer, Veronika; Wallner, Anja; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Two sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier to investigate lichen communities on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner. The survey yielded 34 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus. In addition, 19 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus were found by collecting at random, outside the two sampling sites. PMID:27042696

  16. Lichen planus pigmentosus of the oral mucosa: a rare clinical variety.

    PubMed

    Laskaris, G C; Papavasiliou, S S; Bovopoulou, O D; Nicolis, G D

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a case of lichen planus of the mouth with intense melanosis, in a middle-aged white male. Due to its unusual clinical characteristics, we believe that this case represents a rare variant of lichen planus of the oral mucosa. The histopathologic findings, differential diagnosis and its possible connection with lichen planus pigmentosus of the skin are discussed.

  17. Cesium-137 monitoring using lichens from W. Macedonia, N. Greece.

    PubMed

    Sawidis, Thomas; Tsigaridas, Konstantinos; Tsikritzis, Lazaros

    2010-10-01

    (137)Cs content in lichens and substrate (soil, bark) collected from W. Macedonia, Greece was measured 20 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Archive material from previous collections was also used for comparison and a diachronic estimation of the radio-contamination status. A gradual decrease was detected which depended on various factors such as the collected species, location, growth rate and substrate. Maximum accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was observed in epilithic lichens in comparison to epigeic or epiphytic ones. Furthermore, foliose or crustose lichens such as Parmelia sulcata, Xanthoria parietina, Xanthoria calcicola, Xanthoparmelia somloensis were more contaminated than filamentose at the same biotope. Among filamentose or fruticose species those with large surface area to biomass ratio e.g. Usnea sp. showed also greater accumulation capacity. Autoradiography revealed an amount of (137)Cs distributed more or less uniformly in lichen thalli. The high (137)Cs activities found in lichens 20 years after Chernobyl suggest that these primitive plants are effective, suitable and inexpensive biological detectors of the distribution and burden of fallout radionuclide fallout pattern.

  18. A study of 124 Indian patients with lichen planus pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, A J; Dogra, S; Handa, S; Parsad, D; Radotra, B D

    2003-09-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is a fairly common disorder of pigmentation in Indians, but reports comprising a sizeable number of patients are lacking in the literature. We now describe the clinical and epidemiological features and histopathological findings for 124 lichen planus pigmentosus patients. A retrospective analysis of medical records of patients attending our centre during the past 12 years was undertaken. Of the 124 patients (56 male, 68 female), the majority (48.4%) had the disease for 6 months to 3 years. The face and neck were the commonest sites affected with pigmentation varying from slate grey to brownish-black. The pattern of pigmentation was mostly diffuse (77.4%), followed by reticular (9.7%), blotchy (7.3%) and perifollicular (5.6%). Lichen planus was noted in 19 patients with typical histopathological changes of the disorder. Lichen planus pigmentosus, a distinct clinical entity commonly encountered in the Indian population, should be considered in the spectrum of lichenoid disorders as a variant of lichen planus.

  19. Thidiazuron Triggers Morphogenesis in Rosa canina L. Protocorm-Like Bodies by Changing Incipient Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Yaping; Yuan, Cunquan; Zhao, Qingcui; Liu, Guoqin; Nie, Jing; Ma, Zhimin; Cheng, Chenxia; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Zhao, Liangjun

    2016-01-01

    Thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N′-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea; TDZ) is an artificial plant growth regulator that is widely used in plant tissue culture. Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) induced by TDZ serve as an efficient and rapid in vitro regeneration system in Rosa species. Despite this, the mechanism of PLB induction remains relatively unclear. TDZ, which can affect the level of endogenous auxins and cytokinins, converts the cell fate of rhizoid tips and triggers PLB formation and plantlet regeneration in Rosa canina L. In callus-rhizoids, which are rhizoids that co-develop from callus, auxin and a Z-type cytokinin accumulated after applying TDZ, and transcription of the auxin transporter gene RcPIN1 was repressed. The expression of RcARF4, RcRR1, RcCKX2, RcCKX3, and RcLOG1 increased in callus-rhizoids and rhizoid tips while the transcription of an auxin response factor (RcARF1) and auxin transport proteins (RcPIN2, RcPIN3) decreased in callus-rhizoids but increased in rhizoid tips. In situ hybridization of rhizoids showed that RcWUS and RcSERK1 were highly expressed in columella cells and root stem cells resulting in the conversion of cell fate into shoot apical meristems or embryogenic callus. In addition, transgenic XVE::RcWUS lines showed repressed RcWUS overexpression while RcWUS had no effect on PLB morphogenesis. Furthermore, higher expression of the root stem cell marker RcWOX5 and root stem cell maintenance regulator genes RcPLT1 and RcPLT2 indicated the presence of a dedifferentiation developmental pathway in the stem cell niche of rhizoids. Viewed together, our results indicate that different cells in rhizoid tips acquired regeneration competence after induction by TDZ. A novel developmental pathway containing different cell types during PLB formation was identified by analyzing the endogenous auxin and cytokinin content. This study also provides a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying in vitro regeneration in Rosa. PMID:27200031

  20. A Case of Lichen Planus Pigmentosus-inversus in a Korean Patient

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ye-Jin; Lee, Yoon Hee; Lee, Sung-Yul

    2011-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus is a rare variant of lichen planus pigmentosus. The eruption of lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus occurs mainly in the flexural regions and presents with brownish macules and patches. Here we describe the case of a 31-year-old Korean woman who presented with hyperpigmented lesions over her antecubital and popliteal area and groin. Physical examination revealed multiple brownish macules and patches on the intertriginous area without pruritis, and histologic findings showed a regressive pattern of lichen planus. These clinical and histological findings were consistent with a diagnosis of lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus. PMID:21738364

  1. A Case of Lichen Planus Pigmentosus-inversus in a Korean Patient.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ye-Jin; Lee, Yoon Hee; Lee, Sung-Yul; Lee, Won-Soo

    2011-02-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus is a rare variant of lichen planus pigmentosus. The eruption of lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus occurs mainly in the flexural regions and presents with brownish macules and patches. Here we describe the case of a 31-year-old Korean woman who presented with hyperpigmented lesions over her antecubital and popliteal area and groin. Physical examination revealed multiple brownish macules and patches on the intertriginous area without pruritis, and histologic findings showed a regressive pattern of lichen planus. These clinical and histological findings were consistent with a diagnosis of lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus.

  2. Angel lichen moth abundance and morphology data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metcalfe, Anya; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Two unique datasets on the abundance and morphology of the angel lichen moth ( Cisthene angelus) in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA were compiled to describe the phenology and life history of this common, but poorly known, species. The abundance data were collected from 2012 to 2013 through a collaboration with river runners in Grand Canyon National Park. These citizen scientists deployed light traps from their campsites for one hour each night of their expedition. Insects were preserved in ethanol on site, and returned to the Southwest Biological Science Center in Flagstaff, Arizona for analysis in the laboratory. A total of 2,437 light trap samples were sorted through, 903 of which contained C. angelus. In total, 73,841 C. angelus were identified and enumerated to create the abundance data set. The morphology dataset is based on a subset of 28 light trap samples from sampling year 2012 (14 from spring and 14 from fall.) It includes gender and forewing lengths for 2,674 individual moths and dry weights for 1,102 of those individuals.

  3. Oral lichen planus: focus on etiopathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Payeras, Márcia Rodrigues; Cherubini, Karen; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2013-09-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic mucocutaneous inflammatory disease, which frequently affects the oral mucosa of white females over 40 years old. Its aetiology remains uncertain and the pathogenesis is still the object of much speculation. The present paper presents the most well known antigens, and describes the action of different cells and proteins associated with the development of that disease, as well as the possible agents involved with its malignant transformation. Different external agents, especially virus, and internal agents, like stress, and the heat shock protein antigen expression, associated or not, can alter the basal keratinocytes of the oral mucosa making them susceptible to apoptosis by CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell as well as activate matrix metalloproteinase and mast cell degranulation, which produce a great range of inflammatory mediators and cytokines determining the clinical onset of the disease. Regarding carcinogenesis, since it is a complex process and presents multifactorial origin, it is believed that there may be a synergism between intrinsic, such as inflammation mediators, and extrinsic agents (tobacco, alcohol, viral infections) for the OLP malignant transformation to occur. However, further studies are needed to better understand the origin, pathogenesis and process of malignant transformation of OLP.

  4. Lichens as natural sources of biotechnologically relevant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Marcelino T; Parrot, Delphine; Berg, Gabriele; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The search for microorganisms from novel sources and in particular microbial symbioses represents a promising approach in biotechnology. In this context, lichens have increasingly become a subject of research in microbial biotechnology, particularly after the recognition that a diverse community of bacteria other than cyanobacteria is an additional partner to the traditionally recognized algae-fungus mutualism. Here, we review recent studies using culture-dependent as well as culture-independent approaches showing that lichens can harbor diverse bacterial families known for the production of compounds of biotechnological interest and that several microorganisms isolated from lichens, in particular Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria, can produce a number of bioactive compounds, many of them with biotechnological potential.

  5. Lichen sclerosus of the oral mucosa: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Yolanda; Gavaldá, Carmen; Carbonell, Enrique; Margaix, María; Sarrión, Gracia

    2008-07-01

    Lichen sclerosus or lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic inflammatory disease predominantly affecting the genital mucosa and skin. Clinically, it is characterized by white atrophic plaques in the anogenital region. The lesions are generally asymptomatic, but may cause discomfort with itching and pain. Extragenital mucosal involvement is very unusual, and lesions limited to the oral mucosa are even less frequent. Knowledge of such lesions is important in order to establish a differential diagnosis with other white oral lesions, and histological confirmation is required. We present the case of a 31-year-old woman with a well delimited, pearly white lesion located in the upper gingival mucosa, lip mucosa and adjacent skin. The lesion had led to loss of periodontal attachment of the affected tooth, causing pain in response to tooth brushing. The biopsy confirmed lichen sclerosus, and treatment was provided in the form of intralesional corticoid injections, followed by improvement of the mucosal lesion, though without recovery of the periodontal loss.

  6. Bullous and hemorrhagic lichen sclerosus--Case report.

    PubMed

    Lima, Raquel Sucupira Andrade; Maquiné, Gustavo Ávila; Schettini, Antônio Pedro Mendes; Santos, Mônica

    2015-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease, usually located in the genital area. The etiology of lichen sclerosus is multifactorial, with participation of genetic, autoimmune, infectious and hormonal factors. Bullous clinical form stems from hydropic degeneration of the basal membrane, constituting a less frequent variant of the disease. In this work, we report the case of a female patient, 55 years old, who in the last three years presented whitish plaques, with horny spikes, located on back and arms. Some of these lesions evolved with hemorrhagic blisters, which after histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of bullous and hemorrhagic lichen sclerosus. The patient was treated with high-potency topical corticosteroid for two months, resulting in remission of bullous and hemorrhagic lesions.

  7. Evidence-based (S3) Guideline on (anogenital) Lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Kirtschig, G; Becker, K; Günthert, A; Jasaitiene, D; Cooper, S; Chi, C-C; Kreuter, A; Rall, K K; Aberer, W; Riechardt, S; Casabona, F; Powell, J; Brackenbury, F; Erdmann, R; Lazzeri, M; Barbagli, G; Wojnarowska, F

    2015-10-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is an inflammatory skin disease that usually involves the anogenital area. All patients with symptoms or signs suspicious of lichen sclerosus should be seen at least once initially by a physician with a special interest in the disease in order to avoid delay in diagnosis, as early treatment may cure the disease in some and reduce or prevent scarring. The diagnosis is made clinically in most cases. Biopsies should only be performed under certain circumstances. The gold standard for treatment remains potent to very potent topical steroids; however, mild and moderate disease in boys and men may be cured by circumcision. Certain triggers should be avoided. http://www.euroderm.org/images/stories/guidelines/2014/S3-Guideline-on-Lichen-sclerosus.pdf http://www.awmf.org/fachgesellschaften/mitgliedsgesellschaften/visitenkarte/fg/deutsche-gesellschaft-fuer-gynaekologie-und-geburtshilfe-dggg.html.

  8. Lichen nitidus presenting with nail changes--case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tay, Evelyn Yuxin; Ho, Madeline Sheun Ling; Chandran, Nisha Suyien; Lee, Joyce Siong-See; Heng, Yee Kiat

    2015-01-01

    Lichen nitidus of the nail is rare and can precede the onset of skin lesions. Delayed diagnosis is common. We present an unusual case of lichen nitidus-associated nail changes that preceded the onset of skin lesions in a 4-year-old Indian girl. We also conduct a review of six other cases of lichen nitidus with nail involvement from the English-language literature. Clues to the diagnosis of lichen nitidus include violaceous or pigmentary changes of the nail fold and subtle lichenoid papules on the affected digits. Lichen nitidus of the nails appears to be less severe than nail changes of lichen planus and is generally self-limiting. Understanding the natural history of lichen nitidus of the nails will help physicians better counsel patients and their families.

  9. Dog rose (Rosa canina L.) as a functional ingredient in porcine frankfurters without added sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite.

    PubMed

    Vossen, Els; Utrera, Mariana; De Smet, Stefaan; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

    2012-12-01

    The effect of dog rose (Rosa canina L.; RC), rich in polyphenols and ascorbic acid, on lipid and protein oxidation, colour stability and texture of frankfurters was investigated. Four treatments were prepared: with 5 or 30 g/kg RC extract and without sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite (5RC and 30RC, respectively), a positive control (with sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite; PC) and a negative control (without sodium ascorbate, sodium nitrite or RC extract; NC). Hexanal values were much higher throughout storage in NC compared to RC and PC frankfurters (P<0.001). The RC extracts protected against protein oxidation, but not as efficiently as PC (P<0.05). In the RC treated frankfurters, lower a* values were measured compared to PC due to the lack of sodium nitrite. In conclusion, dog rose can act as a natural antioxidant in frankfurters, but not as full replacer for sodium nitrite.

  10. Lichen Persistence and Recovery in Response to Varied Volcanic Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P.; Wheeler, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions produce many ecological disturbances that structure vegetation. While lichens are sensitive to disturbances, little is known about their responses to volcanic disturbances, except for colonization of lava. We examined lichen community responses through time to different disturbances produced by the May 1, 2008 eruption of Volcan Chaiten in south-central Chile. Pre-eruption vegetation near the volcano was old-growth Valdivian temperate rainforest dominated by closed-canopy Nothofagus sp... In 2012, we installed thirteen 1-acre plots across volcanic disturbance zones on which a time-constrained search was done for all macrolichen species, each of which was assigned an approximate log10 categorical abundance. We also installed a 0.2 m2 quadrat on two representative trees per plot for repeat photography of lichen cover. We remeasured at least one plot per disturbance zone in 2014 and re-photographed tree quadrats in 2013 and 2014. We then analyzed species composition and abundance differences among disturbance zones. In 2012, the blast (pyroclastic density flow), scorch (standing scorched forest at the edge of the blast) and deep tephra (>10 cm) zones had the lowest lichen species richness (5-13 species), followed by reference (unimpacted) and shallow (<10 cm) tephra (17-20 species). Gravel rain (preexisting rock ejected by eruption initiation), gravel rain + pumice and flooded forests (fluvially reworked volcanic material entrained by heavy rains) were species-rich (25-42 species). In 2014, the blast and deep tephra had regained 2-3 times the number of lichen species since 2012 while the light tephra and reference were essentially unchanged. Gravel rain, gravel rain + pumice and flooded forest plots all had about the same number of species in 2014 as 2012. Lichen colonization and growth in tree quadrats varied widely, from very little colonization in the blast to prolific colonization in the gravel rain + pumice zone. Lichen's varied responses to

  11. New or otherwise interesting lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Montenegro

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Knežević, Branka; Stešević, Danijela; Vitikainen, Orvo; Dragićević, Snežana; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    A list of 256 taxa of lichens (252 species) and 2 species of lichenicolous fungi from Montenegro is presented, including 58 taxa (57 species) new to Montenegro. The list is based on specimens kept in the lichen collections of the herbaria GZU, H, Podgorica, and in the private herbarium of Klaus Kalb, and on recent field work in various parts of the country. The genera Biatoridium, Carbonea, Cercidospora, Heppia, Hyperphyscia, Hypocenomyce, Leprocaulon, Lethariella, Megalospora, Orphniospora, Psorinia and Vahliella are reported from Montenegro for the first time. PMID:22102779

  12. Direct Immunofluorescence in Oral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Okuma, Nis; Thanakun, Supanee; Laothumthut, Titikarn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common immune-mediated oral mucosal disease. Diagnosis of OLP depends mainly on both clinical and histopathological features. Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) is a useful investigation method to distinguish between similar lesions and to confirm diagnosis in cases of uncharacterized features. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and pattern of DIF in a group of Thai patients with OLP. Materials and Methods Records of clinically and histologically diagnosed OLP patients attending the Oral Medicine Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand were consecutively reviewed for DIF results. The DIF patterns in these patients were analysed. Results There were 82 atrophic and/or erosive OLP patients with a mean age of 51.6 years. Male to female ratio was 1:5. Of these, 82.9% showed positive DIF. Buccal mucosa was superior to the gingiva and palate in terms of sensitivity for DIF. All specimens except one (98.5%) demonstrated deposition of fibrinogen at the basement membrane zone (BMZ) in a shaggy pattern. The most common DIF pattern was shaggy fibrinogen at BMZ with IgM deposition on the colloid bodies (CB) (35.3%) followed by shaggy fibrinogen along BMZ (27.9%). Conclusion The prevalence of positive DIF in Thai OLP patients was 82.9%. The most common finding was shaggy fibrinogen at BMZ. The typical pattern was shaggy fibrinogen along BMZ with or without positive IgM at CB. DIF pattern could be evaluated for the diagnosis of OLP lacking clinical and/or histopathological characteristic features. PMID:26436043

  13. Lichen Planus Pigmentosus: The Controversial Consensus.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Coondoo, Arijit

    2016-01-01

    A pigmented variant of lichen planus (LP) was first reported from India in 1974 by Bhutani et al. who coined the term LP pigmentosus (LPP) to give a descriptive nomenclature to it. LP has a number of variants, one of which is LPP. This disease has also later been reported from the Middle East, Latin America, Korea, and Japan, especially in people with darker skin. It has an insidious onset. Initially, small, black or brown macules appear on sun-exposed areas. They later merge to form large hyperpigmented patches. The disease principally affects the sun-exposed areas of the body such as the face, trunk, and upper extremities. The oral mucosa may rarely be involved. However, the palms, soles, and nails are not affected. Histologically, the epidermis is atrophic along with vacuolar degeneration of basal cell layer. The dermis exhibits incontinence of pigment with scattered melanophages and a sparse follicular or perivascular infiltrate. There is a considerable similarity in histopathological findings between LPP and erythema dyschromicum perstans. However, there are immunologic and clinical differences between the two. These observations have led to a controversy regarding the identity of the two entities. While some dermatologists consider them to be the same, others have opined that the two should be considered as distinctly different diseases. A number of associations such as hepatitis C virus infection, frontal fibrosing alopecia, acrokeratosis of Bazex and nephrotic syndrome have been reported with LPP. A rare variant, LPP inversus, with similar clinical and histopathological findings was reported in 2001. As opposed to LPP, this variant occurs in covered intertriginous locations such as groins and axillae and mostly affects white-skinned persons.

  14. Lichen Planus Pigmentosus: The Controversial Consensus

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Coondoo, Arijit

    2016-01-01

    A pigmented variant of lichen planus (LP) was first reported from India in 1974 by Bhutani et al. who coined the term LP pigmentosus (LPP) to give a descriptive nomenclature to it. LP has a number of variants, one of which is LPP. This disease has also later been reported from the Middle East, Latin America, Korea, and Japan, especially in people with darker skin. It has an insidious onset. Initially, small, black or brown macules appear on sun-exposed areas. They later merge to form large hyperpigmented patches. The disease principally affects the sun-exposed areas of the body such as the face, trunk, and upper extremities. The oral mucosa may rarely be involved. However, the palms, soles, and nails are not affected. Histologically, the epidermis is atrophic along with vacuolar degeneration of basal cell layer. The dermis exhibits incontinence of pigment with scattered melanophages and a sparse follicular or perivascular infiltrate. There is a considerable similarity in histopathological findings between LPP and erythema dyschromicum perstans. However, there are immunologic and clinical differences between the two. These observations have led to a controversy regarding the identity of the two entities. While some dermatologists consider them to be the same, others have opined that the two should be considered as distinctly different diseases. A number of associations such as hepatitis C virus infection, frontal fibrosing alopecia, acrokeratosis of Bazex and nephrotic syndrome have been reported with LPP. A rare variant, LPP inversus, with similar clinical and histopathological findings was reported in 2001. As opposed to LPP, this variant occurs in covered intertriginous locations such as groins and axillae and mostly affects white-skinned persons. PMID:27688435

  15. Are patients with lichen planus really prone to urolithiasis? Lichen planus and urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Oguz, Ural; Takci, Zennure; Oguz, Isil Deniz; Resorlu, Berkan; Balta, Ilknur; Unsal, Ali

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose to investigate whether patients with lichen planus (LP) are really prone to urolithiasis or not. Patients and Methods We performed a prospective analysis of 40 patients diagnosed with lichen planus (LP) (group I), and 40 volunteers did not have LP before (group II). Participants were all checked for urolithiasis by radiological investigations. Blood samples were analyzed for biochemistry parameters including calcium and uric acid. 24-h urine samples were analyzed to investigate oxalate, citrate calcium, uric acid, magnesium, sodium and creatinine. Results Men/women ratio and mean age were similar between group I and II (p>0.05). A presence or history of urolithiasis was detected in 8 (20%) and 2 (%5) patients in group I and II, respectively (p<0.05). Hypocitraturia was the most common anomaly with 35% (n:14) in group I. The rate of hypocitraturia in group II was 12.5% (n:5) and the difference was statistically significantly different (p=0.036). In group I, hyperuricosuria and hyperoxaluria followed with rates of 27.5% (n:11) and 25% (n:10), respectively. The rate of hyperuricosuria and hyperoxaluria were both 5% (n:2) in group II and the differences were significant (p<0.05). Hyperuricemia was another important finding in the patients with LP. It was detected in 13 (32.5%) patients in group I and in 1 (2.5%) participant in group II (p=0.001). Conclusion According to our results, metabolic disorders of urolithiasis were highly detected in the patients with LP. However, similar to the etiology of LP, the exact reasons for these metabolic abnormalities in LP remain a mystery. PMID:27286123

  16. Epilithic lichens in the Beacon sandstone formation, Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, M. E.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    The epilithic lichen flora on the Beacon sandstone formation in Victoria Land consists of seven species: Acarospora gwynnii Dodge & Rudolph, Buellia grisea Dodge & Baker, B. pallida Dodge & Baker, Carbonea capsulata (Dodge & Baker) Hale comb. nov., Lecanora fuscobrunnea Dodge & Baker, Lecidea cancriformis Dodge & Baker, and L. siplei Dodge & Baker. The typification of the species is given along with descriptions and distribution in Antarctica.

  17. Pimecrolimus 1% cream for anogenital lichen sclerosus in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Boms, Stefanie; Gambichler, Thilo; Freitag, Marcus; Altmeyer, Peter; Kreuter, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Background Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease with a predilection of the anogenital region. Because of the potential side effects of repeated local application of potent glucocorticosteroids, equally-effective, safer therapeutic options are required, especially in the treatment of children. Case presentations We report on the efficacy of twice-daily application of pimecrolimus 1% cream in four prepubertal girls (range of age: 4 to 9 years) who suffered from anogenital lichen sclerosus. After three to four-month treatment, all patients had almost complete clinical remission including relief from itch, pain and inflammation. Only minor improvement was observed for the white sclerotic lesions. No significant side effects have been observed. Conclusions Topical pimecrolimus appears to be an effective and safe treatment for children with anogenital lichen sclerosus. The clinical benefits observed in the four patient presented particularly include relief of pruritus, pain and inflammation. Vehicle-controlled studies on a larger number of patients are now warranted to substantiate our promising findings, and to investigate long-term efficacy and safety of topical pimecrolimus in anogenital lichen sclerosus. PMID:15485581

  18. Diversity in a Hidden Community: Tardiagrades in Lichens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shofner, Marcia; Vodopich, Darrell

    1993-01-01

    Describes an interesting field experiment examining the distribution and diversity of a single community using lichens and the animals living in them. Combining field experience and laboratory work reveals not only the biology of some unusual organisms, but also community ecology and diversity. (PR)

  19. Education: Lichens in US Introductory Botany Textbooks, 1936-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Emanuel D.

    1988-01-01

    This article reviews the treatment of lichens in 93 different introductory North American botany textbooks. Topics considered are questions of relationship, independent survival, reproduction, definition, and scientific name. The author reports that treatment is uneven and often includes incomplete or erroneous information which may persist…

  20. Lichen dating of coseismic landslide hazards in alpine mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, William B.; King, John; Kong, Fanchen; Moutoux, Thomas; Phillips, William M.

    1994-08-01

    Studies of rockfalls and block slides provide insight about seismic shaking hazards in alpine mountains subject to earthquakes. Large samples of the longest axis of the largest lichen on each block can be used to identify regional landslide events; lichen-size distributions for many sites cluster consistenly at the same sizes. The coseismic rockfall lichenometry model can be used to (1) date and locate prehistorical earthquakes, (2) document regional frequency of earthquakes, and (3) describe regional patterns of seismic shaking. Determination of colonization time, great-growth phase, and especially uniform phase rates of lichen growth are essential for dating regional landslide events. Rocks that tumble downhill during historical earthquakes allow accurate calibration of the growth rate for Rhizocarpon subgenus Rhizocarpon; these plentiful fresh substrates are dated to their day of formation. An initial calibration of uniform growth rate, based on historical and tree-ring dated landslides was fine tuned by assigning earthquake dates to mean values of lichen-size peaks for regional rockfall events that increase in abundance towards epicenters of historical earthquakes. Calibration for each new site is unnecessary in the Southern Alps of New Zealand and in the Sierra Nevada of California because several species of yellow rhizocarpons within each climatic region have constant growth rates that are independent of altitude or substrate lithology.

  1. Linear Lichen Planopilaris of the Face: Case Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Asz-Sigall, Daniel; González-de-Cossio-Hernández, Ana Cecilia; Rodríguez-Lobato, Erika; Ortega-Springall, María Fernanda; Vega-Memije, María Elisa; Arenas Guzmán, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    We describe the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with a 5-month history of unilateral pruritic linear erythematous papules and atrophy on the chin and mandibular area. Dermoscopy showed areas of cicatricial alopecia with absence of follicular openings, perifollicular erythema and pigment. Lichen planopilaris of the face is a rare variant with only 13 cases reported in the literature.

  2. Characterization of biological ice nuclei from a lichen.

    PubMed Central

    Kieft, T L; Ruscetti, T

    1990-01-01

    Biological ice nuclei (active at approximately -4 degrees C) were extracted from cells of the lichen Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca by sonication. Sensitivity to proteases, guanidine hydrochloride, and urea showed these nuclei to be proteinaceous. The nuclei were relatively heat stable, active from pH 1.5 to 12, and active without lipids, thereby demonstrating significant differences from bacterial ice nuclei. PMID:2188965

  3. An improved method to isolate lichen algae by gel filtration.

    PubMed

    Pérez, M J; Vicente, C; Legaz, M E

    1985-08-01

    Photobiont cells of the lichen Evernia prunastri have completely been separated from their fungal partner by filtration through a bed of Sepharose 2B. Both mannitol and ribitol have been quantified by gas-liquid chromatography in the different steps of the isolation procedure. Absence of mannitol, which is exclusively produced by the mycobiont, has been used as the best probe to monitor isolation.

  4. Lichen microalgae are sensitive to environmental concentrations of atrazine.

    PubMed

    Traba, Helena Moreno; Domínguez-Morueco, Noelia; Barreno, Eva; Catalá, Myriam

    2017-04-03

    The identification of new organisms for environmental toxicology bioassays is currently a priority, since these tools are strongly limited by the ecological relevance of taxa used to study global change. Lichens are sensitive bioindicators of air quality and their microalgae are an untapped source for new low-cost miniaturized bioassays with ecological importance. In order to increase the availability of a wider range of taxa for bioassays, the sensitivity of two symbiotic lichen microalgae, Asterochloris erici and Trebouxia sp. TR9, to atrazine was evaluated. To achieve this goal, axenic cultures of these phycobionts in suspension were exposed to a range of environmental concentrations of the herbicide atrazine, a common water pollutant. Optical density and chlorophyll autofluorescence were used as endpoints of ecotoxicity and ecophysiology on cell suspensions. Results show that lichen microalgae show high sensitivity to very low doses of atrazine, being higher in Asterochloris erici than in Trebouxia sp. TR9. We conclude that environmental concentrations of atrazine could modify population dynamics probably through a shift in reproduction strategies of these organisms. This seminal work is a breakthrough in the use of lichen microalgae in the assessment of micropollution effects on biodiversity.

  5. Barcoding lichen-forming fungi using 454 pyrosequencing is challenged by artifactual and biological sequence variation.

    PubMed

    Mark, Kristiina; Cornejo, Carolina; Keller, Christine; Flück, Daniela; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Although lichens (lichen-forming fungi) play an important role in the ecological integrity of many vulnerable landscapes, only a minority of lichen-forming fungi have been barcoded out of the currently accepted ∼18 000 species. Regular Sanger sequencing can be problematic when analyzing lichens since saprophytic, endophytic, and parasitic fungi live intimately admixed, resulting in low-quality sequencing reads. Here, high-throughput, long-read 454 pyrosequencing in a GS FLX+ System was tested to barcode the fungal partner of 100 epiphytic lichen species from Switzerland using fungal-specific primers when amplifying the full internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). The present study shows the potential of DNA barcoding using pyrosequencing, in that the expected lichen fungus was successfully sequenced for all samples except one. Alignment solutions such as BLAST were found to be largely adequate for the generated long reads. In addition, the NCBI nucleotide database-currently the most complete database for lichen-forming fungi-can be used as a reference database when identifying common species, since the majority of analyzed lichens were identified correctly to the species or at least to the genus level. However, several issues were encountered, including a high sequencing error rate, multiple ITS versions in a genome (incomplete concerted evolution), and in some samples the presence of mixed lichen-forming fungi (possible lichen chimeras).

  6. The micromorphological approach to rock-lichen interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terribile, F.; Vingiani, S.; Adamo, P.

    2012-04-01

    Biological factors associated with lichen growth play a major role in the weathering of minerals on bare rocks. Research on this topic over the last decades has demonstrated that a variety of interactions exist between these organisms and substrates and that further progresses in the study of the rock-lichen relationships rely on modern instrumental and analytical techniques application. In this investigation a micromorphological methodology has been produced in order to study the weathering phenomena resulting from the growth of six crustose (Lecidea fuscoatra, Lecanora sulfurea, Rinodina beccariana, Lepraria sp., Rhizocarpon geographicum and Diploscistes actinostomus) and three foliose (Xanthoria calcicola, Xanthoria ectaneoides and Parmelia conspersa) lichen species growing on volcanic and metamorphic rocks. Lecidea fuscoatra was collected on phonolitic tefrite from Mt. Etna (Sicily), Parmelia conspersa on tefritic leucitite from Mt. Vesuvius (Campania), Lepraria sp. and Rhizocarpon geographicum on granite from Alghero (Sardinia), Xanthoria ectaneoides on massive serpentinite from Impruneta (Toscana), Lecanora sulfurea, Rinodina beccariana and Diploscistes actinostomus on metal-bearing schist from Argentiera (Sardinia). The methodology implies a multi-resolution analysis of rock-lichen undisturbed samples ranging from direct (OM) to electron microscopic (SEM/EDS) observations. Different litologies covered by lichens were sampled in the field in selected locations (1st level of resolution). Samples were analysed by both direct observation and stereomicroscopy in order to spot the most relevant zones for further study (2nd level of resolution). Such parts were impregnated with polyester resin to obtain a series of thin sections (30 micrometer thick). The thin sections were analysed by optical microscopy using point counting procedures (3rd level of resolution). Bulk and undisturbed microsamples, separated from the most representative weathering sites by

  7. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont's and photobiont's consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont's hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications.

  8. Topical treatment of oral lichen planus with anthocyanins

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Amanda; Salomón, Susana; Lanfranchi, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress is involved in oral lichen planus (OLP) pathogenesis; meanwhile anthocyanins are natural antioxidants present in grapes skin. Objectives: The aim of this research was to verify the utility of anthocyanins, extracted from grapes skin, for the local treatment of oral lichen planus and to compare it with clobetasol propionate- neomycin -nystatin cream (CP-NN). Study Design: Prospective, non-randomized study, with control group. Fifty-two patients with OLP were included. We divided patients into two categories: erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP) and non erosive oral lichen planus (NEOLP). 38 had EOLP (17 cases and 21 controls) and 14 presented NEOLP types (9 cases and 5 controls).Cases received local treatment with anthocyanins from grapes and controls, were treated with CP-NN. The clinical evolution of patients was followed up during six months. Results: The patients had a therapeutic response with anthocyanins. This was better than CP-NN treatment for patients with EOLP, in improving the involvement score of the oral mucosa and in the morphometric study of the affected areas. In EOLP there were no statistically significant differences in: therapeutic response time, the evolution of pain, or the relapse rate between the two groups. With respect to the treatment of NEOLP there was improved pain relief in the group treated with anthocyanins. This was not observed with CP-NN. The resting analized variables showed no significant difference with both treatments. Conclusions: OLP has a favorable response to local treatment with anthocyanins from grapes. We found an equal to or better response than with CP-NN treatment. Many of our patients have systemic diseases, which may contraindicate the use of steroids. With regard to this particular group, the use of this natural antioxidant present in the diet is considered advantageous. Key words:Anthocyanins, antioxidants, chemoprevention, morphometry, oral lichen, oxidative stress. PMID:24880442

  9. Candida biotypes in patients with oral leukoplakia and lichen planus. Candida biotypes in leukoplakia and lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Lipperheide, V; Quindós, G; Jiménez, Y; Pontón, J; Bagán-Sebastián, J V; Aguirre, J M

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of yeasts in 35 leukoplakia and 34 oral lichen planus patients was compared with that observed in persons without oral diseases. Serotype and morphotype were determined on Candida albicans isolates. Yeasts were isolated from the oral cavity specimens of 43.7% of the patients. C. albicans (serotype A) was the predominant species (76% in leukoplakia, 88.2% in lichen planus and 60.8% in healthy persons). Sixteen morphotypes were encountered on malt extract agar, being 732, 733, 734, 753 and 754 the most frequently found. Morphotypes SP1N and SP1Y were the most common on Sabouraud-trypheniltetrazolium agar (68.4% of the isolates from leukoplakia and 73.3% from lichen planus, but only 46.6% of the isolates from healthy oral mucosa showed SP1N morphotype). Presence of oral lesions was associated with a marked reduction in the yeast species and C. albicans biotypes, suggesting that C. albicans and particularly some of its biotypes, show a high potential of adaptation to the changes associated with the development of oral leukoplakia and lichen planus.

  10. An autoimmune phenotype in vulvar lichen sclerosus and lichen planus: a Th1 response and high levels of microRNA-155.

    PubMed

    Terlou, Annelinde; Santegoets, Lindy A M; van der Meijden, Willem I; Heijmans-Antonissen, Claudia; Swagemakers, Sigrid M A; van der Spek, Peter J; Ewing, Patricia C; van Beurden, Marc; Helmerhorst, Theo J M; Blok, Leen J

    2012-03-01

    Vulvar lichen sclerosus and lichen planus are T-cell-mediated chronic skin disorders. Although autoimmunity has been suggested, the exact pathogenesis of these disorders is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the molecular and immunological mechanisms critical to the pathogenesis of vulvar lichen sclerosus and lichen planus. By using gene expression profiling and real-time RT-PCR experiments, we demonstrated a significantly increased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, CXCR3, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CCR5, CCL4, and CCL5) specific for a Th1 IFNγ-induced immune response. In addition, BIC/microRNA-155 (miR-155)--a microRNA involved in regulation of the immune response--was significantly upregulated in lichen sclerosus and lichen planus (9.5- and 17.7-fold change, respectively). Immunohistochemistry showed a significant T-cell response, with pronounced dermal infiltrates of CD4(+), CD8(+), and FOXP3(+) cells. In conclusion, these data demonstrate an autoimmune phenotype in vulvar lichen sclerosus and lichen planus, characterized by increased levels of Th1-specific cytokines, a dense T-cell infiltrate, and enhanced BIC/miR-155 expression.

  11. Lichen planus and other lichenoid dermatoses: Kids are not just little people.

    PubMed

    Payette, Michael J; Weston, Gillian; Humphrey, Stephen; Yu, JiaDe; Holland, Kristen E

    2015-01-01

    Lichenoid dermatoses, a group of inflammatory skin conditions with characteristic clinical and histopathologic findings, range from common to rare. Classic lichen planus typically presents as pruritic, polygonal, violaceous flat-topped papules and plaques; many variants in morphology and location also exist. Other lichenoid dermatoses share similar clinical presentations and histopathologic findings. These include lichenoid drug eruption, lichen planus-like keratosis, lichen striatus, lichen nitidus, and keratosis lichenoides chronica. Epidemiologic characteristics vary among each lichenoid disorder. While classic lichen planus is considered a disease of adults, other lichenoid dermatoses may be more common in younger populations. The literature contains an array of reports on the variations in presentation and successful management of lichen planus and lichenoid dermatoses among diverse populations. Familiarity with the characteristics of each lichenoid dermatosis, rare or common within each patient population, is key to accomplishing timely recognition and effective management.

  12. Epiphytic lichens as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill (C Italy).

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Grassi, Alice; Vannini, Andrea; Maslaňáková, Ivana; Bil'ová, Ivana; Bačkor, Martin; Corsini, Adelmo; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Epiphytic lichens have been used as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill in C Italy. An integrated approach, using the diversity of epiphytic lichens, as well as element bioaccumulation and physiological parameters in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale was applied along a transect from the facility. The results highlighted the biological effects of air pollution around the landfill. The Index of Lichen Diversity (ILD) increased and the content of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn) decreased with distance from the landfill. Clear stress signals were observed in lichens growing in front of the facility, i.e. discoloration, necrosis, membrane lipid peroxidation, lower ergosterol content, higher dehydrogenase activity. Decreased photosynthetic efficiency, altered chlorophyll integrity and production of secondary metabolites were also found. The results suggested that lichens can be profitably used as bioindicators of environmental quality around landfills.

  13. Lichen and bryophyte distribution on oak in London in relation to air pollution and bark acidity.

    PubMed

    Larsen, R S; Bell, J N B; James, P W; Chimonides, P J; Rumsey, F J; Tremper, A; Purvis, O W

    2007-03-01

    Epiphytic lichen and bryophyte distribution and frequency were investigated on the trunks of 145 young oak trees throughout London and surrounding counties, and compared with pollution levels and bark pH. Sixty-four lichen and four bryophyte species were recorded. Three major zones were identified: (i) two central regions with a few lichens, bryophytes absent; (ii) a surrounding region with a more diverse flora including a high cover of nitrophyte lichens; and (iii) an outer region, characterised by species absent from central London, including acidophytes. Nineteen species were correlated with nitrogen oxides and 16 with bark pH, suggesting that transport-related pollution and bark acidity influence lichen and bryophyte distribution in London today. Lichens and bryophytes are responding to factors that influence human and environmental health in London. Biomonitoring therefore has a practical role to assess the effects of measures to improve London's air quality.

  14. 16-year trends in elements of lichens at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, ND

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    An epiphytic lichen and a soil lichen in two very closely related genera (Parmelia sulcata and Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa, respectively) were sampled 16 years apart at Theodore Roosevelt National Park in North Dakota and measured for their elemental content. Mercury and cadmium decreased approximately 30% over the time period in both species. Sulfur decreased 8% in the epiphytic species, but increased 20% in the soil lichen. Factor analysis revealed that soil elements were higher in the soil lichen, indicating there was some soil contamination in that species. A relationship between iron and titanium was found only in the soil lichen. Sulfur and mercury were highly enriched in both species relative to the soil, which suggests that the atmosphere is a contributing source of these elements. New baseline values were calculated, 22 elements for both species, although it is not recommended that the soil lichen be sampled in the future.

  15. Lichen sclerosus in a breast cancer survivor on an aromatase inhibitor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Potter, Jennifer E; Moore, Kendra A

    2013-04-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a commonly misdiagnosed disease that is characterized by thinned, hypopigmented, crinkled skin that often forms a figure-eight shape around the vaginal and anal openings. We present a case of advanced lichen sclerosus in a 53-year-old female patient prescribed a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor after the excision of a breast cancer tumor. We present a diagnostic approach to lichen sclerosus by recognizing its common figure-eight pattern, and we review the known causes and treatment of lichen sclerosus. Research has shown that lichen sclerosus is more common in low estrogen states, and thus it is logical that aromatase inhibitors could increase a patient's risk for developing this disease. We therefore propose that all patients prescribed aromatase inhibitors undergo regular vulvo-vaginal exams to rule out lichen sclerosus and other hypoestrogen-related vulvo-vaginal problems.

  16. Vertical evolution and intragenic spread of lichen-fungal group I introns.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Debashish; Friedl, Thomas; Helms, Gert

    2002-07-01

    One family within the Euascomycetes (Ascomycota), the lichen-forming Physciaceae, is particularly rich in nuclear ribosomal [r]DNA group I introns. We used phylogenetic analyses of group I introns and lichen-fungal host cells to address four questions about group I intron evolution in lichens, and generally in all eukaryotes: 1) Is intron spread in the lichens associated with the intimate association of the fungal and photosynthetic cells that make up the lichen thallus? 2) Are the multiple group I introns in the lichen-fungi of independent origins, or have existing introns spread into novel sites in the rDNA? 3) If introns have moved to novel sites, then does the exon context of these sites provide insights into the mechanism of intron spread? and 4) What is the pattern of intron loss in the small subunit rDNA gene of lichen-fungi? Our analyses show that group I introns in the lichen-fungi and in the lichen-algae (and lichenized cyanobacteria) do not share a close evolutionary relationship, suggesting that these introns do not move between the symbionts. Many group I introns appear to have originated in the common ancestor of the Lecanorales, whereas others have spread within this lineage (particularly in the Physciaceae) putatively through reverse-splicing into novel rRNA sites. We suggest that the evolutionary history of most lichen-fungal group I introns is characterized by rare gains followed by extensive losses in descendants, resulting in a sporadic intron distribution. Detailed phylogenetic analyses of the introns and host cells are required, therefore, to distinguish this scenario from the alternative hypothesis of widespread and independent intron gains in the different lichen-fungal lineages.

