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Sample records for lidocaine

  1. Lidocaine Viscous

    MedlinePlus

    ... pain of a sore or irritated mouth and throat often associated with cancer chemotherapy and certain medical ... Lidocaine viscous is not normally used for sore throats due to cold, flu, or infections such as ...

  2. Lidocaine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mehra, P; Caiazzo, A; Maloney, P

    1998-01-01

    Local anesthetics are the most commonly used drugs in dentistry. The number of adverse reactions reported, particularly toxic reactions, are extraordinarily negligible. This article reports a case of lidocaine toxicity with its typical manifestation in a 37-yr-old healthy male. The toxic reaction followed transoral/transpharyngeal topical spraying of lidocaine preoperatively during preparation for general anesthesia. A review of dosages of the most commonly used local anesthetic drugs in dentistry and the management of a toxic reaction is presented. Clinicians need to be in a position to recognize and successfully manage this potential adverse reaction.

  3. Lidocaine Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    Lidocaine patches are used to relieve the pain of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN; the burning, stabbing pains, ... for months or years after a shingles infection). Lidocaine is in a class of medications called local ...

  4. Tumescent Liposuction without Lidocaine

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Joshua J.; Fang, Xin-Hua; Williams, Shelley J.; Baynosa, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our previous study demonstrated that lidocaine has a negative impact on adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) survival. Currently for large-volume liposuction, patients often undergo general anesthesia; therefore, lidocaine subcutaneous anesthesia is nonessential. We hypothesized that removing lidocaine from tumescent might improve stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and ASC survival from the standard tumescent with lidocaine. Ropivacaine is also a commonly used local anesthetic. The effect of ropivacaine on ASC survival was examined. Methods: Adults who underwent liposuction on bilateral body areas were included (n = 10). Under general anesthesia, liposuction on 1 area was conducted under standard tumescent with lidocaine. On the contralateral side, liposuction was conducted under the modified tumescent without lidocaine. Five milliliters of lipoaspirate were processed for the isolation of SVF. The adherent ASCs were counted after 24 hours of SVF culture. Apoptosis and necrosis of SVF cells were examined by Annexin/propidium iodide staining and analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Average percentage of live SVF cells was 68.0% ± 4.0% (28.5% ± 3.8% of apoptosis and 3.4% ± 1.0% of necrosis) in lidocaine group compared with 86.7% ± 3.7% (11.5% ± 3.1% of apoptosis and 1.8% ± 0.7% of necrosis) in no-lidocaine group (P = 0.002). Average number of viable ASC was also significantly lower (367,000 ± 107) in lidocaine group compared with that (500,000 ± 152) in no-lidocaine group (P = 0.04). No significant difference was found between lidocaine and ropivacaine on ASC cytotoxicity. Conclusions: Removing lidocaine from tumescent significantly reduced SVF and ASC apoptosis in the lipoaspirate. We recommend tumescent liposuction without lidocaine, particularly if patient’s lipoaspirate will be used for fat grafting. PMID:27622097

  5. The Preparation of Lidocaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Thomas J.

    1999-11-01

    In this experiment, which is intended for the introductory organic laboratory, the widely used local anesthetic Lidocaine is synthesized in two steps from 2,6-dimethylaniline. In the first step, the amine is acylated with chloroacetyl chloride. In the second step, the amide is subjected to nucleophilic substitution by diethylamine to give the final product with an overall yield of 71% based on 2,6-dimethylaniline. I have used this experiment in my organic class for several years with excellent results. Average students can isolate the crude product in less than three hours.

  6. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 μg/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20–25 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure. PMID:25709968

  7. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion.

    PubMed

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 μg/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20-25 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure.

  8. Estimated Maximal Safe Dosages of Tumescent Lidocaine

    PubMed Central

    Jeske, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumescent lidocaine anesthesia consists of subcutaneous injection of relatively large volumes (up to 4 L or more) of dilute lidocaine (≤1 g/L) and epinephrine (≤1 mg/L). Although tumescent lidocaine anesthesia is used for an increasing variety of surgical procedures, the maximum safe dosage is unknown. Our primary aim in this study was to measure serum lidocaine concentrations after subcutaneous administration of tumescent lidocaine with and without liposuction. Our hypotheses were that even with large doses (i.e., >30 mg/kg), serum lidocaine concentrations would be below levels associated with mild toxicity and that the concentration-time profile would be lower after liposuction than without liposuction. METHODS: Volunteers participated in 1 to 2 infiltration studies without liposuction and then one study with tumescent liposuction totally by local anesthesia. Serum lidocaine concentrations were measured at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 24 hours after each tumescent lidocaine infiltration. Area under the curve (AUC∞) of the serum lidocaine concentration-time profiles and peak serum lidocaine concentrations (Cmax) were determined with and without liposuction. For any given milligram per kilogram dosage, the probability that Cmax >6 μg/mL, the threshold for mild lidocaine toxicity was estimated using tolerance interval analysis. RESULTS: In 41 tumescent infiltration procedures among 14 volunteer subjects, tumescent lidocaine dosages ranged from 19.2 to 52 mg/kg. Measured serum lidocaine concentrations were all <6 μg/mL over the 24-hour study period. AUC∞s with liposuction were significantly less than those without liposuction (P = 0.001). The estimated risk of lidocaine toxicity without liposuction at a dose of 28 mg/kg and with liposuction at a dose of 45 mg/kg was ≤1 per 2000. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary estimates for maximum safe dosages of tumescent lidocaine are 28 mg/kg without liposuction and 45 mg/kg with liposuction. As a

  9. Estimated Maximal Safe Dosages of Tumescent Lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jeffrey A; Jeske, Daniel R

    2016-05-01

    Tumescent lidocaine anesthesia consists of subcutaneous injection of relatively large volumes (up to 4 L or more) of dilute lidocaine (≤1 g/L) and epinephrine (≤1 mg/L). Although tumescent lidocaine anesthesia is used for an increasing variety of surgical procedures, the maximum safe dosage is unknown. Our primary aim in this study was to measure serum lidocaine concentrations after subcutaneous administration of tumescent lidocaine with and without liposuction. Our hypotheses were that even with large doses (i.e., >30 mg/kg), serum lidocaine concentrations would be below levels associated with mild toxicity and that the concentration-time profile would be lower after liposuction than without liposuction. Volunteers participated in 1 to 2 infiltration studies without liposuction and then one study with tumescent liposuction totally by local anesthesia. Serum lidocaine concentrations were measured at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 24 hours after each tumescent lidocaine infiltration. Area under the curve (AUC∞) of the serum lidocaine concentration-time profiles and peak serum lidocaine concentrations (Cmax) were determined with and without liposuction. For any given milligram per kilogram dosage, the probability that Cmax >6 μg/mL, the threshold for mild lidocaine toxicity was estimated using tolerance interval analysis. In 41 tumescent infiltration procedures among 14 volunteer subjects, tumescent lidocaine dosages ranged from 19.2 to 52 mg/kg. Measured serum lidocaine concentrations were all <6 μg/mL over the 24-hour study period. AUC∞s with liposuction were significantly less than those without liposuction (P = 0.001). The estimated risk of lidocaine toxicity without liposuction at a dose of 28 mg/kg and with liposuction at a dose of 45 mg/kg was ≤1 per 2000. Preliminary estimates for maximum safe dosages of tumescent lidocaine are 28 mg/kg without liposuction and 45 mg/kg with liposuction. As a result of delayed systemic absorption, these

  10. Prophylactic lidocaine for myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Anand, Vidhu; Bangdiwala, Shrikant

    2015-08-21

    Coronary artery disease is a major public health problem affecting both developed and developing countries. Acute coronary syndromes include unstable angina and myocardial infarction with or without ST-segment elevation (electrocardiogram sector is higher than baseline). Ventricular arrhythmia after myocardial infarction is associated with high risk of mortality. The evidence is out of date, and considerable uncertainty remains about the effects of prophylactic use of lidocaine on all-cause mortality, in particular, in patients with suspected myocardial infarction. To determine the clinical effectiveness and safety of prophylactic lidocaine in preventing death among people with myocardial infarction. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 13 April 2015), EMBASE (1947 to 13 April 2015) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1986 to 13 April 2015). We also searched Web of Science (1970 to 13 April 2013) and handsearched the reference lists of included papers. We applied no language restriction in the search. We included randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of prophylactic lidocaine for myocardial infarction. We considered all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality and overall survival at 30 days after myocardial infarction as primary outcomes. We performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction in duplicate. We estimated risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes and measured statistical heterogeneity using I(2). We used a random-effects model and conducted trial sequential analysis. We identified 37 randomised controlled trials involving 11,948 participants. These trials compared lidocaine versus placebo or no intervention, disopyramide, mexiletine, tocainide, propafenone, amiodarone, dimethylammonium chloride, aprindine and pirmenol. Overall, trials were underpowered and had high risk of bias. Ninety-seven per cent of trials (36

  11. 21 CFR 862.3555 - Lidocaine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lidocaine test system. 862.3555 Section 862.3555....3555 Lidocaine test system. (a) Identification. A lidocaine test system is a device intended to measure lidocaine, an antiarrythmic and anticonvulsant drug, in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3555 - Lidocaine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lidocaine test system. 862.3555 Section 862.3555....3555 Lidocaine test system. (a) Identification. A lidocaine test system is a device intended to measure lidocaine, an antiarrythmic and anticonvulsant drug, in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by...

  13. 21 CFR 862.3555 - Lidocaine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lidocaine test system. 862.3555 Section 862.3555....3555 Lidocaine test system. (a) Identification. A lidocaine test system is a device intended to measure lidocaine, an antiarrythmic and anticonvulsant drug, in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by...

  14. 21 CFR 862.3555 - Lidocaine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lidocaine test system. 862.3555 Section 862.3555....3555 Lidocaine test system. (a) Identification. A lidocaine test system is a device intended to measure lidocaine, an antiarrythmic and anticonvulsant drug, in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by...

  15. Lidocaine block of cardiac sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    Bean, BP; Cohen, CJ; Tsien, RW

    1983-01-01

    Lidocaine block of cardiac sodium channels was studied in voltage-clamped rabbit purkinje fibers at drug concentrations ranging from 1 mM down to effective antiarrhythmic doses (5-20 μM). Dose-response curves indicated that lidocaine blocks the channel by binding one-to-one, with a voltage-dependent K(d). The half-blocking concentration varied from more than 300 μM, at a negative holding potential where inactivation was completely removed, to approximately 10 μM, at a depolarized holding potential where inactivation was nearly complete. Lidocaine block showed prominent use dependence with trains of depolarizing pulses from a negative holding potential. During the interval between pulses, repriming of I (Na) displayed two exponential components, a normally recovering component (τless than 0.2 s), and a lidocaine-induced, slowly recovering fraction (τ approximately 1-2 s at pH 7.0). Raising the lidocaine concentration magnified the slowly recovering fraction without changing its time course; after a long depolarization, this fraction was one-half at approximately 10 μM lidocaine, just as expected if it corresponded to drug-bound, inactivated channels. At less than or equal to 20 μM lidocaine, the slowly recovering fraction grew exponentially to a steady level as the preceding depolarization was prolonged; the time course was the same for strong or weak depolarizations, that is, with or without significant activation of I(Na). This argues that use dependence at therapeutic levels reflects block of inactivated channels, rather than block of open channels. Overall, these results provide direct evidence for the “modulated-receptor hypothesis” of Hille (1977) and Hondeghem and Katzung (1977). Unlike tetrodotoxin, lidocaine shows similar interactions with Na channels of heart, nerve, and skeletal muscle. PMID:6306139

  16. Lidocaine block of cardiac sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Bean, B P; Cohen, C J; Tsien, R W

    1983-05-01

    Lidocaine block of cardiac sodium channels was studied in voltage-clamped rabbit purkinje fibers at drug concentrations ranging from 1 mM down to effective antiarrhythmic doses (5-20 muM). Dose-response curves indicated that lidocaine blocks the channel by binding one-to-one, with a voltage-dependent K(d). The half-blocking concentration varied from more than 300 muM, at a negative holding potential where inactivation was completely removed, to approximately 10 muM, at a depolarized holding potential where inactivation was nearly complete. Lidocaine block showed prominent use dependence with trains of depolarizing pulses from a negative holding potential. During the interval between pulses, repriming of I (Na) displayed two exponential components, a normally recovering component (tauless than 0.2 s), and a lidocaine-induced, slowly recovering fraction (tau approximately 1-2 s at pH 7.0). Raising the lidocaine concentration magnified the slowly recovering fraction without changing its time course; after a long depolarization, this fraction was one-half at approximately 10 muM lidocaine, just as expected if it corresponded to drug-bound, inactivated channels. At less than or equal to 20 muM lidocaine, the slowly recovering fraction grew exponentially to a steady level as the preceding depolarization was prolonged; the time course was the same for strong or weak depolarizations, that is, with or without significant activation of I(Na). This argues that use dependence at therapeutic levels reflects block of inactivated channels, rather than block of open channels. Overall, these results provide direct evidence for the "modulated-receptor hypothesis" of Hille (1977) and Hondeghem and Katzung (1977). Unlike tetrodotoxin, lidocaine shows similar interactions with Na channels of heart, nerve, and skeletal muscle.

  17. [Delayed convulsion after lidocaine instillation for bronchoscopy].

    PubMed

    Gaïes, E; Jebabli, N; Lakhal, M; Klouz, A; Salouage, I; Trabelsi, S

    2016-05-01

    Lidocaine toxicity usually appears rapidly and is directly correlated with plasma concentrations of the drug. We report a case of a late neurologic toxicity occurring after instillation of lidocaine during fibre-optic bronchoscopy. A patient with bronchiolitis obliterans underwent a diagnostic bronchoscopy. She received multiples instillations of Xylocaine(®) 2% (lidocaine). Three and a half hours later, she had a tonic-clonic seizure. Seven hours later, this recurred. Lidocaine plasma levels were in the toxic range at the time of the first seizure (18.32μg/mL) with a significant decrease in the concentration noted 24hours later. The slow absorption of lidocaine into the blood from the bronchial tree explains the delayed neurologic toxicity. Our observation is a reminder that complications can occur due to high doses of lidocaïne administrated by instillation. Thus, if the recommended dose of lidocaine is exceeded, it is essential to monitor patients closely for a prolonged period, especially those with fibrosing lung disease in order to avoid possible late toxicity. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Lidocaine for Status Epilepticus in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, Frederick A; Zeiler, Kaitlin J; Teitelbaum, Jeanne; Gillman, Lawrence M; West, Michael; Kazina, Colin J

    2015-11-01

    Our goal was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the use of intravenous lidocaine in pediatrics for status epilepticus (SE) and refractory status epilepticus (RSE) to determine its impact on seizure control. All articles from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, HealthStar, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to November 2014), and gray literature were searched. The strength of evidence was adjudicated using both the Oxford and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodologies by two independent reviewers. Overall, 20 original studies were identified, with 19 manuscripts and one meeting abstract. Two hundred and thirty-five pediatric patients were treated for 252 episodes of SE/RSE. Patients had varying numbers of antiepileptic drugs (two to eight) on board before lidocaine therapy. During 20 of the 252 (7.9%) episodes of SE/RSE, phenytoin was on board. The dose regimen of lidocaine varied, with some using bolus dosing alone; others used a combination of bolus and infusion therapy. Overall, 60.0% of seizures responded to lidocaine, with complete cessation and greater than 50% reduction seen in 57.6% and 12.3%, respectively. Patient outcomes were sparingly reported. There currently exists Oxford level 2b, Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development, and Evaluation C evidence to support the consideration of lidocaine for SE and RSE in the pediatric population. Further prospective studies of lidocaine administration in this setting are warranted.

  19. Rheological Properties of Calcium Hydroxylapatite With Integral Lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Meland, Melissa; Groppi, Chris; Lorenc, Z Paul

    2016-09-01

    Calcium hydroxylapatite with integral lidocaine, CaHA (+), received FDA approval in 2015 and CE mark approval in 2016. This formulation has been associated with significant pain reduction compared to CaHA. In a previous rheometry study, CaHA without lidocaine demonstrated higher viscosity and elasticity when compared with hyaluronic acid fillers. To compare the rheological properties of CaHA (+) lidocaine to CaHA without lidocaine and to compare the rheological measures of CaHA (+) to 5 cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers with integral 0.3% lidocaine.
    The rheological properties of complex viscosity (η*) and elastic modulus (G') were measured for 2 types of CaHA fillers [CaHA without lidocaine and CaHA (+) with integral 0.3% lidocaine] and 5 HA fillers using an oscillation frequency sweep at a sheer stress of 5 pascal tau (Pa) and an interpolation of 0.7 Hz.
    CaHA with and without integral lidocaine demonstrate similar η* and G' measurements. CaHA with and without integral lidocaine demonstrates higher η* and G' compared with HA fillers with integral lidocaine.
    CaHA with integral lidocaine has a similar rheological profile to CaHA without lidocaine: the highest η* and G' compared with available HA fillers with integral lidocaine.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1107-1110.

  20. Comparison of analgesia provided by lidocaine, lidocaine-morphine or lidocaine-tramadol delivered epidurally in dogs following orchiectomy.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ricardo M; Escobar, André; Maguilnik, Samara

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate and compare the postoperative analgesia provided by epidural lidocaine, lidocaine/morphine or lidocaine/tramadol in dogs following elective orchiectomy. Prospective experimental trial. Thirty-six mongrel dogs aged 2-8 years old, weighing 6.6-22 kg. The dogs received 6.0 mg kg(-1) of lidocaine combined with 1.0 mg kg(-1) of tramadol, 0.1 mg kg(-1) of morphine or 0.01 mL kg(-1) of 0.9% NaCl epidurally. Analgesia was assessed at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 hours (T4, T8, T12 and T24) after the offset of lidocaine using a scale composed of physiologic and behavioral parameters. Rescue analgesia with morphine (0.2 mg kg(-1) , IM) was performed if the evaluation score exceeded 10 during the postoperative period. The scores over time were analyzed using the Friedman's two-way analysis of variance and the comparison between groups was made by the Kruskal-Wallis test with statistical significances accepted if p ≤ 0.05. There were no differences in the pain scores between the morphine and tramadol groups over time and no rescue analgesia was administered. In the NaCl group, rescue analgesia was needed at T4, T8 and T12. Within this group, the final evaluation times (T18 and T24) had lower pain scores than at T4, T8 and T12. Epidural lidocaine/tramadol provided an analgesic effect comparable to that of epidural lidocaine/morphine during the first 12 hours after surgical castration without substantial side effects, suggesting that tramadol may be an effective postoperative analgesic in dogs submitted to this surgical procedure. © 2010 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2010 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of Lidocaine and Its Metabolites Following Vaginal Administration of Lidocaine Gel to Healthy Female Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Harvey; Richardson, Elaine; Mize, Amy; Mayer, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lidocaine vaginal bioadhesive gel is being developed as a local anesthetic for use in minimally invasive outpatient gynecological procedures and was investigated in single‐dose and multiple‐dose studies in healthy young adult women. Lidocaine doses of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% (w/w) were administered, and parent drug and metabolites monoethylglycinexylidide and glycinexylidide were measured in plasma. Lidocaine was absorbed through vaginal tissue and into the systemic circulation in a dose‐proportional manner, and there was little systemic accumulation. Plasma concentrations were 10‐ to 20‐fold lower than concentrations obtained after administration of intravenous lidocaine used to treat arrhythmic activity, thus demonstrating a wide safety margin for a vaginal lidocaine product. PMID:27297519

  2. Lidocaine for status epilepticus in adults.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, F A; Zeiler, K J; Kazina, C J; Teitelbaum, J; Gillman, L M; West, M

    2015-09-01

    Our goal was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the use of intravenous lidocaine in adults for status epilepticus (SE) and refractory status epilepticus (RSE) to determine its impact on seizure control. All articles from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, HealthStar, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to November 2014), and gray literature were searched. The strength of evidence was adjudicated using both the Oxford and GRADE methodology by two independent reviewers. Overall, 13 studies were identified, with 11 manuscripts and 2 meeting abstracts. Seventy-six adult patients were treated for 82 episodes of SE/RSE. Patients had varying numbers of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), 1-12, on board prior to lidocaine therapy. During 69 of the 82 (84.1%) episodes of SE/RSE, phenytoin was on board. The dose regimen of lidocaine varied, with some utilizing bolus dosing alone; others utilizing a combination of bolus and infusion therapy. Overall, 70.7% of seizures responded to lidocaine, with complete cessation and greater than 50% reduction seen in 64.1% and 6.1% respectively. Patient outcomes were sparingly reported. There currently exists level 4, GRADE C evidence to support the consideration of lidocaine for SE and RSE in the adult population. Thus there is currently weak evidence to support the use of lidocaine in this context. Further prospective studies of lidocaine administration in this setting are warranted. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neural Response to Lidocaine in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Adinoff, Bryon; Devous, Michael D.; Cooper, Donald C.; Best, Susan E.; Harris, Thomas S.; Williams, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that some of cocaine’s central nervous system (CNS) effects may be mediated through its sodium channel inhibiting local anesthetic properties. Local anesthetics that lack cocaine’s strong affinity for the dopamine transporter (DAT) also produce sensory and mood effects, further suggesting a role for this neural pathway. Due to an absence of affinity at the DAT, the local anesthetic lidocaine may offer the potential to assess sodium channel activity in vivo in humans. To assess the utility of lidocaine as a CNS probe, we determined regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) following the intravenous administration of lidocaine (0.5 mg/kg) and compared this response to procaine (0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg), a local anesthetic with partial affinity for the DAT, and saline. Infusions were administered in nine healthy female controls over a ten-day period with at least two days between each scan. Increased rCBF was observed following lidocaine, relative to saline, in the insula, caudate, thalamus, thalamus, and posterior cingulate. Decreased rCBF was detected in a different region of the posterior cingulate. In general, increases in rCBF were more marked following lidocaine relative to procaine. Mood and sensory changes following lidocaine were limited and significantly less than those induced by either dose of procaine. There were no significant changes in blood pressure or heart rate following either medication. These findings suggest that lidocaine can be safely used to assess sodium channel function in persons with addictive and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:19560905

  4. Lidocaine Toxicity During Attempted Epistaxis Cautery.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Elizabeth; Thornton, Matthew D

    2016-09-01

    Epistaxis is a common problem that occurs in up to 60% of the general population, and is a common emergency department (ED) complaint. The use of lidocaine for analgesia is common when cauterization is required for bleeds that are refractory to manual compression. Although the use of lidocaine is generally thought of as a benign intervention, it is not completely without risk. We present the case of a 19-year-old man who presented to the ED with persistent anterior epistaxis. He developed severe lidocaine toxicity resulting from topical anesthesia applied prior to intranasal cautery for the epistaxis. This toxicity, which manifested as seizures, bradycardia, hypotension, nausea, and emesis, was rapidly recognized and appropriately treated, with a good clinical outcome for the patient. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: We present this case to increase awareness among emergency physicians of the potential complications of the intranasal use of topical lidocaine, something that is generally considered a benign intervention. We also discuss the pathophysiology and management of lidocaine toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of bioequivalence and tolerability of intramuscular ceftriaxone injections by using 1% lidocaine, buffered lidocaine, and sterile water diluents.

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, C J; Nafziger, A N; Kohlhepp, S J; Bertino, J S

    1996-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and tolerability of 1-g doses of ceftriaxone diluted in sterile water, 1% lidocaine, or buffered lidocaine were investigated. No difference in bioequivalence was noted between the three treatments. No difference in peak creatine kinase values was seen. By use of a quantitative pain scale, injection of ceftriaxone with the water diluent was significantly more painful than that with either of the other two diluents. No difference in injection pain was noted for lidocaine or buffered lidocaine. PMID:8834905

  6. Serum lidocaine levels and cutaneous side effects after application of 23% lidocaine 7% tetracaine ointment to the face.

    PubMed

    McCleskey, Patrick E; Patel, Seema M; Mansalis, Katherine A; Elam, Amanda L; Kinsley, Tina R

    2013-01-01

    Few published studies have analyzed serum lidocaine levels and individual patient characteristics affecting metabolism after application of compounded topical anesthetics. To measure serum lidocaine levels during and cutaneous side effects after standardized application of 23% lidocaine/7% tetracaine compounded anesthetic to the face of healthy volunteers. Fifty-two volunteers were enrolled, and compounded 23% lidocaine/7% tetracaine ointment was applied to their faces for 2 hours. Lidocaine levels were determined every 30 minutes during application and for 2 hours after removal. Follow-up telephone calls 3 days later assessed cutaneous side effects. Median peak lidocaine level was 1.15 μg/mL, and the highest peak lidocaine level in an individual was 3.4 μg/mL. Higher serum lidocaine levels were found in men (p < .01), nonwhite volunteers (p = .02), and those with larger facial surface area (p = .04). Age and body mass index did not affect lidocaine levels. Irritant contact dermatitis was common, resulting in hyperpigmentation in some patients. Facial surface area, male sex, and nonwhite ethnicity were associated with higher serum lidocaine levels after topical application of lidocaine. Compounded anesthetics containing lidocaine should be used with caution under the direct supervision of a physician. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A Prospective, Comparative Study of the Pain of Local Anesthesia Using 2% Lidocaine, 2% Lidocaine With Epinephrine, and 2% Lidocaine With Epinephrine-Bupivicaine Mixture for Eyelid Surgery.

    PubMed

    Han, Jung-Woo; Nah, Seung Kwan; Lee, Sang Yeul; Kim, Chang Yeom; Yoon, Jin Sook; Jang, Sun Young

    A mixture of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine and bupivacaine was developed to achieve the fast-onset anesthetic effect of lidocaine and the long-lasting effect of bupivacaine. The authors compared pain scores between 2% lidocaine, 2% lidocaine with epinephrine, and 2% lidocaine with epinephrine-bupivicaine mixture during local anesthesia for eyelid surgeries. This was a double-blind, randomized, prospective, comparative study. In total, 120 consecutive patients (43 males, 77 females, mean age = 47.2 ± 21.2) who underwent bilateral eyelid surgery under subcutaneous anesthesia were asked to report pain scores for each eye during the first injection of anesthesia. Each patient was randomly assigned to receive 1 of the 3 anesthetic agents in 1 eyelid, and 1 of the remaining 2 agents in the other. The pH values of the 2% lidocaine, 2% lidocaine with epinephrine, and 2% lidocaine with epinephrine-bupivicaine mixture were 6.23 ± 0.21, 4.21 ± 0.37, and 3.87 ± 0.19, respectively. The pain scores of each were 4.3 ± 1.8, 5.1 ± 1.8, and 5.7 ± 1.9, respectively. The 2% lidocaine with epinephrine produced a statistically significantly higher pain score than 2% lidocaine (p = 0.044, generalized estimating equation method). The mixture also showed a significantly higher pain score than 2% lidocaine (p = 0.003, generalized estimating equation method). Epinephrine seemed to increase subjective pain scores. Compared with 2% lidocaine with epinephrine, 2% lidocaine with epinephrine-bupivicaine mixture was not significantly different in terms of subjective symptoms or pH.

  8. [Lidocaine: local anaesthetic with systemic toxicity].

    PubMed

    van Donselaar-van der Pant, K A M I; Buwalda, M; van Leeuwen, H J

    2008-01-12

    In 4 patients, 3 women aged 63, 17 and 43 years, and a man aged 67 years, lidocain was used as a local anaesthetic for a transthoracic esophageal fundoplication (first patient), severe painful gonarthrosis (fourth patient) and legal abortion (second and third patients). All patients suffered from systemic toxicity as a result, a rare complication. They all had an uneventful recovery, except for the second patient who died from adult respiratory distress syndrome after two weeks in the intensive care unit. The second and third patients had inadvertently been given a solution of lidocain that was too strong (10% instead of 1%). The presenting symptoms of systemic toxicity include numbness of the tongue, dizziness, tinnitus, visual disturbances, muscle spasms, convulsions, reduced consciousness, coma, and respiratory arrest. Physicians who use lidocain as a local anaesthetic should be aware of its systemic toxicity.

  9. Lidocaine for preventing postoperative sore throat.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuu; Nakayama, Takeo; Nishimori, Mina; Sato, Yuki; Furuya, Hitoshi

    2009-07-08

    Sore throat is a common side effect of general anaesthesia and is reported by between 30% and 70% of patients after tracheal intubation. The likelihood of a sore throat varies with the type, diameter, and cuff pressure of the endotracheal tube used. If intubation is essential, it may be helpful to give drugs prophylactically to alleviate postoperative sore throat. Local anaesthetics and steroids have been used for this purpose. The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and any harms of topical and systematic lidocaine for the prevention of postoperative sore throat in adults undergoing endotracheal intubation as part of general anaesthesia. We searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 3), MEDLINE (January 1966 to June 2007), and EMBASE (1980 to June 2007). We also contacted manufacturers and researchers in the field. We included randomized controlled trials of topical and systemic prophylactic lidocaine therapy versus control (using air or saline) that reported on the risk and severity of postoperative sore throat as an outcome. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information, such as the risk of adverse effects. We included 1232 patients from 15 studies; 672 patients received topical or systemic lidocaine therapy and 560 patients were allocated to the control group. Both the topical and systemic lidocaine therapy significantly reduced the risk of postoperative sore throat (risk ratio (RR) 0.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41 to 0.82). To evaluate the severity of sore throat on a visual analogue scale (VAS), 219 patients received topical or systemic lidocaine therapy and 152 patients were allocated to the control groups. The severity of sore throat was reduced (mean difference (MD) -11.9; 95% CI -16.44 to -7.32), an effect that neared statistical significance. The adverse effects of lidocaine were not reported in these studies. Our systematic review

  10. Lidocaine gel vs lidocaine spray in reducing pain during insertion of the intrauterine contraceptive device.

    PubMed

    Torky, Haitham; Moussa, Asem; El-Desouky, El-Sayed; Dief, Osama; Ahmed, Ali

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the pain-relieving effect of intracervical lidocaine gel with that of lidocaine spray or no local anaesthesia in decreasing pain during insertion of the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD). In a prospective multicentre non-randomised comparative study design, 420 women were divided into three groups of 140 and fitted with the same type of IUCD. Group 1 received cervical lidocaine gel, group 2 received cervical lidocaine spray and group 3 received no topical anaesthesia. A visual analogue scale was used to measure the degree of pain experienced. There were no significant differences between the three groups with regard to baseline characteristics such as age and number of deliveries. Significantly less pain was felt during cervical traction in women using a local anaesthetic. However, there were no significant differences in pain due to IUCD insertion. Application of a local anaesthetic decreased the pain resulting from cervical traction but not that resulting from IUCD insertion.

  11. Identification of the epidural space: loss of resistance with air, lidocaine, or the combination of air and lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Evron, Samuel; Sessler, Daniel; Sadan, Oscar; Boaz, Mona; Glezerman, Marek; Ezri, Tiberiu

    2004-07-01

    The ideal technique for identifying the epidural space remains unclear. Five-hundred-forty-seven women in labor who requested epidural analgesia were randomly allocated to three groups according to the technique by which the epidural space was identified: 1) loss-of-resistance with air (air; n = 180), 2) loss-of-resistance with lidocaine (lidocaine; n = 185), and 3) loss-of-resistance with both air and lidocaine (air-plus-lidocaine; n = 182). We assessed ease of epidural catheter insertion, characteristics of the blockade, quality of analgesia, and complications. The inability to thread the epidural catheter occurred in 16% of the air, 4% of the lidocaine, and 3% of the air-plus-lidocaine patients (P < 0.001). More patients from the air group had unblocked segments (6.6% versus 3.2% and 2.2%, respectively; P < 0.02). The incidence of accidental dural puncture was greater in the air group (1.7% versus 0% in the other two groups; P < 0.02). Pain scores, time to onset of analgesia, upper sensory level, motor blockade, and the incidence of hypotension, transient neurological deficits, postpartum urinary retention, and postdural puncture headache were comparable. Identification of the epidural space with air was more difficult and caused more dural punctures than with lidocaine or air plus lidocaine. Additionally, sequential use of air and lidocaine had no advantage over lidocaine alone.

  12. Studies on the interaction of lidocaine with plasma proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Adotey, J.

    1985-01-01

    This study sought to quantitate lidocaine's interaction with alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AAG), human serum albumin (HSA), and AAG in the presence of HSA, and to determine the extent of displacement of lidocaine from its binding site(s) by selected cardiovascular drugs (dipyridamole, disopyramide and quinidine). Since the limited experimental work reported in this area has involved the use of a single lidocaine concentration, this study involved the evaluation of a range of lidocaine concentrations. Lidocaine interaction with plasma proteins (AAG and HSA) was studied at 37/sup 0/C using an isothermal equilibrium dialysis system and /sup 14/C-lidocaine HCl. A dialysis membrane (M.W. cutoff 12,000 to 14,000) separated the two chambers of each dialysis cell. The extent of /sup 14/C-lidocaine dialysis was studied with respect to both drug and protein concentrations. Aliquots of each chamber of each of the cells were subjected to liquid scintillation counting (LSC) analyses for /sup 14/C-lidocaine. The ratio of bound to free (R/F) lidocaine was evaluated as a function of AAG concentration from the LSC data. Scatchard and/or Rosenthal analyses were employed to evaluate n and k values where appropriate. Linear and multiple linear regression analyses of the data were appropriately performed.

  13. Lidocaine for preventing postoperative sore throat.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuu; Nakayama, Takeo; Nishimori, Mina; Tsujimura, Yuka; Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Sato, Yuki

    2015-07-14

    Sore throat is a common side-effect of general anaesthesia and is reported by between 30% and 70% of patients after tracheal intubation. The likelihood of a sore throat varies with the type, diameter, and cuff pressure of the endotracheal tube used. If intubation is essential, it may be helpful to give drugs prophylactically to alleviate postoperative sore throat. Local anaesthetics and steroids have been used for this purpose. This review was originally published in 2009 and was updated in 2015. The objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and any harm caused by topical and systemic lidocaine used prophylactically to prevent postoperative sore throat in adults undergoing general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation. We searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9), MEDLINE (January 1966 to October 2013), and EMBASE (1980 to October 2013). We also contacted manufacturers and researchers in the field. The original search was undertaken in June 2007. We reran the search in February 2015 and found four studies of interest. We will deal with those studies when we next update the review. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of topical and systemic prophylactic lidocaine therapy versus control (using air or saline) that reported on the risk and severity of postoperative sore throat as an outcome. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information, such as the risk of any adverse effects. We included 19 studies involving 1940 participants in this updated review. Of those 1940 participants, 952 received topical or systemic lidocaine therapy and 795 were allocated to the control groups. Topical and systemic lidocaine therapy appeared to reduce the risk of postoperative sore throat (16 studies, 1774 participants, risk ratio (RR) was 0.64 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48 to 0.85), the quality of the evidence was low), although when only high-quality trials were

  14. Effect on postoperative sore throat of spraying the endotracheal tube cuff with benzydamine hydrochloride, 10% lidocaine, and 2% lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Hung, Nan-Kai; Wu, Ching-Tang; Chan, Shun-Ming; Lu, Chueng-He; Huang, Yuan-Shiou; Yeh, Chun-Chang; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Cherng, Chen-Hwan

    2010-10-01

    Postoperative sore throat (POST) is a common complication after endotracheal intubation. We compared the effectiveness on POST of spraying the endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff with benzydamine hydrochloride, 10% lidocaine, and 2% lidocaine. Three hundred seventy-two patients were randomly allocated into 4 groups. The ETT cuffs in each group were sprayed with benzydamine hydrochloride, 10% lidocaine hydrochloride, 2% lidocaine hydrochloride, or normal saline before endotracheal intubation. After insertion, the cuffs were inflated to an airway leak pressure of 20 cm H(2)O. Anesthesia was maintained with propofol. The patients were examined for sore throat (none, mild, moderate, or severe) at 1, 6, 12, and 24 hours after extubation. The highest incidence of POST occurred at 6 hours after extubation in all groups. There was a significantly lower incidence of POST in the benzydamine group than 10% lidocaine, 2% lidocaine, and normal saline groups (P < 0.05) at each observation time point. At 6 hours after extubation, the incidence of POST was significantly lower in the benzydamine group (17.0%) compared with 10% lidocaine (53.7%), 2% lidocaine (37.0%), and normal saline (40.8%) groups (P < 0.05). The benzydamine group had significantly decreased severity of POST compared with the 10% lidocaine, 2% lidocaine, and normal saline groups (P < 0.05) at each observation time point. Compared with the 2% lidocaine and normal saline groups, the 10% lidocaine group had significantly increased severity of POST at 1, 6, and 12 hours after extubation. There were no significant differences among groups in local or systemic side effects. Spraying benzydamine hydrochloride on the ETT cuff is a simple and effective method to reduce the incidence and severity of POST.

  15. Nanoethosomes for Dermal Delivery of Lidocaine

    PubMed Central

    Babaie, Soraya; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Davaran, Soodabeh; Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: It is necessary for local anesthetics to pass through the stratum corneum to provide rapid pain relief. Many techniques have been reported to enhance intradermal penetration of local anesthetics such as vesicular lipid carriers. Ethosomes are lipid vesicles containing phospholipids, ethanol at relatively high concentration. We hypothesized that synergistic effects of phospholipids and high concentration of ethanol in formulation could accelerate penetration of nanoethosomes in deep layers of skin. Methods: Lidocaine-loaded nanoethosomes were prepared and characterized by size and zeta analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Furthermore, encapsulation efficiency (EE), loading capacity (LC), and skin penetration capability were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Results: results showed that the particle size, zeta potential, EE and LC of optimum formulation were 105.4 ± 7.9 nm, -33.6 ± 2.4 mV, 40.14 ± 2.5 %, and 8.02 ± 0.71 respectively. SEM results confirmed the non-aggregated nano-scale size of prepared nanoethosomes. Particle size of ethosomes and EE of Lidocaine were depended on the phospholipid and ethanol concentrations. XRD results demonstrated the drug encapsulation in amorphous status interpreting the achieved high drug EE and LC values. In vitro and in vivo assays confirmed the appropriate skin penetration of Lidocaine with the aid of nanoethosomes and existence of deposition of nanoethosomes in deep skin layers, respectively. Conclusion: The developed nanoethosomes are proposed as a suitable carrier for topical delivery of anesthetics such as Lidocaine. PMID:26819928

  16. Lidocaine/prilocaine spray for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    2017-04-01

    Although premature ejaculation is the most common ejaculation problem, it is poorly understood and currently has no standard definition.(1) Typically, it involves reduced time to ejaculation, inability to control or delay ejaculation and associated distress.(1-5) Treatments that have been assessed include psychosexual counselling, antidepressants (e.g. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors, tramadol and topical anaesthetic agents (e.g. lidocaine/prilocaine cream). A new formulation (cutaneous spray) of lidocaine/prilocaine (Fortacin-Plethora Solutions Ltd.) was launched in the UK in November 2016 for the treatment of primary premature ejaculation.(6,7) Here, we consider the evidence for lidocaine/prilocaine spray and whether it has a role in the treatment of premature ejaculation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Ropivacaine-lidocaine versus bupivacaine-lidocaine for retrobulbar anesthesia in cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Uy, Harvey S; de Jesus, Arnel A; Paray, Alvin A; Flores, John D G; Felizar, Loreto B

    2002-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of ropivacaine mixed with lidocaine and bupivacaine mixed with lidocaine for retrobulbar anesthesia in cataract surgery. Philippine General Hospital, Manila, Philippines. This prospective double-masked study consisted of 80 patients randomized to receive ropivacaine 1%-lidocaine 2% (Group 1) or bupivacaine 0.5%-lidocaine 2% (Group 2) for retrobulbar anesthesia during extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE). The main outcome measures were frequency of eye pain and amount of globe movement. The degree of pain was scored from 0 to 10 using a visual analog scale. Globe movement in 4 directions of gaze was measured with a ruler. The number of patients with visual analog system scores greater than zero at 5 minutes after infiltration, 10 minutes after infiltration, intraoperatively, and 1, 2, and 4 hours postoperatively was 0, 0, 0, 1, 18, and 29, respectively, in Group 1 and 1, 1, 0, 1, 21, and 33, respectively, in Group 2. The mean globe movement at 5 minutes, 10 minutes after infiltration, and intraoperatively was 5.1 mm, 3.0 mm, and 0.6 mm, respectively, in Group 1 and 4.9 mm, 3.0 mm, and 0.3 mm, respectively, in Group 2. There were no significant differences in frequency of pain and amount of globe movement between the 2 groups at any time. No adverse reactions developed in either group. The duration of surgery was similar between groups. Ropivacaine mixed with lidocaine and bupivacaine mixed with lidocaine were equally effective in producing ocular analgesia and akinesia for ECCE.

  18. Lidocaine Inhibits HCN Currents in Rat Spinal Substantia Gelatinosa Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tao; Liu, Nana; Lv, Minhua; Ma, Longxian; Peng, Huizhen; Peng, Sicong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lidocaine, which blocks voltage-gated sodium channels, is widely used in surgical anesthesia and pain management. Recently, it has been proposed that the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide (HCN) channel is one of the other novel targets of lidocaine. Substantia gelatinosa in the spinal dorsal horn, which plays key roles in modulating nociceptive information from primary afferents, comprises heterogeneous interneurons that can be electrophysiologically categorized by firing pattern. Our previous study demonstrated that a substantial proportion of substantia gelatinosa neurons reveal the presence of HCN current (Ih); however, the roles of lidocaine and HCN channel expression in different types of substantia gelatinosa neurons remain unclear. METHODS: By using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we investigated the effect of lidocaine on Ih in rat substantia gelatinosa neurons of acute dissociated spinal cord slices. RESULTS: We found that lidocaine rapidly decreased the peak Ih amplitude with an IC50 of 80 μM. The inhibition rate on Ih was not significantly different with a second application of lidocaine in the same neuron. Tetrodotoxin, a sodium channel blocker, did not affect lidocaine’s effect on Ih. In addition, lidocaine shifted the half-activation potential of Ih from −109.7 to −114.9 mV and slowed activation. Moreover, the reversal potential of Ih was shifted by −7.5 mV by lidocaine. In the current clamp, lidocaine decreased the resting membrane potential, increased membrane resistance, delayed rebound depolarization latency, and reduced the rebound spike frequency. We further found that approximately 58% of substantia gelatinosa neurons examined expressed Ih, in which most of them were tonically firing. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies demonstrate that lidocaine strongly inhibits Ih in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner in substantia gelatinosa neurons, independent of tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels. Thus, our

  19. 21 CFR 862.3555 - Lidocaine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... lidocaine, an antiarrythmic and anticonvulsant drug, in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by this... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lidocaine test system. 862.3555 Section 862.3555 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  20. Lidocaine Metabolism and Toxicity: A Laboratory Experiment for Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusek, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory exercise for dental students is presented using a toxic dose of lidocaine in place of an anesthetic dose of pentobarbital. The use of lidocaine demonstrates its toxic and lethal actions and increases the relevance of the experience for dental students. (Author/MLW)

  1. Pain management prior to nasogastric tube placement: atomized lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Farrington, Michele; Bruene, Debra; Wagner, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion is often painful for patients of all ages. Randomized clinical trials in adult patients support the use of some form of topical lidocaine in reducing pain associated with NGT insertion. A review of pediatric evidence also confirms that NGT insertion is painful and provides guidance in determining lidocaine concentrations, dosages, and administration methods. The Iowa Model of Evidence-Based-Practice to Promote Quality Care provided the framework for development of a weight-based standard of practice (SOP) for administration of atomized lidocaine prior to NGT insertion for all patients. To facilitate usage, the orders for NGT placement and atomized lidocaine administration were linked in the electronic health record (EHR). Atomized lidocaine was administered via a patient-specific intranasal mucosal delivery device. Evaluation measures included pre- and post-implementation questionnaires which measured discomfort with NGT insertion in pediatric patients (0-10 scale; pre-implementation mean = 7.4; post-implementation mean = 6.5), monitoring utilization of atomized lidocaine via automated dispensing cabinet reports, soliciting comments from families and users, and monitoring institutional patient safety (incident) and adverse drug reaction reports. No patient safety or adverse drug reactions related to atomized lidocaine were identified post-implementation. Patients of all ages have benefited from administration of weight-based intranasal atomized lidocaine to decrease pain caused by NGT insertion. Ongoing safety evaluation and research is warranted since this is the first known report in the literature describing implementation of a weight-based dosing SOP.

  2. Preparation and characterization of lidocaine rice gel for oral application.

    PubMed

    Okonogi, Siriporn; Kaewpinta, Adchareeya; Yotsawimonwat, Songwut; Khongkhunthian, Sakornrat

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare buccal anesthetic gels using rice as gelling agent. Rice grains of four rice varieties, Jasmine (JM), Saohai (SH), Homnil (HN), and Doisket (DS) were chemically modified. Buccal rice gels, containing lidocaine hydrochloride as local anesthetic drug were formulated using the respective modified rice varieties. The gels were evaluated for outer appearance, pH, color, gel strength, foaming property, adhesion, in vitro drug release and in vivo efficacy. It was found that the developed rice gels possessed good texture. Rice varieties showed influence on gel strength, color, turbidity, adhesive property, release property, and anesthetic efficacy. JM gel showed the lowest turbidity with light transmission of 86.76 ± 1.18% whereas SH gel showed the highest gel strength of 208.78 ± 10.42 g/cm(2). Lidocaine hydrochloride can cause a decrease in pH and adhesive property but an increase in turbidity of the gels. In vitro drug release profile within 60 min of lidocaine SH gel and lidocaine HN gel showed that lidocaine could be better released from SH gel. Evaluation of in vivo anesthetic efficacy in 100 normal volunteers indicates that both lidocaine rice gels have high efficacy but different levels. Lidocaine SH gel possesses faster onset of duration and longer duration of action than lidocaine HN gel.

  3. Lidocaine Metabolism and Toxicity: A Laboratory Experiment for Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusek, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory exercise for dental students is presented using a toxic dose of lidocaine in place of an anesthetic dose of pentobarbital. The use of lidocaine demonstrates its toxic and lethal actions and increases the relevance of the experience for dental students. (Author/MLW)

  4. Pharmacokinetics of lidocaine delivered from a transmucosal patch in children.

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Andrea; Wilson, Stephen; Weaver, Joel S.; Moursi, Amr M.

    2002-01-01

    The DentiPatch lidocaine transoral delivery system (Noven Pharmaceuticals) is indicated for mild topical anesthesia of mucosal membranes in the mouth. The DentiPatch is a mucoadhesive patch containing 46.1 mg of lidocaine (20% concentration). Current studies in adults report that DentiPatch application produces very low plasma concentrations of lidocaine. However, it is not known what plasma levels are obtained when the same dosage is used in children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the plasma lidocaine concentrations generated by the DentiPatch are within a safe range for children. The sample in this study was 11 children aged 2-7 years requiring general anesthesia for comprehensive dental care. A lidocaine DentiPatch was placed on the buccal mucosa above the maxillary incisors for 5 minutes. Blood samples were drawn before placing the DentiPatch and at various time intervals after removing it. Blood samples were analyzed by fluorescence polarization immunoassay to determine the plasma concentrations of lidocaine and its major metabolite, monoethylglycinexylidide. The lidocaine and monoethylglycinexylidide absorbed from the DentiPatch did not reach toxic plasma levels in children. However, plasma concentrations were much higher than in adults and were high enough to require inclusion in the calculation of total lidocaine administered to a pediatric patient. Images Figure 1 PMID:15384296

  5. The Use of Topical Lidocaine Gel During Intermaxillary Fixation Procedure.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yeon Jin; Kim, Ho Jun; Kwon, Ho; Shim, Hyung-Sup; Seo, Bommie Florence; Jung, Sung-No

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to validate the usefulness of lidocaine gel during intermaxillary fixation using arch bars in patients with mandible fracture by comparing 2 patient groups: one group using lidocaine gel in intermaxillary fixation and the other group undergoing traditional local infiltration.Subjects were patients with mandible fracture undergoing intermaxillary fixation using arch bars from March 2003 to February 2007. Twenty-three patients were anesthetized in the upper and lower gingiva by 2% local lidocaine solution injection; another 23 underwent topical anesthesia with 2% lidocaine hydrochloride gel applied to the upper and lower gingiva. The convenience of fixation was measured in terms of operation time and degree of pain according to the visual analog scale; arch bar loosening rate was assessed postoperatively.The mean operation times were 63 and 47 minutes in the groups undergoing local infiltration and using topical lidocaine gel, respectively. For pain degree according to the visual analog scale, the mean scores were 6.4 and 3.2 in the groups using local infiltration and topical lidocaine gel, respectively. When the arch bar loosening rate was measured postoperatively, the 2 groups differed significantly, with a rate of 26% in the group using local infiltration and 13% in the group using topical lidocaine gel.Application of topical lidocaine gel during intermaxillary fixation using arch bars in patients with mandible fracture relieves pain and offers convenience in performing the procedure. It can be a useful alternative method for patients who are sensitive to pain or have needle phobia.

  6. Topical lidocaine adrenaline tetracaine (LAT gel) versus injectable buffered lidocaine for local anesthesia in laceration repair.

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, A A; Marvez-Valls, E; Nick, T G; Mills, T; Minvielle, L; Houry, D

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare topical lidocaine adrenaline tetracaine (LAT gel) with injectable buffered lidocaine with epinephrine regarding pain of application or injection and anesthesia effectiveness. The study was a randomized prospective comparison trial in an urban emergency department. Physicians and patients ranked the pain of application, injection, and suturing according to a 10-cm visual analog scale. Sixty-six patients were entered, 33 in the LAT gel group and 33 in the injectable buffered lidocaine group. Injection was found to be significantly more painful than application of gel (P < 0.001). For anesthesia effectiveness, there was no difference according to patients (P = 0.48) or physicians (P = 0.83) for topical vs injectable forms. The number of sutures causing pain was not statistically different in the two groups (P = 0.28). In conclusion, LAT gel compared favorably with injectable buffered lidocaine for local anesthesia effectiveness and was significantly less painful to apply. It may be the preferred local anesthetic for this reason. PMID:9291744

  7. Investigation of physical properties of a polycaprolactone dermal filler when mixed with lidocaine and lidocaine/epinephrine.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Francisco; Marijnissen-Hofsté, Joanna

    2012-12-01

    In esthetic treatments with dermal fillers, increasing numbers of physicians are using the technique of mixing an anesthetic agent into the dermal filler before treatment to increase the comfort of the patients. This study aimed at evaluating the effects on the physical properties of a polycaprolactone (PCL)-based dermal filler after mixing with lidocaine. A range of 2.0% lidocaine and 2.0% lidocaine/epinephrine concentrations was mixed with the PCL dermal filler to evaluate the changes in dynamic viscosity and elasticity, extrusion force, pH, and needle jam rates. The number of passes back to forth for optimal homogeneity of lidocaine and PCL dermal filler was determined. With 15 mixing strokes the lidocaine solution can effectively be mixed into dermal filler resulting in a homogenous blend. The viscosity, elasticity, and the extrusion force decrease with increasing lidocaine volume. The viscosity and elasticity of the dermal filler is sufficient to keep the PCL microspheres in suspension. There were no needle jams. The pH of the PCL dermal filler mixed with lidocaine solution is equivalent to that of the original dermal filler. It is concluded that mixing of lidocaine into the PCL-based dermal filler can safely be performed without harmful changes in the physical properties of the original dermal filler.