  17. Lichen-moss interactions within biological soil crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruckteschler, Nina; Williams, Laura; Büdel, Burkhard; Weber, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) create well-known hotspots of microbial activity, being important components of hot and cold arid terrestrial regions. They colonize the uppermost millimeters of the soil, being composed of fungi, (cyano-) bacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes and archaea in varying proportions. Biocrusts protect the (semi-) arid landscape from wind and water erosion, and also increase water holding capacity and nutrient content. Depending on location and developmental stage, composition and species abundance vary within biocrusts. As species live in close contact, they are expected to influence each other, but only a few interactions between different organisms have so far been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the lichen Fulgensia fulgens whilst growing on the moss Trichostomum crispulum. While 77% of Fulgensia fulgens thalli were found growing associated with mosses in a German biocrust, up to 95% of Fulgensia bracteata thalli were moss-associated in a Swedish biocrust. In 49% (Germany) and in 78% (Sweden) of cases, thalli were observed on the moss T. crispulum and less frequently on four and three different moss species. Beneath F. fulgens and F. bracteata thalli, the mosses were dead and in close vicinity to the lichens the mosses appeared frail, bringing us to the assumption that the lichens may release substances harming the moss. We prepared a water extract from the lichen F. fulgens and used this to water the moss thalli (n = 6) on a daily basis over a time-span of three weeks. In a control setup, artificial rainwater was applied to the moss thalli (n = 6). Once a week, maximum CO2 gas exchange rates of the thalli were measured under constant conditions and at the end of the experiment the chlorophyll content of the moss samples was determined. In the course of the experiment net photosynthesis (NP) of the treatment samples decreased concurrently with an increase in dark respiration (DR). The control samples

  18. Nutrient scavenging activity and antagonistic factors of non-photobiont lichen-associated bacteria: a review.

    PubMed

    Sigurbjörnsdóttir, M Auður; Andrésson, Ólafur S; Vilhelmsson, Oddur

    2016-04-01

    Lichens are defined as the specific symbiotic structure comprising a fungus and a green alga and/or cyanobacterium. Up until recently, non-photobiont endothallic bacteria, while known to be present in large numbers, have generally been dismissed as functionally irrelevant cohabitants of the lichen thallus, or even environmental contaminants. Recent analyses of lichen metagenomes and innovative co-culture experiments have uncovered a functionally complex community that appears to contribute to a healthy lichen thallus in several ways. Lichen-associated bacteriomes are typically dominated by several lineages of Proteobacteria, some of which may be specific for lichen species. Recent work has implicated members of these lineages in several important ecophysiological roles. These include nutrient scavenging, including mobilization of iron and phosphate, nitrogen fixation, cellulase, xylanase and amylase activities, and oxidation of recalcitrant compounds, e.g. aromatics and aliphatics. Production of volatile organic compounds, conferring antibacterial and antifungal activity, has also been demonstrated for several lichen-associated isolates. In the present paper we review the nature of non-phototrophic endolichenic bacteria associated with lichens, and give insight into the current state of knowledge on their importance the lichen symbiotic association.

  19. Multi-element including rare earth content of lichens, bark, soils, and waste following industrial closure.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Ana-Maria; Chimonides, P D James; Jones, Gary C; Garcia-Sanchez, Raquel; Purvis, O William

    2006-08-01

    The fate of rare earth and other rare elements entering the environment is largely unknown. The lichen Hypogymnia physodes was transplanted over a 40 km long transect centered on a major metallurgical waste dump close to the Zlatna town center two weeks after smelter closure. Lichens, bark, soil, and waste dump materials were analyzed for 56 elements (including REE). Lichen and bark multi-element compositions were alike, reflecting fixation of elements of environmental concern and the ability for tree canopies to concentrate substances leading to enhanced deposition to both lichens and bark. Higher REE enrichment in lichens than in soil confirm efficient fixation in lichens. The negative europium anomaly in lichens and soil, similar to that in upper crust, confirm a strong crustal influence on lichen signatures across the transect area. Multi-element analysis supports the view that epiphytic lichens, unlike trees, are not influenced by lower groundwater, and they are excellent indicators for REE and other rare elements entering the surface environment, difficult to detect by conventional means.

  20. Lichens and mosses on shrub-steppe soils in Southeastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Steven O.; Ryan, Bruce D.; Downs, Janelle L. ); Cadwell, Larry L. ); Soll, Jonathan A.; Hawke, Mary Ann; Ponzetti, Jeanne

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the lichens and mosses found on soils of the shrub-steppe at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Thirteen sites primarily at low elevation were intensively sampled. Twenty nine lichens and six moss species were identified. Three lichens were considered undescribed species. Based on comparison with other studies and herbarium records, we conclude the soil lichen flora of the Hanford Site is substantially different than that of the Great Basin or of the shrub-steppe in Idaho.

  1. Cyanobacteria produce a high variety of hepatotoxic peptides in lichen symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Kaasalainen, Ulla; Fewer, David P; Jokela, Jouni; Wahlsten, Matti; Sivonen, Kaarina; Rikkinen, Jouko

    2012-04-10

    Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi and photosynthetic algae or cyanobacteria. Microcystins are potent toxins that are responsible for the poisoning of both humans and animals. These toxins are mainly associated with aquatic cyanobacterial blooms, but here we show that the cyanobacterial symbionts of terrestrial lichens from all over the world commonly produce microcystins. We screened 803 lichen specimens from five different continents for cyanobacterial toxins by amplifying a part of the gene cluster encoding the enzyme complex responsible for microcystin production and detecting toxins directly from lichen thalli. We found either the biosynthetic genes for making microcystins or the toxin itself in 12% of all analyzed lichen specimens. A plethora of different microcystins was found with over 50 chemical variants, and many of the variants detected have only rarely been reported from free-living cyanobacteria. In addition, high amounts of nodularin, up to 60 μg g(-1), were detected from some lichen thalli. This microcystin analog and potent hepatotoxin has previously been known only from the aquatic bloom-forming genus Nodularia. Our results demonstrate that the production of cyanobacterial hepatotoxins in lichen symbiosis is a global phenomenon and occurs in many different lichen lineages. The very high genetic diversity of the mcyE gene and the chemical diversity of microcystins suggest that lichen symbioses may have been an important environment for diversification of these cyanobacteria.

  2. Lichen physiological traits and growth forms affect communities of associated invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bokhorst, Stef; Asplund, Johan; Kardol, Paul; Wardle, David A

    2015-09-01

    While there has been much interest in the relationships between traits of primary producers and composition of associated invertebrate consumer communities, our knowledge is largely based on studies from vascular plants, while other types of functionally important producers, such as lichens, have rarely been considered. To address how physiological traits of lichens drive community composition of invertebrates, we collected thalli from 27 lichen species from southern Norway and quantified the communities of associated springtails, mites, and nematodes. For each lichen species, we measured key physiological thallus traits and determined whether invertebrate communities were correlated with these traits. We also explored whether invertebrate communities differed among lichen groups, categorized according to nitrogen-fixing ability, growth form, and substratum. Lichen traits explained up to 39% of the variation in abundances of major invertebrate groups. For many invertebrate groups, abundance was positively correlated with lichen N and P concentrations, N:P ratio, and the percentage of water content on saturation (WC), but had few relationships with concentrations of carbon-based secondary compounds. Diversity and taxonomic richness of invertebrate groups were sometimes also correlated with lichen N and N:P ratios. Nitrogen-fixing lichens showed higher abundance and diversity of some invertebrate groups than did non-N-fixing lichens. However, this emerged in part because most N-fixing lichens have a foliose growth form that benefits invertebrates, through, improving the microclimate, independently of N concentration. Furthermore, invertebrate communities associated with terricolous lichens were determined more by their close proximity to the soil invertebrate pool than by lichen traits. Overall, our results reveal that differences between lichen species have a large impact on the invertebrate communities that live among the thalli. Different invertebrate groups show

  3. Lichen sclerosus in the oral mucosa: a rare form of presentation.

    PubMed

    Louvain, Dailana; Moura Jacques, Claudio; Fernandes Ferreira, Adriana; Hoehl Carneiro, Leonardo; Quintela, Leonardo; Cuzzi, Tullia; Soares de Azevedo, Lucia; Moritz Trope, Beatriz; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin, which affects mostly women in the fifth and sixth decades of life, but can also occur in men and children. The involvement of the oral mucosa alone or together with other forms of presentation is extremely rare, requiring a differential diagnosis with other diseases of the oral cavity, particularly lichen planus. There are less than 30 cases of lichen sclerosus in the oral mucosa described in the literature and there are no reports on malignant transformation so far. We describe a patient with skin, oral and genital lesions of lichen sclerosus.

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma developing in a cutaneous lichen planus lesion: a rare case.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Saptarshi; Kotne, Sivasankar; Ananda Rao, P B; Turlapati, S P V; Kumar Soren, Dillip

    2014-01-01

    Lichen planus is a benign disorder characterized by an itchy, noninfectious skin rash. Though lichen planus is a common papulosquamous disorder affecting about 1-2% of the population, neoplastic transformation of cutaneous lichen planus lesions occurs very rarely and should be borne in mind while treating nonhealing longstanding lesions of lichen planus. Studies suggest an estimated 0.3-3% risk of malignancy in patients with oral lichen planus, however, cutaneous lichen planus does not carry an increased risk of malignant degeneration. We present a case of a 36-year-old male with a 10-year-long history of hypertrophic lichen planus who presented with a nonhealing ulcer in the left popliteal fossa. The patient underwent wide local excision with superficial skin grafting. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed verrucous squamous cell carcinoma complicating lichen planus. In view of underlying structure involvement, adjuvant radiation therapy was given. This case is being reported to emphasize the infrequent possibility of development of malignancy in cutaneous lichen planus, especially if it presents as a longstanding, nonhealing, itchy lesion with patchy areas of depigmentation in the lower limbs.

  5. Disease scoring systems for oral lichen planus; a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study has been to critically review 22 disease scoring systems (DSSs) on oral lichen planus (OLP) that have been reported in the literature during the past decades. Although the presently available DSSs may all have some merit, particularly for research purposes, the diversity of both the objective and subjective parameters used in these systems and the lack of acceptance of one of these systems for uniform use, there is a need for an international, authorized consensus meeting on this subject. Because of the natural course of OLP characterized by remissions and exacerbations and also due to the varying distribution pattern and the varying clinical types, e.g. reticular and erosive, the relevance of a DSS based on morphologic parameters is somewhat questionable. Instead, one may consider to only look for a quality of life scoring system adapted for use in OLP patients. Key words:Oral lichen planus, disease scoring system, classification. PMID:25681372

  6. Serum immunoglobulins and complement (C'3) in oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Sklavounou, A D; Laskaris, G; Angelopoulos, A P

    1983-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulins and complement (C'3) were determined by single radial immunodiffusion according to the method of Mancini and co-workers in fifty patients with oral lichen planus and twenty persons with clinically normal oral mucosa. Significantly increased levels of serum IgG (p less than 0.05) and a significant reduction of serum IgA concentration (p less than 0.05) in the experimental group as compared with normal controls were observed. Mean serum IgM and complement (C'3) levels were similar in patients and controls. No correlation between disease variety or extensiveness and immunoglobulin or complement levels was noticed. These results suggest that patients with oral lichen planus may have a generalized immunologic disorder in which humoral immunity is disturbed. Whether humoral immunity is of etiologic significance, contributes to the disease process, or, finally, represents an event secondary to the pathologic changes seen in the disease remains to be determined.

  7. [Patient with generalized guttate morphea and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus].

    PubMed

    Blaya, B; Gardeazabal, J; de Lagrán, Z Martínez; Díaz-Pérez, J L

    2008-12-01

    Generalized guttate morphea is a very uncommon clinical entity, and few reports are available in the literature. We report the case of a 7-year-old boy who first attended our clinic in 1990 with guttate morphea on the trunk and upper limbs. These lesions were associated with plaque morphea on his right foot. Twelve years later, lesions with a different appearance to the previous ones were observed in the right pectoral region. Clinically and histopathologically, they resembled lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Given that morphea and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus share certain clinical and pathologic characteristics, some authors believe that these entities may be related or even different presentations of the same disease. The most noteworthy aspect of our case is the type of morphea, as we were unable to find equivalent examples in the literature.

  8. A preliminary transcriptomic analysis of lichen Dirinaria sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhani, A. R. Siti; Munir, A. M. Abdul; Wahid, S. Mohd; Diba, A. B. Farah

    2013-11-01

    Lichen is a slow-growing symbiotic organism that consists of a fungus and a photobiont, comprising either an algae or a cyanobacterium living together in a single composite body, known as a thallus. Lichens have a remarkable ability to survive in extreme environmental conditions on earth that makes them a great biological indicator of air quality. The primary goal of this study is to discover the genes that may unravel the mechanism behind the tolerance of this lichen towards air pollution. Lichen samples of Dirinaria sp. were collected from two sites - Jerantut (J) as having a relatively good air quality and Klang (K), an area of bad air quality. Total RNA extraction was carried out, followed by sample preparation prior to transcriptomic sequencing. Altogether 21.7 million and 30.5 million high quality sequence reads from samples J and K, respectively were de novo assembled into 106884 and 88116 transcripts. The assembled sequences were annotated by BLASTX comparison against a non-redundant protein sequence database with 59403 sequences (67.4%) of sample K and 68972 sequences (64.5%) of sample J had a match in the database with a cut-off value of 1e-06. A total of 42175 sequences (47.8%) of sample K and 25648 sequences (24%) of sample J had a Gene Ontology term match. The sequences were assigned to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathways, resulting in 129 KEGG pathways generated from sample K, whilst 123 KEGG pathways were produced from sample J.

  9. Linear Lichen Planopilaris of the Face: Case Report and Review

    PubMed Central

    Asz-Sigall, Daniel; González-de-Cossio-Hernández, Ana Cecilia; Rodríguez-Lobato, Erika; Ortega-Springall, María Fernanda; Vega-Memije, María Elisa; Arenas Guzmán, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with a 5-month history of unilateral pruritic linear erythematous papules and atrophy on the chin and mandibular area. Dermoscopy showed areas of cicatricial alopecia with absence of follicular openings, perifollicular erythema and pigment. Lichen planopilaris of the face is a rare variant with only 13 cases reported in the literature. PMID:27843930

  10. Unilateral lichen planus pigmentosus mimicking acral lentiginous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bickle, Kelly; Smithberger, Erica; Lien, Mary H; Fenske, Neil Alan

    2010-07-01

    The authors report a case of a Latin American woman who developed progressive pigmentation primarily involving two digits of her right hand. She was scheduled for amputation based on a presumptive histologic diagnosis of melanoma with regression. Dermatology consultation with repeat biopsies disclosed a lichenoid tissue reaction with marked pigment incontinence and no evidence of melanoma. This report should prompt physicians to include lichen planus pigmentosus in the differential diagnosis of acral lentiginous melanoma.

  11. Geothermal chemical elements in lichens of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Geothermal features (e.g. geysers, fumaroles, vents, and springs) emit gaseous mercury, sulfur and heavy metals and therefore, are natural sources of these elements in the atmosphere. Field studies of heavy metals in lichens in Italy have detected elevated concentrations near geothermal power plants, and have determined that the origin of mercury is from soil degassing, not soil particles. We studied this phenomenon in a geothermal area without power plants to determine the natural levels of mercury and other elements. Two common and abundant species of epiphytic Lichens, Bryoria fremontii and Letharia vulpina, were collected at six localities in Yellowstone National Park, USA in 1998 and analyzed for 22 chemical elements. Thirteen elements differed significantly between species. Some elements were significantly higher in the southern part of the park, while others were higher in the north. Levels of most elements were comparable with those in other national parks and wilderness areas in the region, except Hg, which was unusually high. The most likely sources of this element are the geothermal features, which are known emitters of Hg. Multivariate analyses revealed strong positive associations of Hg with S, and negative associations with soil elements, providing strong evidence that the Hg in the lichens is the result of soil degassing of elemental Hg rather than particulate Hg directly from soils. Average Hg levels in the lichens were 140 p.p.b. in Bryoria and 110 p.p.b. in Letharia, but maxima were 291 and 243 p.p.b., respectively. In spite of this, both species were healthy and abundant throughout the park.

  12. Specific Vicariance of Two Primeval Lowland Forest Lichen Indicators.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Dariusz; Osyczka, Piotr

    2017-02-15

    To date, the lichens Chrysothrix candelaris and Varicellaria hemisphaerica have been classified as accurate primeval lowland forest indicators. Both inhabit particularly valuable remnants of oak-hornbeam forests in Europe, but tend toward a specific kind of vicariance on a local scale. The present study was undertaken to determine habitat factors responsible for this phenomenon and verify the indicative and conservation value of these lichens. The main spatial and climatic parameters that, along with forest structure, potentially affect their distribution patterns and abundance were analysed in four complexes with typical oak-hornbeam stands in NE Poland. Fifty plots of 400 m(2) each were chosen for detailed examination of stand structure and epiphytic lichens directly associated with the indicators. The study showed that the localities of the two species barely overlap within the same forest community in a relatively small geographical area. The occurrence of Chrysothrix candelaris depends basically only on microhabitat space provided by old oaks and its role as an indicator of the ecological continuity of habitat is limited. Varicellaria hemisphaerica is not tree specific but a sufficiently high moisture of habitat is essential for the species and it requires forests with high proportion of deciduous trees in a wide landscape scale. Local landscape-level habitat continuity is more important for this species than the current age of forest stand. Regardless of the indicative value, localities of both lichens within oak-hornbeam forests deserve the special protection status since they form unique assemblages of exclusive epiphytes, including those with high conservation value.

  13. Atypical case of lichen planus recognized by dermoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Chrysoula; Apalla, Zoe; Lazaridou, Elizabeth; Sotiriou, Elena; Vakirlis, Efstratios; Ioannides, Demetrios; Lallas, Aimilios

    2016-01-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is an inflammatory disease that affects the skin—mainly the extremities and the trunk—the mucous membranes, the genitalia, the nails and the scalp. The diagnosis of LP is usually established clinically based on the typical morphology and distribution of the lesions in conjunction with the associated itch. We report a patient with LP manifesting highly psoriasiform lesions, that could only be correctly assessed after the application of dermoscopy, which revealed LP-specific findings. PMID:27867746

  14. Frost decreases content of sugars, ascorbic acid and some quercetin glycosides but stimulates selected carotenes in Rosa canina hips.

    PubMed

    Cunja, Vlasta; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Zupan, Anka; Stampar, Franci; Schmitzer, Valentina

    2015-04-15

    Primary and secondary metabolites of Rosa canina hips were determined by HPLC/MS during ripening and after frost damage. Rose hips were harvested six times from the beginning of September until the beginning of December. Color parameters a*, b* and L* decreased during maturation. Glucose and fructose were the predominant sugars representing up to 92% total sugars, and citric acid was the major organic acid detected in rose hips (constituting up to 58% total organic acids). Total sugar and ascorbic acid content significantly decreased after frost damage; from 42.2 to 25.9 g 100 g(-1) DW for sugars and from 716.8 to 176.0 mg 100 g(-1) DW for ascorbic acid. Conversely, β-carotene and lycopene levels increased in frostbitten rose hips to 22.1 and 113.2 mg 100 g(-1) DW, respectively. In addition to cyanidin-3-glucoside (highest level in hips was 125.7 μg 100 g (-1) DW), 45 different phenolic compounds have been identified. The most abundant were proanthocyanidins (their levels amounted up to 90% of total flavanol content) and their content showed no significant differences during maturation. The levels of catechin, phloridzin, flavanones and several quercetin glycosides were highest on the first three sampling dates and decreased after frost. Antioxidant capacity similarly decreased in frostbitten rose hips. Total phenolic content increased until the third sampling and decreased on later samplings.

  15. Production of granular activated carbon from waste Rosa canina sp. seeds and its adsorption characteristics for dye.

    PubMed

    Gürses, A; Doğar, C; Karaca, S; Açikyildiz, M; Bayrak, R

    2006-04-17

    An activated carbon was developed from Rosa canina sp. seeds, characterized and used for the removal of methylene blue (basic dye) from aqueous solutions. Adsorption studies were carried out at 20 degrees C and various initial dye concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/L) for different times (15, 30, 60, and 120 min). The adsorption isotherm was obtained from data. The results indicate that the adsorption isotherm of methylene blue is typically S-shaped. The shape of isotherm is believed to reflect three distinct modes of adsorption. In region 1, the adsorption of methylene blue is carried out mainly by ion exchange. In region 2 by polarizations of pi-electrons established at cyclic parts of the previously adsorbed methylene blue molecules is occurred. However, it is not observed any change at the sign of the surface charge although zeta potential value is decreased with increase of amount adsorbed. In region 3, the slope of the isotherm is reduced, because adsorption now must overcome electrostatic repulsion between oncoming ions and the similarly charged solid. Adsorption in this fashion is usually complete when the surface is covered with a monolayer of methylene blue. To reveal the adsorptive characteristics of the produced active carbon, porosity and BET surface area measurements were made. Structural analysis was performed using SEM-EDS. The produced active carbon has the specific surface area of 799.2 m2 g-1 and the iodine number of 495 mg/g.

  16. Rosa canina L. Fruit Hydro-Alcoholic Extract Effects on Some Immunological and Biochemical Parameters in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadigh-Eteghad, Saeed; Tayefi-Nasrabadi, Hossein; Aghdam, Zahra; Zarredar, Habib; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Khayyat, Leila; Seyyed-Piran, Seyyed-Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Introduction This research investigates the possible potential of Rosa canina (RC) as an immunomodulator in rats and its effects on some biochemical parameters. Methods In this experiment, 45 male Wistar rats were obtained and divided into three groups (n = 15). These groups received normal saline (10 mg/kg), RC fruit extract (250 mg/kg) and RC fruit extract (500 mg/kg) as oral gavages every day for a period of four weeks, respective-ly. After obtaining blood samples (at the end of each week), differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, phagocyte activity (number), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphates (ALP) albumin and globulins levels of sam-ples were obtained. The malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels in the se-rum were determined only in day 28 of study. The radical scavenger activity (RSA) of the RC extract was measured spectrophotometrically. Results the gamma globulin level, neu-trophil and monocyte counts and phagocyte activity increased significantly in comparison with the normal saline group. ALT, AST and ALP had not significantly differences in compared to control group. RC extract significantly increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and also decreased GSH levels in comparing to control group in day 28. Conclusion the data suggest that the RC extract has been used in traditional medicine might have immunomodulatory effects. PMID:23678431

  17. A Rosa canina WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene, RcWOX1, is involved in auxin-induced rhizoid formation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bin; Wen, Chao; Fan, Lusheng; Kou, Yaping; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun

    2014-12-01

    Homeobox (HB) proteins are important transcription factors that regulate the developmental decisions of eukaryotes. WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) transcription factors, known as a plant-specific HB family, play a key role in plant developmental processes. Our previous work has indicated that rhizoids are induced by auxin in rose (Rosa spp.), which acts as critical part of an efficient plant regeneration system. However, the function of WOX genes in auxin-induced rhizoid formation remains unclear. Here, we isolated and characterized a WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene from Rosa canina, RcWOX1, containing a typical homeodomain with 65 amino acid residues. Real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that RcWOX1 was expressed in the whole process of callus formation and in the early stage of rhizoid formation. Moreover, its expression was induced by auxin treatment. In Arabidopsis transgenic lines expressing the RcWOX1pro::GUS and 35S::GFP-RcWOX1, RcWOX1 was specifically expressed in roots and localized to the nucleus. Overexpression of RcWOX1 in Arabidopsis increased lateral root density and induced upregulation of PIN1 and PIN7 genes. Therefore, we postulated that RcWOX1 is a functional transcription factor that plays an essential role in auxin-induced rhizoid formation.

  18. Facial follicular cysts: a case of lichen planus follicularis tumidus?

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Gallo, David; Albarrán-Planelles, Cristina; Linares-Barrios, Mario; Martínez-Rodríguez, Alberto; Báez-Perea, José María; González-Fernández, Julio Abraham

    2013-09-01

    Lichen planus follicularis tumidus (LPFT) represents an uncommon variety of lichen planus (LP). Clinically, it presents with prominent purplish lesions or white-pigmented yellowish cysts and comedones. Histopathologically, it is similar to lichen planopilaris, and it is additionally characterized by follicles and cysts surrounded by a lichenoid lymphocytic infiltrate. The most common location is the retroauricular region, and it may be associated with other variants of LP. Herein, we describe the case of a 50-year-old woman with a history of lower limb hypertrophic LP who subsequently presented with multiple pink, tumid, pruritic plaques with white-yellow cysts and comedones extensively affecting the bilateral face. Histopathologic examination revealed a lichenoid infiltrate surrounding the follicles and cysts. We diagnosed LPFT and began treatment with topical corticosteroids, antihistamines, systemic corticosteroids and oral acitretin without improvement. Subsequently, the patient had an acceptable response to cyclosporine at doses of 5 mg/kg/day with remission of itching and tumidity but with residual cysts and comedones remaining. To date, the literature contains only 16 cases of LPFT. To our knowledge, this is the most severe case and is the only one with cessation of disease activity in response to cyclosporine.

  19. Estimating impacts of lichens and bryophytes on global biogeochemical cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porada, Philipp; Weber, Bettina; Elbert, Wolfgang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kleidon, Axel

    2014-02-01

    Lichens and bryophytes may significantly affect global biogeochemical cycles by fixation of nitrogen and biotic enhancement of surface weathering rates. Most of the studies suggesting these effects, however, are either conceptual or rely on upscaling of regional estimates to obtain global numbers. Here we use a different method, based on estimates of net carbon uptake, to quantify the impacts of lichens and bryophytes on biogeochemical cycles at the global scale. We focus on three processes, namely, nitrogen fixation, phosphorus uptake, and chemical weathering. Our estimates have the form of potential rates, which means that we quantify the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus needed by the organisms to build up biomass, also accounting for resorption and leaching of nutrients. Subsequently, we use potential phosphorus uptake on bare ground to estimate chemical weathering by the organisms, assuming that they release weathering agents to obtain phosphorus. The predicted requirement for nitrogen ranges from 3.5 to 34 Tgyr-1 and for phosphorus it ranges from 0.46 to 4.6 Tgyr-1. Estimates of chemical weathering are between 0.058 and 1.1 km3 yr-1 of rock. These values seem to have a realistic order of magnitude, and they support the notion that lichens and bryophytes have the potential to play an important role for biogeochemical cycles.

  20. Potential anticancer activity of lichen secondary metabolite physodic acid.

    PubMed

    Cardile, V; Graziano, A C E; Avola, R; Piovano, M; Russo, A

    2017-02-01

    Secondary metabolites present in lichens, which comprise aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic and terpenic compounds, are unique with respect to those of higher plants and show interesting biological and pharmacological activities. However, only a few of these compounds, have been assessed for their effectiveness against various in vitro cancer models. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of three lichen secondary metabolites (atranorin, gyrophoric acid and physodic acid) on A375 melanoma cancer cell line. The tested compounds arise from different lichen species collected in different areas of Continental and Antarctic Chile. The obtained results confirm the major efficiency of depsidones. In fact, depsides atranorin and gyrophoric acid, showed a lower activity inhibiting the melanoma cancer cells only at more high concentrations. Whereas the depsidone physodic acid, showed a dose-response relationship in the range of 6.25-50 μM concentrations in A375 cells, activating an apoptotic process, that probably involves the reduction of Hsp70 expression. Although the molecular mechanism, by which apoptosis is induced by physodic acid remains unclear, and of course further studies are needed, the results here reported confirm the promising biological properties of depsidone compounds, and may offer a further impulse to the development of analogues with more powerful efficiency against melanoma cells.

  1. Lead Isotopes and Temporal Records of Atmospheric Aerosol and Pollutants in Lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getty, S. R.; Nash, T.; Asmerom, Y.

    2001-05-01

    Lichens are useful receptors of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and pollutants due to their retention of body parts (unlike plants), slow growth rates, fairly uniform morphologies, lack of a vascular system, and sessile character over decades to centuries. Lichen biomonitoring has been used widely to map patterns of aerosol deposition, yet few studies have tested whether lichens can preserve a temporal record of airborne PM and pollutants. We show with U-Pb data that epilithic lichens (rock as host) can retain in their porous structure an integrated, decadal-scale history of changing aerosol inputs to desert ecosystems. Three lichens resided along an 80-km transect from a copper smelter (Douglas, AZ) closed in early 1987, to the ENE into adjacent New Mexico. For the radially growing lichen (Xanthoparmelia sp.), U-Pb data were obtained along cm-scale transects in the growth direction on a single thallus. Profiles from lichen rim to interior show increasing [Pb] and [U], or net accumulation with thallus age. Total lead contents are highest near the smelter. In contrast, each lead isotope profile (206Pb/207Pb) is flat during smelter operation, showing low ratios near the smelter (1.152) and high ratios (1.175) 80 km away. This suggests comparable mixtures of crust and smelter lead per locality over decades. Since smelter closure, lichens 80 km from the smelter show a sharp upturn in lead ratio in the recently grown lichen rim, indicating that smelter lead is either dispersed by aeolian recycling, or suppressed in desert soils. The amplitude and position of the isotope signal suggests a soil recovery "half-life" of about 13 yrs, a radial growth rate of 0.57+/-0.1 mm/yr, and a total lichen age of 105+/-18 yrs. Lichens near the smelter have no upturn in isotope ratio, indicating continued aeolian recylcing of lead from soils about 11 yrs after closure. Results at a far-removed desert site (c. New Mexico) also argue that isotope profiles reflect aerosol deposition

  2. Lichen-rock interaction in volcanic environments: evidences of soil-precursor formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vingiani, S.; Adamo, P.; Terribile, F.

    2012-04-01

    The weathering action of the lichens Lecidea fuscoatra (L.) Ach. and Stereocaulon vesuvianum Pers. on basaltic rock collected on the slopes of Mt. Etna (Sicily) at 1550 m a.s.l. has been studied using optical (OM) and electron (SEM) microscopy equipped with microanalytical device (EDS). Biological factors associated with lichen growth play a major role in the weathering of minerals on bare rocks and contribute to the preliminary phases of soil formation. The present work investigates the biogeophysical and biogeochemical weathering associated to the growth of epilithic lichens on lava flows from Mt. Etna (Sicily) and Mt. Vesuvius (Campania). The chosen lichen species were the crustose Lecidea fuscoatra (L.) Ach., the foliose Xanthoparmelia conspersa and the fructicose Stereocaulon vesuvianum Pers. An integrated approach based on the study of both disturbed and undisturbed samples of lichenized rock was applied in order to appreciate the complexity of the rock-lichen interface environment in terms of micromorphological, mineralogical and chemical properties. XRD and XRF analyses coupled to microscopical (OM), submicroscopical (SEM) and microanalitical (EDS) observations were the used techniques. In both study environments, the chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological properties of the uncoherent materials found at the lichen-rock interface suggest they consist of rock fragments eroded from the surroundings and accumulated in cavities and fissures of the rough lava flows. According to the thallus morphology, the lichens colonizing the lava preserve the interface materials from further aeolic and water erosion, provide these materials of organic matter and moisture, entrap allochtonous quartz and clay minerals. The calcium oxalate production by L. fuscoatra and X. conspersa, the Al enrichment around S. vesuvianum hyphae and the occurrence of Fe-oxide phases at the rock-lichen interface are evidences of lichens interaction with the underlying sediments. Indeed

  3. Richness of lichen species, especially of threatened ones, is promoted by management methods furthering stand continuity.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Lichens are a key component of forest biodiversity. However, a comprehensive study analyzing lichen species richness in relation to several management types, extending over different regions and forest stages and including information on site conditions is missing for temperate European forests. In three German regions (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin), the so-called Biodiversity Exploratories, we studied lichen species richness in 631 forest plots of 400 m(2) comprising different management types (unmanaged, selection cutting, deciduous and coniferous age-class forests resulting from clear cutting or shelterwood logging), various stand ages, and site conditions, typical for large parts of temperate Europe. We analyzed how lichen species richness responds to management and habitat variables (standing biomass, cover of deadwood, cover of rocks). We found strong regional differences with highest lichen species richness in the Schwäbische Alb, probably driven by regional differences in former air pollution, and in precipitation and habitat variables. Overall, unmanaged forests harbored 22% more threatened lichen species than managed age-class forests. In general, total, corticolous, and threatened lichen species richness did not differ among management types of deciduous forests. However, in the Schwäbische-Alb region, deciduous forests had 61% more lichen species than coniferous forests and they had 279% more threatened and 76% more corticolous lichen species. Old deciduous age classes were richer in corticolous lichen species than young ones, while old coniferous age-classes were poorer than young ones. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of stand continuity for conservation. To increase total and threatened lichen species richness we suggest (1) conserving unmanaged forests, (2) promoting silvicultural methods assuring stand continuity, (3) conserving old trees in managed forests, (4) promoting stands of native deciduous tree species

  4. Genome sequence of Sphingomonas sp. strain PAMC 26621, an Arctic-lichen-associated bacterium isolated from a Cetraria sp.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyoungseok; Shin, Seung Chul; Lee, Jungeun; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Bum-Keun; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Eun Hye; Park, Hyun

    2012-06-01

    The lichen-associated bacterial strain Sphingomonas sp. PAMC 26621 was isolated from an Arctic lichen Cetraria sp. on Svalbard Islands. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which could provide novel insights into the molecular principles of lichen-microbe interactions.

  5. RcRR1, a Rosa canina type-A response regulator gene, is involved in cytokinin-modulated rhizoid organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bin; Fan, Lusheng; Li, Xingxing; Yang, Huifang; Liu, Fengluan; Wang, Ling; Xi, Lin; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun

    2013-01-01

    In vitro, a new protocol of plant regeneration in rose was achieved via protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) induced from the root-like organs named rhizoids that developed from leaf explants. The development of rhizoids is a critical stage for efficient regeneration, which is triggered by exogenous auxin. However, the role of cytokinin in the control of organogenesis in rose is as yet uncharacterized. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism of cytokinin-modulated rhizoid formation in Rosa canina. Here, we found that cytokinin is a key regulator in the formation of rhizoids. Treatment with cytokinin reduced callus activity and significantly inhibited rhizoid formation in Rosa canina. We further isolated the full-length cDNA of a type-A response regulator gene of cytokinin signaling, RcRR1, from which the deduced amino acid sequence contained the conserved DDK motif. Gene expression analysis revealed that RcRR1 was differentially expressed during rhizoid formation and its expression level was rapidly up-regulated by cytokinin. In addition, the functionality of RcRR1 was tested in Arabidopsis. RcRR1 was found to be localized to the nucleus in GFP-RcRR1 transgenic plants and overexpression of RcRR1 resulted in increased primary root length and lateral root density. More importantly, RcRR1 overexpression transgenic plants also showed reduced sensitivity to cytokinin during root growth; auxin distribution and the expression of auxin efflux carriers PIN genes were altered in RcRR1 overexpression plants. Taken together, these results demonstrate that RcRR1 is a functional type-A response regulator which is involved in cytokinin-regulated rhizoid formation in Rosa canina.

  6. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Gaisbergferner (Eastern Alps, Tyrol, Austria)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Wallner, Anja; Tutzer, Veronika; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Gaisbergferner yielded 41 lichen taxa (39 species and 2 varieties) and one lichenicolous fungus. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition. PMID:26869736

  7. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Rötkees (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Nascimbene, Juri; Tutzer, Veronika; Wallner, Anja; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Rötkees yielded 31 lichen taxa (29 species and 2 varieties) and one lichenicolous fungus. Micarea incrassata Hedl. (Lecanorales) is new to Italy. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition. PMID:26869737

  8. Ecological implication of variation in the secondary metabolites in Parmelioid lichens with respect to altitude.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Vertika; Patel, D K; Bajpai, Rajesh; Semwal, Manoj; Upreti, D K

    2016-01-01

    Lichens are known to synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites having multifunctional activity in response to external environmental condition. Two common lichen extrolites, atranorin and salazinic acid, are known to afford antioxidant as well as photoprotectant nature depending on the abiotic/biotic stress. The present investigation aims to study the influence of altitudinal gradient on the quantitative profile of atranorin and salazinic acid in three lichen species, Bulbothrix setschwanensis (Zahlbr.) Hale, Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale and Parmotrema reticulatum (Taylor) Choisy, Parmeliaceae using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique. Samples were collected from high-altitude area, usually considered as non-polluted sites of Garhwal Himalaya. Characterization and quantification of the lichen substances in samples were carried out comparing with the standards of atranorin and salazinic acid. Results indicated significant variation in the chemical content with the rising altitude. All the three lichen species showed higher quantities of chemical substances with the altitudinal rise, while among the three lichen species, E. cirrhatum showed the highest quantity of total lichen compounds. The higher abundance and frequency of E. cirrhatum with increasing altitude as compared to B. setschwanensis and P. reticulatum may be attributed due to the presence of higher quantity of photoprotecting/antioxidant chemicals especially salazinic acid. Thus, the present study shows the prominent role of secondary metabolite in wider ecological distribution of Parmelioid lichens at higher altitudes.

  9. Deposition of gamma emitters from Chernobyl accident and their transfer in lichen-soil columns.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Jukka; Paatero, Jussi; Pehrman, Reijo; Kulmala, Seija; Suksi, Juhani; Koivula, Teija; Jaakkola, Timo

    2008-10-01

    Lichen-soil column samples were taken from several locations in the Southern Finland between 1986 and 2006. Columns were divided into three parts, upper lichen, lower lichen and underlying soil, and their gamma emitting radionuclides, 134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 95Zr, 106Ru, 110mAg, 125Sb and 144Ce, were measured with gamma spectrometry. Deposition values were calculated as Bq/m2 for each sampling site. Distribution of various radionuclides in the three compartments as a function of time was determined. Both effective and ecological half-lives of all radionuclides were calculated for upper lichen, whole lichen and whole lichen-soil column. A linear relation was derived between the physical half-lives and effective half-lives for whole lichen and for whole lichen-soil column. Reindeer meat activity concentrations of various radionuclides and ensuing radiation doses to reindeer-herding people were also estimated for a hypothetical case where a similar high radioactive pollution, as was taken place in the Southern Finland, would have occurred in the reindeer-herding areas in the Finnish Lapland.

  10. Genome sequence of Sphingomonas sp. strain PAMC 26605, isolated from Arctic lichen (Ochrolechia sp.).

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Chul; Ahn, Do Hwan; Lee, Jong Kyu; Kim, Su Jin; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Eun Hye; Park, Hyun

    2012-03-01

    The endosymbiotic bacterium Sphingomonas sp. strain PAMC 26605 was isolated from Arctic lichens (Ochrolechia sp.) on the Svalbard Islands. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which could provide further insights into the symbiotic mechanism of lichens in extreme environments.

  11. Lichen-Associated Fungal Community in Hypogymnia hypotrypa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) Affected by Geographic Distribution and Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanyan; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Xinyu; Wei, Xinli; Wei, Jiangchun

    2016-01-01

    Lichen-associated fungal species have already been investigated in almost all the main growth forms of lichens, however, whether or not they are homogeneous and constant within each lichen species are still inconclusive. Moreover, the related ecological factors to affect and structure the fungal composition have been poorly studied. In order to answer these questions, we took Hypogymnia hypotrypa as a model to study the relationship between the lichen-associated fungal composition and two ecological factors, i.e., site and altitude, using the method of IlluminaMiSeq sequencing. Four different sites and two levels of altitude were included in this study, and the effects of site and altitude on fungal community composition were assessed at three levels, i.e., operational taxonomic unit (OTU), class and phylum. The results showed that a total of 50 OTUs were identified and distributed in 4 phyla, 13 classes, and 20 orders. The lichen-associated fungal composition within H. hypotrypa were significantly affected by both site and altitude at OTU and class levels, while at the phylum level, it was only affected by altitude. While the lichen associated fungal communities were reported to be similar with endophytic fungi of the moss, our results indicated the opposite results in some degree. But whether there exist specific OTUs within this lichen species corresponding to different sites and altitudes is still open. More lichen species and ecological factors would be taken into the integrated analyses to address these knowledge gaps in the near future. PMID:27547204

  12. Catalogue of the Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Summary The catalogue is based on a comprehensive evaluation of 152 published sources. It includes 624 species (with 4 subspecies and 13 varieties) of lichenized and 17 species of lichenicolous Ascomycota, as well as 9 non-lichenized Ascomycota traditionally included in lichenological literature. PMID:22121302

  13. Yeasts from macroalgae and lichens that inhabit the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Alysson Wagner Fernandes; Passarini, Michel Rodrigo Zambrano; Delforno, Tiago Palladino; Pellizzari, Franciane Maria; Cipro, Caio Vinicius Zecchin; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela; Petry, Maria Virginia; Putzke, Jair; Rosa, Luiz Henrique; Sette, Lara Durães

    2016-08-12

    Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems are largely dominated by lichens, while shallow coastal environments are mainly covered by macroalgae. The aim of this study was to isolate and to evaluate the diversity of yeasts in different species of macroalgae and lichens collected in South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. A total of 405 yeasts were recovered (205 from macroalgae and 200 from lichens). The yeast community from macroalgae was most diversity than the yeast community from lichen. The dominance index was similar for both substrates. A total of 24 taxa from macroalgae and 18 from lichens were identified, and only 5 were common to both substrates. Metschnikowia australis, Mrakia sp., Rhodotorula glacialis and Glaciozyma litorale were the most abundant yeasts in macroalgae and Cryptococcus victoriae, Rhodotorula laryngis, Rhodotorula arctica, Trichosporon sp. 1 and Mrakia sp. were the most abundant in lichens. Based on molecular and phylogenetic analyses, four yeast from macroalgae and six from lichens were considered potential new species. This is the first study to report the yeast communities from the Antarctic macroalgae Himantothallus grandifolius and lichen Ramalina terebrata. Results suggest that Antarctic phyco and lichensphere represent a huge substrate for cold-adapted yeasts and enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota from extreme environments.

  14. Post-fire recolonization of dominant epiphytic lichen species on Quercus hypoleucoides (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Romagni, J G; Gries, C

    2000-12-01

    Following a forest fire (27 500 ha) in 1994, post-fire recolonization of Quercus hypoeleucoides by epiphytic lichens was documented as changes in lichen cover, number of small thalli, specific factors that affected reestablishment of lichens, and modes of dispersal. Three sites in the Chiricahua Mountains (Arizona, USA) were chosen according to the severity of fire damage-unburned, moderately burned, and severely burned. From 1994 through 1997, the amount of dead lichen cover significantly increased at the moderately burned site. For the same time period, the amount of live lichen cover significantly increased at the severely burned site. Numbers of new thalli increased significantly at the severely burned site each year but only in the last year (1996-1997) for the moderately burned site. Bark texture and proximity to trees with lichens were among the most important physical factors for recolonization. The most important means of dispersal for Flavopunctelia praesignis was fragmentation. For Punctelia hypoleucites, the primary means of dispersal was spores. Increases in live lichen cover and numbers of new thalli occur faster in severely burned areas probably due to the loss of lichens on tree trunks, which provides space and a lack of competition.

  15. Cyanobacterial gardens: the liverwort Frullania asagrayana acts as a reservoir of lichen photobionts.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Carolina; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Cyanobacteria are important mediators of unrelated lichen species, which form epiphytic communities that share the same cyanobiont. No study to date, however, has considered the role of cyanobacteria as mediator between lichens and bryophytes. In the present study, DNA barcoding (16S rDNA, rbcLX) was used to identify filamentous cyanobacteria living in close association with members of an epiphytic liverwort-lichen community on balsam fir in Newfoundland. This study is the first to confirm the presence of Rhizonema strains in boreal forests where they are associated with the liverwort Frullania asagrayana and several lichen species. The majority of cyanobacterial haplotypes can associate with the liverwort, however, some lichen species appear to be more selective for single or closely related haplotypes. Some Rhizonema strains were found exclusively in association with boreal lichens, while others seem to be globally distributed and involved in different lichen symbioses of unrelated fungal lineages and of varying ecological traits. Complex biological interactions in a cyanobacteria-mediated guild are proposed here, which explains composition and dynamics in bryophyte and lichen-dominated epiphytic communities.

  16. The role of lichen on peatland development in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Lorna; Moore, Tim; Roulet, Nigel

    2015-04-01

    Lichen (Cladina stellaris) can be a dominant vegetation cover on bogs within the extensive peatland landscape of the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL), northern Ontario, Canada. The unique characteristics of lichens (growth structure and function as a symbiotic organism), their ability to form thick, dense mats across the HBL bogs, and their increased tolerance of extreme environmental conditions, points to their importance as a distinct plant functional type. However, the role of lichen within the peatland ecosystem is poorly understood, particularly ecosystem interactions (vegetation associations) and peatland development (including microtopography) and the resulting carbon sink. Many studies consider the role of different plant functional types on peatland CO2 and CH4 exchange (e.g. Bubier et al., 2003; Strack et al., 2006), and this understanding is included in peatland growth and climate change models. As far as we are aware lichens are currently omitted from these models. We suggest that lichens represent a distinct plant functional type with CO2 exchange characteristics (NEE and respiration) that are quite different to vascular plants and mosses. In this study we measured lichen CO2 exchange in both natural and modified moisture conditions at field sites in the HBL over two field seasons. Our results indicate that lichen productivity is strongly influenced by abiotic factors that affect lichen moisture content, with very dry lichen exhibiting little or no photosynthetic capacity. We suggest that the low productivity of lichen mats results in lower rates of peat accumulation compared to Sphagnum-dominated peatland areas, and that this has consequences for the development of peatland microtopography (hummocks and hollows) and feedback mechanisms. To better understand the role of lichen mats on peat accumulation and to test possible feedback mechanisms we developed a model, the parameters of which are supported by data from field sites in the HBL. This dependence of

  17. Long-term biological monitoring of environmental quality around a solid waste landfill assessed with lichens.

    PubMed

    Paoli, L; Corsini, A; Bigagli, V; Vannini, J; Bruscoli, C; Loppi, S

    2012-02-01

    The diversity of epiphytic lichens and the accumulation of selected trace elements in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata L. (Hale) were used as indicators of pollution around a landfill in central Italy along 14 years of waste management. Lichens revealed an increased deposition for some elements (i.e., Cd, Cr, Fe and Ni) and a decrease of the lichen diversity at sites facing the landfill after an enlargement of the dumping area. However, the results allowed to exclude a significant increase in heavy metal depositions in the surrounding area and suggested that successful waste management may be associated with environmental quality. It is concluded that lichen monitoring might provide essential information to enhance the implementation of ecological impact assessment, supporting industrial regulatory procedures, also when waste management is concerned.

  18. Ecological half-life of 137Cs in lichens in an alpine region.

    PubMed

    Machart, Peter; Hofmann, Werner; Türk, Roman; Steger, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    About 17 years after the Chernobyl accident, lichen samples were collected in an alpine region in Austria (Bad Gastein), which was heavily contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout. Measured 137Cs activity concentrations in selected lichens (Cetraria islandica, Cetraria cucullata, and Cladonia arbuscula) ranged from 100 to 1100 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, depending on lichen species and sampling site. Ecological half-lives for 137Cs in different lichen samples, obtained by comparison with earlier measurements of the same lichen species at the same site, ranged from 2 to 6 years, with average values between 3 and 4 years. Comparison with earlier studies indicated that ecological half-lives hardly changed during the last 10 years, suggesting that ecological clearance mechanisms (e.g. washout or soil transfer) did not vary substantially at the selected sampling area.

  19. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigations of lichens - 1: effects of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezierski, Adam; Bylinska, Ewa; Seaward, Mark R. D.

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigations were carried out on more than 800 samples of lichens from Lower Silesia, southwest Poland. A statistically confirmed correlation between annual average concentration of sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere and concentration of semiquinone radicals in Hypogymnia physodes thalli was found. Similar results were obtained for Umbilicaria species from the Karkonosze Mountains. Distribution of semiquinone radicals in lichen thalli was also investigated. The action of nitrogen dioxide on Umbilicaria species resulted in the synthesis of iminoxy radicals in the thalli. The intensification of the semiquinone free radical production in lichen thalli from atmospherically polluted environments and the degradation of lichen acids to β-diketone compounds would appear to be parallel processes. The properties of the iminoxyls derived from β-diketones in the lichen matrix (anisotropic spectra at room temperature) and in organic solutions after extraction procedure were also examined by EPR.

  20. Identification of the Sfp-Type PPTase EppA from the Lichenized Fungus Evernia prunastri

    PubMed Central

    Schimming, Olivia; Schmitt, Imke; Bode, Helge B.

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, natural products from lichens have gained more interest for pharmaceutical application due to the broad range of their biological activity. However, isolation of the compounds of interest directly from the lichen is neither feasible nor sustainable due to slow growth of many lichens. In order to develop a pipeline for heterologous expression of lichen biosynthesis gene clusters and thus the sustainable production of their bioactive compounds we have identified and characterized the phosphopantheteinyl transferase (PPTase) EppA from the lichen Evernia prunastri. The Sfp-type PPTase EppA was functionally characterized through heterologous expression in E. coli using the production of the blue pigment indigoidine as readout and by complementation of a lys5 deletion in S. cerevisiae. PMID:26784935

  1. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens - an integrative approach to discovering and delimiting fungal species in the lichen-forming rhizoplaca melanophthalma speciescomplex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growing body of evidence indicates that morphology-based species circumspection of lichenized ascomycetes greatly misrepresents the number of existing species. Recently it has been demonstrated that population-level processes operating within diverging populations can facilitate the identification...

  2. Non-destructive lichen biomass estimation in northwestern Alaska: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Abbey; Neitlich, Peter; Smith, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial lichen biomass is an important indicator of forage availability for caribou in northern regions, and can indicate vegetation shifts due to climate change, air pollution or changes in vascular plant community structure. Techniques for estimating lichen biomass have traditionally required destructive harvesting that is painstaking and impractical, so we developed models to estimate biomass from relatively simple cover and height measurements. We measured cover and height of forage lichens (including single-taxon and multi-taxa "community" samples, n = 144) at 73 sites on the Seward Peninsula of northwestern Alaska, and harvested lichen biomass from the same plots. We assessed biomass-to-volume relationships using zero-intercept regressions, and compared differences among two non-destructive cover estimation methods (ocular vs. point count), among four landcover types in two ecoregions, and among single-taxon vs. multi-taxa samples. Additionally, we explored the feasibility of using lichen height (instead of volume) as a predictor of stand-level biomass. Although lichen taxa exhibited unique biomass and bulk density responses that varied significantly by growth form, we found that single-taxon sampling consistently under-estimated true biomass and was constrained by the need for taxonomic experts. We also found that the point count method provided little to no improvement over ocular methods, despite increased effort. Estimated biomass of lichen-dominated communities (mean lichen cover: 84.9±1.4%) using multi-taxa, ocular methods differed only nominally among landcover types within ecoregions (range: 822 to 1418 g m-2). Height alone was a poor predictor of lichen biomass and should always be weighted by cover abundance. We conclude that the multi-taxa (whole-community) approach, when paired with ocular estimates, is the most reasonable and practical method for estimating lichen biomass at landscape scales in northwest Alaska.

  3. Distribution patterns of terricolous and saxicolous lichens in extreme desert conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temina, M.

    2012-04-01

    The investigation of biodiversity in stressful habitats is of great interest because it elucidates relationships between organisms and their environment, as well as revealing the mechanisms of their survival and adaptation to extreme conditions. Deserts represent such stressful habitats where harsh climate and limited resources greatly influence the formation of biota. In order to understand the link between microscale environmental variability in extreme arid conditions and lichen biodiversity patterns, we conducted the present study. For this purpose, the structure and distribution of lichen communities on soil and cobbles at six stations at "Evolution Canyon" III (EC III), Nahal Shaharut, in the extreme southern Negev, Israel, were examined. The opposite slopes of the canyon represented specific ecological niches characterized by sharply different microclimatic conditions. The following characteristics of lichen communities were studied: species richness, systematic diversity, biogeographical elements, frequencies and distribution of species, their morphological and anatomical characteristics, reproductive strategy, and ecological peculiarities. In the research site three environmental variables were evaluated: soil moisture, and temperatures of soil and cobbles. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis was used to study the influence of these ecological variables on the distribution of lichen species. The lichen diversity of EC III was very poor and comprised 12 species (3 cyanoliches on soil vs. 9 phycolichens on cobbles). Most of them belong to a specific group of arid endemic elements, adapted to survive in extreme arid conditions in the deserts of the Levant. The harsh desert conditions of the canyon negatively influence the reproductive ability of lichens. This influence is expressed in the decreased sizes of fruit bodies in some species, and the frequent occurrence of sterile specimens among lichens found in the canyon. A comparative analysis of structure

  4. The Use of Lichens as Indicators of Ambient Air Quality in Southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulumello, Patricia M.

    The inverse relationship between arboreal lichen species richness and sulphur dioxide in ambient air has been thoroughly documented in the literature. Previous work in southern Ontario has shown that lichen bioindication can identify areas of potential concern regarding air quality. The EMAN suite of lichens was applied in the City of Sarnia by surveying 458 Sugar Maple trees, in order to test the applicability of lichen bioindication under conditions of high mean SO2 levels and high species richness values. The results of the survey were explored using Geographic Information Systems. A spatial relationship between lichen community variables, the Bluewater Bridge and the highway was identified. Lichen species richness, lichen percent cover and Index of Atmospheric Purity values were higher along the bridge and highway. No strong gradients were found between other known pollution sources and no lichen deserts were identified. The most common community grouping consisted of Physcia millegrana Degel, Candelaria concolor (Dicks) B. Stein, Physcia aipolia (Ehrh ex Humb.) Furnrohr; all of which are known nitrophytes. The relationship between substrate pH and lichen species richness was examined. Sites with a known source of anthropogenic chemical contamination were found to have a correlation of r2=o.8 between lichen species richness and pH. The inverse was found for sites with no known source of contamination with a correlation of r2=-0.72. The findings suggest that species richness may be influenced by altering substrate pH which promotes the growth of nitrophytic species capable of tolerating high SO2 levels.

  5. Fire, grazing history, lichen abundance, and winter distribution of caribou in Alaska's taiga

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, W.B.; Dale, B.W.; Adams, L.G.; McElwain, D.E.; Joly, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1990s the Nelchina Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) Herd (NCH) began a dramatic shift to its current winter range, migrating at least an additional 100 km beyond its historic range. We evaluated the impacts of fire and grazing history on lichen abundance and subsequent use and distribution by the NCH. Historic (prior to 1990) and current (2002) winter ranges of the NCH had similar vascular vegetation, lichen cover (P = 0.491), and fire histories (P = 0.535), but the former range had significantly less forage lichen biomass as a result of grazing by caribou. Biomass of forage lichens was twice as great overall (P = 0.031) and 4 times greater in caribou selected sites on the current range than in the historic range, greatly increasing availability to caribou. Caribou on the current range selected for stands with >20% lichen cover (P < 0.001), greater than 1,250 kg/ha (P < 0.001) forage lichen biomass and stands older than 80 yr postfire (P < 0.001). After fires, forage lichen cover and biomass seldom recovered sufficiently to attract caribou grazing until after ???60 yr, and, as a group, primary forage lichen species did not reach maximum abundance until 180 yr postfire. Recovery following overgrazing can occur much more quickly because lichen cover, albeit mostly fragments, and organic substrates remain present. Our results provide benchmarks for wildlife managers assessing condition of caribou winter range and predicting effects of fires on lichen abundance and caribou distribution. Of our measurements of cover and biomass by species, densities and heights of trees, elevation, slope and aspect, only percentage cover by Cladonia amaurocraea, Cladina rangiferina, Flavocetraria cuculata, and lowbush cranberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) were necessary for predicting caribou use of winter range. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  6. Identification of a Robust Lichen Index for the Deconvolution of Lichen and Rock Mixtures Using Pattern Search Algorithm (case Study: Greenland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, S.; Karami, M.; Fensholt, R.

    2016-06-01

    Lichens are the dominant autotrophs of polar and subpolar ecosystems commonly encrust the rock outcrops. Spectral mixing of lichens and bare rock can shift diagnostic spectral features of materials of interest thus leading to misinterpretation and false positives if mapping is done based on perfect spectral matching methodologies. Therefore, the ability to distinguish the lichen coverage from rock and decomposing a mixed pixel into a collection of pure reflectance spectra, can improve the applicability of hyperspectral methods for mineral exploration. The objective of this study is to propose a robust lichen index that can be used to estimate lichen coverage, regardless of the mineral composition of the underlying rocks. The performance of three index structures of ratio, normalized ratio and subtraction have been investigated using synthetic linear mixtures of pure rock and lichen spectra with prescribed mixing ratios. Laboratory spectroscopic data are obtained from lichen covered samples collected from Karrat, Liverpool Land, and Sisimiut regions in Greenland. The spectra are then resampled to Hyperspectral Mapper (HyMAP) resolution, in order to further investigate the functionality of the indices for the airborne platform. In both resolutions, a Pattern Search (PS) algorithm is used to identify the optimal band wavelengths and bandwidths for the lichen index. The results of our band optimization procedure revealed that the ratio between R894-1246 and R1110 explains most of the variability in the hyperspectral data at the original laboratory resolution (R2=0.769). However, the normalized index incorporating R1106-1121 and R904-1251 yields the best results for the HyMAP resolution (R2=0.765).

  7. Lichens biomonitoring as feasible methodology to assess air pollution in natural ecosystems: combined study of quantitative PAHs analyses and lichen biodiversity in the Pyrenees Mountains.

    PubMed

    Blasco, María; Domeño, Celia; Nerín, Cristina

    2008-06-01

    The air quality in the Aragón valley, in the central Pyrenees, has been assessed by evaluation of lichen biodiversity and mapped by elaboration of the Index of Air Purity (IAP) based on observations of the presence and abundance of eight kinds of lichen with different sensitivity to air pollution. The IAP values obtained have been compared with quantitative analytical measures of 16 PAHs in the lichen Evernia prunastri, because this species was associated with a wide range of traffic exposure and levels of urbanization. Analyses of PAHs were carried out by the DSASE method followed by an SPE clean-up step and GC-MS analysis. The concentration of total PAHs found in lichen samples from the Aragón valley ranged from 692 to 6420 ng g(-1) and the PAHs profile showed predominance of compounds with three aromatic rings. The influence of the road traffic in the area has been shown because values over the median concentration of PAHs (>1092 ng g(-1)), percentage of combustion PAHs (>50%), and equivalent toxicity (>169) were found in lichens collected at places exposed to the influence of traffic. The combination of both methods suggests IAP as a general method for evaluating the air pollution referenced to PAHs because it can be correlated with the content of combustion PAHs and poor lichen biodiversity can be partly explained by the air pollution caused by specific PAHs.

  8. Physiological and chemical response of lichens transplanted in and around an industrial area of south Italy: relationship with the lichen diversity.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Pisani, Tommaso; Guttová, Anna; Sardella, Giovanni; Loppi, Stefano

    2011-05-01

    The lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. has been exposed for 3 months in and around an industrial area of Mediterranean Italy for monitoring physiological (photosynthetic efficiency, membrane lipids peroxidation and cell membrane integrity) and chemical (bioaccumulation of the heavy metals Cr, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) effects and investigate the consistency with the environmental quality status depicted by the diversity of epiphytic lichens (index of lichen diversity (ILD)). The results showed that thalli transplanted close to the industrial area exhibited early stress symptoms, as revealed by the increase in electrical conductivity indicating a damage endured by lichen cell membranes. The electrical conductivity was inversely correlated with the diversity of epiphytic lichens recorded at the same sites. The ILD negatively correlated also with membrane lipid peroxidation and the rate of accumulation of Pb, V and Zn. Reciprocal correlations found among trace elements pinpointed vehicular traffic and metal processing in the industrial area as main sources. The damage endured by cell membranes was the best physiological indicator consistent with the air quality status depicted by the diversity of epiphytic lichens.

  9. The application of lichens as ecological surrogates of air pollution in the subtropics: a case study in South Brazil.

    PubMed

    Koch, Natália M; Branquinho, Cristina; Matos, Paula; Pinho, Pedro; Lucheta, Fabiane; Martins, Suzana M A; Vargas, Vera M F

    2016-10-01

    The use of lichens as ecological surrogates has been an important tool to evaluate the impact of air pollution in both ecosystem and human health but remains underused in the subtropics due to lack of knowledge. Aiming to support the application of lichen as ecological surrogates of the effects of air pollution in the subtropics, we hypothesized that urbanization was an important driver of changes on lichen diversity, composition, and vitality. For that, we quantified several lichen diversity metrics (richness, cover, and community composition) and photobiont vitality in relation to atmospheric pollution or its surrogates (modeled pollutant gases, pollutants in lichen thallus, and land cover). We confirmed that air pollution was a key driver for lichen diversity. Changes in lichen community composition and vitality were very significantly related to air pollution and integrated the effect of multiple stressors (particulate matter, NOx, and Cu), thus being powerful ecological indicators of air pollution in the subtropics.

  10. Effects of bryophyte and lichen cover on permafrost soil temperature at large scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porada, Philipp; Ekici, Altug; Beer, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Bryophyte and lichen cover on the forest floor at high latitudes exerts an insulating effect on the ground. In this way, the cover decreases mean annual soil temperature and can protect permafrost soil. Climate change, however, may change bryophyte and lichen cover, with effects on the permafrost state and related carbon balance. It is, therefore, crucial to predict how the bryophyte and lichen cover will react to environmental change at the global scale. To date, current global land surface models contain only empirical representations of the bryophyte and lichen cover, which makes it impractical to predict the future state and function of bryophytes and lichens. For this reason, we integrate a process-based model of bryophyte and lichen growth into the global land surface model JSBACH (Jena Scheme for Biosphere-Atmosphere Coupling in Hamburg). The model simulates bryophyte and lichen cover on upland sites. Wetlands are not included. We take into account the dynamic nature of the thermal properties of the bryophyte and lichen cover and their relation to environmental factors. Subsequently, we compare simulations with and without bryophyte and lichen cover to quantify the insulating effect of the organisms on the soil. We find an average cooling effect of the bryophyte and lichen cover of 2.7 K on temperature in the topsoil for the region north of 50° N under the current climate. Locally, a cooling of up to 5.7 K may be reached. Moreover, we show that using a simple, empirical representation of the bryophyte and lichen cover without dynamic properties only results in an average cooling of around 0.5 K. This suggests that (a) bryophytes and lichens have a significant impact on soil temperature in high-latitude ecosystems and (b) a process-based description of their thermal properties is necessary for a realistic representation of the cooling effect. The advanced land surface scheme, including a dynamic bryophyte and lichen model, will be the basis for an improved

  11. Neuroprotective Effects of Herbal Extract (Rosa canina, Tanacetum vulgare and Urtica dioica) on Rat Model of Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Daneshmand, Parvaneh; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Kamali, Koorosh; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Nazari, Reza; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease (SAD) is caused by genetic risk factors, aging and oxidative stresses. The herbal extract of Rosa canina (R. canina), Tanacetum vulgare (T. vulgare) and Urtica dioica (U. dioica) has a beneficial role in aging, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of this herbal extract in the rat model of SAD was investigated. Methods: The rats were divided into control, sham, model, herbal extract -treated and ethanol-treated groups. Drug interventions were started on the 21st day after modeling and each treatment group was given the drugs by intraperitoneal (I.P.) route for 21 days. The expression levels of the five important genes for pathogenesis of SAD including Syp, Psen1, Mapk3, Map2 and Tnf-α were measured by qPCR between the hippocampi of SAD model which were treated by this herbal extract and control groups. The Morris Water Maze was adapted to test spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. Results: Treatment of the rat model of SAD with herbal extract induced a significant change in expression of Syp (p=0.001) and Psen1 (p=0.029). In Morris Water Maze, significant changes in spatial learning seen in the rat model group were improved in herbal-treated group. Conclusion: This herbal extract could have anti-dementia properties and improve spatial learning and memory in SAD rat model. PMID:27563424

  12. Skull lichens: a curious chapter in the history of phytotherapy.

    PubMed

    Modenesi, P

    2009-04-01

    Lichens growing on skulls were known in late medieval times as usnea or moss of a dead man's skull and were recommended as highly beneficial in various diseases. They were, in addition, the main ingredient of Unguentum armariun, a liniment used in a curious medical practice: the magnetic cure of wounds. We can place this chapter of the history of phytotherapy within the wider cultural context of the period, which saw the definition of nature become increasingly more fluid and open to a variety of novel interpretations.

  13. [The spatial structure of lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl].

    PubMed

    Martiushov, P A; Shavnin, S A

    2004-01-01

    Structure analysis based on regular morphological variability at organism level is applied to study the shape and spatial construction of lichen Hypogymnia phyzodes (L.) Nyl. Some structural were determined at juvenile stage of development with the use of this approach. Five of them are dominant. Besides, five the most frequent encounter types of thallus branching were described. It is shown that thallus structure at adult stage is usually built from two main elements forming axial dichotomy. Analysis of thallus shape indicates that transformation of dichotomy elements into trichotomy ones may also take place during growth and development of thallus.

  14. Oral lichen planus: a literature review and update.

    PubMed

    Alrashdan, Mohammad S; Cirillo, Nicola; McCullough, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a common chronic inflammatory condition that can affect skin and mucous membranes, including the oral mucosa. Because of the anatomic, physiologic and functional peculiarities of the oral cavity, the oral variant of LP (OLP) requires specific evaluations in terms of diagnosis and management. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the current developments in the understanding of the etiopathogenesis, clinical-pathologic presentation, and treatment of OLP, and provide follow-up recommendations informed by recent data on the malignant potential of the disease as well as health economics evaluations.

  15. Cryptoendolithic lichen and cyanobacterial communities of the Ross Desert, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, E I; Hua, M; Ocampo-Friedmann, R

    1988-01-01

    Cryptoendolithic microbial communities in the Ross Desert (McMurdo Dry Valleys) are characterized on the basis of photosynthetic microorganisms and fungi. Two eukaryotic communities (the lichen-dominated and Hemichloris communities) and three cyanobacterial communities (the red Gloeocapsa, Hormathonema-Gloeocapsa, and Chroococcidiopsis communities) are described. Eleven coccoid, one pleurocapsoid, and five filamentous cyanobacteria occurring in these communities are characterized and illustrated. The moisture grade of the rock substrate seems to affect pH, formation of primary iron stain, and the distribution of microbial communities.

  16. Cryptoendolithic lichen and cyanobacterial communities of the Ross Desert, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, E. I.; Hua, M.; Ocampo-Friedmann, R.

    1988-01-01

    Cryptoendolithic microbial communities in the Ross Desert (McMurdo Dry Valleys) are characterized on the basis of photosynthetic microorganisms and fungi. Two eukaryotic communities (the lichen-dominated and Hemichloris communities) and three cyanobacterial communities (the red Gloeocapsa, Hormathonema-Gloeocapsa, and Chroococcidiopsis communities) are described. Eleven coccoid, one pleurocapsoid, and five filamentous cyanobacteria occurring in these communities are characterized and illustrated. The moisture grade of the rock substrate seems to affect pH, formation of primary iron stain, and the distribution of microbial communities.

  17. Treatment of genital lichen sclerosus in women--review.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Przytocka, Anna; Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Szewczyk, Aleksandra; Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Jenerowicz, Dorota; Osmola-Mańkowska, Agnieszka; Olek-Hrab, Karolina

    2012-06-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that belongs to a group of autoimmune connective tissue diseases, localized within the skin and mucous membrane of the anogenital area. In the latter location, the focal atrophy of the mucosa is the most visible sign. Lesions may be accompanied by symptoms such as itching, pain, burning. The disease occurs more often in females. The etiology is not fully understood. Genetic, infectious, hormonal factors and autoimmune mechanisms are taken into consideration. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is important to avoid further complications. This review aims to analyze available literature on the treatment of this disease entity

  18. Discrimination of lichen genera and species using element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean

  19. Frequency of Genital Involvement in Women with Oral Lichen Planus in Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Davarmanesh, M.; Samsami Dehaghani, A.; Deilami, Z.; Monabbati, A.; Dastgheib, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Lichen Planus is a chronic mucocutaneous disease of immunological basis and unknown etiology. women with oral lichen planus may have concomitant manifestations in vulvovaginal areas. Objective. To determine the frequency and risk factors of genital involvement in a group of Iranian women affected by oral lichen planus. Methods. Thirty-six women with clinical and histopathological diagnosis of oral lichen planus were evaluated for demographic, historical, and clinical parameters of the oral disease. All the patients were referred for careful vulvovaginal examination, as well as histopathological assessment upon clinical indication. Results. Nineteen patients complained from genital symptoms but the number of women with the final diagnosis of genital lichen planus (n = 2) was too small to show any correlation with the parameters evaluated. Conclusion. In spite of low genital involvement possibly due to inadequate patient population, lack of follow-up visits, and contribution of genetic or ethnic factors, for conservative patient care, women with the oral lichen planus in particular those having some relevant genital symptoms, should preferably be referred for careful vulvovaginal examination. Multicenter cohort studies on women of different geographical regions or ethnicities who have genital lichen planus alone or in combination with other common sites are encouraged. PMID:22675343

  20. Exploring functional contexts of symbiotic sustain within lichen-associated bacteria by comparative omics

    PubMed Central

    Grube, Martin; Cernava, Tomislav; Soh, Jung; Fuchs, Stephan; Aschenbrenner, Ines; Lassek, Christian; Wegner, Uwe; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Sensen, Christoph W; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Symbioses represent a frequent and successful lifestyle on earth and lichens are one of their classic examples. Recently, bacterial communities were identified as stable, specific and structurally integrated partners of the lichen symbiosis, but their role has remained largely elusive in comparison to the well-known functions of the fungal and algal partners. We have explored the metabolic potentials of the microbiome using the lung lichen Lobaria pulmonaria as the model. Metagenomic and proteomic data were comparatively assessed and visualized by Voronoi treemaps. The study was complemented with molecular, microscopic and physiological assays. We have found that more than 800 bacterial species have the ability to contribute multiple aspects to the symbiotic system, including essential functions such as (i) nutrient supply, especially nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur, (ii) resistance against biotic stress factors (that is, pathogen defense), (iii) resistance against abiotic factors, (iv) support of photosynthesis by provision of vitamin B12, (v) fungal and algal growth support by provision of hormones, (vi) detoxification of metabolites, and (vii) degradation of older parts of the lichen thallus. Our findings showed the potential of lichen-associated bacteria to interact with the fungal as well as algal partner to support health, growth and fitness of their hosts. We developed a model of the symbiosis depicting the functional multi-player network of the participants, and argue that the strategy of functional diversification in lichens supports the longevity and persistence of lichens under extreme and changing ecological conditions. PMID:25072413

  1. Novel bacteria associated with Arctic seashore lichens have potential roles in nutrient scavenging.

    PubMed

    Sigurbjörnsdóttir, Margrét Auður; Heiðmarsson, Starri; Jónsdóttir, Anna Rut; Vilhelmsson, Oddur

    2014-05-01

    While generally described as a bipartite mutualistic association between fungi and algae or cyanobacteria, lichens also host diverse and heretofore little explored communities of nonphototrophic endolichenic bacteria. The composition and possible roles of these bacterial communities in the lichen symbiotic association constitute an emerging field of research. Saxicolous (rock-dwelling) seashore lichens present an unusual environment, characterized by rapid fluctuations in temperature, salinity, exposure to solar radiation, etc. The present study focuses on the bacterial biota associated with 4 species of crustose, halophilic, saxicolous seashore lichens found in northern Iceland. A denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis based characterization of the composition of the lichen-associated microbiotas indicated that they are markedly lichen-species-specific and clearly distinguishable from the environmental microbiota represented by control sampling. A collection of bacterial strains was investigated and partially identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The strains were found to belong to 7 classes: Alphaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria, Cytophagia, Sphingobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. Several isolates display only a modest level of similarity to their nearest relatives found in GenBank, suggesting that they comprise previously undescribed taxa. Selected strains were tested for inorganic phosphate solubilization and biodegradation of several biopolymers, such as barley β-glucan, xylan, chitosan, and lignin. The results support a nutrient-scavenging role of the associate microbiota in the seashore lichen symbiotic association.

  2. Exploring functional contexts of symbiotic sustain within lichen-associated bacteria by comparative omics.

    PubMed

    Grube, Martin; Cernava, Tomislav; Soh, Jung; Fuchs, Stephan; Aschenbrenner, Ines; Lassek, Christian; Wegner, Uwe; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Sensen, Christoph W; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-02-01

    Symbioses represent a frequent and successful lifestyle on earth and lichens are one of their classic examples. Recently, bacterial communities were identified as stable, specific and structurally integrated partners of the lichen symbiosis, but their role has remained largely elusive in comparison to the well-known functions of the fungal and algal partners. We have explored the metabolic potentials of the microbiome using the lung lichen Lobaria pulmonaria as the model. Metagenomic and proteomic data were comparatively assessed and visualized by Voronoi treemaps. The study was complemented with molecular, microscopic and physiological assays. We have found that more than 800 bacterial species have the ability to contribute multiple aspects to the symbiotic system, including essential functions such as (i) nutrient supply, especially nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur, (ii) resistance against biotic stress factors (that is, pathogen defense), (iii) resistance against abiotic factors, (iv) support of photosynthesis by provision of vitamin B12, (v) fungal and algal growth support by provision of hormones, (vi) detoxification of metabolites, and (vii) degradation of older parts of the lichen thallus. Our findings showed the potential of lichen-associated bacteria to interact with the fungal as well as algal partner to support health, growth and fitness of their hosts. We developed a model of the symbiosis depicting the functional multi-player network of the participants, and argue that the strategy of functional diversification in lichens supports the longevity and persistence of lichens under extreme and changing ecological conditions.

  3. Population structure of mycobionts and photobionts of the widespread lichen Cetraria aculeata.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Mendoza, F; Domaschke, S; García, M A; Jordan, P; Martín, M P; Printzen, C

    2011-03-01

    Lichens are symbioses between fungi (mycobionts) and photoautotrophic green algae or cyanobacteria (photobionts). Many lichens occupy large distributional ranges covering several climatic zones. So far, little is known about the large-scale phylogeography of lichen photobionts and their role in shaping the distributional ranges of lichens. We studied south polar, temperate and north polar populations of the widely distributed fruticose lichen Cetraria aculeata. Based on the DNA sequences from three loci for each symbiont, we compared the genetic structure of mycobionts and photobionts. Phylogenetic reconstructions and Bayesian clustering methods divided the mycobiont and photobiont data sets into three groups. An amova shows that the genetic variance of the photobiont is best explained by differentiation between temperate and polar regions and that of the mycobiont by an interaction of climatic and geographical factors. By partialling out the relative contribution of climate, geography and codispersal, we found that the most relevant factors shaping the genetic structure of the photobiont are climate and a history of codispersal. Mycobionts in the temperate region are consistently associated with a specific photobiont lineage. We therefore conclude that a photobiont switch in the past enabled C. aculeata to colonize temperate as well as polar habitats. Rare photobiont switches may increase the geographical range and ecological niche of lichen mycobionts by associating them with locally adapted photobionts in climatically different regions and, together with isolation by distance, may lead to genetic isolation between populations and thus drive the evolution of lichens.

  4. Experimental reproduction of tumbleweed shield lichen (Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa) poisoning in a domestic sheep model.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Rebecca N; Montgomery, Donald L; Ingram, James T; Siemion, Roger; Raisbeck, Merl F

    2008-11-01

    Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa, commonly called tumbleweed lichen, is found throughout the Rocky Mountain region. This particular species of lichen was incriminated in the poisoning of cattle and sheep in Wyoming during the 1930s. More than 70 years elapsed before another case was reported. There is virtually no information in the veterinary literature regarding toxicity of this lichen. This report describes X. chlorochroa poisoning in domestic sheep fed lichen collected from different locales and at different times of the year. Affected animals voided red urine and displayed incoordination. A transient spike in serum creatine kinase activity occurred in all ewes during the course of the feeding trial. Histologically, necrosis of a few individual appendicular skeletal myocytes was observed in 1 ewe, but grossly discernible myonecrosis was absent. The severity of clinical signs varied depending on the location and/or time of year the lichen was collected, indicating that toxicity of the lichen may be influenced by environmental conditions. Results demonstrate that domestic sheep are a useful model for further investigation of X. chlorochroa intoxication. The current study should act as a starting point for elucidating the pathogenesis of X. chlorochroa poisoning and aid in the development of a diagnostic assay to confirm lichen poisoning.

  5. A phylogenetic analysis of the boreal lichen Mycoblastus sanguinarius (Mycoblastaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) reveals cryptic clades correlated with fatty acid profiles

    PubMed Central

    Spribille, Toby; Klug, Barbara; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Lichens are a prominent feature of northern conifer forests and a large number of species are thought to be circumboreal. Whether or not circumboreal lichen species really constitute monophyletic groups has seldom been tested. We investigated molecular phylogenetic patterns in the mycobiont of Mycoblastus sanguinarius, a well known epiphytic lichen species of the boreal forest, based on material collected from across the high latitude northern hemisphere. A three-locus dataset of internal transcribed spacer rDNA, translation elongation factor 1-α and replication licensing factor Mcm7 DNA sequences revealed that material treated until now as belonging to M. sanguinarius does indeed form a monophyletic group within the genus and is distinct from a strongly supported Mycoblastus affinis. The M. sanguinarius complex appears closely related to the rare Mycoblastus glabrescens, which is currently known only from the Pacific Northwest and was rediscovered during the present study. However, within M. sanguinarius s.lat. in the northern hemisphere, two deeply divergent and morphologically coherent species can be recovered, one of which matches the southern hemisphere species Mycoblastus sanguinarioides and turns out to be widespread in North America and Asia, and one of which corresponds to M. sanguinarius s.str. Both M. sanguinarius and M. sanguinarioides exhibit additional low-level genetic differentiation into geographically structured clades, the most prominent of which are distributed in East Asia/eastern North America and western North America/Europe, respectively. Individuals from these lowest-level clades are morphologically indistinguishable but chemical analyses by thin layer chromatography revealed that each clade possesses its own fatty acid profile, suggesting that chemical differentiation precedes morphological differentiation and may be a precursor to speciation. PMID:21443957

  6. On the dual nature of lichen-induced rock surface weathering in contrasting micro-environments.

    PubMed

    Marques, Joana; Gonçalves, João; Oliveira, Cláudia; Favero-Longo, Sergio E; Paz-Bermúdez, Graciela; Almeida, Rubim; Prieto, Beatriz

    2016-10-01

    Contradictory evidence from biogeomorphological studies has increased the debate on the extent of lichen contribution to differential rock surface weathering in both natural and cultural settings. This study, undertaken in Côa Valley Archaeological Park, aimed at evaluating the effect of rock surface orientation on the weathering ability of dominant lichens. Hyphal penetration and oxalate formation at the lichen-rock interface were evaluated as proxies of physical and chemical weathering, respectively. A new protocol of pixel-based supervised image classification for the analysis of periodic acid-Schiff stained cross-sections of colonized schist revealed that hyphal spread of individual species was not influenced by surface orientation. However, hyphal spread was significantly higher in species dominant on northwest facing surfaces. An apparently opposite effect was noticed in terms of calcium oxalate accumulation at the lichen-rock interface; it was detected by Raman spectroscopy and complementary X-ray microdiffraction on southeast facing surfaces only. These results suggest that lichen-induced physical weathering may be most severe on northwest facing surfaces by means of an indirect effect of surface orientation on species abundance, and thus dependent on the species, whereas lichen-induced chemical weathering is apparently higher on southeast facing surfaces and dependent on micro-environmental conditions, giving only weak support to the hypothesis that lichens are responsible for the currently observed pattern of rock-art distribution in Côa Valley. Assumptions about the drivers of open-air rock-art distribution patterns elsewhere should also consider the micro-environmental controls of lichen-induced weathering, to avoid biased measures of lichen contribution to rock-art deterioration.

  7. The Relationship between Anger Expression and Its Indices and Oral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Farnam, Alireza; Attaran, Rana; Farhang, Sara; Safarnavadeh, Maryam; Gholizadeh, Narges

    2016-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. Depression, stress and anxiety are psychological factors that their influence on the expression of lichen planus by affecting the immune system's function has been confirmed. There is a probable relationship between anger and OLP expression. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the association of "anger" and OLP. In this descriptive study 95 subjects were included in 3 groups. A: patients with oral lichen planus, B: positive control, C: negative control. Anger and its indices were assessed by the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2) questionnaire, and pain was measured via the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The collected data were analyzed statistically using SPSS 18 software. The lichen planus and positive control groups bore higher total anger index (AX index) values compared with the negative control. Comparing anger expression-in (AXI) among the lichen planus and negative control groups revealed higher grades in lichen planus group. Evaluating the pain severity index (VAS) data and anger indices in lichen planus group, Spearman's Rank Correlation Test revealed a significant correlation between TAngR (reactional anger traits) and pain severity. The findings of this study indicated that there was a significant correlation between anger control and suppression of lichen planus development. On the other hand, the patients with more severe pain mostly expressed their anger physically. Based on the findings, we can make the claim that anger suppression and its control-in (gathering tension) may play a role in the development of lichen planus as a known psychosomatic disorders. PMID:27231675

  8. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Bennett, James P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J. C.; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  9. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J. C.; Rodriguez, C.M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  10. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J.C.; Rodriguez, C.M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, T.E.; Bartz, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrP(TSE) inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrP(TSE). Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrP(TSE)-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrP(TSE) and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  11. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher J; Bennett, James P; Biro, Steven M; Duque-Velasquez, Juan Camilo; Rodriguez, Cynthia M; Bessen, Richard A; Rocke, Tonie E

    2011-05-11

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrP(TSE) inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrP(TSE). Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrP(TSE)-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrP(TSE) and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  12. Introduce lichen Lepraria incana as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Dalvand, Amin; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Iranmanesh, Jalil

    2016-08-01

    Lichens have been used as biomonitors of airborne radionuclides released in conjunction with nuclear bomb testing as well as nuclear power plant accidents. The potential of lichens for monitoringof radionuclides has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide monitoring by lichens, in Iran. Thus, as a first step, we have conducted a comparison of (137)Csactivity concentration capacity of three epiphytic lichen species including Lepraria incana, Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea from Ramsar Northern Iran. In this work, accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was determined in 36 lichen samples using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The results showed that highest accumulation capacity of (137)Cs in the lichen species was found in Lepraria incana and Xanthoria parietina, 30.2, 9.8 Bq/kg respectively, and lowest average accumulation capacity were found in Ramalina farinacea 2.7 Bq/kg (dry weight). This study showed that activity concentration (137)Cs is in crustose > foliose > fruticose lichens in the same biotope. Thus, crustose lichens are capable to accumulate higher (137)Cs than foliose and fruticose species because of different factors such as special morphological characteristics in these species and large surface/volume ratio or longer biological half-life of (137)Cs in lichen Lepraria incana. Therefore, Lepraria incana due to high concentration capability of (137)Cs (approximately 3 and 11 time higher than Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea, respectively), is introduced as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, North of Iran.

  13. Degradation of the Disease-Associated Prion Protein by a Serine Protease from Lichens

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Bennett, James P.; Biro, Steven M.; Duque-Velasquez, Juan Camilo; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Bessen, Richard A.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted. PMID:21589935

  14. Fungal specificity and selectivity for algae play a major role in determining lichen partnerships across diverse ecogeographic regions in the lichen-forming family Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Nelsen, Matthew P; Altermann, Susanne; Divakar, Pradeep K; Alors, David; Esslinger, Theodore L; Crespo, Ana; Lumbsch, Thorsten

    2015-07-01

    Microbial symbionts are instrumental to the ecological and long-term evolutionary success of their hosts, and the central role of symbiotic interactions is increasingly recognized across the vast majority of life. Lichens provide an iconic group for investigating patterns in species interactions; however, relationships among lichen symbionts are often masked by uncertain species boundaries or an inability to reliably identify symbionts. The species-rich lichen-forming fungal family Parmeliaceae provides a diverse group for assessing patterns of interactions of algal symbionts, and our study addresses patterns of lichen symbiont interactions at the largest geographic and taxonomic scales attempted to date. We analysed a total of 2356 algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences collected from lichens representing ten mycobiont genera in Parmeliaceae, two genera in Lecanoraceae and 26 cultured Trebouxia strains. Algal ITS sequences were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs); we attempted to validate the evolutionary independence of a subset of the inferred OTUs using chloroplast and mitochondrial loci. We explored the patterns of symbiont interactions in these lichens based on ecogeographic distributions and mycobiont taxonomy. We found high levels of undescribed diversity in Trebouxia, broad distributions across distinct ecoregions for many photobiont OTUs and varying levels of mycobiont selectivity and specificity towards the photobiont. Based on these results, we conclude that fungal specificity and selectivity for algal partners play a major role in determining lichen partnerships, potentially superseding ecology, at least at the ecogeographic scale investigated here. To facilitate effective communication and consistency across future studies, we propose a provisional naming system for Trebouxia photobionts and provide representative sequences for each OTU circumscribed in this study.

  15. Lichens and mosses as polonium and uranium biomonitors on Sobieszewo Island.

    PubMed

    Boryło, Alicja; Romańczyk, Grzegorz; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    In the study the activities of polonium (210)Po and uranium (234)U, (238)U radionuclides in moss and lichen samples were determined using the alpha spectrometry. Different lichens and mosses were collected around the Sobieszewo Island (northern Poland) and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for (210)Po and (238)U deposition. Mosses and lichens have a high efficiency in capturing (210)Po and (238)U from atmospheric fallout. The obtained results showed that (210)Po, (238)U concentrations are changing in analyzed thallophytes samples depending on the type of thallus.