  8. The influence of Lidocaine temperature on pain during subcutaneous injection.

    PubMed

    Lundbom, Janne S; Tangen, Lena F; Wågø, Kathrine J; Skarsvåg, Trine I; Ballo, Solveig; Hjelseng, Tonje; Foss, Olav A; Finsen, Vilhjalmur

    2017-04-01

    Injection of local anaesthetics is an uncomfortable procedure. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of lidocaine temperature on pain during subcutaneous injection. A randomised, double blind trial with 36 healthy volunteers was performed. Each subject received three injections of 4.5 ml 1% lidocaine subcutaneously on the abdomen; refrigerated (8 °C), at room temperature (21 °C), and warmed to body temperature (37 °C). By giving every subject injections of all three temperatures they served as their own controls. The participants were asked to evaluate the pain felt during the injection by placing a pencil mark on a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale without intermediate markings immediately after every injection. They were told that the scale ranged from no pain to worst imaginable pain (0 = best; 100 = worst). Retrospectively the participants did a verbal assessment of the most and least painful injection. The median VAS score for the heated lidocaine was 16 (range =11-28), lidocaine at room temperature 25 (13-40) and for the cold 24 (11-35). The VAS scores for the heated lidocaine was significantly lower than for lidocaine at room temperature (p = 0.004). Also, the verbal assessment of heated lidocaine being less painful than the injection at room temperature was statistically significant (p = 0.015). Injection with lidocaine heated to around body temperature was less painful than injection with lidocaine at room temperature. There was no statistically significant difference in verbal assessment or VAS scores between the cold lidocaine and that at room temperature.

  9. Chromatographic Determination of Aminoacridine Hydrochloride, Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Lidocaine Toxic Impurity in Oral Gel.

    PubMed

    Bebawy, Lories I; Elghobashy, Mohamed R; Abbas, Samah S; Shokry, Rafeek F

    2016-04-01

    Two sensitive and selective analytical methods were developed for simultaneous determination of aminoacridine hydrochloride and lidocaine hydrochloride in bulk powder and pharmaceutical formulation. Method A was based on HPLC separation of the cited drugs with determination of the toxic lidocaine-related impurity 2,6-dimethylaniline. The separation was achieved using reversed-phase column C18, 250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm particle size and mobile phase consisting of 0.05 M disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (pH 6.0 ± 0.2 adjusted with phosphoric acid) and acetonitrile (55 : 45, v/v). Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 240 nm. Linear calibration curve was in the range of 1.00-10.00, 13.20-132.00 and 1.32-13.20 µg mL(-1) for aminoacridine hydrochloride, lidocaine hydrochloride and 2,6-dimethylaniline, respectively. Method B was based on TLC separation of the cited drugs followed by densitometric measurement at 365 nm on the fluorescent mode for aminoacridine hydrochloride and 220 nm on the absorption mode for lidocaine hydrochloride. The separation was carried out using ethyl acetate-methanol-acetic acid (65 : 30 : 5 by volume) as a developing system. The calibration curve was in the range of 25.00-250.00 ng spot(-1) and 0.99-9.90 µg spot(-1) for aminoacridine hydrochloride and lidocaine hydrochloride, respectively. The results obtained were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by applying the manufacturer's method. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Chromatographic Determination of Aminoacridine Hydrochloride, Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Lidocaine Toxic Impurity in Oral Gel

    PubMed Central

    Bebawy, Lories I.; Elghobashy, Mohamed R.; Abbas, Samah S.; Shokry, Rafeek F.

    2016-01-01

    Two sensitive and selective analytical methods were developed for simultaneous determination of aminoacridine hydrochloride and lidocaine hydrochloride in bulk powder and pharmaceutical formulation. Method A was based on HPLC separation of the cited drugs with determination of the toxic lidocaine-related impurity 2,6-dimethylaniline. The separation was achieved using reversed-phase column C18, 250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm particle size and mobile phase consisting of 0.05 M disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (pH 6.0 ± 0.2 adjusted with phosphoric acid) and acetonitrile (55 : 45, v/v). Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 240 nm. Linear calibration curve was in the range of 1.00–10.00, 13.20–132.00 and 1.32–13.20 µg mL−1 for aminoacridine hydrochloride, lidocaine hydrochloride and 2,6-dimethylaniline, respectively. Method B was based on TLC separation of the cited drugs followed by densitometric measurement at 365 nm on the fluorescent mode for aminoacridine hydrochloride and 220 nm on the absorption mode for lidocaine hydrochloride. The separation was carried out using ethyl acetate–methanol–acetic acid (65 : 30 : 5 by volume) as a developing system. The calibration curve was in the range of 25.00–250.00 ng spot−1 and 0.99–9.90 µg spot−1 for aminoacridine hydrochloride and lidocaine hydrochloride, respectively. The results obtained were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by applying the manufacturer's method. PMID:26671412

  11. Using intranasal lidocaine to reduce food intake.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L; Martin, C K; Gupta, A K; Cruickshank, S; Whitehouse, J; DeYoung, L; Kamdar, K; Caruso, M K; Roberts, A T; England, M; Dumas, K; Laidlaw, B J Floy; Rogers, B; Cowley, M A

    2007-05-01

    Develop a dose-response curve for the effect of intranasal lidocaine on food intake. Healthy obese subjects had food intake, ratings of hunger, desire to eat, craving and fullness measured at lunch after an overnight fast. Four treatments were given as nose drops (0.5-0.6 ml per nostril) 5 min before the meal in a double-blind manner with a four period crossover design including a 7-day washout between periods. The treatments were saline, 2.5, 10 and 25 mg lidocaine per nostril. The order of administration was randomly assigned to each subject. Electrocardiograms, vital signs, chemistry panels, complete blood counts (CBC) and nasal inspections were carried out before and after each dose. Forty-seven subjects were screened, 34 were randomized and 20 subjects completed all four study periods in the trial. The subjects were 39+/-12.5 (s.d) years of age, had a weight of 91+/-13.0 kg, a height of 167+/-10.3 cm, 56% were women, 47% were African-American and 53% were Caucasian. Food intake, rating of hunger, desire to eat, craving and fullness are measures of efficacy. Adverse events, electrocardiograms, vital signs, chemistry panels, nasal inspections, CBC and physical exams are measures of safety. The mean reduction in food intake vs saline control in the 20 subjects completing all four study periods was 3.3+/-7% (s.d), 4.2+/-8.5% and 7.4+/-7.3% in the 2.5 mg, 10 and 25 mg per nostril groups, respectively (P=NS). Hunger and desire to eat in subjects who completed at least one study period decreased dose dependently (P<0.03, at the 25 mg per nostril dose). There were no clinically significant changes in safety measures, electrocardiograms, vital signs, chemistry panels, CBC or nasal inspections. Intranasal lidocaine reduced hunger and the desire to eat, but this did not translate into a significant reduction in food intake suggesting that intranasal lidocaine will not have value in treating obesity.

  12. Local anesthetic cream prepared from lidocaine-tetracaine eutectic mixture.

    PubMed

    Ohzeki, Keiichi; Kitahara, Masaki; Suzuki, Noriko; Taguchi, Kyoji; Yamazaki, Yuki; Akiyama, Shinji; Takahashi, Kentaro; Kanzaki, Yasushi

    2008-04-01

    Local anesthetic creams for the clinical treatment of conditions such as postherpetic neuralgia were prepared as an in-house formulation from the eutectic mixture of lidocaine-tetracaine (LT cream) using two eutectic mixtures of local anesthetic (EMLA) type bases. The LT formulation was compared with a lidocaine-prilocaine (LP cream) eutectic mixture formulated using the same base as EMLA. The chemical stability of lidocaine was examined in advance and was found to be stable for more than 3 months either in LT cream or in LP cream. The release rate of lidocaine from the formulated creams was examined using a cellulose ester membrane. The release rate of lidocaine from LT cream was similar to that from LP cream. The release rate of tetracaine was slightly slower than that of lidocaine in LT cream reflecting the larger molecular size of tetracaine. The penetration rate was examined in vitro using a Yucatan micropig skin. The penetration rate of lidocaine was similar between LT and LP creams. Infiltration anesthesia action examined in guinea pigs indicated that the difference between the two creams was statistically insignificant. The present study suggests the equivalence of the LT and LP creams as a local anesthetic and the potential of LT cream for clinical use either in the easy formulation or in the low-cost formulation.

  13. Spreading of a Lidocaine Formulation on Microneedle-Treated Skin.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Atul; Das, Diganta B; Chao, Tzu C; Starov, Victor M

    2015-12-01

    The spreadability of a liquid drug formulation on skin is an indication of it either remaining stationary or distributing (spreading) as a droplet. Factors determining droplet spreadability of the formulation are spreading area, diameter of the droplet base, viscosity of the liquid, contact angle, volume of droplet on skin and any others. The creation of microcavities from the application of microneedle (MN) has the potential to control droplet spreading, and hence, target specific areas of skin for drug delivery. However, there is little work that demonstrates spreading of liquid drug formulation on MN-treated skin. Below, spreading of a lidocaine hydrogel formulation and lidocaine solution (reference liquid) on porcine skin is investigated over MN-treated skin. Controlled spreadability was achieved with the lidocaine hydrogel on MN-treated skin as compared with lidocaine solution. It was observed that the droplet spreading parameters such as spreading radius, droplet height and dynamic contact angle were slightly lower for the lidocaine hydrogel than the lidocaine solution on skin. Also, the lidocaine hydrogel on MN-treated skin resulted in slower dynamic reduction of droplet height, contact angle and reduced time taken in attaining static advancing droplets because of the MN microcavities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  14. [Magistral prepared lidocaine-gel for topical aplication on skin].

    PubMed

    Sklenár, Zbynĕk; Horácková, Katerína; Bakhouche, Hana; Slanar, Ondrej

    2012-08-01

    Due to a limited availability of industrially manufactured products containing local anesthetics for skin application and an increased demand for lidocaine-containing gel applicable prior to a product containing capsaicin for neuropathic pain treatment, it is necessary to prepare a topical semi-solid preparation containing the local anesthetic in pharmacies. Our aim was to create a mixed system of a hydrophilic gel with the emulsified drug, using excipients to decrease the lidocaine melting point, thereby creating a eutectic mixture with a high concentration of lidocaine in the oil phase. Based on bibliographic data, thymol creating a binary eutectic system containing lidocaine has been chosen. After addition of other excipients, an emulsion system was prepared and the drug was stabilized in the oil phase by a mixed nonionic emulsifier and carbomera. For the optimal anesthetic effects, the pH value should be adjusted; trometamol has been chosen as a suitable basic reacting excipient. Based on the addition of different amounts of trometamol, pH values of individual emulgels have been measured and the final composition of lidocaine emulgel has been created. A recipe for a 5 % lidocaine emulgel with the pH value of 9.1 has been created, based on the gel-forming substance carbomera with an emulsion of the oil phase containing a eutectic mixture of lidocaine and thymol, with an addition of ethanol and propylenglycol, stabilized by a mixed nonionic emulsifier. The advantage is the absence of other local anesthetics.

  15. Transdermal delivery of lidocaine in vitro by alternating current.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Tatsuki; Shibaji, Takao; Umino, Masahiro

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether lidocaine could be transported through excised rat skin in vitro using alternating current (AC). In addition, the relationships between factors such as voltage and frequency, and transported lidocaine concentration were studied using the in vitro model. A pair of platinum plate electrodes was installed at opposite ends of two cylindrical glass cells in parallel to the full-thickness rat skin. The donor compartment was filled with 10 % lidocaine hydrochloride, and the receptor compartment with Ringer solution. A sinusoidal wave was applied between the electrodes at 5 kinds of constant voltages at 1 kHz and at 4 kinds of frequencies at 20 volts. Our experimental system was successfully used to quantify the concentration of transported lidocaine induced by AC application. The applied sinusoidal waves evoked the transport of lidocaine through the rat skin at every voltage and frequency protocol. Our results suggest that the applied electric voltage and frequency affect the movement of the lidocaine ions. We conclude that the transdermal delivery of lidocaine by AC iontophoresis has a possibility to use for local anesthesia and the pain management of the skin.

  16. Investigations into distribution of lidocaine in human autopsy material.

    PubMed

    Oertel, Reinhard; Arenz, Norman; Zeitz, Sten Gunnar; Pietsch, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    With screening methods in the legal medicine drugs were often detected in autopsy material. In this study the antiarrhythmic and the local anesthetic drug lidocaine could be proved in fifty-one cases and determined in different autopsy materials. For the first time the comparison of so many distribution patterns of lidocaine in human compartments was possible. A liquid-liquid extraction procedure, a standard addition method and LC/MS/MS were used for analytics. The measured concentrations in blood were in the therapeutic range or lower. The time between lidocaine application and death was given in twenty-nine cases. These data were very helpful to estimate and interpret the distribution process of lidocaine between application and death. This time exerted a crucial influence on the distribution of lidocaine in the compartments. Most of the intravenous applicated lidocaine was found in heart blood after a very short time of distribution. Afterwards the highest concentrations were measured in brain. Later the highest concentration was found in the kidney samples or in urine. If the time between lidocaine application and death is known, the results of this study can be used to deepen the knowledge of its pharmacokinetics. If this time is unknown, the circumstances and the causes of death can be better explained.

  17. Ketamine reduces lidocaine-induced seizures in mice.

    PubMed

    Guler, Gulen; Erdogan, Fusun; Golgeli, Asuman; Akin, Aynur; Boyaci, Adem

    2005-08-01

    Systemic toxic reactions to local anesthetics are brought about by absolute overdosage, and, most commonly, inadvertent intravascular injections. The anti-convulsant action of ketamine has been studied. However, the effect of ketamine on lidocaine-induced convulsions has not been reported. This study investigated the effect of ketamine on lidocaine-induced seizures in mice. Mice (32-41 g) were divided into 2 groups, 15 in each group, and were pretreated with intraperitoneal normal saline solution or intraperitenoeal (ip) ketamine before lidocaine. Group 1 (N = 15) received 75 mg kg ip lidocaine; Group 2 (N = 15) received 20 mg kg ketamin ip; 5 min later 75 mg kg lidokaine ip were applied. Clinical features, incidences, latencies, durations, and mortality rate of convulsions were recorded. After 75 mg kg lidocaine injection, ataxia, loss of righting reflex, and generalized tonic-clonic convulsions were seen within 2-5 min in Group 1. Generalized tonic-clonic convulsions were seen in 8 mice and deep sedation was seen in 7 mice in Group 2 (p < .05). Generalized status epilepticus occurred in one mouse in both groups. Three mice from Group l and one mouse from Group 2 died during convulsions. There were no differences between the two groups with regard to the onset and duration of seizures (p > .05). It was concluded that ketamine significantly prevented lidocaine-induced generalized tonic-clonic seizures; on the other hand, the lethality of lidocaine was least reduced by ketamine.

  18. Effects of lidocaine on torn rotator cuff tendons.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hirokazu; Gotoh, Masafumi; Kanazawa, Tomonoshin; Nakamura, Hidehiro; Ohta, Keisuke; Nakamura, Kei-Ichiro; Shiba, Naoto

    2016-09-01

    We determined lidocaine's action on torn rotator cuff tendons in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro experiments, cell proliferation and viability assays were performed using tenocytes derived from human torn rotator cuff tendons. For in vivo experiments, acute rotator cuff tears were made on the supraspinatus tendons in the rats' bilateral shoulders; before closure, lidocaine was injected into the shoulder and saline into the contralateral shoulder (control). After sacrifice, the specimens underwent biomechanical testing or histological analysis at 24 h and at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery. The extent of collagen organization and apoptosis were semi-quantitatively evaluated using collagen picrosirius red staining. Apoptosis was examined using TUNEL staining and electron microscopy. Cell proliferation decreased dose-dependently. After exposure to 0.1% lidocaine for 24 h, cell viability decreased. Two and 4 weeks after surgery, the ultimate load to failure decreased more in the lidocaine group than in the control group, with significantly reduced stiffness in the lidocaine group 2 weeks after surgery. Collagen organization significantly decreased in the lidocaine group by 4 weeks after surgery but returned to baseline at 8 weeks. TUNEL staining detected numerous apoptotic tenocytes at the torn tendon edge exposed to lidocaine 24 h after surgery; electron microscopy confirmed the condensed cell nuclei. These changes were not observed in controls. Lidocaine caused cytotoxicity to tenocytes under both conditions, decreased biomechanical properties, and induced apoptosis and delay of collagen organization in this model. Subacromial lidocaine injections in patients with rotator cuff tears should be performed carefully. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1620-1627, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Systemic Lidocaine Shortens Length of Hospital Stay After Colorectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Herroeder, Susanne; Pecher, Sabine; Schönherr, Marianne E.; Kaulitz, Grit; Hahnenkamp, Klaus; Friess, Helmut; Böttiger, Bernd W.; Bauer, Harry; Dijkgraaf, ↶oMarcel G. W.; Durieux, Marcel E.; Hollmann, Markus W.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the beneficial effects of perioperative systemic lidocaine on length of hospital stay, gastrointestinal motility, and the inflammatory response after colorectal surgery. Summary Background Data: Surgery-induced stimulation of the inflammatory response plays a major role in the development of several postoperative disorders. Local anesthetics possess anti-inflammatory activity and are thought to positively affect patients' outcome after surgery. This double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial aimed to evaluate beneficial effects of systemic lidocaine and to provide insights into underlying mechanisms. Methods: Sixty patients undergoing colorectal surgery, not willing or unable to receive an epidural catheter, were randomly assigned to lidocaine or placebo treatment. Before induction of general anesthesia, an intravenous lidocaine bolus (1.5 mg/kg) was administered followed by a continuous lidocaine infusion (2 mg/min) until 4 hours postoperatively. Length of hospital stay, gastrointestinal motility, and pain scores were recorded and plasma levels or expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators determined. Results: Lidocaine significantly accelerated return of bowel function and shortened length of hospital stay by one day. No difference could be observed in daily pain ratings. Elevated plasma levels of IL-6, IL-8, complement C3a, and IL-1ra as well as expression of CD11b, l- and P-selectin, and platelet-leukocyte aggregates were significantly attenuated by systemic lidocaine. Conclusions: Perioperative intravenous lidocaine not only improved gastrointestinal motility but also shortened length of hospital stay significantly. Anti-inflammatory activity modulating the surgery-induced stress response may be one potential mechanism. Systemic lidocaine may thus provide a convenient and inexpensive approach to improve outcome for patients not suitable for epidural anesthesia. PMID:17667496

  20. Neutralized lidocaine with epinephrine for local anesthesia--II.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J H; Chinn, S E; Cole, G W; Klein, J A

    1990-09-01

    The pain usually associated with intradermal injection of lidocaine and epinephrine is significantly attenuated by the addition of either sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydroxide to 1% lidocaine with epinephrine. This suggests that sodium bicarbonate attenuates pain by increasing the pH of the anesthetic solution. The clinical effects of a solution of lidocaine (1%) with epinephrine (1:100,000) and sodium bicarbonate (80 meq/L) were assessed after infiltration in skin. Anesthetic stored for 1 week caused nearly equal areas of anesthesia and vasoconstriction as an identical solution prepared on the day of use.

  1. Lidocaine-induced ASC apoptosis (tumescent vs. local anesthesia).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei Z; Fang, Xin-Hua; Williams, Shelley J; Stephenson, Linda L; Baynosa, Richard C; Khiabani, Kayvan T; Zamboni, William A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose for the present study was to determine which anesthetic method, local anesthesia versus tumescent, is superior for liposuction in terms of adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) survival in lipoaspirate; which component, lidocaine versus lidocaine with epinephrine, in anesthetic solutions could affect ASC survival; and which mechanism, necrosis versus apoptosis, is involved in lidocaine-induced ASC death. Human lipoaspirates were harvested using standard liposuction technique. Individuals scheduled for liposuction on bilateral body areas gave consent and were included in the study. On one area, liposuction was conducted under local anesthesia with lidocaine/epinephrine. On the contralateral area, liposuction was accomplished with tumescent wetting solution containing lidocaine/epinephrine. Lipoaspirates were processed for the isolation of stromal vascular fraction (SVF). ASC survival was determined by the number of adherent ASCs after 24 h of SVF culture. Lidocaine dose-response (with or without epinephrine) on cultured ASCs was examined. Lidocaine-induced ASC apoptosis and necrosis was determined by Annexin V-FITC/Propidium Iodide (PI) assay and analyzed by flow cytometry. All of the participants were female adults. The average age was 45 ± 4.0 years (±SEM) and the average BMI was 28 ± 1.0 (±SEM). Lipoaspirate samples (n = 14) treated by local anesthesia (n = 7/group) or tumescent anesthesia (n = 7/group) were investigated. Liposuction sites were located in the hip or thigh. The average number of adherent ASCs was 1,057 ± 146 k in the local anesthesia group, which was significantly lower than the 1,571 ± 111 k found in the tumescent group (P = 0.01). ASC survival was significantly lower in the lidocaine group and in a dose-dependent manner as compared to the correspondent PBS controls (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). ASC survival was significantly lower in both the lidocaine and lidocaine with epinephrine groups when compared to PBS controls. Annexin/PI assay

  2. Endotracheal tube cuff lidocaine is not superior to intravenous lidocaine in short pediatric surgeries.

    PubMed

    Behzadi, Mehrdad; Hajimohamadi, Fatemeh; Alagha, Afshar Etemadi; Abouzari, Mehdi; Rashidi, Armin

    2010-05-01

    Instillation of lidocaine into the endotracheal tube cuff is a method with reported efficiency in promoting a smoother emergence from anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. However, whether or not this method is helpful in children and in surgeries with short duration has not been investigated previously. 176 ASA I-II children undergoing adenotonsillectomy were enrolled in this prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Patients were randomly allocated to two groups. Patients in the ECL group (n=88) were injected 2% lidocaine into their endotracheal tube cuff and received saline (1.5mg/kg) intravenously. The IVL group (n=88) received 1.5mg/kg of 2% lidocaine intravenously and saline into the endotracheal tube cuff. In both groups, intra-cuff injections were initiated immediately after insertion of the endotracheal tube and terminated before the cuff pressure reached 20 cmH(2)O. The parameters measured were: coughing (graded by a scale of 3 at the time of extubation), systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rate (from the time of extubation up to 5 min after extubation at 1-min intervals), and laryngospasm (defined as the presence of hoarseness or absence of airflow). The groups were not different in sex, age, weight, height, body mass index, anesthesia duration, and baseline hemodynamic parameters. The grade of coughing was significantly higher in the ECL group. The incidence of laryngospasm and hemodynamic trends did not differ between the groups. Our results indicate that intra-cuff lidocaine may not be beneficial in children and in surgeries with a short duration. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Noninfiltrative anesthesia for transrectal prostate biopsy: a randomized prospective study comparing lidocaine-prilocaine cream and lidocaine-ketorolac gel.

    PubMed

    Cormio, Luigi; Lorusso, Fabrizio; Selvaggio, Oscar; Perrone, Antonia; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Pagliarulo, Vincenzo; Bufo, Pantaleo; Carrieri, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Periprostatic nerve block (PPNB) is the standard anesthesia for ultrasound (US) guided transrectal prostate biopsy (TPB), but periprostatic infiltration itself constitutes a major, though often neglected, source of discomfort even in patients receiving perianal-intrarectal lidocaine-prilocaine (PILP) cream before PPNB. Noninfiltrative anesthesia therefore represents an attractive alternative to periprostatic infiltration. With this in mind, we aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of perianal-intrarectal (PI) lidocaine gel, lidocaine-ketorolac gel, and lidocaine-prilocaine cream in relieving pain during TPB. Three hundred consecutive patients scheduled for US-guided TPB were randomized 1:1:1 to receive PI administration of 5 g 2.5% lidocaine gel 10 minutes before TPB (Group 1), or a mixture of 5 g 2.5% lidocaine gel and 0.3% ketorolac tromethamine solution 1 hour before TPB (Group 2), or 5 g 2.5% lidocaine and 2.5% prilocaine cream 20 minutes before TPB (Group 3). The 0-to-10 points visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for assessing pain at probe insertion and movements (VAS-1), at prostate sampling (VAS-2), and maximal procedural pain (MPP). Complications occurring up to 20 days after the procedure were also recorded. Four (1.3%) patients were excluded because of unbearable pain during the procedure, leaving Group 1 with 98 patients, Group 2 with 99, and Group 3 with 99; the 3 groups were comparable for patients' age, serum PSA, prostate volume, and cancer detection rate. The addition of either ketorolac or prilocaine to lidocaine significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced probe-related, sampling-related, and maximal procedural pain. Compared with lidocaine-prilocaine, lidocaine-ketorolac was less effective in relieving probe-related pain (mean VAS-1: 1.47 ± 1.30 vs. 0.39 ± 0.65; P < 0.0001) but more effective in relieving sampling-related pain (mean VAS-2: 0.76 ± 0.94 vs. 1.54 ± 1.02; P < 0.0001); there was no difference in MPP (mean 1.82 ± 1.21 vs. 1.67 ± 0

  4. [Effect of lidocaine and lidocaine with adrenaline on development of cerebral seizures].

    PubMed

    Tsilosani, N A; Nanobashvili, Z I; Azikuri, G Sh; Bekaia, G L

    2006-05-01

    Experiments were carried out on male albino rats of 200-250 g weight with bipolar electrodes implanted in neocortex, as well as in the right and the left dorsal hippocampus for the study of the effect of lidocaine and its combination with adrenaline on the electric activity of brain. On the fifth day from the implantation in the first group of animals 0,3 ml 2% lidocaine was injected intra-peritoneally and the electric activity from the above mentioned structures was registered. In the second group 0,3 ml 2% lidocaine with adrenaline was injected intra-peritoneally (1:100000). In 8-12 sec after injection in the first group of animals the encephalogram showed sharply defined clone type seizure activity, which soon obtained tonus character. Simultaneously clone-tonus type behavioural manifestation was revealed, which lasted for 20-25 minutes. In the second group of animals in 30-40 sec after injection the encephalogram revealed convulsion activity with high amplitude synchronous oscillations, which lasted for 20-25 minutes, although in this group, in distinct from the first group, no clone-tonus behavioural manifestation was detected.

  5. Lidocaine Infusion: A Promising Therapeutic Approach for Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kandil, Enas; Melikman, Emily; Adinoff, Bryon

    2017-01-01

    Opioid abuse is a national epidemic in the United States, where it is estimated that a prescription drug overdose death occurs every 19 minutes. While opioids are highly effective in acute and subacute pain control, their use for treatment of chronic pain is controversial. Chronic opioids use is associated with tolerance, dependency, hyperalgesia. Although there are new strategies and practice guidelines to reduce opioid dependence and opioid prescription drug overdose, there has been little focus on development of opioid-sparing therapeutic approaches. Lidocaine infusion has been shown to be successful in controlling pain where other agents have failed. The opioid sparing properties of lidocaine infusion added to its analgesic and antihyperalgesic properties make lidocaine infusion a viable option for pain control in opioid dependent patients. In this review, we provide an overview of the opioid abuse epidemic, and we outline current evidence supporting the potential use of lidocaine infusion as an adjuvant therapeutic approach for management of chronic pain. PMID:28239510

  6. Clinical effectiveness of lidocaine and benzocaine for topical anesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, A. L.; Sverzut, C. E.; Xavier, S. P.; Lavrador, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    The effectiveness of lidocaine and benzocaine in reducing pain produced by needle insertion into the palate was evaluated in a double-blind and placebo-controlled study using a more suitable method. Twenty subjects, 10 men and 10 women, submitted to 4 sessions in which they were randomly treated with 5% lidocaine, a placebo that tasted like lidocaine, 20% benzocaine, and a placebo that tasted like benzocaine. At each session, a 27-gauge needle was inserted into the palate twice, once before (baseline) and once after drug application for 1 minute. Immediately after each insertion, subjects indicated on a visual analog scale the pain intensity perceived. Lidocaine and benzocaine were equally efficient, and both were better than placebo in reducing pain caused by insertion of needles into the palate. PMID:11692349

  7. Acute intoxication of lidocaine and chlorpheniramine: report of one case.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yi-Ming; Hung, Chih-Hsing; Yuh, Yeong-Seng

    2005-01-01

    A case of acute intoxication involving lidocaine and chlorpheniramine (an antihistamine) in a 13-month-old child after ingestion of a commercial topical agent is presented. The major toxic reaction consisted of convulsion, coma, tachycardia, fever, and fatigue. This report shows that parents and physicians should be made aware of the hazards of lidocaine and overdose of other topical agents in infants and children.

  8. Procaine compared with lidocaine for incidence of transient neurologic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, P S; Liu, S S; Batra, M S; Gras, T W; Pollock, J E; Neal, J M

    2000-01-01

    Transient neurologic symptoms (TNS) have been reported to occur after 16% to 40% of ambulatory lidocaine spinal anesthetics. Patient discomfort and the possibility of underlying lidocaine neurotoxicity have prompted a search for alternative local anesthetic agents. We compared the incidence of TNS with procaine or lidocaine spinal anesthesia in a 2:1 dose ratio. Seventy outpatients undergoing knee arthroscopy were blindly randomized to receive either 100 mg hyperbaric procaine or 50 mg hyperbaric lidocaine. An interview by a blinded investigator established the presence or absence of TNS, defined as pain in the buttocks or lower extremities beginning within 24 hours of surgery. Onset of sensory and motor block, patient discomfort, supplemental anesthetics, and side effects were recorded by the unblinded managing anesthesia team. Anesthetic adequacy was determined from these data by a single blinded investigator. Hospital discharge time was recorded from the patient record. Groups were compared using appropriate statistics with a P < .05 considered significant. TNS occurred in 6% of procaine patients versus 31% of lidocaine patients (P = .007). Sensory block with procaine and lidocaine was similar, while motor block was decreased with procaine (P < .05). A trend toward a higher rate of block inadequacy (17% v 3%, P = .11) and intraoperative nausea (17% v 3%, P = .11) occurred with procaine. Average hospital discharge time with procaine was increased by 29 minutes (P < .05). The incidence of TNS was substantially lower with procaine than with lidocaine. However, procaine resulted in a lower overall quality of anesthesia and a prolonged average discharge time. If the shortfalls of procaine as studied can be overcome, it may provide a suitable alternative to lidocaine for outpatient spinal anesthesia to minimize the risk of TNS.

  9. Rifampicin induction of lidocaine metabolism in cultured human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, A P; Rasmussen, A; Xu, L; Kaminski, D L

    1995-08-01

    In our laboratory, cultured human hepatocytes are being evaluated as an experimental system to study drug interactions. We report the effect of a known cytochrome P450 (CYP) inducer, rifampicin, on the metabolism of lidocaine by primary human hepatocytes. Rifampicin has been shown to induce CYP3A4, a major human hepatic CYP isozyme that is known to metabolize lidocaine to its primary metabolite, monoethylglycinexylidide. Human hepatocytes were cultured on collagen-coated plates in serum-free, hormone-supplemented Waymouth medium for a 3-day period before they were treated with rifampicin at 50 microM for 1 to 3 days. Hepatocytes isolated from five individuals were studied, and, in all cases, lidocaine metabolism was found to be induced by rifampicin, as demonstrated by a higher rate of monoethylglycinexylidide formation than concurrent controls. For three of the hepatocyte cultures, lidocaine metabolism was evaluated at various times after treatment. Induction was observed at 1 day after treatment, and reached higher levels at day 2 or 3. The level of induction was found to be approximately 100% for two hepatocyte isolations and approximately 600% for one isolation. In a separate experiment, hepatocytes were treated with rifampicin for a 2-day period. Rate of lidocaine metabolism at multiple substrate concentrations (10-120 microM) were then studied. Rifampicin induction of lidocaine metabolism (approximately 100%) was observed at all the lidocaine concentrations studied. Lineweaver-Burk plot of the data showed an increase in Vmax and a less significant change in Km. Induction of lidocaine metabolism by rifampicin (concentrations of 0.1-50 microM) was found to be dose-dependent, with significant induction observed at 1 microM and higher concentrations. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. A comparative study of centbucridine and lidocaine in dental extraction.

    PubMed

    Vacharajani, G N; Parikh, N; Paul, T; Satoskar, R S

    1983-01-01

    A randomized double-blind study comparing the efficacy and tolerability of centbucridine (0.5%) with those of lidocaine (2%) as an anaesthetic agent was conducted in the dental outpatient department on patients attending for dental extraction. One hundred and twenty patients were studied. The degree of analgesia attained with centbucridine compared well with that obtained with lidocaine. The compound was well tolerated with no significant changes in the cardiovascular parameters and no serious side-effects.

  11. He(I) photoelectron studies of lidocaine films on liquid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, R. E.; Jones, Jimmy; Read, Derek; Inchley, Andrew; Cranmer, Martin

    1988-02-01

    Lidocaine forms expanded-type liquid surface films on solutions. The characteristic He(I) photoelectron spectrum of the initial film changes after formation, revealing a change of surface structure. Lidocaine slowly penetrates and replaces a monolayer of egg lecithin.

  12. Lidocaine patches reduce pain in trauma patients with rib fractures.

    PubMed

    Zink, Karen A; Mayberry, John C; Peck, Ellen G; Schreiber, Martin A

    2011-04-01

    Rib fracture pain is notoriously difficult to manage. The lidocaine patch is effective in other pain scenarios with an excellent safety profile. This study assesses the efficacy of lidocaine patches for treating rib fracture pain. A prospectively gathered cohort of patients with rib fracture was retrospectively analyzed for use of lidocaine patches. Patients treated with lidocaine patches were matched to control subjects treated without patches. Subjective pain reports and narcotic use before and after patch placement, or equivalent time points for control subjects, were gathered from the chart. All patients underwent long-term follow-up, including a McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Twenty-nine patients with lidocaine patches (LP) and 29 matched control subjects (C) were analyzed. During the 24 hours before patch placement, pain scores and narcotic use were similar (LP 5.3, C 4.6, P = 0.19 and LP 51, C 32 mg morphine, P = 0.17). In the 24 hours after patch placement, LP patients had a greater decrease in pain scores (LP 1.2, C 0.0, P = 0.01) with no change in narcotic use (LP -8.4, C 0.5-mg change in morphine, P = 0.25). At 60 days, LP patients had a lower MPQ pain score (LP 7.7, C 12.2, P < 0.01), although only one patient was still using a patch. There was no difference in time to return to baseline activity (LP 73, C 105 days, P = 0.16) and no adverse events. Lidocaine patches are a safe, effective adjunct for rib fracture pain. Lidocaine patches resulted in a sustained reduction in pain, outlasting the duration of therapy.

  13. Intrathecal lidocaine neurotoxicity: combination with bupivacaine and ropivacaine and effect of nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangyi; Ding, Xudong; Guo, Yao; Chen, Weimin

    2014-09-01

    The study aims to investigate the neurotoxicity induced by combined use of intrathecal lidocaine with bupivacaine and ropivacaine, and to examine the effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on lidocaine-induced neurotoxicity. All rats received intrathecal infusion of anesthetics and NGF. To study the neurotoxicity of combined use of lidocaine with bupivacaine and ropivacaine, rats received saline, 5% lidocaine, 1.065% bupivacaine, 1.5% ropivacaine, 5% lidocaine+bupivacaine, or 5% lidocaine+1.5% ropivacaine. To study the neurotoxicity of different proportions of lidocaine and bupivacaine, mixtures were made by mixing 10% lidocaine and 2.5% bupivacaine in ratios of 1:3, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 by volume. To study the effect of NGF on lidocaine-induced neurotoxicity, rats received saline or 10 μg NGF for 1, 2, 5 and 8 days. The neurotoxicity of lidocaine was significantly increased when combined with ropivacaine. A mixture of lidocaine and bupivacaine in a ratio of ≤1:1 did not significantly increase lidocaine-induced neurotoxicity. NGF significantly reduced lidocaine-induced neurobehavioral and morphological damage in the spinal cord. This was accompanied by downregulation of caspase 3 expression. Ropivacaine is not safe when intrathecally administered with lidocaine at the concentrations used in this study. Bupivacaine may be safely used with lidocaine at a ratio of 1:1. NGF can reduce lidocaine-induced neurotoxicity, possibly via inhibition of caspase 3-mediated apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anaphylactic shock following intraurethral lidocaine administration during transurethral resection of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, M.; Sinha, R.

    2008-01-01

    Anaphylactic shock was noted following an apparently uneventful transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Lidocaine jelly was used prior to urethral dilatation and before placement of three-way Foley. Lidocaine sensitivity was diagnosed serendipitously when lidocaine jelly was used for application of ECG electrodes. Anaphylaxis may be one of the rare differentials to be considered in a patient with postoperative shock following TURP. This report highlights a potentially fatal complication of an apparently innocuous and ubiquitous urological use of lidocaine. PMID:19468373

  15. Lidocaine Concentration in Oral Tissue by the Addition of Epinephrine

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Eri; Yoshida, Kenji; Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yamazaki, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    The vasoconstrictive effect due to the addition of epinephrine to local anesthetic has been clearly shown by measuring blood-flow volume or blood anesthetic concentration in oral mucosal tissue. However, there are no reports on the measurement of anesthetic concentration using samples directly taken from the jawbone and oral mucosal tissue. Consequently, in this study, the effect of lidocaine concentration in the jawbone and oral mucosal tissue by the addition of epinephrine to the local anesthetic lidocaine was considered by quantitatively measuring lidocaine concentration within the tissue. Japanese white male rabbits (n = 96) were used as test animals. General anesthesia was induced by sevoflurane and oxygen, and then cannulation to the femoral artery was performed while arterial pressure was constantly recorded. Infiltration anesthesia was achieved by 0.5 mL of 2% lidocaine containing 1 : 80,000 epinephrine in the upper jawbone (E+) and 0.5 mL of 2% of epinephrine additive–free lidocaine (E0) under the periosteum. At specified time increments (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 minutes), samples from the jawbone, oral mucosa, and blood were collected, and lidocaine concentration was directly measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. No significant differences in the change in blood pressure were observed either in E+ or E0. In both E+ and E0 groups, the serum lidocaine concentration peaked 10 minutes after local anesthesia and decreased thereafter. At all time increments, serum lidocaine concentration in E+ was significantly lower than that in E0. There were no significant differences in measured lidocaine concentration between jawbone and mucosa within either the E+ or the E0 groups at all time points, although the E0 group had significantly lower jawbone and mucosa concentrations than the E+ group at all time points when comparing the 2 groups to each other. Addition of epinephrine to the local anesthetic inhibited systemic absorption of local

  16. Lidocaine Concentration in Oral Tissue by the Addition of Epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Eri; Yoshida, Kenji; Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yamazaki, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    The vasoconstrictive effect due to the addition of epinephrine to local anesthetic has been clearly shown by measuring blood-flow volume or blood anesthetic concentration in oral mucosal tissue. However, there are no reports on the measurement of anesthetic concentration using samples directly taken from the jawbone and oral mucosal tissue. Consequently, in this study, the effect of lidocaine concentration in the jawbone and oral mucosal tissue by the addition of epinephrine to the local anesthetic lidocaine was considered by quantitatively measuring lidocaine concentration within the tissue. Japanese white male rabbits (n = 96) were used as test animals. General anesthesia was induced by sevoflurane and oxygen, and then cannulation to the femoral artery was performed while arterial pressure was constantly recorded. Infiltration anesthesia was achieved by 0.5 mL of 2% lidocaine containing 1 : 80,000 epinephrine in the upper jawbone (E(+)) and 0.5 mL of 2% of epinephrine additive-free lidocaine (E(0)) under the periosteum. At specified time increments (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 minutes), samples from the jawbone, oral mucosa, and blood were collected, and lidocaine concentration was directly measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. No significant differences in the change in blood pressure were observed either in E(+) or E(0). In both E(+) and E(0) groups, the serum lidocaine concentration peaked 10 minutes after local anesthesia and decreased thereafter. At all time increments, serum lidocaine concentration in E(+) was significantly lower than that in E(0). There were no significant differences in measured lidocaine concentration between jawbone and mucosa within either the E(+) or the E(0) groups at all time points, although the E(0) group had significantly lower jawbone and mucosa concentrations than the E(+) group at all time points when comparing the 2 groups to each other. Addition of epinephrine to the local anesthetic inhibited systemic

  17. Effect of dexmedetomidine priming on convulsion reaction induced by lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-Feng; Luo, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Wei-Cheng; Hou, Ben-Chao; Huang, Jian; Zhan, Yan-Ping; Chen, Shi-Biao

    2016-10-01

    To study the effect of dexmedetomidine priming on convulsion reaction induced by lidocaine.The New Zealand white rabbits were applied for the mechanism study of dexmedetomidine priming for preventing convulsion reaction induced by lidocaine. The influence of dexmedetomidine priming with different doses on the time for convulsion occurrence and the duration time of convulsion induced by lidocaine, as well as contents of excitatory amino acids (aspartate [Asp], glutamate [Glu]) and inhibitory amino acids (glycine [Gly], γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA]) in the brain tissue were investigated.With 3 and 5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine priming, the occurrence times of convulsion were prolonged from 196 seconds to 349 and 414 seconds, respectively. With dexmedetomidine priming, the contents of excitatory amino acids (Asp, Glu) were much reduced at occurrence time of convulsion comparing with that without dexmedetomidine priming, while content of inhibitory amino acids Gly was much enhanced.The application of dexmedetomidine before local anesthetics can improve intoxication dose threshold of the lidocaine, delay occurrence of the convulsion, and helped for the recovery of convulsion induced by lidocaine. The positive effect of dexmedetomidine on preventing convulsion would owe to not only the inhibition of excitatory amino acids (Asp, Glu), but also the promotion of inhibitory amino acids Gly secretion.

  18. Clinical efficacy of lidocaine, mepivacaine, and articaine for local infiltration.

    PubMed

    Srisurang, Suttapreyasri; Narit, Leepong; Prisana, Pripatnanont

    2011-02-01

      To assess and compare the efficacy of single buccal and palatal infiltration of lidocaine, mepivacaine, or articaine with 1:100 000 epinephrine by maxillary anesthetic injection.   A double-blinded, randomized, clinical trial was conducted with 33 patients undergoing upper premolar extraction. The patients were randomly allocated into one of three groups, according to the local anesthetic agent used: 2% lidocaine, 2% mepivacaine, or 4% articaine, all with 1:100 000 epinephrine, and were blinded to the anesthetic used. The extent of anesthetization, pulpal anesthetization in adjacent teeth, pain on injection, and adverse effects of the anesthetic agents were assessed.   The extent of anesthetization produced by 4% articaine (42 mm) was statistically more significant (P ≤ 0.05) than 2% lidocaine (33 mm) and 2% mepivacaine (32.5 mm). The successful anesthetization of adjacent teeth occurred more often in the articaine group than in the lidocaine and mepivacine groups, although not to a statistically-significant extent. The pain scores for the injections were comparable between the three groups.   Local anesthetization using 4% articaine with 1:100 000 epinephrine covers a wider area of soft tissue and adjacent teeth than 2% lidocaine or 2% mepivacaine with 1:100 000 epinephrine, which is sufficient for the extraction of one or two teeth. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Effect of dexmedetomidine priming on convulsion reaction induced by lidocaine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xi-Feng; Luo, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Wei-Cheng; Hou, Ben-Chao; Huang, Jian; Zhan, Yan-Ping; Chen, Shi-Biao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To study the effect of dexmedetomidine priming on convulsion reaction induced by lidocaine. The New Zealand white rabbits were applied for the mechanism study of dexmedetomidine priming for preventing convulsion reaction induced by lidocaine. The influence of dexmedetomidine priming with different doses on the time for convulsion occurrence and the duration time of convulsion induced by lidocaine, as well as contents of excitatory amino acids (aspartate [Asp], glutamate [Glu]) and inhibitory amino acids (glycine [Gly], γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA]) in the brain tissue were investigated. With 3 and 5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine priming, the occurrence times of convulsion were prolonged from 196 seconds to 349 and 414 seconds, respectively. With dexmedetomidine priming, the contents of excitatory amino acids (Asp, Glu) were much reduced at occurrence time of convulsion comparing with that without dexmedetomidine priming, while content of inhibitory amino acids Gly was much enhanced. The application of dexmedetomidine before local anesthetics can improve intoxication dose threshold of the lidocaine, delay occurrence of the convulsion, and helped for the recovery of convulsion induced by lidocaine. The positive effect of dexmedetomidine on preventing convulsion would owe to not only the inhibition of excitatory amino acids (Asp, Glu), but also the promotion of inhibitory amino acids Gly secretion. PMID:27787355

  20. Distinct pharmacologic substrate in lidocaine-sensitive, repetitive atrial tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Chiale, Pablo A; Faivelis, Luciano; Garro, Hugo A; Fernández, Pablo A; Herrera Paz, Juan J; Elizari, Marcelo V

    2012-06-01

    Lidocaine-sensitive, repetitive atrial tachycardia is an uncommon arrhythmia. The electrophysiologic substrate is still unknown, and the pharmacologic responses have not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intravenous adenosine and verapamil in patients with lidocaine-sensitive atrial tachycardia. In 9 patients with repetitive uniform atrial tachycardia, the response to intravenous adenosine (12 mg), lidocaine (1 mg/kg body weight), and verapamil (10 mg) were sequentially investigated. Simultaneous 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded at baseline and continuously monitored thereafter. Tracings were obtained at regularly timed intervals right after the administration of each drug to evaluate changes in the arrhythmia characteristics. Repetitive atrial tachycardia was abolished by intravenous lidocaine in the 9 patients within the first 2 minutes after the end of injection. Adenosine suppressed the arrhythmia in 2 patients and shortened the runs of atrial ectopic activity in 1 patient, while verapamil was effective in 2 patients, 1 of them insensitive to adenosine and the other 1 sensitive to this agent. In 5 patients, the arrhythmia was abolished by radiofrequency ablation at different sites of the right atrium. Lidocaine-sensitive atrial tachycardia may eventually be also suppressed by adenosine and/or verapamil. This suggests that this enigmatic arrhythmia may be caused by different underlying electrophysiologic substrates and that at least in some cases, delayed afterdepolarizations seem to play a determining role.

  1. Evaluation of lidocaine and mepivacaine for inferior third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Porto, Gabriela Granja; Vasconcelos, Belmiro Cavalcanti Do Egito; Gomes, Ana Cláudia Amorim; Albert, Daniela

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 2% lidocaine and 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine for postoperative pain control. A group of 35 patients, both genders were recruited, whose had ages ranged from 13 to 27 years-old and had two inferior third molars in similar positions to be extracted. The cartridges were distributed to the patients according to a randomised pattern, where lidocaine was in the control group and mepivacaine in the experimental group. Results showed no significant association between the anesthetics and postoperative pain, pulp sensibility after one hour, gender, tooth position and duration of the surgical procedure. It was shown that lidocaine and mepivacaine have similar time of anesthesia, they are adequate for surgical procedures that last one hour, and there was no difference between the two anesthetics in relation to the severety of post-operative pain.

  2. Oral mexiletine for lidocaine-responsive neonatal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Mika; Okumura, Akihisa; Niijima, Shinichi; Yamashita, Shintaro; Shimono, Kuriko; Hirose, Shinichi; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2013-08-01

    We report a patient with lidocaine-responsive neonatal epilepsy treated successfully with oral mexiletine. The patient was a male neonate who had seizures since 2days of age. While his seizures were refractory to phenobarbital, lamotrigine, vitamin B6, and midazolam, they were controlled by continuous lidocaine infusion. Oral mexiletine at serum levels of 0.2-0.4μg/ml was used successfully for long-term treatment of his seizures. No delay in psychomotor development was observed at the last follow-up at 20months of age. No mutation was identified in any of four genes: SCN1A, SCN1B, KCNQ2, and KCNQ3. Our patient demonstrates that oral mexiletine can be useful for long-term treatment of patients with lidocaine-responsive epilepsy. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Positive lidocaine toxicology screen after J-Tip for venipuncture.

    PubMed

    Bhupali, Chetan; Cummings, Brian M; Parker, Lois; Young, Robert; Noviski, Natan

    2013-12-01

    Venipuncture is common in children, and topical anesthetics are often used to alleviate the pain of the procedure. The J-Tip (National Medical Products, Inc, Irvine, Calif) device has become popular as a rapid and effective means of delivering lidocaine noninvasively. We report a case of a positive lidocaine blood toxicology screen after the use of the J-Tip device in a child pre-venipuncture. A repeat toxicology screen obtained 1 hour later by venipuncture without J-Tip use was negative. This report serves to remind clinicians that topical anesthetics may interfere with toxicology assays, leading to unreliable toxicology results.

  4. Lidocaine intoxication in axillary block: similar pharmaceutical form, different concentration

    PubMed Central

    Erbesler, Zeynel Abidin; Karaoren, Gulsah; Dagli, Recai; Cakirtekin, Vedat

    2015-01-01

    Local anesthetic intoxication is a medical emergency with high mortality. These drugs have not spesific antidotes, quick differential diagnosis and supportive treatment required in the case of exposure to toxic doses. We report the complications and anesthetic management of a patient who was scheduled for right carpal tunnel syndrome surgery under regional anesthesia, but mistakenly received injection of 140 mg procaine added to 10% 10 mL lidocaine (10 mL=1000mg) instead of 2% lidocaine (10mL=200 mg) as part of an axillary plexus blockade. PMID:28058328

  5. Characterization and comparison of lidocaine-tetracaine and lidocaine-camphor eutectic mixtures based on their crystallization and hydrogen-bonding abilities.

    PubMed

    Gala, Urvi; Chuong, Monica C; Varanasi, Ravi; Chauhan, Harsh

    2015-06-01

    Eutectic mixtures formed between active pharmaceutical ingredients and/or excipients provide vast scope for pharmaceutical applications. This study aimed at the exploration of the crystallization abilities of two eutectic mixtures (EM) i.e., lidocaine-tetracaine and lidocaine-camphor (1:1 w/w). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for degradation behavior whereas modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC) set in first heating, cooling, and second heating cycles, was used to qualitatively analyze the complex exothermic and endothermic thermal transitions. Raman microspectroscopy characterized vibrational information specific to chemical bonds. Prepared EMs were left at room temperature for 24 h to visually examine their crystallization potentials. The degradation of lidocaine, tetracaine, camphor, lidocaine-tetracaine EM, and lidocaine-camphor EM began at 196.56, 163.82, 76.86, 146.01, and 42.72°C, respectively, which indicated that eutectic mixtures are less thermostable compared to their individual components. The MTDSC showed crystallization peaks for lidocaine, tetracaine, and camphor at 31.86, 29.36, and 174.02°C, respectively (n = 3). When studying the eutectic mixture, no crystallization peak was observed in the lidocaine-tetracaine EM, but a lidocaine-camphor EM crystallization peak was present at 18.81°C. Crystallization occurred in lidocaine-camphor EM after being kept at room temperature for 24 h, but not in lidocaine-tetracaine EM. Certain peak shifts were observed in Raman spectra which indicated possible interactions of eutectic mixture components, when a eutectic mixture was formed. We found that if the components forming a eutectic mixture have crystallization peaks close to each other and have sufficient hydrogen-bonding capability, then their eutectic mixture is least likely to crystallize out (as seen in lidocaine-tetracaine EM) or vice versa (lidocaine-camphor EM).

  6. Is lidocaine patch as effective as intravenous lidocaine in pain and illus reduction after laparoscopic colorectal surgery? A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Elhafz, Ahmed Ali Abd; Elgebaly, Ahmed Said; Bassuoni, Ahmed Sobhy; El Dabaa, Ahmed Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of lidocaine patch applied around wound in laparoscopic colorectal surgery in reduction of postoperative pain and illus compared to intravenous lidocaine infusion and placebo. Background: Postoperative illus and pain after colorectal surgery is a challenging problem associated with increased morbidity and cost. Inflammatory response to surgery plays crucial rule in inducing postoperative illus. Systemic local anesthetics proved to have anti-inflammatory properties that may be beneficial in preventing ileus added to its analgesic actions. The lidocaine patch evaluated in many types of pain with promising results. We try to evaluate the patch in perioperative field as a more simple and safe technique than the intravenous route. Materials and Methods: Prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted, comparing three groups. Group 1 (placebo) received saline infusion, group 2 received i.v. lidocaine infusion after induction of anesthesia, 2 mg/min if body weight >70 kg or 1 mg/min if body weight <70 kg, group 3 received lidocaine patch 5%, three patches each one divided into two equal parts and applied around the three wounds just before induction. Data collected were, pain scores (VAS), morphine consumption, return of bowel function, pro-inflammatory cytokines plasma levels and plasma lidocaine level. Results: Pain intensity (VAS) scores at rest and during coughing were significantly lower during the first 72 h postoperative in i.v. lidocaine group and patch group compared to the placebo group. Mean morphine consumption were significantly lower in the i.v. lidocaine group and patch group compared to placebo group. Return of the bowel function was significantly earlier in i.v. lidocaine group in comparison to the other groups. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL6, IL8, and C3a) were significantly lower in i.v. lidocaine group compared to the other two groups. Conclusion: The lidocaine patch was equal to i.v. lidocaine infusion in

  7. Lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster: in minor dermatological and needle puncture procedures.

    PubMed

    Croxtall, Jamie D

    2010-11-12

    The lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster comprises a lidocaine/tetracaine 70 mg/70 mg patch and a controlled heat-assisted drug delivery pod that increases the diffusion of lidocaine and tetracaine into the dermis. Following a 1-hour application period, systemic absorption of lidocaine or tetracaine from the plaster was minimal. The lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster provided effective pain relief for adult (including elderly) patients undergoing minor dermatological procedures and for adult and paediatric patients undergoing vascular access procedures. In randomized, double-blind clinical trials, patient-reported median pain scores were significantly lower with the lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster than with an identical plaster containing placebo in patients undergoing minor dermatological or vascular access procedures. Furthermore, patient-reported median pain scores were significantly lower with the lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster than with a lidocaine/prilocaine cream in patients undergoing vascular access procedures. In a large, randomized, double-blind trial in paediatric patients undergoing venipuncture, the overall incidence of pain was significantly lower with the lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster than with a lidocaine/prilocaine plaster. The lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster was well tolerated, with the most frequent treatment-related adverse events resolving spontaneously.

  8. Caudal epidural analgesia using lidocaine alone or in combination with ketamine in dromedary camels Camelus dromedarius.

    PubMed

    Azari, Omid; Molaei, Mohammad M; Ehsani, Amir H

    2014-02-27

    This study was performed to investigate the analgesic effect of lidocaine and a combination of lidocaine and ketamine following epidural administration in dromedary camels. Ten 12-18-month-old camels were randomly divided into two equal groups. In group L, the animals received 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg) and in group LK the animals received a mixture of 10% ketamine (1 mg/kg) and 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg) administered into the first intercoccygeal (Co1-Co2) epidural space while standing. Onset time and duration of caudal analgesia, sedation level and ataxia were recorded after drug administration. Data were analysed by U Mann-Whitney tests and significance was taken as p < 0.05. The results showed that epidural lidocaine and co-administration of lidocaine and ketamine produced complete analgesia in the tail, anus and perineum. Epidural administration of the lidocaine-ketamine mixture resulted in mild to moderate sedation, whilst the animals that received epidural lidocaine alone were alert and nervous during the study. Ataxia was observed in all test subjects and was slightly more severe in camels that received the lidocaine-ketamine mixture. It was concluded that epidural administration of lidocaine plus ketamine resulted in longer caudal analgesia in standing conscious dromedary camels compared with the effect of administering lidocaine alone.

  9. The effects of lidocaine or a lidocaine-bupivacaine mixture administered into the infraorbital canal in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the onset, duration, and extent of regional nerve blocks performed by administration of lidocaine or lidocaine-bupivacaine into the infraorbital canal in dogs. ANIMALS 6 healthy hound-type dogs. PROCEDURES Under general anesthesia, stimulating needles were inserted into the gingiva dorsolateral to both maxillary canine (MC) teeth and the maxillary fourth premolar (MPM4) and second molar (MM2) teeth on the treatment side. A reflex-evoked muscle potential (REMP) was recorded from the digastricus muscle after noxious electrical stimulation at each site. After baseline measurements, 1 mL of 2% lidocaine solution or a 2% lidocaine-0.5% bupivacaine mixture (0.5 mL each) was injected into the infraorbital canal (at approx two-thirds of the canal length measured rostrocaudally). The REMPs were recorded for up to 7 hours. The REMP data for the contralateral (untreated control) canine tooth were used to normalize results for all stimulation sites. RESULTS With both treatments, nerve block for MC teeth on the treated side was achieved by 5 (n = 5 dogs) or 10 (1) minutes after injection, but nerve block for ipsilateral MPM4 and MM2 teeth was successful for only 3 dogs and 1 dog, respectively. Mean duration of nerve blocks for MC teeth was 120 and 277 minutes following injection of lidocaine and lidocaine-bupivacaine, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Local anesthesia, as performed in this study, successfully blocked innervation of MC teeth, but results for MPM4 and MM2 teeth were inconsistent. This specific technique should not be used during tooth extractions caudal to the MC teeth.

  10. Dissecting lidocaine action: diethylamide and phenol mimic separate modes of lidocaine block of sodium channels from heart and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Zamponi, G W; French, R J

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated block of sodium channels by diethylamide and phenol, which resemble the hydrophilic tertiary amine head and the hydrophobic aromatic tail of the lidocaine molecule, respectively. Diethylamide and phenol separately mimicked the fast and slow modes of block caused by lidocaine. Experiments were performed using single batrachotoxin-activated bovine cardiac and rat skeletal muscle sodium channels incorporated into neutral planar lipid bilayers. Diethylamide, only from the intracellular side, caused a voltage-dependent reduction in apparent single channel amplitude ('fast' block). Block was similar for cardiac and skeletal muscle channels, and increased in potency when extracellular sodium was replaced by N-methylglucamine, consistent with an intrapore blocking site. Thus, although occurring at 15-fold higher concentrations, block by diethylamide closely resembles the fast mode of block by lidocaine (Zamponi, G. W., D. D. Doyle, and R. J. French. 1993. Biophys. J. 65:80-90). For cardiac sodium channels, phenol bound to a closed state causing the appearance of long blocked events whose duration increased with phenol concentration. This slow block depended neither on voltage nor on the side of application, and disappeared upon treatment of the channel with trypsin. For skeletal muscle channels, slow phenol block occurred with only very low probability. Thus, phenol block resembles the slow mode of block observed for lidocaine (Zamponi, G. W., D. D. Doyle, and R. J. French. 1993. Biophys. J. 65:91-100). Our data suggest that there are separate sites for fast lidocaine block of the open channel and slow block of the "inactivated" channel. Fast block by diethylamide inhibited the long, spontaneous, trypsin-sensitive (inactivation-like) closures of cardiac channels, and hence secondarily antagonized slow block by phenol or lidocaine. This antagonism would potentiate shifts in the balance between the two modes of action of a tertiary amine drug caused by

  11. Buffered 1% Lidocaine With Epinephrine Is as Effective as Non-Buffered 2% Lidocaine With Epinephrine for Mandibular Nerve Block.

    PubMed

    Warren, Victor T; Fisher, Anson G; Rivera, Eric M; Saha, Pooja T; Turner, Blake; Reside, Glenn; Phillips, Ceib; White, Raymond P

    2017-07-01

    To assess outcomes for pulpal anesthesia and pain on injection for buffered 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine (EPI) versus non-buffered 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 EPI. In a randomized cross-over trial approved by the institutional review board, buffered 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 EPI was compared with non-buffered 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 EPI. After mandibular nerve block with buffered lidocaine 40 mg or non-buffered lidocaine 80 mg, patients reported responses at the mandibular first molar and canine after cold and electrical pulp testing (EPT). Patients also reported pain on injection with a 10-point Likert-type scale. Teeth were tested before nerve block and at 30-minute intervals until a positive response returned. Two weeks later, patients were tested with the alternate drug combinations. The same outcomes were assessed. Predictor variables were alternate drug formulations. Outcome variables were patients' responses to cold and EPT stimulation of the mandibular first molar and canine and pain on injection. An assessment of treatment difference was performed using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests with Proc NPAR1WAY (SAS 9.3, SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Significance was set at a P value less than .05. Fifty-seven percent of patients were women and 43% were men. Seventy percent were Caucasian, 17% were African American, and 13% had another ethnicity. Median age was 25 years (interquartile range [IQR], 21-26 yr) and median body weight was 140 lbs (IQR, 120-155 lbs). After the cold test and EPT, the time to sensation return for the molar or canine was not statistically different between the 2 drug formulations. Patients reported significantly lower pain scores with the buffered versus non-buffered drug (P < .01). After mandibular nerve block, buffered 1% lidocaine with EPI can produce similar clinical outcomes for duration of pulpal anesthesia as non-buffered 2% lidocaine with EPI and lower pain on injections, which are a potential benefit to patients

  12. [Anaphylactic shock following administration of lidocaine after negative skin test].

    PubMed

    Khokhlov, V D; Krut', M I; Sashko, S Iu

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of sudden fatal anaphylactic shock is described in a 50 year-old woman after secondary lidocaine blockade to relieve lumbar pain (the first blockade was performed 4 days before by the same physician after the negative skin test). The patient had the history of multiple allergic reactions to drugs, pollen, home dust, and citrus fruits (repeated Quincke's oedema). In the preceding period, lidocaine was several time administered without side effects during out-patient visits to a surgeon and dentist. The signs of anaphylactic shock appeared within 2 min after injection of 4 ml of 2% lidocaine solution (no other injections were made between the two blockades). Comprehensive emergency measures had no effect. The diagnosis was confirmed at autopsy; microscopic study of soft tissues revealed mast cell degranulation and characteristic changes in internal organs. A literature review of anaphylactic shock symptoms is presented. The fulminant development of this condition after lidocaine administration may be regarded as a fatal coincidence of circumstances that could not be foreseen by the physician. Caution is needed when prescribing medications to polyallergic patients.

  13. Lidocaine decreases the xylazine-evoked contractility in pregnant cows.

    PubMed

    Piccinno, M; Rizzo, A; Mutinati, M; D'Onghia, G; Sciorsci, R L

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effects of xylazine on basal uterine contractility of bovine pregnant uterine strips and that of lidocaine on xylazine-sensitized bovine pregnant uterine strips, at different stages of pregnancy. Basal contractility was evaluated in an isolated organ bath and the functionality of the strips throughout the experiment was evaluated using a dose of carbachol (10(-5)M). Uterine motility, expressed with amplitude, frequency of contractions as well as the area under the curve, was recorded in different stages of pregnancy and data were collected at 15-min intervals (5-min before and 5-min after xylazine administration and 5-min after lidocaine addition on the plateau contraction induced by xylazine). Uterine motility increased in all the stages of pregnancy after xylazine addition and gradually decreased after treatment with lidocaine. These data suggest that lidocaine might decrease the tonic effect induced by xylazine on bovine pregnant uteri. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. [Capsaicin and lidocaine usage in functional disorders of urinary bladder].

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Kajetan; Thor, Piotr J

    2011-01-01

    Most of the drugs in the treatment of functional disorders of the urinary bladder has a peripheral effect. Their work consists mainly in reducing detrusor contractility of the bladder, or effects on the afferent innervation. Anticholinergics are the first drugs of choice. An alternative pharmacological treatment is to eliminate the overactivity by acting on the bladder afferent innervation, while not inhibiting its contractility. One option is to modulate the pharmacological activity of sensory mechanisms governing the functioning of the bladder via the vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) and ancyrin (TRPA1). Intravesical treatment with capsaicin or lidocaine only partially reduces bladder sensation. Furthermore, clinical use of lidocaine in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) is reduced to intravesical supply before capsaicin instillation to reduce the symptoms associated with initial phase of C-fibres sensitization. This paper presents the current state of knowledge regarding the use of capsaicin and lidocaine in functional disorders of the urinary bladder, as well as discusses the impact of these substances on afferent C-fibres and the activity of the urinary bladder. Based on previous studies intravesical capsaicin and lidocaine therapy is one of the alternative treatment options in selected patients with functional disorders of the urinary bladder (in particular OAB) in addition to standard anticholinergics therapy or the newer generation of therapies using botulinum toxin.

  15. Continuous intravenous perioperative lidocaine infusion for postoperative pain and recovery.

    PubMed

    Kranke, Peter; Jokinen, Johanna; Pace, Nathan Leon; Schnabel, Alexander; Hollmann, Markus W; Hahnenkamp, Klaus; Eberhart, Leopold H J; Poepping, Daniel M; Weibel, Stephanie

    2015-07-16

    The management of postoperative pain and recovery is still unsatisfactory in clinical practice. Opioids used for postoperative analgesia are frequently associated with adverse effects including nausea and constipation. These adverse effects prevent smooth postoperative recovery. On the other hand not all patients may be suited to, and take benefit from, epidural analgesia used to enhance postoperative recovery. The non-opioid lidocaine was investigated in several studies for its use in multi-modal management strategies to reduce postoperative pain and enhance recovery. The aim of this review was to assess the effects (benefits and risks) of perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion compared to placebo/no treatment or compared to epidural analgesia on postoperative pain and recovery in adults undergoing various surgical procedures. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 5 2014), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2014), EMBASE (1980 to May 2014), CINAHL (1982 to May 2014), and reference lists of articles. We searched the trial registry database ClinicalTrials.gov, contacted researchers in the field, and handsearched journals and congress proceedings. We did not apply any language restrictions. We included randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of continuous perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion either with placebo, or no treatment, or with epidural analgesia in adults undergoing elective or urgent surgery under general anaesthesia. The intravenous lidocaine infusion must have been started intraoperatively prior to incision and continued at least until the end of surgery. Trial quality was independently assessed by two authors according to the methodological procedures specified by the Cochrane Collaboration. Data were extracted by two independent authors. We collected trial data on postoperative pain, recovery of gastrointestinal function, length of hospital stay, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), opioid

  16. Lidocaine attenuates cognitive impairment after isoflurane anesthesia in old rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Daowei; Cao, Lin; Wang, Zhi; Li, Jiejie; Washington, Jacqueline M; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2012-03-17

    Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a clinical phenomenon that has drawn significant attention from the public and scientific community. Age is a risk factor for POCD. However, the contribution of general anesthesia/anesthetics to POCD and the underlying neuropathology are not clear. Here, we showed that 18-month-old male Fisher 344 rats exposed to 1.2% isoflurane, a general anesthetic, for 2h had significant learning and memory impairments assessed at 2-4 weeks after isoflurane exposure. These isoflurane effects were attenuated by intravenous lidocaine (1.5mg/kg as a bolus and then 2mg/kg/h during isoflurane exposure), a local anesthetic that has neuroprotective effect. Exposure to isoflurane or isoflurane plus lidocaine did not change the neuronal and synaptic density as well as the expression of NeuN (a neuronal protein), drebrin (a dendritic spine protein), synaptophysin (a synaptic protein), activated caspase 3 and caspase-activated DNase in the hippocampus at 29 days after isoflurane exposure when cognitive impairment was present. Isoflurane and lidocaine did not affect the amount of β-amyloid peptide, total tau and phospho-tau in the cerebral cortex as well as interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in the hippocampus at 29 days after isoflurane exposure. Thus, isoflurane induces learning and memory impairment in old rats. Lidocaine attenuates these isoflurane effects. Isoflurane may not cause long-lasting neuropathological changes.

  17. Selective sensory spinal anaesthesia with hypobaric lidocaine for anorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Imbelloni, L E; Gouveia, M A; Vieira, E M; Cordeiro, J A

    2008-11-01

    Lidocaine has been used for spinal anaesthesia since 1948, seemingly without causing concern until recently. This study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of performing anorectal surgery in outpatient settings with low hypobaric lidocaine doses. Three groups of 50 patients, physical status ASA I-II, undergoing anorectal surgical procedures in a prone jack-knife position, received 3 ml (18 mg), 4 ml (24 mg) or 5 ml (30 mg) of hypobaric 0.6% lidocaine. Sensory and motor blockade, time until first urination, ambulation, complications and the need for analgesics were evaluated. Patients were followed until the third post-operative day. Adequate sensory block was obtained in all patients. Blockade was significantly lower in Group 1. The level at 15 min was L(1) with 3 ml, T(11) with 4 ml and T(10) with 5 ml. Only 24 patients presented a moderate motor block. There was no hypotension, nausea or vomiting, urine retention, transitory neurological symptom or post-dural puncture headache in any patients. There was one case of bradycardia with 4 ml and two cases with 5 ml. Hypobaric lidocaine predominantly provided a sensory block after injection in the prone jack-knife position. The smallest dose (3 ml=18 mg) provides sufficient analgesia with a lesser dispersion and a shorter duration. The major advantages were haemodynamic stability and a high degree of patient satisfaction.

  18. [Treatment of persistent postmastectomy pain with 5% Lidocaine medicated plaster].

    PubMed

    Cruto, M E; Baricocchi, E; Battistella, M; Bona, F; Giacoletto, G; Iacobellis, A; Moselli, N; Palomba, G; Sardo, E; Savojardo, M; Suita, L; Zocca, E; Debernardi, F

    2015-04-01

    Persistent postmastectomy pain (PPMP) syndrome is characterized by neuropathic pain that develops following surgery in breast cancer patients. The reported incidence of PPMP ranges between 30% and 50% and is estimated to increase as the number of women surviving cancer continues to rise. Though effective, today's drug treatments are poorly tolerated, limiting their use and reducing adherence to therapy. Since neuropathic pain is localized, international guidelines suggest that topical treatment with 5% Lidocaine medicated plaster either alone or combined with systemic drugs can be considered for pain management. In this retrospective study we reviewed the medical records of 11 patients treated with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster for moderate-to-severe PPMP at our institute between November 2013 and October 2014. Analysis showed that treatment with 5% Lidocaine medicated plaster, either alone or in combination with systemic drugs, achieved significant pain control already after the first week of therapy. The effectiveness and tolerability of 5% Lidocaine medicated plaster we observed suggests that it is a viable option in the management of PPMP.

  19. Evaluation of chemical enhancers in the transdermal delivery of lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Philip J; Ahmad, Naina; Langer, Robert; Mitragotri, Samir; Prasad Shastri, V

    2006-02-03

    The effect of various classes of chemical enhancers was investigated for the transdermal delivery of the anesthetic lidocaine across pig and human skin in vitro. The lipid disrupting agents (LDA) oleic acid, oleyl alcohol, butenediol, and decanoic acid by themselves or in combination with isopropyl myristate (IPM) showed no significant flux enhancement. However, the binary system of IPM/n-methyl pyrrolidone (IPM/NMP) improved drug transport. At 2% lidocaine dose, this synergistic enhancement peaked at 25:75 (v/v) IPM:NMP with a steady state flux of 57.6 +/- 8.4 microg cm(-2) h(-1) through human skin. This observed flux corresponds to a four-fold enhancement over a 100% NMP solution and over 25-fold increase over 100% IPM at the same drug concentration (p < 0.001). NMP was also found to co-transport through human skin with lidocaine free base and improve enhancement due to LDA. These findings allow a more rational approach for designing oil-based formulations for the transdermal delivery of lidocaine free base and similar drugs.

  20. Mucoadhesive multiparticulate patch for the intrabuccal controlled delivery of lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, Cristina; Fini, Adamo; Ospitali, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to prepare and evaluate patches for the controlled release of lidocaine in the oral cavity. Mucoadhesive buccal patches, containing 8 mg/cm(2) lidocaine base, were formulated and developed by solvent casting method technique, using a number of different bio-adhesive and film-forming semi-synthetic and synthetic polymers (Carbopol, Poloxamer, different type Methocel) and plasticizers (PEG 400, triethyl citrate); the patches were evaluated for bioadhesion, in vitro drug release and permeation using a modified Franz diffusion cell. A lidocaine/Compritol solid dispersion in the form of microspheres, embedded inside the patch, alone or together with free lidocaine, was also examined to prolong the drug release. The effects of the composition were evaluated considering a number of technological parameters and the release of the drug. All the formulations tested offer a variety of drug release mechanisms, obtaining a quick or delayed or prolonged anesthetic local activity with simple changes of the formulation parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Immediate reaction to lidocaine with periorbital edema during upper blepharoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Presman, Benjamin; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Tocco-Tussardi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Blepharoplasty is the fourth most commonly performed cosmetic surgery in the US, with 207,000 operations in 2014. Lidocaine is the preferred anesthetic agent for blepharoplasty. Presentation of case We describe the unusual case of acute periorbital edema following local anesthesia with lidocaine for upper blepharoplasty. At present, only two other reports of periorbital reactions to lidocaine are present in the literature. The reactions observed are significant palpebral swelling and erythema with scaling of the cheek. Fortunately the swelling, although marked, is transient in nature and resolves almost spontaneously without affecting the visual acuity. Discussion Patients reporting adverse reactions should be screened for allergy according to the standard protocols, but skin testing has only been reported to be positive in less than 10% of all cases and allergy confirmation with IgE is even more rare. Conclusion In clinical practice, we recommend that patient should be informed about the possibility of recurrence of an adverse reaction in case of re-exposure to lidocaine, even in the vast majority of cases where true allergy could not be proven. In case of further need for local anesthesia with history of an adverse event, a different agent may be chosen even from the same class (another amide) as cross-reactions in the amide group are rare. Otherwise, an anesthetic from the ester group can also be safely used. PMID:26785079

  2. 21 CFR 522.810 - Embutramide, chloroquine, and lidocaine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Embutramide, chloroquine, and lidocaine solution. 522.810 Section 522.810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... euthanasia. (3) Limitations. Not for use in animals intended for food. Federal law restricts this drug to use...

  3. Comparative study between benzydamine hydrochloride gel, lidocaine 5% gel and lidocaine 10% spray on endotracheal tube cuff as regards postoperative sore throat.

    PubMed

    Mekhemar, Nashwa Abdallah; El-Agwany, Ahmed Samy; Radi, Wafaa Kamel; El-Hady, Sherif Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative sore throat is a common complication after endotracheal intubation. After tracheal intubation, the incidence of sore throat varies from 14.4% to 50%. The aim of the study was to compare between benzydamine hydrochloride gel, lidocaine 5% gel and lidocaine 10% spray on the endotracheal tube cuff as regards postoperative sore throat. The present study was carried out on 124 patients admitted to Alexandria university hospitals for lumbar fixation surgery requiring general anesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated into 4 groups. Benzydamine hydrochloride gel, 5% lidocaine hydrochloride gel, 10% lidocaine hydrochloride spray, or normal saline were applied on endotracheal tube cuffs before endotracheal intubation. The patients were examined for sore throat (none, mild, moderate, or severe) at 0, 1, 6, 12, and 24h after extubation. The results were collected, analyzed and presented in table and figure. The highest incidence of postoperative sore throat occurred at 6h after extubation in all groups. There was a significantly lower incidence of postoperative sore throat in the benzydamine group than 5% lidocaine gel, 10% lidocaine spray, and normal saline groups. The benzydamine group had significantly decreased severity of postoperative sore throat compared with the 10% lidocaine, 5% lidocaine, and normal saline groups at observation time point. Compared with the 5% lidocaine the 10% lidocaine group had significantly increased incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat after extubation. Compared with normal saline the 10% lidocaine group had increased incidence of postoperative sore throat. There were no significant differences among groups in local or systemic side effects. So in conclusion, benzydamine hydrochloride gel on the endotracheal tube cuff is a simple and effective method to reduce the incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat. Application of 10% lidocaine spray should be avoided because of worsening of postoperative sore

  4. [Comparative study between benzydamine hydrochloride gel, lidocaine 5% gel and lidocaine 10% spray on endotracheal tube cuff as regards postoperative sore throat].

    PubMed

    Mekhemar, Nashwa Abdallah; El-Agwany, Ahmed Samy; Radi, Wafaa Kamel; El-Hady, Sherif Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative sore throat is a common complication after endotracheal intubation. After tracheal intubation, the incidence of sore throat varies from 14.4% to 50%. The aim of the study was to compare between benzydamine hydrochloride gel, lidocaine 5% gel and lidocaine 10% spray on the endotracheal tube cuff as regards postoperative sore throat. The present study was carried out on 124 patients admitted to Alexandria university hospitals for lumbar fixation surgery requiring general anesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated into 4 groups. Benzydamine hydrochloride gel, 5% lidocaine hydrochloride gel, 10% lidocaine hydrochloride spray, or normal saline were applied on endotracheal tube cuffs before endotracheal intubation. The patients were examined for sore throat (none, mild, moderate, or severe) at 0, 1, 6, 12, and 24h after extubation. The results were collected, analyzed and presented in table and figure. The highest incidence of postoperative sore throat occurred at 6h after extubation in all groups. There was a significantly lower incidence of postoperative sore throat in the benzydamine group than 5% lidocaine gel, 10% lidocaine spray, and normal saline groups. The benzydamine group had significantly decreased severity of postoperative sore throat compared with the 10% lidocaine, 5% lidocaine, and normal saline groups at observation time point. Compared with the 5% lidocaine the 10% lidocaine group had significantly increased incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat after extubation. Compared with normal saline the 10% lidocaine group had increased incidence of postoperative sore throat. There were no significant differences among groups in local or systemic side effects. So in conclusion, benzydamine hydrochloride gel on the endotracheal tube cuff is a simple and effective method to reduce the incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat. Application of 10% lidocaine spray should be avoided because of worsening of postoperative sore

  5. Lidocaine: an inhibitor in the free-radical-induced hemolysis of erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tang, You-Zhi; Liu, Zai-Qun; Wu, Di

    2009-01-01

    Lidocaine was reported to protect erythrocytes from hemolysis induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Since AAPH-induced hemolysis was a convenient in vitro experimental system to mimic erythrocytes undergoing peroxyl radicals attack, the aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant effect of lidocaine on AAPH-induced hemolysis by chemical kinetics. As a result, one molecule of lidocaine can only trap 0.37 radical, much lower than melatonin. Meanwhile, lidocaine cannot protect erythrocytes from hemolysis induced by hemin, which the mechanism of hemolysis was due to the erythrocyte membrane destroyed by hemin. Accordingly, lidocaine protected erythrocytes by scavenging radicals preferentially rather than by stabilizing membrane. Moreover, the interactions of lidocaine with two radical species, including 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical cation (ABTS(+*)) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), indicated that lidocaine can reduce ABTS(+*) with 260 microM as the 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) and cannot react with DPPH. Thus, lidocaine served as a reductant rather than a hydrogen donor to interact with radicals. Finally, the quantum calculation proved that, compared with the melatonin radical, the stabilization of N-centered radical of lidocaine was higher than the amide-type N-centered radical but lower than the indole-type N-centered radical in melatonin. These results provided basic information for lidocaine to be an antiradical drug. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Intravenous Lidocaine as an Adjuvant for Pain Associated with Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Natalie L; Kome, Anne M; Lowe, Denise K; Coyne, Patrick; Hawks, Kelly G

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjuvant intravenous (IV) lidocaine in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). This was a retrospective review. Adults with SCD receiving at least one IV lidocaine infusion from 2004 to 2014 were included. Patient demographics, lidocaine treatment parameters, pain scores, pain medications, and adverse effects were recorded. Eleven patients were identified, yielding 15 IV lidocaine trials. Clinical improvement in pain scores from pre-lidocaine challenge to 24 hours post-lidocaine challenge, defined by ≥ 20% reduction in pain scores, was achieved in 53.3% (8 of 15) of IV lidocaine challenges. Of the 8 clinically successful trials, the mean reduction in morphine dose equivalents (MDE) from 24 hours pre-lidocaine challenge to 24 hours post-lidocaine challenge was 32.2%. Additionally, clinically successful trials had a mean initial and a maximum dose of 1 mg/kg/h (range: 0.5-2.7 mg/kg/h) and 1.3 mg/kg/h (range: 0.5-1.9 mg/kg/h), respectively. On average, these patients underwent 3 dose titrations (range: 1-8) and received lidocaine infusions for 4.4 days (range: 2-8 days). Two patients experienced disorientation and dizziness. The authors conclude that adjuvant IV lidocaine provided pain relief and a mean reduction in MDE during sickle cell pain crisis. These results provide preliminary insight into the use of IV lidocaine for treating pain in patients with SCD, although prospective studies are needed to determine efficacy, dosing, and tolerability of IV lidocaine in this patient population.

  7. The disposition of lidocaine during a 12-hour intravenous infusion to postoperative horses.

    PubMed

    Milligan, M; Kukanich, B; Beard, W; Waxman, S

    2006-12-01

    Lidocaine is administered as an intravenous infusion to horses for a variety of reasons, but no study has assessed plasma lidocaine concentrations during a 12-h infusion to horses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of lidocaine during a 12-h infusion to postoperative horses. A second purpose of the study was to evaluate the in vitro plasma protein binding of lidocaine in equine plasma. Lidocaine hydrochloride was administered as a loading dose, 1.3 mg/kg over 15 min, then by a constant rate IV infusion, 50 microg/kg/min to six postoperative horses. Lidocaine plasma concentrations were measured by a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method. One horse experienced tremors and collapsed 5.5 h into the study. The range of plasma concentrations during the infusion was 1.21-3.13 microg/mL. Lidocaine plasma concentrations were significantly increased at 0.5, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 h compared with 1, 2 and 3 h. The in vitro protein binding of lidocaine in equine plasma at 2 microg/mL was 53.06+/-10.28% and decreased to 27.33+/-9.72% and 29.52+/-6.44% when in combination with ceftiofur or the combination of ceftiofur and flunixin, respectively. In conclusion, a lower lidocaine infusion rate may need to be administered to horses on long-term lidocaine infusions. The in vitro protein binding of lidocaine is moderate in equine plasma, but highly protein bound drugs may displace lidocaine increasing unbound concentrations and the risk of lidocaine toxicity.

  8. Plasma concentrations of lidocaine in dogs following lidocaine patch application over an incision compared to intact skin.

    PubMed

    Joudrey, S D; Robinson, D A; Kearney, M T; Papich, M G; da Cunha, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to compare plasma lidocaine concentrations when a commercially available 5% lidocaine patch was placed on intact skin vs. an incision. Our hypothesis was that greater absorption of lidocaine would occur from the incision site compared to intact skin. Ten dogs were used in a crossover design. A patch was placed over an incision, and then after a washout period, a patch was placed over intact skin. Plasma lidocaine concentrations were measured at patch placement; 20, 40 and 60 min; and 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after patch placement. After patch removal, the skin was graded using a subjective skin reaction system. No dogs required rescue analgesia, and no toxicity or skin reaction was noted. Mean ± SD AUC and CMAX were 3054.29 ± 1095.93 ng·h/mL and 54.1 ± 15.84 ng/mL in the Incision Group, and 2269.9 ± 1037.08 ng·h/mL and 44.5 ± 16.34 ng/mL in the No-Incision Group, respectively. The AUC was significantly higher in the Incision Group. The results of the study demonstrate that the actual body exposure to lidocaine was significantly higher when an incision was present compared to intact skin. No adverse effects were observed from either treatment. Efficacy was not evaluated.

  9. Stability of lidocaine hydrochloride in 5% dextrose injection in plastic bags

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.M.; Nuessle, N.O.

    1981-11-01

    The stability of lidocaine injection mixed with 5% dextrose injection and refrigerated or stored at room temperature was studied. Lidocaine injection was added to 5% dextrose injection to provide a lidocaine hydrochloride concentration of 4 mg/ml. Samples were assayed for lidocaine and its degradation product, 2,6-dimethylaniline, after 30, 60, and 120 days of storage at room temperature (30 degrees C) and refrigerated temperature (4 degrees C). The analysis was by a stability-indicating HPLC method. Degradation product 2,6-dimethylaniline was not detected at any assay time at either temperature. No statistically significant loss of lidocaine occurred at either temperature. Lidocaine hydrochloride injection is chemically stable for up to 120 days at either 30 degrees C or 4 degrees C when mixed with 5% dextrose injection in plastic infusion bags.

  10. The immediate effects of lidocaine iontophoresis using interferential current on pressure sense threshold and tactile sensation.

    PubMed

    Yoosefinejad, Amin Kordi; Motealleh, Alireza; Abbasnia, Keramatollah

    2016-01-01

    Iontophoresis is the noninvasive delivery of ions using direct current. The direct current has some disadvantages such as skin burning. Interferential current is a kind of alternating current without limitations of direct current; so the purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the effects of lidocaine, interferential current and lidocaine iontophoresis using interferential current. 30 healthy women aged 20-24 years participated in this randomized clinical trial study. Pressure, tactile and pain thresholds were evaluated before and after the application of treatment methods. Pressure, tactile and pain sensitivity increased significantly after the application of lidocaine alone (p < 0.005) and lidocaine iontophoresis using interferential current (p < 0.0001). Lidocaine iontophoresis using interferential current can increase perception threshold of pain, tactile stimulus and pressure sense more significantly than lidocaine and interferential current alone.

  11. Comparison of Spraying and Nebulized Lidocaine in Patients Undergoing Esophago-Gastro-Duodenoscopy: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Noitasaeng, Papiroon; Vichitvejpaisal, Phongthara; Kaosombatwattana, Uaypom; Tassanee, Jaiyen; Suwannee, Siriwongsa

    2016-05-01

    Esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) was performed under the topical anesthesia of the pharynx. However spraying lidocaine was found to be an annoying maneuver to patients, while nebulized lidocaine appeared to efficiently suppress gags and cough reflexes in airway anesthesia. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of spraying and nebulized lidocaine for patients undergoing EGD. A total of 110 patients undergoing elective EGD, with a history of neither lidocaine intolerance nor irritable airways due to smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), upper respiratory infection, asthma, cardiac and pulmonary diseases and allergy to lidocaine were included. All patients were randomized into two groups: A- where 5 puffs (10 mg/puff) of spraying lidocaine were administered four times at 5-minute intervals, up to a total dose of 200 mg, and B-where 250 mg of nebulized lidocaine was administered via a nebulization kit with an oxygen face mask of 7 LPM for 15 minutes prior to the commencement of EGD. The procedure was performed by the same board-certified endoscopist The co-researcher who was blinded to the lidocaine administration technique assessed the ease of esophageal instrumentation as either difficult, poor; fair or excellent. Both the endoscopist and the patients expressed their satisfaction by using the numerical rating scale. The endoscopist expressed her satisfaction with instrumentation, which showed significant difference between group A and group B as 84.8 ± 8.3 and 79.2 ± 11.2, respectively. The co-researcher also found that group A patients responded to the ease of esophageal instrumentation better than those in group B. However nebulized lidocaine had significant advantages over spraying lidocaine, with better acceptance in patients undergoing EGD. The endoscopist expressed her approval of spraying lidocaine for taking less time to start the procedure, ease for instrumentation, less gag reflex during the procedure, less presence of

  12. Kinetics of Uptake and Washout of Lidocaine in Rat Sciatic Nerve In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Leeson, Stanley; Strichartz, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Background The potency and efficacy of local anesthetics injected clinically for peripheral nerve block depends strongly on the rate of neural drug uptake. However, since diffusion into surrounding tissues and removal by the vascular system are major factors in the overall distribution of lidocaine in vivo, true kinetics of drug/neural tissue interactions must be studied in the absence of those confounding factors. Methods Uptake: Ensheathed or desheathed isolated rat sciatic nerves were exposed to [14C]-lidocaine for 0-180min and then removed and the lidocaine content of nerve and sheath analyzed. Washout: Isolated nerves were soaked in [14C]-lidocaine for 60min and then placed in lidocaine-free solution for 0-30min, with samples removed at different times to assess the drug content. Experimental variables included the effects of the ensheathing epineurium, lidocaine concentration, pH, presence of CO2-bicarbonate, and incubation duration. Results The equilibrium uptake of lidocaine increased with incubation time, concentration and the fraction of molecules in the non-ionized form. The uptake rate was unaffected by drug concentration, but was about halved by the presence of the epineurial sheath, with the washout rate slowed less. Slight alkalinization, from pH 6.8 to pH 7.4, by bicarbonate-CO2 buffer or a non-bicarbonate buffer, enhanced the neural uptake, and to the same degree. The washout of lidocaine was faster after shorter incubations at high concentrations than when equal amounts of lidocaine were taken up after long incubations at low lidocaine concentrations. Conclusion Lidocaine enters a nerve by a process other than free diffusion, through an epineurial sheath that is a slight obstacle. Given the rapid entry in vitro compared to the much smaller and transient content measured in vivo, it seems highly unlikely that lidocaine equilibrates with the nerve during a peripheral blockade. PMID:23400993

  13. Comparison of Iontophoretic Lidocaine to EMLA Cream for Pain Reduction Prior to Intravenous Fannulation in Adults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    i COMPARISON OF IONTOPHORETIC LIDOCAINE TO EMLA CREAM FOR PAIN REDUCTIONPRIOR TO INTRAVENOUS CANNULATION IN ADULTS Kenneth Lee Spence LT, NC, USN...COMPARISON OF IONTOPHORETIC LIDOCAINE TO EMLA CREAM FOR PAIN REDUCTION PRIOR TO INTRAVENOUS CANNULATION IN ADULTS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...most operative anesthesia, can be a source of pain and anxiety. Lidocaine , a local anesthetic, is frequently injected intradermally to decrease pain

  14. Effect of fentanyl and lidocaine on the end-tidal sevoflurane concentration preventing motor movement in dogs.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Martin A; Seddighi, Reza; Egger, Christine M; Rohrbach, Barton W; Cox, Sherry K; KuKanich, Butch K; Doherty, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of fentanyl, lidocaine, and a fentanyl-lidocaine combination on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane preventing motor movement (MACNM) in dogs. ANIMALS 6 adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane in oxygen 3 times (1-week intervals). Baseline MACNM (MACNM-B) was determined starting 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Dogs then received 1 of 3 treatments IV: fentanyl (loading dose, 15 μg/kg; constant rate infusion [CRI], 6 μg/kg/h), lidocaine (loading dose, 2 mg/kg; CRI, 6 mg/kg/h), and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination at the same doses. Determination of treatment MACNM (MACNM-T) was initiated 90 minutes after start of the CRI. Venous blood samples were collected at the time of each treatment MACNM measurement for determination of plasma concentrations of fentanyl and lidocaine. RESULTS Mean ± SEM overall MACNM-B for the 3 treatments was 2.70 ± 0.27 vol%. The MACNM decreased from MACNM-B to MACNM-T by 39%, 21%, and 55% for fentanyl, lidocaine, and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. This decrease differed significantly among treatments. Plasma fentanyl concentration was 3.25 and 2.94 ng/mL for fentanyl and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. Plasma lidocaine concentration was 2,570 and 2,417 ng/mL for lidocaine and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. Plasma fentanyl and lidocaine concentrations did not differ significantly between fentanyl and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination or between lidocaine and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CRIs of fentanyl, lidocaine, and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination at the doses used were associated with clinically important and significant decreases in the MACNM of sevoflurane in dogs.

  15. Dexmedetomidine augments the effect of lidocaine: power spectrum and nerve conduction velocity distribution study.

    PubMed

    Dalkilic, Nizamettin; Tuncer, Seckin; Burat, Ilksen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the individual and combined inhibitory effects of dexmedetomidine and lidocaine on the conduction group of isolated nerve were investigated by determining conduction velocity distribution (CVD) and power spectrum. Electrophysiological compound action potential (CAP) recordings were conducted on isolated rat sciatic nerve before (Con) and 20 minutes after exposure to 1 mM lidocaine (Lido), 21pM dexmedetomidine (Dex) and their combination (Lido + Dex). Then for CVD, mathematical model and for power spectrum Fast Fourier analysis were conducted. Dexmedetomidine alone made no significant difference in shape and duration of CAPs as compared to Con, on the other hand lidocaine depresses amplitude and prolongs the duration of CAPs, but not more than combination of dexmedetomidine and lidocaine can do. Lidocaine caused a shift in the CVD histogram to relatively slower conducting group significantly while dexmedetomidine did not cause any significant change as compared to Control. Lidocaine, when combined with dexmedetomidine revealed a remarkable effect on the whole CVD histogram by causing almost complete blockage of fast conducting nerve fibers. The relative number of fibers in CVD is conserved for separate applications of anesthetics, but not for their combination. As in CVD, power spectrum shifted from higher to lower frequency region by lidocaine and significantly for lidocaine combined with dexmedetomidine application. Shifts for dexmedetomidine applied group were seen beggarly. We have concluded that dexmedetomidine alone did not influence nerve conduction, but when it is used with lidocaine it augments neural conduction blockage effect, especially on fast conducting nerve fibers.

  16. [Proven and expected benefits of intravenous lidocaine administered during the perioperative period].

    PubMed

    Giudice, V; Lauwick, S; Kaba, A; Joris, J

    2012-02-01

    Local anesthetics which inhibit sodium channels are used for neural blockade during infiltration and locoregional anesthesia. Furthermore lidocaine given intravenously acts on other cellular systems and produces multiple properties, some of which are beneficial during the perioperative period. Indeed, intravenous lidocaine is analgesic, antihyperalgesic, antiinflammatory, and improves the recovery of bowel function after abdominal surgery. As a consequence, lidocaine has been added to postoperative analgesic strategies. This article reviews clinically relevant properties of intravenous lidocaine. Its future perspectives for the prevention of chronicisation of postoperative pain, facilitation of postoperative fast track programs, and prevention of tumoral recurrence are also discussed.

  17. Protective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on lidocaine-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    LI, HUI; XU, JUNMEI; WANG, XIN; YUAN, GUIXIU

    2014-01-01

    Lidocaine, as an anesthetic substance, is often used for surface and spinal anesthesia. However, studies have shown that lidocaine may induce transient neurological symptoms and cauda equina syndrome. In the present study the effects of the ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) on lidocaine-induced apoptosis were assessed in Jurkat cells using flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). The data showed that incubation with Rg1 provides protection against lidocaine-induced apoptosis in cultured Jurkat cells. In order to investigate the effect of Rg1 on the apoptosis pathway, caspase 3 gene expression was determined. The results suggested that the protective effect of Rg1 on lidocaine-induced apoptosis is mediated by altering the level of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) family proteins and downregulating caspase-3 expression. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that incubation with Rg1 provides protection against lidocaine-induced apoptosis in cultured Jurkat cells. In addition, the study demonstrated that Rg1 is a notable antiapoptotic molecule that is capable of blocking the caspase-dependent signaling cascade in Jurkat cells, and that the protective effect of Rg1 on lidocaine-induced apoptosis is mediated by altering levels of BCL-2 family proteins and downregulating caspase-3 expression. The present study provides the basis for understanding and evaluating the effect of Rg1 in the in vivo treatment of lidocaine-induced transient neurological symptoms and cauda equina syndrome by lidocaine. PMID:24270314

  18. Comparison of the effects of mepivacaine and lidocaine on rat myocardium.

    PubMed

    David, J-S; Amour, J; Duracher, C; Ferretti, C; Precloux, P; Petit, P; Riou, B; Gueugniaud, P-Y

    2007-02-01

    To compare the inotropic and lusitropic effect of lidocaine and mepivacaine on rat papillary muscle. Effects of lidocaine and mepivacaine (10-8-10-3 M) were studied in rat left ventricular papillary muscles in vitro at a calcium concentration of 1 mmol, under low (isotony) and high (isometric) loads. Lidocaine induced a significant negative inotropic effect in isotonic and isometric conditions whereas mepivacaine did not. Mepivacaine only induced a negative inotropic effect when added as a bolus for the highest concentration and this effect was significantly more pronounced with lidocaine than with mepivacaine (active force at 10-3 M: 63 +/- 10 vs. 84 +/- 10% of baseline, P < 0.05). Increasing calcium concentration resulted in a greater positive inotropic effect in the control (199 +/- 11% of baseline) and mepivacaine groups (197 +/- 22% of baseline) when compared to the lidocaine group (163 +/- 19% of baseline, P < 0.05 vs. lidocaine and control groups), suggesting an impairment on intracellular Ca2+ handling by lidocaine. A negative lusitropic effect under low load was observed only for mepivacaine and suggested an impairment of sarcoplasmic reticulum function. Lidocaine and mepivacaine did not modify post-rest potentiation but significantly depressed the force-frequency relationship. The negative inotropic and lusitropic effects induced by lidocaine were more important than that of mepivacaine and may involve an impairment of intracellular Ca2+ handling.

  19. Effects of lidocaine with epinephrine or with buffer on wound healing in rat skin.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Felipe V; Hochman, Bernardo; Wood, Viviane T; Simões, Manuel J; Juliano, Yara; Ferreira, Lydia M

    2011-01-01

    Lidocaine blocks nociceptive fibers, preventing initial wound signaling and mast cell degranulation. It is hypothesized that epinephrine and buffer affect the wound healing by potentiating lidocaine blockage. This double-blind, randomized, self-controlled study investigated this possibility using male Wistar rats, which were injected with 2 mL of different solutions into the left and right sides of the back. Then, each side was incised and sutured. Sixty rats were divided in three groups: saline solution (SS) and lidocaine; lidocaine and lidocaine with buffer; lidocaine with epinephrine and lidocaine with epinephrine and buffer. Half of each group was sacrificed 7 days after surgery and the remaining after 21 days. A sample of each wound was obtained and quantified for the level of collagen present using computer morphometry and for mast cell quantity. There were no differences between animals with regard to the collagen. However, mast cell levels in the same animal significantly differed between SS × lidocaine. Comparison of the same injected substance between animals with different healing dates showed a significant effect on collagen SS and on all mast cells, except SS. Lidocaine affected collagenization and decreased the initial quantity of mast cells at the wound site. © 2011 by the Wound Healing Society.

  20. Evaluation of the Population Pharmacokinetic Properties of Lidocaine and its Metabolites After Long-Term Multiple Applications of a Lidocaine Plaster in Post-Herpetic Neuralgia Patients.

    PubMed

    Bursi, Roberta; Piana, Chiara; Grevel, Joachim; Huntjens, Dymphy; Boesl, Irmgard

    2017-01-12

    Lidocaine 5% medicated plaster is the first lidocaine containing product for chronic use. As no previous investigations have been conducted to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics of long-term exposure to lidocaine 5% medicated plasters, further insights into the evaluation of the pharmacokinetic properties of lidocaine and its metabolites were needed for the assessment of its safety. The population pharmacokinetic properties of lidocaine and its metabolites were evaluated after multiple applications of lidocaine 5% medicated plasters based on data collected for up to 14.5 months from two phase III clinical trials (up to 2.5 months in the first trial, and up to 12 months in a follow-up trial) in post-herpetic neuralgia patients. Modeling was performed using nonlinear mixed effects as implemented in NONMEM(®) (nonlinear mixed-effect modeling) v.5. A stepwise forward inclusion and backward elimination procedure were used for covariate model building. The model provides reliable estimates of the pharmacokinetic behavior of lidocaine after medicated plaster application. It was validated using simulations and showed adequate predictive properties. Apparent Clearance was estimated to be 48 L/h after application of two or fewer plasters, whereas its value increased to 67 L/h after application of three plasters. Model-based simulations predicted no accumulation of lidocaine or any of its metabolites after long-term exposure of three simultaneous plasters up to 1 year. The variability explained by adding covariates into the model for the long-term exposures of lidocaine following one plaster or three simultaneous plaster applications was found to be very small with respect to the overall between-subject variability. In conclusion, exposure to lidocaine after the application of the lidocaine medicated plaster was found to be primarily affected by the number of plasters simultaneously applied, i.e., it increased with the number of applied patches, but less than

  1. Chloroprocaine is less painful than lidocaine for skin infiltration anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Marica, Livia S; O'Day, Terry; Janosky, Janine E; Nystrom, Elisabet U M

    2002-02-01

    Skin infiltration of local anesthetics causes pain. In a double-blinded protocol, 22 volunteers received random intradermal injections to the volar surface of the forearm with each of the following solutions: normal saline solution 0.9% (NSS), lidocaine 1% (L), lidocaine 1% and sodium bicarbonate 8.4% (L+BIC), 2-chloroprocaine 2% (CP), 2-chloroprocaine 2% and sodium bicarbonate 8.4% (CP+BIC), and NaCHO(3) 8.4% (BIC). Initially, each volunteer received an open-labeled injection of NSS. A 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS, 1-100) was used to assess pain with each injection. The pH of each solution was stable for the length of the study. Repeated measures of variance were used for analysis. The VAS scores (mean +/- SD) for open-label and blinded NSS injections were 15.5 +/- 15.9 and 14.0 +/- 18.1, respectively. The scores for the studied solutions were as follows: BIC, 47.2 +/- 25.5; L, 25.8 +/- 27.6; L+BIC, 16.0 +/- 14.2; CP, 8.6 +/- 7.4; and CP+BIC, 6.8 +/- 6.7. No significant difference was found between CP and alkalinized CP, but the injection of both solutions was significantly less painful than that of all other solutions (P < 0.05). The pH of the solutions was not related to the pain score. We found that chloroprocaine caused less pain at injection than the more commonly used lidocaine. Using 2-chloroprocaine can diminish pain caused by the intradermal injection of lidocaine. pH variations of the solution did not relate to the pain profile of the local anesthetic.

  2. Intravenous Lidocaine Infusion to Treat Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Papapetrou, Peter; Kumar, Aashish J; Muppuri, Rudram; Chakrabortty, Shushovan

    2015-11-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating side effect of chemotherapy, which manifests as paresthesias, dysesthesias, and numbness in the hands and feet. Numerous chemoprotective agents and treatments have been used with limited success to treat chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. We report a case in which a patient presenting with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy received an IV lidocaine infusion over the course of 60 minutes with complete symptomatic pain relief for a prolonged period of 2 weeks.