  16. Radiation-induced lichen sclerosus of the vulva : First report in the medical literature.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Lisa R; Privette, Emily D; Patterson, James W; Tchernev, Georgi; Chokoeva, Anastasiya Atanasova; Wollina, Uwe; Lotti, Torello; Wilson, Barbara B

    2017-03-01

    A 67-year-old woman presented with a firm plaque in the perineal region, 16 months after diagnosis of a high-grade basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina and treatment by external beam radiation therapy and vaginal cuff brachytherapy. The differential diagnosis included radiation-induced morphea, radiation dermatitis, or, possibly, radiation-induced lichen sclerosus. Biopsy findings, including special staining, confirmed the diagnosis of radiation-induced lichen sclerosus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of radiation-induced lichen sclerosus of the vulvar region.

  17. Surgical treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus: a review.

    PubMed

    Abramov, Y; Elchalal, U; Abramov, D; Goldfarb, A; Schenker, J G

    1996-03-01

    Surgical therapy of lichen sclerosus of the vulva consists of three main operations: vulvectomy (with or without a skin graft), cryosurgery, and laser ablation. It is indicated in two conditions, either when malignant transformation is present or is likely to occur, or when medical treatment has failed. The overall risk for malignant transformation of vulvar lichen sclerosus is low, ranging between 0 and 9 percent. However, specific histological criteria, such as mixed dystrophy, have recently been associated with higher malignancy rates. Vulvectomy is indicated only when these criteria are met. Both skinning and simple vulvectomies are associated with recurrence rates as high as 50 percent. However, better sexual function and cosmetic results have been reported in the former, especially with concomitant split skin grafting. Cryosurgery also has high recurrence rates, although short-term results are favorable. Although only small series have been reported, laser therapy seems to carry better long-term results than other modes of treatment. Convalescence is complete within 6 weeks posttreatment, and remission rates are as high as 85 percent at 3 years of follow-up. The high recurrence rate of all surgical modalities makes surgical treatment suitable only for patients who failed to respond to multiple medical treatments such as topical high potent steroid ointments, testosterone, and retinoids.

  18. Endogenous Auxin and Ethylene in the Lichen Ramalina duriaei1

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Ephraim; Sagee, Oded; Cohen, Jerry D.; Garty, Jacob

    1986-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels and ethylene evolution rates were measured in a fruticose lichen Ramalina duriaei collected from carob trees growing in northeast Israel. IAA levels were estimated by gas liquid chromatography with electron capture detection of the pentafluorobenzyl ester and also by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay following methylation. The identity of the isolated IAA was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of both the methyl and the pentafluorobenzyl ester. IAA levels in lichens 1 year after transplanting to an air-polluted urban site were found to be lower than in the control thalli left at a nonpolluted, rural site. The material from the latter contained about 2.5 micrograms per gram fresh weight free IAA and 0.5 microgram per gram fresh weight conjugated IAA, while the urban material contained 0.3 microgram per gram each of free and conjugated IAA. Ethylene production rate was 1.0 nanoliter per gram fresh weight per hour in the material from the rural site and 1.5 nanoliters per gram fresh weight per hour in material from the urban site. PMID:16665145

  19. Lichens of the U.S. National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Over 26,100 records of lichens present in 144 U.S. national park units were assembled from various sources into a database and analyzed. Within these 144 park units 2,435 species and 375 genera are reported, representing 63% and 74% of the North American flora, respectively. The park units are located in 41 states and Washington, D.C. The average number of species in a park is 104, but the median is 60, indicating there are many parks with a small number of species and a few with high numbers. Isle Royale National Park has the most species, 611, and twelve parks have only one species reported. The number of records of lichens present ranged from one for 25 parks, to 1,623 for Isle Royale. Physcia aipolia is the most frequently observed species, being found in 65 parks. One fourth of the park units are classified cultural resource parks, while the remainder are considered natural resource parks. This study was based on 453 sources, including literature citations, park reports and collections in the University of Minnesota Herbarium.

  20. Oral lichen planus – retrospective study of 563 Croatian patients

    PubMed Central

    Budimir, Vice; Richter, Ivica; Andabak-Rogulj, Ana; Vučićević-Boras, Vanja

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of oral lichen planus (OLP) in a group of Croatian patients seen between 2006 and 2012. Study Design: A group of 563 patients with a diagnosis of OLP was retrospectively reviewed in our clinic. Data regarding age, gender, medical history, drugs, smoking, alcohol, chief complaint, clinical type, localization, histology, treatment and malignant transformation were registered. Results: Of the 563 patients, 414 were females and 149 were males. The average age at the diagnosis was 58 (range 11-94). The most common site was buccal mucosa (82.4%). Most of our patients did not smoke (72.5%) or consume alcohol (69.6%). Patients reported oral soreness (43.3%), mucosal roughness (7%), xerostomia (3%), gingival bleeding (2%) and altered taste (0.5%) as the chief complaint, while almost half of them were asymptomatic (44.2%). The most common types of OLP were reticular (64.8%) and erosive (22.9%). Plaque-like (5.7%) atrophic/erythemtous (4.3%) and bullous (2.3%) type were also observed. Malignant transformation rate of 0.7% was recorded. Conclusions: OLP mostly affects non-smoking middle-aged women. Buccal mucosa is the most commonly affected site. In almost half of the cases patients are asymptomatic. In spite of the small risk for malignant transformation all patients should be regularly monitored. Key words:Oral lichen planus, malignant transformation, epidemiology, retrospective study. PMID:24608217

  1. Lichen Planus Pigmentosus: A study for association of Thyroid Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Karn, D; Kc, S; Timalsina, M

    2016-01-01

    Background Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is considered a chronic and progressive variant of lichen planus. Although pigmentation occurs in the sun exposed areas, the etiology remains unknown and there are no appropriate treatment guidelines. Association with thyroid disorder has been described in various disorders of pigmentation. Objective The objective of this study was to find the association between LPP and thyroid dysfunction. Method A total of 54 clinically diagnosed cases of LPP and 54 age and sex matched healthy control volunteers were included in this case control study. Thyroid function test and thyroid peroxidase antibody were analysed to determine the probable association between thyroid diseases and LPP. Result Seventeen (31.7%) patients had biochemical evidence of hypothyroidism and 3 had hyperthyroidism among the diseased group. Among the control group two persons were tested positive for hypothyroidism (c2 = 0.34; p <0.05). Similarly, the levels of thyroid peroxidase antibody in the LPP patients were found to be significantly higher than those of controls (p <0.05). Conclusion Thyroid disorder was found to be an associated factor in LPP. Hence, we recommend routine thyroid function tests in patients with LPP. Further research is warranted among large number of patients to elucidate the exact association.

  2. Lichen Planus With Predominate Plasma Cell Infiltrate: Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Huyenlan; Seyffert, Jennifer; Lountzis, Nektarios I; Altman, Howard B; Oram, Christian; Purcell, Stephen M

    2017-02-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a mucocutaneous inflammatory dermatitis of idiopathic origin that can involve the skin, mucous membranes, hair, and nails. LP has an associated set of characteristic histopathologic findings which include hyperkeratosis, vacuolization of the basal layer, Civatte bodies, wedge-shaped hypergranulosis, band-like lymphocytic infiltrate at the dermal epidermal junction, eosinophilic colloid bodies in the papillary dermis, and pigment incontinence. The infiltrate is usually composed of lymphocytes with few histiocytes, mast cells, and macrophages. The presence of plasma cell predominant infiltrate in LP has only been reported in four previous cases and 2 other cases of lichen nitidus. The authors report another 2 cases of LP with predominate plasma cell infiltrate in 2 female patients on the legs. The differential includes a drug-induced lichenoid reaction with predominate plasma cell infiltrate. However, there have been no case reports of that type of reaction. Because plasma cells are seen commonly in certain infectious diseases, malignancy, and macroglobulinemia, it is prudent to rule out those entities. Our patients responded well with a class 1 topical steroid, with improvement of their lower leg lesions within 1 month of treatment.

  3. Hypertrophic lichen sclerosus with dyskeratosis and parakeratosis--a common presentation of vulvar lichen sclerosus not associated with a significant risk of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Weyers, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    Epithelial hyperplasia, individual necrotic keratocytes, and parakeratosis are common findings in lichen sclerosus. When those changes are prominent, they may pose diagnostic problems, especially because such lesions often show no or only minimal sclerosis. Necrotic keratocytes are often numerous and are found in all reaches of the epidermis, presenting themselves as eosinophilic globules with or without remnants of pyknotic nuclei. Because those changes tend to be accentuated focally above dermal papillae, they often give rise to narrow columns of parakeratosis in the overlying cornified layer. Within those columns, individual necrotic keratocytes with pyknotic nuclei are preserved as distinct dyskeratotic parakeratotic cells. That constellation of findings is fairly characteristic of hypertrophic lichen sclerosus. It was found, at least subtle and focally, in 14 of 70 consecutive biopsy specimens of lichen sclerosus, most of which came from the vulva of elderly women. Although similar cases have been described as differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) in the literature, there was no significant nuclear atypia, no crowding of nuclei, and no significant mitotic activity in any of those lesions. Follow-up of at least 5 years in 8 patients revealed no development of squamous cell carcinoma. Hypertrophic lichen sclerosus with dyskeratosis and parakeratosis seems to be a relatively common presentation of vulvar lichen sclerosus not associated with a significant risk of malignancy.

  4. [Oral medicine 9. Lichen planus and lichenoid lesions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    van der Meij, E H; Schepman, K P; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-09-01

    The general dentist is sometimes confronted with white lesions of the oral mucosa. Oral lichen planus is the most common oral white lesion. The diagnosis can usually be made on the basis of the clinical aspect, but is sometimes made more difficult by certain abnormalities in the oral mucosa which clinically resemble oral lichen planus or by abnormalities which cannot be distinguished from oral lichen planus but have a different origin. Those lesions are classified as oral lichenoid lesions. Malignant deterioration has been described in allforms of oral lichen planus lesions and oral lichenoid lesions. There is no known method to predict or prevent malignant transformation. Nor are there any studies examining the efficacy of frequent follow-up visits. It seems sensible, in keeping with the tendency in recent literature, to schedule annual check-ups for patients to be on the safe side. These follow-up visits may reasonably be performed in a general dental practice.

  5. How-To-Do-It: Environmental Pollution Effects Demonstrated by Metal Adsorption in Lichens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an experiment to demonstrate the degree to which environmental cations are taken up by susceptible lichen organisms in the field. Discusses the preparation of materials, procedures and typical results for this short laboratory exercise. (CW)

  6. NPLichen: a database of lichens in the U.S. national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    NPLichen, a database of lichens in the U. S. National Parks (Wetmore and Bennett, 1992), has been extensively revised and expanded, and is now available for public use at www.ies.wisc.edu/nplichen. As of this writing, the database contains 25,995 records of lichens in 144 national park units. The number of records of lichens not in the North American lichen checklist (Esslinger 1997) is 161, for a total of 26,156. These records include multiple occurrences of a species in some parks because more than one reference has reported presence of species. Consequently, the number of species in parks records (including new to North America) without these duplicate references is 14,986. Our table of misidentified taxa contains 307 records.

  7. Sialochemistry of whole, parotid, and labial minor gland saliva in patients with oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Gandara, B K; Izutsu, K T; Truelove, E L; Mandel, I D; Sommers, E E; Ensign, W Y

    1987-11-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether oral lichen planus in otherwise healthy patients is associated with sialochemical abnormalities. Unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva, stimulated parotid saliva, and stimulated labial minor gland saliva were collected from 25 patients with oral lichen planus and from 25 age- and sex-matched controls. Flow rate and salivary concentrations of immunoglobulins A and G, albumin, amylase, lysozyme, lactoferrin, and total protein were determined by standard analytical techniques. Concentrations of inorganic components including sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphate were also measured. No significant differences were found between the lichen planus patients and the controls. These findings do not support an association between oral lichen planus and salivary dysfunction in otherwise healthy patients.

  8. The organic air pollutant cumene hydroperoxide interferes with NO antioxidant role in rehydrating lichen.

    PubMed

    Catalá, M; Gasulla, F; Pradas Del Real, A E; García-Breijo, F; Reig-Armiñana, J; Barreno, E

    2013-08-01

    Organic pollutants effects on lichens have not been addressed. Rehydration is critical for lichens, a burst of free radicals involving NO occurs. Repeated dehydrations with organic pollutants could increase oxidative damage. Our aim is to learn the effects of cumene hydroperoxide (CP) during lichen rehydration using Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach., its photobiont Trebouxia spp. and Asterochloris erici. Confocal imaging shows intracellular ROS and NO production within myco and phycobionts, being the chloroplast the main source of free radicals. CP increases ROS, NO and lipid peroxidation and reduces chlorophyll autofluorescence, although photosynthesis remains unaffected. Concomitant NO inhibition provokes a generalized increase of ROS and a decrease in photosynthesis. Our results suggest that CP induces a compensatory hormetic response in Ramalina farinacea that could reduce the lichen's antioxidant resources after repeated desiccation-rehydration cycles. NO is important in the protection from CP.

  9. Responses of the Lichen Photobiont Trebouxia erici to Desiccation and Rehydration (II) Proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lichen desiccation tolerance is associated with cellular protection mechanisms directed against the oxidative stress produced during dehydration and/or rehydration, however, these mechanisms are not well understood. In other poikilohydric organisms, changes in the synthesis of proteins have bee...

  10. Pleistocene expansion of the bipolar lichen Cetraria aculeata into the Southern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Mendoza, Fernando; Printzen, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Many boreal and polar lichens occupy bipolar distributional ranges that frequently extend into high mountains at lower latitudes. Although such disjunctions are more common among lichens than in other groups of organisms, the geographic origin of bipolar lichen taxa, and the way and time frame in which they colonized their ranges have not been studied in detail. We used the predominantly vegetative, widespread lichen Cetraria aculeata as a model species. We surveyed the origin and history of its bipolar pattern using population genetics, phylogenetic and genealogical reconstruction methods. Cetraria aculeata originated in the Northern Hemisphere and dispersed southwards during the Pleistocene. The genetic signal suggests a Pleistocene dispersive burst in which a population size expansion concurred with the acquisition of a South-American range that culminated in the colonization of the Antarctic.

  11. Use of Low Level Laser Therapy for Oral Lichen Planus: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, O; Boostani, N; Jajarm, HH; Falaki, F; Tabesh, A

    2013-01-01

    Oral Lichen Planus is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. Erosive/ ulcerative oral lichen planus is often a painful condition that tends to become malignant, urging appropriate therapy. Laser therapy has recently been suggested as a new treatment option without significant side effects. This article presents two cases of erosive/ ulcerative oral lichen planus, who had not received any treatment before, treated with 630 nm low level laser. Lesion type and pain was recorded before and after treatment. Severity of lesions and pain were reduced after treatment. Low Level Laser Therapy was an effective treatment with no side effects and it may be considered as an alternative therapy for erosive/ulcerative oral lichen planus. PMID:24724146

  12. Production of phenolics by immobilized cells of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea: the role of epiphytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Blanch, M; Blanco, Y; Fontaniella, B; Legaz, M E; Vicente, C

    2001-06-01

    Immobilized lichen cells from the thalli of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea, supplied with acetate as the only source of carbon, continuously produced phenolic substances, atranorin and physodic acid, over 23 days. Epiphytic bacteria associated with the lichen thallus grew actively, probably using both acetate and reduced compounds supplied by lichen cells, since their active growth was avoided by including 10 microM 3,3'-dichlorophenyl-1,1'dimethylurea in the bath solution. Penicillin largely impeded the growth of epiphytic bacteria and decreased phenolic production, which was recovered only at the end of the experimental period, just when the bacteria started a slow, but active growth. We suggest the cooperation of epiphytic bacteria in the biosynthesis of both atranotrin and physodic acid.

  13. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierrae from California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour. Copyright ?? 2011 British Lichen Society.

  14. Spatial scales of variation in lichens: implications for sampling design in biomonitoring surveys.

    PubMed

    Giordani, Paolo; Brunialti, Giorgio; Frati, Luisa; Incerti, Guido; Ianesch, Luca; Vallone, Emanuele; Bacaro, Giovanni; Maccherini, Simona

    2013-02-01

    The variability of biological data is a main constraint affecting the quality and reliability of lichen biomonitoring surveys for estimation of the effects of atmospheric pollution. Although most epiphytic lichen bioindication surveys focus on between-site differences at the landscape level, associated with the large scale effects of atmospheric pollution, current protocols are based on multilevel sampling, thus adding further sources of variation and affecting the error budget. We test the hypothesis that assemblages of lichen communities vary at each spatial scale examined, in order to determine what scales should be included in future monitoring studies. We compared four sites in Italy, along gradients of atmospheric pollution and climate, to test the partitioning of the variance components of lichen diversity across spatial scales (from trunks to landscapes). Despite environmental heterogeneity, we observed comparable spatial variance. However, residuals often overcame between-plot variability, leading to biased estimation of atmospheric pollution effects.

  15. Two case reports of cutaneous adverse reactions following hepatitis B vaccine: lichen planus and granuloma annulare.

    PubMed

    Criado, P R; de Oliveira Ramos, R; Vasconcellos, C; Jardim Criado, R F; Valente, N Y S

    2004-09-01

    We report two cases of adverse cutaneous reactions following hepatitis B vaccination. The first case occurred 3 weeks after the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine in a 16-year-old white girl with the onset of lichen planus lesions on her thighs and abdomen. After the second dose a disseminated lichen planus developed within 2 weeks. The second case concerns to the development of papular and patch granuloma annulare in a 58-year-old white woman 2 months after the second dose of hepatitis B vaccine. To the best of our knowledge, only a few paediatric and adult cases of lichen planus as a complication of hepatitis B vaccination have been reported in medical literature so far. This is the second case of granuloma annulare following hepatitis B vaccine. Our report, similar to earlier papers, appears to support the onset of lichen planus and granuloma annulare as a possible rare complication of hepatitis B immunization.

  16. Oxidation of atmospheric molecular tritium in plant leaves, lichens and mosses.

    PubMed

    Ichimasa, M; Ichimasa, Y; Yagi, Y; Ko, R; Suzuki, M; Akita, Y

    1989-12-01

    The oxidation of atmospheric molecular tritium (HT) in vegetation was determined by in vitro experiments for pine needles, pine bark, lichens attached to pine trees, taken from a coastal pine forest in Ibaraki prefecture and comparison of such measurements was made with those in soil. The oxidation of HT in pine needles was extremely low, being only about 1/40000 that in the surface soil of a pine forest, whereas its oxidation in pine bark with a lichen was almost 1000-7000 times higher than that in pine needles. HT oxidation in pine bark, a lichen and a moss was determined in each case under light and dark conditions and was found to be essentially the same. All mosses and lichens examined in the present study were found to have unusually high levels of HT oxidation whether their habitat was tree or ground surface.

  17. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Pasterze (Eastern Alps, Carinthia, Austria)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Wallner, Anja; Tutzer, Veronika; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Pasterze yielded 35 lichen species. Placidiopsis oreades Breuss (Verrucariales) is new to Austria. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition within the forefield and with four other glacier forefields of the Eastern Alps. PMID:26877565

  18. Response of epilithic lichens to high temperatures at harsh natural and space simulated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Torre, R.; Horneck, G.; Sancho, L.; Pintado, A.; Rabbow, E.; Scherer, K.; Facius, R.; Deutschmann, U.; Reina, M.

    Studies about the resistance of epilithic lichens to high temperature ranges are not very common until now. Research performed has been focused mainly on resistance of lichens to low temperatures, due the origin of most bipolar lichen species from Antarctica and from Arctic regions. The poiquilohidric nature of lichens gives them the possibility to adopt a latent status when environmental conditions are extreme, that is, when dryness, high solar UV radiation, and extreme temperatures exists, even when this state is long. When humidity returns, photosynthetic activity starts again. To determine the activity at high temperature conditions of the epilithic lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum, which grows at a high mountain region (Sierra de Gredos, Central Spain) with continental climate, we performed a campaign (29.07.03 - 31.07.03), selecting a period of maximal temperatures (July-August), and minimal humidity. Photosynthetic activity, measured with a fluorometer, preadapting and remoistering samples first, were very low or inexistent during this campaign, due to the high superficial temperatures of lichens rocks, minimal humidity values, and high intensities of UV solar irradiation. On the base of these data, we have selected this species as test system for space experiments (i.e. BIOPAN-4 and BIOPAN-5 missions of ESA). Before the BIOPAN-4 mission, the lichens were exposed to the different space parameters (space UV radiation, vaccum and high temperatures), simulated at the space simulation facilities of the Institute of Aerospace Medicine DLR (Germany). The further activity tests were done at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. The results confirmed the high survival capacity of the selected lichens. We will show the results of photosynthetic activity after the space simulation tests as well as from the campaign performed at the Sierra de Gredos, in summer 2003.

  19. Experimental climate warming decreases photosynthetic efficiency of lichens in an arid South African ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Maphangwa, Khumbudzo Walter; Musil, Charles F; Raitt, Lincoln; Zedda, Luciana

    2012-05-01

    Elevated temperatures and diminished precipitation amounts accompanying climate warming in arid ecosystems are expected to have adverse effects on the photosynthesis of lichen species sensitive to elevated temperature and/or water limitation. This premise was tested by artificially elevating temperatures (increase 2.1-3.8°C) and reducing the amounts of fog and dew precipitation (decrease 30.1-31.9%), in an approximation of future climate warming scenarios, using transparent hexagonal open-top warming chambers placed around natural populations of four lichen species (Xanthoparmelia austroafricana, X. hyporhytida , Xanthoparmelia. sp., Xanthomaculina hottentotta) at a dry inland site and two lichen species (Teloschistes capensis and Ramalina sp.) at a humid coastal site in the arid South African Succulent Karoo Biome. Effective photosynthetic quantum yields ([Formula: see text]) were measured hourly throughout the day at monthly intervals in pre-hydrated lichens present in the open-top warming chambers and in controls which comprised demarcated plots of equivalent open-top warming chamber dimensions constructed from 5-cm-diameter mesh steel fencing. The cumulative effects of the elevated temperatures and diminished precipitation amounts in the open-top warming chambers resulted in significant decreases in lichen [Formula: see text]. The decreases were more pronounced in lichens from the dry inland site (decline 34.1-46.1%) than in those from the humid coastal site (decline 11.3-13.7%), most frequent and prominent in lichens at both sites during the dry summer season, and generally of greatest magnitude at or after the solar noon in all seasons. Based on these results, we conclude that climate warming interacting with reduced precipitation will negatively affect carbon balances in endemic lichens by increasing desiccation damage and reducing photosynthetic activity time, leading to increased incidences of mortality.

  20. Response of the nitrogen-fixing lichen Lobaria pulmonaria to phosphorus, molybdenum, and vanadium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marks, Jade A; Pett-Ridge, Julie; Perakis, Steven S.; Allen, Jessica L; McCune, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing lichens (cyanolichens) are an important source of nitrogen (N) in Pacific Northwest forests, but limitation of lichen growth by elements essential for N fixation is poorly understood. To investigate how nutrient limitation may affect cyanolichen growth rates, we fertilized a tripartite cyanobacterial lichen (Lobaria pulmonaria) and a green algal non-nitrogen fixing lichen (Usnea longissima) with the micronutrients molybdenum (Mo) and vanadium (V), both known cofactors for enzymes involved in N fixation, and the macronutrient phosphorus (P). We then grew treated lichens in the field for one year in western Oregon, USA. Lichen growth was very rapid for both species and did not differ across treatments, despite a previous demonstration of P-limitation in L. pulmonaria at a nearby location. To reconcile these disparate findings, we analyzed P, Mo, and V concentrations, natural abundance δ15N isotopes, %N and change in thallus N in Lobaria pulmonaria from both growth experiments. Nitrogen levels in deposition and in lichens could not explain the large difference in growth or P limitation observed between the two studies. Instead, we provide evidence that local differences in P availability may have caused site-specific responses of Lobaria to P fertilization. In the previous experiment, Lobaria had low background levels of P, and treatment with P more than doubled growth. In contrast, Lobaria from the current experiment had much higher background P concentrations, similar to P-treated lichens in the previous experiment, consistent with the idea that ambient variation in P availability influences the degree of P limitation in cyanolichens. We conclude that insufficient P, Mo, and V did not limit the growth of either cyanolichens or chlorolichens at the site of the current experiment. Our findings point to the need to understand landscape-scale variation in P availability to cyanolichens, and its effect on spatial patterns of cyanolichen nutrient

  1. Distribution of corticolous noncrustose lichens on trunks of Rocky Mountain junipers in Boulder County, Colorado.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peard, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Nineteen species of noncrustose lichens were found on Juniperus scopulorum bark; 3 species had relatively high cover and frequency values and were characterized as typical lichens of Rocky Mountain junipers: Xanthoria fallax, Phaeophyscia hirsuta and Physcia caesia. Total cover per tree was low (4%) and most species preferred the N and E sides of trunk bases. These distributional trends may reflect gradients of exposure to wind, insolation, and rate of bark exfoliation. -Author Juniperus scopulorum Phaeophyscia hirsuta Physcia caesia Xanthoria fallax.

  2. Dermoscopic findings in different clinical variants of lichen planus. Is dermoscopy useful?

    PubMed

    Friedman, Paula; Sabban, Emilia Cohen; Marcucci, Carolina; Peralta, Rosario; Cabo, Horacio

    2015-10-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a papulosquamous dermatosis that involves the skin, scalp, nails and mucous membranes. Although its pathogenesis is still unknown, there is evidence that an imbalance of immunologic cellular reactivity plays an important role. Histopathologic examination reveals characteristic interface dermatitis. Dermoscopy is a non-invasive tool, useful in the assessment of inflammatory dermatoses, such as lichen planus. In this paper we describe the dermoscopic findings of different variants of LP (ungual, cutaneous, planopilaris, pigmentosus).

  3. Lichen planus pigmentosus in linear and zosteriform pattern along the lines of Blaschko.

    PubMed

    Vineet, Relhan; Sumit, Sethi; K, Garg Vijay; Nita, Khurana

    2015-10-16

    Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is a variant of lichen planus (LP) reported in various ethnic groups. It occurs predominantly in the third or fourth decade of life and is characterized by the insidious onset of dark-brown macules in sun exposed areas and flexural folds. Rarely, has it been described in a linear or segmental distribution. Herein we describe a case of LPP with lesions lateralized to right side of body along the lines of Blaschko, in a linear and zosteriform pattern.

  4. Lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus: report of three Chinese cases and review of the published work.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shumin; Sun, Wenqi; Zhou, Guizhi; Chen, Shengli; Lu, Xuanmei

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus is a rare variant of lichen planus. So far, only 24 cases from 12 reports have been documented in the published work. The prominent characteristics of the disease are dark-brown macules and patches confined to the non-sun exposed, flexural areas and skin folds with lichenoid pathological changes and prominent melanin incontinence. We report three female Chinese patients with typical clinical and pathological manifestations and a miniature review of the published work.

  5. Pediatric Lichen Sclerosus: A Review of the Literature and Management Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Stephen M.; Chung, Catherine; Zaenglein, Andrea L.

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is an uncommon, inflammatory disease of the skin and mucosa that can cause significant pruritus, pain, and scarring. There are two peaks of incidence: one in adult females, and the other in young girls. Early recognition and prompt management of the disorder is crucial in preventing long-lasting complications. This article reviews lichen sclerosus in children and provides evidence-based guidance for treatment in the pediatric population. PMID:27878062

  6. Dermoscopic findings in different clinical variants of lichen planus. Is dermoscopy useful?

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Paula; Sabban, Emilia Cohen; Marcucci, Carolina; Peralta, Rosario; Cabo, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a papulosquamous dermatosis that involves the skin, scalp, nails and mucous membranes. Although its pathogenesis is still unknown, there is evidence that an imbalance of immunologic cellular reactivity plays an important role. Histopathologic examination reveals characteristic interface dermatitis. Dermoscopy is a non-invasive tool, useful in the assessment of inflammatory dermatoses, such as lichen planus. In this paper we describe the dermoscopic findings of different variants of LP (ungual, cutaneous, planopilaris, pigmentosus). PMID:26693092

  7. Discrimination of lichen genera and species using element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean

  8. Traffic represents the main source of pollution in small Mediterranean urban areas as seen by lichen functional groups.

    PubMed

    Llop, Esteve; Pinho, Pedro; Ribeiro, Manuel C; Pereira, Maria João; Branquinho, Cristina

    2017-02-16

    The land-use type (residential, green areas, and traffic) within relatively small Mediterranean urban areas determines significant changes on lichen diversity, considering species richness and functional groups related to different ecological factors. Those areas with larger volume of traffic hold lower species diversity, in terms of species richness and lichen diversity value (LDV). Traffic areas also affect the composition of the lichen community, which is evidenced by sensitive species. The abundance of species of lichens tolerant to low levels of eutrophication diminishes in traffic areas; oppositely, those areas show a higher abundance of species of lichens tolerating high levels of eutrophication. On the other hand, residential and green areas have an opposite pattern, mainly with species highly tolerant to eutrophication being less abundant than low or moderate ones. The characteristics of tree bark do not seem to affect excessively on lichen composition; however, tree species shows some effect that should be considered in further studies.

  9. Epiphytic lichen diversity in central European oak forests: assessment of the effects of natural environmental factors and human influences.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, David; Peksa, Ondrej; Veselá, Jana

    2010-03-01

    We investigated lichen diversity in temperate oak forests using standardized protocols. Forty-eight sites were sampled in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. The effects of natural environmental predictors and human influences on lichen diversity (lichen diversity value, species richness) were analysed by means of correlation tests. We found that lichen diversity responded differently to environmental predictors between two regions with different human impact. In the industrial region, air pollution was the strongest factor. In the agricultural to highly forested regions, lichen diversity was strongly influenced by forest age and forest fragmentation. We found that several natural factors can in some cases obscure the effect of human influences. Thus, factors of natural gradient must be considered (both statistically and interpretively) when studying human impact on lichen diversity.

  10. A new species of Phyllopsora (Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota) from Dominican amber, with remarks on the fossil history of lichens.

    PubMed

    Rikkinen, Jouko; Poinar, George O

    2008-01-01

    Phyllopsora dominicanus sp. nov. (Bacidiaceae, Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota) is described and illustrated from Dominican amber. The diagnostic features of the lichen include a minute subfolious thallus of lacinulate, ascending squamules, a well-developed upper cortex, and a net-like pseudocortex on the lower surface. The algal symbionts are unicellular green algae, forming a distinct layer immediately below the upper cortex. The fossil demonstrates that distinguishing features of Phyllopsora have remained unchanged for tens of millions of years. The fossil also provides the first detailed views of mycobiont-photobiont contacts in Tertiary green algal lichens. The mycobiont hyphae formed apical and intercalary appressoria by pressing closely against the photobiont cells. This indicates that a conserved maintenance of structure is also seen in the fine details of the fungal-algal interface.

  11. Algal carbohydrates affect polyketide synthesis of the lichen-forming fungus Cladonia rangiferina.

    PubMed

    Elshobary, Mostafa E; Osman, Mohamed E; Abo-Shady, Atef M; Komatsu, Emy; Perreault, Hélène; Sorensen, John; Piercey-Normore, Michele D

    2016-01-01

    Lichen secondary metabolites (polyketides) are produced by the fungal partner, but the role of algal carbohydrates in polyketide biosynthesis is not clear. This study examined whether the type and concentration of algal carbohydrate explained differences in polyketide production and gene transcription by a lichen fungus (Cladonia rangiferina). The carbohydrates identified from a free-living cyanobacterium (Spirulina platensis; glucose), a lichen-forming alga (Diplosphaera chodatii; sorbitol) and the lichen alga that associates with C. rangiferina (Asterochloris sp.; ribitol) were used in each of 1%, 5% and 10% concentrations to enrich malt yeast extract media for culturing the mycobiont. Polyketides were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and polyketide synthase (PKS) gene transcription was measured by quantitative PCR of the ketosynthase domain of four PKS genes. The lower concentrations of carbohydrates induced the PKS gene expression where ribitol up-regulated CrPKS1 and CrPKS16 gene transcription and sorbitol up-regulated CrPKS3 and CrPKS7 gene transcription. The HPLC results revealed that lower concentrations of carbon sources increased polyketide production for three carbohydrates. One polyketide from the natural lichen thallus (fumarprotocetraric acid) also was produced by the fungal culture in ribitol supplemented media only. This study provides a better understanding of the role of the type and concentration of the carbon source in fungal polyketide biosynthesis in the lichen Cladonia rangiferina.

  12. The Lichens experiment at Foton M-2 mission: Survival capacity in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Torre, R.; Horneck, G.; Garcia-Sancho, L.

    Lichens are one of the most resistant organisms at Earth They live at very extreme environments in deserts Atacama desert high mountains Himalaya Antarctica Dry Valleys etc This is possible due to the symbiotic relationship between both constituents the algae and the fungui and to their poikilohidric nature characteristic that allows them to survive latent when environmental conditions are very extreme i e when UV radiation is very high temperatures are extreme and dryness exists If humidity returns and temperature tendencies turn near the optimum around 10 C dormant lichens starts to photosynthetice We have selected two epilithic lichen species for the LICHENS experiment which was included at the ESA Biopan-facility located at the outer shell of the satellite Foton M-2 launched into low Earth orbit the 31th of Mai 2005 from Baikonur Russia On of this species was Rhizocarpon geographicum a bipolar epilithic lichen which grows at high mountain regions e g Sierra de Gredos Central Spain with continental climate has been systematically studied in the natural environment Plataforma de Gredos at 2000 m altitude as well as under simulated space conditions at the space simulation facilities of the DLR The sensitivity of the photosynthetic system PSII to the different environmental conditions dryness including vacuum treatment high temperature fluctuations high UV intensity was fluorometrically measured with a MINI PAM Walz Germany The lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum was

  13. Biodiversity and physiological characteristics of Antarctic and Arctic lichens-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yung Mi; Kim, Eun Hye; Lee, Hong Kum; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2014-10-01

    The diversity and physiological characteristics of culturable bacteria associated with lichens from different habitats of the Arctic and Antarctica were investigated. The 68 retrieved isolates could be grouped on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences into 26 phylotypes affiliated with the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Deinococcus-Thermus, and Firmicutes and with the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. Isolates belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria were the most abundant, followed by those belonging to Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Deinococcus-Thermus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that approximately 21 % of the total isolates represented a potentially novel species or genus (≤97 % sequence similarity). Strains belonging to the genera Sphingomonas, Frondihabitans, Hymenobacter, and Burkholderia were recovered from lichen samples from both geographic locations, implying common and important bacterial functions within lichens. Extracellular protease activities were detected in six isolates, affiliated with Burkholderia, Frondihabitans, Hymenobacter, Pseudomonas, and Rhodanobacter. Extracellular lipase activities were detected in 37 isolates of the genera Burkholderia, Deinococcus, Frondihabitans, Pseudomonas, Rhodanobacter, Sphingomonas, and Subtercola. This is the first report on the culturable bacterial diversity present within lichens from Arctic and Antarctica and the isolates described herein are valuable resources to decode the functional and ecological roles of bacteria within lichens. In addition, the low similarity (≤97 %) of the recovered isolates to known species and their production of cold-active enzymes together suggest that lichens are noteworthy sources of novel bacterial strains for use in biotechnological applications.

  14. Microbial cargo: do bacteria on symbiotic propagules reinforce the microbiome of lichens?

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Ines Aline; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Berg, Gabriele; Grube, Martin

    2014-12-01

    According to recent research, bacteria contribute as recurrent associates to the lichen symbiosis. Yet, the variation of the microbiomes within species and across geographically separated populations remained largely elusive. As a quite common dispersal mode, lichens evolved vertical transmission of both fungal and algal partners in specifically designed mitotic propagules. Bacteria, if co-transmitted with these symbiotic propagules, could contribute to a geographical structure of lichen-associated microbiomes. The lung lichen was sampled from three localities in eastern Austria to analyse their associated bacterial communities by bar-coded pyrosequencing, network analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. For the first time, bacteria were documented to colonize symbiotic propagules of lichens developed for short-distance transmission of the symbionts. The propagules share the overall bacterial community structure with the thalli at class level, except for filamentous Cyanobacteria (Nostocophycideae), and with Alphaproteobacteria as predominant group. All three sampling sites share a core fraction of the microbiome. Bacterial communities of lichen thalli from the same sampling site showed higher similarity than those of distant populations. This variation and the potential co-dispersal of a microbiome fraction with structures of the host organism contribute new aspects to the 'everything is everywhere' hypothesis.

  15. Biological effects of ammonia released from a composting plant assessed with lichens.

    PubMed

    Paoli, L; Benesperi, R; Proietti Pannunzi, D; Corsini, A; Loppi, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we investigated whether ammonia emissions from industrial composting of organic waste may influence the surrounding environment, using lichens as bioindicators. To this purpose, samples of N-tolerant and N-sensitive lichens, namely Xanthoria parietina and Evernia prunastri, were transplanted for 1-3 months along transects at increasing distance (0-400 m) from a composting facility in Tuscany, Italy. Atmospheric concentrations of ammonia were measured using passive samplers. The physiological response of lichen transplants was investigated by means of the photosynthetic efficiency (measured as chlorophyll a fluorescence emission), the integrity of cell membranes (measured as electrolyte leakage), and sample viability (measured as enzymatic activity of dehydrogenase). Epiphytic lichen communities were investigated using biodiversity indices. The results showed decreasing concentrations of ammonia, from 48.7 μg/m(3) at the composting facility to 2.7 μg/m(3) at 400 m. The N-tolerant X. parietina was not affected and some physiological parameters even showed a higher performance, while the N-sensitive E. prunastri showed a reduced performance with increasing atmospheric concentrations approaching the source. A shift from lichen communities composed by meso-acidophilous species (actual condition) to more nitrophilous communities in the near future, approaching the composting facility is suggested. It is concluded that lichens can provide useful data for decision-makers to establish correct science-based environmentally sustainable waste management policies.

  16. Concurrent Presentation of Erythrodermic Lichen Planus and Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Coincidence or Malignant Transformation?

    PubMed

    Ali, Neema M; Bhat, Ramesh; Rao, Shwetha B

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is a common papulosquamous disorder affecting about 1-2% of the population, neoplastic transformation of cutaneous lichen planus lesions occurs very rarely. A 40 year old female patient presented with a 1 year history of developing multiple, itchy, pigmented lesions over both lower legs which gradually spread to involve the whole body. A few tense bullae were seen on the extremities. An erythematous fleshy lesion was seen on the upper aspect of the left buttock. Skin biopsy from a plaque on the right forearm showed features suggestive of lichen planus. Skin biopsy of a bullae showed a sub epidermal bulla filled with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate. Direct immunofluorescence revealed no immunoreactants along the basement membrane zone. A diagnosis of erythrodermic lichen planus with bullous lichen planus was made. Biopsy of fleshy lesion of left buttock revealed a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Erythrodermic lichen planus with bullous lesions and secondary squamous cell carcinoma; these occurences in a single patient is extremely rare and has not been previously reported to the best of our knowledge.

  17. Fungal diversity in rock beneath a crustose lichen as revealed by molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, Torbjørg; Ekman, Stefan

    2005-05-01

    Lichen-forming fungi have been assumed to be more or less restricted to the surface of the substrate on which they grow, Conclusive identification of hyphae or an assessment of the fungal diversity inside lichen-covered rock has not been possible using methods based on direct observation. We circumvented this problem by using a DNA sequencing approach. Cores were drilled from a Devonian arcosic sandstone rock harboring the crustose lichen Ophioparma ventosa (L.) Norman on the surface. The cores were cut vertically, and DNA was extracted from the pulverized rock slices. A series of polymerase chain reactions using fungal-specific primers as well as Ophioparma ventosa specific primers were employed to amplify the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The results show that hyphae of O. ventosa penetrate approximately 10-12 mm into the rock. Consequently, the hyphal layer formed by the lichen fungus inside the rock could be 7-12 times as thick as the symbiotic thallus at the surface of the rock. In addition, eight non-lichenized fungal taxa and five that could not be identified to species were encountered. One fungal species in the order Helotiales occurs in six of the eight cores. The significance of these results to the colonization and weathering of rock by lichenized fungi is discussed.

  18. A comparative study of oral lichen planus and leukoplakia in two Argentine populations.

    PubMed

    Femopase, F L; Binagui, M V; López de Blanc, S; Gandolfo, M; Lanfranchi, H E

    1997-01-01

    Oral Lichen Planus and Leukoplakia are two precancerous lesions of great relevance in oral pathology. A total of 4183 patients from the National University of Córdoba (UNC) and 4838 patients from the University of Buenos Aires (UBA) who had been admitted to the corresponding Oral Pathology Departments were analyzed. Of the total number of patients, 476 corresponded to Lichen Planus cases and 418 to Leukoplakia cases. Of the 476 Lichen Planus cases, 330 came from UBA and 146 from UNC, whereas of the 418 cases of Leukoplakia, 284 came from UNC and 134 from UBA. These differences were statistically significant (p < 0.02). Distribution according to sex and age was similar for Lichen Planus and Leukoplakia patients from both Oral Pathology Departments. The association between diabetes and Lichen Planus was similar for both centers, 11.5% for UNC and 14% for UBA. Similarly, no differences were found in terms of the association with tobacco consumption and dental microtrauma. Twenty-two percent of UNC patients were smokers whereas only 11% of UBA patients were smokers. This finding could explain the larger amount of Leukoplakia in UNC. The differences in the incidence of Lichen Planus could be attributed to the fact that the Buenos Aires population is under greater stress and the higher incidence of Leukoplakia in UNC could be related to the smoking habits of this population.

  19. Air quality monitoring system using lichens as bioindicators in Central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Estrabou, Cecilia; Filippini, Edith; Soria, Juan Pablo; Schelotto, Gabriel; Rodriguez, Juan Manuel

    2011-11-01

    Air quality studies with bioindicators have not been well developed in South America. In the city of Córdoba, there are not permanent air pollutant measurements by equipment. In order to develop an air quality biomonitoring system using lichens, we applied a systematic sampling in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. A total of 341 plots were sampled in the area of the city which is a square of 24 × 24 km. In each sample plot we selected three phorophytes and estimated the frequency and cover of lichen species growing at 1.5 m on trunks. We also calculated the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) using lichen frequencies. Maps with number of lichen species, cover values, and IAP were performed. The lichen community was described with nine species where Physcia undulata and Physcia endochryscea were the most frequent. Moreover, these two species were dominant in the community with the highest cover index. The central area of the city is considered a lichen desert with poor air quality. The southeast and northwest areas of the city showed the highest IAP values and number of species. In general, the city shows fair air quality and few areas with good and very good air quality.

  20. Concurrent Presentation of Erythrodermic Lichen Planus and Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Coincidence or Malignant Transformation?

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Neema M; Bhat, Ramesh; Rao, Shwetha B

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is a common papulosquamous disorder affecting about 1-2% of the population, neoplastic transformation of cutaneous lichen planus lesions occurs very rarely. A 40 year old female patient presented with a 1 year history of developing multiple, itchy, pigmented lesions over both lower legs which gradually spread to involve the whole body. A few tense bullae were seen on the extremities. An erythematous fleshy lesion was seen on the upper aspect of the left buttock. Skin biopsy from a plaque on the right forearm showed features suggestive of lichen planus. Skin biopsy of a bullae showed a sub epidermal bulla filled with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate. Direct immunofluorescence revealed no immunoreactants along the basement membrane zone. A diagnosis of erythrodermic lichen planus with bullous lichen planus was made. Biopsy of fleshy lesion of left buttock revealed a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Erythrodermic lichen planus with bullous lesions and secondary squamous cell carcinoma; these occurences in a single patient is extremely rare and has not been previously reported to the best of our knowledge. PMID:26538691

  1. The development of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia in oral lichen planus. A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Llorente-Pendás, Santiago; González-Garcia, Manuel; García-Martín, José-Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Was to describe 14 cases of a proliferative verrucous leukoplakia as a clinical evolution of oral lichen planus. Material and Methods The clinical and histopathological characteristics of 14 cases of OLP that progress towards a plaque-like and verrucous form were indicated, with monitoring over a period of six to 24.3 years. Results The female/male ratio was 11/3, (78.6 and 21.4%). The mean age when the first biopsy was undertaken was 56.4 years old. None of the patients smoked during the study. As bilateral reticular was clinically diagnostic criterion, the second most frequent clinical form was the plaque form (n=10; 71.4%), followed by the atrophic (n=6; 42.8%), and erosive forms (n=4; 28.5%). Clinically it spread towards attached gingival mucosa and the hard palate. In the histopathologic study, there were a predominance of hyperkeratosis and verrucous epithelial hyperplasia. Three of the cases progressed to a squamous cell carcinoma, and one patient developed two verrucous carcinoma. Conclusions Further research is needed to demonstrate if proliferative multifocal oral lichen planus and proliferative multifocal oral leukoplakia are the same disorder but have different behaviour of malignancy for reasons of origin. Key words:Oral lichen planus, proliferative verrucous oral leukoplakia, malignant oral lichen planus, multifocal verrucous oral lichen planus, proliferative verrucous oral lichen planus. PMID:27031060

  2. A case of lichen planus pigmentosus that was recalcitrant to topical treatment responding to pigment laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiuhui Debra; Goh, Chee Leok

    2014-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is a rare variant of lichen planus for which no effective treatment is currently available. Patients usually present with hyperpigmented, dark brown macules on sun-exposed areas or flexural folds. Here we describe a 50-year-old Chinese woman who had biopsy-confirmed lichen planus pigmentosus that was recalcitrant to a variety of topical treatments, but responded to treatment with a pigment laser.

  3. Genital lichen sclerosus developing around 'ectopic' urethral orifices supports the role of occlusion and urine in its pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal; Gupta, Somesh

    2017-01-01

    Several factors such as genetic susceptibility, autoimmunity, hormones, infections, local trauma, urine, and occlusion have been speculated to play a role in the pathogenesis of lichen sclerosus. We report two male patients with lichen sclerosus around 'ectopic' urethral openings and the opposing surfaces of the penile shaft and scrotum, providing further evidence in support of urine and occlusion as contributing factors in the development of lichen sclerosus.

  4. Oral lichen planus to oral lichenoid lesions: Evolution or revolution.

    PubMed

    Dudhia, Bhavin B; Dudhia, Sonal B; Patel, Purv S; Jani, Yesha V

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis between different diseases may be impaired by clinical and histopathologic similarities, as observed in the oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL). Inspite of similar clinicopathological features; etiology, diagnosis and prognosis differ which mandates separation of OLL from OLP. Hence, it is essential for the oral physician and oral pathologist to be familiarized with the individual variations among clinicopathological features of OLP and OLL as well as to obtain a thorough history and perform a complete mucocutaneous examination in addition to specific diagnostic testing. The difficulties faced to establish the diagnosis between these two pathologies are widely investigated in the literature with a lack of definite conclusion. This review is an attempt to throw some light on these clinicopathologic entities with the aim to resolve the diagnostic dilemma.

  5. Metabolic Derangements in Lichen Planus - A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Bikash Ranjan; Panda, Maitreyee

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An association between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome has been established in previous studies. Lichen Planus (LP) is also a chronic inflammatory disease morphologically related to psoriasis and few studies have shown association of metabolic derangements in LP. Aim To study the association of metabolic derangements in LP. Materials and Methods A prospective case control study was undertaken for a period of one year. Age and sex matched patients of LP and other non-inflammatory diseases were taken as cases and controls respectively. Data on height, weight, lipid profile and fasting blood glucose levels were collected for all the patients. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Results A total of 80 patients were recruited, 40 cases and 40 controls. The mean values for all the lipid and glucose parameters were high in cases as compared to controls with significant p-values. Conclusion In the present study metabolic derangements were seen in patients with LP. PMID:28050485

  6. Oral lichen planus to oral lichenoid lesions: Evolution or revolution

    PubMed Central

    Dudhia, Bhavin B; Dudhia, Sonal B; Patel, Purv S; Jani, Yesha V

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis between different diseases may be impaired by clinical and histopathologic similarities, as observed in the oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL). Inspite of similar clinicopathological features; etiology, diagnosis and prognosis differ which mandates separation of OLL from OLP. Hence, it is essential for the oral physician and oral pathologist to be familiarized with the individual variations among clinicopathological features of OLP and OLL as well as to obtain a thorough history and perform a complete mucocutaneous examination in addition to specific diagnostic testing. The difficulties faced to establish the diagnosis between these two pathologies are widely investigated in the literature with a lack of definite conclusion. This review is an attempt to throw some light on these clinicopathologic entities with the aim to resolve the diagnostic dilemma. PMID:26980966

  7. [Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma with scleroatrophic lichen associated with paraproteinemia].

    PubMed

    Juárez, Y; España, S; Lueiro, M; Fernández-Díaz, M L; Bal, F

    2006-11-01

    Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (Xn) with paraproteinemia is a histiocytoxanthomatosis (non-X histiocytosis) that affects the dermis and subcutaneous tissue of the face and less frequently the trunk and limbs. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman with a previous background of IgG (lambda) paraproteinemia and multiple autoimmune diseases, that associate clinically and histologically typical lesions of Xn on face, neck and limbs and of lichen sclerosus et atrophius (LEA) on skin and mucosae. The treatments performed were ineffective, the Xn lesions followed a chronic and progressive course with increased number, size and ulceration of them. The paraproteinemia has remained stable since it was diagnosed eight years ago. We have not found the association of Xn with paraproteinemia and SAL described in the literature. We review the characteristics of this rare disease and its possible pathogenic mechanisms.

  8. Steriods in the treatment of lichen planus: a review.

    PubMed

    Thongprasom, Kobkan; Dhanuthai, Kittipong

    2008-12-01

    Steroids have been found to be effective in treating symptomatic oral lichen planus (OLP) by reducing pain and inflammation. In fact, systemic corticosteroids should be reserved for acute exacerbation, and multiple or widespread lesions. They may be indicated in patients whose condition is unresponsive to topical steroids. However, various potent topical steroids have been reported to be effective in the treatment of symptomatic OLP. They can be used as the first line drugs in the treatment of OLP with no serious side-effects. During the therapy, candidiasis was commonly found and in addition, bad taste, nausea, dry mouth, sore throat and swollen mouth may occur as minor side-effects from some topical steroids. Because OLP is a chronic disorder that requires long-term treatment, topical steroids are recommended for the treatment OLP because of minimal side-effects and the cost benefit. This manuscript reviews the use of steroids, especially its topical application, in the treatment of OLP.

  9. Altered Serum Uric Acid Level in Lichen Planus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborti, Goutam; Biswas, Rabindranath; Chakraborti, Sandip; Sen, Pradyot Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a common disorder whose etiopathogenesis is not clear. Recently, it has been suggested that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the underlying mechanism of LP. Objectives: The principal aim of this study was to evaluate serum uric acid (UA) levels as a measure of the antioxidant defense status in LP patients. Methods: Serum UA levels were determined in 58 LP patients and 61 controls. Results: Serum UA levels were significantly decreased in patients with respect to controls. Moreover, serum UA level was decreased according to increasing duration of disease. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that LP is associated with decrease of UA levels in serum. UA may be a potential, useful biomarker of antioxidant status in LP for elaboration of treatment strategy and monitoring. PMID:25484383

  10. Molecular markers in oral lichen planus: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sagari, Shitalkumar; Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Doddamani, Mallikarjun; Rajput, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory mucosal disease that is usually detected in 0.5–2.2% of the human population. Among these, only 0.5–2.9% of the lesions progress to carcinoma. However, there are no prognostic markers available presently to recognize the increased risk in malignant transformation of the lesions. Selected markers for cell proliferation, adhesion, apoptosis and lymphocytic infiltration were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in addition to static cytometry for DNA content. The concept linking OLP and oral squamous cell carcinoma states that chronic inflammation results in crucial DNA damage, which further progresses to development of carcinoma. Even though in the past decade, enormous information has been accumulated on malignant potential of OLP, its transformation still remains unclear. Hence, the purpose of this article was to review cellular and molecular markers to understand the pathogenesis of OLP and its progression toward malignancy. PMID:27194873

  11. Lichen planus in childhood: a series of 316 patients.

    PubMed

    Pandhi, Deepika; Singal, Archana; Bhattacharya, Sambit N

    2014-01-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is infrequently seen in children and the clinical presentation is often atypical. We conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical features and treatment response in childhood LP to date. The clinical profile and treatment response data of patients younger than 14 years old with LP (entered in a predesigned pro forma study) from January 1997 to June 2011 were analyzed. The treatment was administered according to a predetermined departmental protocol and was comprised of topical steroids with or without oral dapsone or corticosteroids. Patients were evaluated for response, adverse effects, and relapse. The study population consisted of 316 children (166 boys, 150 girls), or 18.7% of the total registered patients in the LP clinic. The mean age was 10.28 years (range 2-14 years). Cutaneous lesions were seen in 96.2%. Involvement of the oral mucosa was detected in 18%, nails in 13.9%, scalp in 8.2%, and genitalia in 4.4%. Classic LP was most prevalent (53.8%), followed by eruptive (16.5%), hypertrophic (8.2%), linear (6.9%), and lichen planopilaris (6.3%). LP pigmentosus, annular, and atrophic variants were encountered infrequently. Topical corticosteroids were the most common treatment used in 69.5% of patients, 28.8% of whom had excellent response at 6 months, although 38.8% failed to follow up. Dapsone was prescribed in 20% and systemic steroids in 9.8% of patients. We report the largest series to date of LP in childhood, with a more varied clinical presentation than in previous series. The course and response to treatment were similar to those in adults.

  12. Do photobionts influence the ecology of lichens? A case study of environmental preferences in symbiotic green alga Asterochloris (Trebouxiophyceae).

    PubMed

    Peksa, Ondřej; Skaloud, Pavel

    2011-09-01

    The distribution patterns of symbiotic algae are thought to be conferred mainly by their hosts, however, they may originate in algal environmental requirements as well. In lichens, predominantly terrestrial associations of fungi with algae or cyanobacteria, the ecological preferences of photobionts have not been directly studied so far. Here, we examine the putative environmental requirements in lichenized alga Asterochloris, and search for the existence of ecological guilds in Asterochloris-associating lichens. Therefore, the presence of phylogenetic signal in several environmental traits was tested. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated set of internal transcribed spacer rDNA and actin type I intron sequences from photobionts associated with lichens of the genera Lepraria and Stereocaulon (Stereocaulaceae, Ascomycota) revealed 13 moderately to well-resolved clades. Photobionts from particular algal clades were found to be associated with taxonomically different, but ecologically similar lichens. The rain and sun exposure were the most significant environmental factor, clearly distinguishing the Asterochloris lineages. The photobionts from ombrophobic and ombrophilic lichens were clustered in completely distinct clades. Moreover, two photobiont taxa were obviously differentiated based on their substrate and climatic preferences. Our study, thus reveals that the photobiont, generally the subsidiary member of the symbiotic lichen association, could exhibit clear preferences for environmental factors. These algal preferences may limit the ecological niches available to lichens and lead to the existence of specific lichen guilds.

  13. Fungal farmers or algal escorts: lichen adaptation from the algal perspective.

    PubMed

    Piercey-Normore, Michele D; Deduke, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Domestication of algae by lichen-forming fungi describes the symbiotic relationship between the photosynthetic (green alga or cyanobacterium; photobiont) and fungal (mycobiont) partnership in lichen associations (Goward 1992). The algal domestication implies that the mycobiont cultivates the alga as a monoculture within its thallus, analogous to a farmer cultivating a food crop. However, the initial photobiont 'selection' by the mycobiont may be predetermined by the habitat rather than by the farmer. When the mycobiont selects a photobiont from the available photobionts within a habitat, the mycobiont may influence photobiont growth and reproduction (Ahmadjian & Jacobs 1981) only after the interaction has been initiated. The theory of ecological guilds (Rikkinen et al. 2002) proposes that habitat limits the variety of photobionts available to the fungal partner. While some studies provide evidence to support the theory of ecological guilds in cyanobacterial lichens (Rikkinen et al. 2002), other studies propose models to explain variation in symbiont combinations in green algal lichens (Ohmura et al. 2006; Piercey-Normore 2006; Yahr et al. 2006) hypothesizing the existence of such guilds. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Peksa & Škaloud (2011) test the theory of ecological guilds and suggest a relationship between algal habitat requirements and lichen adaptation in green algal lichens of the genus Lepraria. The environmental parameters examined in this study, exposure to rainfall, altitude and substratum type, are integral to lichen biology. Lichens have a poikilohydric nature, relying on the availability of atmospheric moisture for metabolic processes. Having no known active mechanism to preserve metabolic thallus moisture in times of drought, one would expect a strong influence of the environment on symbiont adaptation to specific habitats. Adaptation to changes in substrata and its properties would be expected with the intimate contact between crustose

  14. Multi-element Composition of Terricolous Lichens in the Northwest European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Vasyukova, E. V.; Savvichev, A. S.; Zamber, N. S.

    2008-12-01

    Lichens (fungi living with an alga or cyanobacterium) absorb substances, including trace elements through dry and wet deposition, often to very high concentrations, and have been widely used as biomonitors. We studied multi-element composition of terricolous lichens (mostly of genera Cladonia and Cetraria) collected in 2004-2006 in Kola Peninsula, Karelia and Arkhangelsk Region of NW Russia. 31 samples were analyzed. The unwashed lichen samples were air dried and homogenised to a fine powder in an agate crusher, in order to exclude any contamination of trace metals. Samples were treated in a four-step chemical digestion procedure (full dissolution via acid attack). Major element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, Agilent 7500). An enrichment factor (EF) was calculated for each element (X) relative to the composition of earth's crust: EF = ((X/Al) in lichen) / ((X/Al) in the earth's crust). Al was used as a crustal indicator. In most samples contents of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, rare earth elements (REEs), Th, U are at the background level and their EFs are less than 10. These low EF values indicated that, relative to average values for crustal rocks, there was no enrichment of these elements in the lichen concerned. For some elements (Se, Cd, Zn, Sb, Pb, As, Ni, Cu) consistently higher EF values were obtained. These higher values were interpreted in terms of sources of both anthropogenic and natural sources other than crustal rock and (or) soil. For instance, these elements could be derived by long-range atmospheric transport. Highest concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb in lichens and EF by these elements were registered in Lovozersky Tundry (Kola Peninsula) and in Paanayarvi area (NW Karelia). Lichens here are polluted by Monchegorsk and Nickel Cu-Ni smelters. In the vicinity of Kostomukshsky Ore-dressing Mill lichens

  15. Indoor and outdoor biomonitoring using lichens at urban and rural primary schools.

    PubMed

    Canha, N; Almeida, S M; Freitas, M C; Wolterbeek, H T

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring particulate matter (PM) and its chemical constituents in classrooms is a subject of special concern within the scientific community in order to control and minimize child exposure. Regulatory sampling methods have presented several limitations in their application to larger number of classrooms due to operational and financial constraints. Consequently, passive sampling methodologies using filters were developed for indoor sampling. However, such methodologies could not provide parallel information for outdoors, which is important to identify pollution sources and assess outdoor contribution to the indoors. Therefore, biomonitoring with transplanted lichens, a technique usually applied for outdoor studies, was used both indoor and outdoor of classrooms. Three main objectives were proposed, to (i) characterize simultaneously indoor and outdoor of classrooms regarding inorganic air pollutants, (ii) investigate spatial patterns of lichen conductivity, and (iii) assess pollution sources that contribute to a poor indoor air quality in schools. Lichens Flavoparmelia caperata were transplanted to indoor and outdoor of classrooms for 59 d. After exposure, electric conductivity of lichens leachate was measured to evaluate lichen vitality and cell damage. Outdoors lichen conductivity was higher near the main highways, and indoors there was great variability in levels, which indicates different emissions sources and different ventilation patterns. Chemical content of lichens was assessed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and As, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Th, Yb, and Zn were determined. Element accumulation, crustal enrichment factors, and spatial variability of elements were analyzed and contaminants from anthropogenic sources, such as traffic (As, Sb, and Zn) and indoor chalk (Ca) found. Classrooms with potential indoor air quality problems were identified by presenting higher accumulations of

  16. Starting from scratch: Evolution of the lichen thallus in the basidiolichen Dictyonema (Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae).

    PubMed

    Dal-Forno, Manuela; Lawrey, James D; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Bhattarai, Smriti; Gillevet, Patrick M; Sulzbacher, Marcelo; Lücking, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Phylogenetic studies indicate that the basidiolichen genus Dictyonema s.lat., often thought to represent only a single genus with few species, includes several well-supported genus-level clades, all of which form associations with a unique lineage of obligately lichenized cyanobacteria (Rhizonema). In an attempt to elucidate the evolution and genus- and species-level diversification in Dictyonema s.lat., we generated 68 new sequences of the nuclear large subunit rDNA (nuLSU), the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and the RNA polymerase II subunit (RPB2), for 29 species-level lineages representing all major clades of Dictyonema s.lat. and most of the species currently known. The multilocus phylogeny obtained via maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches indicates the presence of five genus-level groups: a basal clade, Cyphellostereum, that is sister to the rest of the species, a paraphyletic grade representing Dictyonema s.str., and three clades representing the genera Acantholichen, Cora, and Corella. To determine the evolutionary transformations of the lichenized thallus in the group, ancestral character state reconstruction was done using six characters (lichenisation, thallus type, cortex type, hyphal sheath and haustorial type, photobiont morphology, and basidiocarp type). Our analysis indicates a progressive development of the lichenized thallus from loosely organized filamentous crusts with separate, cyphelloid basidiocarps in Cyphellostereum, to filamentous crusts with derived hyphal sheath and cyphelloid-stereoid basidiocarps partially incorporated into the lichen thallus in Dictyonema, to squamulose-foliose thalli with corticioid basidiocarps entirely supported by the lichen thallus in Cora. These results indicate a remarkable evolutionary integration of lichenized and reproductive tissues in Dictyonema s.lat., supporting the hypothesis that, at least in this case, lichenized thalli may have evolved from reproductive structures in their nonlichenized

  17. Community analysis reveals close affinities between endophytic and endolichenic fungi in mosses and lichens.

    PubMed

    U'ren, Jana M; Lutzoni, François; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2010-08-01

    Endolichenic fungi live in close association with algal photobionts inside asymptomatic lichen thalli and resemble fungal endophytes of plants in terms of taxonomy, diversity, transmission mode, and evolutionary history. This similarity has led to uncertainty regarding the distinctiveness of endolichenic fungi compared with endophytes. Here, we evaluate whether these fungi represent distinct ecological guilds or a single guild of flexible symbiotrophs capable of colonizing plants or lichens indiscriminately. Culturable fungi were sampled exhaustively from replicate sets of phylogenetically diverse plants and lichens in three microsites in a montane forest in southeastern Arizona (USA). Intensive sampling combined with a small spatial scale permitted us to decouple spatial heterogeneity from host association and to sample communities from living leaves, dead leaves, and lichen thalli to statistical completion. Characterization using data from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and partial large subunit (ITS-LSU rDNA) provided a first estimation of host and substrate use for 960 isolates representing five classes and approximately 16 orders, 32 families, and 65 genera of Pezizomycotina. We found that fungal communities differ at a broad taxonomic level as a function of the phylogenetic placement of their plant or lichen hosts. Endolichenic fungal assemblages differed as a function of lichen taxonomy, rather than substrate, growth form, or photobiont. In plants, fungal communities were structured more by plant lineage than by the living vs. senescent status of the leaf. We found no evidence that endolichenic fungi are saprotrophic fungi that have been "entrapped" by lichen thalli. Instead, our study reveals the distinctiveness of endolichenic communities relative to those in living and dead plant tissues, with one notable exception: we identify, for the first time, an ecologically flexible group of symbionts that occurs both as endolichenic fungi and as

  18. Increased P-wave dispersion in patients with newly diagnosed lichen planus

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Musa; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Simsek, Hakki; Akdag, Serkan; Akyol, Aytac; Gumrukcuoglu, Hasan Ali; Yaman, Mehmet; Bayram, Yasemin; Karadag, Ayse Serap

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune mucocutaneous disease. Recent research has emphasized the strong association between inflammation and both P-wave dispersion and dyslipidemia. The difference between the maximum and minimum P-wave durations on an electrocardiogram is defined as P-wave dispersion. The prolongation of P-wave dispersion has been demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for developing atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to investigate P-wave dispersion in patients with lichen planus. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with lichen planus and 37 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. We obtained electrocardiographic recordings from all participants and used them to calculate the P-wave variables. We also assessed the levels of highly sensitive C-reactive protein, which is an inflammatory marker, and the lipid levels for each group. The results were reported as the means ± standard deviations and percentages. RESULTS: The P-wave dispersion was significantly higher in lichen planus patients than in the control group. Additionally, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in lichen planus patients compared to the controls. There was a significant positive correlation between highly sensitive C-reactive protein and P-wave dispersion (r = 0.549, p<0.001) in lichen planus patients. CONCLUSIONS: P-wave dispersion increased on the surface electrocardiographic measurements of lichen planus patients. This result may be important in the early detection of subclinical cardiac involvement. Increased P-wave dispersion, in terms of the tendency for atrial fibrillation, should be considered in these patients. PMID:23778479

  19. Influence of wavelength on the laser removal of lichens colonizing heritage stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, M.; Oujja, M.; Ascaso, C.; Pérez-Ortega, S.; Souza-Egipsy, V.; Fort, R.; de los Rios, A.; Wierzchos, J.; Cañamares, M. V.; Castillejo, M.

    2017-03-01

    Laser irradiation of lichen thalli on heritage stones serves for the control of epilithic and endolithic biological colonizations. In this work we investigate rock samples from two quarries traditionally used as source of monumental stone, sandstone from Valonsadero (Soria, Spain) and granite from Alpedrete (Madrid, Spain), in order to find conditions for efficient laser removal of lichen thalli that ensure preservation of the lithic substrate. The samples presented superficial areas colonized by different types of crustose lichens, i.e. Candelariella vitellina, Aspicilia viridescens, Rhizocarpon disporum and Protoparmeliopsis muralis in Valonsadero samples and P. cf. bolcana and A. cf. contorta in Alpedrete samples. A comparative laser cleaning study was carried out on the mentioned samples with ns Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses of 1064 nm (fundamental radiation), 355 nm (3rd harmonic) and 266 nm (4th harmonic) and sequences of IR-UV pulses. A number of techniques such as UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at low vacuum, SEM with backscattered electron imaging (SEM-BSE), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and FT-Raman spectroscopy were employed to determine the best laser irradiation conditions and to detect possible structural, morphological and chemical changes on the irradiated surfaces. The results show that the laser treatment does not lead to the complete removal of the studied lichen thalli, although clearly induces substantial damage, in the form of loss of the lichen upper cortex and damage to the algal layer. In the medium term these alterations could result in the destruction of the lichen thalli, thus providing a degree of control of the biodeterioration processes of the lithic substrate and reducing the chances of subsequent lichen recolonization.

  20. Atmospheric deposition studies of heavy metals in Arctic by comparative analysis of lichens and cryoconite.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shiv Mohan; Sharma, Jagdev; Gawas-Sakhalkar, Puja; Upadhyay, Ajay K; Naik, Simantini; Pedneker, Shailesh M; Ravindra, Rasik

    2013-02-01

    Lichens and cryoconite (rounded or granular, brownish-black debris occurring in holes on the glacier surface) from Ny-Ålesund were used for understanding the elemental deposition pattern in the area. Lichen samples collected from low-lying coastal region and cryoconite samples from high altitudinal glacier area were processed and analysed for elements such as aluminium (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), cesium (Cs), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results showed that heavy metals, Al and Fe, are present in high concentration in the cryoconite samples. Al was also present in high amounts in seven of the eight lichen samples studied. The general scheme of elements in the decreasing order of their concentrations for most of the cryoconite samples was Al > Fe > Mn > Zn > V > Pb > Cr > Ni > Cu > Co > As > Cs > Cd while that for the lichen samples was Al > Fe > Zn > Mn > Pb > Cu > Cs > Cr > Ni > V > Co > As > Cd. Similarity in trends in the two sample types confirms that the environment indeed contains these elements in that order of concentration which overtime got accumulated in the samples. Overall comparison showed most elements to be present in high concentrations in the cryoconite samples as compared to the lichen samples. Within the lichens, elemental accumulation data suggests that the low-lying site (L-2) from where Cladonia mediterranea sample was collected was the most polluted accumulating a number of elements at high concentrations. The probable reasons for such deposition patterns in the region could be natural (crustal contribution and sea salt spray) and anthropogenic (local and long-distance transmission of dust particles). In the future, this data can form a baseline for monitoring quantum of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in lichens and cryoconite of Svalbard, Arctic.

  1. MASS LOSS AND NITROGEN DYNAMICS DURING THE DECOMPOSITION OF A N-LABELED N2-FIXING EPOPHYTIC LICHEN, LOBARIA OREGANA (TUCK.) MULL. ARG.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied mass loss and nitrogen dynamics during fall and spring initiated decomposition of an N2-fixing epiphytic lichen, Lobaria oregana (Tuck.) Mull. Arg. using 15N. We developed a method of labeling lichens with 15N that involved spraying lichen material with a nutrient sol...

  2. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens--discovering and delimiting cryptic fungal species in the lichen-forming Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species-complex (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Leavitt, Dean H; Porter, Lyndon D; Johnson, Leigh A; St Clair, Larry L

    2011-06-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that in some cases morphology-based species circumscription of lichenized fungi misrepresents the number of existing species. The cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichen (Rhizoplaca melanophthalma) species-complex includes a number of morphologically distinct species that are both geographically and ecologically widespread, providing a model system to evaluate speciation in lichen-forming ascomycetes. In this study, we assembled multiple lines of evidence from nuclear DNA sequence data, morphology, and biochemistry for species delimitation in the R. melanophthalma species-complex. We identify a total of ten candidate species in this study, four of which were previously recognized as distinct taxa and six previously unrecognized lineages found within what has been thus far considered a single species. Candidate species are supported using inferences from multiple empirical operational criteria. Multiple instances of sympatry support the view that these lineages merit recognition as distinct taxa. Generally, we found little corroboration between morphological and chemical characters, and previously unidentified lineages were morphologically polymorphic. However, secondary metabolite data supported one cryptic saxicolous lineage, characterized by orsellinic-derived gyrophoric and lecanoric acids, which we consider to be taxonomically significant. Our study of the R. melanophthalma species-complex indicates that the genus Rhizoplaca, as presently circumscribed, is more diverse in western North American than originally perceived, and we present our analyses as a working example of species delimitation in morphologically cryptic and recently diverged lichenized fungi.

  3. Genotype variation in bark texture drives lichen community assembly across multiple environments.

    PubMed

    Lamit, L J; Lau, M K; Naesborg, R Reese; Wojtowicz, T; Whitham, T G; Gehring, C A

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of community genetics is to understand the influence of genetic variation within a species on ecological communities. Although well-documented for some organisms, additional research is necessary to understand the relative and interactive effects of genotype and environment on biodiversity, identify mechanisms through which tree genotype influences communities, and connect this emerging field with existing themes in ecology. We employ an underutilized but ecologically significant group of organisms, epiphytic bark lichens, to understand the relative importance of Populus angustifolia (narrowleaf cottonwood) genotype and environment on associated organisms within the context of community assembly and host ontogeny. Several key findings emerged. (1) In a single common garden, tree genotype explained 18-33% and 51% of the variation in lichen community variables and rough bark cover, respectively. (2) Across replicated common gardens, tree genotype affected lichen species richness, total lichen cover, lichen species composition, and rough bark cover, whereas environment only influenced composition and there were no genotype by environment interactions. (3) Rough bark cover was positively correlated with total lichen cover and richness, and was associated with a shift in species composition; these patterns occurred with variation in rough bark cover among tree genotypes of the same age in common gardens and with increasing rough bark cover along a -40 year tree age gradient in a natural riparian stand. (4) In a common garden, 20-year-old parent trees with smooth bark had poorly developed lichen communities, similar to their 10-year-old ramets (root suckers) growing in close proximity, while parent trees with high rough bark cover had more developed communities than their ramets. These findings indicate that epiphytic lichens are influenced by host genotype, an effect that is robust across divergent environments. Furthermore, the response to tree genotype is

  4. Phototolerance of lichens, mosses and higher plants in an alpine environment: analysis of photoreactions.

    PubMed

    Heber, U; Bilger, W; Bligny, R; Lange, O L

    2000-11-01

    Adaptation to excessive light is one of the requirements of survival in an alpine environment particularly for poikilohydric organisms which in contrast to the leaves of higher plants tolerate full dehydration. Changes in modulated chlorophyll fluorescence and 820-nm absorption were investigated in the lichens Xanthoria elegans (Link) Th. Fr. and Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC, in the moss Grimmia alpestris Limpr. and the higher plants Geum montanum L., Gentiana lutea L. and Pisum sativum L., all collected at altitudes higher than 2000 m above sea level. In the dehydrated state, chlorophyll fluorescence was very low in the lichens and the moss, but high in the higher plants. It increased on rehydration in the lichens and the moss, but decreased in the higher plants. Light-induced charge separation in photosystem II was indicated by pulse-induced fluorescence increases only in dried leaves, not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Strong illumination caused photodamage in the dried leaves, but not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Light-dependent increases in 820-nm absorption revealed formation of potential quenchers of chlorophyll fluorescence in all dehydrated plants, but energy transfer to quenchers decreased chlorophyll fluorescence only in the moss and the lichens, not in the higher plants. In hydrated systems, coupled cyclic electron transport is suggested to occur concurrently with linear electron transport under strong actinic illumination particularly in the lichens because far more electrons became available after actinic illumination for the reduction of photo-oxidized P700 than were available in the pool of electron carriers between photosystems II and I. In the moss Grimmia, but not in the lichens or in leaves, light-dependent quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence was extensive even under nitrogen, indicating anaerobic thylakoid acidification by persistent cyclic electron transport. In the absence of actinic illumination, acidification by ca. 8% CO2 in

  5. The multi-element content of the lichen Parmelia sulcata, soil, and oak bark in relation to acidification and climate.

    PubMed

    Purvis, O W; Dubbin, W; Chimonides, P D J; Jones, G C; Read, H

    2008-02-15

    Understanding how biodiversity is influenced by changing atmospheric conditions is important for conservation, public policy and environmental health. In a recent study, an impact on two of the most abundant lichens in Europe (Parmelia sulcata and Hypogymnia physodes) was recorded at Burnham Beeches lying 40 km west of London (UK) during unusual atmospheric conditions whilst other species remained unaffected. Bark and soil chemistry also influence lichen vitality and community composition. Correlations between element concentrations and element ratios in different samples help understand element cycling. To study this further, the multi-element content of the lichen P. sulcata and bark sampled in 2000 from 16 oak (Quercus robur) trees at Burnham Beeches was compared with the same elements determined in 24 surface soils sampled in 2005 from beneath the same trees. Soil pH ranged from 4.1 to 6.7. Highly significant correlations (p<0.001) for Mn/Ca ratios in lichen versus bark, soil versus bark and soil versus lichen samples confirmed cycling via the soil-tree-lichen system. Similar Mn/Ca ratios were reported in coniferous forests where high Mn concentrations were shown to limit epiphytic lichen abundance. Soil acidification influences element bioavailability and bark chemistry in Burnham Beeches with implications for lichen diversity and health. Recovery was recorded in P. sulcata, including regeneration within monitoring quadrats. Biological systems are well known to be influenced by pollution episodes.

  6. Mollusc grazing limits growth and early development of the old forest lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in broadleaved deciduous forests.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Johan; Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2008-02-01

    THIS STUDY AIMS: (1) to quantify mollusc grazing on juvenile and mature thalli of the foliose epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria, and (2) to test the hypothesis inferring a herbivore defensive role of lichen depsidones in forests with indigenous populations of lichen-feeding molluscs. Lichens were transplanted in shaded and less shaded positions in each of two calcareous broadleaved deciduous forests, one poor in lichens, one with a rich Lobarion community. Preventing the access of molluscs significantly reduced the loss of juvenile L. pulmonaria, particularly in the naturally lichen-poor forest. Molluscs also severely grazed mature thalli in the lichen-poor forest, especially thalli placed under the more shading canopies. Furthermore, reducing the natural concentration of depsidones by pre-rinsing with acetone increased subsequent grazing significantly, showing that lichen depsidones function as herbivore defence in natural habitats. Our results suggest that mollusc grazing may play important roles in shaping the epiphytic vegetation in calcareous deciduous forests, and that recently established juvenile L. pulmonaria thalli seem to be particularly vulnerable.

  7. Impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity: analysis of multiple factors working at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Pinho, P; Augusto, S; Máguas, C; Pereira, M J; Soares, A; Branquinho, C

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity. We used geostatistics to analyse the spatial structure of lichen-indicators (number of lichen species and Lichen Diversity Value) and correlate them to land-cover considering different distances from the observed data. The results showed that lichen diversity was influenced by different environmental factors that act in the same territory but impact lichens at different distances from the source. The differences in the distance of influence of the several land-cover types seem to be related to the size of pollutants/particles that predominantly are dispersed by each land-cover type. We also showed that a local scale of analysis gives a deeper insight into the understanding of lichen richness and abundance in the region. This work highlighted the importance of a multiple spatial scale of analysis to deeply interpret the relation between lichen diversity and the underling environmental factors.

  8. Photoautotrophic symbiont and geography are major factors affecting highly structured and diverse bacterial communities in the lichen microbiome

    SciTech Connect

    Hodkinson, Brendan P; Gottel, Neil R; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Lutzoni, Francois

    2011-01-01

    Although common knowledge dictates that the lichen thallus is formed solely by a fungus (mycobiont) that develops a symbiotic relationship with an alga and/or cyanobacterium (photobiont), the non-photoautotrophic bacteria found in lichen microbiomes are increasingly regarded as integral components of lichen thalli. For this study, comparative analyses were conducted on lichen-associated bacterial communities to test for effects of photobiont-types (i.e. green algal vs. cyanobacterial), mycobiont-types and large-scale spatial distances (from tropical to arctic latitudes). Amplicons of the 16S (SSU) rRNA gene were examined using both Sanger sequencing of cloned fragments and barcoded pyrosequencing. Rhizobiales is typically the most abundant and taxonomically diverse order in lichen microbiomes; however, overall bacterial diversity in lichens is shown to be much higher than previously reported. Members of Acidobacteriaceae, Acetobacteraceae, Brucellaceae and sequence group LAR1 are the most commonly found groups across the phylogenetically and geographically broad array of lichens examined here. Major bacterial community trends are significantly correlated with differences in large-scale geography, photobiont-type and mycobiont-type. The lichen as a microcosm represents a structured, unique microbial habitat with greater ecological complexity and bacterial diversity than previously appreciated and can serve as a model system for studying larger ecological and evolutionary principles.

  9. Spores of lichen-forming fungi in the mycoaerosol and their relationships with climate factors.

    PubMed

    Favero-Longo, S E; Sandrone, S; Matteucci, E; Appolonia, L; Piervittori, R

    2014-01-01

    Fungal particulates are a dominant component of the bioaerosol, but aerobiological studies traditionally focused on a limited set of fungi having relevance as allergens or plant pathogens. This study first analyzes the occurrence of lichen meiospores in the mycoaerosol, quantitatively evaluating in the atmosphere of an alpine environment the occurrence of polar diblastic spores, unequivocally attributable to the lichen family Teloschistaceae. The analysis of air-samples collected one week per month for one year with a Hirst-type sampler displayed a low percentage occurrence of polar-diblastic spores (<0.1%) with respect to the whole mycoaerosol, dominated by Cladosporium. Spearman's correlation tests on aerobiological and climatic data highlighted a strong relationship between the detection of Teloschistaceae spores and rainfall events, excluding seasonal patterns or daily rhythms of dispersion. The fact that all the air-sampled spores were attributable to the species of Teloschistaceae occurring in the site, together with laboratory observations of predominant short range dispersal patterns for polar diblastic and other lichen spores, indicated that sexual reproduction is mostly involved in the local expansion of colonization, dispersal from a long distance appearing a less probable phenomenon. These findings indicated that responses of lichen communities to climate factors, usually related to physiological processes, also depend on their influence on meiospore dispersal dynamics. Spatial limitations in dispersal, however, have to be taken into account in evaluating lichen distributional shifts as indicators of environmental changes.

  10. Lichens as biomonitors around a coal-fired power station in Israel.

    PubMed

    Garty, Jacob; Tomer, Sharon; Levin, Tal; Lehr, Haya

    2003-03-01

    In the present study epiphytic lichens were applied as biomonitors of air pollution to determine the environmental impact of a coal-fired power station. Thalli of the lichen Ramalina lacera (With.) J.R. Laund. growing on carob twigs (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were collected with their substrate in July 2000 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramoth Menashe, Northeast Israel, and transplanted to 10 biomonitoring sites in the vicinity of the coal-fired power station Oroth Rabin near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in January 2001. We examined the following parameters of lichen vitality: (a) potential quantum yield of photosynthesis expressed as fluorescence ratio F(v)/F(m), (b) stress-ethylene production, and (c) electric conductivity expressing integrity of cell membranes. Following an exposure of 7 months, the lichens were retrieved and physiological parameters and data of elemental content were analyzed comparatively. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with B, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Sn, and Ti content. Concentrations of stress-ethylene correlated positively with Al, Ba, Pb, S, and V content and negatively with Cu and Sn. F(v)/F(m) ratios correlated negatively with S content. Some of the heavy metals reached lower levels than those reported in the relevant literature despite a wind regime that should have blown pollutants toward the biomonitoring sites.

  11. Integrity of Lichen Cell Membranes in Relation to Concentration of Airborne Elements

    PubMed

    Garty; Kloog; Cohen

    1998-02-01

    This study dealt with the impact of air pollution on the integrity of cell membranes in the lichen Ramalina duriaei. The lichen was transplanted from a relatively unpolluted site in Israel to more polluted sites, adjacent to a 40-year-old town, for a period of 10 months. The concentrations of K, B, Al, Cr, Fe, Si, Ti, Zn, P, Ba, Cu, Mg, Na, Pb, Ca, Mn, Sr, and S in lichen thalli were compared with injury caused to the cell membranes. The study indicates that electric conductivity reflects adequately cellular injury to lichen thalli transplanted to sites near a motorway, an oil-fueled power plant and a rural community (a kibbutz). The concentrations of S, B, Al, Cr, Fe, Si, Ti, and Zn correlated with injury in cell membranes of R. duriaei retrieved from the biomonitoring sites, whereas the concentration of K in the thalli correlated inversely with the electric conductivity parameter. Leakage of K from lichen thalli as a result of air pollutants is suggested. This K leakage correlates positively with concentrations of S and Cr in transplants of R. duriaei to the Ashdod region.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in lichens and mosses from King George Island, maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Yogui, G T; Sericano, J L

    2008-11-01

    Lichens and mosses are considered good indicators of atmospheric pollution as they absorb contaminants directly from the air. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are man-made chemicals used as flame retardants in materials such as plastics, textiles, electronic circuitry and furnishing foam. Few studies have investigated PBDEs in the southern hemisphere including Antarctica. This paper presents the first evaluation of PBDEs in lichens (Usnea antarctica and Usnea aurantiaco-atra) and mosses (Sanionia uncinata) collected at King George Island, maritime Antarctica. PBDEs were detected at low levels in all lichen and moss samples. On average, the levels of PBDEs in mosses (818 pg g(-1) dry weight; 101 ng g(-1) lipid) were significantly higher than in lichens (168 pg g(-1) dry weight; 9.11 ng g(-1) lipid). This difference is most likely due to the differing mechanisms of PBDEs uptake from the atmosphere which are controlled by a number of chemical, environmental and plant variables. Contaminant concentrations were not statistically different at sites close to and distant from human facilities. Long-range atmospheric transport is believed to be the primary source of PBDEs to King George Island. The pattern of congeners in plants resembles those found in commercial mixtures of Penta-BDE. In addition, the presence of BDE-183 in lichens and mosses suggests that other technical formulations (e.g., Octa-BDE and Deca-BDE) have reached Antarctica. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Antarctic vegetation as a sink for anthropogenic organic pollutants.

  13. Up in the Tree – The Overlooked Richness of Bryophytes and Lichens in Tree Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Boch, Steffen; Müller, Jörg; Prati, Daniel; Blaser, Stefan; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Assessing diversity is among the major tasks in ecology and conservation science. In ecological and conservation studies, epiphytic cryptogams are usually sampled up to accessible heights in forests. Thus, their diversity, especially of canopy specialists, likely is underestimated. If the proportion of those species differs among forest types, plot-based diversity assessments are biased and may result in misleading conservation recommendations. We sampled bryophytes and lichens in 30 forest plots of 20 m × 20 m in three German regions, considering all substrates, and including epiphytic litter fall. First, the sampling of epiphytic species was restricted to the lower 2 m of trees and shrubs. Then, on one representative tree per plot, we additionally recorded epiphytic species in the crown, using tree climbing techniques. Per tree, on average 54% of lichen and 20% of bryophyte species were overlooked if the crown was not been included. After sampling all substrates per plot, including the bark of all shrubs and trees, still 38% of the lichen and 4% of the bryophyte species were overlooked if the tree crown of the sampled tree was not included. The number of overlooked lichen species varied strongly among regions. Furthermore, the number of overlooked bryophyte and lichen species per plot was higher in European beech than in coniferous stands and increased with increasing diameter at breast height of the sampled tree. Thus, our results indicate a bias of comparative studies which might have led to misleading conservation recommendations of plot-based diversity assessments. PMID:24358373

  14. Different Heavy Metal Accumulation Strategies of Epilithic Lichens Colonising Artificial Post-Smelting Wastes.

    PubMed

    Rola, Kaja; Osyczka, Piotr; Kafel, Alina

    2016-02-01

    Lichens appear to be essential and effective colonisers of bare substrates including the extremely contaminated wastes of slag dumps. This study examines the metal accumulation capacity of epilithic lichens growing directly on the surface of artificial slag sinters. Four species representing different growth forms, i.e., crustose Candelariella aurella, Lecanora muralis, and Lecidea fuscoatra and fruticose Stereocaulon nanodes, were selected to evaluate the relationships between zinc, lead, cadmium, and nickel contents in their thalli and host substrates. Bioaccumulation factors of examined crustose lichens showed their propensity to hyperaccumulate heavy metals. Contrarily, concentrations of metals in fruticose thalli of S. nanodes were, as a rule, lower than in the corresponding substrates. This indicates that the growth form of thalli and degree of thallus adhesion to the substrate has a significant impact on metal concentrations in lichens colonising post-smelting wastes. Nonlinear regression models described by power functions show that at greater levels of Pb concentration in the substrate, the ability of C. aurella, L. muralis and L. fuscoatra to accumulate the metal experiences a relative decrease, whereas hyperbolic function describes a similar trend in relation to Ni content in S. nanodes. This phenomenon may be an important attribute of lichens that facilitates their colonisation of the surface of slag wastes.