  3. Dexamethasone added to lidocaine prolongs axillary brachial plexus blockade.

    PubMed

    Movafegh, Ali; Razazian, Mehran; Hajimaohamadi, Fatemeh; Meysamie, Alipasha

    2006-01-01

    Different additives have been used to prolong regional blockade. We designed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone added to lidocaine on the onset and duration of axillary brachial plexus block. Sixty patients scheduled for elective hand and forearm surgery under axillary brachial plexus block were randomly allocated to receive either 34 mL lidocaine 1.5% with 2 mL of isotonic saline chloride (control group, n = 30) or 34 mL lidocaine 1.5% with 2 mL of dexamethasone (8 mg) (dexamethasone group, n = 30). Neither epinephrine nor bicarbonate was added to the treatment mixture. We used a nerve stimulator and multiple stimulations technique in all of the patients. After performance of the block, sensory and motor blockade of radial, median, musculocutaneous, and ulnar nerves were recorded at 5, 15, and 30 min. The onset time of the sensory and motor blockade was defined as the time between last injection and the total abolition of the pinprick response and complete paralysis. The duration of sensory and motor blocks were considered as the time interval between the administration of the local anesthetic and the first postoperative pain and complete recovery of motor functions. Sixteen patients were excluded because of unsuccessful blockade. The duration of surgery and the onset times of sensory and motor block were similar in the two groups. The duration of sensory (242 +/- 76 versus 98 +/- 33 min) and motor (310 +/- 81 versus 130 +/- 31 min) blockade were significantly longer in the dexamethasone than in the control group (P < 0.01). We conclude that the addition of dexamethasone to lidocaine 1.5% solution in axillary brachial plexus block prolongs the duration of sensory and motor blockade.

  4. Lidocaine injection of auricular points in the treatment of insomnia.

    PubMed

    Lee, T N

    1977-01-01

    By combining knowledge in modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine, auricular points were selected for treatment of insomnia. Instead of the placement of needles, injection of small amounts of Lidocaine into these sites was employed. Fifteen out of 16 patients obtained substantial improvement and one patient received moderate improvement. The therapeutic effect was maintained three months after the end of the treatment series. The physiological and clinical implications of this study in terms of modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine are also discussed.

  5. Characterization of the methemoglobin forming metabolites of benzocaine and lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Neil; Zhou, Hongfei; Mao, Jinzhe; Mans, Daniel; Boyne, Michael; Patel, Vikram; Colatsky, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    1. Topical anesthesia with benzocaine or lidocaine occasionally causes methemoglobinemia, an uncommon but potentially fatal disorder where the blood has a reduced ability to transport oxygen. Previous in vitro studies using human whole blood have shown that benzocaine causes more methemoglobin (MetHb) formation than lidocaine, and that both compounds require metabolic transformation to form the MetHb producing species. In the current investigation, the active species of benzocaine forming the MetHb was investigated. 2. HPLC analysis of benzocaine samples incubated with human hepatic S9 showed the formation of a peak with the same UV spectrum and retention time as benzocaine hydroxylamine (BenzNOH). To confirm the activity of BenzNOH, MetHb production following exposure to the compound was determined in whole human blood using an Avoximeter 4000 CO-oximeter. 3. BenzNOH produced MetHb in a concentration dependent manner without the need for metabolic activation. Benzocaine in the presence of metabolic activation required a concentration of 500 μM to produce a similar degree of MetHb formation as 20 μM BenzNOH without activation. Previous work suggested that two metabolites of lidocaine may also form MetHb; N-hydroxyxylidine and 4-hydroxyxylidine. Of these two metabolites 4-hydroxyxylidine produced the most MetHb in whole blood in vitro in the absence of metabolic activation, however BenzNOH produced up to 14.2 times more MetHb than 4-hydroxyxylidine at a similar concentration. 4. These results suggest that the ability of benzocaine to form MetHb is likely to be mediated through its hydroxylamine metabolite and that this metabolite is inherently more active than the potentially MetHb-forming metabolites of lidocaine.

  6. [Conservative treatment of cervical radiculopathy with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster].

    PubMed

    Mattozzi, I

    2015-02-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is a mixed pain syndrome characterized by neuropathic, skeletal and myofascial pain. This condition is frequently found in developed countries and is a significant source of disability and a reason for frequent medical consultation. In our Pain Therapy Centre, cervical radiculopathy is initially treated with bi-weekly cycles of mesotherapy coupled, at least 15 days later, with physiotherapy to reach the complete mobilization of cervical spine. Cervical radiculopathy is a localized neuro-pathic pain and in agreement with international guidelines, we checked if patients treated topically with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster may benefit in improving pain management and in reducing the time necessary to start physiotherapy. A retrospective study was carried out on 60 patients, of which 30 were treated with mesotherapy and 30 were treated with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster. Data for a total of 30 days observation were collected from the patient medical records. In particular, besides medical history, intensity of pain, intensity of allodynia and pain were considered. For all analyzed parameters, both treatments were effective, but patients treated with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster showed faster control of the painful symptoms, an essential condition for an earlier rehabilitative treatment.

  7. Spinal anesthesia: a comparison of procaine and lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Le Truong, H H; Girard, M; Drolet, P; Grenier, Y; Boucher, C; Bergeron, L

    2001-05-01

    To compare spinal procaine to spinal lidocaine with regard to their main clinical characteristics and incidence of transient radicular irritation (TRI). In this randomized, double-blind, prospective study, patients (two groups, n=30 each) received either 100 mg of lidocaine 5% in 7.5% glucose (Group L) or 100 mg of procaine 10% diluted with 1 ml cerebrospinal fluid (Group P). After spinal anesthesia, segmental level of sensory block was assessed by pinprick. Blood pressure and the height of the block were noted each minute for the first ten minutes, then every three minutes for the next 35 min and finally every five minutes until regression of the block to L4. Motor blockade was evaluated using the Bromage scale. To evaluate the presence of TRI, each patient was questioned 48 hr after surgery. Time to highest sensory level and to maximum number of segments blocked showed no difference between groups. Mean time for sensory regression to T10 and for regression of the motor block were shorter in Group P. Eighty minutes following injection, sensory levels were lower in Group P. Five patients had inadequate surgical anesthesia in Group P and only one in Group L. No patient in Group P had TRI (95% CI 10-12%) while eight (27%) in Group L did (95% CI 12-46%). Procaine 10% was associated with a clinical failure rate of 14.2%. This characteristic must be balanced against an absence of TRI, which occurs more frequently with the use of lidocaine 5%.

  8. [Lidocaine with epinephrine effect on arterial tension of children].

    PubMed

    Aboites-Morales, Alicia; Linares-Segovia, Benigno; Covarrubias-Rodríguez, David; Núñez-Lemus, Estela

    2008-01-01

    to determine the effect of the epinephrine-lidocaine anaesthetic solutions on blood pressure in healthy children subjected to short dentistry procedures. we performed a prospective, observational and analytical study in 39 children with 7 and 8 years of age, who were subjected to dentistry treatment of short duration in a dentistry service. The blood pressure was measured in three times: previous to the infiltration of lidocaine to 2 % with epinephrine; 10 minutes later; at the end of procedure. the systolic blood pressure, like diastolic and the average increased after 10 minutes of the infiltration with the anesthetic-vasoconstrictor solution, but this difference was not significant (p = 0.39, 0.14 and 0.40). We observed an increase of the systolic (6.0 mm Hg, 95 % CI = 4.6-7.5, F = 14.0, p = 0.0001), diastolic (9.9 mm Hg, 95 % CI = 7.3-12.5; F = 26.0, p = 0.0001) and average arterial tension (7.3 mm Hg, 95 % IC = 5.8-8.8; F = 23, p = 0.0001) to the 10 minutes after the treatment. the use of the epinephrine-lidocaine anaesthetic solutions does not have significant effect on the blood pressure of children subjected to short dentistry procedures.

  9. Infiltrated lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:80,000 causes more postoperative pain than lidocaine 2% after oral soft tissue surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Jorkjend, L.; Skoglund, L. A.

    1999-01-01

    A controlled, randomized, double-blind, within-patient, crossover study was made with 50 patients (28 women and 22 men) of mean age 47 years (range, 32-69 years) who were subjected to identical bilateral gingivectomies. On one occasion, lidocaine 2% was infiltrated as the local anesthetic. On the other occasion, lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:80,000 was given. Postoperative pain intensity was recorded by the patients on a 100-mm visual analogue scale every hour during an 11-hour observation period. The mean pain intensity was numerically higher after lidocaine 2% at 0 hours and 1 hour postoperatively. Then the mean pain intensity after lidocaine 2% was lower than that after lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:80,000 throughout the remaining observation period. The difference in pain intensity was statistically significant (P < .05) at 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 hours after surgery. Mean sum (SEM) pain intensity over the 11-hour observation period was lower (P = .03) after lidocaine 2%, 66.5 (13.4) mm than after lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:80,000, 92.6 (15.4) mm. The study shows that high epinephrine concentration (1:80,000) increases the postoperative pain after dental soft tissue surgery with mild pain. PMID:10853568

  10. Lidocaine preferentially inhibits the function of purinergic P2X7 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Okura, Dan; Horishita, Takafumi; Ueno, Susumu; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki; Sudo, Yuka; Uezono, Yasuhito; Minami, Tomoko; Kawasaki, Takashi; Sata, Takeyoshi

    2015-03-01

    Lidocaine has been widely used to relieve acute pain and chronic refractory pain effectively by both systemic and local administration. Numerous studies reported that lidocaine affects several pain signaling pathways as well as voltage-gated sodium channels, suggesting the existence of multiple mechanisms underlying pain relief by lidocaine. Some extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) receptor subunits are thought to play a role in chronic pain mechanisms, but there have been few studies on the effects of lidocaine on ATP receptors. We studied the effects of lidocaine on purinergic P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7 receptors to explore the mechanisms underlying pain-relieving effects of lidocaine. We investigated the effects of lidocaine on ATP-induced currents in ATP receptor subunits, P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7 expressed in Xenopus oocytes, by using whole-cell, two-electrode, voltage-clamp techniques. Lidocaine inhibited ATP-induced currents in P2X7, but not in P2X3 or P2X4 subunits, in a concentration-dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration for lidocaine inhibition was 282 ± 45 μmol/L. By contrast, mepivacaine, ropivacaine, and bupivacaine exerted only limited effects on the P2X7 receptor. Lidocaine inhibited the ATP concentration-response curve for the P2X7 receptor via noncompetitive inhibition. Intracellular and extracellular N-(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl) triethylammonium bromide (QX-314) and benzocaine suppressed ATP-induced currents in the P2X7 receptor in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, repetitive ATP treatments at 5-minute intervals in the continuous presence of lidocaine revealed that lidocaine inhibition was use-dependent. Finally, the selective P2X7 receptor antagonists Brilliant Blue G and AZ11645373 did not affect the inhibitory actions of lidocaine on the P2X7 receptor. Lidocaine selectively inhibited the function of the P2X7 receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes. This effect may be caused by acting on sites in the ion

  11. Effects of glucose administered with lidocaine solution on spinal neurotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hanxiang; Xu, Tingting; Xiong, Xiangsheng; Mao, Jingjing; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yonghai; Bai, Zhixia; Chen, Xuexin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether intrathecal administration of 10% glucose increases functional impairment and histologic damage in rats when mixed with 5% lidocaine. After implanted intrathecal catheter, 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: lidocaine group (Group L, n=8) received 5% lidocaine 20 µL, lidocaine with glucose group (Group LG, n=8) received 5% lidocaine with 10% glucose 20 µL, glucose group (Group G, n=8) received 10% glucose 20 µL and normal saline group received normal saline 20 µL (Group NS, n=8). Four days after intrathecal injection, sensory impairments of rats in the four groups were evaluated by using the tail-flick test. The histologic changes of spinal cord and nerve roots were observed by electron microscopy and light microscopy. There was no significant difference in baseline tail-flick latencies between the four groups (P=0.284). On the 4th day after intrathecal injection, the assessment result of sensory function was similar to baseline (P=0.217) in saline-treated animals. Sensory impairment occurred after intrathecal administration of 5% lidocaine, and 10% glucose with 5% lidocaine worsen this satiation (P=0.0001); histologic changes in 10% glucose with 5% lidocaine-treated group has differ significantly from lidocaine-treated group (P=0.001). Sensory function after intrathecal administration of 10% glucose was similar to baseline and did not differ from the saline group (P=0.995); histologic changes in 10% glucose-treated rats did not differ significantly from saline controls (P=0.535). These results suggest that 5% lidocaine can induce spinal neurotoxicity and 10% glucose with 5% lidocaine could worsen spinal neurotoxicity. PMID:26884984

  12. Intra-axonal continuous measurement of lidocaine concentration and pH in squid giant axon.

    PubMed

    Sano, S; Yokono, S; Kinoshita, H; Ogli, K; Satake, H; Kageyama, T; Kaneshina, S

    1999-12-01

    To measure the dynamic penetration process of lidocaine, lidocaine concentration (Ci) and pH (pHi) in squid giant axon, and to determine the times and Ci of disappearance and reappearance of action potentials (AP). Lidocaine solutions adjusted to four different pHs (pH = 5.5, 6.8, 7.8 and 9.0) were externally administered to the axon and Ci and pHi were measured using lidocaine and pH microsensors. The times and Ci when the AP just disappeared and reappeared were recorded. In addition, for comparison with Ci, the lidocaine content in the whole axon (Cw) was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The Ci (charged plus uncharged) was 1.5 times greater than the uncharged form of administered lidocaine. The changes in pHi depended on the increase in Ci. The AP disappeared only after administration of high pH lidocaine solutions (pH = 7.8, 9.0) and reappeared by washing out the solution in the chamber. Nerve block occurred more rapidly at pH 9.0 than at pH 7.8, and the time after washing out the lidocaine was longer at pH 9.0 than at pH 7.8. The mean Ci and charged lidocaine concentration in the axoplasm, when the AP disappeared or reappeared, were lower at pH 9.0 than at pH 7.8 (P < 0.05). Uncharged lidocaine penetrates the axon membrane to the axoplasm where it changes to the charged form and is concentrated in the axon membrane and axoplasm. External application of uncharged lidocaine plays a role in modulating nerve conduction.

  13. Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and various irrigants: A nuclear magnetic resonance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vidhya, Nirmal; Karthikeyan, Balasubramanian Saravana; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Abarajithan, Mohan; Nithyanandan, Sivasankaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Interaction between local anesthetic solution, lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline), and root canal irrigants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), and chlorhexidine (CHX) has not been studied earlier. Hence, the purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the chemical interaction between 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and commonly used root canal irrigants, NaOCl, EDTA, and CHX. Materials and Methods: Samples were divided into eight experimental groups: Group I-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group II-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group III- Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/2% CHX, Group IV-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group V-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group VI-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/2% CHX, and two control groups: Group VII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/deionized water and Group VIII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/deionized water. The respective solutions of various groups were mixed in equal proportions (1 ml each) and observed for precipitate formation. Chemical composition of the formed precipitate was then analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and confirmed with diazotation test. Results: In groups I and IV, a white precipitate was observed in all the samples on mixing the respective solutions, which showed a color change to reddish brown after 15 minutes. This precipitate was then analysed by NMR spectroscopy and was observed to be 2,6-xylidine, a reported toxic compound. The experimental groups II, III, V, and VI and control groups VII and VIII showed no precipitate formation in any of the respective samples, until 2 hours. Conclusion: Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and NaOCl showed precipitate formation containing 2,6-xylidine, a toxic compound

  14. A Comparative Study of Lidocaine and Lidocaine­ Mannitol in Anesthetizing Human Teeth with Inflamed Pulps

    PubMed Central

    Talati, Ali; Bidar, Maryam; Sadeghi, Ghazal; Nezami, Hossein

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Failure to achieve adequate and profound anesthesia in teeth with acute pulp inflammation is a common condition during emergency visits in root canal therapy. Many different anesthetic solutions such as morphine and capsaicin have accordingly been examined. Mannitol­ an alcoholic sugar with high osmotic pressure level- is applicated for reducing intracranial and post retinal pressure in medicine. It has also been used for its diuretic effect. In combination with local anesthetic solution, it increases permeability of the nerve fiber sheath and leads to influx of the local anesthetic through cytoplasmic membrane .The purpose of the present study was to compare the efficacy of routine local anesthesia with or without using mannitol in teeth with inflamed pulps. MATERIALS AND METHODS: one hundred patients with acute dental pain in posterior teeth were selected. Vials with 3 ml anesthetic solution containing 2.5% lidocaine with 1/80000 epinephrine or 2.5% lidocaine with 1/80000 epinephrine and 0.5 mol mannitol were used for anesthesia. For each patient, the routine injection technique was applied, during the removal of decay and dentine. Depth of anesthesia was evaluated and the supplementary injection was done in case of pain feeling and then pulpotomy was done. The analysis of data was done using chi-square statistical test. RESULTS: The results showed that complete anesthesia after the first injection was obtained with lidocaine mannitol in 46% and with lidocaine alone in 38% of cases. However, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION: These finding suggest that the addition of mannitol to the standard anesthetic solution could insignificantly increase the level of anesthesia in teeth with inflamed pulps. PMID:24494021

  15. Isothermal crystallization kinetics of lidocaine in supersaturated lidocaine/polyacrylate pressure sensitive adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yong; Frank, Sylvan G

    2005-09-01

    Isothermal crystallization of lidocaine (LC) in supersaturated LC/Duro-Tak 87-2287 (DT2287) polyacrylate pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) systems has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was found that crystallization of LC in supersaturated LC/DT2287 systems was governed by the nucleation process, which in turn was dependent on temperature and composition of the systems. A critical temperature T(crit) was found at approximately 26 degrees C, above which the crystallization of LC in LC/DT2287 systems becomes slow. The lack of dependence of T(crit) on the composition of the mixtures indicates that the presence of the PSA affected the kinetics (diffusion) rather than the thermodynamics of the nucleation process. A critical degree of saturation S(crit) of approximately 4 was also found, above which the nucleation rate sharply increases. Kinetic analysis based on the classical theory of nucleation indicates that nucleation of LC in the PSA medium is a diffusion-controlled process. The activation energy of crystallization had a two-phase dependence on temperature suggesting that the mechanism of crystallization may change at the transition temperatures. As the weight fraction of LC increased in the systems, the activation energy of crystallization, DeltaG(c), was minimal at approximately 15 degrees C, indicating that the nucleation of LC in the LC/DT2287 systems is at its fastest rate around this temperature. These fundamental analyses of nucleation and crystallization mechanisms are of practical significance in the design of supersaturated drug delivery systems.

  16. Cardiopulmonary Effects of Constant-Rate Infusion of Lidocaine for Anesthesia during Abdominal Surgery in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Malavasi, Lais M; Greene, Stephen A; Gay, John M; Grubb, Tammy L

    2016-01-01

    Lidocaine is commonly used in ruminants but has an anecdotal history of being toxic to goats. To evaluate lidocaine's effects on selected cardiopulmonary parameters. Isoflurane-anesthetized adult goats (n = 24) undergoing abdominal surgery received a loading dose of lidocaine (2.5 mg/kg) over 20 min followed by constant-rate infusion of lidocaine (100 μg/kg/min); control animals received saline instead of lidocaine. Data collected at predetermined time points during the 60-min surgery included heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, pO2, and pCO2. According to Welch 2-sample t tests, cardiopulmonary variables did not differ between groups. For example, after administration of the loading dose, goats in the lidocaine group had a mean heart rate of 88 ± 28 bpm, mean arterial blood pressure of 70 ± 19 mm Hg, pCO2 of 65 ± 13 mm Hg, and pO2 of 212 ± 99 mm Hg; in the saline group, these values were 90 ± 16 bpm, 76 ± 12 mm Hg, 61 ± 9 mm Hg, and 209 ± 83 mm Hg, respectively. One goat in the saline group required an additional dose of butorphanol. Overall our findings indicate that, at the dose provided, intravenous lidocaine did not cause adverse cardiopulmonary effects in adult goats undergoing abdominal surgery. Adding lidocaine infusion during general anesthesia is an option for enhancing transoperative analgesia in goats. PMID:27423150

  17. Hepatic Chemoembolization: Effect of Intraarterial Lidocaine on Pain and Postprocedure Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnell, George G.; Gates, Julia; Stuart, Keith; Underhill, Jonathan; Brophy, David P.

    1999-07-15

    Purpose: To determine if intraarterial lidocaine reduces pain during and after chemoembolization, and whether it influences postprocedure recovery. Methods: Two patient cohorts undergoing selective hepatic chemoembolization were compared. Chemoembolization was performed without lidocaine (control group) in 27 patients and intraarterial lidocaine was used (lidocaine group) in 29 similar patients. Objective changes in patient management were assessed. Pain reduction in 31 more procedures with lidocaine (total 60) was assessed and related to tumor type. Results: During chemoembolization, intraarterial lidocaine reduced the need for additional intravenous analgesics from 69% to 19%. After chemoembolization the mean Dilaudid dose in the first 24 hr was reduced from 9.5 mg to 4.15 mg; accordingly, the mean length of hospital stay was reduced from 67.5 to 53.5 hr. During the day of chemoembolization, the mean oral fluid intake increased from 420 ml (control group) to 487 ml (lidocaine group); the percentage of patients taking solid food on the day of chemoembolization increased from 3% to 43%. Conclusion: Intraarterial lidocaine during chemoembolization reduces the severity and duration of pain after chemoembolization resulting in faster recovery thus reducing the length of hospitalization.

  18. Cardiopulmonary Effects of Constant-Rate Infusion of Lidocaine for Anesthesia during Abdominal Surgery in Goats.

    PubMed

    Malavasi, Lais M; Greene, Stephen A; Gay, John M; Grubb, Tammy L

    2016-01-01

    Lidocaine is commonly used in ruminants but has an anecdotal history of being toxic to goats. To evaluate lidocaine's effects on selected cardiopulmonary parameters. Isoflurane-anesthetized adult goats (n = 24) undergoing abdominal surgery received a loading dose of lidocaine (2.5 mg/kg) over 20 min followed by constant-rate infusion of lidocaine (100 μg/kg/min); control animals received saline instead of lidocaine. Data collected at predetermined time points during the 60-min surgery included heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, pO2, and pCO2. According to Welch 2-sample t tests, cardiopulmonary variables did not differ between groups. For example, after administration of the loading dose, goats in the lidocaine group had a mean heart rate of 88 ± 28 bpm, mean arterial blood pressure of 70 ± 19 mm Hg, pCO2 of 65 ± 13 mm Hg, and pO2 of 212 ± 99 mm Hg; in the saline group, these values were 90 ± 16 bpm, 76 ± 12 mm Hg, 61 ± 9 mm Hg, and 209 ± 83 mm Hg, respectively. One goat in the saline group required an additional dose of butorphanol. Overall our findings indicate that, at the dose provided, intravenous lidocaine did not cause adverse cardiopulmonary effects in adult goats undergoing abdominal surgery. Adding lidocaine infusion during general anesthesia is an option for enhancing transoperative analgesia in goats.

  19. Lidocaine suppresses mouse Peyer’s patch T cell functions and induces bacterial translocation

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Takashi; Kawasaki, Chika; Sata, Takeyoshi; Chaudry, Irshad H.

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal mucosa is an important route of entry for microbial pathogens. The immune cells of Peyer’s patch (PP) compartments contribute to the active immune response against infection. Although local anesthetics are widely used in clinical practice, it remains unclear whether local anesthetics such as lidocaine affect PP T cell functions. The aim of this study was to examine if lidocaine has any effects on mouse PP T cell functions. To test this, freshly isolated mouse Peyer’s patch T cells were incubated with lidocaine. The effects of lidocaine on concanavalin A-stimulated PP T cell proliferation and cytokine production were assessed. The effect of lidocaine on PP T cell mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was also assessed. The results indicate that lidocaine suppresses cell proliferation, cytokine production, and MAPK activation in PP T cells. Furthermore, we found that the chronic in vivo exposure to lidocaine increases bacterial accumulation in PP. The enhanced immunosuppressive effects of lidocaine on PP T cell functions could contribute to the host’s enhanced susceptibility to infection. PMID:20466400

  20. The molecular structure and vibrational, 1H and 13C NMR spectra of lidocaine hydrochloride monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Hassan M.; Förner, Wolfgang; Ali, Shaikh A.

    2016-01-01

    The structure, vibrational and NMR spectra of the local anesthetic drug lidocaine hydrochloride monohydrate salt were investigated by B3LYP/6-311G∗∗ calculations. The lidocaine·HCl·H2O salt is predicted to have the gauche structure as the predominant form at ambient temperature with NCCN and CNCC torsional angles of 110° and -123° as compared to 10° and -64°, respectively in the base lidocaine. The repulsive interaction between the two N-H bonds destabilized the gauche structure of lidocaine·HCl·H2O salt. The analysis of the observed vibrational spectra is consistent with the presence of the lidocaine salt in only one gauche conformation at room temperature. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of lidocaine·HCl·H2O were interpreted by experimental and DFT calculated chemical shifts of the lidocaine salt. The RMSD between experimental and theoretical 1H and 13C chemical shifts for lidocaine·HCl·H2O is 2.32 and 8.21 ppm, respectively.

  1. The molecular structure and vibrational, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of lidocaine hydrochloride monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Hassan M; Förner, Wolfgang; Ali, Shaikh A

    2016-01-05

    The structure, vibrational and NMR spectra of the local anesthetic drug lidocaine hydrochloride monohydrate salt were investigated by B3LYP/6-311G(∗∗) calculations. The lidocaine·HCl·H2O salt is predicted to have the gauche structure as the predominant form at ambient temperature with NCCN and CNCC torsional angles of 110° and -123° as compared to 10° and -64°, respectively in the base lidocaine. The repulsive interaction between the two N-H bonds destabilized the gauche structure of lidocaine·HCl·H2O salt. The analysis of the observed vibrational spectra is consistent with the presence of the lidocaine salt in only one gauche conformation at room temperature. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of lidocaine·HCl·H2O were interpreted by experimental and DFT calculated chemical shifts of the lidocaine salt. The RMSD between experimental and theoretical (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts for lidocaine·HCl·H2O is 2.32 and 8.21ppm, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lidocaine reduces neutrophil recruitment by abolishing chemokine-induced arrest and transendothelial migration in septic patients.

    PubMed

    Berger, Christian; Rossaint, Jan; Van Aken, Hugo; Westphal, Martin; Hahnenkamp, Klaus; Zarbock, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The inappropriate activation, positioning, and recruitment of leukocytes are implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure in sepsis. Although the local anesthetic lidocaine modulates inflammatory processes, the effects of lidocaine in sepsis are still unknown. This double-blinded, prospective, randomized clinical trial was conducted to investigate the effect of lidocaine on leukocyte recruitment in septic patients. Fourteen septic patients were randomized to receive either a placebo (n = 7) or a lidocaine (n = 7) bolus (1.5 mg/kg), followed by continuous infusion (100 mg/h for patients >70 kg or 70 mg/h for patients <70 kg) over a period of 48 h. Selectin-mediated slow rolling, chemokine-induced arrest, and transmigration were investigated by using flow chamber and transmigration assays. Lidocaine treatment abrogated chemokine-induced neutrophil arrest and significantly impaired neutrophil transmigration through endothelial cells by inhibition of the protein kinase C-θ while not affecting the selectin-mediated slow leukocyte rolling. The observed results were not attributable to changes in surface expression of adhesion molecules or selectin-mediated capturing capacity, indicating a direct effect of lidocaine on signal transduction in neutrophils. These data suggest that lidocaine selectively inhibits chemokine-induced arrest and transmigration of neutrophils by inhibition of protein kinase C-θ while not affecting selectin-mediated slow rolling. These findings may implicate a possible therapeutic role for lidocaine in decreasing the inappropriate activation, positioning, and recruitment of leukocytes during sepsis.

  3. Anesthetic efficacy of lidocaine/meperidine for inferior alveolar nerve blocks in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    PubMed

    Bigby, Jason; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, single-blind study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy of lidocaine with epinephrine to lidocaine plus meperidine with epinephrine for inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IAN) in patients with mandibular posterior teeth experiencing irreversible pulpitis. Forty-eight emergency patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth randomly received, in a single-blind manner, 36 mg of lidocaine with 18 mug epinephrine or 36 mg of lidocaine with 18 mug of epinephrine plus 36 mg meperidine with 18 mug epinephrine, using a conventional inferior alveolar nerve block. Endodontic access was begun 15 minutes after solution deposition, and all patients were required to have profound lip numbness. Success was defined as no or mild pain (visual analog scale recordings) upon endodontic access or initial instrumentation. The success rate for the inferior alveolar nerve block using the lidocaine solution was 26%, and for the lidocaine/meperidine solution, the success rate was 12%. There was no significant difference (p = 0.28) between the two solutions. In conclusion, for mandibular posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis, the addition of 36 mg of meperidine to a lidocaine solution administered in a conventional IAN block did not improve the success rate over a standard lidocaine solution.

  4. Synergistic effect of lidocaine with pingyangmycin for treatment of venous malformation using a mouse spleen model

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Nan; Chen, Yuan-Zheng; Mao, Kai-Ping; Fu, Yanjie; Lin, Qiang; Xue, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To explore whether lidocaine has the synergistic effect with pingyangmycin (PYM) in the venous malformations (VMs) treatment. Methods: The mouse spleen was chosen as a VM model and injected with different concentration of lidocaine or PYM or jointly treated with lidocaine and PYM. After 2, 5, 8 or 14 days, the mouse spleen tissues were acquired for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, TUNEL assay and quantitative RT-PCR analysis to examine the toxicological effects of lidocaine and PYM on splenic vascular endothelial cells. Results: 0.4% of lidocaine mildly promoted the apoptosis of endothelial cells, while 2 mg/ml PYM significantly elevated the apoptotic ratios. However, the combination of 0.2% lidocaine and 0.5 mg/ml PYM notably elevated the apoptotic ratios of splenic cells and severely destroyed the configuration of spleen, compared to those of treatment with 0.5 mg/ml PYM alone. Conclusion: Lidocaine exerts synergistic effects with PYM in promoting the apoptosis of mouse splenic endothelial cells, indicating that lidocaine possibly promotes the therapeutic effects of PYM in VMs treatment via synergistically enhancing the apoptosis of endothelial cells of malformed venous lesions. PMID:24966943

  5. Muscle injections with lidocaine improve resting fatigue and pain in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Staud, Roland; Kizer, Taylor; Robinson, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    Objective Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) complain of long-lasting fatigue and pain which are not relieved by rest and worsened by physical exertion. Previous research has implicated metaboreceptors of muscles to play an important role for chronic fatigue and pain. Therefore, we hypothesized that blocking impulse input from deep tissues with intramuscular lidocaine injections would improve not only the pain but also fatigue of CFS patients. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 58 CFS patients received 20 mL of 1% lidocaine (200 mg) or normal saline once into both trapezius and gluteal muscles. Study outcomes included clinical fatigue and pain, depression, and anxiety. In addition, mechanical and heat hyperalgesia were assessed and serum levels of lidocaine were obtained after the injections. Results Fatigue ratings of CFS patients decreased significantly more after lidocaine compared to saline injections (p = 0.03). In contrast, muscle injections reduced pain, depression, and anxiety (p < 0.001), but these changes were not statistically different between lidocaine and saline (p > 0.05). Lidocaine injections increased mechanical pain thresholds of CFS patients (p = 0.04) but did not affect their heat hyperalgesia. Importantly, mood changes or lidocaine serum levels did not significantly predict fatigue reductions. Conclusion These results demonstrate that lidocaine injections reduce clinical fatigue of CFS patients significantly more than placebo, suggesting an important role of peripheral tissues for chronic fatigue. Future investigations will be necessary to evaluate the clinical benefits of such interventions. PMID:28721090

  6. Intravenous lidocaine for the treatment of acute pain in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Brendan Michael; Mullins, Michael Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate intravenous lidocaine’s safety and efficacy as an analgesic agent in the treatment of a variety of painful conditions presenting to the emergency department. Methods This case series identified seventeen patients who received lidocaine over a six month period and recorded demographic data, amount of lidocaine administered, the amount of opioid medication administered before and after lidocaine, pre- and post-lidocaine pain scores, and any qualitative descriptors of the patient’s pain recorded in the record. Side effects and adverse events were also recorded. Results Of the seven patients who had a pre- and post-lidocaine pain score recorded, the mean reduction was 3 points on a 10 point scale. Patients who received lidocaine used less opioid medication. One patient received an improperly high dose of lidocaine and suffered a brief seizure and cardiac arrest, but was quickly resuscitated. Conclusion This series suggests that lidocaine may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of acutely painful conditions in the emergency department. PMID:27752626

  7. The effect of topical lidocaine on muscle artefacts in awake canine electroencephalogram recordings.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jordan; James, Fiona; Monteith, Gabrielle

    2016-07-01

    Muscle artefacts in electroencephalogram recording data interfere with diagnostic accuracy. Lidocaine may reduce these artefacts. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of topical lidocaine on muscle artefacts in unanesthetized canine electroencephalogram (EEG) recording data. Topical 4% lidocaine was applied to each electrode site for six treated dogs prior to subdermal wire electrode placement and compared against historical untreated controls. Twenty-minute recordings began 30 min after lidocaine application. Three epochs (early, middle, and end) were sampled from each recording and scored for muscle artefact incidence and severity by two blinded reviewers. No significant treatment effects on incidence and severity were found. Application of topical lidocaine does not appear to reduce the occurrence of muscle artefacts in canine EEG recordings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prospective randomized study of viscous lidocaine versus benzocaine in a GI cocktail for dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Vilke, Gary M; Jin, Albert; Davis, Daniel P; Chan, Theodore C

    2004-07-01

    We hypothesized that Benzocaine (Hurricaine) would work as quickly and effectively as viscous Lidocaine in this preparation. This was a prospective randomized, single-blinded comparison between Benzocaine and Lidocaine as the topical anesthetic in a gastrointestinal (GI) cocktail. Patients 18 years or older were approached for participation when a GI cocktail was ordered by the Emergency Physician. Patients were randomized to equivalent doses of either Benzocaine or viscous Lidocaine in addition to 30 cc of Maalox and 10 cc of Donnatal. Assessment using a visual analog pain scale occurred at time intervals of 0, 5, 15, and 30 min. Eighty-two patients were enrolled (44 to Benzocaine, 38 to viscous Lidocaine), with each group having a statistically significant improvement in pain (p < 0.001). There were no statistical differences between the Benzocaine and viscous Lidocaine groups in terms of the relief of symptoms at each of the assessment times. There were no adverse outcomes in either group.

  9. Transdermal Bioavailability in Rats of Lidocaine in the Forms of Ionic Liquids, Salts, and Deep Eutectic.

    PubMed

    Berton, Paula; Di Bona, Kristin R; Yancey, Denise; Rizvi, Syed A A; Gray, Marquita; Gurau, Gabriela; Shamshina, Julia L; Rasco, Jane F; Rogers, Robin D

    2017-05-11

    Tuning the bioavailability of lidocaine was explored by its incorporation into the ionic liquid lidocainium docusate ([Lid][Doc]) and the deep eutectic Lidocaine·Ibuprofen (Lid·Ibu) and comparing the transdermal absorption of these with the crystalline salt lidocainium chloride ([Lid]Cl). Each form of lidocaine was dissolved in a vehicle cream and topically applied to Sprague-Dawley rats. The concentrations of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in blood plasma were monitored over time as an indication of systemic absorption. The concentration of lidocaine in plasma varied between applied API-based creams, with faster and higher systemic absorption of the hydrogen bonded deep eutectic Lid·Ibu than the absorption of the salts [Lid]Cl or [Lid][Doc]. Interestingly, a differential transdermal absorption was observed between lidocaine and ibuprofen when Lid·Ibu was applied, possibly indicating different interactions with the tissue components.

  10. Neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of lidocaine in kainic acid-injected rats.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Kuan Ming; Lu, Cheng Wei; Lee, Ming Yi; Wang, Ming Jiuh; Lin, Tzu Yu; Wang, Su Jane

    2016-05-04

    Lidocaine, the most commonly used local anesthetic, inhibits glutamate release from nerve terminals. Given the involvement of glutamate neurotoxicity in the pathogenesis of various neurological disorders, this study investigated the role of lidocaine in hippocampal neuronal death and inflammatory events induced by an i.p. injection of kainic acid (KA) (15 mg/kg), a glutamate analog. The results showed that KA significantly led to neuronal death in the CA3 pyramidal layers of the hippocampus and this effect was attenuated by the systemic administration of lidocaine (0.8 or 4 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before KA injection. Moreover, KA-induced microglia activation and gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, namely, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, in the hippocampus were reduced by the lidocaine pretreatment. Altogether, the results suggest that lidocaine can effectively treat glutamate excitotoxicity-related brain disorders.

  11. [Comparison of two modified lidocaine solutions for local anesthesia in blepharoplasty].

    PubMed

    Fonseca Júnior, Nilson Lopes da; Lucci, Lucia Miriam Dumont; Badessa, Marianne Peixoto Sobral Giroldo; Rehder, José Ricardo Carvalho Lima

    2009-01-01

    To compare pain on injection of two modified anesthetic lidocaine solutions for use in upper blepharoplasty: 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, and 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine buffered 9:1 with 8.4% sodium bicarbonate. In this prospective, double-masked study, 25 consecutive patients undergoing upper blepharoplasty were submitted to the anesthesic procedure. Each eyelid received one of two modified lidocaine solutions. Heart rate, systemic arterial pressure and oxygen saturation level were obtained before, during and after injection of two different anesthetic solutions. Patients used a 4-point scale to rate the perceived pain on injection. All parameters were statistically analyzed and there was a significant difference in heart rate and oxygen saturation level. Pain on injection of eyelid anesthesia does not differ significantly with either buffered or unmodified lidocaine solutions.

  12. TRPA1 activation by lidocaine in nerve terminals results in glutamate release increase

    SciTech Connect

    Piao, L.-H.; Fujita, Tsugumi; Jiang, C.-Y.; Liu Tao; Yue, H.-Y.; Nakatsuka, Terumasa; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2009-02-20

    We examined the effects of local anesthetics lidocaine and procaine on glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in adult rat spinal cord slices with whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Bath-applied lidocaine (1-5 mM) dose-dependently and reversibly increased the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) in SG neurons. Lidocaine activity was unaffected by the Na{sup +}-channel blocker, tetrodotoxin, and the TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, but was inhibited by the TRP antagonist, ruthenium red. In the same neuron, the TRPA1 agonist, allyl isothiocyanate, and lidocaine both increased sEPSC frequency. In contrast, procaine did not produce presynaptic enhancement. These results indicate that lidocaine activates TRPA1 in nerve terminals presynaptic to SG neurons to increase the spontaneous release of L-glutamate.

  13. Changes in convulsion susceptibility of lidocaine by alteration of brain catecholaminergic functions.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Y; Dohi, T; Tanaka, S; Takada, K; Tsujimoto, A

    1991-05-01

    Influences of the manipulation of brain catecholaminergic neuronal activity on the incidence of lidocaine-induced convulsions in mice were studied and compared with those of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsions. alpha-Methyl-p-tyrosine (alpha-MPT) decreased both brain noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) levels, and disulfiram decreased the NA level and increased the DA level. The incidence of lidocaine-induced convulsions was decreased by treatments with alpha-MPT and disulfiram, while that of PTZ was increased by either treatment. The incidence of lidocaine-induced convulsions was slightly, but not significantly increased by L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), although the brain DA level was increased by L-DOPA. Methamphetamine and desipramine increased the incidences of lidocaine-induced convulsions. These results may suggest that brain catecholaminergic neurons, differing from their role in inhibiting control of PTZ-seizure, act to facilitate lidocaine-induced convulsions.

  14. TRPA1 activation by lidocaine in nerve terminals results in glutamate release increase.

    PubMed

    Piao, Lian-Hua; Fujita, Tsugumi; Jiang, Chang-Yu; Liu, Tao; Yue, Hai-Yuan; Nakatsuka, Terumasa; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2009-02-20

    We examined the effects of local anesthetics lidocaine and procaine on glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in adult rat spinal cord slices with whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Bath-applied lidocaine (1-5 mM) dose-dependently and reversibly increased the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) in SG neurons. Lidocaine activity was unaffected by the Na(+)-channel blocker, tetrodotoxin, and the TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, but was inhibited by the TRP antagonist, ruthenium red. In the same neuron, the TRPA1 agonist, allyl isothiocyanate, and lidocaine both increased sEPSC frequency. In contrast, procaine did not produce presynaptic enhancement. These results indicate that lidocaine activates TRPA1 in nerve terminals presynaptic to SG neurons to increase the spontaneous release of L-glutamate.

  15. Intrarectal Lidocaine-Diltiazem-Meperidine Gel for Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Farsad; Moghaddam, Yasaman; Shariat Moharari, Reza; Etezadi, Farhad; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: TRUS-guided needle biopsy of the prostate gland is the current standard method used for diagnosis of prostate cancer. Pain control during this procedure is through the use of i.v. sedation or local anaesthetic (LA), depending on clinician preference. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intrarectal lidocaine, lidocaine-diltiazem and lidocaine-meperidine-diltiazem gel for anesthetizing transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. Patients and Methods: In a randomized double-blind clinical trial, 100 consecutive patients were divided into three groups. The patients received one of the gels before transrectal ultrasound guided prostate needle biopsy: group A, intrarectal and perianal lidocaine, gel 1 g; group B, intrarectal lidocaine gel, 1 g, + perianal diltiazem, 1 g; group C, intrarectal lidocaine gel, 1 g, + meperidine, 25 mg, and perianal diltiazem, 1 g. Visual analog pain scale was used to estimate pain during probe insertion and biopsy. Heart rate and blood pressure during probe insertion and biopsy were recorded too. Results: The mean of visual analog pain scale was 4.5 in group A, 3.5 in group B, and 2.0 in group C during probe insertion (P value = 0.01). The mean of visual analog pain scale was 5.1 in group A, 3.5 group B, and 2.5 in group C during biopsy (P value = 0.001). The groups were comparable for patients' age, weight, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostate size (P > 0.05). No side effects of meperidine and lidocaine including drowsiness, dizziness, tinnitus and light-headedness or requiring assistance for activity were noted. Conclusions: Lidocaine-meperidine-diltiazem gel provides significantly better pain control than lidocaine-diltiazem gel and lidocaine gel alone during transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy and probe insertion. This mixture gel is safe, easy to administer and well accepted by patients. PMID:26161317

  16. Tribenoside and lidocaine in the local treatment of hemorrhoids: an overview of clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Z; Gökçe, Ö

    2016-06-01

    The combination of tribenoside+lidocaine (Procto-Glyvenol®) is a medical preparation for the local treatment of hemorrhoids, delivered as a suppository or rectal cream. This product has been used for decades in the therapy of hemorrhoids. This review discusses available evidence on the use of tribenoside/lidocaine in clinical practice. Papers were retrieved by a PubMed search, using different combinations of pertinent keywords (e.g. tribenoside AND hemorrhoids), without any limitations in terms of publication date and language. Documents from Authors' personal collection of literature could also be considered. Papers were selected for inclusion according to their relevance for the topic, as judged by the Authors. The efficacy of the combination of tribenoside+lidocaine in relieving symptoms caused by hemorrhoids and its safety have been assessed in several clinical studies on patients of either gender, either versus its two individual components (tribenoside and lidocaine) or versus steroids in the same setting. Five studies compared the combination treatment with each of its single components, and of these, three studies compared tribenoside+ lidocaine with a tribenoside-free semi-placebo preparation containing only lidocaine, and two studies compared this combination with lidocaine-free preparations containing only tribenoside. Tribenoside+lidocaine was compared with steroid-containing preparations in six studies. Last, two studies evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of the tribenoside+lidocaine combination in women with hemorrhoids as a consequence of pregnancy or delivery. All the above-mentioned studies were well-conducted and can provide a comprehensive evaluation of tribenoside+lidocaine in the treatment of hemorrhoids. Enough evidence exists to recommend the use of this combination therapy as a fast, effective and safe option for the local treatment of low-grade hemorrhoids.

  17. Lidocaine Hydrochloride Compared with MS222 for the Euthanasia of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Collymore, Chereen; Banks, E Kate; Turner, Patricia V

    2016-11-01

    Despite several shortcomings, MS222 is the most commonly used chemical agent for euthanasia of zebrafish. Although lidocaine hydrochloride has some advantages over MS222, its effectiveness as a euthanasia agent for zebrafish is unknown. Larvae at 9 to 16 d postfertilization were exposed to 250 mg/L MS222 or 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, or 1000 mg/L lidocaine and observed for cessation of heartbeat. Adult zebrafish were exposed to 250 mg/L MS222 or 400, 500, or 600 mg/L lidocaine; times to loss of righting reflex, cessation of opercular movement, and complete recovery; body length; aversive behavior; and gross and microscopic evidence of acute toxicity were evaluated. The heartbeat was not lost from any larvae in any group, regardless of drug or dosage. For adults, time to loss of righting reflex was greatest in the 500-mg/L lidocaine group. Opercular movement ceased earlier in all lidocaine groups compared with the MS222 group. Fish in the 500-mg/L lidocaine group were smaller than those in other groups. Fewer fish in the lidocaine groups displayed aversive behavior (erratic swimming and piping) compared with the MS222 group. No fish in the lidocaine hydrochloride groups (n = 30) recovered from euthanasia, whereas one fish in the MS222 group did (n = 10). Neither the MS222 nor lidocaine groups showed any gross or histologic changes suggestive of acute toxicity. Our results suggest that lidocaine hydrochloride may be an effective alternative chemical euthanasia agent for adult zebrafish but should not be used in larval fish.

  18. Concentrations of dimethylaniline and other metabolites in milk and tissues of dairy cows treated with lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Zuidema, Tina; Essers, Martien; van Vuuren, Ad M; van Wikselaar, Piet G; van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Mengelers, Marcel J B; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Bulder, Astrid S

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine is a topical anaesthetic drug used in dairy cows for laparotomy (caesarean section, abomasal displacement). Because there are no registered drugs for this indication, it can be applied under the so-called Cascade rules (off-label use), with the restriction that the off-label withdrawal periods of 7 days for milk and 28 days for meat are taken into account. In animals, lidocaine is rapidly metabolised into various metabolites, one being 2,6-dimethylaniline (DMA) which is reported to possess carcinogenic and mutagenic properties and detected also in milk. To investigate whether the off-label withdrawal periods are long enough to exclude the presence of lidocaine and DMA, and potential other metabolites, in edible products, a study was performed with eight dairy cows treated with lidocaine by injection in the abdominal muscles. At various time points blood samples, milk and urine were collected. Four animals were slaughtered 3.5 h after treatment, the other four after 48.5 h. The injection site, meat, liver and kidney were analysed for levels of lidocaine, DMA, monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) and 3-OH-lidocaine. It was shown that DMA is an important metabolite in dairy cows and can be detected in both meat and milk. In addition, also MEGX, 3-OH-lidocaine and three other metabolites were identified and to some extent quantified. These metabolites were 4-OH-lidocaine, lidocaine-N-oxide and 4-hydroxy-DMA. The latter compound was the most important metabolite in urine. However, levels in milk and meat decreased rapidly after the application. Overall, it can be concluded that the off-label withdrawal times of 7 and 28 days for milk and meat, respectively, guarantee the absence of detectable levels of lidocaine and metabolites.

  19. Effects of intravenous administration of lidocaine on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in horses.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Marlis L; Wagner, Ann E; Mama, Khursheed R; Ferreira, Tatiana H; Steffey, Eugene P

    2011-04-01

    To determine effects of a continuous rate infusion of lidocaine on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane in horses. 8 healthy adult horses. Horses were anesthetized via IV administration of xylazine, ketamine, and diazepam; anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen. Approximately 1 hour after induction, sevoflurane MAC determination was initiated via standard techniques. Following sevoflurane MAC determination, lidocaine was administered as a bolus (1.3 mg/kg, IV, over 15 minutes), followed by constant rate infusion at 50 μg/kg/min. Determination of MAC for the lidocaine-sevoflurane combination was started 30 minutes after lidocaine infusion was initiated. Arterial blood samples were collected after the lidocaine bolus, at 30-minute intervals, and at the end of the infusion for measurement of plasma lidocaine concentrations. IV administration of lidocaine decreased mean ± SD sevoflurane MAC from 2.42 ± 0.24% to 1.78 ± 0.38% (mean MAC reduction, 26.7 ± 12%). Plasma lidocaine concentrations were 2,589 ± 811 ng/mL at the end of the bolus; 2,065 ± 441 ng/mL, 2,243 ± 699 ng/mL, 2,168 ± 339 ng/mL, and 2,254 ± 215 ng/mL at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes of infusion, respectively; and 2,206 ± 329 ng/mL at the end of the infusion. Plasma concentrations did not differ significantly among time points. Lidocaine could be useful for providing a more balanced anesthetic technique in horses. A detailed cardiovascular study on the effects of IV infusion of lidocaine during anesthesia with sevoflurane is required before this combination can be recommended.

  20. Lidocaine Hydrochloride Compared with MS222 for the Euthanasia of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Collymore, Chereen; Banks, E Kate; Turner, Patricia V

    2016-01-01

    Despite several shortcomings, MS222 is the most commonly used chemical agent for euthanasia of zebrafish. Although lidocaine hydrochloride has some advantages over MS222, its effectiveness as a euthanasia agent for zebrafish is unknown. Larvae at 9 to 16 d postfertilization were exposed to 250 mg/L MS222 or 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, or 1000 mg/L lidocaine and observed for cessation of heartbeat. Adult zebrafish were exposed to 250 mg/L MS222 or 400, 500, or 600 mg/L lidocaine; times to loss of righting reflex, cessation of opercular movement, and complete recovery; body length; aversive behavior; and gross and microscopic evidence of acute toxicity were evaluated. The heartbeat was not lost from any larvae in any group, regardless of drug or dosage. For adults, time to loss of righting reflex was greatest in the 500-mg/L lidocaine group. Opercular movement ceased earlier in all lidocaine groups compared with the MS222 group. Fish in the 500-mg/L lidocaine group were smaller than those in other groups. Fewer fish in the lidocaine groups displayed aversive behavior (erratic swimming and piping) compared with the MS222 group. No fish in the lidocaine hydrochloride groups (n = 30) recovered from euthanasia, whereas one fish in the MS222 group did (n = 10). Neither the MS222 nor lidocaine groups showed any gross or histologic changes suggestive of acute toxicity. Our results suggest that lidocaine hydrochloride may be an effective alternative chemical euthanasia agent for adult zebrafish but should not be used in larval fish. PMID:27931323

  1. The Pharmacokinetics of Atomized Lidocaine Administered via the Trachea: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Takaenoki, Yumiko; Masui, Kenichi; Oda, Yutaka; Kazama, Tomiei

    2016-07-01

    Under emergent conditions, endotracheal drug administration may be an effective method of delivering emergency drugs. A common technique is to administer these drugs using a nonatomized spray. Atomized drug delivery may be an attractive alternative to nonatomized delivery because atomized particles are small, cover a large surface area, and may better adhere to endotracheal membrane resulting in more effective drug absorption. In this study, we compared the pharmacokinetic profile of lidocaine administered into the trachea using an atomized or a nonatomized technique. Twenty patients were anesthetized using propofol and remifentanil. Ten minutes after rocuronium was administered, patients received 4% lidocaine (2 mg/kg) intratracheally over 2 seconds before tracheal intubation. Ten patients received atomized lidocaine using a mucosal atomization device, and the other 10 patients received nonatomized lidocaine using a traditional spray tube. Arterial lidocaine plasma concentrations were measured before; at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, and 60 minutes; and then every 60 minutes after the administration of lidocaine until the end of the operation. We developed a pharmacokinetic model to examine whether bioavailability or absorption rate was different between atomized versus nonatomized lidocaine administration. The total body clearance was fixed at a published value to determine the bioavailability. Peak plasma concentrations were larger using the mucosal atomization device (median [range]: 1.9 [1.4-3.2] μg/mL) than the spray tube (1.1 [0.6-2.0] μg/mL; P = 0.0021). Our pharmacokinetic model estimated a difference of bioavailability between the atomized and the nonatomized lidocaine (0.801 and 0.559 respectively, P = 0.0005), whereas our model estimated no difference in the absorption rate constant (0.00688/min). Our results suggest that when using atomized delivery of lidocaine, less drug is required to achieve a near equivalent plasma lidocaine concentration

  2. Antagonism of Lidocaine Inhibition by Open-Channel Blockers That Generate Resurgent Na Current

    PubMed Central

    Bant, Jason S.; Aman, Teresa K.; Raman, Indira M.