  15. Lichen species co-occurrence patterns along an edge-interior Mediterranean forest gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinchón, Rocío; Martínez, Isabel; Aragón, Gregorio; Escudero, Adrián

    2012-08-01

    The co-occurrence pattern of epiphytic lichen communities was evaluated relative to micro-environmental heterogeneity along an edge-interior forest gradient. We collected data on the occurrence of 57 epiphytic lichen species from 452 plots in a Mediterranean forest remnant. We used two realistic null models to test for non-randomness in the structure of epiphytic lichen communities and generalized linear models to test the influence of micro-environmental variables on co-occurrence indices along the edge-interior gradient. We found that epiphytic lichen communities co-occurred less often than expected by chance, although the segregation pattern was not highly structured or recurrent. Less species co-occurrence was detected in the assemblage structure in the forest interior and with a southerly exposure. However, there were no significant relationships between co-occurrence and the number of coexisting species, the dominant species coverage or bryophyte coverage. In summary, our co-occurrence analyses suggested that epiphytic lichens were competitively structured, while we found no evidence of facilitation in more stressful conditions, as predicted by the stress-gradient hypothesis. Nevertheless, these results should be treated with caution because co-occurrence patterns may involve specific unknown modes of facilitation and competition, which relate to the life history of these organisms.

  16. Physiological changes of the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum as result of carbon nanotubes exposition.

    PubMed

    Viana, Camila de O; Vaz, Raissa P; Cano, Abraham; Santos, Adelina P; Cançado, Luiz G; Ladeira, Luiz O; Junior, Ary Corrêa

    2015-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) is one of the more abundant nanomaterial produced in the world. Therefore, it is desirable to access its effects in all environment compartments, in order to mitigate environmental distress. This study aims to verify the potential use of lichens - classical atmospheric pollution indicators - as biomonitors of carbon nanotubes aerosols. To examine cause-effect relationships, preserving environmental microclimatic parameters, the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Nyl.) Hale was transplanted to open top chambers where aerosols of CNT were daily added. Physiological parameters such as cell viability, photosynthetic efficiency, cell permeability as well as nanoparticle internalization were assessed. Carbon nanotubes exposure led to reduction on the cell viability of P. tinctorum. The treatment with 100µg/mL of MWCNT-COOH resulted in intracellular ion leakage, probably due to changes in membrane permeability. No alterations on photosynthetic efficiency were detected. Carbon nanotubes entrapment and internalization into the lichen thallus were observed. Short term exposition of CNT produced measurable physiological changes in P. tinctorum lichen. This suggests the possibility of use of lichens as models to assess the environmental impact (air related) of engineered nanomaterials.

  17. Fungal and algal gene expression in early developmental stages of lichen-symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Joneson, Suzanne; Armaleo, Daniele; Lutzoni, François

    2011-01-01

    How plants and microbes recognize each other and interact to form long-lasting relationships remains one of the central questions in cellular communication. The symbiosis between the filamentous fungus Cladonia grayi and the single-celled green alga Asterochloris sp. was used to determine fungal and algal genes upregulated in vitro in early lichen development. cDNA libraries of upregulated genes were created with suppression subtractive hybridization in the first two stages of lichen development. Quantitative PCR subsequently was used to verify the expression level of 41 and 33 candidate fungal and algal genes respectively. Induced fungal genes showed significant matches to genes putatively encoding proteins involved in self and non-self recognition, lipid metabolism, and negative regulation of glucose repressible genes, as well as to a putative d-arabitol reductase and two dioxygenases. Upregulated algal genes included a chitinase-like protein, an amino acid metabolism protein, a dynein-related protein and a protein arginine methyltransferase. These results also provided the first evidence that extracellular communication without cellular contact can occur between lichen symbionts. Many genes showing slight variation in expression appear to direct the development of the lichen symbiosis. The results of this study highlight future avenues of investigation into the molecular biology of lichen symbiosis.

  18. Lichens as indicators of elevated levels of environmental lead in Utah Valley, Utah. [Rhizoplaca melanophthalma

    SciTech Connect

    St. Clair, L.L.; Rushforth, S.R.; Newberry, C.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Utah Valley, Utah is a high elevation mountain valley with a moderate population and a large aged integrated steel mill. Fine particulate pollution (PM{sub 10}) levels in the valley are among the highest din the US, particularly during winter inversion periods. Utah Valley also has high levels of carbon monoxide. The local bureau of air quality monitored ambient air lead in Utah Valley for several years through the 1980s. Values as high as 1.35 g/m{sup 3} were noted from this monitoring. Such levels are 90% of the federal ambient air standard of 1.5 g/m{sup 3}. Lichens have long been recognized as bioindicators for heavy metals. Reports of high concentrations of lead in lichen thalli were common prior to the development and use of unleaded fuels. Since that time, lead concentrations in lichen thalli have generally decreased. Recent studies indicate lichen lead levels from clean air areas in the western US range from 10 to 25 ppm. Studies of the umbilicate saxicolous lichen Rhizoplaca melanophthalma in Utah Valley indicate lead levels between 188 and 200 ppm. Excess lead in Utah Valley likely originates from the steel mill and from the high number of vehicles still using leaded fuels.

  19. Lichen specific thallus mass and secondary compounds change across a retrogressive fire-driven chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Johan; Sandling, Aron; Wardle, David A

    2012-01-01

    In the long-term absence of major disturbances ecosystems enter a state of retrogression, which involves declining soil fertility and consequently a reduction in decomposition rates. Recent studies have looked at how plant traits such as specific leaf mass and amounts of secondary compounds respond to declining soil fertility during retrogression, but there are no comparable studies for lichen traits despite increasing recognition of the role that lichens can play in ecosystem processes. We studied a group of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden differing greatly in fire history, and collectively representing a retrogressive chronosequence, spanning 5000 years. We used this system to explore how specific thallus mass (STM) and carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs) change in three common epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia phsyodes, Melanohalea olivacea and Parmelia sulcata) as soil fertility declines during this retrogression. We found that STMs of lichens increased sharply during retrogression, and for all species soil N to P ratio (which increased during retrogression) was a strong predictor of STM. When expressed per unit area, medullary CBSCs in all species and cortical CBSCs in P. sulcata increased during retrogression. Meanwhile, when expressed per unit mass, only cortical CBSCs in H. physodes responded to retrogression, and in the opposite direction. Given that lichen functional traits are likely to be important in driving ecological processes that drive nutrient and carbon cycling in the way that plant functional traits are, the changes that they undergo during retrogression could potentially be significant for the functioning of the ecosystem.

  20. Up in the tree--the overlooked richness of bryophytes and lichens in tree crowns.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Müller, Jörg; Prati, Daniel; Blaser, Stefan; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Assessing diversity is among the major tasks in ecology and conservation science. In ecological and conservation studies, epiphytic cryptogams are usually sampled up to accessible heights in forests. Thus, their diversity, especially of canopy specialists, likely is underestimated. If the proportion of those species differs among forest types, plot-based diversity assessments are biased and may result in misleading conservation recommendations. We sampled bryophytes and lichens in 30 forest plots of 20 m × 20 m in three German regions, considering all substrates, and including epiphytic litter fall. First, the sampling of epiphytic species was restricted to the lower 2 m of trees and shrubs. Then, on one representative tree per plot, we additionally recorded epiphytic species in the crown, using tree climbing techniques. Per tree, on average 54% of lichen and 20% of bryophyte species were overlooked if the crown was not been included. After sampling all substrates per plot, including the bark of all shrubs and trees, still 38% of the lichen and 4% of the bryophyte species were overlooked if the tree crown of the sampled tree was not included. The number of overlooked lichen species varied strongly among regions. Furthermore, the number of overlooked bryophyte and lichen species per plot was higher in European beech than in coniferous stands and increased with increasing diameter at breast height of the sampled tree. Thus, our results indicate a bias of comparative studies which might have led to misleading conservation recommendations of plot-based diversity assessments.

  1. Short-term monitoring of aridland lichen cover and biomass using photography and fatty acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, M.A.; Johnson, N.C.; Belnap, J.; Koch, G.W.

    2008-01-01

    Biological soil crust (BSC) communities (composed of lichens, bryophytes, and cyanobacteria) may be more dynamic on short-time scales than previously thought, requiring new and informative short-term monitoring techniques. We used repeat digital photography and image analysis, which revealed a change in area of a dominant BSC lichen, Collema tenax. The data generated correlated well with gross photosynthesis (r=0.57) and carotenoid content (r=0.53), two variables that would be expected to be positively related to lichen area. We also extracted fatty acids from lichen samples and identified useful phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) indicators for the Collema mycobiont (20:1, 15:0, 23:0), and the Collema photobiont (18:3??3). The 18:3??3 correlated well with chlorophyll a (r=0.66), a more traditional proxy for cyanobacterial biomass. We also compared total PLFA as a proxy for total Collema biomass with our photographically generated areal change data, and found them to be moderately correlated (r=0.44). Areal change proved to be responsive on short-time scales, while fatty acid techniques were information-rich, providing data on biomass of lichens, and both photo- and mycobionts separately, in addition to the physiological status of the mycobiont. Both techniques should be refined and tested in field situations. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ecophysiology and genetic structure of polar versus temperate populations of the lichen Cetraria aculeata.

    PubMed

    Domaschke, S; Vivas, M; Sancho, L G; Printzen, C

    2013-11-01

    We studied polar and temperate samples of the lichen Cetraria aculeata to investigate whether genetical differences between photobionts are correlated with physiological properties of the lichen holobiont. Net photosynthesis and dark respiration (DR) at different temperatures (from 0 to 30 °C) and photon flux densities (from 0 to 1,200 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) were studied for four populations of Cetraria aculeata. Samples were collected from maritime Antarctica, Svalbard, Germany and Spain, representing different climatic situations. Sequencing of the photobiont showed that the investigated samples fall in the polar and temperate clade described in Fernández-Mendoza et al. (Mol Ecol 20:1208-1232, 2011). Lichens with photobionts from these clades differ in their temperature optimum for photosynthesis, maximal net photosynthesis, maximal DR and chlorophyll content. Maximal net photosynthesis was much lower in Antarctica and Svalbard than in Germany and Spain. The difference was smaller when rates were expressed by chlorophyll content. The same is true for the temperature optima of polar (11 °C) and temperate (15 and 17 °C) lichens. Our results indicate that lichen mycobionts may adapt or acclimate to local environmental conditions either by selecting algae from regional pools or by regulating algal cell numbers (chlorophyll content) within the thallus.

  3. The role of native lichens in the biomonitoring of gaseous mercury at contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    López Berdonces, Miguel A; Higueras, Pablo L; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Borreguero, Ana M; Carmona, Manuel

    2017-01-15

    Contamination by atmospheric mercury has been assessed in two different areas from Spain (Las Cuevas, Ciudad Real and Flix, Tarragona) using lichens as biomonitors. The relationship established between mercury contents in the soils and the gaseous mercury (GM) was also observed. It was found that the GM is highest in the vicinity of the source and it is dispersed depending on of the distance to the source and the wind directions. The mercury concentration in the gas phase in Flix was higher than that found in Las Cuevas and also higher than the value that the US EPA recommended. The mercury bioaccumulation in the native lichens from genders Ramalina and Xanthoria were used as biomonitors for absorbing mercury in Las Cuevas and Flix, respectively. The mercury uptake by Ramalina was higher than the amount accumulated by Xanthoria, a difference that was mainly due to the lichen characteristics. The content of mercury in lichens in relation to the mercury in gas was fitted by a Freundlich type equation, indicating that the equilibrium between both phases was established. Besides, transplanted Ramalina lichen in Las Cuevas allowed to obtain the kinetic of mercury uptake. A kinetic model of first order based on the equilibrium was proposed and the mass transfer constants for each sampling station were estimated. As it was expected, these values increased with the predominant wind flow direction.

  4. Childhood onset vulvar lichen sclerosus does not resolve at puberty: a prospective case series.

    PubMed

    Smith, Saxon D; Fischer, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    When vulvar lichen sclerosus occurs in prepubertal children it is widely believed that it is likely to remit at puberty. However when it occurs in adult women it is accepted that remission is unlikely and that in addition untreated or inadequately treated disease may be complicated by significant disturbance of vulvar architecture and less commonly squamous cell carcinoma. Our database reveals 18 girls who developed lichen sclerosus prior to puberty who are now adolescents or young adults. Twelve have remained under surveillance and the other six patients have been lost to follow-up. We report a prospective series of these 12 patients. Three patients have achieved complete remission sustained for three or more years, all prior to menarche. Nine patients, or 75% of the cohort, who still had active lichen sclerosus at puberty continue to require maintenance therapy after menarche. Of the 12, six have had significant disturbance of vulvar architecture. The concept that prepubertal lichen sclerosus resolves at puberty would appear not to be true in the majority of patients. Even when diagnosed early and treated effectively, childhood onset lichen sclerosus may be complicated by distortion of vulvar architecture.

  5. Association of autoimmune diseases with lichen sclerosus in 532 male and female patients.

    PubMed

    Kreuter, Alexander; Kryvosheyeva, Yulia; Terras, Sarah; Moritz, Rose; Möllenhoff, Katrin; Altmeyer, Peter; Scola, Nina; Gambichler, Thilo

    2013-03-27

    Lichen sclerosus is a relatively common chronic inflammatory skin disease that predominantly affects the anogenital area. Accumulating evidence indicates that lichen sclerosus in women may be associated with other autoimmune disease, whereas this association seems to lack in male patients. We retrospectively evaluated the prevalence of autoimmune diseases and serological parameters indicative for autoimmunity in male and female patients with lichen sclerosus. Of the 532 patients (396 women, 136 men; 500 adults, 32 children; mean age: 49 years; range 1-89 years; female:male ratio 3:1), 452 (85%) had genital and 80 (15%) had extragenital disease. In women, lichen sclerosus was significantly more often associated with at least one autoimmune disease as compared to men (odds ratio [OR] 4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-9.6; p<0.0001). Moreover, female patients with lichen sclerosus had sinificantly more often associated autoimmune thyroid diseases (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.8-11.9; p<0.0002), antithyroid-antibodies (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.5; p=0.023), and elevated autoantibodies (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.9-9.3; p<0.0001) as compared to male patients. This observation is suggestive for a different pathogenetic background in male and female patients.

  6. Role of Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Patients with Oral Lichen Planus: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalkur, Chaithra; Sattur, Atul Prahlad; Guttal, Kruthika Satyabodh

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lichen planus is a psychosomatic disease. Higher frequency of psychiatric symptoms, poor quality of life, higher level of anxiety and neuroendocrine and immune dysregulations, all these factors, will enhance the exacerbation of the disease. Aims: The present study was to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels in patients with oral lichen planus. Materials and Methods: The psychometric evaluation using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS)-42 questionnaire was carried out, by the same investigator on all members of group 1 (Oral Lichen Planus) and group 2 (Control). DASS-42 questionnaire consists of 42 symptoms divided into three subscales of 14 items: Depression scale, anxiety scale, and stress scale. Statistical Analysis Used: The Student t test was used to determine statistical difference for both the groups and to evaluate for significant relationships among variables. Results: Psychological assessment using DASS-42 reveals lichen planus patients showed higher frequency of psychiatric co morbidities like depression, anxiety and stress compared to control group. Conclusions: This study has provided evidence that the DASS-42 questionnaire is internally consistent and valid measures of depression, anxiety, and stress. Psychiatric evaluation can be considered for patients with oral lichen planus with routine treatment protocols are recommended. DASS-42 Questionnaire can also be used to determine the level of anxiety, stress and depression in diseases of the oral mucosa like recurrent apthous stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome and TMD disorders. PMID:26538689

  7. A Case of Lichen Planus Pigmentosus with Facial Dyspigmentation Responsive to Combination Therapy with Chemical Peels and Topical Retinoids

    PubMed Central

    Sabzevari, Nina; Gropper, Charles; Hoffman, Cindy

    2016-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is a photodistributed dyschromia of unknown etiology described clinically as hyperpigmented gray-blue or brown-black macules or patches in a photodistributed pattern. Although there has been some debate, lichen planus pigmentosus is considered by many to be a separate diagnostic entity from ashy dermatosis or erythema dyschromicum perstans, which shares similar characteristics. Various treatment strategies have been applied to help resolve or improve the appearance of lichen planus pigmentosus lesions; however, an optimal treatment method is yet to be elucidated. The authors present a case of an 18-year-old Hispanic man with lichen planus pigmentosus whose skin findings responded dramatically to a combined regimen of daily topical azelaic acid foam and tretinoin cream with twice-monthly chemical peels using glycolic acid and Jessner’s solution. The authors have noted a sparcity of therapeutic literature for lichen planus pigmentosus, and hope to aid clinicians in therapeutic management strategy for this patient subset. PMID:28210390

  8. A Case of Lichen Planus Pigmentosus with Facial Dyspigmentation Responsive to Combination Therapy with Chemical Peels and Topical Retinoids.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Marisa; Sabzevari, Nina; Gropper, Charles; Hoffman, Cindy

    2016-11-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is a photodistributed dyschromia of unknown etiology described clinically as hyperpigmented gray-blue or brown-black macules or patches in a photodistributed pattern. Although there has been some debate, lichen planus pigmentosus is considered by many to be a separate diagnostic entity from ashy dermatosis or erythema dyschromicum perstans, which shares similar characteristics. Various treatment strategies have been applied to help resolve or improve the appearance of lichen planus pigmentosus lesions; however, an optimal treatment method is yet to be elucidated. The authors present a case of an 18-year-old Hispanic man with lichen planus pigmentosus whose skin findings responded dramatically to a combined regimen of daily topical azelaic acid foam and tretinoin cream with twice-monthly chemical peels using glycolic acid and Jessner's solution. The authors have noted a sparcity of therapeutic literature for lichen planus pigmentosus, and hope to aid clinicians in therapeutic management strategy for this patient subset.

  9. On the decline of ground lichen forests in the Swedish boreal landscape: Implications for reindeer husbandry and sustainable forest management.

    PubMed

    Sandström, Per; Cory, Neil; Svensson, Johan; Hedenås, Henrik; Jougda, Leif; Borchert, Nanna

    2016-05-01

    Lichens are a bottleneck resource for circumpolar populations of reindeer, and as such, for reindeer husbandry as an indigenous Sami land-use tradition in northern Sweden. This study uses ground lichen data and forest information collected within the Swedish National Forest Inventory since 1953, on the scale of northern Sweden. We found a 71 % decline in the area of lichen-abundant forests over the last 60 years. A decline was observed in all regions and age classes and especially coincided with a decrease of >60 year old, open pine forests, which was the primary explanatory factor in our model. The effects of reindeer numbers were inconclusive in explaining the decrease in lichen-abundant forest. The role that forestry has played in causing this decline can be debated, but forestry can have a significant role in reversing the trend and improving ground lichen conditions.

  10. Quantifying the effect of lichen and bryophyte cover on permafrost soil within a global land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porada, Philipp; Ekici, Altug; Beer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation near the surface, such as bryophytes and lichens, has an insulating effect on the soil at high latitudes and it can therefore protect permafrost conditions. Warming due to climate change, however, may change the average surface coverage of bryophytes and lichens. This can result in permafrost thawing associated with a release of soil carbon to the atmosphere, which may lead to a positive feedback on atmospheric CO2. Thus, it is important to predict how the bryophyte and lichen cover at high latitudes will react to environmental change. However, current global land surface models so far contain mostly empirical approaches to represent bryophytes and lichens, which makes it impractical to predict their future state and function. For this reason, we integrate a process-based model of bryophyte and lichen growth into the global land surface model JSBACH. We explicitly represent dynamic thermal properties of the bryophyte and lichen cover and their relation to climate. Subsequently, we compare simulations with and without bryophyte and lichen cover to quantify the insulating effect. We estimate an annual average cooling effect of the bryophyte and lichen cover of 2.7 K on topsoil temperature for the northern high latitudes under current climate. Locally, the cooling may reach up to 5.7 K. Moreover, we show that neglecting dynamic properties of the bryophyte and lichen cover by using a simple, empirical scheme only results in an average cooling of around 0.5 K. This suggests that bryophytes and lichens have a significant impact on soil temperature in high-latitude ecosystems and also that a process-based description of their thermal properties is necessary for a realistic representation of the cooling effect.

  11. Effects of Management on Lichen Species Richness, Ecological Traits and Community Structure in the Rodnei Mountains National Park (Romania)

    PubMed Central

    Ardelean, Ioana Violeta; Keller, Christine; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Lichens are valuable bio-indicators for evaluating the consequences of human activities that are increasingly changing the earth’s ecosystems. Since a major objective of national parks is the preservation of biodiversity, our aim is to analyse how natural resource management, the availability of lichen substrates and environmental parameters influence lichen diversity in Rodnei Mountains National Park situated in the Eastern Carpathians. Three main types of managed vegetation were investigated: the transhumance systems in alpine meadows, timber exploitation in mixed and pure spruce forests, and the corresponding conserved sites. The data were sampled following a replicated design. For the analysis, we considered not only all lichen species, but also species groups from different substrates such as soil, trees and deadwood. The lichen diversity was described according to species richness, red-list status and substrate-specialist species richness. The variation in species composition was related to the environmental variables. Habitat management was found to negatively influence species richness and alter the lichen community composition, particularly for threatened and substrate-specialist species. It reduced the mean level of threatened species richness by 59%, when all lichen species were considered, and by 81%, when only epiphytic lichens were considered. Management-induced disturbance significantly decreased lichen species richness in forest landscapes with long stand continuity. The diversity patterns of the lichens indicate a loss of species richness and change in species composition in areas where natural resources are still exploited inside the borders of the national park. It is thus imperative for protected areas, in particular old-growth forests and alpine meadows, to receive more protection than they have received in the past to ensure populations of the characteristic species remain viable in the future. PMID:26717517

  12. Effects of Management on Lichen Species Richness, Ecological Traits and Community Structure in the Rodnei Mountains National Park (Romania).

    PubMed

    Ardelean, Ioana Violeta; Keller, Christine; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Lichens are valuable bio-indicators for evaluating the consequences of human activities that are increasingly changing the earth's ecosystems. Since a major objective of national parks is the preservation of biodiversity, our aim is to analyse how natural resource management, the availability of lichen substrates and environmental parameters influence lichen diversity in Rodnei Mountains National Park situated in the Eastern Carpathians. Three main types of managed vegetation were investigated: the transhumance systems in alpine meadows, timber exploitation in mixed and pure spruce forests, and the corresponding conserved sites. The data were sampled following a replicated design. For the analysis, we considered not only all lichen species, but also species groups from different substrates such as soil, trees and deadwood. The lichen diversity was described according to species richness, red-list status and substrate-specialist species richness. The variation in species composition was related to the environmental variables. Habitat management was found to negatively influence species richness and alter the lichen community composition, particularly for threatened and substrate-specialist species. It reduced the mean level of threatened species richness by 59%, when all lichen species were considered, and by 81%, when only epiphytic lichens were considered. Management-induced disturbance significantly decreased lichen species richness in forest landscapes with long stand continuity. The diversity patterns of the lichens indicate a loss of species richness and change in species composition in areas where natural resources are still exploited inside the borders of the national park. It is thus imperative for protected areas, in particular old-growth forests and alpine meadows, to receive more protection than they have received in the past to ensure populations of the characteristic species remain viable in the future.

  13. The Relationship between Lichen Planus and Carotid Intima Media Thickness

    PubMed Central

    C, Koseoglu; M, Erdogan; G, Koseoglu; O, Kurmus; AG, Ertem; TH, Efe; GI, Kurmus; T, Durmaz; T, Keles; E, Bozkurt

    2016-01-01

    Background Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory disease. Although the association between chronic inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis has been reported in the literature, the relationship between LP and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) has not been previously investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between LP and CIMT. Methods One hundred eleven LP patients and 105 controls were enrolled in the study. Then, CIMT examination was performed with an ultrasonography device. Cross-sectional associations of LP with CIMT were analyzed using linear regression models adjusted for related confounders. Results No statistical difference was found between LP and the controls except for the female gender, white blood cell, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides (p = 0.046, p = 0.019, p = 0.011 and p = 0.013, respectively). Significant difference was found between the groups in terms of CIMT (0.90 ± 0.2 mm vs. 0.61 ± 0.3 mm, p = 0.001). CIMT was correlated with longevity of the LP, but we did not find LP to be an independent predictor of increased CIMT in logistic regression analysis (r = 0.449, p < 0.001, β = -0.117, p = 0.092; respectively). Conclusions The results of our study suggested that LP was associated with increased mean CIMT, and furthermore that CIMT was correlated with longevity of LP. However, LP was not an independent predictor of increased CIMT. PMID:27899862

  14. Lichen planus and lichenoid reactions as a systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Lukács, Judit; Schliemann, Sibylle; Elsner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic disease that involves the skin, scalp, mucous membranes, and nails. The etiology of LP is still unknown; however, some external and internal factors (eg. drugs, stress, hepatitis C virus) have been suggested to trigger the disease. Many studies have investigated an immunologic pathogenesis that is probably related to T-cell autoimmunity with the keratinocyte as the target cell. Altered self-antigens on the surface of basal keratinocytes modified by viruses or by drugs are believed to be the targets of the T-cell response. Various drugs and contact allergens like amalgam may cause lichenoid reactions, which are the main differential diagnoses of LP. Clinically and histologically, LP and lichenoid reactions cannot be distinguished with certainty in many cases. Treatment is mainly symptomatic and can be difficult. The first-line therapies for LP are topical or systemic corticosteroids; however, some studies have mentioned acitretin leading to similar improvement. Medical treatment, together with patient education and psychosocial support, can significantly benefit patients' quality of life.

  15. Gene expression profiling in male genital lichen sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Emma; Barton, Geraint; Buisson, Sandrine; Francis, Nick; Gotch, Frances; Game, Laurence; Haddad, Munther; Dinneen, Michael; Bunker, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) has a bimodal distribution in boys and men. It is associated with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The pathogenesis of MGLSc is unknown. HPV and autoimmune mechanisms have been mooted. Anti extracellular matrix protein (ECM)1 antibodies have been identified in women with GLSc. The gene expression pattern of LSc is unknown. Using DNA microarrays we studied differences in gene expression in healthy and diseased prepuces obtained at circumcision in adult males with MGLSc (n = 4), paediatric LSc (n = 2) and normal healthy paediatric foreskin (n = 4). In adult samples 51 genes with significantly increased expression and 87 genes with significantly reduced expression were identified; paediatric samples revealed 190 genes with significantly increased expression and 148 genes with significantly reduced expression. Concordance of expression profiles between adult and paediatric samples indicates the same disease process. Functional analysis revealed increased expression in the adult and child MGSLc samples in the immune response/cellular defence gene ontology (GO) category and reduced expression in other categories including genes related to squamous cancer. No specific HPV, autoimmune or squamous carcinogenesis-associated gene expression patterns were found. ECM1 and CABLES1 expression were significantly reduced in paediatric and adult samples respectively. PMID:21718371

  16. Lichen planopilaris following hair transplantation and face-lift surgery.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Y Z; Tosti, A; Chaudhry, I H; Lyne, L; Farjo, B; Farjo, N; Cadore de Farias, D; Griffiths, C E M; Paus, R; Harries, M J

    2012-03-01

    Cosmetic surgical procedures, including hair transplantation and face-lift surgery, are becoming increasingly popular. However, there is very little information regarding the associated development of dermatological conditions following these procedures. Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is an uncommon inflammatory hair disorder of unknown aetiology that results in permanent alopecia and replacement of hair follicles with scar-like fibrous tissue. Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA), a variant of LPP, involves the frontal hairline and shares similar histological findings with those of LPP. We report 10 patients who developed LPP/FFA following cosmetic scalp surgery. Seven patients developed LPP following hair transplantation, and three patients developed FFA following face-lift surgery. In all cases there was no previous history of LPP or FFA. There is currently a lack of evidence to link the procedures of hair transplantation and cosmetic face-lift surgery to LPP and FFA, respectively. This is the first case series to describe this connection and to postulate the possible pathological processes underlying the clinical observation. Explanations include Koebner phenomenon induced by surgical trauma, an autoimmune process targeting an (as yet, unknown) hair follicle antigen liberated during surgery or perhaps a postsurgery proinflammatory milieu inducing hair follicle immune privilege collapse and follicular damage in susceptible individuals.

  17. Vulvar lichen sclerosus: A new regenerative approach through fat grafting.

    PubMed

    Boero, Veronica; Brambilla, Massimiliano; Sipio, Elisa; Liverani, Carlo A; Di Martino, Mirella; Agnoli, Benedetta; Libutti, Giada; Cribiù, F M; Del Gobbo, Alessandro; Ragni, Enrico; Bolis, Giorgio

    2015-12-01

    OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fat grafting in the treatment of severe vulvar lichen sclerosus (LS). Our primary outcome was to assess the improvement of mucocutaneous trophism, the resolution/reduction of symptoms, and the histological features of the vulvar skin after treatment. The secondary outcome was to evaluate the improvement in life quality, and in resumption and quality of sexual life. METHODS. Between 2011 and 2014, 36 patients were offered fat grafting to treat LS. Inclusion criteria were age between 25 and 80 years, histopathologic diagnosis of LS, good health, failure of previous first line treatments. RESULTS. 34 out of 36 patients (94%) showed a better vulvar trophismof the skin and mucosae; 27 (75%) had an improvement in caliber and elasticity of the vaginal introitus; clitoris burying degree was reduced in 18 patients (50%), 30 (83%) reported an increased volume of labia major a and minor a, 34 (94%) had a complete disappearance of scratching lesions, and 28 (78%) showed a remission of white lesions. Eventually 34 patients (95%) stopped using topical corticosteroids routinely. The improvement in life quality was significant for both DLQI (p b 0001) and FSFI (p b 0001). CONCLUSIONS. Fat grafting may have a role as a support and completion treatment in selected cases of women with vulvar LS who do not respond to first line therapy or in severe cases where the anatomical impairment does not allow a regular sexual function and a good quality of life.

  18. [Current diagnosis and treatment of male genital lichen sclerosus].

    PubMed

    Lü, Jun; Huang, Xiao-Dong

    2014-07-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronically relapsing disease characterized by a long course, gradual aggravation, and a tendency towards malignancy. Once called balanitis xerotica obliterans, MGLSc has a distinct predilection for the prepuce and glans, involving the urethra when aggravating, forming scarring tissues, and causing urethral stricture, which may seriously affect the patients'quality of life with such symptoms as urinary stream narrowing, dysuria, and painful penile erection. The etiology and pathogenesis of MGLSc have not yet been adequately explained though it is generally thought to be associated with autoimmune mechanism, genetic factors, infections, local trauma, and chronic urinary irritation. MGLSc can be fairly easily diagnosed according to its clinical manifestations and histopathological results, but can be hardly cured. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are the most important approaches, which may relieve its symptoms, check its progression, and prevent its long-term sequelae. Ultrapotent topical corticosteroids are the choice for the treatment of MGLSc. For those who fail to respond to expectant medication or have dysuria due to urethral stricture and painful erection, rational surgery may be resorted to, with importance attached to long-term follow-up. This article presents an update of the diagnosis and treatment of MGLSc and MGLSc-induced urethral stricture.

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of lichen sclerosus: an update.

    PubMed

    Fistarol, Susanna K; Itin, Peter H

    2013-02-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic, inflammatory, mucocutaneous disorder of genital and extragenital skin. LS is a debilitating disease, causing itch, pain, dysuria and restriction of micturition, dyspareunia, and significant sexual dysfunction in women and men. Many findings obtained in recent years point more and more towards an autoimmune-induced disease in genetically predisposed patients and further away from an important impact of hormonal factors. Preceding infections may play a provocative part. The role for Borrelia is still controversial. Trauma and an occlusive moist environment may act as precipitating factors. Potent and ultrapotent topical corticosteroids still head the therapeutic armamentarium. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are discussed as alternatives in the treatment of LS in patients who have failed therapy with ultrapotent corticosteroids, or who have a contraindication for the use of corticosteroids. Topical and systemic retinoids may be useful in selected cases. Phototherapy for extragenital LS and photodynamic therapy for genital LS may be therapeutic options in rare cases refractory to the already mentioned treatment. Surgery is restricted to scarring processes leading to functional impairment. In men, circumcision is effective in the majority of cases, but recurrences are well described. Anogenital LS is associated with an increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva or penis. This review updates the epidemiology, clinical presentation, histopathology, pathogenesis, and management of LS of the female and male genitals and extragenital LS in adults and children.

  20. Spatial mapping of lichen specialized metabolites using LDI-MSI: chemical ecology issues for Ophioparma ventosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pogam, Pierre; Legouin, Béatrice; Geairon, Audrey; Rogniaux, Hélène; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Obermayer, Walter; Boustie, Joël; Le Lamer, Anne-Cécile

    2016-11-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry techniques have become a powerful strategy to assess the spatial distribution of metabolites in biological systems. Based on auto-ionisability of lichen metabolites using LDI-MS, we herein image the distribution of major secondary metabolites (specialized metabolites) from the lichen Ophioparma ventosa by LDI-MSI (Mass Spectrometry Imaging). Such technologies offer tremendous opportunities to discuss the role of natural products through spatial mapping, their distribution patterns being consistent with previous chemical ecology reports. A special attention was dedicated to miriquidic acid, an unexpected molecule we first reported in Ophioparma ventosa. The analytical strategy presented herein offers new perspectives to access the sharp distribution of lichen metabolites from regular razor blade-sectioned slices.

  1. Spatial mapping of lichen specialized metabolites using LDI-MSI: chemical ecology issues for Ophioparma ventosa

    PubMed Central

    Le Pogam, Pierre; Legouin, Béatrice; Geairon, Audrey; Rogniaux, Hélène; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Obermayer, Walter; Boustie, Joël; Le Lamer, Anne-Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry techniques have become a powerful strategy to assess the spatial distribution of metabolites in biological systems. Based on auto-ionisability of lichen metabolites using LDI-MS, we herein image the distribution of major secondary metabolites (specialized metabolites) from the lichen Ophioparma ventosa by LDI-MSI (Mass Spectrometry Imaging). Such technologies offer tremendous opportunities to discuss the role of natural products through spatial mapping, their distribution patterns being consistent with previous chemical ecology reports. A special attention was dedicated to miriquidic acid, an unexpected molecule we first reported in Ophioparma ventosa. The analytical strategy presented herein offers new perspectives to access the sharp distribution of lichen metabolites from regular razor blade-sectioned slices. PMID:27883092

  2. Direct measurement of the combined effects of lichen, rainfall, and temperature onsilicate weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, P.V.; Dorn, R.I.; Brazel, A.J.; Clark, J.; Moore, R.B.; Glidewell, T.

    1999-01-01

    A key uncertainty in models of the global carbonate-silicate cycle and long-term climate is the way that silicates weather under different climatologic conditions, and in the presence or absence of organic activity. Digital imaging of basalts in Hawaii resolves the coupling between temperature, rainfall, and weathering in the presence and absence of lichens. Activation energies for abiotic dissolution of plagioclase (23.1 ?? 2.5 kcal/mol) and olivine (21.3 ?? 2.7 kcal/mol) are similar to those measured in the laboratory, and are roughly double those measured from samples taken underneath lichen. Abiotic weathering rates appear to be proportional to rainfall. Dissolution of plagioclase and olivine underneath lichen is far more sensitive to rainfall.

  3. Unilateral linear syringoma in a Japanese female: dermoscopic differentiation from lichen planus linearis

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yuka; Tanaka, Masaru; Nakajima, Shizuka; Ozeki, Masahiko; Inoue, Takayuki; Ishizaki, Sumiko; Fujibayashi, Mariko

    2011-01-01

    A dermoscopy of linear unilateral syringoma has never been described in the English literature. The authors report the case to elucidate the dermoscopic features of syringoma. Clinical, dermoscopic and pathological features of a 38-year-old Japanese female case of linear unilateral syringoma on the left upper arm were described and compared with those of lichen planus linearis. Although the clinical appearance of linearly arranged dusky erythemas in the present case was quite similar to that of lichen planus linearis, dermoscopy did not show Wickham's striae but rather homogeneous light brown pigmentation with multifocal whitish areas and a delicate pigment network at the periphery. Dermoscopy might be helpful to differentiate linear unilateral syringoma from lichen planus linearis. PMID:25386294

  4. Intracellular urease activity in the lichen Cladonia verticillaris, and its implication for toxicity.

    PubMed

    de Vasconcelos, T L; Pereira, E C; da Silva, N H; Vicente, C; Legaz, M E

    2013-12-01

    Urea is currently used as a nitrogen fertilizer in many plant cultures, such as sugar cane. Several lichen species grow in the edges of the fields fertilized with urea. This implies that the hydrolysis of an excess of urea by soil bacteria or by the lichens themselves would increase the concentration of ammonia in the lichen thallus to a level that may be toxic to the photobiont. However, Cladonia verticillaris produces urease through positive feedback by urea supplied from the medium. This urease is partially secreted to the media or retained on the external surface of algal cells, as demonstrated herein by an adequate cytochemical reaction. This implies that ammonia produced by urea hydrolysis will be immediately dissolved in the water filling the intercellular spaces on the thallus. A possible protection mechanism against eventual ammonia toxicity, derived from the results described here, is also discussed.

  5. Guidelines for biomonitoring persistent organic pollutants (POPs), using lichens and aquatic mosses--a review.

    PubMed

    Augusto, Sofia; Máguas, Cristina; Branquinho, Cristina

    2013-09-01

    During the last decades, awareness regarding persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), has become a cutting-edge topic, due to their toxicity, bioaccumulation and persistency in the environment. Monitoring of PCDD/Fs and PAHs in air and water has proven to be insufficient to capture deposition and effects of these compounds in the biota. To overcome this limitation, environmental biomonitoring using lichens and aquatic mosses, have aroused as promising tools. The main aim of this work is to provide a review of: i) factors that influence the interception and accumulation of POPs by lichens; ii) how lichens and aquatic bryophytes can be used to track different pollution sources and; iii) how can these biomonitors contribute to environmental health studies. This review will allow designing a set of guidelines to be followed when using biomonitors to assess environmental POP pollution.

  6. Effects of Intravenous Ketamine Infusions in a Neuropathic Pain Patient with Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Ashraf F.; Armstrong, Josh S.; Smith, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    A patient reported to the Florida Spine Institute (Clearwater, Fla., USA) with severe lichen sclerosus of the anogenital region and legs. The patient's pain presentation was neuropathic with hypersensitivity, allodynia, swelling, and weakness. The patient had failed multiple pain management modalities including opioid therapy, anticonvulsants, and antidepressants. The patient completed a standard intravenous ketamine infusion regimen developed at the Florida Spine Institute and reported complete abolishment of her pain syndrome. For the first time, we report that ketamine infusions also dramatically improved a patient's lichen sclerosus. That ketamine is known to have immunomodulatory properties, and given the clinical observations described in this case report, suggests that ketamine should be explored as a possible new therapeutic option for managing lichen sclerosus, especially in cases that are refractory to conventional therapies. PMID:27462225

  7. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierra from California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour.

  8. Toxicity of the lichen secondary metabolite (+)-usnic acid in domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Dailey, R N; Montgomery, D L; Ingram, J T; Siemion, R; Vasquez, M; Raisbeck, M F

    2008-01-01

    Toxicity following ingestion of the vagrant, foliose lichen Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa was identified as the putative etiology in the death of an estimated 400-500 elk on the Red Rim-Daley Wildlife Habitat Management Area in Wyoming during the winter of 2004. A single, unsubstantiated report in 1939 attributed toxicity of X. chlorochroa in cattle and sheep to usnic acid, a common lichen secondary metabolite. To test the hypothesis that usnic acid is the proximate cause of death in animals poisoned by lichen, domestic sheep were dosed PO with (+)-usnic acid. Clinical signs in symptomatic ewes included lethargy, anorexia, and signs indicative of abdominal discomfort. Serum creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities were considerably elevated in symptomatic sheep. Similarly, only symptomatic ewes exhibited appreciable postmortem lesions consisting of severe degenerative appendicular skeletal myopathy. The median toxic dose (ED(50)) of (+)-usnic acid in domestic sheep was estimated to be between 485 and 647 mg/kg/day for 7 days.

  9. Lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus: case report and review of an unusual entity.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, Erich; Elstein, William

    2012-02-15

    Lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus is a rare variant of lichen planus, with less than 20 cases reported in the medical literature. It presents as asymptomatic to mildly pruritic, hyperpigmented macules and/or patches involving intertriginous and flexural areas and skin folds in light-skinned individuals. The unique pattern of skin involvement, clinical features, and histology are distinctive. The combination of hyperpigmented lesion(s) isolated to non-sun exposed, intertriginous, and flexural areas with lichenoid histology is unique and separates it from other similar entities, such as lichen planus actinus and erythema dyschromicum perstans/ashy dermatosis. The case well highlights this unusual condition and represents the first case reported in the United States.

  10. Effects of Intravenous Ketamine Infusions in a Neuropathic Pain Patient with Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Ashraf F; Armstrong, Josh S; Smith, Adam J

    2016-01-01

    A patient reported to the Florida Spine Institute (Clearwater, Fla., USA) with severe lichen sclerosus of the anogenital region and legs. The patient's pain presentation was neuropathic with hypersensitivity, allodynia, swelling, and weakness. The patient had failed multiple pain management modalities including opioid therapy, anticonvulsants, and antidepressants. The patient completed a standard intravenous ketamine infusion regimen developed at the Florida Spine Institute and reported complete abolishment of her pain syndrome. For the first time, we report that ketamine infusions also dramatically improved a patient's lichen sclerosus. That ketamine is known to have immunomodulatory properties, and given the clinical observations described in this case report, suggests that ketamine should be explored as a possible new therapeutic option for managing lichen sclerosus, especially in cases that are refractory to conventional therapies.

  11. Management of sexual dysfunction due to vulvar lichen sclerosus in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, Sara; D'Erme, Angelo Massimiliano; Lotti, Torello

    2013-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic skin disease, probably immune-mediated, with a strong genetic component. It shows a predilection for external genitalia. It is most common in postmenopausal women, although it has been documented at all ages and in both sexes. The exact prevalence of lichen sclerosus is unknown. However, in recent years much progress has been made in defining its etiology and epidemiology, and we now know that it is far more frequent than previously thought. The purpose of this review is to focus more attention on the relationship between LS and sexual dysfunction, and on a few important aspects of managing perimenopausal patients diagnosed with LS. Lichen sclerosus is a chronic, debilitating condition that may progress to cause significant physical and psychological complications. The disease calls for lifetime follow-up.

  12. Species richness of vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens along an altitudinal gradient in western Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grytnes, John Arvid; Heegaard, Einar; Ihlen, Per G.

    2006-05-01

    Species richness patterns of ground-dwelling vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens were compared along an altitudinal gradient (310-1135 m a.s.l.), in western Norway. Total species richness peaked at intermediate altitudes, vascular plant species richness peaked immediately above the forest limit (at 600-700 m a.s.l.), bryophyte species richness had no statistically significant trend, whereas lichen richness increased from the lowest point and up to the forest limit, with no trend above. It is proposed that the pattern in vascular plant species richness is enhanced by an ecotone effect. Bryophyte species richness responds to local scale factors whereas the lichen species richness may be responding to the shading from the forest trees.

  13. Biomonitoring of heavy metals contamination by mosses and lichens around Slovinky tailing pond (Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Demková, Lenka; Bobul'ská, Lenka; Árvay, Július; Jezný, Tomáš; Ducsay, Ladislav

    2017-01-02

    Three moss (Pleurozium spp., Polytrichum spp., and Rhytidiadelphus spp.) and two lichen (Hypogymnia physodes and Pseudevernia furfuracea) taxons covered in the bags were used to monitor air quality. Bags were exposed at the different distances from the tailing pond because of insufficient security and source of heavy metal pollution. Moss/lichen bags were exposed for six weeks at 0-, 50-, 100-, 150- and 200-m distances from Slovinky tailing pond, in the main wind direction (down the valley). Accumulation ability of heavy metals expressed by relative accumulation factor (RAF) increases in the order of Polytrichum spp.lichen species showed different accumulation capacity for individual heavy metals. Rhytidiadelphus spp. was found to possess the significantly highest (P < 0.01) ability to accumulate Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn and Fe. The highest RAF values of Pb, Zn, Ni and Fe were determined in samples exposed at 200-m distance from pollution source.

  14. What influences heavy metals accumulation in arctic lichen Cetrariella delisei in Svalbard?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Węgrzyn, Michał; Wietrzyk, Paulina; Lisowska, Maja; Klimek, Beata; Nicia, Paweł

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify variations in heavy metal concentrations in Cetrariella delisei along a transect from a High Arctic glacier forehead to the shoreline as well as determine the main environmental factors influencing the deposition of heavy metals in arctic lichens. The macrolichen Cetrariella delisei appears to be an interesting alternative to those lichen species used in the past (e.g. Flavocetraria nivalis, Cladonia sp.) for heavy metal biomonitoring purposes in the Arctic: it is widely distributed, easy to identify and reluctantly grazed by reindeer. Fieldwork was conducted in the summer of 2012 in the Kaffiøyra Plain, Oskar II Land, NW Spitsbergen. C. delisei and soil samples were collected from 5 localities. Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd were measured in each sample. A bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was calculated for all the analyzed elements. The BAFs for Cu, Mn, and Ni showed a relatively low accumulation level in lichen thalli. On the other hand, the BAFs for Cr, Pb, and Zn, revealed an increased accumulation level in C. delisei. The Cd content in lichen is almost equal to its level in the soil. The statistical analyses covered three environmental factors: soil pH, substrate type and distance from the shoreline. The data were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis test, canonical correspondence analysis and a permutation test. The results show that distance from the shoreline had the greatest influence on the majority of the heavy metal concentrations in the lichen thalli and the soil. However, the level of Mn accumulated in the soil is determined by its source in the glacier. Moreover, the soil pH had the greatest effect on the Cd accumulated in the soil and the Mn accumulated in the lichen thalli.

  15. Comparative Cryptogam Ecology: A Review of Bryophyte and Lichen Traits that Drive Biogeochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.; Lang, Simone I.; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A.; During, Heinjo J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent decades have seen a major surge in the study of interspecific variation in functional traits in comparative plant ecology, as a tool to understanding and predicting ecosystem functions and their responses to environmental change. However, this research has been biased almost exclusively towards vascular plants. Very little is known about the role and applicability of functional traits of non-vascular cryptogams, particularly bryophytes and lichens, with respect to biogeochemical cycling. Yet these organisms are paramount determinants of biogeochemistry in several biomes, particularly cold biomes and tropical rainforests, where they: (1) contribute substantially to above-ground biomass (lichens, bryophytes); (2) host nitrogen-fixing bacteria, providing major soil N input (lichens, bryophytes); (3) control soil chemistry and nutrition through the accumulation of recalcitrant polyphenols (bryophytes) and through their control over soil and vegetation hydrology and temperatures; (4) both promote erosion (rock weathering by lichens) and prevent it (biological crusts in deserts); (5) provide a staple food to mammals such as reindeer (lichens) and arthropodes, with important feedbacks to soils and biota; and (6) both facilitate and compete with vascular plants. Approach Here we review current knowledge about interspecific variation in cryptogam traits with respect to biogeochemical cycling and discuss to what extent traits and measuring protocols needed for bryophytes and lichens correspond with those applied to vascular plants. We also propose and discuss several new or recently introduced traits that may help us understand and predict the control of cryptogams over several aspects of the biogeochemistry of ecosystems. Conclusions Whilst many methodological challenges lie ahead, comparative cryptogam ecology has the potential to meet some of the important challenges of understanding and predicting the biogeochemical and climate consequences of large

  16. Rhizobiales as functional and endosymbiontic members in the lichen symbiosis of Lobaria pulmonaria L.

    PubMed Central

    Erlacher, Armin; Cernava, Tomislav; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Soh, Jung; Sensen, Christoph W.; Grube, Martin; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Rhizobiales (Alphaproteobacteria) are well-known beneficial partners in plant-microbe interactions. Less is known about the occurrence and function of Rhizobiales in the lichen symbiosis, although it has previously been shown that Alphaproteobacteria are the dominating group in growing lichen thalli. We have analyzed the taxonomic structure and assigned functions to Rhizobiales within a metagenomic dataset of the lung lichen Lobaria pulmonaria L. One third (32.2%) of the overall bacteria belong to the Rhizobiales, in particular to the families Methylobacteriaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae, and Rhizobiaceae. About 20% of our metagenomic assignments could not be placed in any of the Rhizobiales lineages, which indicates a yet undescribed bacterial diversity. SEED-based functional analysis focused on Rhizobiales and revealed functions supporting the symbiosis, including auxin and vitamin production, nitrogen fixation and stress protection. We also have used a specifically developed probe to localize Rhizobiales by confocal laser scanning microscopy after fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-CLSM). Bacteria preferentially colonized fungal surfaces, but there is clear evidence that members of the Rhizobiales are able to intrude at varying depths into the interhyphal gelatinous matrix of the upper lichen cortical layer and that at least occasionally some bacteria also are capable to colonize the interior of the fungal hyphae. Interestingly, the gradual development of an endosymbiotic bacterial life was found for lichen- as well as for fungal- and plant-associated bacteria. The new tools to study Rhizobiales, FISH microscopy and comparative metagenomics, suggest a similar beneficial role for lichens than for plants and will help to better understand the Rhizobiales-host interaction and their biotechnological potential. PMID:25713563

  17. Topical tacrolimus ointment for the treatment of lichen sclerosus, comparing genital and extragenital involvement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gun-Wook; Park, Hyun-Je; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Kim, Su-Han; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum

    2012-02-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis presenting with significant sclerosis, atrophy and pruritus. The treatment for this condition remains unsatisfactory, with potent corticosteroids being the most effective therapy. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of tacrolimus ointment in patients with genital and extragenital lichen sclerosus. Sixteen patients with active lichen sclerosus (10 with anogenital and six with extragenital localization) were treated with topical tacrolimus ointment twice daily. The therapeutic effects were evaluated according to 3 grades: complete response (>75% improvement), partial response (25-75% improvement), or no response (<25% improvement). Applications were continued until complete disappearance or stabilization of the cutaneous lesions. In addition, we conducted telephone surveys to determine the long-term treatment outcome and relapse rate. Objective response to therapy occurred in nine of 10 patients (90%) with anogenital and one of six patients (16.7%) with extragenital lesions. Out of 10 patients with anogenital lichen sclerosus, five showed more than 75% improvement. Complete, partial and no response were achieved in five (50%), four (40%) and one (10%) patient, respectively. During the follow-up period of a mean of 29.3 months, six of nine patients had a relapse of symptoms. However, most patients with extragenital involvement did not respond to tacrolimus, except one patient showing partial response. No significant adverse effects were observed. Topical tacrolimus ointment was a safe and effective treatment for genital lichen sclerosus and should be used for long-term duration to prevent relapse. However, it was not useful for patients with extragenital lichen sclerosus.

  18. Identification of Lichen Metabolism in an Early Devonian Terrestrial Fossil using Carbon Stable Isotope Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, S.; Jahren, H.

    2002-05-01

    The fossil organismSpongiophyton minutissimum is commonly found in early terrestrial assemblages (Devonian age, 430-340 Ma). Suites of morphological descriptions of this fossil have been published, starting in 1954, and have led to two competing hypotheses: 1.) that this early colonizer of land was a primitive bryophyte, and therefore a precursor to modern plant organisms, and 2.) thatS. minutissimum was a lichen: a close association between an alga and a fungus. Because the ultimate mechanisms for carbon supply to the carboxylating enzyme in bryophytes and lichens differ fundamentally, we expect these two types of organisms to exhibit separate ranges of δ 13Ctissue value. In bryophytes, gaseous carbon dioxide diffuses through perforations in cuticle (resulting in δ 13Catmosphere - δ 13Cbryophyte = ~20 ‰ ). Within the lichen, carbon is supplied to the carboxylating enzyme of the photobiont as carbon dioxide dissolved in fungal cell fluids (resulting in δ 13Catmosphere - δ 13Clichen = ~15 ‰ ). By comparing the δ 13Ctissue value ofS. minutissimum (mean = -23 ‰ ;n = 75) with δ 13Ctissue values in twenty-five lichens, representative of the four different phylogenetic clades (mean = -23 ‰ ;n = 25) and thirty different genera of bryophytes including mosses, liverworts, and hornworts (mean = -28 ‰ ;n = 30), we conclude thatS. minutissimum was cycling carbon via processes that much more closely resembled those of lichens, and not bryophytes. We discuss the general strategies associated with lichen biology, such as the ability to withstand dessication during reproduction, and how they may have contributed to the successful colonization of terrestrial environments.

  19. Molecular evidence for the diversification of extant lichens in the late cretaceous and tertiary.

    PubMed

    Printzen, C; Lumbsch, H T

    2000-12-01

    A molecular clock based on ITS sequence data from the lichen genera Biatora and Phyllopsora is calibrated with the help of paleoclimatic data and evidence of forest history. The clock indicates that diversification within Biatora started as early as in the Late Cretaceous and took place during periods of climatic cooling, when new types of forest evolved and spread in the Northern Hemisphere. Arctic-alpine species of the genus appear to be of considerable age, dating back to the Late Eocene-Oligocene climatic cooling. By using calibrated phylogenies of epiphytic lichens it may become possible to date many paleoenvironmental events, for which little fossil evidence exists.

  20. Lichens and weathering: importance for soil formation, nutrient cycling and adaptation to environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis, O. W.; Convey, P.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Peat, H. J.; Najorka, J.

    2012-04-01

    Lichens comprise ca. 6% of the Earth's terrestrial vegetation, and are dominant in certain polar ecosystems, being primary colonists of rocks where they play a major role in the biogeochemical cycling of elements and contribute to soil formation. We present an historical overview of studies in the Antarctic, leading to recent collection opportunities on Signy Island providing new material to investigate how biodiversity has responded to regional and rapid environmental change. Mountainous, with an ice cap, glaciers, rugged topography, and a complex geology and pedology, Signy Island includes a wide range of terrestrial habitats. A small, inconspicuous lichen, Acarospora cf. badiofusca, was discovered colonizing iron-stained quartz mica schists on the lower slope of Manhaul Rocks, a recently exposed nunatak on the McLeod Glacier, Signy Island, maritime Antarctic. Thallus colour ranged from rust to paler orange and green. Many lichens are colourful, mostly due to the presence of secondary metabolites which are of fungal origin. In some cases colour may reflect chemical coordination reactions involving lichen biomass components and dissolved cations which can lead to metal complex and mineral formation. By far the greatest research effort into characterizing elements and minerals associated with lichens concerns those occurring beneath them, research driven partly from a desire to understand weathering processes. This study, for the first time in the maritime Antarctic, addressed the hypothesis that colour reflects element localization, and examined substance localization within lichen tissues and considered responses to stress. Methods utilised include macrophotography, X-Ray Diffraction with a position sensitive detector (PSD), Scanning Electron Microscopy in back-scattered and ED modes and electron probe microanalysis for the elements Fe, C and Si and by using a third generation variable pressure secondary detector employed as a panchromatic cathodoluminescence

  1. Comparative use of lichens, mosses and tree bark to evaluate nitrogen deposition in Germany.

    PubMed

    Boltersdorf, Stefanie H; Pesch, Roland; Werner, Willy

    2014-06-01

    To compare three biomonitoring techniques for assessing nitrogen (N) pollution in Germany, 326 lichen, 153 moss and 187 bark samples were collected from 16 sites of the national N deposition monitoring network. The analysed ranges of N content of all investigated biomonitors (0.32%-4.69%) and the detected δ(15)N values (-15.2‰-1.5‰), made it possible to reveal species specific spatial patterns of N concentrations in biota to indicate atmospheric N deposition in Germany. The comparison with measured and modelled N deposition data shows that particularly lichens are able to reflect the local N deposition originating from agriculture.

  2. Distribution of neptunium and plutonium in New Mexico lichen samples (Usnea arizonica) contaminated by atmospheric fallout

    DOE PAGES

    Oldham, Jr., Warren J.; Hanson, Susan K.; Lavelle, Kevin B.; ...

    2015-08-30

    In this study, the concentrations of 237Np, 239Pu and 240Pu were determined in lichen samples (Usnea arizonica) that were collected from ten locations in New Mexico between 2011 and 2013 using isotope dilution inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). The observed isotopic ratios for 237Np/239Pu and 240Pu/239Pu indicate trace contamination from global and regional fallout (e.g. Trinity test and atmospheric testing at the Nevada Test Site). The fact that actinide contamination is detected in recent lichen collections suggests continuous re-suspension of fallout radionuclides even 50 years after ratification of the Limited Test Ban Treaty.

  3. [Annular plaques in the skin folds: 4 cases of lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus].

    PubMed

    Bennàssar, A; Mas, A; Julià, M; Iranzo, P; Ferrando, J

    2009-09-01

    We report 4 patients with relatively asymptomatic, annular brownish plaques arising in the skin creases.The lesions had remained stable for months despite many topical treatments. Histological examination revealed an atrophic epidermis with a dermal lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate showing marked pigmentary incontinence.These clinical and pathological features were consistent with lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus,a rare, recently described variant of lichen planus, with only 10 cases reported to date. It has been suggested that he intensity and speed of onset of the inflammatory response could be modulated by keratinocyte surface markers, which could also determine the typical morphology of the lesions of this disease.

  4. Lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus involving the post-auricular sulci.

    PubMed

    Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Borkin, Michael S; Wilentz, Seth W

    2013-06-15

    Lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus is rare with only twenty patients (including our patient) formally described in the literature. The reported twenty patients with lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus include eight men and twelve women with ages ranging from 25-84 years (average age of 55.3). Twelve were Caucasian, five were Asian, one was Hispanic and two were of unknown ethnicity. Seventeen out of twenty patients had lesions in the axillae and mild pruritus was present in eight patients. Our patient is the first patient reported to have post-auricular sulcus involvement.

  5. [Lichen ruber exanthematicus et pigmentosus in mercury poisoning. A contribution to individual pathology in occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Marsch, W C; Groebe, G

    1990-11-01

    We report on a 21-year-old man professionally exposed to mercury, who developed lichen planus. This case must be regarded as a dispositional reaction and is in Germany entitled to indemnification in terms of a "quasi-occupational disease". The clinical signs and the probably non-allergic pathomechanism are comparable with those of lichen planus induced by gold. In diseases due to occupational intoxication, we face an individual disposition regarding the degree of clinical symptoms, which has to underly any expert opinion on indemnity.

  6. Measurements of plutonium, 237Np, and 137Cs in the BCR 482 lichen reference material

    DOE PAGES

    Lavelle, Kevin B.; Miller, Jeffrey L.; Hanson, Susan K.; ...

    2015-10-01

    Select anthropogenic radionuclides were measured in lichen reference material, BCR 482. This material was originally collected in Axalp, Switzerland in 1991 and is composed of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Samples from three separate bottles of BCR 482 were analyzed for uranium, neptunium, and plutonium isotopes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and analyzed for cesium-137 by gamma-ray spectrometry. The isotopic composition of the radionuclides measured in BCR 482 suggests contributions from both global fallout resulting from historical nuclear weapons testing and more volatile materials released following the Chernobyl accident.

  7. Bacterial vaginosis in the context of lichen sclerosus in a prepubertal girl.

    PubMed

    Feito-Rodríguez, Marta; Noguera-Morel, Lucero; Casas-Rivero, José; García-Rodríguez, Julio; de Lucas-Laguna, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus cause most vulvovaginal infections seen in prepubertal girls. Bacterial vaginosis is a common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age but is rare in children. Data are insufficient to suggest that bacterial vaginosis is an exclusively sexually transmitted disease. We report a 10-year-old girl with no history or suspicion of sexual abuse who developed bacterial vaginosis in the context of a lichen sclerosus being treated with tacrolimus ointment. Secondary bacterial infection in lichen sclerosus is uncommon. We speculate that the immunosuppressive effect of topical tacrolimus could have triggered the infection.

  8. Extragenital bullous lichen sclerosus in a pediatric patient: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shiver, Mallory; Papasakelariou, Catherine; Brown, Jameel Ahmad; Wirges, Marla; Kincannon, Jay

    2014-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl presented with a 1-year history of a pruritic, bullous lesion on her posterior neck. A biopsy revealed bullous lichen sclerosus. Although unusual, this bullous variant of lichen sclerosus is well recognized in the adult literature, but extragenital bullous and hemorrhagic lesions are rare in children. A review of this case and the literature describes the clinical features, pathophysiology, and treatment options for this extragenital bullous variant in an effort to raise awareness of this rare clinical presentation.

  9. Bullous Lichen Planus treated with Oral Minipulse Therapy: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sunitha, K; Boyapati, Ramanaryana; Kumar D.R., Shravan

    2014-01-01

    Oral Lichen planus (OLP) is a common mucocutaneous disorder with a multifactorial aetiology, affecting the women more commonly than men. Most OLP are asymptomatic, except the atrophic and erosive forms.Till date many treatment modalities are implicated to treat this disorder, but no therapy is considered as the single most effective, without side-effects and remission of the lesion. As the treatment of OLP is challenging to the oral practitioners, here we report a case of successful management of extensive, symptomatic bullous and erosive oral lichen planus with a novel treatment protocol- oral minipulse therapy with betamethasone. PMID:25654047

  10. Graham-Little Piccardi Lassueur Syndrome: An Unusual Variant of Follicular Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Varadraj V; Kikkeri, Naveen N; Sori, Tukaram; Dinesh, US

    2011-01-01

    Graham Little-Piccardi-Lassueur syndrome is a type of lichen planopilaris (follicular lichen planus) characterized by the triad of patchy cicatricial alopecia of the scalp, noncicatricial alopecia of the axilla and groin, and a follicular spinous papule on the body, scalp, or both. It is four times more common in females in the age group of 30-70 years. Only a few cases have been reported in literature wherein the disease has affected males. Herein we report a young male who presented with features of Graham Little-Piccardi-Lassueur syndrome. PMID:21769233

  11. The earliest records of internally stratified cyanobacterial and algal lichens from the Lower Devonian of the Welsh Borderland.

    PubMed

    Honegger, Rosmarie; Edwards, Dianne; Axe, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    Lichenization is assumed to be a very ancient mode of fungal nutrition, but fossil records are rare. Here we describe two fragments of exceptionally preserved, probably charred, lichen thalli with internal stratification. Cyanolichenomycites devonicus has a cyanobacterial and Chlorolichenomycites salopensis a unicellular, presumably green algal photobiont. Fruiting bodies are missing. Cyanolichenomycites devonicus forms asexual spores in a pycnidium. All specimens were examined with scanning electron microscopy techniques. The fossils were extracted by maceration. Extant lichens and free-living cyanobacteria were either experimentally charcoalified for comparison or conventionally prepared. Based on their septate hyphal structure, both specimens are tentatively interpreted as representatives of the Pezizomycotina (Ascomycota). Their presence in 415 million yr (Myr) old rocks from the Welsh Borderland predates existing Late Cretaceous records of pycnidial conidiomata by some 325 Myr and Triassic records of lichens with broadly similar organization by some 195 Myr. These fossils represent the oldest known record of lichens with symbionts and anatomy as typically found in morphologically advanced taxa today. The latter does not apply to Winfrenatia reticulata, the enigmatic crustose lichen fossil from the Lower Devonian, nor to presumed lichen-like organisms such as the Cambrian Farghera robusta or to the Lower Devonian Spongiophyton minutissimum.

  12. Identifying the origin of atmospheric inputs of trace elements in the Prades Mountains (Catalonia) with bryophytes, lichens, and soil monitoring.

    PubMed

    Achotegui-Castells, Ander; Sardans, Jordi; Ribas, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep

    2013-01-01

    The biomonitors Hypnum cupressiforme and Xanthoria parietina were used to assess the deposition of trace elements and their possible origin in the Prades Mountains, a protected Mediterranean forest area of NE Spain with several pollution sources nearby. Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V, and Zn were determined in 16 locations within this protected area. Soil trace element concentrations were also ascertained to calculate enrichment factors (EF) and use them to distinguish airborne from soilborne trace element inputs. In addition, lichen richness was measured to further assess atmospheric pollution. EF demonstrated to be useful not only for the moss but also for the lichen. Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn presented values higher than three in both biomonitors. These trace elements were also the main ones emitted by the potential sources of pollutants. The distance between sampling locations and potential pollution sources was correlated with the concentrations of Cu, Sb, and Zn in the moss and with Cr, Ni, and Sb in the lichen. Lichen richness was negatively correlated with lichen Cu, Pb, and V concentrations on dry weight basis. The study reflected the remarkable influence that the pollution sources have on the presence of trace elements and on lichen species community composition in this natural area. The study highlights the value of combining the use of biomonitors, enrichment factors, and lichen diversity for pollution assessment to reach a better overview of both trace elements' impact and the localization of their sources.

  13. Survivin expression in oral lichen planus: Role in malignant transformation

    PubMed Central

    Suganya, G; Bavle, Radhika M; Paremala, K; Makarla, Soumya; Sudhakar, M; Reshma, V

    2016-01-01

    Context: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a potentially malignant disease with a prevalence rate of 0.5–2.2%. It is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease, in which cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells trigger apoptosis of the basal cells of oral epithelium. The reported progression of OLP to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) ranges from 0.4% to 6.5%. Apoptosis plays a major role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. The evasion of apoptosis in the form of dysregulation of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) may lead to malignant transformation. Survivin belongs to the second gene family of IAPs, which is overexpressed in many tumors such as OSCC and gastric carcinomas, and its expression is widely involved in apoptosis as well as in tumor metastasis. Materials and Methods: Sections were obtained from the paraffin-embedded archival blocks of patients diagnosed histologically as OLP, and cases with normal epithelium were used for comparison whereas cases with OSCC were used as positive control. Results: We analyzed the expression of survivin in OLP and normal epithelium. Survivin expression with moderate intensity was seen in the cells of basal layer with nuclear positivity in cases of OLP, whereas mild to nil expression was seen in normal epithelium with nuclear and cytoplasmic positivity in different layers. Conclusions: Survivin positivity was seen predominantly in the basal cells of OLP suggesting increased longevity of these cells which in turn might acquire dysplastic changes leading to increased risk of malignant transformation of this premalignant condition. Although the conversion rate may be low, the potential exists in the indolent course of the disease. PMID:27601815

  14. Biological activities and chemical composition of lichens from Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Kosanic, Marijana; Rankovic, Branislav; Stanojkovic, Tatjana; Vasiljevic, Perica; Manojlovic, Nedeljko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate chemical composition of acetone extracts of the lichens Parmelia arseneana and Acarospora fuscata and in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities of these extracts and gyrophoric acid isolated from A. fuscata. The HPLC-UV method was used for the identification of secondary metabolites. Stictic acid, norstictic acid, gyrophoric acid, usnic acid, atranorin and chloroatranorin were identified in the A. fuscata. In P. arseneana, we detected stictic acid, norstictic acid, usnic acid and atranorin, while gyrophoric acid was not identified. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging capacity of tested samples on DPPH and superoxide anion radicals, reducing the power of samples and determination of total phenolic compounds in extracts. As a result of the study, gyrophoric acid was found to have the largest DPPH radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 105.75 µg/ml. Moreover, the tested samples had an effective superoxide anion radical scavenging and reducing power. The total content of phenol in extracts was determined as pyrocatechol equivalent. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method. The most active was also gyrophoric acid, with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.019 to 1.25 mg/ml. Anticancer activity was tested against LS174 (human colon carcinoma cell line), A549 (human lung carcinoma cell line), Fem-x (malignant melanoma cell line), and a chronic myelogeneous leukaemia K562 cell line using the MTT method. Extract of P. arseneana expressed the strongest anticancer activity against all cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 11.61 to 47.06 µg/ml. PMID:26417336

  15. Hypertrophic lichen planus versus prurigo nodularis: a dermoscopic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ankad, Balachandra S.; Beergouder, Savitha L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypertrophic lichen planus (HLP) classically involves shin and ankles and is characterized by hyperkeratotic plaques and nodules. Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a chronic neurodermatitis that presents with intensely pruritic nodules. Histopathology of HLP and PN demonstrate epidermal hyperplasia, hypergranulosis, and compact hyperkeratosis. The dermis shows vertically arranged collagen fibers and an increased number of fibroblasts and capillaries in both conditions. Moreover, basal cell degeneration is confined to the tips of rete ridges, and band-like infiltration is conspicuously absent in HLP. Therefore, both conditions mimic each other clinically, which makes diagnosis difficult. Hence, there is a need for a diagnostic technique to differentiate both conditions. Objective: To evaluate dermoscopic patterns in HLP and PN and to study these patterns histopathologically. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at S. Nijalingappa Medical College in Bagalkot. It was an observational case series study. Ethical clearance and informed consent was obtained. A Dermlite 3 dermoscope (3Gen, San Juan Capistrano, CA, USA) attached to a Sony Cyber Shot camera DSC-W800 (Sony Electronics Inc., San Diego, California, USA) was employed. Histopathology was done to confirm the diagnosis. Results: There were 10 patients each with HLP and PN. HLP was seen in 8 males and 2 females. PN was observed in 7 females and 3 males. Dermoscopy of HLP demonstrated pearly white areas and peripheral striations (100%), gray-blue globules (60%), comedo-like openings (30%), red dots (40%), red globules (10%), brownish-black globules (30%), and yellowish structures (90%). In PN, red dots (70%), red globules (60%), and pearly white areas with peripheral striations (100%) were observed under dermoscopy. Conclusion: Both HLP and PN demonstrated specific dermoscopic patterns which can be demonstrated on histopathologic findings. The authors propose that these patterns are hallmarks of each

  16. The Impact of Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus on Sexual Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, Nely Z.; Dalton, Vanessa K.; Gagné, Hélène M.; Marcus, Stephanie B.; Patel, Divya A.; Berger, Mitchell B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic inflammatory condition that is known to arise on the vulva. Many women with LS report vulvar pain, often affecting a patient's quality of life. In this study, the sexual function of LS patients, with and without pain, was compared to control populations. Materials and Methods: A case-control study to examine the relationship between LS and sexual dysfunction was conducted. A total of 335 women presenting to the gynecology clinic were included in the study: 197 women with biopsy confirmed LS were compared to two control groups (95 asymptomatic women were “healthy” controls and 43 women had vulvovaginal candidiasis) on self-reported current health complaints, medical and surgical history and current symptoms such as pain and itching, type and frequency of sexual activity, and satisfaction with sexual activity. Results: Women with LS reported less frequent sexual activity than healthy controls (p=0.007) and Candida controls (p=0.04). Currently sexually active women with LS were significantly less likely to report vaginal intercourse (71.6%) than healthy controls (89.0%, p=0.003) or Candida controls (100%, p=0.0003), even though similar proportions of all three groups reported that vaginal intercourse was important. Satisfaction towards the quality of current sexual activity was significantly lower among women with LS compared with both the healthy and Candida control groups. 23.7% of women with LS reported that sexual activity was rarely or never satisfactory as compared with 0% of healthy controls (p<0.0001) and 6.5% of Candida controls (p=0.03). Conclusion: Women with LS have less frequent sexual activity and less satisfying sexual activity when compared with controls. PMID:25162790

  17. Alterations in Lipid Metabolism and Antioxidant Status in Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Panchal, Falguni H; Ray, Somshukla; Munshi, Renuka P; Bhalerao, Supriya S; Nayak, Chitra S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lichen planus (LP), a T-cell-mediated inflammatory disorder, wherein inflammation produces lipid metabolism disturbances, is linked to increase in cardiovascular (CV) risk with dyslipidemia. Increased reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides have also been implicated in its pathogenesis. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the status on lipid disturbances, oxidative stress, and inflammation in LP patients. Materials and Methods: The study was initiated after obtaining Institutional Ethics Committee permission and written informed consent from participants. The study included 125 patients (74 LP patients and 51 age and sex-matched controls) visiting the outpatient clinic in the dermatology department of our hospital. Variables analyzed included lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA), and catalase (CAT) activity. Results: Analysis of lipid parameters revealed significantly higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) along with decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in LP patients as compared to their respective controls. LP patients also presented with a significantly higher atherogenic index that is, (TC/HDL-C) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios than the controls. A significant increase in CRP levels was observed among the LP patients. There was a statistically significant increase in the serum levels of the lipid peroxidation product, MDA and a statistically significant decrease in CAT activity in LP patients as compared to their respective controls. A statistically significant positive correlation (r = 0.96) was observed between serum MDA levels and duration of LP whereas a significantly negative correlation (r = −0.76) was seen between CAT activity and LP duration. Conclusion: Chronic inflammation in patients with LP may explain the association with dyslipidemia and CV risk. Our findings also suggest that an increase in oxidative

  18. Medical Management of Oral Lichen Planus: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chokshi, Krunal; Desai, Sachin; Malu, Rahul; Chokshi, Achala

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory, T-cell-mediated autoimmune oral mucosal disease with unclear aetiology. The clinical management of OLP poses considerable difficulties to the oral physician. Aim The aim was to assess the efficacy of any form of intervention used to medically manage OLP. Materials and Methods We searched and analysed the following databases (from January 1990 to December 2014):- Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE. All Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) for the medical management of OLP which compared active treatment with placebo or between active treatments were considered in this systematic review. Participants of any age, gender or race having symptomatic OLP (including mixed forms), unconnected to any identifiable cause (e.g. lichenoid drug reactions) and confirmed by histopathology have been included. Interventions of all types, including topical treatments or systemic drugs of variable dosage, duration & frequency of delivery have been considered. All the trials identified were appraised by five review authors and the data for all the trials were synthesised using specifically designed data extraction form. Binary data has been presented as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and continuous data as mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs. Results A total of 35 RCTs were included in this systematic review on medical management of OLP. No strong evidence suggesting superiority of any specific intervention in reducing pain and clinical signs of OLP were shown by the RCTs included here. Conclusion Future RCTs on a larger scale, adopting standardized outcome assessing parameters should be considered. PMID:27042598

  19. Biogas production from spent rose hips (Rosa canina L.): fraction separation, organic loading and co-digestion with N-rich microbial biomass.

    PubMed

    Osojnik Črnivec, Ilja Gasan; Muri, Petra; Djinović, Petar; Pintar, Albin

    2014-11-01

    Complex waste streams originating from extraction processes containing residual organic solvents and increased C/N ratios have not yet been considered as feedstock for biogas production to a great extent. In this study, spent rosehip (Rosa canina L.) solid residue (64%VS, 22 MJ/kg HHV, 30C/1N) was obtained from an industrial ethanol aided extraction process, and extensively examined in an automated batch bioreactor system for biogas production. Fraction separation of the compact lignocellulosic seeds increased the available sugar and ethanol content, resulting in high biogas potential of the sieved residue (516 NL/kg VS'). In co-digestion of spent rosehip substrate with non-deactivated nitrogen rich microbial co-substrates, methanogenesis was favored (Y(m) > 68%(CH4)). In individual digestion of microbial co-substrates, this was not the case, as biogas with 28 vol.% N2 was produced from activated sludge supplement. Therefore, effective inhibition of exogenous microbiota was achieved in the presence of carbonaceous spent rose hip.

  20. Extremotolerance and resistance of lichens: comparative studies on five species used in astrobiological research I. Morphological and anatomical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Meeßen, J; Sánchez, F J; Brandt, A; Balzer, E-M; de la Torre, R; Sancho, L G; de Vera, J-P; Ott, S

    2013-06-01

    Lichens are symbioses of two organisms, a fungal mycobiont and a photoautotrophic photobiont. In nature, many lichens tolerate extreme environmental conditions and thus became valuable models in astrobiological research to fathom biological resistance towards non-terrestrial conditions; including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. All studies demonstrated the high resistance towards non-terrestrial abiotic factors of selected extremotolerant lichens. Besides other adaptations, this study focuses on the morphological and anatomical traits by comparing five lichen species-Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, Buellia frigida, Pleopsidium chlorophanum-used in present-day astrobiological research. Detailed investigation of thallus organization by microscopy methods allows to study the effect of morphology on lichen resistance and forms a basis for interpreting data of recent and future experiments. All investigated lichens reveal a common heteromerous thallus structure but diverging sets of morphological-anatomical traits, as intra-/extra-thalline mucilage matrices, cortices, algal arrangements, and hyphal strands. In B. frigida, R. geographicum, and X. elegans the combination of pigmented cortex, algal arrangement, and mucilage seems to enhance resistance, while subcortex and algal clustering seem to be crucial in C. gyrosa, as well as pigmented cortices and basal thallus protrusions in P. chlorophanum. Thus, generalizations on morphologically conferred resistance have to be avoided. Such differences might reflect the diverging evolutionary histories and are advantageous by adapting lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors. The peculiar lichen morphology demonstrates its remarkable stake in resisting extreme terrestrial conditions and may explain the high resistance of lichens found in astrobiological research.

  1. Extremotolerance and Resistance of Lichens: Comparative Studies on Five Species Used in Astrobiological Research I. Morphological and Anatomical Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeßen, J.; Sánchez, F. J.; Brandt, A.; Balzer, E.-M.; de la Torre, R.; Sancho, L. G.; de Vera, J.-P.; Ott, S.

    2013-06-01

    Lichens are symbioses of two organisms, a fungal mycobiont and a photoautotrophic photobiont. In nature, many lichens tolerate extreme environmental conditions and thus became valuable models in astrobiological research to fathom biological resistance towards non-terrestrial conditions; including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. All studies demonstrated the high resistance towards non-terrestrial abiotic factors of selected extremotolerant lichens. Besides other adaptations, this study focuses on the morphological and anatomical traits by comparing five lichen species— Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, Buellia frigida, Pleopsidium chlorophanum—used in present-day astrobiological research. Detailed investigation of thallus organization by microscopy methods allows to study the effect of morphology on lichen resistance and forms a basis for interpreting data of recent and future experiments. All investigated lichens reveal a common heteromerous thallus structure but diverging sets of morphological-anatomical traits, as intra-/extra-thalline mucilage matrices, cortices, algal arrangements, and hyphal strands. In B. frigida, R. geographicum, and X. elegans the combination of pigmented cortex, algal arrangement, and mucilage seems to enhance resistance, while subcortex and algal clustering seem to be crucial in C. gyrosa, as well as pigmented cortices and basal thallus protrusions in P. chlorophanum. Thus, generalizations on morphologically conferred resistance have to be avoided. Such differences might reflect the diverging evolutionary histories and are advantageous by adapting lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors. The peculiar lichen morphology demonstrates its remarkable stake in resisting extreme terrestrial conditions and may explain the high resistance of lichens found in astrobiological research.

  2. The potential of the lichen symbiosis to cope with the extreme conditions of outer space II: germination capacity of lichen ascospores in response to simulated space conditions.

    PubMed

    de Vera, J-P; Horneck, G; Rettberg, P; Ott, S

    2004-01-01

    Complementary to the already well-studied microorganisms, lichens, symbiotic organisms of the mycobiont (fungi) and the photobiont (algae), were used as "model systems" in which to examine the ecological potential to resist to extreme environments of outer space. Ascospores (sexual propagules of the mycobiont) of the lichens Fulgensia bracteata, Xanthoria elegans and Xanthoria parietina were exposed to selected space-simulating conditions (up to 16 h of space vacuum at 10(-3) Pa and UV radiation at 160 nm < or = lambda < or = 400 nm), while embedded in the lichen fruiting bodies. After exposure, the ascospores were discharged and their viability was tested as germination capacity on different culture media including those containing Mars regolith simulant. It was found that (i) the germination rate on media containing Mars regolith simulant was as high as on other mineral-containing media, (ii) if enclosed in the ascocarps, the ascospores survived the vacuum exposure, the UV-irradiation as well as the combined treatment of vacuum and UV to a high degree. In general, 50 % or more viable spores were recovered, with ascospores of X. elegans showing the highest survival. It is suggested that ascospores inside the ascocarps are well protected by the anatomical structure, the gelatinous layer and the pigments (parietin and carotene) against the space parameters tested.

  3. The importance of the poikilohydric nature of lichens as natural tracers for delta18O of ambient vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartard, Britta; Cuntz, Matthias; Lakatos, Michael; Máguas, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    The stable isotope composition of water is routinely used as a tracer to study water exchange processes in vascular plants and ecosystems. To date, no study has focussed on isotope processes in poikilohydric organisms (i.e. lichens and bryophytes), where relative water content equilibrate with the surrounding humidity conditions and that are able to use distinct water sources such as precipitation, dew, fog and also water vapour. Moreover, lichens are ubiquitous organisms, and on a global scale, they are found in nearly all terrestrial ecosystems and also within these ecosystems they inhabit many microhabitats. As poikilohydric. especially green algal lichens are known to photosynthetically reactivate solely upon uptake of atmospheric moisture, even at non-saturated ambient humidity conditions. To understand basic isotope exchange processes on non-vascular plants, thallus water isotopic composition was studied in various green-algal lichens exposed to desiccation. The study indicates that lichens equilibrates with the isotopic composition of surrounding water vapour. We found that the thallus water of lichens exposed to high relative humidity shows fast isotopic equilibration with the surrounding vapour regardless of whether the lichen experiences water loss or vapour uptake. The time until isotopic equilibrium is achieved depends on the initial water status as well as on the lichen's specific morphology. It ranged from 5 to 12h in previously dried lichens to approximately 40h in lichens previously rehydrated with liquid water of distinct isotopic composition. Even though markedly slower, isotopic equilibration between leaf water and ambient vapour may also occur in homoiohydric plants exposed to high relative humidity. At low relative humidity, however, the apparent vapour pressure deficit between the evaporative sites and the ambient air and the increased stomatal diffusion resistance generally causes leaf water enrichment. In contrast, poikilohydric lichens lack

  4. Environmental Learning Workshop: Lichen as Biological Indicator of Air Quality and Impact on Secondary Students' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samsudin, Mohd Wahid; Daik, Rusli; Abas, Azlan; Meerah, T. Subahan Mohd; Halim, Lilia

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the learning of science outside the classroom is believe to be an added value to science learning as well as it offers students to interact with the environment. This study presents data obtained from two days' workshop on Lichen as Biological Indicator for Air Quality. The aim of the workshop is for the students to gain an…

  5. Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from the valley ‘Ochsental’ (Eastern Alps, Vorarlberg, Austria)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter Othmar; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    A list of 100 lichen species and 4 lichenicolous fungi from the valley ‘Ochsental’ is presented. Lecidea laboriosa is new to Austria. Lecanora swartzii, Orphniospora moriopsis, Protothelenella corrosa and the lichenicolous fungus Cercidospora stereocaulorum are new to the province of Vorarlberg. PMID:26869748

  6. Sensitivity of desert cryptograms to air pollutants: soil crusts and rock lichens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.

    1991-01-01

    Parks throughout the West are being faced with increasing air pollution threats from current or proposed industries near their boundaries. For this reason, it is important to understand the effects these industries may have on desert ecosystems. Rock lichens can be excellent biomonitors, acting as early warning systems of impending damage to other components of the desert ecosystem. Cryptogamic crusts, consisting mostly of cyanobacteria and lichens, may not only be excellent bioindicators, but also are an essential part of the desert ecosystem. Their presence is critical for soil stability as well as for the contribution of nitrogen to the ecosystem in a form available to higher plants. Air pollutants, such as emissions from coal-fired power plants, may threaten the healthy functioning of these non-vascular plants. The purpose of this study is to determine if, in fact, air pollutants do have an impact on the physiological functioning of cryptogamic crusts or rock lichens in desert systems and, if so, to what extent. Some results have already been obtained. Both rock lichens and cryptogamic crusts exhibit physiological damage in the vicinity of the Navajo Generating Station in Page, Arizona. Increased electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll degradation, along with reduced nitrogen fixation, have been found. Preliminary studies comparing sensitivity between substrates indicate that crusts on limestone and sandstone substrates may be more sensitive than those on gypsum.

  7. Dermatopathology in historical perspective: the Montgomery giant cell of lichen simplex chronicus.

    PubMed

    Rubakovic, Svetlana; Steffen, Charles

    2010-01-01

    In this short historical review, we will discuss the origin and references to the giant cell that is sometimes histopathologically present in the dermis of lichen simplex chronicus that was first described by Hamilton Montgomery, MD. A photomicrograph of the giant cell was included by Montgomery in his text Dermatopathology published in 1967. We will then provide a short biography of Montgomery.