    2013-01-01

    Na channels that generate resurgent current express an intracellular endogenous open-channel blocking protein, whose rapid binding upon depolarization and unbinding upon repolarization minimizes fast and slow inactivation. Na channels also bind exogenous compounds, such as lidocaine, which functionally stabilize inactivation. Like the endogenous blocking protein, these use-dependent inhibitors bind most effectively at depolarized potentials, raising the question of how lidocaine-like compounds affect neurons with resurgent Na current. We therefore recorded lidocaine inhibition of voltage-clamped, tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na currents in mouse Purkinje neurons, which express a native blocking protein, and in mouse hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons with and without a peptide from the cytoplasmic tail of NaVβ4 (the β4 peptide), which mimics endogenous open-channel block. To control channel states during drug exposure, lidocaine was applied with rapid-solution exchange techniques during steps to specific voltages. Inhibition of Na currents by lidocaine was diminished by either the β4 peptide or the native blocking protein. In peptide-free CA3 cells, prolonging channel opening with a site-3 toxin, anemone toxin II, reduced lidocaine inhibition; this effect was largely occluded by open-channel blockers, suggesting that lidocaine binding is favored by inactivation but prevented by open-channel block. In constant 100 μM lidocaine, current-clamped Purkinje cells continued to fire spontaneously. Similarly, the β4 peptide reduced lidocaine-dependent suppression of spiking in CA3 neurons in slices. Thus, the open-channel blocking protein responsible for resurgent current acts as a natural antagonist of lidocaine. Neurons with resurgent current may therefore be less susceptible to use-dependent Na channel inhibitors used as local anesthetic, antiarrhythmic, and anticonvulsant drugs. PMID:23486968

  3. Nebulized lidocaine blunts airway hyper-responsiveness in experimental feline asthma.

    PubMed

    Nafe, Laura A; Guntur, Vamsi P; Dodam, John R; Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Cohn, Leah A; Reinero, Carol R

    2013-08-01

    Nebulized lidocaine may be a corticosteroid-sparing drug in human asthmatics, reducing airway resistance and peripheral blood eosinophilia. We hypothesized that inhaled lidocaine would be safe in healthy and experimentally asthmatic cats, diminishing airflow limitation and eosinophilic airway inflammation in the latter population. Healthy (n = 5) and experimentally asthmatic (n = 9) research cats were administered 2 weeks of nebulized lidocaine (2 mg/kg q8h) or placebo (saline) followed by a 2-week washout and crossover to the alternate treatment. Cats were anesthetized to measure the response to inhaled methacholine (MCh) after each treatment. Placebo and doubling doses of methacholine (0.0625-32.0000 mg/ml) were delivered and results were expressed as the concentration of MCh increasing baseline airway resistance by 200% (EC200Raw). Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed after each treatment and eosinophil numbers quantified. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) % eosinophils and EC200Raw within groups after each treatment were compared using a paired t-test (P <0.05 significant). No adverse effects were noted. In healthy cats, lidocaine did not significantly alter BALF eosinophilia or the EC200Raw. There was no difference in %BALF eosinophils in asthmatic cats treated with lidocaine (36±10%) or placebo (33 ± 6%). However, lidocaine increased the EC200Raw compared with placebo 10 ± 2 versus 5 ± 1 mg/ml; P = 0.043). Chronic nebulized lidocaine was well-tolerated in all cats, and lidocaine did not induce airway inflammation or airway hyper-responsiveness in healthy cats. Lidocaine decreased airway response to MCh in asthmatic cats without reducing airway eosinophilia, making it unsuitable for monotherapy. However, lidocaine may serve as a novel adjunctive therapy in feline asthmatics with beneficial effects on airflow obstruction.

  4. Selective spinal anesthesia for outpatient transurethral prostatectomy (TURP): randomized controlled comparison of chloroprocaine with lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Vaghadia, H; Neilson, G; Lennox, P H

    2012-02-01

    This is a study comparing two short-acting local anesthetics lidocaine and 2-chloroprocaine in combination with fentanyl, to provide selective spinal anesthesia for outpatient transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). In this prospective, randomized double-blind study, selective spinal anesthesia was performed in 40 American Society of Anesthesiologists I-III outpatients undergoing TURP using either 40 mg of chloroprocaine mixed with 12.5 μg of fentanyl (n = 20) or 35 mg of lidocaine mixed with 12.5 μg of fentanyl (n = 20). The primary outcome was duration of spinal block. Secondary outcomes were time to reach T10 (onset), time to maximal level, duration above T10 and lidocaine 3, maximal level of block, and adverse effects. The median (minimum, maximum) onset time was 4 (1, 16) and 3 (2, 10) min for chloroprocaine and lidocaine, respectively. Time to maximal level was 20 (17, 29) and 22 (16, 26) min for chloroprocaine and lidocaine, respectively. Mean maximal level was T7-T8 for both agents. Duration of block above T10 was 54 (28, 88) and 63 (31, 87) min for chloroprocaine and lidocaine, respectively. Duration of block above lidocaine 3 was 93 (56, 218) and 98 (58, 151) min for chloroprocaine and lidocaine, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the two groups with respect to these clinical end points. Four patients in the lidocaine group developed transient neurological symptoms. One patient in the chloroprocaine group developed a cauda equina-like syndrome but recovered fully after several weeks. Selective spinal anesthesia with chloroprocaine and lidocaine for TURP yielded comparable results for clinical characteristics. Further research on transient neurological symptom and cauda equina risk with chloroprocaine is warranted. © 2012 The Authors Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica © 2012 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  5. Molecular Action of Lidocaine on the Voltage Sensors of Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, Michael F.; Hanck, Dorothy A.

    2003-01-01

    Block of sodium ionic current by lidocaine is associated with alteration of the gating charge-voltage (Q-V) relationship characterized by a 38% reduction in maximal gating charge (Qmax) and by the appearance of additional gating charge at negative test potentials. We investigated the molecular basis of the lidocaine-induced reduction in cardiac Na channel–gating charge by sequentially neutralizing basic residues in each of the voltage sensors (S4 segments) in the four domains of the human heart Na channel (hH1a). By determining the relative reduction in the Qmax of each mutant channel modified by lidocaine we identified those S4 segments that contributed to a reduction in gating charge. No interaction of lidocaine was found with the voltage sensors in domains I or II. The largest inhibition of charge movement was found for the S4 of domain III consistent with lidocaine completely inhibiting its movement. Protection experiments with intracellular MTSET (a charged sulfhydryl reagent) in a Na channel with the fourth outermost arginine in the S4 of domain III mutated to a cysteine demonstrated that lidocaine stabilized the S4 in domain III in a depolarized configuration. Lidocaine also partially inhibited movement of the S4 in domain IV, but lidocaine's most dramatic effect was to alter the voltage-dependent charge movement of the S4 in domain IV such that it accounted for the appearance of additional gating charge at potentials near −100 mV. These findings suggest that lidocaine's actions on Na channel gating charge result from allosteric coupling of the binding site(s) of lidocaine to the voltage sensors formed by the S4 segments in domains III and IV. PMID:12566542

  6. Comparison of Morphine, Morphine-Lidocaine, and Morphine-Lidocaine-Ketamine Infusions in Dogs Using an Incision-Induced Pain Model.

    PubMed

    Chiavaccini, Ludovica; Claude, Andrew K; Meyer, Robert E

    We aimed to compare antinociceptive effects of IV infusions of morphine (M), morphine-lidocaine (ML), or morphine-lidocaine-ketamine (MLK) combined, in a mild-to-moderate pain model in dogs. Eighteen adult hounds were heavily sedated with IV morphine (0.2 mg/kg) and dexmedetomidine to undergo thoracic skin incisions. After reversal, dogs were randomly assigned to receive loading doses of lidocaine and ketamine (MLK), lidocaine and saline (ML), or equivalent volume of saline (M), followed by 18 hr constant infusions of morphine (0.12 mg/kg/hr), lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr) and ketamine (0.6 mg/kg/hr); morphine (0.12 mg/kg/hr) and lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr); or morphine (0.12 mg/kg/hr), respectively. Pain was assessed with Short Form Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale and mechanical nociception with von Frey filaments (VFFS). Data were analyzed with linear mixed model on ranks. Independently of treatment, Short Form Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale was significantly higher than baseline for 24 hr (p < .0001), while VFFS was significantly lower than baseline for 48 hr post-recovery (p < .0001), with no difference between MLK and M groups. The ML group recorded significantly lower VFFS (p = .02) than the M group for the entire study. In conclusion, there was no significant analgesic difference between MLK and M alone.

  7. Prevention of pain with the injection of microemulsion propofol: a comparison of a combination of lidocaine and ketamine with lidocaine or ketamine alone.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Insung; Noh, Jung Il; Kim, Soon Im; Kim, Mun-Gyu; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Sang Ho; Ok, Si Young

    2010-10-01

    Aquafol, a microemulsion propofol, causes more severe and frequent pain on injection than propofol. The purpose of this study was to compare a combination of lidocaine and ketamine on aquafol-induced pain with lidocaine or ketamine alone during the induction of anesthesia. In this prospective, randomized, double-blinded study, 130 healthy patients who were undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled. The patients received IV lidocaine 40 mg plus ketamine 25 mg (Group LK, n = 43), lidocaine 40 mg (Group L, n = 42), or ketamine 25 mg (Group K, n = 45) with a rubber tourniquet on the forearm 1 min before the injection of microemulsion propofol. The pain score was assessed by a 4-point verbal rating scale (VRS) at 10 seconds after injection of microemulsion propofol 30 mg and during the injection of the remaining total dose. The incidence and severity of pain was significantly lower in Group LK than Group L or Group K at 10 seconds after the injection of microemulsion propofol 30 mg (P < 0.05). And the incidence and severity of pain was significantly lower in Group LK and Group K than Group L during the injection of the remaining total dose (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with IV lidocaine 40 mg plus ketamine 25 mg with a rubber tourniquet on the forearm 1 min before the injection of microemulsion propofol is more effective than lidocaine 40 mg or ketamine 25 mg alone in preventing pain from the injection of microemulsion propofol.

  8. [Pharmacokinetics of propranolol, phenytoin and lidocaine in hypercholesterolemic rabbits].

    PubMed

    Vinçon, G; Ploux, D; Pehourcq, F; Albin, H

    1983-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate an eventual influence of hypercholesterolemia on drug kinetics in the rabbit. Pharmacokinetic of propranolol, phenytoin and lidocain was studied in groups of male "Fauve de Bourgogne" rabbits. Each compound was administered by intravenous single dose injection, dosage being 1 mg/kg for propranolol, 10 mg/kg for phenytoin, and 3,5 mg/kg for lidocain. Propranolol plasma levels were determined by spectrofluorimetric method; plasma concentrations of phenytoin and lidocain were determinated according to a gas chromatographic method. 2. Our data showed variations of pharmacokinetic parameters for propranolol and phenytoin only. For propranolol the total body clearance (0,178 +/- 0,064 and 0,115 +/- 0,048 l.kg-1.mn-1; p less than 0,05) and the volume of distribution (9,32 +/- 3,10 and 6,02 +/- 0,96 l.kg-1; p less than 0,01) were significantly diminished; half-life (40,25 +/- 19,45 and 45,62 +/- 32,20 mn) remained inchanged. For phenytoin, total body clearance (3,28 +/- 0,94 and 1,43 +/- 0,50 l.kg-1.mn-1; p less than 0,001) was significantly diminished; half-life (136,4 +/- 29,4 and 324,9 +/- 131,6 mn; p less than 0,001) significantly increased; volume of distribution (0,62 +/- 0,13 and 0,62 +/- 0,10 l.kg-1) remained unchanged. 3. These variations may be related to changes in the plasma binding for propranolol and in the hepatic metabolism for propranolol and phenytoin.

  9. Intravenous lidocaine for effective pain relief after bimaxillary surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Uilyong; Choi, Young-Jun; Choi, Geun Joo; Kang, Hyun

    2017-02-06

    The aim of this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of intravenous lidocaine on postoperative pain in bimaxillary surgery. Between July 2015 and November 2015, 52 consecutive patients that underwent bimaxillary surgery were recruited to the present study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: group L (1.5 mg/kg bolus and 2 mg/kg/h continuous infusion during the operation) and group C (normal saline). To measure pain intensity, a visual analog scale (VAS) was used at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h after surgery. Rescue ketorolac use was measured in the first 4, 4-8, 8-24, and 24-48 h after surgery. Total ketorolac consumption (the sum of rescue and eight-hourly fixed schedule ketorolac injection), WBC count, neutrophil count, and postoperative swelling were recorded. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to demographics. VAS pain scores were significantly lower in group L compared with group C up to 8 h after surgery. Rescue ketorolac use up to 8 h after surgery and total ketorolac consumption were significantly lower in group L than in group C. Postoperative WBC and neutrophil counts were significantly decreased in group L. Compared with group C, the amount of calibrated postoperative swelling was lower in group L. Systemic lidocaine infusion during bimaxillary surgery reduces postoperative pain, analgesic consumption, and facial swelling. Systemic lidocaine is simple, economic, and a safe procedure reducing pain and soft tissue swelling after bimaxillary surgery.

  10. Quantitative and fiber-selective evaluation of dose-dependent nerve blockade by intrathecal lidocaine in rats.

    PubMed

    Oda, Mayuko; Kitagawa, Norihito; Yang, Bang-Xiang; Totoki, Tadahide; Morimoto, Masatoshi

    2005-03-01

    We investigated whether cutaneous stimulus threshold (CST), as determined using a Neurometer, could be used for quantitative and differential nerve evaluation of reversible and irreversible nerve block following intrathecal lidocaine administration in rats. Rats with intrathecal catheters were randomly assigned to one of five groups (saline or 2, 5, 10, or 20% lidocaine). Prior to and 4 days after drug administration, CST was determined at 5, 250, and 2000 Hz. In the 2% lidocaine group, CST from end of lidocaine infusion to recovery from anesthesia was also monitored. Skin-clamp testing and gait observation were performed for comparison with CST findings. Behavioral examinations revealed persistent sensory or motor impairment lasting 4 days in groups receiving >/=5% lidocaine but not in the saline and 2% lidocaine groups. With 2% lidocaine, return to baseline CSTs at 5 and 250 Hz was delayed compared with thresholds at 2000 Hz. Although CSTs in the 5% group at 5 and 250 Hz increased significantly, thresholds at 2000 Hz did not differ from those in rats administered saline. CSTs with >/=10% lidocaine displayed no differences between frequencies. At each frequency, CSTs for rats with >/=5% lidocaine increased in a clearly concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that CST testing enables evaluation of the different nerve functions for Abeta, Adelta, and C fibers in rats for lidocaine concentrations lidocaine in rats.

  11. Subcutaneous Injection of Triamcinolone and Lidocaine to Prevent Postherpetic Neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jiaxiang; Wang, Xiaoping; Tang, Yuanzhang; Yang, Liqiang; Zeng, Yuanjie; Guo, Yuna

    2017-07-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is associated with inflammation of the peripheral nerves, which is considered to be an important cause of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Interventions aimed at reducing this inflammation could prevent PHN. One option is the epidural administration of corticosteroid and local anesthetic. However, several authors have reported a risk of arachnoiditis with epidural corticosteroids. Subcutaneous injection in an outpatient setting is a safer option. However, there is limited evidence of the effectiveness of this alternative for preventing PHN. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of subcutaneous injection of triamcinolone and lidocaine for the prevention of PHN in elderly HZ patients. Randomized, single-center, clinical trial. Department of pain management of a teaching hospital in Beijing, China. Patients with acute HZ with rash < 7 days (n = 100) were randomly assigned to receive either standard therapy (oral antivirals and analgesics) alone or standard therapy plus subcutaneous injection of triamcinolone and lidocaine. The severity of pain was assessed using a numeric rating scale (NRS) at enrollment and at one, 3, and 6 months after rash onset. Quality of life (QoL) was evaluated by the SF-36 before treatment and at 3 and 6 months after rash onset. The primary endpoint was the presence of zoster-associated pain (ZAP) at 3 months after rash onset. At enrollment, all patients reported ZAP with average NRS scores of 6.64 ± 1.44 and 7.16 ± 1.22 in the standard group and subcutaneous group, respectively. At 3 and 6 months after rash onset, the pain had decreased in both groups, but the decrease was significantly greater in the subcutaneous injection group. At 3 months, 2 (4%) patients in the subcutaneous injection group vs. 10 (20%) patients in the standard group had ZAP with NRS > 3 (P = 0.014). Both groups showed significant improvement in QoL at 3 and 6 months. No patient had major adverse events related to the subcutaneous

  12. Lidocaine infusion as a rescue analgesic in the perioperative setting

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, C; McConachie, I; Banner, R

    2008-01-01

    In the present case series, three patients for whom regional anesthesia may have been the optimum technique for controlling postoperative pain are discussed. However, due to prevailing circumstances, regional anesthesia could not be provided. An intravenous infusion of lidocaine at 4 mg/min was administered perioperatively as an alternative ‘rescue’ analgesic technique. This infusion rate, based on previous extensive pharmacokinetic studies, is widely considered to be safe. Postoperative pain was lower than expected for the type of surgery. Anecdotal experience suggests that hospital length of stay may also be reduced, with both patient and economic benefits. PMID:18958315

  13. Randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of topical lidocaine gel and intrauterine lidocaine infusion for pain relief during saline contrast sonohysterography.

    PubMed

    Yung, S S F; Lai, S F; Lam, M T; Lee, V C Y; Li, R H W; Ho, P C; Ng, E H Y

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of topical lidocaine gel and intrauterine lidocaine infusion administered prior to saline contrast sonohysterography (SCSH) in reducing pain level during the procedure. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. We recruited 120 women scheduled to undergo SCSH and randomized them into one of three groups according to administration of gel and intrauterine infusion immediately prior to the procedure: (1) the 'lidocaine gel' group received 3 mL 2% lidocaine gel applied to the cervix and intrauterine infusion, using an infant feeding tube without balloon, of 5 mL normal saline; (2) the 'lidocaine infusion' group received 3 mL gel lubricant applied to the cervix and intrauterine infusion of 5 mL 2% lidocaine; (3) the placebo group received 3 mL gel lubricant applied to the cervix and intrauterine infusion of 5 mL normal saline. The tube was left in place for the SCSH procedure. The primary outcome measure was the overall pain level (on a scale of 0-100) reported by the women during the SCSH procedure. Women also rated their pain levels at various other time points and an observer assessed visible signs of the women's discomfort during the procedure, producing a distress score. There were no significant differences among the three groups in baseline characteristics, volume of saline solution infused, tenaculum use and duration and difficulty level of the SCSH procedure. The median (range) pain scores during normal saline infusion for the SCSH procedure were 0 (0-65) in the placebo group, 2.5 (0-80) in the lidocaine gel group, and 0 (0-70) in the lidocaine infusion group. The pain scores at other time points, the overall pain score and the distress score were also comparable for the three groups. No significant adverse events were reported. SCSH performed with an infant feeding tube without balloon is associated with very low pain levels. Topical lidocaine gel application and intrauterine lidocaine infusion do not

  14. Comparative analgesic and sedative effects of tramadol, tramadol-lidocaine and lidocaine for caudal epidural analgesia in donkeys (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Marzok, Mohamed A; El-khodery, Sabry A

    2015-03-01

    To compare anti-nociceptive and sedative effects of tramadol, a combination of tramadol-lidocaine, and lidocaine alone for perineal analgesia in donkeys. Experimental 'blinded' randomized cross-over study. Six healthy adult donkeys. Treatments were tramadol (TR) (1.0 mg kg(-1) ), tramadol-lidocaine (TRLD) (0.5 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) respectively) and lidocaine (LD) (0.4 mg kg(-1) ) given into the epidural space. The volume of all treatments was 0.02 mL kg(-1) . Nociception was tested at the perineal region by pin prick, followed, if no reaction, by pressure from a haemostat clamp. Times to onset, degree and duration of anti-nociception of the perineal region were recorded. Response was tested immediately after drug administration and at: 2, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes post-administration and then at 30 minute intervals thereafter until a response re-occurred. Physiologic data and degree of sedation and ataxia were recorded pre-administration and at intervals for 240 minutes post-administration. Results were analyzed using anova, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Wilks' Lambda test as relevant. Significance was taken as p < 0.05. Times (minutes, mean ± SD) to onset and duration of anti-nociception, respectively were; TR 13 ± 1.6 and 220 ± 4.6; TRLD 6 ± 0.8 and 180 ± 8.5; LD 4 ± 1.4 and 75 ± 4. Onset and duration times were significantly longer with TR than the other two treatments. TR never produced complete anti-nociception, whereas the TRLD and LD induced complete anti-nociceptive effects. Duration was significantly longer with TRLD than with LD alone. Epidural injections of TR and TRLD induced mild sedation. Epidural combination of TRLD produced an anti-nociceptive effect in the perineum, which was rapid in onset and had a longer duration of action than LD alone. An epidural single dose of TRLD combination would appear to provide an acceptable analgesic effect in the perineal region of donkeys. © 2014 Association of Veterinary

  15. Radioprotective Effect of Lidocaine on Function and Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands Receiving Fractionated Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hakim, Samer George; Benedek, Geza Attila; Su Yuxiong; Jacobsen, Hans Christian; Klinger, Matthias; Dendorfer, Andreas; Hemmelmann, Claudia; Meller, Birgit; Nadrowitz, Roger; Rades, Dirk; Sieg, Peter

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation-induced xerostomia still represents a common side effect after radiotherapy for head-and-neck malignancies. The aim of the present study was to examine the radioprotective effect of lidocaine hydrochloride during fractionated radiation in an experimental animal model. Methods and Materials: To evaluate the influence of different radiation doses on salivary gland function and the radioprotective effect of lidocaine, rabbits were irradiated with 15, 25, 30, and 35 Gy (equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions equivalent to 24, 40, 48, and 56 Gy, respectively). Lidocaine hydrochloride (10 and 12 mg/kg) was administered before every radiation fraction in the treatment groups. Salivary gland function was assessed by flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy, and the morphologic changes were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Results: Functional impairment was first observed after 35 Gy and pretreatment with lidocaine improved radiation tolerance of both parotid and submandibular glands. The use of 12 mg/kg lidocaine was superior and displayed significant radioprotection with regard to flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy. The ultrastructure was largely preserved after pretreatment with both lidocaine doses. Conclusions: Lidocaine represents an effective radioprotective agent and a promising approach for clinical application to avoid radiation-induced functional impairment of salivary glands.

  16. Intravenous lipid emulsion given to volunteers does not affect symptoms of lidocaine brain toxicity.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Juho A; Litonius, Erik; Salmi, Tapani; Haasio, Juhani; Tarkkila, Pekka; Backman, Janne T; Rosenberg, Per H

    2015-04-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion has been suggested as treatment for local anaesthetic toxicity, but the exact mechanism of action is still uncertain. Controlled studies on the effect of lipid emulsion on toxic doses of local anaesthetics have not been performed in man. In randomized, subject-blinded and two-phase cross-over fashion, eight healthy volunteers were given a 1.5 ml/kg bolus of 20% Intralipid(®) (200 mg/ml) or Ringer's acetate solution intravenously, followed by a rapid injection of lidocaine 1.0 mg/kg. Then, the same solution as in the bolus was infused at a rate of 0.25 ml/kg/min. for 30 min. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded, and 5 min. after lidocaine injection, the volunteers were asked to report subjective symptoms. Total and un-entrapped lidocaine plasma concentrations were measured from venous blood samples. EEG band power changes (delta, alpha and beta) after the lidocaine bolus were similar during lipid and during Ringer infusion. There were no differences between infusions in the subjective symptoms of central nervous system toxicity. Lidocaine was only minimally entrapped in the plasma by lipid emulsion, but the mean un-entrapped lidocaine area under concentration-time curve from 0 to 30 min. was clearly smaller during lipid than Ringer infusion (16.4 versus 21.3 mg × min/l, p = 0.044). Intravenous lipid emulsion did not influence subjective toxicity symptoms nor affect the EEG changes caused by lidocaine.

  17. Anesthesia with topical lidocaine hydrochloride gauzes in acute traumatic wounds in triage, a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ridderikhof, Milan L; Leenders, Noukje; Goddijn, Helma; Schep, Niels W; Lirk, Philipp; Goslings, J Carel; Hollmann, Markus W

    2016-09-01

    Topical application of lidocaine in wounds has been studied in combination with vasoconstrictive additives, but the effect without these additives is unknown. The objective was to examine use of lidocaine-soaked gauzes without vasoconstrictive agents, in traumatic wounds in adult patients, applied in triage. A prospective pilot study was performed during 6 weeks in the Emergency Department of a level 1 trauma center. Wounds of consecutive adult patients were treated with a nursing protocol, consisting of lidocaine hydrochloride administration directly into the wound and leaving a lidocaine-soaked gauze, until wound treatment. Primary outcome was need for infiltration anesthesia. Secondary outcomes were Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) pain scores, adverse events and patient and physician satisfaction. Forty patients with a traumatic wound were included, 85% male with a wound on the arm. Thirty-seven patients needed a painful procedure as wound treatment. When suturing was necessary, 77% required additional infiltration anesthesia. Mean NRS pain scores decreased from 3.3 to 2.2 after application of the lidocaine gauze. No adverse events were recorded. Of the patients, 60% were satisfied with use of the lidocaine gauzes, compared to 40% of physicians. Lidocaine hydrochloride (2%) gauzes without vasoconstrictive additives cannot replace infiltration anesthesia in traumatic wounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Lidocaine-Loaded Biodegradable Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianming; Lv, Xin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel lidocaine microspheres. Microspheres were prepared by the oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion technique using poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) for the controlled delivery of lidocaine. The average diameter of lidocaine PLGA microspheres was 2.34 ± 0.3 μm. The poly disperse index was 0.21 ± 0.03, and the zeta potential was +0.34 ± 0.02 mV. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of the prepared microspheres were 90.5% ± 4.3% and 11.2% ± 1.4%. In vitro release indicated that the lidocaine microspheres had a well-sustained release efficacy, and in vivo studies showed that the area under the curve of lidocaine in microspheres was 2.02–2.06-fold that of lidocaine injection (p < 0.05). The pharmacodynamics results showed that lidocaine microspheres showed a significant release effect in rats, that the process to achieve efficacy was calm and lasting and that the analgesic effect had a significant dose-dependency. PMID:25268618

  19. Effect of lidocaine with and without epinephrine on lymphatic contractile activity in mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sunkuk; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2016-12-01

    A local anesthetic, lidocaine, is known to affect cutaneous blood flow when injected into the skin. However, it is unknown if dermal lymphatic function can also be affected. Therefore, we characterized lymphatic function in response to administration of lidocaine with and without epinephrine. Non-invasive near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI) with intradermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) was used to characterize the lymphatic "pumping" function in mice after subcutaneous injection of 2 % lidocaine with and without 1:100,000 epinephrine or saline. NIRFI was performed for 10-20 min immediately after and 1, 3, and 5 h after these interventions. Lymphatic contraction frequencies significantly decreased 10 min after subcutaneous injection of lidocaine and remained plateaued for another 5 min, before returning to baseline. However, addition of 1:100,000 epinephrine to 2 % lidocaine rapidly increased lymphatic contraction frequencies at 5 min post-injection, which returned to baseline levels 15 min later. Injection of saline also increased lymphatic contraction frequency 5 min after injection, which returned to baseline 10 min post-injection. Although lidocaine administration showed a decrease in lymphatic function, the combination of epinephrine with lidocaine resulted in a predominant net effect of increased contractile activity.

  20. Intraarticular lidocaine versus intravenous analgesic for reduction of acute anterior shoulder dislocations. A prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Matthews, D E; Roberts, T

    1995-01-01

    We performed a prospective, randomized study to evaluate the use of injected lidocaine as an anesthetic for closed reduction of acute anterior shoulder dislocations. Thirty consecutive patients who presented at the emergency department with acute anterior shoulder dislocations were randomly placed in one of two groups. One group received an intraarticular injection of 20 ml of 1% lidocaine and the other group, intravenous injections of morphine sulfate and midazolam. The groups were compared regarding time of reduction maneuver, difficulty of reduction, subjective pain, complications, and total time spent in the emergency department. The lidocaine provided adequate anesthesia and secondary relief of muscle spasm in 15 of 15 (100%) patients. When compared with the intravenous sedation group, the lidocaine group showed no statistically significant difference in time for reduction maneuver, difficulty of reduction, or subjective pain. The lidocaine group had no complications and had a statistically significant shorter emergency department visit when compared with the intravenous sedation group (mean, 78 minutes versus 186 minutes; P = 0.004). Lidocaine provides excellent anesthesia for patients with uncomplicated anterior shoulder dislocations and can be very beneficial when sedation is contraindicated. Lidocaine injections also proved to be cost effective in our institution, reducing total costs by as much as 62%.

  1. The topical 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in localized neuropathic pain: a reappraisal of the clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    de León-Casasola, Oscar A; Mayoral, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Topical 5% lidocaine medicated plasters represent a well-established first-line option for the treatment of peripheral localized neuropathic pain (LNP). This review provides an updated overview of the clinical evidence (randomized, controlled, and open-label clinical studies, real-life daily clinical practice, and case series). The 5% lidocaine medicated plaster effectively provides pain relief in postherpetic neuralgia, and data from a large open-label controlled study indicate that the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster is as effective as systemic pregabalin in postherpetic neuralgia and painful diabetic polyneuropathy but with an improved tolerability profile. Additionally, improved analgesia and fewer side effects were experienced by patients treated synchronously with the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster, further demonstrating the value of multimodal analgesia in LNP. The 5% lidocaine medicated plaster provides continued benefit after long-term (≤7 years) use and is also effective in various other LNP conditions. Minor application-site reactions are the most common adverse events associated with the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster; there is minimal risk of systemic adverse events and drug-drug interactions. Although further well-controlled studies are warranted, the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster is efficacious and safe in LNP and may have particular clinical benefit in elderly and/or medically compromised patients because of the low incidence of adverse events.

  2. The topical 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in localized neuropathic pain: a reappraisal of the clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    de León-Casasola, Oscar A; Mayoral, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Topical 5% lidocaine medicated plasters represent a well-established first-line option for the treatment of peripheral localized neuropathic pain (LNP). This review provides an updated overview of the clinical evidence (randomized, controlled, and open-label clinical studies, real-life daily clinical practice, and case series). The 5% lidocaine medicated plaster effectively provides pain relief in postherpetic neuralgia, and data from a large open-label controlled study indicate that the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster is as effective as systemic pregabalin in postherpetic neuralgia and painful diabetic polyneuropathy but with an improved tolerability profile. Additionally, improved analgesia and fewer side effects were experienced by patients treated synchronously with the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster, further demonstrating the value of multimodal analgesia in LNP. The 5% lidocaine medicated plaster provides continued benefit after long-term (≤7 years) use and is also effective in various other LNP conditions. Minor application-site reactions are the most common adverse events associated with the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster; there is minimal risk of systemic adverse events and drug–drug interactions. Although further well-controlled studies are warranted, the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster is efficacious and safe in LNP and may have particular clinical benefit in elderly and/or medically compromised patients because of the low incidence of adverse events. PMID:26929664

  3. Effect of skin surface lipid on the skin permeation of lidocaine from pressure sensitive adhesives.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y H; Hosoya, O; Sugibayashi, K; Morimoto, Y

    1994-12-01

    Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) tapes containing different concentrations of lidocaine were prepared by a general casting method using styrene-isoprene-styrene block copolymer, and the in vitro skin permeation of lidocaine from each tape was evaluated using diffusion cell and excised hairless rat skin. The skin permeation was proportionally increased by up to 40% lidocaine in the PSA tape and did not change after this concentration. Although the bending point of the steady-state flux via skin concentration curve was found at 40%, saturated concentration or solubility of lidocaine in the tape was estimated to be about 20% by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement. In addition, the steady-state flux of lidocaine through skin from water or silicone fluid suspension (92 or 120 micrograms/cm2.h, respectively) was very similar to those of 40, 50 and 60% tapes (105, 101 and 112 micrograms/cm2.h, respectively). Decrease in the concentration in tapes during the permeation experiment explained only part of these phenomena. To analyze them further, the drug free PSA tape with or without (control) skin surface lipid was affixed to 50% lidocaine PSA tape for 48 h, and the amount of lidocaine crystal in the layered tapes was measured by DSC. The amount was found to be lower in the lipid-containing tape than in the lipid-free tape, suggesting that skin surface lipid can dissolve lidocaine crystal or solid in PSA tape to decrease its thermodynamic activity. Thus it is important to follow the concentration and thermodynamic activity of lidocaine in PSA tape, skin and the interface between the two layers to exactly assess its skin permeation flux.

  4. Lidocaine carboxymethylcellulose with gelatine co-polymer hydrogel delivery by combined microneedle and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Atul; Babla, Hiten; Han, Tao; Das, Diganta Bhusan

    2016-01-01

    A study that combines microneedles (MNs) and sonophoresis pre-treatment was explored to determine their combined effects on percutaneous delivery of lidocaine from a polymeric hydrogel formulation. Varying ratios of carboxymethylcellulose and gelatine (NaCMC/gel ranges 1:1.60-1:2.66) loaded with lidocaine were prepared and characterized for zeta potential and particle size. Additionally, variations in the formulation drying techniques were explored during the formulation stage. Ex vivo permeation studies using Franz diffusion cells measured lidocaine permeation through porcine skin after pre-treatment with stainless steel MNs and 20 kHz sonophoresis for 5-and 10-min durations. A stable formulation was related to a lower gelatine mass ratio because of smaller mean particle sizes and high zeta potential. Lidocaine permeability in skin revealed some increases in permeability from combined MN and ultrasound pre-treatment studies. Furthermore, up to 4.8-fold increase in the combined application was observed compared with separate pre-treatments after 30 min. Sonophoresis pre-treatment alone showed insignificant enhancement in lidocaine permeation during the initial 2 h period. MN application increased permeability at a time of 0.5 h for up to ∼17 fold with an average up to 4 fold. The time required to reach therapeutic levels of lidocaine was decreased to less than 7 min. Overall, the attempted approach promises to be a viable alternative to conventional lidocaine delivery methods involving painful injections by hypodermic needles. The mass transfer effects were fairly enhanced and the lowest amount of lidocaine in skin was 99.7% of the delivered amount at a time of 3 h for lidocaine NaCMC/GEL 1:2.66 after low-frequency sonophoresis and MN treatment.

  5. Analgesic and systemic effects of xylazine, lidocaine and their combination after subarachnoid administration in goats.

    PubMed

    DeRossi, R; Junqueira, A L; Beretta, M P

    2005-06-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the analgesic and systemic effects of subarachnoid administration of xylazine hydrochloride (XY), lidocaine hydrochloride (LI) and their combination (XYLI) in goats. Six healthy goats were used in a prospective randomised study. Three treatments were administered to each goat, with 1-week intervals between each treatment. Treatments consisted of 0.1 mg/kg xylazine, 2.5 mg/kg lidocaine and a combination of xylazine 0.05 (mg/kg) and lidocaine (1.25 mg/kg). Analgesia, ataxic, sedative, cardiovascular and respiratory effects, and rectal temperature were evaluated before (baseline) and at 5, 10, 15, and 30 min after subarachnoid injection, and then at 30-min intervals until loss of analgesia occurred. Lidocaine induced analgesia in 3.1 +/- 1 min (mean +/- SD), which lasted for 66 +/- 31 min. Heart and respiratory rates and blood pressure remained unchanged after lidocaine-induced analgesia. Xylazine induced analgesia in 9.5 +/- 2.6 min and xylazine-lidocaine in 3.2 +/- 1.2 min. Xylazine-lidocaine-induced analgesia lasted longer (178.3 +/- 37 min) than that induced by xylazine (88.3 +/- 15 min). The XYLI treatment induced prolonged motor blocking (115 min), more than the XY (80 min) and LI (90 min) treatments. Both xylazine and xylazine-lidocaine caused significant decreases in the heart and respiratory rates, but not in blood pressure. The combination of xylazine (0.05 mg/kg) and lidocaine (1.25 mg/kg) can be administered subarachnoidally (between last lumbar vertebra and 1st sacral vertebra) to produce prolonged (> 2.5 h) analgesia of the tail, perineum, hind limbs, flanks and caudodorsal rib areas in goats. Despite the prolonged analgesia, using this combination is desirable for relieving postoperative pain, but it may be a disadvantage due to a motor block when dealing with goats.

  6. Effect of pH modification by bicarbonate on pain after subcutaneous lidocaine injection

    PubMed Central

    Parham, Shelley M.; Pasieka, Janice L.

    1996-01-01

    Objective To quantify the pain experienced on subcutaneous injection of lidocaine, lidocaine with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and saline. Design A double-blind randomized prospective study. Setting A clinical research unit in a university-affiliated hospital. Participants Forty-two healthy adult volunteers who did not have a history of adverse reaction to lidocaine or peripheral neuropathy and were not pregnant. The study was performed in two phases. In Phase 1, 1 mL each of thee solutions (2 mL of 8.4% NaHCO3 in 20 mL 1% lidocaine, 2 mL saline in 20 mL lidocaine and saline alone) were injected by an investigator, blinded as to the identity of the solutions, in random order to five volunteers to measure onset and duration of anesthesia and the perceived pain on injection. In Phase 2, 37 volunteers were injected with the three solutions in random order, by an investigator blinded as to the identity of the solutions. Main Outcome Measure Pain on injection measured with the visual analogue scale. Results There were no clinically significant differences between onset and duration of action of lidocaine with and without NaHCO3, as determined by Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance and the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. Injection of lidocaine with NaHCO3 was significantly less painful than injection of plain lidocaine (p = 0.041). Injection of saline was the most painful. Conclusion The addition of NaHCO3 to lidocaine produces significant reduction in pain experienced on injection without significantly affecting the onset or duration of action. PMID:8599788

  7. Local anesthetic lidocaine inhibits TRPM7 current and TRPM7-mediated zinc toxicity.

    PubMed

    Leng, Tian-Dong; Lin, Jun; Sun, Hua-Wei; Zeng, Zhao; O'Bryant, Zaven; Inoue, Koichi; Xiong, Zhi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Previous study demonstrated that overstimulation of TRPM7 substantially contributes to zinc-mediated neuronal toxicity. Inhibition of TRPM7 activity and TRPM7-mediated intracellular Zn(2+) accumulation may represent a promising strategy in the treatment of stroke. To investigate whether local anesthetics lidocaine could inhibit TRPM7 channel and TRPM7-mediated zinc toxicity. Whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to investigate the effect of local anesthetics on TRPM7 currents in cultured mouse cortical neurons and TRPM7-overexpressed HEK293 cells. Fluorescent Zn(2+) imaging technique was used to study the effect of lidocaine on TRPM7-mediated intracellular Zn(2+) accumulation. TRPM7-mediated zinc toxicity in neurons was used to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of lidocaine. (1) Lidocaine dose dependently inhibits TRPM7-like currents, with an IC50 of 11.55 and 11.06 mM in cultured mouse cortical neurons and TRPM7-overexpressed HEK293 cells, respectively; (2) Lidocaine inhibits TRPM7 currents in a use/frequency-dependent manner; (3) Lidocaine inhibits TRPM7-mediated intracellular Zn(2+) accumulation in both cortical neurons and TRPM7-overexpressed HEK293 cells; (4) TRPM7-mediated Zn(2+) toxicity is ameliorated by lidocaine in cortical neurons; (5) QX-314 has a similar inhibitory effect as lidocaine on TRPM7 currents when applied extracellularly; (6) Procaine also shows potent inhibitory effect on the TRPM7 currents in cortical neurons. Our data provide the first evidence that local anesthetic lidocaine inhibits TRPM7 channel and TRPM7-mediated zinc toxicity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Hemodynamic changes associated with a novel concentration of lidocaine HCl for impacted lower third molar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Bushara; Kiattavorncharoen, Sirichai; Durward, Callum; Im, Puthavy; Saengsirinavin, Chavengkiat

    2015-01-01

    Background The authors studied the hemodynamic effect influent by using the novel high concentration of lidocaine HCl for surgical removal impacted lower third molar. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic change when using different concentrations of lidocaine in impacted lower third molar surgery. Methods Split mouth single blind study comprising 31 healthy patients with a mean age of 23 years (range 19-33 years). Subjects had symmetrically impacted lower third molars as observed on panoramic radiograph. Each participant required 2 surgical interventions by the same surgeon with a 3-week washout period washout period. The participants were alternately assigned one of two types of local anesthetic (left or right) for the first surgery, then the other type of anesthetic for the second surgery. One solution was 4% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and the other was 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. A standard IANB with 1.8 ml volume was used. Any requirement for additional anesthetic and patient pain intra-operation was recorded. Post-operatively, patient was instructed to fill in the patient report form for any adverse effect and local anesthetic preference in terms of intra-operative pain. This form was collected at the seven day follow up appointment. Results In the 4% lidocaine group, the heart rate increased during the first minute post-injection (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant change in arterial blood pressure during the operation. In the 2% lidocaine group, there was a significant increase in arterial blood pressure and heart rate in the first minute following injection for every procedure. When the hemodynamic changes in each group were compared, the 4% lidocaine group had significantly lower arterial blood pressure compared to the 2% lidocaine group following injection. Post-operatively, no adverse effects were observed by the operator and patient in either local anesthetic group. Patients reported less pain

  9. How acidic is the lidocaine we are injecting, and how much bicarbonate should we add?

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Simon G; Lalonde, Donald H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The infiltration of local anesthetics can be painful, which is likely due, in part, to their acidity. In spite of a Cochrane study that recommended neutralizing lidocaine with bicarbonate to decrease the pain of injection, not many surgeons have adopted the practice, and there are many ‘recipes’ for how much bicarbonate one should add. OBJECTIVE: To determine the acidity of lidocaine and the correct ratio of bicarbonate that should be added to neutralize lidocaine to achieve body pH. METHODS: Fifty samples each of commonly used anesthetics (lidocaine 1% and 2%, with and without epinephrine 1:100,000) were obtained and tested for pH. Data were also analyzed according to whether the vials had been previously opened. Ten additional samples of lidocaine 1% with 1:100,000 epinephrine were titrated against sodium bicarbonate 8.4% and tested for pH and the presence of precipitate. RESULTS: A solution of 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine had a mean (± SD) pH of 4.24±0.42, and 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine had a mean pH of 3.93±0.43. Plain 1% lidocaine had a pH of 6.09±0.16, and plain 2% lidocaine had a pH of 6.00±0.27. Epinephrine-containing solutions were more acidic when they had been previously opened. One per cent lidocaine with epinephrine required 8.4% sodium bicarbonate at a ratio of 1.1 mL:10 mL to 1.8 mL:10 mL to achieve the target tissue pH of 7.38 to 7.62. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine with epinephrine was approximately 1000 times more acidic than subcutaneous tissue. The addition of bicarbonate to the local anesthetic solution is simple to perform and is inexpensive. The proper volume ratio of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate to 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine is approximately 1 mL:10 mL. Surgeons should be more aware of the simplicity and value of buffering with bicarbonate to decrease the pain of injection. PMID:23730153

  10. How lidocaine influences the bilayer thickness and bending elasticity of biomembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zheng; Nagao, Michihiro; Bossev, Dobrin P.

    2010-11-01

    We have studied how local anesthetics influence the structural and dynamical properties of model bio-membranes. The measurements of small-angle neutron scattering have been performed on 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) unilamellar vesicles with different concentrations of lidocaine in D2O to determine the bilayer thickness as a function of the lidocaine concentration. The neutron-spin echo spectroscopy (NSE) has been used to study the influence of lidocaine on the bending elasticity of DMPC bilayers in fluid crystal phase (Lα) and the ripple gel (Pβ') phase.

  11. Efficacy of Intravenous Lidocaine During Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Gastric Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Eun; Choi, Jong Bum; Koo, Bon-Nyeo; Jeong, Hae Won; Lee, Byung Ho; Kim, So Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an advanced therapy for early gastric neoplasm and requires sedation with adequate analgesia. Lidocaine is a short-acting local anesthetic, and intravenous lidocaine has been shown to have analgesic efficacy in surgical settings. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of intravenous lidocaine on analgesic and sedative requirements for ESD and pain after ESD. Sixty-six patients scheduled for ESD randomly received either intravenous lidocaine as a bolus of 1.5 mg/kg before sedation, followed by continuous infusion at a rate of 2 mg/kg/h during sedation (lidocaine group; n = 33) or the same bolus and infusion volumes of normal saline (control group; n = 33). Sedation was achieved with propofol and fentanyl. The primary outcome was fentanyl requirement during ESD. We recorded hemodynamics and any events during ESD and evaluated post-ESD epigastric and throat pain. Fentanyl requirement during ESD reduced by 24% in the lidocaine group compared with the control group (105 ± 28 vs. 138 ± 37 μg, mean ± SD; P < 0.001). The lidocaine group reached sedation faster [40 (20–100) vs. 55 (30–120) s, median (range); P = 0.001], and incidence of patient movement during ESD decreased in the lidocaine group (3% vs. 26%, P = 0.026). Numerical rating scale for epigastric pain was significantly lower at 6 hours after ESD [2 (0–6) vs. 3 (0–8), median (range); P = 0.023] and incidence of throat pain was significantly lower in the lidocaine group (27% vs. 65%, P = 0.003). No adverse events associated with lidocaine were discovered. Administration of intravenous lidocaine reduced fentanyl requirement and decreased patient movement during ESD. Moreover, it alleviated epigastric and throat pain after ESD. Thus, we conclude that the use of intravenous adjuvant lidocaine is a new and safe sedative method during ESD. PMID:27149489

  12. Descriptive analysis of Medicaid patients with postherpetic neuralgia treated with lidocaine patch 5%.

    PubMed

    Kirson, Noam Y; Ivanova, Jasmina I; Birnbaum, Howard G; Wei, Robert; Kantor, Evan; Amy Puenpatom, R; Ben-Joseph, Rami H; Summers, Kent H

    2010-01-01

    To compare demographic and comorbidity profiles and healthcare costs of Medicaid patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) treated with lidocaine patch 5% (lidocaine patch) versus patients not treated with the lidocaine patch. Repeat comparison for the subset of patients treated in long-term care (LTC) settings. Patients, age≥18 years, with PHN diagnosis, or PHN-likely patients with herpes zoster diagnosis and ≥30 days of PHN-recommended treatment, were identified in Medicaid claims from Florida, Iowa, Missouri, and New Jersey (1999-2007). Patients had continuous eligibility 6 months before (baseline) and 12 months after (study period) the PHN index date. Patients with ≥1 claim for a lidocaine patch during the study period (n=872) were compared to patients without a lidocaine patch claim (comparison group). Baseline characteristics, study period treatment and healthcare costs (reimbursements by Medicaid for medical services and prescription drugs) were compared between groups using univariate analyses. PHN patients in the lidocaine patch group were older (64.5 vs. 62.2 years; p=0.002) and had higher rates of pain-related comorbidities (e.g., back/neck pain, osteoarthritis) than comparison patients. Average PHN-related drug costs per patient were higher ($1994 vs. 1137; p<0.0001) among lidocaine patch patients, with lidocaine patch accounting for $505 of the difference. PHN-related medical costs appeared lower in the lidocaine patch group, although not statistically significant ($983 vs. 1294; p=0.1348). No significant differences were found in total healthcare costs ($20,175 vs. 19,124; p=0.3720) across groups, despite higher total prescription drug costs among lidocaine patch patients. A similar pattern was observed among LTC patients. Despite higher rates of comorbidities and prescription drug costs, lidocaine patch patients had similar study period healthcare costs as comparison patients. The cost of the lidocaine patch represented a small fraction of

  13. Despite Differences in Cytosolic Calcium Regulation, Lidocaine Toxicity Is Similar in Adult and Neonatal Rat Dorsal Root Ganglia in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Lisa V.; Eydlin, Olga; Piskoun, Boris; Kline, Richard P; Recio-Pinto, Esperanza; Rosenberg, Andrew D; Blanck, Thomas JJ; Xu, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Neuraxial local anesthetics may have neurological complications thought to be due to neurotoxicity. A primary site of action for local anesthetics is the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neuron. Physiologic differences have been noted between young and adult DRG neurons; hence, we examined whether there were differences in lidocaine-induced changes in calcium and lidocaine toxicity in neonatal and adult rat DRG neurons. Methods DRG neurons were cultured from postnatal day 7 (P7) and adult rats. Lidocaine-induced changes in cytosolic calcium were examined with the calcium indicator Fluo-4. Cells were incubated with varying concentrations of lidocaine and examined for viability using calcein AM and ethidium homodimer-1 staining. Live imaging of caspase-3/7 activation was performed after incubation with lidocaine. Results The mean KCl-induced calcium transient was greater in P7 neurons (p < 0.05), and lidocaine significantly inhibited KCl-induced calcium responses in both ages (p < 0.05). Frequency distribution histograms of KCl-evoked calcium increases were more heterogeneous in P7 than in adult neurons. With lidocaine, KCl-induced calcium transients in both ages became more homogeneous but remained different between the groups. Interestingly cell viability was decreased by lidocaine in a dose-dependent manner similarly in both ages. Lidocaine treatment also activated caspase-3/7 in a dose- and time-dependent manner similarly in both ages. Conclusions Despite physiological differences in P7 and adult DRG neurons, lidocaine cytotoxicity is similar in P7 and adult DRG neurons in vitro. Differences in lidocaine- and KCl-evoked calcium responses suggest the similarity in lidocaine cytotoxicity involves other actions in addition to lidocaine-evoked effects on cytosolic calcium responses. PMID:23851347

  14. First-time success with needle procedures was higher with a warm lidocaine and tetracaine patch than an eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine cream.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Giorgio; Borrometi, Fabio; Benini, Franca; Neri, Elena; Rusalen, Francesca; Celentano, Loredana; Zanon, Davide; Schreiber, Silvana; Ronfani, Luca; Barbi, Egidio

    2017-05-01

    More than 50% of children report apian during venepuncture or intravenous cannulation and using local anaesthetics before needle procedures can lead to different success rates. This study examined how many needle procedures were successful at the first attempt when children received either a warm lidocaine and tetracaine patch or an eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) cream. We conducted this multicentre randomised controlled trial at three tertiary-level children's hospitals in Italy in 2015. Children aged three to 10 years were enrolled in an emergency department, paediatric day hospital and paediatric ward and randomly allocated to receive a warm lidocaine and tetracaine patch or EMLA cream. The primary outcome was the success rate at the first attempt. The analysis included 172 children who received a warm lidocaine and tetracaine patch and 167 who received an EMLA cream. The needle procedure was successful at the first attempt in 158 children (92.4%) who received the warm patch and in 142 children (85.0%) who received the cream (p = 0.03). The pain scores were similar in both groups. This study showed that the first-time needle procedure success was 7.4% higher in children receiving a warm lidocaine and tetracaine patch than EMLA cream. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Intratesticular lidocaine reduces the response to surgical castration in dogs.