  8. Genome Sequence of Deinococcus marmoris PAMC 26562 Isolated from Antarctic Lichen

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junghee; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Kim, Byung Kwon; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Deinococcus marmoris strain PAMC 26562 was isolated from Usnea sp., a lichen collected from King George Island, Antarctica. We report here the draft genome sequence of strain PAMC 26562, which has xanthorhodopsin and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase genes in addition to major metabolic pathways presented in deinococcal genomes. PMID:28336585

  9. Contrasting patterns in lichen diversity in the continental and maritime Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shiv Mohan; Olech, Maria; Cannone, Nicoletta; Convey, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Systematic surveys of the lichen floras of Schirmacher Oasis (Queen Maud Land, continental Antarctic), Victoria Land (Ross Sector, continental Antarctic) and Admiralty Bay (South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic) were compared to help infer the major factors influencing patterns of diversity and biogeography in the three areas. Biogeographic patterns were determined using a variety of multivariate statistical tools. A total of 54 lichen species were documented from Schirmacher Oasis (SO), 48 from Victoria Land (VL) and 244 from Admiralty Bay (AB). Of these, 21 species were common to all areas. Most lichens from the SO and VL areas were microlichens, the dominant genus being Buellia. In AB, in contrast, many macrolichens were also present and the dominant genus was Caloplaca. In SO and VL large areas lacked any visible lichen cover, even where the ground was snow-free in summer. Small-scale diversity patterns were present in AB, where the number of species and genera was greater close to the coast. Most species recorded were rare in the study areas in which they were present and endemic to Antarctica.

  10. High cyanobiont selectivity of epiphytic lichens in old growth boreal forest of Finland.

    PubMed

    Myllys, Leena; Stenroos, Soili; Thell, Arne; Kuusinen, Mikko

    2007-01-01

    Here, cyanobiont selectivity of epiphytic lichen species was examined in an old growth forest area in Finland. Samples of the eight lichen species were collected from the same aspen (Populus tremula) and adjacent aspens in the same stand. The cyanobionts of these samples were compared with free and symbiotic Nostoc obtained from other habitats and geographic regions. Our results, based on the phylogenetic analysis of a partial small subunit of the ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) and the rbcLX gene complex did not show any correlation with the geographic origin of the samples at any spatial scale. Instead, there was a correlation between the cyanobionts and the alleged taxonomy of their mycobionts. The results indicate that the lichen species examined are highly selective towards their cyanobiont partners. Only Lobaria pulmonaria proved to be more flexible, being able to associate with a wide range of Nostoc. A same Nostoc strain was found to form associations with taxonomically unrelated lichens indicating that the cyanobiont-mycobiont associations as a whole were not highly specific in the examined species.

  11. Integrating coalescent and phylogenetic approaches to delimit species in the lichen photobiont Trebouxia.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Deś, Anna D; Dal Grande, Francesco; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Beck, Andreas; Otte, Jürgen; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Jung A; Schmitt, Imke

    2014-07-01

    The accurate assessment of species boundaries in symbiotic systems is a prerequisite for the study of speciation, co-evolution and selectivity. Many studies have shown the high genetic diversity of green algae from the genus Trebouxia, the most common photobiont of lichen-forming fungi. However, the phylogenetic relationships, and the amount of cryptic diversity of these algae are still poorly understood, and an adequate species concept for trebouxiophycean algae is still missing. In this study we used a multifaceted approach based on coalescence (GMYC, STEM) and phylogenetic relationships to assess species boundaries in the trebouxioid photobionts of the lichen-forming fungus Lasallia pustulata. We further investigated whether putative species of Trebouxia found in L. pustulata are shared with other lichen-forming fungi. We found that L. pustulata is associated with at least five species of Trebouxia and most of them are shared with other lichen-forming fungi, showing different patterns of species-to-species and species-to-community interactions. We also show that one of the putative Trebouxia species is found exclusively in association with L. pustulata and is restricted to thalli from localities with Mediterranean microclimate. We suggest that the species delimitation method presented in this study is a promising tool to address species boundaries within the heterogeneous genus Trebouxia.

  12. Buccal Micronuclei Assay as a Tool For Biomonitoring DNA Damage in Oral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Vidyalakshmi, S.; Nirmal, R. Madhavan; Veeravarmal, V.; Santhadevy, A.; Sumathy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The malignant transformation rate of Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is between 0% and 5.8%. Oral lesions of lichen planus clinically presents itself multifocally, simulating the process of field cancerization in high risk malignancies. The Buccal MicroNucleus Cytome Assay (BMN Assay) provides a platform to identify the high risk individuals by evaluating the markers of nuclear damage at an earliest micro invasive phase. Aim To evaluate DNA damage in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells in individuals with oral lichen planus lesions and thereby to delineate the high risk group. Materials and Methods Buccal smears from 22 OLP and 10 control samples were stained in modified Feulgen-Rossenback reaction for micronuclei assay. Cytological evaluation of number of MicroNucleated cells (CMN), Total Number of Micronuclei (TMN) in micronucleated cells was done in both groups. Results Frequency of micronucleated cells (CMN) when compared among the study and control group, a mean value of 4.27 ± 1.80 and 0.90 ± 0.88 were obtained respectively. On comparing the total number of micronuclei in the micronucleated cells (TMN) between the study and control groups, a mean value of 5.38 ± 2.42 and 1.5 ± 0.88 were obtained respectively. Conclusion There was a significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei and the micronucleated cells in the oral lichen planus as compared to normal individuals. PMID:27630941

  13. Polyextremotolerant black fungi: oligotrophism, adaptive potential, and a link to lichen symbioses.

    PubMed

    Gostinčar, Cene; Muggia, Lucia; Grube, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Black meristematic fungi can survive high doses of radiation and are resistant to desiccation. These adaptations help them to colonize harsh oligotrophic habitats, e.g., on the surface and subsurface of rocks. One of their most characteristic stress-resistance mechanisms is the accumulation of melanin in the cell walls. This, production of other protective molecules and a plastic morphology further contribute to ecological flexibility of black fungi. Increased growth rates of some species after exposure to ionizing radiation even suggest yet unknown mechanisms of energy production. Other unusual metabolic strategies may include harvesting UV or visible light or gaining energy by forming facultative lichen-like associations with algae or cyanobacteria. The latter is not entirely surprising, since certain black fungal lineages are phylogenetically related to clades of lichen-forming fungi. Similar to black fungi, lichen-forming fungi are adapted to growth on exposed surfaces with low availability of nutrients. They also efficiently use protective molecules to tolerate frequent periods of extreme stress. Traits shared by both groups of fungi may have been important in facilitating the evolution and radiation of lichen-symbioses.

  14. Plant growth promoting potential and phylogenetic characteristics of a lichenized nitrogen fixing bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Chidanandamurthy Thippeswamy; Gayathri, Devaraja; Devaraja, Thimmalapura Neelakantaiah; Bandekar, Mandar; D'Souza, Stecy Elvira; Meena, Ram Murti; Ramaiah, Nagappa

    2016-12-01

    Lichens are complex symbiotic association of mycobionts, photobionts, and bacteriobionts, including chemolithotropic bacteria. In the present study, 46 lichenized bacteria were isolated by conventional and enrichment culture methods on nitrogen-free bromothymol blue (NFb) medium. Only 11 of the 46 isolates fixed nitrogen on NFb and had reduced acetylene. All these 11 isolates had also produced siderophore and 10 of them the IAA. Further, ammonia production was recorded from nine of these nitrogen fixers (NF). On molecular characterization, 16 S rRNA sequencing recorded that, nine NF belonged to Proteobacteria, within Gammaproteobacteria, and were closely related to Enterobacter sp. with a maximum similarity to Enterobacter cloacae. Each one of our NF isolates was aligned closely to Enterobacter pulveris strain E443, Cronobacter sakazakii strain PNP8 and Providencia rettgeri strain ALK058. Notably, a few strains we examined found to possess plant growth promoting properties. This is the first report of Enterobacter sp. from lichens which may be inhabit lichen thalli extrinsically or intrinsically.

  15. Polyextremotolerant black fungi: oligotrophism, adaptive potential, and a link to lichen symbioses

    PubMed Central

    Gostinčar, Cene; Muggia, Lucia; Grube, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Black meristematic fungi can survive high doses of radiation and are resistant to desiccation. These adaptations help them to colonize harsh oligotrophic habitats, e.g., on the surface and subsurface of rocks. One of their most characteristic stress-resistance mechanisms is the accumulation of melanin in the cell walls. This, production of other protective molecules and a plastic morphology further contribute to ecological flexibility of black fungi. Increased growth rates of some species after exposure to ionizing radiation even suggest yet unknown mechanisms of energy production. Other unusual metabolic strategies may include harvesting UV or visible light or gaining energy by forming facultative lichen-like associations with algae or cyanobacteria. The latter is not entirely surprising, since certain black fungal lineages are phylogenetically related to clades of lichen-forming fungi. Similar to black fungi, lichen-forming fungi are adapted to growth on exposed surfaces with low availability of nutrients. They also efficiently use protective molecules to tolerate frequent periods of extreme stress. Traits shared by both groups of fungi may have been important in facilitating the evolution and radiation of lichen-symbioses. PMID:23162543

  16. A retrospective clinicopathological study on oral lichen planus and malignant transformation: Analysis of 518 cases

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zheng Y.; Zhu, Lai K.; Feng, Jin Q.; Tang, Guo Y.; Zhou, Zeng T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of a relatively large cohort of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) from eastern China. Study design: A total of 518 patients with histologically confirmed OLP in a long-term follow-up period (6 months-21.5 years) were retrospectively reviewed in our clinic. Results: Of the 518 patients, 353 females and 165 males were identified. The average age at diagnosis was 46.3 years (range 9-81 years) with the buccal mucosa being the most common site (87.8%). At initial presentation, white lichen and red lichen was seen in 52.3% and 47.7% patients, respectively. Of these, 5 (0.96%) patients previously diagnosed clinically and histopathologically as OLP developed oral cancer. All of them were the females with no a history of smoking or alcohol use. Conclusions: Clinical features of eastern Chinese OLP patients were elucidated. Notably, approximately 1% of OLP developed into cancer, which provides further evidence of potentially malignant nature of OLP. Key words:Oral lichen planus, clinical features, malignant transformation, oral cancer. PMID:22549677

  17. Development of Secondary Woodland in Oak Wood Pastures Reduces the Richness of Rare Epiphytic Lichens

    PubMed Central

    Paltto, Heidi; Nordberg, Anna; Nordén, Björn; Snäll, Tord

    2011-01-01

    Wooded pastures with ancient trees were formerly abundant throughout Europe, but during the last century, grazing has largely been abandoned often resulting in dense forests. Ancient trees constitute habitat for many declining and threatened species, but the effects of secondary woodland on the biodiversity associated with these trees are largely unknown. We tested for difference in species richness, occurrence, and abundance of a set of nationally and regionally red-listed epiphytic lichens between ancient oaks located in secondary woodland and ancient oaks located in open conditions. We refined the test of the effect of secondary woodland by also including other explanatory variables. Species occurrence and abundance were modelled jointly using overdispersed zero-inflated Poisson models. The richness of the red-listed lichens on ancient oaks in secondary woodland was half of that compared with oaks growing in open conditions. The species-level analyses revealed that this was mainly the result of lower occupancy of two of the study species. The tree-level abundance of one species was also lower in secondary woodland. Potential explanations for this pattern are that the study lichens are adapted to desiccating conditions enhancing their population persistence by low competition or that open, windy conditions enhance their colonisation rate. This means that the development of secondary woodland is a threat to red-listed epiphytic lichens. We therefore suggest that woody vegetation is cleared and grazing resumed in abandoned oak pastures. Importantly, this will also benefit the vitality of the oaks. PMID:21961041

  18. Development of secondary woodland in oak wood pastures reduces the richness of rare epiphytic lichens.

    PubMed

    Paltto, Heidi; Nordberg, Anna; Nordén, Björn; Snäll, Tord

    2011-01-01

    Wooded pastures with ancient trees were formerly abundant throughout Europe, but during the last century, grazing has largely been abandoned often resulting in dense forests. Ancient trees constitute habitat for many declining and threatened species, but the effects of secondary woodland on the biodiversity associated with these trees are largely unknown. We tested for difference in species richness, occurrence, and abundance of a set of nationally and regionally red-listed epiphytic lichens between ancient oaks located in secondary woodland and ancient oaks located in open conditions. We refined the test of the effect of secondary woodland by also including other explanatory variables. Species occurrence and abundance were modelled jointly using overdispersed zero-inflated Poisson models. The richness of the red-listed lichens on ancient oaks in secondary woodland was half of that compared with oaks growing in open conditions. The species-level analyses revealed that this was mainly the result of lower occupancy of two of the study species. The tree-level abundance of one species was also lower in secondary woodland. Potential explanations for this pattern are that the study lichens are adapted to desiccating conditions enhancing their population persistence by low competition or that open, windy conditions enhance their colonisation rate. This means that the development of secondary woodland is a threat to red-listed epiphytic lichens. We therefore suggest that woody vegetation is cleared and grazing resumed in abandoned oak pastures. Importantly, this will also benefit the vitality of the oaks.

  19. Estimating global carbon uptake by lichens and bryophytes with a process-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porada, P.; Weber, B.; Elbert, W.; Pöschl, U.; Kleidon, A.

    2013-11-01

    Lichens and bryophytes are abundant globally and they may even form the dominant autotrophs in (sub)polar ecosystems, in deserts and at high altitudes. Moreover, they can be found in large amounts as epiphytes in old-growth forests. Here, we present the first process-based model which estimates the net carbon uptake by these organisms at the global scale, thus assessing their significance for biogeochemical cycles. The model uses gridded climate data and key properties of the habitat (e.g. disturbance intervals) to predict processes which control net carbon uptake, namely photosynthesis, respiration, water uptake and evaporation. It relies on equations used in many dynamical vegetation models, which are combined with concepts specific to lichens and bryophytes, such as poikilohydry or the effect of water content on CO2 diffusivity. To incorporate the great functional variation of lichens and bryophytes at the global scale, the model parameters are characterised by broad ranges of possible values instead of a single, globally uniform value. The predicted terrestrial net uptake of 0.34 to 3.3 Gt yr-1 of carbon and global patterns of productivity are in accordance with empirically-derived estimates. Considering that the assimilated carbon can be invested in processes such as weathering or nitrogen fixation, lichens and bryophytes may play a significant role in biogeochemical cycles.

  20. Estimating global carbon uptake by lichens and bryophytes with a process-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porada, P.; Weber, B.; Elbert, W.; Pöschl, U.; Kleidon, A.

    2013-02-01

    Lichens and bryophytes are abundant globally and they may even form the dominant autotrophs in (sub)polar ecosystems, in deserts and at high altitudes. Moreover, they can be found in large amounts as epiphytes in old-growth forests. Here, we present the first process-based model which estimates the net carbon uptake by these organisms at the global scale, thus assessing their significance for biogeochemical cycles. The model uses gridded climate data and key properties of the habitat (e.g. disturbance intervals) to predict processes which control net carbon uptake, namely photosynthesis, respiration, water uptake and evaporation. It relies on equations used in many dynamical vegetation models, which are combined with concepts specific to lichens and bryophytes, such as poikilohydry or the effect of water content on CO2 diffusivity. To incorporate the great functional variation of lichens and bryophytes at the global scale, the model parameters are characterised by broad ranges of possible values instead of a single, globally uniform value. The predicted terrestrial net carbon uptake of 0.34 to 3.3 (Gt C) yr-1 and global patterns of productivity are in accordance with empirically-derived estimates. Considering that the assimilated carbon can be invested in processes such as weathering or nitrogen fixation, lichens and bryophytes may play a significant role in biogeochemical cycles.

  1. Cyphobasidium gen. nov., a new lichen-inhabiting lineage in the Cystobasidiomycetes (Pucciniomycotina, Basidiomycota, Fungi).

    PubMed

    Millanes, Ana M; Diederich, Paul; Wedin, Mats

    2016-11-01

    Pucciniomycotina is a highly diverse group of fungi, showing a remarkably wide range of lifestyles and ecologies. However, lichen-inhabiting fungi are only represented by a few species included in the genera Chionosphaera and Cystobasidium, and their phylogenetic position has never been investigated. Phylogenetic analyses using the nuclear SSU, ITS, and LSU ribosomal DNA markers reveal that the lichenicolous members of Cystobasidium (C. hypogymniicola, C. usneicola) form a monophyletic group distinct from Cystobasidium and outside the Cystobasidiales. The new genus Cyphobasidium is consequently described to accommodate these lichen-inhabiting species. Cyphobasidium is characterized by producing conspicuous galls on the host lichen thalli, by having distinctive basidia that arise from a thick-walled, cup-like structure, the probasidium, that persists after the senescence of the actual basidium (meiosporangium), and by its lichenicolous occurrence on species of Hypogymnia and Usnea. Cyphobasidium is one of the few representatives of the Cystobasidiomycetes in which the sexual stage predominates in nature, whereas most species in the group are known only from an asexual yeast phase. This is the first time the position of lichen-inhabiting taxa within the Pucciniomycotina is investigated using molecular data.

  2. Lichen ecology and diversity of a sagebrush steppe in Oregon: 1977 to the present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A lichen checklist is presented of 141 species from the Lawrence Memorial Grassland Preserve and nearby lands in Wasco County, Oregon, based on collections made in the 1970s and 1990s. Collections include epiphytic, lignicolous, saxicolous, muscicolous and terricolous species. To evaluate differenc...

  3. Ashy dermatosis and lichen planus pigmentosus: a clinicopathologic study of 31 cases.

    PubMed

    Vega, M E; Waxtein, L; Arenas, R; Hojyo, T; Dominguez-Soto, L

    1992-02-01

    The clinical and histopathologic characteristics of patients with ashy dermatosis (n = 20) and lichen planus pigmentosus (n = 11) were analyzed. We found significant clinical differences between both dermatoses, supporting our opinion that they are two separate conditions. Both dermatoses were histologically similar.

  4. Lichens of wilderness areas in California: Baseline studies for monitoring air pollution. [Letharia; Melanelia; Pseudophebe minuscula

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, B.D.; Nash, T.H. III )

    1990-01-01

    The lichen floras of selected wilderness areas in California are being surveyed to provide baseline data for monitoring air pollution. A small number of permanent transects on trees and quadrats on rock were established, and Letharia spp. were collected for element analyses. In the San Gabriel Wilderness (immediately north of Los Angeles), a diverse lichen flora was found on rocks and (in some areas) on soil or hardwood trees, but not on conifers, and the thalli of several taxa (e.g., Melanelia spp. and Pseudephebe minuscula) showed clear signs of distortion or discoloration. No obvious signs of damaged thalli or depauperate floras have been found in the other wildernesses studied so far, except in the Agua Tibia Wilderness (near San Diego), which was largely destroyed by fire in the summer of 1989. The two wildernesses examined in the Sierra Nevada Mountains had very few corticolous lichen taxa and few taxa known to be pollution-sensitive, but this probably reflects climatic conditions more than pollution. Re-examination of the wildernesses in the future should provide information on any changes in the lichen vegetation due to changes in air quality.

  5. Lichens and moss as bioindicators and bioaccumulators in air pollution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, F; Neri, R; Benco, C; Serracca, L

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we review research conducted in the La Spezia district during 1989, 1992, and 1994, using lichens and moss as indicators of air pollution. SO2 pollution was examined by means of an Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) based on the frequency of epiphytic lichen within a sampling grid. Metal deposits were estimated using the lichen Parmelia caperata and the moss Hypnum cupressiforme as bioaccumulators. IAP maps show progressive air quality improvement from 1989 to 1994. This trend correlates to a decrease in SO2 emissions during recent years that is attributed to the use of methane for residential heating and the closing of a coal-fired power plant. Metal contamination maps show that the most polluted area is now in the southeastern part of the gulf. The pattern of pollution coincides with the location of the chief pollution sources in the area. From 1989 to 1994, the metal concentrations in lichens decreased, but metal deposits in the southeastern area were cause for concern. High concentrations of lead in the area are related to emissions from a waste incinerator and a plant that produces lead oxide. Epidemiological investigations reveal that the area population has the highest levels of lead in their blood. The use of bioindicators and bioaccumulators permits long-term and large-scale monitoring of environmental pollutant levels in full agreement with traditional methods.

  6. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the effect of the lichenicolous fungus Xanthoriicola physciae on its lichen host.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; Seaward, Mark R D; Preece, Tom F; Jorge-Villar, Susana E; Hawksworth, David L

    2017-01-01

    Lichenicolous (lichen-dwelling) fungi have been extensively researched taxonomically over many years, and phylogenetically in recent years, but the biology of the relationship between the invading fungus and the lichen host has received limited attention, as has the effects on the chemistry of the host, being difficult to examine in situ. Raman spectroscopy is an established method for the characterization of chemicals in situ, and this technique is applied to a lichenicolous fungus here for the first time. Xanthoriicola physciae occurs in the apothecia of Xanthoria parietina, producing conidia at the hymenium surface. Raman spectroscopy of apothecial sections revealed that parietin and carotenoids were destroyed in infected apothecia. Those compounds protect healthy tissues of the lichen from extreme insolation and their removal may contribute to the deterioration of the apothecia. Scytonemin was also detected, but was most probably derived from associated cyanobacteria. This work shows that Raman spectroscopy has potential for investigating changes in the chemistry of a lichen by an invading lichenicolous fungus.

  7. Chemical element concentrations in four lichens on a transect entering Voyageurs National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    A three factor transect study was conducted to test the hypothesis that chemical elements from air emissions in the vicinity of International Falls, Minnesota could not be detected in lichens along a 24 km transect reaching into Voyageurs National Park. It was hypothesized that element concentrations in lichens would decline exponentially downwind and would reach background values at a distance before the park boundary. Four species (Cladina rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Hypogymnia physodes, and Parmelia sulcata) were sampled at ten sites for 3 years and 17 chemical elements were measured. The most notable result was a curvilinear geographic trend for many elements, which decreased from International Falls and then increased towards the park. This trend was significant for many anthropogenic elements, including S, Hg, Cd, and Cr, and for all four species. This type of distribution pattern has been observed in Hypogymnia physodes in other studies downwind of a steel mill and an oil refinery. Cladina, a ground-dwelling lichen, generally had lower tissue concentrations of the elements than the three epiphytic species. Tissue concentrations over the 3 years of sampling declined an average of 12%. Sufficient evidence exists to conclude that lichen tissue element concentrations in the vicinity of International Falls may be related to local air emissions, and that an exponential decline of element concentrations downwind of the sources does not apply to this situation.

  8. The temperature dependance of photoinhibition in the tropical basidiomycete lichen Cora pavonia E. Fries.

    PubMed

    Coxson, D S

    1987-09-01

    The response of net photosynthesis (NP) and dark respiration to periods of high insolation exposure was examined in the tropical basidiomycete lichen Cora pavonia. Photoinhibition of NP proved quite dependant on temperature. Rates of light saturated NP were severely impaired immediately after pretreatment high light exposure at temperatures of 10, 20 and 40°C, while similar exposure at 30°C resulted in only minimal photoinhibition. Apparent quantum yield proved an even more sensitive indicator of photoinhibition, reduced in all temperature treatments, although inhibition was again greatest at low and high temperatures. Concurrent exposure to reduced O2 tensions during high light exposure mitigated some of the deleterious effects of high light exposure at 10 and 20°C, suggesting an interaction of O2 with the inactivation of photosynthetic function. This represents the first reported instance of light dependant chilling stress in lichens, and may be an important limitation on the distribution of this and other tropical lichen species. This narrow range of temperatures within which thalli of C. pavonia can withstand periods of high insolation exposure coincides with that faced by hydrated thalli during rare periods of high insolation exposure within the cloud/shroud zone on La Soufrière, and points to the necessity of considering periods of atypical or unusual climatic events when interpreting patterns of net photosynthetic response, both in tropical and in north temperate lichen species.

  9. A Study of Depression and Quality of Life in Patients of Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Neena S.; Vanjari, Nakul A.; Khopkar, Uday; Adulkar, Satish

    2015-01-01

    The precise cause of lichen planus is unknown, but the disease seems to be immunologically mediated. It is a psychocutaneous disorder. Due to scarcity of Indian studies in this field, we decided to study in patients of lichen planus the prevalence of depression and quality of life with comparison of the same in both the genders. Patients diagnosed as having lichen planus by consultant dermatologist were enrolled after informed consent and ethics approval. 45 patients were screened, of which 35 who satisfied the criteria were taken up for the study. A semistructured proforma was designed to collect the necessary information with administration of dermatology life quality index and Beck's depression inventory. While 25% were depressed with females being more affected than males, quality of life was impaired in more than 90% patients. Impairment was maximum due to symptoms and illness feelings, disturbed daily activities, or work and time consumption in treatment. There was a strong association between depression and impairment in quality of life in both the genders. This study helps in early identification of psychological problems in lichen planus patients and in planning their future course of management, hence reducing the lack of productivity and improving the prognosis and quality of life. PMID:25802892

  10. Ocean to Continent Transfer of Atmospheric Se: Emission, Sources and Fate as Revealed by Epiphytic Lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, H.; Carignan, J.

    2005-12-01

    Because of the very narrow margin between nutritionally optimal and potentially toxic dietary exposures for animals and humans, selenium sources and fate in the environment is an important question. The major sources of atmospheric Se include diverse anthropogenic activities, natural emission of marine biogenic Se and punctual volcanic contributions. Lichens have been used to document elemental atmospheric deposition, including that of volatile elements such as Se, Hg, Sb, As, and to evaluate the natural and anthropogenic input in the atmosphere. Here we report the Cl and Se contents in lichens and various relationships for estimating atmospheric Se sources. Samples were collected in coastal and inland areas from United States (west coast), Canada (west coast and Hudson Bay) and France (west coast). Se and Cl concentrations in samples from coastal areas are well correlated to each other, suggesting the two elements would originate from the same source. Cl is mainly derived from marine sources as sea salts generated from the sea spray. Se is also naturally emitted to the atmosphere from the seawater as methylated Se compounds such as DMSe, DMDSe and MeSeH. Adsorption of cations on negatively charged organic films will probably not be effective for Se because it mainly occurs as anionic forms in seawater. Rather, volatile methylated Se compounds are directly released at the sea surface and later adsorbed on atmospheric particles, leading to Se enrichment relative to Cl and related to the gas-to-particle partitioning. This emission process would explain the fact that Se/Cl ratio measured in "coastal" lichens is higher than that of the bulk seawater by about 5 orders of magnitude. This ratio also seems geographically dependant. For similar Cl concentrations, lichens from southern Hudson Bay (Canada) have a higher Se/Cl ratio than that measured in lichens from California (USA); the lichens from France being intermediate. We suppose that this difference might be the

  11. Magnetic properties and element concentrations in lichens exposed to airborne pollutants released during cement production.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Winkler, Aldo; Guttová, Anna; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Grassi, Alice; Lackovičová, Anna; Senko, Dušan; Loppi, Stefano

    2016-02-15

    The content of selected elements (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Ti, V and Zn) was measured in samples of the lichen Evernia prunastri exposed for 30, 90 and 180 days around a cement mill, limestone and basalt quarries and urban and agricultural areas in SW Slovakia. Lichens transplanted around the investigated quarries and the cement mill rapidly (30 days) reflected the deposition of dust-associated elements, namely Ca (at the cement mill and the limestone quarry) and Fe, Ti and V (around the cement mill and the basalt quarry), and their content remained significantly higher throughout the whole period (30-180 days) with respect to the surrounding environment. Airborne pollutants (such as S) progressively increased in the study area from 30 to 180 days. The magnetic properties of lichen transplants exposed for 180 days have been characterized and compared with those of native lichens (Xanthoria parietina) and neighbouring bark, soil and rock samples, in order to test the suitability of native and transplanted samples as air pollution magnetic biomonitors. The magnetic mineralogy was homogeneous in all samples, with the exception of the samples from the basalt quarry. The transplants showed excellent correlations between the saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs) and the content of Fe. Native samples had a similar magnetic signature, but the values of the concentration-dependent magnetic parameters were up to two orders of magnitude higher, reflecting higher concentrations of magnetic particles. The concentrations of As, Ca and Cr in lichens correlated with Mrs values after neglecting the samples from the basalt quarry, which showed distinct magnetic properties, suggesting the cement mill as a likely source. Conversely, Ti and Mn were mostly (but not exclusively) associated with dust from the basalt quarry. It is suggested that the natural geological characteristics of the substrate may strongly affect the magnetic properties of lichen thalli

  12. Lichens as biomonitor of atmospheric aerosol composition in the Northwest European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, Vladimir P.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Zamber, Natalia S.; Konov, Konstantin G.; Starodymova, Dina P.

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown that aerosols are of importance for atmospheric chemistry and climate of the Arctic. At the coasts of Arctic seas and in their catchment areas delivery of chemical elements and compounds are registered in natural archives, for example in lichens. Lichens absorb substances, including trace elements, through dry and wet deposition, and have been widely used as biomonitors. We studied multi-element composition of terricolous (mostly of genera Cladonia and Cetraria) and fruticose epiphytic (mostly of genera Alectoria, Usnea and Bryoria) lichens collected in 2004-2009 in Kola Peninsula, Karelia, Arkhangelsk Region and Komi Republic of NW Russia, mostly in the frame of International Polar Year activity. About 110 samples were analyzed. The unwashed lichen samples were air dried and homogenised to a fine powder in an agate crusher. Samples were treated in a four-step chemical digestion procedure (full dissolution via acid attack) and element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Parts of dry samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). An enrichment factor (EF) was calculated for each element (X) relative to the composition of earth's crust: EF = ((X/Al) in lichen) / ((X/Al) in the earth's crust). Al was used as a crustal indicator. In most samples contents of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, rare earth elements (REEs), Th, U are at the background level and their EFs are less than 10. These low EF values indicated that, relative to average values for crustal rocks, there was no enrichment of these elements in the lichen concerned. For some elements (Se, Cd, Zn, Sb, Pb, As, Ni, Cu) consistently higher EF values were obtained. These higher values were interpreted in terms of sources of both anthropogenic and natural sources other than crustal rock and (or) soil. These elements could be derived by long-range atmospheric transport. Highest concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb in lichens

  13. Microbial communities associated with tree bark foliose lichens: a perspective on their microecology.

    PubMed

    Anderson, O Roger

    2014-01-01

    Tree-bark, foliose lichens occur widely on a global scale. In some locales, such as forests, they contribute a substantial amount of biomass. However, there are few research reports on microbial communities including eukaryotic microbes associated with foliose lichens. Lichens collected from tree bark at 11 locations (Florida, New York State, Germany, Australia, and the Arctic) were examined to determine the density and C-biomass of bacteria and some eukaryotic microbes, i.e. heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) and amoeboid protists. A rich microbial diversity was found, including large plasmodial slime molds, in some cases exceeding 100 μm in size. The densities of HNF and amoeboid protists were each positively correlated with densities of bacteria, r = 0.84 and 0.80, respectively (p < 0.01, N = 11 for each analysis) indicating a likely bacterial-based food web. Microbial densities (number/g lichen dry weight) varied markedly across the geographic sampling sites: bacteria (0.7-13.1 × 10(8) ), HNF (0.2-6.8 × 10(6) ) and amoeboid protists (0.4-4.6 × 10(3) ). The ranges in C-biomass (μg/g lichen dry weight) across the 11 sites were: bacteria (8.8-158.5), HNF (0.03-0.85), and amoeboid protists (0.08-540), the latter broad range was due particularly to absence or presence of large slime mold plasmodia.

  14. Magnetic properties of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea transplanted near a cement plant in NE Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Aldo; Kodnik, Danijela; Candotto Carniel, Fabio; Tretiach, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The magnetic properties of transplanted samples of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf var. furfuracea have been analyzed in the framework of a biomonitoring study in NE Italy focused on a middle-sized cement plant (clinker production: 556,000 ton year-1 in 2012). The lichen transplants were exposed for 2 months in 40 sites distributed all around the cement plant: 37 sites were located at the knots of a 700 m step grid covering agricultural, forest and urban areas and a large industrial zone, and 3 sites were located in the nearby urban centers. The elemental analysis of the exposed samples revealed a limited impact of the cement plant on the territory, while that of the industrial zone, located in the SW corner of the study area, seemed to be generally stronger. The magnetic properties of the transplanted lichens statistically agree with the elemental concentration dataset, showing that the cement plant has no significant impact on the magnetic properties of the lichens transplanted in the whole area. The samples from the industrial area show the highest values of magnetic susceptibility and of saturation magnetization and saturation remanent magnetization, in coherence with the spatial distribution of the elemental concentration values. The magnetic mineralogy is reasonably uniform throughout the whole set of samples, and is dominated by magnetite-like minerals. The magnetic mineralogy of the sample nearest to the cement plant is not magnetically distinguishable from that of the other lichen samples and does not seem to be linked to the magnetic properties of the cement therein produced. The full agreement between the magnetic and elemental datasets underlines a modest environmental impact of the cement plant, with respect to the other industrial activities in the same area.

  15. Whole Lichen Thalli Survive Exposure to Space Conditions: Results of Lithopanspermia Experiment with Aspicilia fruticulosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raggio, J.; Pintado, A.; Ascaso, C.; De La Torre, R.; De Los Ríos, A.; Wierzchos, J.; Horneck, G.; Sancho, L. G.

    2011-05-01

    The Lithopanspermia space experiment was launched in 2007 with the European Biopan facility for a 10-day spaceflight on board a Russian Foton retrievable satellite. Lithopanspermia included for the first time the vagrant lichen species Aspicilia fruticulosa from Guadalajara steppic highlands (Central Spain), as well as other lichen species. During spaceflight, the samples were exposed to selected space conditions, that is, the space vacuum, cosmic radiation, and different spectral ranges of solar radiation (λ ≥ 110, ≥ 200, ≥ 290, or ≥ 400 nm, respectively). After retrieval, the algal and fungal metabolic integrity of the samples were evaluated in terms of chlorophyll a fluorescence, ultrastructure, and CO2 exchange rates. Whereas the space vacuum and cosmic radiation did not impair the metabolic activity of the lichens, solar electromagnetic radiation, especially in the wavelength range between 100 and 200 nm, caused reduced chlorophyll a yield fluorescence; however, there was a complete recovery after 72 h of reactivation. All samples showed positive rates of net photosynthesis and dark respiration in the gas exchange experiment. Although the ultrastructure of all flight samples showed some probable stress-induced changes (such as the presence of electron-dense bodies in cytoplasmic vacuoles and between the chloroplast thylakoids in photobiont cells as well as in cytoplasmic vacuoles of the mycobiont cells), we concluded that A. fruticulosa was capable of repairing all space-induced damage. Due to size limitations within the Lithopanspermia hardware, the possibility for replication on the sun-exposed samples was limited, and these first results on the resistance of the lichen symbiosis A. fruticulosa to space conditions and, in particular, on the spectral effectiveness of solar extraterrestrial radiation must be considered preliminary. Further testing in space and under space-simulated conditions will be required. Results of this study indicate that the

  16. Photosynthetic recovery and acclimation to excess light intensity in the rehydrated lichen soil crusts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li; Lei, Yaping; Lan, Shubin; Hu, Chunxiang

    2017-01-01

    As an important successional stage and main type of biological soil crusts (BSCs) in Shapotou region of China (southeastern edge of Tengger Desert), lichen soil crusts (LSCs) often suffer from many stresses, such as desiccation and excess light intensity. In this study, the chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 exchange in the rehydrated LSCs were detected under a series of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) gradients to study the photosynthetic acclimation of LSCs. The results showed that although desiccation leaded to the loss of photosynthetic activity in LSCs, the fluorescence parameters including Fo, Fv and Fv/Fm of LSCs could be well recovered after rehydration. After the recovery of photosynthetic activity, the effective photosynthetic efficiency ΦPSII detected by Imaging PAM had declined to nearly 0 within both the lichen thallus upper and lower layers when the PAR increased to 200 μE m-2 s-1, however the net photosynthesis detected by the CO2 gas analyzer in the LSCs still appeared when the PAR increased to 1000 μE m-2 s-1. Our results indicate that LSCs acclimating to high PAR, on the one hand is ascribed to the special structure in crust lichens, making the incident light into the lichen thallus be weakened; on the other hand the massive accumulation of photosynthetic pigments in LSCs also provides a protective barrier for the photosynthetic organisms against radiation damage. Furthermore, the excessive light energy absorbed by crust lichens is also possibly dissipated by the increasing non-photochemical quenching, therefore to some extent providing some protection for LSCs.

  17. The Magnetic Properties of Lichens Exposed Around a Cement Plant in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Aldo; Paoli, Luca; Guttová, Anna; Loppi, Stefano; Sagnotti, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    A cement industry is a source of dust pollution, from quarrying and grinding of the raw material to kiln operations. Airborne pollutants related to combustion processes are also emitted, especially during kiln operations and power generation. The use of biomonitors can provide valuable information about the impact of airborne pollutants released during cement production and lichens are suitable bioindicators of air pollution, providing reliable information on the quality of the environment. We investigated the magnetic hysteresis properties and the elemental concentrations of epiphytic lichens from selected sites (a cement mill, two quarries, agricultural areas, and villages) in SW Slovakia; in particular, both transplanted and in situ lichens, bark, soil and rock samples from the sampling sites, as well as pre-transplant samples have been characterized. Evernia prunastri transplants, exposed up to 180 days, showed excellent correlations between the saturation magnetization (Ms) and saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs) values and the Fe concentrations; the analyzed samples were magnetically homogeneous, with marked differences only for the sample from a basalt quarry. Xanthoria parietina autochthonous samples have also a similar magnetic mineralogy; anyway their Ms and Mrs values were two orders of magnitude higher with respect to those from the transplants, implying increased concentration of magnetic particles according to the different lichen species and to the prolonged exposure. Magnetic methods can be valuable for discriminating various natural and anthropogenic sources of dust. In this study, we point out that the magnetic properties may also reflect the influence of the basalt quarry activity, of the soil and of the bedrock. For a proper evaluation of the pollution related to human activities, it is thus essential to verify the nature of the substrate and to select suitable and homogeneous pre/post lichen transplant sites.

  18. Effects of lichen extracts on haematological parameters of rats with experimental insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Colak, Suat; Geyikoğlu, Fatime; Aslan, Ali; Deniz, Gülşah Yıldız

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the world is steadily increasing. Oxidative stress contributes to the development of diabetic complications, including diabetic haematological changes. Lichens are used as food supplements and are also used as possible natural antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer agents. We hypothesized that antioxidant activity of lichens may decrease hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress and prevent the development of diabetic complications, including abnormality in haematological condition. Therefore, the effects of Cetraria islandica water extract (CIWE) and Pseudevernia furfuracea water extract (PFWE) on the haematological parameters of rats with type 1 DM were investigated for the first time in the present study. Control Sprague-Dawley or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were either untreated or treated with water lichen extracts (5-500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) for 2 weeks, starting at 72 h after STZ injection. On day 14, animals were anaesthetized and haematological and metabolic parameters were determined between control and experimental groups. In addition, the total oxidative stress (TOS), a specific indicator of oxidative stress, and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured by biochemical studies. In diabetic rats, CIWE of 250-500 mg/kg bw dose showed more prominent results when compared with doses of PFWE for TAC. The results obtained in the present study suggested that the antioxidant activities of lichens might be the possible reason behind the observed antihaematological status. However, the protective effect of lichen extracts were inadequate on diabetes-induced microcytic hypochromic anaemia. In addition, the extracts have no effect on metabolic complications. Our experimental data showed that high doses of CIWE and PFWE alone have no detrimental effect on blood cells and TOS status of plasma. Hence, they are safe and suitable for different administration routes.

  19. Photosynthetic recovery and acclimation to excess light intensity in the rehydrated lichen soil crusts

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li; Lei, Yaping; Lan, Shubin; Hu, Chunxiang

    2017-01-01

    As an important successional stage and main type of biological soil crusts (BSCs) in Shapotou region of China (southeastern edge of Tengger Desert), lichen soil crusts (LSCs) often suffer from many stresses, such as desiccation and excess light intensity. In this study, the chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 exchange in the rehydrated LSCs were detected under a series of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) gradients to study the photosynthetic acclimation of LSCs. The results showed that although desiccation leaded to the loss of photosynthetic activity in LSCs, the fluorescence parameters including Fo, Fv and Fv/Fm of LSCs could be well recovered after rehydration. After the recovery of photosynthetic activity, the effective photosynthetic efficiency ΦPSII detected by Imaging PAM had declined to nearly 0 within both the lichen thallus upper and lower layers when the PAR increased to 200 μE m-2 s-1, however the net photosynthesis detected by the CO2 gas analyzer in the LSCs still appeared when the PAR increased to 1000 μE m-2 s-1. Our results indicate that LSCs acclimating to high PAR, on the one hand is ascribed to the special structure in crust lichens, making the incident light into the lichen thallus be weakened; on the other hand the massive accumulation of photosynthetic pigments in LSCs also provides a protective barrier for the photosynthetic organisms against radiation damage. Furthermore, the excessive light energy absorbed by crust lichens is also possibly dissipated by the increasing non-photochemical quenching, therefore to some extent providing some protection for LSCs. PMID:28257469

  20. Iridium, platinum and rhodium baseline concentration in lichens from Tierra del Fuego (South Patagonia, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Pino, Anna; Alimonti, Alessandro; Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Bocca, Beatrice

    2010-10-06

    Lichen samples of Usnea barbata were used as possible biomonitors of the atmospheric background level of iridium (Ir), platinum (Pt) and rhodium (Rh) in the remote region of Tierra del Fuego (South Patagonia, Argentina). Lichens were collected in 2006 at 53 sites covering 7 different areas of the region (24 transplanted lichens of the northern region and 29 native lichen samples of the central-southern region). A microwave acidic digestion procedure was used to mineralize the samples and a sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method was developed to quantify the elements. The study of the influence of interferences on analyte signals and a quality control procedure were carried out. The analytical protocol was further applied to evaluate Ir, Pt and Rh bioaccumulation in lichens. The detection limits obtained were 0.010 ng g⁻¹, 0.013 ng g⁻¹ and 0.030 ng g⁻¹ for Ir, Pt and Rh, respectively. Recoveries at different fortification levels were between 96.3% and 106% and precision was 3.3% on average. The metals concentration (as dry weight) spanned the following ranges: Ir, <0.010-1.011 ng g⁻¹; Pt, 0.016-2.734 ng g⁻¹; and Rh, 0.063-1.298 ng g⁻¹. Data on 7 areas were similar suggesting that no specific source, for example traffic or anthropogenic activity, influenced directly the metal concentrations in Tierra del Fuego. Values detected are more likely influenced by the long-range atmospheric transport of these pollutants and, in comparison with densely populated areas in the world, they can represent the baseline for low impacted areas.