    PubMed

    Huuskonen, Vilhelmiina; Hughes, J M Lynne; Estaca Bañon, Elisa; West, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether intratesticular injection of lidocaine pre-surgery would reduce the intraoperative responses to elective castration in dogs. Double-blinded, randomized, controlled, prospective clinical study. Forty-two client-owned dogs weighing 2.2-38.4 kg and aged between 4.5 and 56 months. Group L dogs received an intratesticular injection of 2% lidocaine (2 mg kg(-1)) and Group S an identical volume of saline prior to surgery. Premedication was with acepromazine and morphine intramuscularly. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol intravenously and maintained with isoflurane vaporized in oxygen. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), respiratory rate (f(R)), end-tidal isoflurane (Fe'ISO) and carbon dioxide concentrations, oxygen saturation and ECG were monitored during surgery. Fe'ISO was maintained at 1.0±0.1%. Supplemental propofol was given in response to gross movement. Group L had significantly lower maximum values for both HR and MAP. Group L displayed significantly smaller increases in HR during exteriorization of the first testis than Group S. There was an overall significant difference in MAP between groups during all surgical events (p=0.041) and time points (p=0.002). In univariate analysis, Group L showed significantly less changes in MAP during skin incision, exteriorization of the first testis and clamping of both spermatic cords. Group S reached its highest f(R) significantly earlier. Group L (eight dogs) required additional propofol 33±18 minutes after the start of surgery and Group S (seven dogs) at 19±17 minutes; this difference was not statistically significant. Seven dogs in Group L and 12 dogs in Group S required rescue analgesia with morphine (GCMPS-SF score ≥6); this difference was not statistically significant. No adverse effects were reported postoperatively. Based on this study, the authors recommend the use of intratesticular lidocaine for surgical castration in dogs. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and

  16. Lidocaine transport through a cellophane membrane by alternating current iontophoresis with a duty cycle.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shizuka; Ogami, Saori; Shibaji, Takao; Umino, Masahiro

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether lidocaine can be efficiently transported across a cellophane membrane using a square-wave alternating current (AC) with an adjusted duty cycle. Three voltages at 1 kHz with 6 duty cycles were applied for 60 min to the diffusion cells on both sides of the cellophane membrane. The donor chamber was filled with 1% lidocaine hydrochloride solution. The transport of lidocaine was enhanced in a voltage-, and duty cycle-dependent manner. These findings indicate that voltage and the direct current (DC) component of the square-wave AC play important roles in generating the driving force necessary for lidocaine delivery. Additionally, the periodic polarity alteration could reduce the electrode polarization. The higher voltages and duty cycles induced a pH change. The practical electrical conditions which are preferable for clinical application were 10 V with a 70% duty cycle or 20 V with a 60% duty cycle.

  17. Lidocaine Impairs Proliferative and Biosynthetic Functions of Aged Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bentov, Itay; Damodarasamy, Mamatha; Spiekerman, Charles; Reed, May J

    2016-09-01

    The aged are at increased risk of postoperative wound healing complications. Because local anesthetics are infiltrated commonly into the dermis of surgical wounds, we sought to determine whether local anesthetics adversely affect proliferative and biosynthetic functions of dermal fibroblasts. We also evaluated the effect of local anesthetics on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), growth factors that are important regulators of wound healing. Human dermal fibroblasts (HFB) from aged and young donors were exposed to local anesthetic agents at clinically relevant concentrations. We screened the effects of lidocaine, bupivacaine, mepivacaine, and ropivacaine on proliferation of HFB. Lidocaine was most detrimental to proliferation in HFB. We then evaluated the effect of lidocaine on expression and function of the growth factors, IGF-1 and TGF-β1. Lastly, concurrent exposure to lidocaine and IGF-1 or TGF-β1 was evaluated for their effects on proliferation and expression of dermal collagens, respectively. Lidocaine and mepivacaine inhibited proliferation in aged HFB (for lidocaine 88% of control, 95% confidence interval [CI], 80%-98%, P = .009 and for mepivacaine 90% of control, 95% CI, 81%-99%, P = .032) but not in young HFB. Ropivacaine and bupivacaine did not inhibit proliferation. Because of the clinical utility of lidocaine relative to mepivacaine, we focused on lidocaine. Lidocaine decreased proliferation in aged HFB, which was abrogated by IGF-1. Lidocaine inhibited transcripts for IGF-1 and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) in fibroblasts from aged donors (IGF-1, log2 fold-change -1.25 [42% of control, 95% CI, 19%-92%, P = .035] and IGF1R, log2 fold-change -1.00 [50% of control, 95% CI, 31%-81%, P = .014]). In contrast, lidocaine did not affect the expression of IGF-1 or IGF1R transcripts in the young HFB. Transcripts for collagen III were decreased after lidocaine exposure in aged and young HFB (log2

  18. [Patient's experience of topical anesthesia by lidocaine vaginal gel for oocyte retrieval].

    PubMed

    Guillaume, A; Schuller-Dufour, E; Faitot, V; Pirrello, O; Rongières, C; Ohl, J; Nisand, I; Bettahar, K

    2016-10-01

    A recent adverse effect of a paracervical block (cardiac arrest) occurred during an oocyte retrieval (OR), forcing us to reconsider our pain management during OR. Since then, we decided to use intravaginal lidocaine gel as analgesia during OR.

  19. Severe methemoglobinemia caused by continuous lidocaine infusion in a term neonate.

    PubMed

    Bohnhorst, Bettina; Hartmann, Hans; Lange, Matthias

    2016-12-28

    Neonates and young infants are especially prone to develop drug-induced methemoglobinemia. Therefore, lidocaine is not licensed as local anesthetic in children below the age of 3 months. However, its systemic use is advocated for neonatal seizures. Cardiac arrhythmia has been reported as sole major side effect. Here we report a case of severe methemoglobinemia caused by continuous infusion of lidocaine in a term neonate with neonatal seizures. The increase of methemoglobin up to 13.8% was accompanied by hypoxemia and cyanosis, necessitating additional inspired oxygen and CPAP ventilation. After stopping lidocaine infusion methemoglobin levels fell and the neonate could be weaned from ventilation. Neonates treated with lidocaine for seizures must be monitored for the occurrence of methemoglobinemia.

  20. Involvement of brain serotonergic function in lidocaine-induced convulsions in mice.

    PubMed

    Endo, K; Morita, K; Uchiyama, Y; Takada, K; Tsujimoto, A; Dohi, T

    1993-07-01

    Influences of drug-induced manipulations of central serotonergic function on lidocaine- and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsions were examined in mice. Agents that suppressed serotonergic transmission increased, whereas drugs that facilitated serotonin (5-HT) function decreased the incidence of lidocaine-induced convulsions. These treatments had similar influences on the incidence of PTZ-induced convulsions. Lidocaine (10(-5)-10(-3) M) reduced the stimulation evoked [3H]5-HT release from cortical slices, followed with an increased spontaneous [3H] overflow at higher concentrations. These results may suggest that brain 5-HT neurons are causally involved as inhibitory neurons in lidocaine-induced convulsions as in the case of PTZ-induced convulsions.

  1. Submucous infiltration of betamethasone and lidocaine in the treatment of vulvar vestibulitis.

    PubMed

    Segal, David; Tifheret, Hemda; Lazer, Simcha

    2003-03-26

    We present a case of persistent vulvar vestibulitis treated for several years unsuccessfully that has come to an end using a six week course of submucous infiltration of betamethasone and lidocaine in the vestibular area.

  2. Decreased cocaine- and lidocaine-induced seizure response by dextromethorphan and DNQX in rat.

    PubMed

    Barat, S A; Abdel-Rahman, M S

    1997-05-09

    The present study investigated the effect of dextromethorphan and 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) pre-treatment on the development of cocaine- and lidocaine-induced seizures. The dopaminergic action of cocaine was also studied. The NMDA antagonist dextromethorphan and the non-NMDA (AMPA/kainate) antagonist DNQX both significantly decreased the intensity of the seizure response to intravenous convulsant doses of cocaine and lidocaine individually (20 mg/kg) and in combination (5 mg/kg each). The incidence of seizures in rats receiving cocaine or lidocaine individually was significantly reduced by pre-treatment with dextromethorphan but not DNQX. Haloperidol did not have an effect on the incidence or intensity of seizures induced by cocaine or lidocaine, alone or in combination. The results suggest that local anesthetic-induced convulsive seizures are mediated by excitatory glutamate transmission through both NMDA and non-NMDA receptor systems.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of lidocaine with epinephrine following local anesthesia reversal with phentolamine mesylate.

    PubMed

    Moore, Paul A; Hersh, Elliot V; Papas, Athena S; Goodson, J Max; Yagiela, John A; Rutherford, Bruce; Rogy, Seigried; Navalta, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Phentolamine mesylate accelerates recovery from oral soft tissue anesthesia in patients who have received local anesthetic injections containing a vasoconstrictor. The proposed mechanism is that phentolamine, an alpha-adrenergic antagonist, blocks the vasoconstriction associated with the epinephrine used in dental anesthetic formulations, thus enhancing the systemic absorption of the local anesthetic from the injection site. Assessments of the pharmacokinetics of lidocaine and phentolamine, and the impact of phentolamine on the pharmacokinetics of lidocaine with epinephrine were performed to characterize this potentially valuable strategy. The blood levels of phentolamine were determined following its administration intraorally and intravenously. Additionally, the effects of phentolamine mesylate on the pharmacokinetics of intraoral injections of lidocaine with epinephrine were evaluated. Sixteen subjects were enrolled in this phase 1 trial, each receiving 4 drug treatments: 1 cartridge lidocaine/epinephrine followed after 30 minutes by 1 cartridge phentolamine (1L1P), 1 cartridge phentolamine administered intravenously (1Piv), 4 cartridges lidocaine/epinephrine followed after 30 minutes by 2 cartridges phentolamine (4L2P), and 4 cartridges lidocaine/epinephrine followed by no phentolamine (4L). Pharmacokinetic parameters estimated for phentolamine, lidocaine, and epinephrine included peak plasma concentration (Cmax), time to peak plasma concentration (Tmax), area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to the last time point (AUClast) or from time 0 to infinity (AUCinf), elimination half-life (t1/2), clearance (CL), and volume of distribution (Vd). The phentolamine Tmax occurred earlier following the intravenous administration of 1Piv (7 minutes than following its submucosal administration in treatment 1L1P (15 minutes) or 4L2P (11 minutes). The phentolamine t1/2, CL, and Vd values were similar for 1L1P, 1Piv, and 4L2P. The Tmax for lidocaine occurred

  4. Pharmacokinetics of Lidocaine With Epinephrine Following Local Anesthesia Reversal With Phentolamine Mesylate

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Paul A; Hersh, Elliot V; Papas, Athena S; Goodson, J. Max; Yagiela, John A; Rutherford, Bruce; Rogy, Seigried; Navalta, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Phentolamine mesylate accelerates recovery from oral soft tissue anesthesia in patients who have received local anesthetic injections containing a vasoconstrictor. The proposed mechanism is that phentolamine, an alpha-adrenergic antagonist, blocks the vasoconstriction associated with the epinephrine used in dental anesthetic formulations, thus enhancing the systemic absorption of the local anesthetic from the injection site. Assessments of the pharmacokinetics of lidocaine and phentolamine, and the impact of phentolamine on the pharmacokinetics of lidocaine with epinephrine were performed to characterize this potentially valuable strategy. The blood levels of phentolamine were determined following its administration intraorally and intravenously. Additionally, the effects of phentolamine mesylate on the pharmacokinetics of intraoral injections of lidocaine with epinephrine were evaluated. Sixteen subjects were enrolled in this phase 1 trial, each receiving 4 drug treatments: 1 cartridge lidocaine/epinephrine followed after 30 minutes by 1 cartridge phentolamine (1L1P), 1 cartridge phentolamine administered intravenously (1Piv), 4 cartridges lidocaine/epinephrine followed after 30 minutes by 2 cartridges phentolamine (4L2P), and 4 cartridges lidocaine/epinephrine followed by no phentolamine (4L). Pharmacokinetic parameters estimated for phentolamine, lidocaine, and epinephrine included peak plasma concentration (Cmax), time to peak plasma concentration (Tmax), area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to the last time point (AUClast) or from time 0 to infinity (AUCinf), elimination half-life (t1/2), clearance (CL), and volume of distribution (Vd). The phentolamine Tmax occurred earlier following the intravenous administration of 1Piv (7 minutes than following its submucosal administration in treatment 1L1P (15 minutes) or 4L2P (11 minutes). The phentolamine t1/2, CL, and Vd values were similar for 1L1P, 1Piv, and 4L2P. The Tmax for lidocaine occurred

  5. Cardiovascular tolerance of intravenous lidocaine in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) anesthetized with isoflurane.

    PubMed

    Brandão, João; da Cunha, Anderson F; Pypendop, Bruno; Stout, Rhett; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2015-07-01

    To determine the cardiovascular effects of lidocaine infused intravenously (IV) in broiler chickens. Two phase study: Phase 1, randomized up-and-down study to determine effective dose 50 (ED50) for lidocaine; Phase 2, prospective randomized study to determine the cardiovascular effects of lidocaine. Seventeen Ross-708 broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) [11 chickens (Phase 1) and 6 chickens (Phase 2)], weighing 2.6-4.3 kg. After induction of anesthesia with isoflurane and placement of monitoring equipment including invasive blood pressure, chickens were administered lidocaine IV. During Phase 1, using an up-and-down design, each animal received a variable dose selected based on the response of the previous animal. During Phase 2, each animal was administered 6 mg kg(-1) of lidocaine IV over 2 minutes. Clinically irrelevant cardiovascular effects were defined as a relative decrease of heart rate (HR) and mean blood pressure (MAP) <30% subsequent to IV lidocaine administration. The ED50 was defined as the dose rate that would cause clinically irrelevant cardiovascular depression in 50% of the population. During Phase 1, using an up-and-down study design (n = 11), the ED50 of lidocaine was determined to be 6.30 mg kg(-1) and 6.22 mg kg(-1) (95% confidence interval, 5.30-7.13 mg kg(-1)), when calculated by Dixon's up-and-down method, and logistic regression, respectively. During Phase 2, following infusion of lidocaine (6 mg kg(-1)), no clinically relevant effects on HR or MAP were detected in any animal. Previous reports state that the dose of lidocaine used in birds should be ≤4 mg kg(-1). In this study, 6 mg kg(-1) of lidocaine injected IV was not associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. These results suggest that the dose of 4 mg kg(-1) can be exceeded, at least in chickens, and opens the possibility of other therapeutic uses for lidocaine in birds. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia

  6. Lidocaine for systemic sclerosis: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma; SSc) is an orphan disease with the highest case-specific mortality of any connective-tissue disease. Excessive collagen deposit in affected tissues is a key for the disease's pathogenesis and comprises most of the clinical manifestations. Lidocaine seems to be an alternative treatment for scleroderma considering that: a) the patient's having excessive collagen deposits in tissues affected by scleroderma; b) the patient's demonstrating increased activity of the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase, an essential enzyme for the biosynthesis of collagen; and c) lidocaine's reducing the activity of prolyl hydroxylase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lidocaine in treating scleroderma. Methods A randomized double-blind clinical trial included 24 patients with scleroderma randomized to receive lidocaine or placebo intravenously in three cycles of ten days each, with a one-month interval between them. Outcomes: cutaneous (modified Rodnan skin score), oesophageal (manometry) and microvascular improvement (nailfold capillaroscopy); improvement in subjective self-assessment and in quality of life (HAQ). Results There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for any outcome after the treatment and after 6-months follow-up. Improvement in modified Rodnan skin score occurred in 66.7% and 50% of placebo and lidocaine group, respectively (p = 0.408). Both groups showed an improvement in subjective self-assessment, with no difference between them. Conclusions Despite the findings of a previous cohort study favouring the use of lidocaine, this study demonstrated that lidocaine at this dosage and means of administration showed a lack of efficacy for treating scleroderma despite the absence of significant adverse effects. However, further similar clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of lidocaine when administered in different dosages and by other means. PMID:21299861

  7. Lidocaine Stimulates the Function of Natural Killer Cells in Different Experimental Settings.

    PubMed

    Cata, Juan P; Ramirez, Maria F; Velasquez, Jose F; Di, A I; Popat, Keyuri U; Gottumukkala, Vijaya; Black, Dahlia M; Lewis, Valerae O; Vauthey, Jean N

    2017-09-01

    One of the functions of natural killer (NK) cells is to eliminate cancer cells. The cytolytic activity of NK cells is tightly regulated by inhibitory and activation receptors located in the surface membrane. Lidocaine stimulates the function of NK cells at clinically relevant concentrations. It remains unknown whether this effect of lidocaine has an impact on the expression of surface receptors of NK cells, can uniformly stimulate across different cancer cell lines, and enhances the function of cells obtained during oncological surgery. NK cells from healthy donors and 43 patients who had undergone surgery for cancer were isolated. The function of NK cells was measured by lactate dehydrogenase release assay. NK cells were incubated with clinically relevant concentrations of lidocaine. By flow cytometry, we determined the impact of lidocaine on the expression of galactosylgalactosylxylosylprotein3-beta-glucuronosytranferase 1, marker of cell maturation (CD57), killer cell lectin like receptor A, inhibitory (NKG2A) receptors and killer cell lectin like receptor D, activation (NKG2D) receptors of NK cells. Differences in expression at p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Lidocaine increased the expression of NKG2D receptors and stimulated the function of NK cells against ovarian, pancreatic and ovarian cancer cell lines. Lidocaine also increased the cytolytic activity of NK cells from patients who underwent oncological surgery, except for those who had orthopedic procedures. Lidocaine showed an important stimulatory activity on NK cells. Our findings suggest that lidocaine might be used perioperatively to minimize the impact of surgery on NK cells. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. [Intravenous lidocaine for post-mastectomy pain treatment: randomized, blind, placebo controlled clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Couceiro, Tania Cursino de Menezes; Lima, Luciana Cavalcanti; Burle, Léa Menezes Couceiro; Valença, Marcelo Moraes

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative pain treatment in mastectomy remains a major challenge despite the multimodal approach. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effect of intravenous lidocaine in patients undergoing mastectomy, as well as the postoperative consumption of opioids. After approval by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira in Recife, Pernambuco, a randomized, blind, controlled trial was conducted with intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3 mg/kg infused over one hour in 45 women undergoing mastectomy under general anesthesia. One patient from placebo group was Groups were similar in age, body mass index, type of surgery, and postoperative need for opioids. Two of 22 patients in lidocaine group and three of 22 patients in placebo group requested opioid (p=0.50). Pain on awakening was identified in 4/22 of lidocaine group and 5/22 of placebo group (p=0.50); in the post-anesthetic recovery room in 14/22 and 12/22 (p=0.37) of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively. Pain evaluation 24hours after surgery showed that 2/22 and 3/22 patients (p=0.50) of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively, complained of pain. Intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3 mg/kg administered over a period of an hour during mastectomy did not promote additional analgesia compared to placebo in the first 24hours, and has not decreased opioid consumption. However, a beneficial effect of intravenous lidocaine in selected and/or other therapeutic regimens patients can not be ruled out. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Intravenous lidocaine for postmastectomy pain treatment: randomized, blind, placebo controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Couceiro, Tania Cursino de Menezes; Lima, Luciana Cavalcanti; Burle, Léa Menezes Couceiro; Valença, Marcelo Moraes

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative pain treatment in mastectomy remains a major challenge despite the multimodal approach. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effect of intravenous lidocaine in patients undergoing mastectomy, as well as the postoperative consumption of opioids. After approval by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira in Recife, Pernambuco, a randomized, blind, controlled trial was conducted with intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3mg/kg infused over 1h in 45 women undergoing mastectomy under general anesthesia. One patient from placebo group was. Groups were similar in age, body mass index, type of surgery, and postoperative need for opioids. Two of 22 patients in lidocaine group and three of 22 patients in placebo group requested opioid (p=0.50). Pain on awakening was identified in 4/22 of lidocaine group and 5/22 of placebo group (p=0.50); in the post-anesthetic recovery room in 14/22 and 12/22 (p=0.37) of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively. Pain evaluation 24h after surgery showed that 2/22 and 3/22 patients (p=0.50) of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively, complained of pain. Intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3mg/kg administered over a period of an hour during mastectomy did not promote additional analgesia compared to placebo in the first 24h, and has not decreased opioid consumption. However, a beneficial effect of intravenous lidocaine in selected and/or other therapeutic regimens patients cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Vapocoolant Spray Versus Lidocaine Infiltration for Radial Artery Cannulation: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Rüsch, Dirk; Koch, Tilo; Seel, Florian; Eberhart, Leopold

    2017-02-01

    Local infiltration with lidocaine is a frequently used measure to prevent pain during arterial cannulation. Its administration is associated with pain. Vapocoolants like ethyl chloride or alkanes also affect rapid-onset anesthesia. However, their administration causes less discomfort compared with administration of lidocaine. The effectiveness of vapocoolants in mitigating discomfort associated with arterial cannulation never has been studied. The authors therefore compared vapocoolant with lidocaine for reducing discomfort caused by arterial cannulation. Prospective, randomized, controlled study. University hospital, single center. One hundred sixty adult patients requiring arterial cannulation before induction of general anesthesia for cardiac surgery or carotid endarterectomy. Patients received either lidocaine infiltration or vapocoolant spray prior to arterial cannulation. Overall discomfort resulting from the whole procedure (applying local/topical anesthesia followed by arterial puncture) was rated on a 0 to 10 numerical rating scale. Puncture failure rate and time required for the intervention also were recorded. One hundred forty-three patients were included in the per-protocol analysis. Mean pain scores in the vapocoolant group were 3.4 (±1.58) compared with 4.5 (±2.29) in the lidocaine group (difference 1.1±0.33; p = 0.032; Mann-Whitney U-test). The higher puncture failure rate in the lidocaine group (n = 11 v 4) was not significant (p = 0.06; Fisher's exact test). The time required for the intervention was longer in the lidocaine group (138±44 s v 128±44 s; p = 0.019; Mann-Whitney U-test). Vapocoolant spray is an alternative to lidocaine infiltration to mitigate discomfort associated with arterial cannulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibacterial properties of 2% lidocaine and reduced rate of endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection.

    PubMed

    Tustin, Aaron; Kim, Stephen J; Chomsky, Amy; Hubbard, G Baker; Sheng, Jinsong

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether the application of subconjunctival 2% lidocaine/0.1% methylparaben for anesthesia may reduce rates of endophthalmitis after intravitreal (IVT) injection. We performed in vitro experiments to determine the antibacterial properties of 2% lidocaine/0.1% methylparaben (lidocaine) against causative organisms of endophthalmitis. Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus viridans from patients with endophthalmitis were incubated with or without lidocaine. Aliquots (100 µL) were plated on Mueller-Hinton (S. aureus and S. epidermidis) or blood agar plates (S. viridans) at 0, 10, 30, 120, and 240 minutes, and colonies were counted after 24 hours. A retrospective review of 15,042 IVT injections was performed from January 2004 to February 2011 to determine the rate of endophthalmitis with or without application of subconjunctival lidocaine for anesthesia. Lidocaine demonstrated rapid bactericidal effects against all 3 organisms. After 10 minutes of exposure, there was approximately a 90% (P < 0.01), 95% (P < 0.001), and 92% (P < 0.001) reduction in colony forming units when compared with time 0 for S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. viridans, respectively. Complete elimination of colony forming units occurred at subsequent time points for each organism in contrast to logarithmic increase for control plates. There were a total of 0 cases of endophthalmitis of 6,853 IVT injections performed with subconjunctival lidocaine and 8 cases of endophthalmitis of 8,189 (0.1%) IVT injections performed with other methods of anesthesia (P = 0.03). Application of subconjunctival 2% lidocaine/0.1% methylparaben for anesthesia may reduce the incidence of endophthalmitis after IVT injection.

  12. Reversal of the electrocardiographic effects of cocaine by lidocaine. Part 2. Concentration-effect relationships.

    PubMed

    Grawe, J J; Hariman, R J; Winecoff, A P; Fischer, J H; Bauman, J L

    1994-01-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias due to cocaine may be related to its ability to slow ventricular conduction or prolong repolarization. We previously showed that lidocaine reversed QRS prolongation due to cocaine. The purposes of these experiments were to characterize cocaine's concentration-effect relationship on both ventricular conduction and repolarization, and to determine the effects of lidocaine on these relationships. The effects of lidocaine on cocaine-induced electrocardiographic changes were studied in 20 isolated, Tyrode-perfused guinea pig hearts. Variables at cocaine concentrations ranging from 3-195 microM were measured and repeated in the presence of a fixed concentration of lidocaine 30 microM. Using nonlinear regression analysis, the sigmoid Emax and simple Emax models were fit to cocaine concentration versus percentage change in QRS plots. Measures of best fit indicated that this relationship was best described by the sigmoid Emax model. Compared with cocaine alone, the curve for cocaine with lidocaine showed a greater EC50 (concentration at 50% of maximum effect) (59 vs 100 microM) but similar Emax (371 vs 367%), consistent with competition. Similar values were obtained from the linear transformation of the data. Cocaine concentration versus percentage change in the JTc interval showed a biphasic effect: concentrations below 65 microM prolonged JTc, but those above 65 microM had no effect or decreased JTc. In contrast to changes in QRS, addition of lidocaine increased the effects of cocaine on JTc: area under the concentration-effect curve for cocaine alone was 720 versus 859 microM% for cocaine with lidocaine. Lidocaine reverses cocaine-induced slowed ventricular conduction through competition for binding, but it appeared to increase cocaine-induced prolongation of repolarization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Topical pain management with the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster--a review.

    PubMed

    Mick, Gérard; Correa-Illanes, Gerardo

    2012-06-01

    The topical 5% lidocaine medicated plaster is recommended as first-line treatment for localized peripheral neuropathic pain. In order to provide an overview of the efficacy and safety of the lidocaine plaster in the treatment of different neuropathic pain conditions, all efficacy and safety studies (randomized, controlled, or open-label with well described methodology), case reports, and pharmacological studies on the lidocaine plaster retrieved from a PubMed literature research (1960-March 2012) plus additional references identified from retrieved articles were included. The lidocaine plaster is efficacious in the treatment of neuropathic pain symptoms associated with previous herpes zoster infection. Results from a large open-label controlled study suggest that the lidocaine plaster could be at least as effective as systemic pregabalin in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia and painful diabetic polyneuropathy. Open-label studies indicate efficacy in the treatment of other localized neuropathic pain conditions, such as painful idiopathic sensory polyneuropathy, complex regional pain syndrome, carpal tunnel syndrome sequelae, postsurgical and posttraumatic pain. Quality of life markedly improved in a variety of neuropathic pain conditions and long-term treatment provided sustained relief in patients with neuropathic pain who are responsive to lidocaine plaster. The lidocaine plaster is usually well tolerated. The risk of systemic adverse events and pharmacokinetic interactions with concomitant medication is minimal owing to low systemic exposure. Treatment of several, primarily neuropathic and mixed-pain conditions with the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster was found efficacious and safe. Further controlled studies, in particular where only small open-label studies or case reports are available, should be considered.

  14. Injectable microparticle-gel system for prolonged and localized lidocaine release. I. In vitro characterization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pen-Chung; Park, Yoon Jeong; Chang, Li-Chien; Kohane, Daniel S; Bartlett, Robert H; Langer, Robert; Yang, Victor C

    2004-09-01

    Current treatment protocol for postoperative pain is to infuse anesthetic solution around nerves or into the epidural space. This clinical practice is beset by the short duration of the anesthetic effect unless the infusion is continuous. Continuous infusion, however, requires hospitalization of the patients, thereby increasing medical costs. In addition, it also causes systemic accumulation of the drug. We reported herein a novel treatment for the postoperative pain by applying to the surgical site a biodegradable microsphere-gel system for prolonged and localized release of encapsulated anesthetic drugs. This lidocaine-containing biodegradable poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA) microsphere system, although being established previously by other investigators, was hindered by a burst release and a followed rapid release of the drug within several hours in vitro. In this article, we demonstrated that by a step-by-step modification of the formulation, prolonged release of lidocaine, up to several days in vitro, could be achieved. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed a lower glass transition temperature for these lidocaine-loaded microspheres comparing to that of lidocaine-free microspheres. This decreased Tg explained for the tendency of the lidocaine-loaded microspheres to physically fuse at higher temperatures. In vitro studies showed that microspheres, when loaded with 35% lidocaine, yielded a threefold increase in the degradation rate. The molecular weight of PLA of the drug-loaded microspheres was reduced by 50% within a period of 1 month. Based on the results (of prolonged lidocaine release and rapid PLA microsphere degradation), this lidocaine-loaded PLA microsphere system could offer a simple solution to the treatment of postoperative pain.

  15. Intraarterial Lidocaine for Pain Control in Uterine Artery Embolization: A Prospective, Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Noel-Lamy, Maxime; Tan, Kong T; Simons, Martin E; Sniderman, Kenneth W; Mironov, Oleg; Rajan, Dheeraj K

    2017-01-01

    To assess efficacy of two different techniques of lidocaine injection in the uterine arteries to reduce pain following uterine artery embolization (UAE) for leiomyomas. This prospective randomized single-blinded study was performed with 60 patients enrolled between November 2014 and December 2015 equally randomized to 3 arms. Group A received 10 mL lidocaine 1% (100 mg) mixed with polyvinyl alcohol particles (355-500 μm). Group B received the same dose of lidocaine injected after embolization. Group C was a control group. Pain was assessed on a 100-point visual analog scale at 4, 7, and 24 hours after the procedure. Narcotic agent dose to 24 hours was recorded. Outcomes were examined by analysis of variance and pairwise comparison. Leiomyoma infarction was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging 3 months after the procedure. Technical success rate of UAE was 100%. Mean pain score at 4 hours was significantly lower in the lidocaine groups (group A, 28.6; group B, 35.8) compared with the control group (59.4; P = .001). Pain scores at 7 and 24 hours were not statistically different among the 3 arms. The mean in-hospital narcotic agent dose was significantly lower in both lidocaine groups than in the control group (group A, 8.5 mg [P = .002]; group B, 11.1 mg [P = .03]; group C, 17.4 mg). There were no adverse events related to the use of lidocaine. The number of patients with complete infarction of leiomyomas at 3 months was significantly lower in group A at 38.9% (group B, 77.8%; group C, 75%; P = .0451). Lidocaine injected in the uterine arteries reduced postprocedural pain and narcotic agent dose after UAE. There were more cases of incomplete necrosis when lidocaine was mixed with the particles. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Buffered lidocaine and bupivacaine mixture - the ideal local anesthetic solution?

    PubMed

    Best, Corliss A; Best, Alyssa A; Best, Timothy J; Hamilton, Danielle A

    2015-01-01

    The use of injectable local anesthetic solutions to facilitate pain-free surgery is an integral component of many procedures performed by the plastic surgeon. In many instances, a solution that has both rapid onset and prolonged duration of analgesia is optimal. A combination of lidocaine and bupivacaine, plain or with epinephrine, is readily available in most Canadian health care settings where such procedures are performed, and fulfills these criteria. However, commercially available solutions of both medications are acidic and cause a burning sensation on injection. Buffering to neutral pH with sodium bicarbonate is a practical method to mitigate the burning sensation, and has the added benefit of increasing the fraction of nonionized lipid soluble drug available. The authors report on the proportions of the three drugs to yield a neutral pH, and the results of an initial survey regarding the use of the combined solution with epinephrine in hand surgery.

  17. A comparison of transdermal over-the-counter lidocaine 3.6% menthol 1.25%, Rx lidocaine 5% and placebo for back pain and arthritis.

    PubMed

    Castro, Eric; Dent, David

    2017-08-14

    Transdermal lidocaine therapy has become a gold standard as part of a treatment regimen for patients who suffer from localized pain. We compared transdermal patches: over-the-counter (OTC) lidocaine 3.6% combined with menthol 1.25%, prescription lidocaine 5% (Rx) and placebo. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 87 patients were randomized to: OTC, Rx or placebo. OTC met primary end points of noninferiority compared with Rx for efficacy, side effects and quality of life. Versus placebo, OTC proved superiority for efficacy, general activity and normal work. Side effects were similar. It is theorized that menthol's ability to increase skin permeability facilitated more efficient drug delivery to the site of pain causing higher than expected efficacy. Decreased cost and resource utilization could benefit patients and payers.

  18. Understanding the large solubility of lidocaine in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquids using molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Ley, Ryan T; Paluch, Andrew S

    2016-02-28

    Room temperature ionic liquids have been proposed as replacement solvents in a wide range of industrial separation processes. Here, we focus on the use of ionic liquids as solvents for the pharmaceutical compound lidocaine. We show that the solubility of lidocaine in seven common 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquids is greatly enhanced relative to water. The predicted solubility is greatest in [BMIM](+)[CH3CO2](-), which we find results from favorable hydrogen bonding between the lidocaine amine hydrogen and the [CH3CO2](-) oxygen, favorable electrostatic interactions between the lidocaine amide oxygen with the [BMIM](+) aromatic ring hydrogens, while lidocaine does not interfere with the association of [BMIM](+) with [CH3CO2](-). Additionally, by removing functional groups from the lidocaine scaffold while maintaining the important amide group, we found that as the van der Waals volume increases, solubility in [BMIM](+)[CH3CO2](-) relative to water increases.

  19. Lidocaine effect on flotillin-2 distribution in detergent-resistant membranes of equine jejunal smooth muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tappenbeck, Karen; Schmidt, Sonja; Feige, Karsten; Naim, Hassan Y; Huber, Korinna

    2014-05-01

    Lidocaine is the most commonly chosen prokinetic for treating postoperative ileus in horses, a motility disorder associated with ischaemia-reperfusion injury of intestinal tissues. Despite the frequent use of lidocaine, the mechanism underlying its prokinetic effects is still unclear. Previous studies suggested that lidocaine altered cell membrane characteristics of smooth muscle cells. Therefore, the present study aimed to elucidate effects of lidocaine administration on characteristics of detergent-resistant membranes in equine jejunal smooth muscle. Lidocaine administration caused significant redistribution of flotillin-2, a protein marker of detergent-resistant membranes, in fractions of sucrose-density-gradients obtained from ischaemia-reperfusion injured smooth muscle solubilised with Triton X-100. It was concluded that lidocaine induced disruption of detergent-resistant membranes which might affect ion channel activity and therefore enhance smooth muscle contractility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding the large solubility of lidocaine in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquids using molecular simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, Ryan T.; Paluch, Andrew S.

    2016-02-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids have been proposed as replacement solvents in a wide range of industrial separation processes. Here, we focus on the use of ionic liquids as solvents for the pharmaceutical compound lidocaine. We show that the solubility of lidocaine in seven common 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquids is greatly enhanced relative to water. The predicted solubility is greatest in [BMIM]+[CH3CO2]-, which we find results from favorable hydrogen bonding between the lidocaine amine hydrogen and the [CH3CO2]- oxygen, favorable electrostatic interactions between the lidocaine amide oxygen with the [BMIM]+ aromatic ring hydrogens, while lidocaine does not interfere with the association of [BMIM]+ with [CH3CO2]-. Additionally, by removing functional groups from the lidocaine scaffold while maintaining the important amide group, we found that as the van der Waals volume increases, solubility in [BMIM]+[CH3CO2]- relative to water increases.

  1. Effect of intratesticular lidocaine on isoflurane requirements in dogs undergoing routine castration.

    PubMed

    McMillan, M W; Seymour, C J; Brearley, J C

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the isoflurane sparing effect of intratesticular lidocaine administration in dogs undergoing castration. Thirty dogs received a standardised anaesthetic regimen including systemic analgesia with intramuscular buprenorphine at a dose of 0·02 mg/kg and intravenous carprofen at a dose of 4 mg/kg. Dogs were randomly assigned to a lidocaine group receiving 1 mg/kg lidocaine into each testis or a control group receiving no lidocaine. Baseline physiological parameters were measured after 10 minutes at an end-tidal isoflurane concentration of 1·3%. End-tidal isoflurane concentration was altered throughout surgery to maintain these parameters within 10% of baseline and recorded at five time points. T0 was baseline, T1 was the start of surgery, T2 to T3 were clamping of the testicular pedicles and T4 was skin closure. End-tidal isoflurane concentrations were compared using analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests. Fifteen healthy dogs were included in each study group. End-tidal isoflurane concentration was significantly lower in the lidocaine group compared to the control group at T2 (P<0·01), T3 (P<0·01) and T4 (P<0·01). Intratesticular lidocaine reduces isoflurane requirements in dogs undergoing castration. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. Stability indicating HPLC method for the estimation of oxycodone and lidocaine in rectal gel.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, M G; McClure, A F; Vlahakis, T L

    2001-07-31

    An HPLC method for the quantification of oxycodone and lidocaine in a gel matrix is described. The mobile phase consisted of methanol--water--acetic acid (35:15:1 v/v/v) and was delivered at 1.5 ml/min through a 4.6 x 250 mm Zorbax SB-C8 column. Oxycodone was detected at 285 nm and lidocaine at 264 nm. Linear calibration curves were obtained for oxycodone in the range of 0.05--1.5% (w/w) and for lidocaine in the range of 0.1--5.0% (w/w). Oxycodone and lidocaine were treated with hydrogen peroxide and the oxidation products were readily separated on the column. The method was applied to assess the stability of a gel containing oxycodone hydrochloride (0.3% w/w) and lidocaine (1.5% w/w). The gel was stored under refrigeration in ready-to-use syringes and under these conditions oxycodone and lidocaine were stable for at least 1 year. The gel is useful in the management of tenesmus in rectal cancer.

  3. Lidocaine Enhances Contractile Function of Ischemic Myocardial Regions in Mouse Model of Sustained Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Kania, Gabriela; Osto, Elena; Jakob, Philipp; Krasniqi, Nazmi; Beck-Schimmer, Beatrice; Blyszczuk, Przemyslaw; Eriksson, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Perioperative myocardial ischemia is common in high-risk patients. The use of interventional revascularisation or even thrombolysis is limited in this patient subset due to exceedingly high bleeding risks. Blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) with lidocaine had been suggested to reduce infarct size and cardiomyocyte cell death in ischemia/reperfusion models. However, the impact of lidocaine on cardiac function during sustained ischemia still remains unclear. Methods Sustained myocardial ischemia was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending artery in 12–16 weeks old male BALB/c mice. Subcutaneous lidocaine (30 mg/kg) was used to block VGSC. Cardiac function was quantified at baseline and at 72h by conventional and speckle-tracking based echocardiography to allow high-sensitivity in vivo phenotyping. Infarct size and cardiomyocyte cell death were assessed post mortem histologically and indirectly using troponin measurements. Results Ischemia strongly impaired both, global systolic and diastolic function, which were partially rescued in lidocaine treated in mice. No differences regarding infarct size and cardiomyocyte cell death were observed. Mechanistically, and as shown with speckle-tracking analysis, lidocaine specifically improves residual contractility in the ischemic but not in the remote, non-ischemic myocardium. Conclusion VGSC blockade with lidocaine rescues function of ischemic myocardium as a potential bridging to revascularisation in the setting of perioperative myocardial ischemia. PMID:27140425

  4. Lidocaine stability in cardioplegic solution stored in glass bottles and polyvinyl chloride bags.

    PubMed

    Lackner, T E; Baldus, D; Butler, C D; Amyx, C; Kessler, G

    1983-01-01

    The stability of lidocaine hydrochloride in buffered cardioplegic solutions stored in glass and polyvinyl chloride bags was studied. Concentrations of lidocaine (incorporated as the hydrochloride salt) were measured in buffered cardioplegic solutions containing potassium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, dextrose, and sodium chloride. Solutions were stored at 22 +/- 2 degrees C and 4 degrees C in glass bottles and 500-ml and 250-ml polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers; some 250-ml PVC bags were underfilled to study the effects of varying surface area-volume ratios. Lidocaine concentrations were measured using a homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT, Syva Corporation) on days 0, 1, 2, 7, and 21. Lidocaine concentrations decreased significantly in all PVC bags stored at 22 degrees C and in underfilled PVC bags stored at 4 degrees C. Lidocaine loss in PVC bags appeared to result from sorption. It is concluded that lidocaine is stable in cardioplegic solutions when these are refrigerated and stored in glass containers or filled large-volume PVC bags for 21 days.

  5. Efficacy of lidocaine lontophoresis using either alternating or direct current in hairless rats.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Atsushi; Wakita, Ryo; Haida, Haruka; Fukayama, Haruhisa

    2013-09-30

    The aim of this study was to determine transport of lidocaine ions through a hairless rat skin in vivo and to compare the efficacy of alternating current (AC) with that of direct current (DC) iontophoresis (IOP). We measured the concentration of lidocaine transported through a cellophane membrane or a hairless rat dorsal skin applying either AC-IOP or DC-IOP. The results revealed that lidocaine concentration increased in a time-dependent manner in vitro in both DC-IOP and AC-IOP. However, the in vivo study showed different tendencies in lidocaine concentration. In the DCIOP group, lidocaine concentration reached its maximum 20 min after current application and then decreased rapidly; the AC-IOP group showed an increase in lidocaine concentration in a time-dependent manner. There were no side effects such as electrical burns in the rats. In conclusion, AC can be applied for long periods and DC for short periods, or their application time can be appropriately scheduled. Our study also suggests the mechanism by which voltage waveforms affect the skin when applied by IOP. In the future, these findings will be a solid foundation for developing various kinds of medical equipment such as scheduled drug delivery system that can easily deliver various types of drug.

  6. Effect of Modulated Alternating and Direct Current Iontophoresis on Transdermal Delivery of Lidocaine Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Banga, Ajay K.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the iontophoretic delivery of lidocaine hydrochloride through porcine skin and to compare the effects of modulated alternating and direct current iontophoresis. Continuous and modulated iontophoresis was applied for one hour and two hours (0-1 h and 4-5th h) using a 1% w/v solution of lidocaine hydrochloride. Tape stripping was done to quantify the amount of drug permeated into stratum corneum and skin extraction studies were performed to determine the amount of drug in stripped skin. Receptor was sampled and analyzed over predefined time periods. The amount of lidocaine delivered across porcine skin after modulated direct current iontophoresis for 2 h was 1069.87 ± 120.03 μg/sq·cm compared to 744.81 ± 125.41 μg/sq·cm after modulated alternating current iontophoresis for 2 h. Modulated direct current iontophoresis also enhanced lidocaine delivery by twelvefold compared to passive delivery as 91.27 ± 18.71 μg/sq·cm of lidocaine was delivered after passive delivery. Modulated iontophoresis enhanced the delivery of lidocaine hydrochloride across porcine skin compared to the passive delivery. Modulated alternating current iontophoresis for duration of 2 h at frequency of 1 kHz was found to be comparable to the continuous direct current iontophoresis for 1 h. PMID:24959580

  7. Effects of ketamine and lidocaine in combination on the sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Queiroz-Williams, Patricia; Doherty, Thomas J; da Cunha, Anderson F; Leonardi, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of ketamine and lidocaine in combination on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane (MACSEVO) in alpacas. Eight healthy, intact male, adult alpacas were studied on 2 separate occasions. Anesthesia was induced with SEVO, and baseline MAC (MACB) determination began 45 min after induction. After MACB determination, alpacas were randomly given either an intravenous (IV) loading dose (LD) and infusion of saline or a loading dose [ketamine = 0.5 mg/kg body weight (BW); lidocaine = 2 mg/kg BW] and an infusion of ketamine (25 μg/kg BW per minute) in combination with lidocaine (50 μg/kg BW per minute), and MACSEVO was re-determined (MACT). Quality of recovery, time-to-extubation, and time-to-standing, were also evaluated. Mean MACB was 1.88% ± 0.13% and 1.89% ± 0.14% for the saline and ketamine + lidocaine groups, respectively. Ketamine and lidocaine administration decreased (P < 0.05) MACB by 57% and mean MACT was 0.83% ± 0.10%. Saline administration did not change MACB. Time to determine MACB and MACT was not significantly different between the treatments. The quality of recovery, time-to-extubation, and time-to-standing, were not different between groups. The infusion of ketamine combined with lidocaine significantly decreased MACSEVO by 57% and did not adversely affect time-to-standing or quality of recovery.

  8. Evaluation of a constant rate infusion of lidocaine for balanced anesthesia in dogs undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Maria; Cruz, Ignacio

    2011-08-01

    This study assessed the intraoperative analgesic effects of intravenous lidocaine administered by a constant rate infusion (CRI) in surgical canine patients. A prospective, blinded, randomized study was designed with 2 treatment groups: A (lidocaine) and B (placebo), involving 41 dogs. All patients were premedicated with acepromazine and buprenorphine, induced with propofol and midazolam; anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Group A received 2 mg/kg IV lidocaine immediately after induction, followed within 5 min by a CRI at 50 μg/kg/min. Group B received an equivalent volume of saline instead of lidocaine. Changes in heart rate and blood pressure during maintenance were treated by increasing CRI. Fentanyl was used as a supplemental analgesic when intraoperative nociceptive response was not controlled with the maximum dose of lidocaine infusion. There was a significantly lower use of supplemental intraoperative analgesia in the lidocaine than in the placebo group. Group B dogs had almost twice as high a risk of intraoperative nociceptive response as group A dogs.

  9. Topical Lidocaine Does Not Exaggerate Laryngomalacia in Infants During Flexible Bronchoscopy Under Propofol Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    von Ungern-Sternberg, Britta S; Trachsel, Daniel; Zhang, Guicheng; Erb, Thomas O; Hammer, Jürg

    2016-07-01

    Topical lidocaine has been found to result in overestimation of the severity of laryngomalacia in infants undergoing flexible bronchoscopy under conscious sedation with midazolam and nalbuphine. This effect has never been confirmed and may depend on the level of sedation and the drugs used. We assessed the effect of topical lidocaine on laryngomalacia in infants undergoing flexible bronchoscopy under general anesthesia with propofol. Thirteen infants with congenital stridor referred to diagnostic flexible video-bronchoscopy were studied under propofol anesthesia before and 3 minutes after topical lidocaine administration to the larynx at a dose of 3 mg/kg body weight. Laryngomalacia was scored using 60 seconds video recordings of the larynx before and after lidocaine administration in random order by 2 independent blinded observers using the previously described arytenoid score (AS), epiglottis score (ES), and the total score (TS=AS+ES). No significant differences in AS, ES, and laryngomalacia score were found between the prelidocaine and postlidocaine assessments by the 2 raters. The intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.995 (95% confidence interval, 0.986-0.998) and 0.975 (0.930-0.991) and 0.989 (0.971-996) for AS, ES, and TS, respectively. The assessment of laryngomalacia is not affected by topical lidocaine under propofol anesthesia. The lidocaine effect on laryngomalacia may vary depending on the medication regime used and the depth of procedural sedation.

  10. Intralesional Lidocaine Anesthesia: A Novel Facilitated Anesthesia Technique for Ethanol Sclerotherapy of Venous Malformation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Chen, Hui; Lin, XiaoXi; Jin, YunBo; Ma, Gang; Hu, Li; Wang, YongYing; Yu, WenXin; Chang, Lei; Qiu, YaJing

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a novel anesthesia, intralesional lidocaine anesthesia (ILA), for ethanol sclerotherapy of venous malformation and evaluate the efficacy and safety. A prospective study of 100 patients with venous malformations undergoing 100 sclerotherapy procedures with intralesional lidocaine anesthesia (ILA) was conducted. Pain was evaluated by numeric rating scale (NRS) immediately following the procedure. The grade of pain was classified by the NRS as no pain (0), mild (1-3), moderate (4-6), and severe (7-10). Local and systemic complications caused by lidocaine were recorded. The median injected volume of absolute ethanol and 0.25% lidocaine was 5.9 mL and 17.0 mL, respectively. In ILA group, 13 patients had no pain during the procedure, 42 patients had mild pain, 38 patients had moderate pain, and 7 patients had severe pain. The mean NRS scores of the whole ILA group were 3.2 (0-8). No local or systemic complications attributed to lidocaine were reported. In a limited series, intralesional lidocaine anethesia seems to be efficient and safe for use in pain management for ethanol sclerotherapy of venous malformation. This anesthesia technique may be a promising first approach for the ethanol sclerotherapy of venous malformations, as it is easy to handle and has minimal sequelae.

  11. Effects of ketamine and lidocaine in combination on the sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in alpacas

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz-Williams, Patricia; Doherty, Thomas J.; da Cunha, Anderson F.; Leonardi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ketamine and lidocaine in combination on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane (MACSEVO) in alpacas. Eight healthy, intact male, adult alpacas were studied on 2 separate occasions. Anesthesia was induced with SEVO, and baseline MAC (MACB) determination began 45 min after induction. After MACB determination, alpacas were randomly given either an intravenous (IV) loading dose (LD) and infusion of saline or a loading dose [ketamine = 0.5 mg/kg body weight (BW); lidocaine = 2 mg/kg BW] and an infusion of ketamine (25 μg/kg BW per minute) in combination with lidocaine (50 μg/kg BW per minute), and MACSEVO was re-determined (MACT). Quality of recovery, time-to-extubation, and time-to-standing, were also evaluated. Mean MACB was 1.88% ± 0.13% and 1.89% ± 0.14% for the saline and ketamine + lidocaine groups, respectively. Ketamine and lidocaine administration decreased (P < 0.05) MACB by 57% and mean MACT was 0.83% ± 0.10%. Saline administration did not change MACB. Time to determine MACB and MACT was not significantly different between the treatments. The quality of recovery, time-to-extubation, and time-to-standing, were not different between groups. The infusion of ketamine combined with lidocaine significantly decreased MACSEVO by 57% and did not adversely affect time-to-standing or quality of recovery. PMID:27127341

  12. The Impact of Intravenous Lidocaine on ICP in Neurological Illness: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, F. A.; Sader, N.; Kazina, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The goal of our study was to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine the effect that intravenous (IV) lidocaine had on ICP in patients with neurological illness. Methods. All articles are from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to March 2015). The strength of evidence was adjudicated using both the Oxford and GRADE methodology. Results. Ten original articles were considered for the final review. There were 189 patients studied. Seven studies focused on prophylactic pretreatment with IV lidocaine to determine if there would be an attenuation of ICP spikes during stimulation, with 4 displaying an attenuation of ICP. Three studies focused on a therapeutic administration of IV lidocaine in order to determine ICP reduction effects. All therapeutic studies displayed a reduction in ICP. Conclusions. We cannot make a strong definitive recommendation on the effectiveness of IV lidocaine on the attenuation of ICP spikes during stimulation. There currently exists both Oxford 2b and GRADE B literature to support and refute the attenuation of ICP spikes with IV lidocaine during stimulation. There currently exists Oxford 2b, GRADE B evidence to support ICP reduction with lidocaine when used as a therapeutic agent. PMID:26448873

  13. Skin biopsy and quantitative sensory testing do not predict response to lidocaine patch in painful neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, David N; Pannoni, Valerie; Barbano, Richard L; Pennella-Vaughan, Janet; Dworkin, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    Predictors of response to neuropathic pain treatment in patients with painful distal sensory neuropathies are lacking. The 5% lidocaine patch is believed to exert its effects on neuropathic pain via a local stabilizing effect on cutaneous sensory afferents. As such, it provides a model to assess whether the status of epidermal innervation as determined by skin biopsy or quantitative sensory testing (QST) of small- and large-diameter sensory afferents might serve as predictors of response to topical, locally active treatment. In this study we assessed associations between epidermal nerve fiber (ENF) densities, sensory nerve conduction studies (NCS), QST, and response to a 5% lidocaine patch in patients with painful distal sensory neuropathies. We observed no association between distal leg epidermal and subepidermal innervation and response to the lidocaine patch. Several patients with complete loss of distal leg ENF showed a response to the lidocaine patch. Similarly we observed no consistent association between treatment response and QST for vibration, cooling, warm, heat-pain, and cold-pain thresholds, or distal sensory NCS. Thus, distal-leg skin biopsy, QST, and sensory NCS cannot be used to identify patients with painful polyneuropathy likely to respond to a lidocaine patch in clinical practice. Further studies are required to clarify precisely the mechanism and site of action of the lidocaine patch in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain.

  14. The Impact of Intravenous Lidocaine on ICP in Neurological Illness: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, F A; Sader, N; Kazina, C J

    2015-01-01

    Background. The goal of our study was to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine the effect that intravenous (IV) lidocaine had on ICP in patients with neurological illness. Methods. All articles are from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to March 2015). The strength of evidence was adjudicated using both the Oxford and GRADE methodology. Results. Ten original articles were considered for the final review. There were 189 patients studied. Seven studies focused on prophylactic pretreatment with IV lidocaine to determine if there would be an attenuation of ICP spikes during stimulation, with 4 displaying an attenuation of ICP. Three studies focused on a therapeutic administration of IV lidocaine in order to determine ICP reduction effects. All therapeutic studies displayed a reduction in ICP. Conclusions. We cannot make a strong definitive recommendation on the effectiveness of IV lidocaine on the attenuation of ICP spikes during stimulation. There currently exists both Oxford 2b and GRADE B literature to support and refute the attenuation of ICP spikes with IV lidocaine during stimulation. There currently exists Oxford 2b, GRADE B evidence to support ICP reduction with lidocaine when used as a therapeutic agent.

  15. Intravenous Lidocaine versus Morphine Sulfate in Pain Management for Extremity Fractures; a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Forouzan, Arash; Barzegari, Hassan; Motamed, Hassan; Khavanin, Ali; Shiri, Hamideh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Considering the existing contradictions regarding effectiveness of intravenous (IV) lidocaine, especially in emergency department (ED), the present study was designed to compare the analgesic effect of IV lidocaine and morphine sulfate in pain management for extremity bone fractures. Method: In this triple blind clinical trial, 15 to 65 year-old patients with extremity fractures and in need of pain management were randomly allocated to either IV lidocaine or morphine sulfate group and were compared regarding severity of pain 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after infusion via intention to treat analysis. The absolute risk reduction, number needed to treat and relative risk of IV lidocaine after 30 minutes were 0.40 (95%CI: 0.25 – 0.64), 7 (95%CI: 3.7 – 23.1), and 20.71 (95%CI: 10.91 – 30.51), respectively. Results: 280 patients with the mean age of 32.50 ± 12.77 years were randomly divided into 2 equal groups of 140 (73.9% male). The 2 groups had similar baseline characteristics. 15 minutes after injection success rate was 49.28% in lidocaine and 33.57% in morphine sulfate group (p = 0.011), and after 30 minutes it reached 85.71% and 65.00%, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, IV lidocaine could be considered as a reasonable alternative choice for pain management in ED. PMID:28894783

  16. Evaluation of a constant rate infusion of lidocaine for balanced anesthesia in dogs undergoing surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Maria; Cruz, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the intraoperative analgesic effects of intravenous lidocaine administered by a constant rate infusion (CRI) in surgical canine patients. A prospective, blinded, randomized study was designed with 2 treatment groups: A (lidocaine) and B (placebo), involving 41 dogs. All patients were premedicated with acepromazine and buprenorphine, induced with propofol and midazolam; anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Group A received 2 mg/kg IV lidocaine immediately after induction, followed within 5 min by a CRI at 50 μg/kg/min. Group B received an equivalent volume of saline instead of lidocaine. Changes in heart rate and blood pressure during maintenance were treated by increasing CRI. Fentanyl was used as a supplemental analgesic when intraoperative nociceptive response was not controlled with the maximum dose of lidocaine infusion. There was a significantly lower use of supplemental intraoperative analgesia in the lidocaine than in the placebo group. Group B dogs had almost twice as high a risk of intraoperative nociceptive response as group A dogs. PMID:22294791

  17. The Efficacy of Systemic Lidocaine in the Management of Chronic Pain: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Yousefshahi, Fardin; Predescu, Oana; Francisco Asenjo, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Context Despite recent advances in the understanding of the chronic pain concept, its diagnosis and management remains a daily challenge for clinicians and patients. Based on the published literature, this review discusses and tries to organize the current knowledge and the up-to-date clinical experience about the efficacy and safety of the use of intravenous lidocaine in treatment and prevention of chronic pain. Evidence Acquisition To prepare this narrative review, we performed an in depth literature review using the PubMed searching engine. We extracted all relevant articles published in English, up to April 2016. Results Lidocaine, administered as transdermal patch or intravenous lidocaine, is a safe and effective modality in the treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), complex regional pain syndrome, as well and for prevention of chronic pain. It may be effective in the management of neuropathic pain syndromes, chronic pain, post-operative pain, and refractory cancer pain. Conclusions Intravenous lidocaine and lidocaine patch are effective and safe for the treatment of several chronic or neuropathic pain syndromes. The use of lidocaine during surgery could prevent the development of some chronic post-surgical pain syndromes. PMID:28856112

  18. Detection of follicular transport of lidocaine and metabolism in adipose tissue in pig ear skin by DESI mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    D'Alvise, Janina; Mortensen, Rasmus; Hansen, Steen H; Janfelt, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry imaging is demonstrated as a detection technique for penetration experiments of drugs in skin. Lidocaine ointment was used as the model compound in ex vivo experiments with whole pig ears as the skin model. Follicular transport of lidocaine into the deeper skin layers is demonstrated for the first time. Furthermore, metabolism of lidocaine to 3-OH-lidocaine was observed in subcutaneous tissue as well as in lobules of white adipose tissue surrounding the hair follicles. These results suggest that it is advantageous to use full thickness skin, including subcutaneous tissue, for skin metabolism studies.

  19. The analgesic efficacy of intravenous lidocaine infusion after laparoscopic fundoplication: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dale, Gregory J; Phillips, Stephanie; Falk, Gregory L

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if intravenous lidocaine infusion reduces postoperative pain intensity following laparoscopic fundoplication surgery and to also validate the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. This was an equally randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single center trial. Adult patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication were recruited. The intervention group received 1 mg/kg intravenous lidocaine bolus prior to induction of anesthesia, then an intravenous infusion at 2 mg/kg/h for 24 hours. The primary outcome was pain, measured using a numeric rating scale for 30 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were nausea and vomiting, opioid requirements, adverse events, serum lidocaine concentration, and length of hospital stay. The study was terminated after an interim analysis of 24 patients showed evidence of futility. There was no difference in postoperative pain scores (lidocaine versus control, mean ± standard deviation) at rest (2.0 ± 2.7 vs 2.1 ± 2.4, P=0.286) or with movement (2.0 ± 2.6 vs 2.6 ± 2.7, P=0.487). Three adverse events occurred in the lidocaine group (25% of patients). Intravenous lidocaine did not provide clinically significant analgesia to patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication. The serum lidocaine concentration of patients who experienced adverse events were within the therapeutic range. This trial cannot confirm the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested.

  20. The analgesic efficacy of intravenous lidocaine infusion after laparoscopic fundoplication: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Gregory J; Phillips, Stephanie; Falk, Gregory L

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if intravenous lidocaine infusion reduces postoperative pain intensity following laparoscopic fundoplication surgery and to also validate the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. This was an equally randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single center trial. Adult patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication were recruited. The intervention group received 1 mg/kg intravenous lidocaine bolus prior to induction of anesthesia, then an intravenous infusion at 2 mg/kg/h for 24 hours. The primary outcome was pain, measured using a numeric rating scale for 30 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were nausea and vomiting, opioid requirements, adverse events, serum lidocaine concentration, and length of hospital stay. The study was terminated after an interim analysis of 24 patients showed evidence of futility. There was no difference in postoperative pain scores (lidocaine versus control, mean ± standard deviation) at rest (2.0 ± 2.7 vs 2.1 ± 2.4, P=0.286) or with movement (2.0 ± 2.6 vs 2.6 ± 2.7, P=0.487). Three adverse events occurred in the lidocaine group (25% of patients). Intravenous lidocaine did not provide clinically significant analgesia to patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication. The serum lidocaine concentration of patients who experienced adverse events were within the therapeutic range. This trial cannot confirm the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. PMID:27980437

  1. Comparative trial of succinylcholine vs low dose atracurium-lidocaine combination for intubation in short outpatient procedures.

    PubMed Central

    Luyk, N. H.; Weaver, J. M.; Quinn, C.; Wilson, S.; Beck, F. M.

    1990-01-01

    Despite its many disadvantages, succinylcholine is the most commonly used drug for intubation of patients for short out-patient procedure. This double blind trial compared a low dose atracurium/lidocaine combination to succinylcholine for intubation in 40 ASA1 adult patients. Low dose atracurium/lidocaine provided clinical intubating conditions at two minutes and cardiovascular stability equivalent to succinylcholine with significantly less myalgia. Spontaneous respiration was slower after low dose atracurium/lidocaine relative to succinylcholine. Low dose atracurium/lidocaine may provide an acceptable alternative to succinylcholine for intubation in short outpatient procedures. PMID:2096747

  2. Effect of intraoperative lidocaine on anesthetic consumption, and bowel function, pain intensity, analgesic consumption and hospital stay after breast surgery.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo Joo; Kim, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hui Yeon; Lee, Jeong Jin

    2012-05-01

    Perioperative lidocaine infusion improves postoperative outcomes, mostly after abdominal and urologic surgeries. Knowledge of the effect of lidocaine on peripheral surgeries is limited. Presently, we investigated whether intraoperative lidocaine infusion reduced anesthetic consumption, duration of ileus, pain intensity, analgesic consumption and hospital stay after breast plastic surgeries. Sixty female patients, aged 20-60 years, enrolled in this prospective study were randomly and equally divided to two groups. One group (n = 30) received a 1.5 mg/kg bolus of lidocaine approximately 30 min before incision followed by continuous infusion of lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg/h) until skin closure (lidocaine group). The other group (n = 30) was untreated (control group). Balanced inhalation (sevoflurane) anesthesia and multimodal postoperative analgesia were standardized. End tidal sevoflurane concentration during surgery, time to the first flatus and defecation, visual analog pain scale (0-10), analgesic consumption and associated side effects at 24, 48, and 72 h after surgery, hospital stay, and patient's general satisfaction were assessed. Compared to the control group, intraoperative lidocaine infusion reduced by 5% the amount of sevoflurane required at similar bispectral index (P = 0.014). However, there were no significant effects of lidocaine regarding the return of bowel function, postoperative pain intensity, analgesic sparing and side effects at all time points, hospital stay, and level of patient's satisfaction for pain control. Low dose intraoperative lidocaine infusion offered no beneficial effects on return of bowel function, opioid sparing, pain intensity and hospital stay after various breast plastic surgeries.

  3. Fast lidocaine block of cardiac and skeletal muscle sodium channels: one site with two routes of access.

    PubMed Central

    Zamponi, G W; Doyle, D D; French, R J

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the block by lidocaine and its quaternary derivative, QX-314, of single, batrachotoxin (BTX)-activated cardiac and skeletal muscle sodium channels incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. Lidocaine and QX-314, applied to the intracellular side, appear to induce incompletely resolved, rapid transitions between the open and the blocked state of BTX-activated sodium channels from both heart and skeletal muscle. We used amplitude distribution analysis (Yellen, G. 1984. J. Gen. Physiol. 84:157-186.) to estimate the rate constants for block and unblock. Block by lidocaine and QX-314 from the cytoplasmic side exhibits rate constants with similar voltage dependence. The blocking rate increases with depolarization, and the unblocking rate increases with hyperpolarization. Fast lidocaine block was virtually identical for sodium channels from skeletal (rat, sheep) and cardiac (beef, sheep) muscle. Lidocaine block from the extracellular side occurred at similar concentrations. However, for externally applied lidocaine, the blocking rate was voltage-independent, and was proportional to concentration of the uncharged, rather than the charged, form of the drug. In contrast, unblocking rates for internally and externally applied lidocaine were identical in magnitude and voltage dependence. Our kinetic data suggest that lidocaine, coming from the acqueous phase on the cytoplasmic side in the charged form, associates and dissociates freely with the fast block effector site, whereas external lidocaine, in the uncharged form, approaches the same site via a direct, hydrophobic path. PMID:8396459

  4. The effect of perioperative intravenous lidocaine and ketamine on recovery after abdominal hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Grady, Martin V; Mascha, Edward; Sessler, Daniel I; Kurz, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Perioperative ketamine infusion reduces postoperative pain; perioperative lidocaine infusion reduces postoperative narcotic consumption, speeds recovery of intestinal function, improves postoperative fatigue, and shortens hospital stay. However, it is unknown whether perioperative IV lidocaine and/or ketamine enhances acute functional recovery. We therefore tested the primary hypothesis that perioperative IV lidocaine and/or ketamine in patients undergoing open abdominal hysterectomy improves rehabilitation as measured by a 6-minute walk distance (6-MWD) on the second postoperative morning. Women having open hysterectomy were anesthetized with sevoflurane, followed by patient-controlled morphine. Patients were factorially randomized to one of the following groups: (1) lidocaine and placebo, (2) placebo and ketamine, (3) placebo and placebo, or (4) lidocaine and ketamine. Lidocaine was given as a bolus (1.5 mg/kg), followed by lidocaine infusion of 2 mg/kg/h for the first 2 hours, and then 1.2 mg/kg/h for 24 postoperative hours. Ketamine was given as a bolus (0.35 mg/kg), followed by ketamine infusion of 0.2 mg/kg/h for the first 2 hours, and then 0.12 mg/kg/h for 24 postoperative hours. The primary double-blind outcome was 6-MWD on the second postoperative morning; secondary outcomes included pain scores, opioid consumption, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and fatigue score. The study was stopped after a planned interim analysis of 64 patients showed that lidocaine crossed the preplanned futility boundary, with mean ± SD of 202 ± 66 m versus 202 ± 73 m for lidocaine versus placebo, respectively, and mean difference (interim adjusted 97.5% confidence interval) of 0.93 m (-52, 54) (P = 0.96); the ketamine effect also crossed the futility boundary, with mean ± SD of 193 ± 77 m versus 210 ± 61 m for ketamine versus placebo, respectively, and mean difference (interim adjusted 97.5% confidence interval) of -11 m (-65, 44) (P = 0.54). No interaction between the 2

  5. Buffered Lidocaine Hydrochloride Solution With and Without Epinephrine: Stability in Polypropylene Syringes

    PubMed Central

    Pascuet, Elena; Donnelly, Ronald F; Garceau, Danielle; Vaillancourt, Régis

    2009-01-01

    Background: Pain associated with infiltrating the skin with lidocaine can be reduced by buffering the solution with sodium bicarbonate. Objectives: To determine the physical compatibility and chemical stability of lidocaine hydrochloride solution buffered with 8.4% sodium bicarbonate, with and without epinephrine, packaged in polypropylene syringes and stored at 5°C with protection from light. Methods: Lidocaine solutions (1% and 2%), with and without epinephrine 1:100 000, were diluted 10:1 with 8.4% sodium bicarbonate, packaged in 3-mL polypropylene syringes, and stored at 5°C (range 3°C to 8°C). On each of days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24, and 28, the contents of 3 syringes for each solution of lidocaine combined with epinephrine were collected separately in glass vials and frozen at −70°C for subsequent analysis. In addition, on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28, the contents of 3 syringes for each lidocaine solution without epinephrine were collected separately in glass vials and frozen at −70°C for subsequent analysis. Chemical stability was determined with a validated, stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Changes in colour, clarity, and pH were used to determine physical compatibility of the solutions. Results: All buffered lidocaine solutions containing epinephrine (1:100 000) retained at least 93.3% of the original concentration of epinephrine and 97.5% of the lidocaine concentration for 7 days when stored at 5°C with protection from light. In contrast, the epinephrine-free solutions retained at least 94.7% of the initial concentration of lidocaine for the duration of the study (28 days). All samples remained clear, colourless, and free of precipitate throughout the study, and there were no significant changes in pH. Conclusion: Extemporaneously prepared buffered lidocaine (1% and 2%) packaged in polypropylene syringes remained stable for up to 28 days when properly refrigerated with protection from light. A 7-day expiry

  6. Buffered Versus Non-Buffered Lidocaine With Epinephrine for Mandibular Nerve Block: Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Phero, James A; Nelson, Blake; Davis, Bobby; Dunlop, Natalie; Phillips, Ceib; Reside, Glenn; Tikunov, Andrew P; White, Raymond P

    2017-04-01

    Outcomes for peak blood levels were assessed for buffered 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine compared with non-buffered 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. In this institutional review board-approved prospective, randomized, double-blinded, crossover trial, the clinical impact of buffered 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine (Anutra Medical, Research Triangle Park, Cary, NC) was compared with the non-buffered drug. Venous blood samples for lidocaine were obtained 30 minutes after a mandibular nerve block with 80 mg of the buffered or unbuffered drug. Two weeks later, the same subjects were tested with the alternate drug combinations. Subjects also reported on pain on injection with a 10-point Likert-type scale and time to lower lip numbness. The explanatory variable was the drug formulation. Outcome variables were subjects' peak blood lidocaine levels, subjective responses to pain on injection, and time to lower lip numbness. Serum lidocaine levels were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses were performed using Proc TTEST (SAS 9.3; SAS Institute, Cary, NC), with the crossover option for a 2-period crossover design, to analyze the normally distributed outcome for pain. For non-normally distributed outcomes of blood lidocaine levels and time to lower lip numbness, an assessment of treatment difference was performed using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests with Proc NPAR1WAY (SAS 9.3). Statistical significance was set at a P value less than .05 for all outcomes. Forty-eight percent of subjects were women, half were Caucasian, 22% were African American, and 13% were Asian. Median age was 21 years (interquartile range [IQR], 20-22 yr), and median body weight was 147 lb (IQR, 130-170 lb). Median blood levels (44 blood samples) at 30 minutes were 1.19 μg/L per kilogram of body weight. Mean blood level differences of lidocaine for each patient were significantly lower after nerve block with the buffered drug compared with the

  7. [Effects of lidocaine on arterial and venous circulation of limbs in man].

    PubMed

    Edouard, A; Probst, D; Duranteau, J; Tarot, J P; Pussard, E

    1991-01-01

    The effects of intravenous lidocaine on limb arteries and veins were investigated in a placebo-controlled study. Seven young healthy volunteers, 23 to 28-years-old, were included. Electrocardiogram, arterial pressure and arm and leg blood flows were recorded continuously. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured in the left arm by finger photoplethysmography. Limb blood flow and the limb venous system were studied by venous occlusive plethysmography. The venous parameters studied were venous tone, lowest closing pressure, venous volume at 30 mmHg, and venous distensibility. After an initial bolus of 1.5 mg.kg-1 lidocaine had been given, 30, and then 60, micrograms.kg-1.min-1 were given for one hour each. Plasma noradrenaline and serum lidocaine titres were measured before giving the lidocaine, and at the end of each one hour period. Placebo consisted in a two hour infusion of 0.25 ml.min-1 normal saline. Lidocaine titres were 1.64 +/- 0.40 microgram.ml-1 after one hour, and 2.55 +/- 0.69 microgram.ml-1 after two hours. Lidocaine increased vascular resistances in both the forearm (+81% to +93%) and the calf (+38% to +57%). There was a concomitant increase in mean arterial blood pressure (+21% to +28%) without any change in heart rate. There was a significant dose-dependent increase in plasma noradrenaline levels during the second period of the lidocaine infusion with respect to the preinfusion period and the same period during the placebo infusion. Venous capacitance measured before any infusion had been started was greater in the leg than in the arm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Lidocaine on Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Jurj, Ancuta; Tomuleasa, Ciprian; Tat, Tiberiu T; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Vesa, Stefan V; Ionescu, Daniela C

    2017-03-01

    It is now well documented that certain anesthetic techniques may influence long term outcome in cancer patients undergoing surgery. More recently, local anesthetics proved certain antiproliferative effects in cancer cells. In our study, we aimed to investigate if lidocaine has antiproliferative effects in human hepatocarcinoma cells and to identify possible mechanisms of these effects. We investigated the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of lidocaine on the proliferation of cultured HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells and LX2 normal liver fibroblasts. Cells were exposed to nine different concentrations of lidocaine for 72h. MTT assay was used to investigate HepG2 and LX2 proliferation while Western blotting was used for detection of p53 expression level. Our data showed that lidocaine inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner in both HepG2 and LX2. The antiproliferative effects of lidocaine in LX2 were significantly diminished as compared with those in HepG2 (p< 0.001). Similarly, the expression level of p53 was significant decreased in HepG2 lines treated with lidocaine as compared with control and LX2 (p = 0.0241). In clinically relevant concentrations, lidocaine had significant antiproliferative effects on human hepatocarcinoma cells. These effects were time and dose-dependent. One of the possible mechanisms of these effects is by modifying the P53 expression level. The relevance of these findings in clinical practice is limited; clinical impact of these effects on the outcome of patients with hepatocarcinoma undergoing surgery or minimal invasive procedures needs to be demonstrated in future animal models and clinical studies.

  9. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using lidocaine patch 5% in traumatic rib fractures.

    PubMed

    Ingalls, Nichole K; Horton, Zachary A; Bettendorf, Matthew; Frye, Ira; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    The lidocaine patch 5% was developed to treat postherpetic neuralgia. Anecdotal experience at our institution suggests the lidocaine patch 5% decreases narcotic usage in patients with traumatic rib fractures. This trial was developed to define the patch's efficacy. Patients with rib fractures admitted to the trauma service at our Level I trauma center were enrolled and randomized in a 1 to 1 double-blind manner to receive a lidocaine patch 5% or placebo patch. Fifty-eight patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled from January 2007 to August 2008. Demographic and clinical information were recorded. The primary outcomes variable was total narcotic use, analyzed using the 1-tailed Mann-Whitney test. The secondary outcomes variables included non-narcotic pain medication, average pain score, pulmonary complications, and length of stay. Significance was defined based on a 1-sided test for the primary outcome and 2-sided tests for other comparisons, at p < 0.05. Thirty-three patients received the lidocaine patch 5% and 25 received the placebo patch. There were no significant differences in age, number of rib fractures, gender, trauma mechanism, preinjury lung disease, smoking history, percent of current smokers, and need for placement of chest tube between the lidocaine patch 5% and placebo groups. There was no difference between the lidocaine patch 5% and placebo groups, respectively, with regard to total IV narcotic usage: median, 0.23 units versus 0.26 units; total oral narcotics: median, 4 units versus 7 units; pain score: 5.6 +/- 0.4 versus 6.0 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SEM); length of stay: 7.8 +/- 1.1 versus 6.2 +/- 0.7; or percentage of patients with pulmonary complications: 72.7% versus 72.0%. The lidocaine patch 5% does not significantly improve pain control in polytrauma patients with traumatic rib fractures.

  10. Onset and duration of intradermal mixtures of bupivacaine and lidocaine with epinephrine

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James B; Song, Juhee; Mahabir, Raman C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Bupivacaine and lidocaine are often used concurrently, in theory, to combine the more rapid onset of lidocaine and the longer duration of bupivacaine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this concept. METHODS: Twenty-five subjects were enrolled in a double-blinded, randomized block design study to evaluate the onset and duration of four different mixtures of lidocaine and bupivacaine with epinephrine. The study was designed to achieve 80% power to detect an effect size of 0.37 at 5% overall significance. The four mixtures tested were: 0.25% bupivacaine with epinephrine (1:200,000); 1% lidocaine with epinephrine (1:100,000); 0.125% bupivacaine and 0.5% lidocaine with epinephrine (1:150,000); and 0.25% bupivacaine and 1% lidocaine with epinephrine (1:150,000). Four intradermal injections were made in the volar forearms of each participant. Time to effect and duration were measured by sensation of a sharp skin prick. RESULTS: Mean time to onset ranged from 12 s to 29 s without statistical significance across all tested solutions (P=0.891). Mean duration of effect ranged from 6 h 38 min to 7 h 25 min with a statistically significant difference across the tested solutions (P=0.036). CONCLUSIONS: No statistical benefit was measured when comparing lidocaine with epinephrine, bupivacaine with epinephrine, and mixtures of these local anesthetics with regard to onset of action. While a statistical difference was observed in duration of effect, the clinical benefit measured was narrow. PMID:24431939

  11. Peribulbar anesthesia. Effect of bicarbonate on mixtures of lidocaine, bupivacaine, and hyaluronidase with or without epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Zahl, K; Jordan, A; McGroarty, J; Sorensen, B; Gotta, A W

    1991-02-01

    The pH-adjustment of local anesthetic solutions with sodium bicarbonate may shorten onset time and improve spread of neural blockade. The authors undertook a prospective, double-masked, randomized study to see if a pH-adjusted mixture of lidocaine, bupivacaine, and hyaluronidase had faster and more complete onset of neural blockade, when used for peribulbar anesthesia. Eighty patients were randomly assigned to four groups and received a peribulbar block with one of four mixtures: group 1 (L) = 2% lidocaine, group 2 (LPH) = 2% lidocaine with 0.06 meq/ml sodium bicarbonate, group 3 (LE) = 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine (commercially prepared), or group 4 (LEPH) = 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine with 0.06 meq/ml sodium bicarbonate. To 5 ml of each of the preceding groups, 5 ml of 0.75% bupivacaine and 150 units of hyaluronidase was added. After each block, extraocular muscle movement was followed in each quadrant until akinesia developed. In the event of incomplete akinesia, blocks were supplemented at 20 minutes. The LPH group had the fastest onset to complete akinesia (7.0 +/- 2.0 minutes, mean +/- SEM) when compared with the onset time of all other groups (group 1 = 11.5 +/- 1.9 minutes, group 4 = 13.1 +/- 1.4 minutes, and group 3 = 16.0 +/- 1.8 minutes, significance greater than 95% by analysis of variance). Furthermore, when compared with group 3 by analysis of variance, group 4 had a faster onset time. The authors conclude that pH-adjustment of solutions with bicarbonate of either lidocaine/bupivacaine/hyaluronidase or commercially prepared lidocaine with epinephrine/bupivacaine/hyaluronidase decreases the onset time of peribulbar anesthesia.

  12. Regional myocardial lidocaine concentration following continuous intravenous infusion early and later after myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Zito, R.A.; Caride, V.J.; Holford, T.; Zaret, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    The regional concentration of lidocaine using a double constant infusion technique (250 micrograms/kg/min x 15 minutes followed by 35 micrograms/kg/mg/min x 120 minutes) was studied immediately (2 hours) in seven dogs and 24 hours (six dogs) after myocardial infarction. Tissue levels were determined by gas chromatography and related to regional myocardial blood flow as determined by the radioactive microsphere technique in multiple samples. At 2 hours after infarction a significantly higher lidocaine concentration (4.1 +/- 0.42 micrograms/g) was found in zones with greatly reduced blood flow (regional myocardial blood flow less than 0.2 ml/min per g) when compared with that (2.6 +/- 0.19 micrograms/g) in zones with normal blood flow (regional myocardial blood flow greater than 0.8 ml/min per g) (p less than 0.01). In contrast, in the 24 hour model the opposite situation was observed. Although the concentration of lidocaine in the infarct zone was substantial, a significant decline in lidocaine tissue concentration was found in the zones of lowest blood flow (regional myocardial blood flow less than 0.2 ml/min per g) when compared with that in normal zones (1.76 +/- 0.21 versus 3.38 +/- 0.21 micrograms/g, p less than 0.001). In addition, no significant differences in lidocaine concentrations were found between endocardium and epicardium in any of the groups other than those related to regional myocardial blood flow. Thus, with the double constant infusion technique, lidocaine reached normal and ischemic myocardium in concentrations equivalent to therapeutic plasma concentrations, even in lower infarct blood flow zones, with no significant differences between endocardium and epicardium. Of perhaps greater significance, the age of the ischemic insult is an important determinant of lidocaine tissue distribution in infarcted myocardium.

  13. Perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion on postoperative pain relief in patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Baral, B K; Bhattarai, B K; Rahman, T R; Singh, S N; Regmi, R

    2010-12-01

    Due to unpleasant nature and physiological consequences of postoperative pain, search of safe and effective modalities for its management has remained a subject of interest to clinical researchers. Analgesic action of lidocaine infusion in patients with chronic neuropathic pain is well known but its place in relieving postoperative pain is yet to be established. The study aimed to assess the effectiveness of perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion on postoperative pain intensity and analgesic requirement. Sixty patients undergoing major upper abdominal surgery were recruited in this randomized double blinded study. Thirty patients received lidocaine 2.0% (intravenous bolus 1.5 mg/kg followed by an infusion of 1.5 mg/kg/h), and 30 patients received normal saline according to randomization. The infusion started 30 min before skin incision and stopped 1 h after the end of surgery. Postoperative pain intensity and analgesic (diclofenac) requirement were assessed at the interval 15 minutes for 1 hour then 4 hourly up to 24 hours. The pain intensity at rest and movement as well as the total postoperative analgesic (diclofenac) requirement were significantly lower (142.50 +/- 37.80 mg vs.185.00 +/- 41.31 mg, P<0.001) in lidocaine group. The extubation time was significantly longer in lidocaine group (14.43 +/- 3.50 minutes vs. 6.73 +/- 1.76 minutes, P<0.001). The time for the first dose of analgesic requirement was longer in lidocaine group (60.97 +/- 18.05 minutes vs.15.73 +/- 7.46 minutes, P<0.001). It can be concluded that perioperative infusion of low dose of lidocaine decreases the intensity of postoperative pain, reduces the postoperative analgesic consumption, without causing significant adverse effects in patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery.

  14. Intraurethral Lidocaine for Urethral Catheterization in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Poonai, Naveen; Li, Jennifer; Langford, Cindy; Lepore, Natasha; Taddio, Anna; Gerges, Sandra; Stitt, Larry; Teefy, John; Manji, Karim; Castelo, Matt; Rieder, Michael; Qui, Tingting; Matsui, Doreen; Ali, Samina

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether lidocaine is superior to nonanesthetic lubricant (NAL) for relieving pain in children undergoing urethral catheterization (UC). Children 0 to 24 months requiring UC were randomized to NAL or topical and intraurethral 2% lidocaine gel. Primary outcome was facial grimacing in the pre to during drug administration and catheterization phases. Secondary outcome was caregiver satisfaction by using a Visual Analog Scale. There were 133 participants (n = 68 lidocaine, n = 65 NAL). There were no significant differences in mean (SD) scores during UC between lidocaine and NAL (86.4% [121.5%] vs 85.2% [126.6%]), respectively (Δ [confidence interval (CI)] = -1.2 [-21.0 to 49.0], P = .4). There was a significantly greater difference in mean (SD) scores during instillation of lidocaine versus NAL (61.8% [105.6%] vs 3.2% [84.9%]), respectively (Δ [CI] -58.6 [-95.0 to -32.0], P < .001). There were no significant differences in mean (SD) parental satisfaction scores between lidocaine and NAL (4.8 [3.2] vs 5.9 [2.9]), respectively (CI-0.1 to 2.2; P = .06). In the subgroup analysis, age, gender, and positive urine culture did not significantly influence between-group differences in facial grimacing. Compared with NAL, topical and intraurethral lidocaine is not associated with significant pain reduction during UC, but significantly greater pain during instillation. Therefore, clinicians may consider using noninvasive pain-reducing strategies for young children who require UC. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Effect of lidocaine volume and concentration on preventing incidence and severity of propofol injection pain.

    PubMed

    Gharavi, Mohammad; Sabzevari, Alireza; Ghorbanian, Ehsanolah; Sajadi, Rasoul; Akhondi, Mohsen

    2014-03-01

    Propofol is one of common anesthetic drugs used in anesthesia. The most common side effects of propofol are local pain. Pretreatment with lidocaine can reduce propofol injection pain. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare the efficiency of lidocaine 0.4% and 2% in reducing the incidence and severity of propofol injection pain. This was a double blind prospective clinical trial on children 4-8 years old with class ASA I and II candidates who were referred to Dr. Shaikh Hospital in Mashhad for elective surgery. Sample size calculated 50 patients in each groups based on pilot study. 100 children's were randomly divided equally in two groups, who were injected with lidocaine solutions 2% and 0.4% respectively. patient's pain evaluation based on VSD (verbal descriptor scale) and NRS (Numeric Rating Scale) using patient's verbal reaction and behavior namely fretting, hand drag and tearing. The collated data was analyzed. There was nosignificant difference as to the first three variables (age, gender and weight P > 0.2). The significant difference regarding pain experience in both groups was noteworthy (P > 0.2). Most of the studies compared lidocaine with other drugs or its efficiency at different doses. Our study is different in that we applied a constant dose of lidocaine in various volumes and concentration. This result shows that lidocaine with the same does but lower concentration and higher volume is more effective in preventing propofol injection pain. Using diluted lidocaine with the dosage of 1 mg/kg and a concentration of 0.4% is an effective way to relieve pain caused by propofol injection in children.

  16. Apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in human chondrocytes following exposure to lidocaine, bupivacaine, and ropivacaine.

    PubMed

    Grishko, Valentina; Xu, Min; Wilson, Glenn; Pearsall, Albert W

    2010-03-01

    Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain toxicity of local anesthetics to chondrocytes, including the blockade of potassium channels and mitochondrial injury. The purposes of this investigation were to study the effects of lidocaine, bupivacaine, and ropivacaine on human chondrocyte viability and mitochondrial function in vitro and to characterize the type of cell death elicited following exposure. Primary chondrocyte cultures from patients with osteoarthritis undergoing knee replacement were treated with saline solution and the following concentrations of local anesthetics: 2%, 1%, and 0.5% lidocaine, 0.5% and 0.25% bupivacaine, and 0.5% and 0.2% ropivacaine for one hour. Cell viability and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry at twenty-four hours and 120 hours after treatment. Nuclear staining and caspase 3 and 9 cleavage assays (Western blot) were used to further establish the induction of apoptosis. Mitochondrial dysfunction was evaluated by the accumulation of mitochondrial DNA damage (quantitative Southern blot), changes in adenosine triphosphate production (bioluminescence kit), and mitochondrial protein levels (Western blot analysis). Exposure of primary human chondrocytes to a 2% concentration of lidocaine caused massive necrosis of chondrocytes after twenty-four hours, 1% lidocaine and 0.5% bupivacaine caused a detectable, but not significant, decrease in viability after twenty-four hours, while 0.5% lidocaine, 0.25% bupivacaine, and both concentrations of ropivacaine (0.5% and 0.2%) did not affect chondrocyte viability. Flow cytometry analysis of chondrocytes 120 hours after drug treatment revealed a significant decrease in viability (p < 0.05) with a concomitant increase in the number of apoptotic cells at all concentrations of lidocaine, bupivacaine, and ropivacaine analyzed, except 0.2% ropivacaine. Apoptosis was verified by observation of condensed and fragmented nuclei and a decrease in procaspase 3 and 9 levels. Local anesthetics

  17. Reversal of visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in a subset of hypersensitive rats by intracolonic lidocaine

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, QiQi; Price, Donald D.; Verne, G. Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common gastrointestinal symptom experienced by patients. We have previously shown that IBS patients with visceral hypersensitivity also have evidence of thermal hypersensitivity of the hand and foot that is reversed by rectal lidocaine jelly. We have also recently developed an animal model of chronic visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in rats treated with intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of intracolonic lidocaine on visceral/somatic hypersensitivity in TNBS-treated rats. A total of 20 hypersensitive rats received either 20 mg intracolonic lidocaine (n = 10) or saline jelly (n = 10). In comparison to saline jelly, intracolonic lidocaine jelly reduced responses to nociceptive visceral/somatic stimuli in hypersensitive rats. The effects were present within 5–30 min after administration of lidocaine and lasted for 6 h. Lidocaine had no effects on recovered rats or control rats that had originally been treated with intracolonic saline instead of TNBS. Local anesthetic blockade of peripheral impulse input from the colon reduces both visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in TNBS-treated rats, similar to results in IBS patients. The results provide further evidence that visceral and secondary somatic hypersensitivity in a subset of TNBS-treated rats reflect central sensitization mechanisms maintained by tonic impulse input from the colon. This study evaluates the reversal of visceral/somatic hypersensitivity in a subset of TNBS-treated rats with intracolonic lidocaine. This animal model may be used in the future to study the mechanisms of local anesthetic agents applied to the gut to reduce visceral pain. PMID:18486344

  18. Beyond-use dating of lidocaine alone and in two "magic mouthwash" preparations.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Loren Madden; Brown, Stacy D; Luu, Yao; Ogle, Amanda; Huffman, Jessica; Lewis, Paul O

    2017-05-01

    Beyond-use dating (BUD) of lidocaine alone and in two "magic mouthwash" preparations stored in amber oral syringes at room temperature was determined. Two formulations of mouthwash containing oral topical lidocaine 2% (viscous), diphenhydramine 2.5 mg/mL, and aluminum hydroxide-magnesium hydroxide-simethicone were prepared in 1:1:1 and 1:2.5:2.5 ratios, divided into 3-mL samples, and stored in unit-dose oral amber syringes. Unit-dose single-product lidocaine samples were also prepared to serve as controls and stored in oral amber syringes. The lidocaine concentrations in these samples were measured periodically for 90 days. A stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for system suitability, accuracy, repeatability, intermediate precision, specificity, linearity, and robustness. Based on the calculated percentages versus the initial concentration and the results from an analysis of variance comparing the two formulations, a BUD of 21 days is deemed appropriate for both magic mouthwash formulations. Based on the stability data, published safety concerns, and lack of efficacy in combination, packaging and dispensing lidocaine separately from other ingredients are recommended when administering magic mouthwash mixtures. Utilizing a 90-day BUD, lidocaine can be packaged separately from other magic mouthwash ingredients in individual dosage units and applied to the oral cavity using the swish-and-spit method. The delivery of the diphenhydramine and aluminum hydroxide-magnesium hydroxide-simethicone could be separated, allowing for a swish-and-swallow method of administration. A BUD of 21 days is recommended for lidocaine prepared with diphenhydramine and aluminum hydroxide-magnesium hydroxide-simethicone in ratios of 1:1:1 and 1:2.5:2.5 and stored at room temperature in amber oral plastic syringes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Injectable microparticle-gel system for prolonged and localized lidocaine release. II. In vivo anesthetic effects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pen-Chung; Kohane, Daniel S; Park, Yoon Jeong; Bartlett, Robert H; Langer, Robert; Yang, Victor C

    2004-09-01

    Current treatment protocols for postoperative pain are beset by either the short duration of the anesthetic effect or requirement of hospitalization of the patients. We reported herein a novel treatment by applying to the surgical site a biodegradable microparticle-gel system for prolonged and localized release of encapsulated anesthetic drugs. In a previous publication, lidocaine-loaded poly(D,L-lactic acid) microspheres were fabricated and their formulations were optimized. In vitro characterization of these lidocaine-loaded microspheres, however, revealed a shortcoming of this system; that is, microspheres tend to fuse physically. Fusion of the microspheres could hinder their clinical applications, as it would clog the needle. In this article, we demonstrated that fabricating microspheres with high molecular weight (approximately 60 KDa) poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) would increase the glass transition temperature of the microspheres after lidocaine loading, thereby increasing their mechanical stability and eliminating their fusion during storage. Such microspheres containing 31% (w/w) lidocaine in the presence or absence of 25% (w/v) poloxamer 407 gel were then evaluated in vivo by monitoring the sensory and motor functions of the rats after sciatic nerve block, using the previously established hot-plate and weight-bearing testing methods. Results showed that microspheres formulated with poloxamer 407 gel yielded the longest duration of sensory and motor block for a period of approximately 8.5 h, compared to 5 h by microspheres in saline, 5 h by lidocaine in poloxamer 407 gel, and 2 h by lidocaine in saline. This study suggests that the microsphere-gel system containing lidocaine could potentially be applied clinically to the treatment of postoperative pain.

  20. Reduction of ischemic myocardial damage in the dog by lidocaine infusion.

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, R. G.; Stewart, G.; Strong, M.; Ruotolo, R.; Lemoie, G.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of lidocaine infusion on the ultrastructural damage induced in cardiac muscle by normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass were assessed in 15 dogs. Six dogs received no medication other than sodium pentobarbital (25 mg/kg, intravenously) while 9 dogs were treated with lidocaine after anesthesia. Lidocaine was given as a 2-mg/kg loading dose 10 minutes prior to ischemic arrest and a 2-mg/min continuous infusion during the entire experimental period. Biopsy samples of the left ventricular apex were taken 15 and 45 minutes after the start of ischemic arrest and 5 minutes after resumption of coronary blood flow. Biopsy samples were also obtained from 4 animals after thoracotomy to serve as controls for experimental procedures. Myocardial ultrastructure in the 4 control animals was comparable to that reported by other investigators. Five of 6 of the nontreated dogs and 8 of 9 lidocaine-treated dogs survived the entire period of ischemia and 5 minutes of coronary reperfusion. However, the extent of ultrastructural damage varied considerably between the two groups. In the experimental dogs receiving no lidocaine, mitochondria were swollen, cristae were absent, the mitochondrial matrix was cleared, and sarcomeres were disrupted. Myelin figures and contraction bands were also observed. None of the surviving lidocaine-treated animals had ultrastructural changes comparable to the worst ones in nontreated dogs. Damage was limited to some swelling of mitochondria with focal clearing of matrix. Most cristae remained intact. There were no myelin figures and few contraction bands. The results suggest that lidocaine protects the integrity of ischemic myocardium. It is suggested that this protection resulted from stabilization of plasma and/or mitochondrial membranes. (Am J Pathol 87:399-414, 1977). Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:851172

  1. Impact of intravenous lidocaine infusion on postoperative analgesia and recovery from surgery: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Grace C; Megalla, Sohair A; Habib, Ashraf S

    2010-06-18

    Postoperative pain continues to be inadequately managed. While opioids remain the mainstay for postoperative analgesia, their use can be associated with adverse effects, including ileus, which can prolong hospital stay. A number of studies have investigated the use of perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion for improving postoperative analgesia and enhancing recovery of bowel function. This systematic review was performed to determine the overall efficacy of intravenous lidocaine infusion on postoperative analgesia and recovery from surgery in patients undergoing various surgical procedures. We searched the databases of MEDLINE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library from 1966 to December 2009. We searched for randomized controlled comparisons of lidocaine infusion with placebo in the surgical setting and reporting on postoperative analgesia and other aspects of patient recovery from surgery. The quality of all included studies was assessed using the Modified Oxford Scale. Information on postoperative pain intensity and analgesic requirements was extracted from the trials and compared qualitatively. Other relevant data such as return of bowel function, length of hospital stay, intraoperative anaesthetic requirement and adverse effects were also compared. Sixteen trials were included. A total of 395 patients received intravenous lidocaine with 369 controls. In open and laparoscopic abdominal surgery, as well as in ambulatory surgery patients, intravenous perioperative infusion of lidocaine resulted in significant reductions in postoperative pain intensity and opioid consumption. Pain scores were reduced at rest and with cough or movement for up to 48 hours postoperatively. Opioid consumption was reduced by up to 85% in lidocaine-treated patients when compared with controls. Infusion of lidocaine also resulted in earlier return of bowel function, allowing for earlier rehabilitation and shorter duration of hospital stay. First flatus occurred up to 23 hours earlier

  2. Lidocaine response rate in aEEG-confirmed neonatal seizures: Retrospective study of 413 full-term and preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Weeke, Lauren C; Toet, Mona C; van Rooij, Linda G M; Groenendaal, Floris; Boylan, Geraldine B; Pressler, Ronit M; Hellström-Westas, Lena; van den Broek, Marcel P H; de Vries, Linda S

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the seizure response rate to lidocaine in a large cohort of infants who received lidocaine as second- or third-line antiepileptic drug (AED) for neonatal seizures. Full-term (n = 319) and preterm (n = 94) infants, who received lidocaine for neonatal seizures confirmed on amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), were studied retrospectively (January 1992-December 2012). Based on aEEG findings, the response was defined as good (>4 h no seizures, no need for rescue medication); intermediate (0-2 h no seizures, but rescue medication needed after 2-4 h); or no clear response (rescue medication needed <2 h). Lidocaine had a good or intermediate effect in 71.4%. The response rate was significantly lower in preterm (55.3%) than in full-term infants (76.1%, p < 0.001). In full-term infants the response to lidocaine was significantly better than midazolam as second-line AED (21.4% vs. 12.7%, p = 0.049), and there was a trend for a higher response rate as third-line AED (67.6% vs. 57%, p = 0.086). Both lidocaine and midazolam had a higher response rate as third-line AED than as second-line AED (p < 0.001). Factors associated with a good response to lidocaine were the following: higher gestational age, longer time between start of first seizure and administration of lidocaine, lidocaine as third-line AED, use of new lidocaine regimens, diagnosis of stroke, use of digital aEEG, and hypothermia. Multivariable analysis of seizure response to lidocaine included lidocaine as second- or third-line AED and seizure etiology. Seizure response to lidocaine was seen in ~70%. The response rate was influenced by gestational age, underlying etiology, and timing of administration. Lidocaine had a significantly higher response rate than midazolam as second-line AED, and there was a trend for a higher response rate as third-line AED. Both lidocaine and midazolam had a higher response rate as third-line compared to second-line AED, which could be due to a pharmacologic synergistic

  3. Lidocaine cytotoxicity to the zygapophysial joints in rabbits: changes in cell viability and proteoglycan metabolism in vitro.

    PubMed

    Takeno, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Seiichiro; Kubota, Masafumi; Meir, Adam; Urban, Jill; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2009-12-15

    STUDY DESIGN.: To examine whether lidocaine cytotoxicity to chondrocytes has been implicated in the development of osteoarthritis of the zygapophysial joints. OBJECTIVE.: This study was performed to determine the effects of varying concentrations and exposure times of lidocaine on the viability and proteoglycan metabolism of rabbit zygapophysial chondrocytes in vitro. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Zygapophysial joint injections are commonly administered with lidocaine for chronic spinal pain in orthopedic treatment. A lot of studies on the effect of zygapophysial joint injections are clinical, but many questions on the effect of lidocaine to zygapophysial chondrocytes remain unanswered. METHODS.: Cartilage was obtained from zygapophysial joints of adult rabbits. Chondrocytes in alginate beads were cultured in medium containing 6% fetal calf serum at 370 mOsmol at cell densities of 4 million cells/mL. They were then cultured for 24 hours under 21% oxygen with 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% lidocaine, and without lidocaine as control. The cell viability profile across intact beads was determined by manual counting using fluorescent probes (LIVE/DEAD assay) and transmission electron microscopy. Lactate production was measured enzymatically as a marker of energy metabolism. Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation was measured using a modified dimethylmethylene blue assay. RESULTS.: Cell viability decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner in the concentration range of 0.125% to 1.0% lidocaine under the confocal microscope. Under the electron microscope, apoptosis increased as the concentration of lidocaine increased. GAG accumulation/tissue volume decreases as the concentration of lidocaine increased. However, GAG produced per million cells and the rate of lactate production per live cell was significantly higher for cells cultured at 0.5% and 1% lidocaine than the control group. CONCLUSION.: While these in vitro results cannot be directly extrapolated to the clinical

  4. Comparison of the Effects of Lidocaine Prilocaine Cream (EMLA) and Lidocaine Injection on Reduction of Perineal Pain During Perineum Repair in Normal Vaginal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kargar, Roxana; Aghazadeh-Nainie, Afsaneh; Khoddami-Vishteh, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of EMLA cream and lidocaine injection to reduce pain during episiotomy repair. Materials and methods: A total of 46 primiparous women with normal pregnancy who referred for normal vaginal delivery and needed episiotomy repair were selected and randomly divided into two groups. For EMLA group, one hour before the estimated time of delivery, 5g of EMLA cream was applied to perinealmediolateral incision, and after the delivery of the fetus and placenta, again 5g of EMLA cream was applied to healthy skin around the episiotomy for repair. In the other group, lidocaine 2% was used before episiotomy and for its repair, too. Results: Only 8 people (19%) were in need of further analgesia. The mean ± SD of pain during repair of episiotomy on the VAS scale in all cases was 4.2 ± 2.3 cm. Most people (97%) were satisfied with their episiotomy repair. Comparing the two groups of EMLA and lidocaine, there was no difference between the two groups in terms of the duration of episiotomy repair, need for further analgesia, pain on the VAS scale, and satisfaction with the repair method. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the use of EMLA cream in the site of episiotomy incision in primiparous women can induce a level of analgesia equal to that of lidocaine, and cause a similar level of satisfaction. PMID:27385970

  5. Microdialysis and Delivery of Iontophoresis-Driven Lidocaine Into the Human Gastrocnemius Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Coglianese, Mark; Draper, David O.; Shurtz, Joseph; Mark, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Context: Iontophoresis is used frequently in physical medicine and rehabilitation, but many research techniques do not adequately measure it for depth of medicine delivery. Objective: To determine if iontophoresis delivers lidocaine 5 mm under the surface of human skin. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Therapeutic modalities research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eight men and 5 women volunteers (age range = 21 ± 2.3 years) who had less than 5 mm of adipose tissue in the area we measured participated in the study. Intervention(s): We inserted a microdialysis probe 5 mm under the skin of both legs and into the triceps surae muscle groups of 10 participants. Microdialysis was performed for 60 minutes to allow a recovery period for local skin blood flow to return to baseline. We then delivered 2 mL of 1% lidocaine to the treatment leg via iontophoresis at 40 mA/min. Next, microdialysis was performed continuously in both legs during the treatment and for 30 minutes posttreatment to collect the lidocaine samples. After we had gathered the samples, several saline solutions with various amounts of lidocaine (0.005%, 0.025%, 0.05%, and 0.1%) were prepared in vitro and analyzed. Although we did not intend to do so as a part of the original study, we also performed an identical follow-up study at 3 mm in 3 participants. Main Outcome Measure(s): Both in vitro and in vivo samples were analyzed via reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). A protocol for detection and quantification of lidocaine using RP-HPLC was followed. Results: We did not detect any measurable levels or concentrations of lidocaine in the 10 control samples. According to the RP-HPLC analysis, the 10 treatment samples also were negative for the presence of lidocaine. However, when we performed the study at 3 mm, microdialysis detected lidocaine in the 3 participants at this depth in the treatment leg only. Conclusions: Measurable levels of lidocaine were not

  6. Paraspinous Lidocaine Injection for Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Marta; Imamura, Satiko Tomikawa; Targino, Rosa Alves; Morales-Quezada, León; Onoda Tomikawa, Luis C.; Onoda Tomikawa, Luis G.; Alfieri, Fabio M.; Filippo, Thais R.; da Rocha, Ivan D.; Neto, Raul Bolliger; Fregni, Felipe; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo

    2016-01-01

    In this large, sham-controlled, randomized trial, we examined the efficacy of the combination of standard treatment and paraspinous lidocaine injection compared with standard therapy alone in subjects with chronic low back pain. There is little research-based evidence for the routine clinical use of paraspinous lidocaine injection for low back pain. A total of 378 subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain were randomized to 3 groups: paraspinous lidocaine injection, analgesics, and exercises (group 1, LID-INJ); sham paraspinous lidocaine injection, analgesics, and exercises (group 2, SH-INJ); and analgesics and exercises (group 3, STD-TTR). A blinded rater assessed the study outcomes at 3 time points: baseline, after treatment, and after 3 months of follow-up. There were increased frequency of pain responses and better low back functional scores in the LID-INJ group compared with the SH-INJ and STD-TTR groups. These effects remained at the 3-month follow-up but differed between all 3 groups. There were significant changes in pain threshold immediately after treatment, supporting the effects of this intervention in reducing central sensitization. Paraspinous lidocaine injection therapy is not associated with a higher risk of adverse effects compared with conventional treatment and sham injection. Its effects on hyperalgesia might correlate with changes in central sensitization. PMID:26828801

  7. Lidocaine inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer by regulating the expression of GOLT1A.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Hu, Rong; Cheng, Yanyong; Wu, Xiaoyang; Xi, Siwei; Sun, Yu; Jiang, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Lidocaine is the most commonly used local anaesthetic in clinical and can inhibit proliferation, suppress invasion and migration and induce apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) cells. However, its specific downstream molecular mechanism is unclear. LAD cell lines, A549 and H1299 cells, were treated with lidocaine. The proliferation was evaluated by the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assay. The expression level of related proteins was detected by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Western blot assay. The results indicated that lidocaine dose-dependently suppressed the proliferation of A549 and H1299 cells. In the LAD patients' samples, GOLT1A was upregulated and involved in the poor prognosis and higher grade malignancy. Additionally, GOLT1A mediates the function of lidocaine on repressing proliferation by regulating the cell cycle in A549 cells. Our findings suggest that lidocaine downregulates the GOLT1A expression to repress the proliferation of lung cancer cells. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Rapid, needle-free delivery of lidocaine for reducing the pain of venipuncture among pediatric subjects.

    PubMed

    Migdal, Marek; Chudzynska-Pomianowska, Elzbieta; Vause, Elizabeth; Henry, Eugenia; Lazar, Jeffrey

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal configuration of an investigational, single-use, needle-free, drug system (ALGRX 3268) that delivers powdered lidocaine into the epidermis for the rapid production of local anesthesia among pediatric subjects undergoing venipuncture. Children 3 to 18 years of age were randomly allocated to receive 1 of 3 treatments, ie, (1) placebo, (2) a system configured to deliver 0.25 mg of lidocaine, or (3) a system configured to deliver 0.5 mg of lidocaine, at the antecubital fossa 2 to 3 minutes before venipuncture. Three age groups were included, ie, 3 to 7 years, 8 to 12 years, and 13 to 18 years. Two sets of pain rating scales were used, the Faces Pain Scale-Revised for the youngest age stratum and a visual analog scale for the oldest age stratum. Children in the middle age stratum used both scales. One-hundred forty-four subjects completed the study. For all ages combined, there was a statistically significant and clinically meaningful reduction in pain scores for subjects who received 0.5 mg of lidocaine, compared with placebo. The reduction in pain after 0.25 mg of lidocaine did not achieve statistical significance. Both active configurations were safe and well tolerated by pediatric subjects undergoing venipuncture at the antecubital fossa. ALGRX 3268 at 0.5 mg, administered 2 to 3 minutes before venipuncture, produced significantly lower pain scores, compared with placebo.

  9. Effect of epinephrine and lidocaine therapy on outcome after cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Weaver, W D; Fahrenbruch, C E; Johnson, D D; Hallstrom, A P; Cobb, L A; Copass, M K

    1990-12-01

    One hundred ninety-nine patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest persisted in ventricular fibrillation after the first defibrillation attempt and were then randomly assigned to receive either epinephrine or lidocaine before the next two shocks. The resulting electrocardiographic rhythms and outcomes for each group of patients were compared for each group and also compared with results during the prior 2 years, a period when similar patients primarily received sodium bicarbonate as initial adjunctive therapy. Asystole occurred after defibrillation with threefold frequency after repeated injection of lidocaine (15 of 59, 25%) compared with patients treated with epinephrine (four of 55, 7%) (p less than 0.02). There was no difference in the proportion of patients resuscitated after treatment with either lidocaine or epinephrine (51 of 106, 48% vs. 50 of 93, 54%) and in the proportion surviving (18, 19% vs. 21, 20%), respectively. Resuscitation (64% vs. 50%, p less than 0.005) but not survival rates (24% vs. 20%) were higher during the prior 2-year period in which initial adjunctive drug treatment for persistent ventricular fibrillation primarily consisted of a continuous infusion of sodium bicarbonate. The negative effect of lidocaine or epinephrine treatment was explained in part by their influence on delaying subsequent defibrillation attempts. Survival rates were highest (30%) in a subset of patients who received no drug therapy between shocks. We conclude that currently recommended doses of epinephrine and lidocaine are not useful for improving outcome in patients who persist in ventricular fibrillation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Paced mating behavior is affected by clitoral-vaginocervical lidocaine application in combination with sexual experience.

    PubMed

    Meerts, Sarah H; Strnad, Helen K; Schairer, Rosemary S

    2015-03-01

    The present study tested the effects of lidocaine anesthetic ointment applied to the vaginocervical (Experiment 1) or clitoral-vaginocervical (Experiment 2) areas on the display of paced mating behavior over the course of five weekly tests in ovariectomized, hormone-primed, Long-Evans rats. Experiment 3 tested whether rats that acquired sexual experience without ointment application would exhibit altered paced mating behavior on a fifth test under clitoral-vaginocervical lidocaine or vehicle application. Although rats in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 exhibited shorter contact-return latencies after intromission and reduced likelihood of leaving the male compartment following mounts and intromissions after gaining sexual experience, only rats that received clitoral-vaginocervical lidocaine exhibited altered paced mating behavior relative to vehicle. Specifically, clitoral-vaginocervical lidocaine resulted in shorter contact-return latency to ejaculation and greater percentage of time with the male. Paced mating behavior of sexually experienced rats in Experiment 3 was not disrupted when tested after clitoral-vaginocervical lidocaine treatment. Together, these studies suggest that the sensory input during repeated mating encounters affects the pattern of paced mating behavior that develops with sexual experience.

  11. [Topical pharmacologic approach with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in the treatment of localized neuropathic pain].

    PubMed

    Provinciali, L; Lattanzi, S; Chiarlone, R; Fogliardi, A; Intelligente, F; Irace, C; Lanzilotta, M; Palomba, R; Storelli, E; Zampi, M

    2014-12-01

    The treatment of neuropathic pain is a medical challenge. The responsiveness to the different classes of drugs is often unsatisfactory and frequently associated to a wide range of side effects. International guidelines suggest for the "localized" neuropathic pain the topical treatment with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster, alone or associated to systemic drugs, as the first choice since its favorable efficacy and tolerability profile. Many clinical experiences support the rationale for using 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in different kinds of localized neuropathic pain, such as postherpetic and trigeminal neuralgia, compressive syndromes, painful diabetic polyneuropathy and pain secondary to trauma or surgical interventions. This paper reports a series of clinical cases whose heterogeneity suggests the wide burden of applicability of the topical 5% lidocaine, either alone and associated to systemic drugs. All the described conditions were characterized by a highly intense pain, not adequately controlled by actual medications, which improved after the use of topical lidocaine. The good response to lidocaine allowed the reduction, of even the withdrawal, of concurrent drugs and improved the patients' quality of life.

  12. [The analgesic effect of intravenous lidocaine in the treatment of chronic pain: a literature review].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Maiara Ferreira; Kraychete, Durval Campos

    2014-01-01

    Pain is a public health problem, greatly impairing quality of life. Almost 80% of patients with chronic pain reported that their pain interferes with activities of daily living, and two thirds reported that the pain causes negative impact on their personal relationships. The physical and functional disability, whether temporary or permanent, compromises the professional activity and causes work absenteeism, increasing costs of health systems. The aim of this review is to analyze, based on the literature, the analgesic effect of lidocaine administered intravenously for the treatment of chronic pain and to evaluate the reduction of pain intensity in patients with chronic pain, focusing on musculoskeletal and neuropathic etiology. The method used was a review of the literature, consisting in searching the scientific literature on the efficacy of intravenous lidocaine infusion in the treatment of patients with chronic pain. Of the 19 studies reviewed, 12 had results that confirm the analgesic effect of intravenous lidocaine in patients with chronic pain. Most authors used doses of 5mg/kg infused for 30minutes or more, producing significant analgesia with variable duration (minutes to weeks). Based on the literature review, it is not possible to uniformly specify the most effective and safe dose of lidocaine administered intravenously for the treatment of neuropathic or musculoskeletal pain. As for effectiveness, the intravenous infusion of lidocaine as an alternative for the treatment of chronic pain of various etiologies seems very promising, but further studies need to be conducted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Modulation of Dendritic Cell Activation and Subsequent Th1 Cell Polarization by Lidocaine

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yeonseok

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells play an essential role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity by recognizing cellular stress including pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns and by shaping the types of antigen-specific T cell immunity. Although lidocaine is widely used in clinical settings that trigger cellular stress, it remains unclear whether such treatment impacts the activation of innate immune cells and subsequent differentiation of T cells. Here we showed that lidocaine inhibited the production of IL–6, TNFα and IL–12 from dendritic cells in response to toll-like receptor ligands including lipopolysaccharide, poly(I:C) and R837 in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the differentiation of Th1 cells was significantly suppressed by the addition of lidocaine while the same treatment had little effect on the differentiation of Th17, Th2 and regulatory T cells in vitro. Moreover, lidocaine suppressed the ovalbumin-specific Th1 cell responses in vivo induced by the adoptive transfer of ovalbumin-pulsed dendritic cells. These results demonstrate that lidocaine inhibits the activation of dendritic cells in response to toll-like receptor signals and subsequently suppresses the differentiation of Th1 cell responses. PMID:26445366

  14. E. coli endotoxin shock in the dog; treatment with lidocaine or indomethacin.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, J R; Ramwell, P W

    1978-01-01

    1 Dogs treated with lidocaine (1 mg kg-1 h-1) or indomethacin (1.5 mg/kg) before and after an LD60 dose (1 mg/kg) of E. coli endotoxin survived for at least 72 h. 2 Although all dogs in both treated groups survived, only those treated with indomethacin were significantly protected against the fall in the arterial blood pressure 1 to 2 min following endotoxin administration. 3 Endotoxin increased the plasma prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) concentration in the control and lidocaine-treated groups, however, no increase was observed with indomethacin treatment. 4 Neither lidocaine nor indomethacin alone had any significant effect on the parameters measured in this model. 5 Following the administration of endotoxin, lidocaine-treated animals had significantly decreased plasma fibrinogen concentrations when compared to the other groups. 6 This study suggests that lidocaine, a local anaesthetic and a drug widely used for cardiac arrhythmias, might offer protection in endotoxin shock. PMID:361135

  15. A comparison of the anesthetic efficacy of articaine and lidocaine in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    PubMed

    Tortamano, Isabel Peixoto; Siviero, Marcelo; Costa, Carina Gisele; Buscariolo, Inês Aparecida; Armonia, Paschoal Laércio

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine with that of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine during pulpectomy in patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular posterior teeth. Forty volunteers, patients with irreversible pulpitis admitted to the Emergency Center of the School of Dentistry at the University of São Paulo, randomly received a conventional inferior alveolar nerve block containing 3.6 mL of either 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. During the subsequent pulpectomy, we recorded the patients' subjective assessments of lip anesthesia, the absence/presence of pulpal anesthesia through electric pulp stimulation, and the absence/presence of pain through a verbal analogue scale. All tested patients reported lip anesthesia after the application of either inferior alveolar nerve block. Regarding pulpal anesthesia success as measured with the pulp tester, the lidocaine solution had a higher success rate (70%) than the articaine solution (65%). For patients reporting none or mild pain during pulpectomy, the success rate of the articaine solution (65%) was higher than that of the lidocaine solution (45%). Yet, none of the observed differences between articaine and lidocaine were statistically significant. Apparently, therefore, both local anesthetic solutions had similar effects on the patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular posterior teeth. Neither of the solutions, however, resulted in an effective pain control during irreversible pulpitis treatments.

  16. Lidocaine does not prevent bispectral index increases in response to endotracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woon-Young; Lee, Yoon-Sook; Ok, Se-Jin; Chang, Moon-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Park, Young-Cheol; Lim, Hye-Ja

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effect of IV lidocaine on the hemodynamic and bispectral index responses to induction of general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation. Forty patients (ASA I) were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 20 to receive normal saline or lidocaine 1.5 mg/kg IV 30 s after induction. Ninety seconds later, endotracheal intubation was performed. Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and bispectral index were measured at baseline, 1 min after induction, at preintubation, and every minute until 5 min after endotracheal intubation. Bispectral index at 1 min after induction and preintubation in the lidocaine group were significantly lower compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Systolic blood pressure increased significantly at 1 and 2 min after intubation in the control group compared with the baseline value (P < 0.05) but did not increase significantly in the lidocaine group. Heart rate increased at 1 to 3 min in both groups (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the two groups. One patient in the control group had recall of the procedure. We conclude that the administration of IV lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg) does not suppress the hypnotic response to endotracheal intubation.

  17. Effect of charged lidocaine on static and dynamic properties of model bio-membranes.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zheng; Nagao, Michihiro; Bossev, Dobrin P

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the charged lidocaine on the structure and dynamics of DMPC/DMPG (mass fraction of 95/5) unilamellar vesicles has been investigated. Changes in membrane organization caused by the presence of lidocaine were detected through small angle neutron scattering experiments. Our results suggest that the presence of lidocaine in the vicinity of the headgroups of lipid membranes leads to an increase of the area per lipid molecule and to a decrease of membrane thickness. Such changes in membrane structure may induce disordering of the tail group. This scenario explains the reduction of the main transition temperature of lipid membranes, as the fraction of lidocaine per lipid molecules increases, which was evident from differential scanning calorimetry results. Furthermore neutron spin echo spectroscopy was used for the dynamics measurements and the results reveal that presence of charged lidocaine increases the bending elasticity of the lipid membranes in the fluid phase and slows the temperature-dependent change of bending elasticity across the main transition temperature.

  18. Determination and temperature effects of lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride, epinephrine, methylparaben, 2,6-dimethylaniline, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in USP lidocaine injection by ion-pair reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.

    1981-05-01

    USP Lidocaine injection was assayed using ion-pair high pressure liquid chromatography with an octylsilane (RP-8) reversed-phase column packing and a mobile phase consisting of D-10-camphorsulfonic acid/methanol/acetic acid/water. The effect of temperature was investigated to determine the optimum temperature for separating the drug components and their degradation products. Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride, epinephrine, methylparaben, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were separated at 50 degrees C. 2,6-Dimethylaniline was separated from lidocaine at 15 degrees C. An aliquot of the sample was injected directly into the liquid chromatograph, and after separation the compounds were quantitated by their spectrophotometric response at 254 nm (lidocaine) or 280 nm (lidocaine plus epinephrine).

  19. Determination and temperature effects of lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride, epinephrine, methylparaben, 2,6-dimethylaniline, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in USP lidocaine injection by ion-pair reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J

    1981-05-01

    USP Lidocaine injection was assayed using ion-pair high pressure liquid chromatography with an octylsilane (RP-8) reversed-phase column packing and a mobile phase consisting of D-10-camphorsulfonic acid/methanol/acetic acid/water. The effect of temperature was investigated to determine the optimum temperature for separating the drug components and their degradation products. Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride, epinephrine, methylparaben, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were separated at 50 degrees C. 2,6-Dimethylaniline was separated from lidocaine at 15 degrees C. An aliquot of the sample was injected directly into the liquid chromatograph, and after separation the compounds were quantitated by their spectrophotometric response at 254 nm (lidocaine) or 280 nm (lidocaine plus epinephrine).

  20. Caspase-2 and microRNA34a/c regulate lidocaine-induced dorsal root ganglia apoptosis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Yandong; Jia, Zhi; Zhang, Laizhu; Wang, Jianguo; Yin, Guangming

    2015-11-15

    Epidural administration of lidocaine may cause neurotoxicity in spinal cord dorsal root ganglia neurons (DRGNs). In this study, we explored the underling mechanisms of apoptotic pathways of lidocaine-induced apoptosis in DRGNs. Neonatal rat DRGNs were treated with lidocaine to induced apoptosis in vitro. Western blot showed caspase- (casp-) 2/3/9 proteins were all upregulated by lidocaine in DRGNs. However, inhibition of casp-2 protected lidocaine-induced apoptosis in DRGNs, whereas Casp3/9 inhibition did not. The possible upstream epigenetic regulators of casp-2, microRNA-34 (miR-34) family, including miR-34a/b/c, were evaluated by dual-luciferase reporter assay and qRT-PCR. We found miR-34a/c, but not miR-34b, were down-regulated in lidocaine-induced DRGN apoptosis. Subsequent upregulation of miR-34 family showed miR-34a/c were able to inhibit casp-2 and protect lidocaine-induced apoptosis in DRGNs, whereas miR-34b did not. Thus, out study shows that casp-2, in association with miR-34a/c was actively involved in lidocaine-induced apoptosis in DRGNs. Inhibiting casp-2 or upregulating miR-34a/c may provide novel meanings to protect local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in the lidocaine-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Kehan; Han, Xuechang

    2015-05-01

    Lidocaine has been indicated to promote apoptosis and to promote endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, the mechanism underlining ER stress-mediated apoptosis is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the promotion to ER stress in the lidocaine-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Firstly, we confirmed that lidocaine treatment induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells, time-dependently and dose-dependently, via MTT cell viability assay and annexin V/FITC apoptosis detection with a FACScan flow cytometer. And the anti-apoptosis Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were downregulated, whereas the apoptosis-executive caspase 3 was promoted through Western blot assay and caspase 3 activity assay. Moreover, the ER stress-associated binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP), PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) were also upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels by lidocaine treatment. On the other hand, downregulation of the ER stress-associated BiP by RNAi method not only blocked the lidocaine-promoted ER stress but also attenuated the lidocaine-induced SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the present study confirmed the involvement of ER stress in the lidocaine-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Our study provides a better understanding on the mechanism of lidocaine's neurovirulence.

  2. Topical lidocaine patch 5% for acute postoperative pain control.

    PubMed

    Gilhooly, D; McGarvey, B; O'Mahony, H; O'Connor, T C

    2011-02-08

    A 39-year-old para 3 woman presented for elective caesarean section (lower segment caesarean section (LSCS)) for breech presentation. The patient had a strong history of atopy and anaphylaxis to paracetamol, codeine, penicillin and latex. The patient was asthmatic, triggered by aspirin. Epidural anaesthesia was unsuccessful and LSCS was carried out under spinal anaesthesia. Postoperatively the patient was unwilling to take analgesic medication due to fear of an allergic reaction. Three 5% lidocaine patches were applied to the wound for postoperative analgesia. This reduced the patient's visual analogue scale pain score from 10/10 to 5/10 at rest and 10/10 to 7/10 with movement. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation was added and this improved associated back pain, reducing the pain further to 2/10. This is the first description of lignocaine patch 5% for postoperative LSCS pain. It is suggested that this method of delivery of local anaesthetic, which is easy to apply and has minimal side effects, should be considered not as a sole agent but as part of a multimodal technique to address postoperative LSCS pain.

  3. Liposomal formulations of prilocaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine prolong analgesic duration.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Cíntia Maria Saia; Brunetto, Giovana Bruschini; de Araújo, Daniele Ribeiro; de Paula, Eneida

    2006-11-01

    A laboratory investigation was undertaken to compare the in vivo antinociceptive effects of 2% liposomal formulations of prilocaine (PLC), lidocaine (LDC) and mepivacaine (MVC) compared to plain solutions of each of these three local anesthetics. Large unilamellar vesicles were prepared by extrusion (400 nm), at pH 7.4. The membrane/water partition coefficients were obtained from encapsulation efficiency values, after incorporation of each local anesthetic to the vesicles. The anesthetic effect of each liposomal formulation was compared to the respective local anesthetic solution in water, using the infraorbital nerve-blockade test, in rats. The partition coefficients were: 57 for PLC, 114 for LDC and 93 for MVC. In vivo results showed that local anesthetic-free liposomes, used as control, had no analgesic effect. In contrast, the encapsulated formulations induced increased intensities of total anesthetic effect (35.3%, 26.1% and 57.1%) and time for recovery (percentage increases of 30%, 23.1% and 56%), respectively, for PLC, LDC and MVC when compared to the plain solutions (P < 0.01). These results indicate that liposomes provide effective drug-delivery systems for intermediate-duration local anesthetics. Mepivacaine was affected to the greatest extent, while LDC benefited least from liposome encapsulation, possibly due to greater vasodilatory properties of LDC.

  4. Simultaneous micellar LC determination of lidocaine and tolperisone.

    PubMed

    Youngvises, Napaporn; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2003-03-26

    A micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) procedure was developed for the simultaneous separation and determination of lidocaine hydrochloride (LD HCl) and tolperisone hydrochloride (TP HCl) using a short-column C18 (12.5 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with a small amount of isopropanol, and diode array detector. The optimum conditions for the simultaneous determination of both drugs were 0.075 mol l(-1) SDS-7.5% (v/v) isopropanol with a flow rate of 0.7 ml min(-1) and detection at 210 nm. The LOD (2S/N) of LD HCl was 0.73 ng 20 microl(-1), whereas that of TP HCl was 1.43 ng 20 microl(-1). The calibration curves for LD HCl and TP HCl were linear over the ranges 0.125-500 microg ml(-1) (r(2)=0.9999) and 1.00-500 microg ml(-1) (r(2)=0.9997), respectively. The %recoveries of both drugs were in the range 98-103% and the %RSD values were less than 2. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of TP HCl and LD HCl in various pharmaceutical preparations.

  5. Alkalinized lidocaine versus lidocaine gel as local anesthesia prior to intra-vesical botulinum toxin (BoNTA) injections: A prospective, single center, randomized, double-blind, parallel group trial of efficacy and morbidity.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Arjun K; Younis, Ayman; Khan, Zainab A; Hildrup, Iona; Emery, Simon J; Lucas, Malcolm G

    2016-04-01

    To assess the efficacy and morbidity of alkalinized lidocaine solution compared to lidocaine gel for intra-vesical anesthesia during botulinum toxin (BoNTA) injections in a statistically powered, prospective, parallel group, double-blind randomized controlled trial. Fifty-four patients of either sex were randomized to receive either alkalinized lidocaine (AL) solution (10 ml 8.4% sodium bicarbonate + 20 ml 2% lidocaine solution + 22 ml sterile Aquagel®) or lidocaine gel (LG) (22 ml standard 2% lidocaine gel Instillagel® + 30 ml 0.9% normal saline solution). Primary outcome was average pain (assessed by 100 mm visual analog score) felt during intra-vesical BoNTA injections performed at least 20 min after instillation. Secondary outcome was the rate of adverse events. Of 60 randomized patients 54 received the allocated intervention and were analyzed. Mean pain score in the AL group was 17.11 mm (95%CI 8.65-25.57 mm) and in the LG group was 19.53 mm (95%CI 13.03-26.03mm) with no significant difference between the groups. Cost of interventional medication in the AL group was almost double that of the LG group. No adverse events were attributable to local anesthetic instillation in either group. Alkalinized lidocaine solution is not superior to lidocaine gel for anesthesia during intra-vesical BoNTA injections, and the higher cost precludes its use over lidocaine gel at our centre. We have used the results of this study to adapt our local protocol for BoNTA injections and continue to use lidocaine gel as the local anesthetic of choice. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:522-527, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Prolonged epidural analgesia induced by clopheline in combination with lidocaine in obstetric analgesia].

    PubMed

    Semenikhin, A A; En Din Kim; Kurbanov, S D

    1998-01-01

    The study was carried out in 178 women without grave obstetrical or extragenital diseases. In group 1 labor pain was relieved by prolonged epidural anesthesia with 2% lidocaine solution (2-2.5 mg/kg), in group 2 prolonged epidural anesthesia with 1% lidocaine solution (1 mg/kg) and 0.01% clofelin (1 microgram/kg) was administered. Central hemodynamics, heart rhythm, external respiration function, uterine contractility, and fetal intrauterine status were assessed. The findings indicate that none of the methods had a negative impact on the vital parameters of women and newborns at any stage of anesthesia. However, a combination of epidural clofelin (1 microgram/kg) with lidocaine permits an appreciable decrease in the doses of both drugs without decreasing the efficacy of anesthesia. This method has a favorable effect on the course of labor: the mouth of the womb opens sooner at a lower uterine activity and there are no negative effects on the fetus and newborn.

  7. Dental anesthesia for patients with allergic reactions to lidocaine: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiseon; Lee, Ju-Young; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Seo, Kwang-Suk

    2016-09-01

    Lidocaine, a local anesthetic commonly used in dental treatments, is capable of causing allergies or adverse effects similar to allergic reactions. However, the frequency of such occurrences in actual clinical settings is very rare, and even clinical tests on patients with known allergies to local anesthetics may often show negative results. When adverse effects, such as allergy to lidocaine, are involved, patients can be treated by testing other local anesthetics and choosing a local anesthetic without any adverse effects, or by performing dental treatment under general anesthesia in cases in which no local anesthetic without adverse effects is available. Along with a literature review, the authors of the present study report on two cases of patients who tested positive on allergy skin tests for lidocaine and bupivacaine and subsequently underwent successful dental treatments with either general anesthesia or a different local anesthetic.

  8. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of lidocaine for persistent hiccup in advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaneishi, Keisuke; Kawabata, Masahiro

    2013-03-01

    Persistent hiccup can cause anorexia, weight loss, disabling sleep deprivation, anxiety, and depression. Therefore, relief of persistent hiccup is important for advanced cancer patients and their family. Most reports on this condition are case series reports advocating the use of baclofen, haloperidol, gabapentin, and midazolam. However, these medications are occasionally ineffective or accompanied by intolerable side effects. The sodium channel blocker lidocaine has been shown to be effective in treating a variety of disorders thought to involve neuropathic mechanisms. Intravenous administration of lidocaine is common but efficacy has also been reported for subcutaneous infusion. In advanced cancer patients, subcutaneous infusion is easy, advantageous, and accompanied by less discomfort. We report a case of severe and sustained hiccup caused by gastric cancer that was successfully treated with a continuous subcutaneous infusion of lidocaine (480 mg (24 ml)/day) without severe side effects.

  9. Photostabilizing effects of lidocaine and tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline) aluminum on organic fluorescent dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisk, Wade N.

    2003-07-01

    The photostabilization efficacy of lidocaine and tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline) aluminum (Alq3) was determined for methanol solutions of the fluorescent laser dyes 1,3,5,7,8-pentamethyl-2,6-diethylpyrromethene-difluoroborate complex (PM-567) and rhodamine 590 (R590) by evaluation with the , rose bengal (RB). The photostability was measured by noting the decrease in fluorescence with accumulated 532 nm Nd:YAG laser pulses. Rose bengal demonstrated dramatic photostability enhancement upon lidocaine or Alq3 addition; whereas nominal photostability enhancement was observed for PM-567 and R590 upon lidocaine or Alq3 addition. A geminate dye-singlet oxygen complex is proposed to explain the disparity in dye photostability enhancement between rose bengal and the laser dyes.

  10. [Sensitization of bradycardia during final hypotension induced by serotonin in rats: effect of lidocaine].

    PubMed

    Valle, L B; Oliveira-Filho, R M; Armonia, P L; Nassif, M; Saraceni, G

    1975-10-01

    It was studied the sensibilizing effect of lidocaine (8.5 mg/kg, i.v.) on the ECG (heart rate, P-R interval, QRS complex and Q-T interval) of both intact and bilaterally vagotomised rats, in the nadir of the final hypotension determined by serotonine (60 mug/kg, i.v.). The results showed (1) a certain degree of selectivity of the vagi, and (2) the effects of serotonine either isolated or associated to lidocaine on P-R interval and heart rate were reinforced when intact animals were used. Although no significant alterations of Q-T were elicited by the drugs, lidocaine surprisingly enlarged the QRS complex in a more significant fashion for the intact than for the vagotomised animals.

  11. Analgesic efficacy of lidocaine and multimodal analgesia for chest tube removal: A randomized trial study1

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Valdecy Ferreira de Oliveira; da Costa, José Madson Vidal; Cascudo, Marcelo Matos; Pinheiro, Ênio de Oliveira; Fernandes, Maria Angela Ferreira; de Araujo, Ivonete Batista

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to assess the analgesic efficacy of subcutaneous lidocaine and multimodal analgesia for chest tube removal following heart surgery. Methods: sixty volunteers were randomly allocated in two groups; 30 participants in the experimental group were given 1% subcutaneous lidocaine, and 30 controls were given a multimodal analgesia regime comprising systemic anti-inflammatory agents and opioids. The intensity and quality of pain and trait and state anxiety were assessed. The association between independent variables and final outcome was assessed by means of the Chi-squared test with Yates' correction and Fisher's exact test. Results: the groups did not exhibit significant difference with respect to the intensity of pain upon chest tube removal (p= 0.47). The most frequent descriptors of pain reported by the participants were pressing, sharp, pricking, burning and unbearable. Conclusion: the present study suggests that the analgesic effect of the subcutaneous administration of 1% lidocaine combined with multimodal analgesia is most efficacious. PMID:26625989

  12. Delayed Treatment with Lidocaine Reduces Mouse Microglial Cell Injury and Cytokine Production After Stimulation with Lipopolysaccharide and Interferon γ

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hae-Jeong; Lin, Daowei; Li, Liaoliao; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuroinflammation is an important pathological process for almost all acquired neurological diseases. Microglial cells play a critical role in neuroinflammation. We determined whether lidocaine, a local anesthetic with antiinflammatory property, protected microglial cells and attenuated cytokine production from activated microglial cells. Methods Mouse microglial cultures were incubated with or without 1 µg/ml lipopolysaccharide and 10 U/ml interferon γ (IFNγ) for 24 h in the presence or absence of lidocaine for 1 h started at 2, 3 or 4 h after the onset of lipopolysaccharide and IFNγ stimulation. Lactate dehydrogenase release and cytokine production were determined after the cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide and IFNγ for 24 h. Results Lidocaine dose-dependently reduced lipopolysaccharide and IFNγ-induced microglial cell injury as measured by lactate dehydrogenase release. This effect was apparent with lidocaine at 2 µg/ml (30.3 ± 5.8 and 23.1 ± 9.7%, respectively, for stimulation alone and the stimulation in the presence of lidocaine, n = 18, P = 0.025). Lidocaine applied at 2, 3 or 4 h after the onset of lipopolysaccharide and IFNγ stimulation reduced the cell injury. This lidocaine effect was not affected by the mitochondrial KATP channel inhibitor 5-hydroxydecanoate. Similar to lidocaine, QX314, a permanently charged lidocaine analog that usually does not permeate through the plasma membrane, reduced lipopolysaccharide and IFNγ-induced microglial cell injury. QX314 also attenuated the stimulation-induced interleukin-1β production. Conclusions Delayed treatment with lidocaine protects microglial cells and reduces cytokine production from these cells. These effects may involve action site(s) on the cell surface. PMID:22253275

  13. Magnesium sulfate with lidocaine for preventing propofol injection pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Galgon, Richard E; Strube, Peter; Heier, Jake; Groth, Jeremy; Wang, Sijian; Schroeder, Kristopher M

    2015-04-01

    Propofol injection pain, despite various strategies, remains common and troublesome. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that pretreatment with the combination of intravenous lidocaine and magnesium would have an additive effect on reducing propofol injection pain. After institutional review board (IRB) approval and informed consent, we performed a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Subjects were randomly assigned to pretreatment with either lidocaine (50 mg), magnesium sulfate (0.25 mg), lidocaine (50 mg) plus magnesium sulfate (0.25 mg), or 0.9 % sodium chloride. Following pretreatment, propofol (50 mg) was administered, and subjects were questioned regarding injection site pain and observed for behavioral signs of pain. Two hundred subjects were enrolled and 158 subjects (39 placebo, 38 lidocaine, 44 magnesium sulfate, and 37 lidocaine plus magnesium sulfate) received their assigned pretreatment intervention. Intergroup baseline characteristics were similar. The proportion of subjects reporting propofol injection pain was highest in those pretreated with magnesium sulfate (57 %), followed by those pretreated with placebo (46 %), lidocaine plus magnesium sulfate (41 %), and then lidocaine (29 %; p = 0.011). When adjusted for age, gender, diabetes mellitus, chronic pain, tobacco use, and selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor use, the pain response scale scores were significantly reduced by lidocaine pretreatment compared to magnesium sulfate and placebo (p = 0.031 and p = 0.0003, respectively). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, the combination of intravenous magnesium sulfate and lidocaine offered no additional benefit for the relief of propofol injection pain compared to intravenous lidocaine alone. An improved, receptor-based understanding of the mechanism of propofol injection pain is still needed.

  14. Lidocaine versus lidocaine plus benzydamine as a topical anesthesia regimen for unsedated upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: A comparison study.

    PubMed

    İbiş, Mehmet; Arhan, Mehmet; İbiş, Tuba; Önal, İbrahim Koral; Erdal, Harun; Utku, Özlem Gül

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to assess the efficacy of adding benzydamine (B) spray to standard treatment with a lidocaine (L) spray before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) as a topical anaesthetic regimen. A total of 118 adult patients undergoing outpatient UGE were randomly assigned to receive L (n=44), LB (n=38) or B (n=36) before the procedure. The primary outcome was the patient tolerance score, which represents a summative evaluation of the taste of the anesthetic agent, the intensity of pharyngeal numbness, the amount of coughing or gagging and the degree of discomfort during oesophageal intubation. The median (min-max) patient tolerance scores were comparable between groups LB (10.5; range 5-12) and L (10; range 4-13) (p=0.235) and significantly lower in group B (7.5; range 3-12) (p<0.01). LB improved several secondary outcomes. Oesophageal intubation was less difficult (5 [range 2-10] vs 3 [range 0-8], p<0.001), and a lower proportion of patients developed postprocedural sore throat (4 [10.5%] vs 15 [34.1%], p=0.011) in LB compared to L. LB is not superior to L in terms of overall patient tolerance, but LB may be preferred over L in cases with difficult oesophageal intubation or a previous history of postprocedural sore throat.

  15. Paraspinous Lidocaine Injection for Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Marta; Imamura, Satiko Tomikawa; Targino, Rosa Alves; Morales-Quezada, León; Onoda Tomikawa, Luis C; Onoda Tomikawa, Luis G; Alfieri, Fabio M; Filippo, Thais R; da Rocha, Ivan D; Neto, Raul Bolliger; Fregni, Felipe; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo

    2016-05-01

    In this large, sham-controlled, randomized trial, we examined the efficacy of the combination of standard treatment and paraspinous lidocaine injection compared with standard therapy alone in subjects with chronic low back pain. There is little research-based evidence for the routine clinical use of paraspinous lidocaine injection for low back pain. A total of 378 subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain were randomized to 3 groups: paraspinous lidocaine injection, analgesics, and exercises (group 1, LID-INJ); sham paraspinous lidocaine injection, analgesics, and exercises (group 2, SH-INJ); and analgesics and exercises (group 3, STD-TTR). A blinded rater assessed the study outcomes at 3 time points: baseline, after treatment, and after 3 months of follow-up. There were increased frequency of pain responses and better low back functional scores in the LID-INJ group compared with the SH-INJ and STD-TTR groups. These effects remained at the 3-month follow-up but differed between all 3 groups. There were significant changes in pain threshold immediately after treatment, supporting the effects of this intervention in reducing central sensitization. Paraspinous lidocaine injection therapy is not associated with a higher risk of adverse effects compared with conventional treatment and sham injection. Its effects on hyperalgesia might correlate with changes in central sensitization. NCT02387567. There are few data to support paraspinous lidocaine injection use in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain. Our results show that this therapy when combined with standard therapy significantly increases the number of responders versus standard treatment alone. Its effects on hyperalgesia might correlate with a change in central sensitization. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The Effect of Lidocaine · HCl on the Fluidity of Native and Model Membrane Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun-Seop; Jung, Tae-Sang; Noh, Yang-Ho; Kim, Woo-Sung; Park, Won-Ick; Kim, Young-Soo; Chung, In-Kyo; Sohn, Uy Dong; Bae, Soo-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigated the mechanism of pharmacological action of local anesthetic and provide the basic information about the development of new effective local anesthetics. Fluorescent probe techniques were used to evaluate the effect of lidocaine·HCl on the physical properties (transbilayer asymmetric lateral and rotational mobility, annular lipid fluidity and protein distribution) of synaptosomal plasma membrane vesicles (SPMV) isolated from bovine cerebral cortex, and liposomes of total lipids (SPMVTL) and phospholipids (SPMVPL) extracted from the SPMV. An experimental procedure was used based on selective quenching of 1,3-di(1-pyrenyl)propane (Py-3-Py) and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) by trinitrophenyl groups, and radiationless energy transfer from the tryptophans of membrane proteins to Py-3-Py. Lidocaine·HCl increased the bulk lateral and rotational mobility of neuronal and model membrane lipid bilayes, and had a greater fluidizing effect on the inner monolayer than the outer monolayer. Lidocaine·HCl increased annular lipid fluidity in SPMV lipid bilayers. It also caused membrane proteins to cluster. The most important finding of this study is that there is far greater increase in annular lipid fluidity than that in lateral and rotational mobilities by lidocaine·HCl. Lidocaine·HCl alters the stereo or dynamics of the proteins in the lipid bilayers by combining with lipids, especially with the annular lipids. In conclusion, the present data suggest that lidocaine, in addition to its direct interaction with proteins, concurrently interacts with membrane lipids, fluidizing the membrane, and thus inducing conformational changes of proteins known to be intimately associated with membrane lipid. PMID:23269904

  17. Effect of PaCO2 and PaO2 on lidocaine and articaine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, K C; Furtado, D P; Ramacciato, J C; Cabral, A M; Haas, D A

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in arterial PaCO₂ can influence local anesthetic toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of stress-induced changes in PaCO₂ and PaO₂ on the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. Lidocaine (2% with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine) or articaine (4% with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine) was administered intravenously under rest or stress conditions to 36 rats separated into 4 groups. Propranolol and prazosin were administered preoperatively to minimize cardiovascular effects of epinephrine. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and arterial pH, PaCO₂, and PaO₂ were measured. Results showed no differences in MAP, HR, or pH. Stress significantly increased the latency period for the first tonic-clonic seizure induced by a toxic dose of both lidocaine and articaine (P < .05). Seizures were brought on more rapidly by articaine. No significant difference between toxic doses of lidocaine and articaine was noted. Stress raised the seizure threshold dose for both drugs and significantly (P < .01) increased arterial PaO₂ from 94.0 ± 1.90 mm Hg to 113.0 ± 2.20 mm Hg, and reduced PaCO₂ from 36.0 ± 0.77 mm Hg to 27.0 ± 0.98 mm Hg. In conclusion, reduction in PaCO₂ and/or increase in PaO₂ raised the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. This study also confirmed that lidocaine and articaine have equipotent central nervous system toxicity.

  18. The analgesic effect of midazolam when added to lidocaine for intravenous regional anaesthesia*

    PubMed Central

    Kashefi, Parviz; Montazeri, Kamran; Honarmand, Azim; Safavi, Mohammadreza; Hosseini, Hashem Mirzaee

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Midazolam has analgesic properties. The aim of the present study was to assess the analgesic effect of midazolam when added to lidocaine in intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA). METHODS: Sixty patients undergoing hand surgery were randomly allocated into two groups to receive 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine diluted with saline to a total volume of 40 mL in the control group (group lidocaine saline ~ LS, n=30) or 50 μg/kg midazolam plus 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine diluted with saline to a total volume of 40 mL in the midazolam group (group lidocaine midazolam ~ LM, n=30). Before and after the tourniquet application, hemodynamic variables, tourniquet pain, sedation, and analgesic use were recorded. RESULTS: Shortened sensory and motor block onset time [4.20 (0.84) vs. 5.94 (0.83) min, p = 0.001 and 6.99 (0.72) vs. 9.07 (0.99) min, p = 0.001 in LM and LS groups, respectively], prolonged sensory and motor block recovery times [8.41 (0.94) vs. 5.68 (0.90) min, p = 0.001 and 11.85 (1.18) vs. 7.06 (0.82) min, p = 0.001 in LM and LS groups, respectively], shortened visual analog scale (VAS) scores of tourniquet pain (p < 0.05), and improved quality of anesthesia were found in group LM (p < 0.05). VAS scores were lower in group LM in the postoperative period (p = 0.001). Postoperative analgesic requirements were significantly smaller in group LM (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of 50 μg/kg midazolam to lidocaine for IVRA shortens the onset of sensory and motor block, and improves quality of anesthesia and perioperative analgesia without causing side effects. PMID:22973382

  19. Lidocaine alleviates propofol related pain much better than metoprolol and nitroglycerin.

    PubMed

    Goktug, Asutay; Gulec, Handan; Takmaz, Suna Akin; Turkyilmaz, Esra; Basar, Hulya

    2015-01-01

    Injection pain after propofol administration is common and may disturb patients' comfort. The aim of this study was to compare effectiveness of intravenous (iv) nitroglycerin, lidocaine and metoprolol applied through the veins on the dorsum of hand or antecubital vein on eliminating propofol injection pain. There were 147 patients and they were grouped according to the analgesic administered. Metoprolol (n=31, Group M), lidocaine (n=32, Group L) and nitroglycerin (n=29, Group N) were applied through iv catheter at dorsum hand vein or antecubital vein. Pain was evaluated by 4 point scale (0 - no pain, 1 - light pain, 2 - mild pain, 3 - severe pain) in 5, 10, 15 and 20th seconds. ASA, BMI, patient demographics, education level and the effect of pathways for injection and location of operations were analyzed for their effect on total pain score. There were no differences between the groups in terms of total pain score (p=0.981). There were no differences in terms of total pain score depending on ASA, education level, location of operation. However, lidocaine was more effective when compared with metoprolol (p=0.015) and nitroglycerin (p=0.001) among groups. Although neither lidocaine nor metoprolol had any difference on pain management when applied from antecubital or dorsal hand vein (p>0.05), nitroglycerin injection from antecubital vein had demonstrated statistically lower pain scores (p=0.001). We found lidocaine to be the most effective analgesic in decreasing propofol related pain. We therefore suggest iv lidocaine for alleviating propofol related pain at operations. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. [Lidocaine alleviates propofol related pain much better than metoprolol and nitroglycerin].

    PubMed

    Goktug, Asutay; Gulec, Handan; Takmaz, Suna Akin; Turkyilmaz, Esra; Basar, Hulya

    2015-01-01

    Injection pain after propofol administration is common and may disturb patients' comfort. The aim of this study was to compare effectiveness of intravenous (iv) nitroglycerin, lidocaine and metoprolol applied through the veins on the dorsum of hand or antecubital vein on eliminating propofol injection pain. There were 147 patients and they were grouped according to the analgesic administered. Metoprolol (n=31, Group M), lidocaine (n=32, Group L) and nitroglycerin (n=29, Group N) were applied through iv catheter at dorsum hand vein or antecubital vein. Pain was evaluated by 4 point scale (0 - no pain, 1 - light pain, 2 - mild pain, 3 - severe pain) in 5, 10, 15 and 20th seconds. ASA, BMI, patient demographics, education level and the effect of pathways for injection and location of operations were analyzed for their effect on total pain score. There were no differences between the groups in terms of total pain score (p=0.981). There were no differences in terms of total pain score depending on ASA, education level, location of operation. However, lidocaine was more effective when compared with metoprolol (p=0.015) and nitroglycerin (p=0.001) among groups. Although neither lidocaine nor metoprolol had any difference on pain management when applied from antecubital or dorsal hand vein (p>0.05), nitroglycerin injection from antecubital vein had demonstrated statistically lower pain scores (p=0.001). We found lidocaine to be the most effective analgesic in decreasing propofol related pain. We therefore suggest iv lidocaine for alleviating propofol related pain at operations. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Intranasal Lidocaine in Acute Treatment of Migraine: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Avcu, Nazire; Doğan, Nurettin Özgür; Pekdemir, Murat; Yaka, Elif; Yılmaz, Serkan; Alyeşil, Cansu; Akalın, Latif Erdem

    2017-06-01

    The study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intranasal lidocaine administration for migraine treatment. This single-center, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in a tertiary care emergency department. Included patients met the migraine criteria of the International Headache Society. Patients were randomized to intranasal lidocaine or saline solution; all participants received 10 mg of intravenous metoclopramide. Patient pain intensity was assessed with an 11-point numeric rating scale score. The primary outcome measure was the change in pain scores at 15 minutes; secondary outcomes were changes in pain intensity after pain onset and need for rescue medication. Patients (n=162) were randomized into 2 groups with similar baseline migraine characteristics and numeric rating scale scores. The median reduction in numeric rating scale score at 15 minutes was 3 (interquartile range [IQR] 2 to 5) for the lidocaine group and 2 (IQR 1 to 4) for the saline solution group (median difference=1.0; 95% confidence interval 0.1 to 2.1). The reduction in pain score at 30 minutes was 4 (IQR 3 to 7) for the lidocaine group and 5 (IQR 2 to 7) for the saline solution group (median difference=1.0; 95% confidence interval 0.1 to 2.1). Need for rescue medication did not differ between the groups, and local irritation was the most common adverse event in the lidocaine group. Although intranasal lidocaine was found no more efficacious than normal saline solution in our study, future studies should focus on patients who present earlier after headache onset. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-Administered Lidocaine Gel for Intrauterine Device Insertion in Nulliparous Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Rapkin, Rachel B; Achilles, Sharon L; Schwarz, E Bimla; Meyn, Leslie; Cremer, Miriam; Boraas, Christy M; Chen, Beatrice A

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate self-administration of vaginal lidocaine gel to decrease pain with intrauterine device (IUD) insertion in nulliparous women. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, women self-administered 2% lidocaine or placebo vaginal gel 5 minutes before IUD insertion. The primary outcome was change in pain from baseline to IUD insertion on a 100-mm visual analog scale. We also assessed pain after speculum insertion, tenaculum placement, uterine sounding, and 5 minutes after IUD insertion. Secondary outcomes included patient acceptability, ease of IUD insertion, and need for pain medication for up to 7 days. From July 2012 to May 2013, 59 women were randomized; 30 received lidocaine gel and 29 placebo. Baseline demographics, including age, race, and body mass index, were similar. There was no difference in median change in pain during IUD insertion in women receiving lidocaine (61 mm [interquartile range 53-71]) compared with placebo (69 mm [interquartile range 63-80], P=.06). Women receiving lidocaine experienced less pain with tenaculum placement (32 mm [interquartile range 18-54]) compared with placebo (56 mm [interquartile range 26-75], P=.02). Most (76%) women were satisfied with their IUD insertion experience and 86% would probably or definitely recommend an IUD to a friend. Thirty-four percent of women required pain medication for at least 3 days after IUD insertion. For nulliparous women, self-administered vaginal lidocaine gel does not reduce pain with IUD insertion, but does decrease pain with tenaculum placement. ClinicalTrials.gov, http://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01534520.

  3. Comparison of the cytotoxic effects of bupivacaine, lidocaine, and mepivacaine in equine articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinuk; Sutradhar, Bibek C; Hong, Gyeongmi; Choi, Seok H; Kim, Gonhyung

    2011-03-01

    To compare the chondrotoxicity of bupivacaine, lidocaine, and mepivacaine in equine articular chondrocytes in vitro. Prospective, experimental study. Equine articular chondrocytes. Primary cultured equine chondrocytes were exposed to 0.5% bupivacaine, 2% lidocaine, or 2% mepivacaine for 30 or 60 minutes. After treatment, cell viability was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay in a dose dependent manner. Apoptosis and necrosis of chondrocytes were analyzed with the double staining of Hoechst 33258 and propidium iodide using fluorescence microscopy, and the results were confirmed using flow cytometry. After 30-minute exposure, trypan blue exclusion assay revealed that cell viability of 0.5% bupivacaine group was 28.73±8.44%, and those of 2% lidocaine and 2% mepivacaine were 66.85±6.03% and 86.27±2.00%, respectively. The viability of chondrocytes after saline treatment was 95.95±2.75%. The results of MTT assay and fluorescence microscopy had similar tendency with trypan blue assay. Each result showed that bupivacaine was the most toxic of the three local anaesthetics. Mepivacaine was less toxic than lidocaine. The results of the viability test suggest that bupivacaine and lidocaine exhibit a marked chondrotoxicity, and that this is mainly due to necrosis rather than apoptosis. Bupivacaine may induce detrimental chondrotoxicity when administered intra-articularly, especially in patients with joint disease, and we suggest that it should be used cautiously in equine practice. Mepivacaine may be an alternative to both bupivacaine and lidocaine. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2011 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  4. Effect of PaCO2 and PaO2 on Lidocaine and Articaine Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Barcelos, K.C; Furtado, D.P; Ramacciato, J.C; Cabral, A.M; Haas, D.A

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in arterial PaCO2 can influence local anesthetic toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of stress-induced changes in PaCO2 and PaO2 on the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. Lidocaine (2% with 1 ∶ 100,000 epinephrine) or articaine (4% with 1 ∶ 100,000 epinephrine) was administered intravenously under rest or stress conditions to 36 rats separated into 4 groups. Propranolol and prazosin were administered preoperatively to minimize cardiovascular effects of epinephrine. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and arterial pH, PaCO2, and PaO2 were measured. Results showed no differences in MAP, HR, or pH. Stress significantly increased the latency period for the first tonic-clonic seizure induced by a toxic dose of both lidocaine and articaine (P < .05). Seizures were brought on more rapidly by articaine. No significant difference between toxic doses of lidocaine and articaine was noted. Stress raised the seizure threshold dose for both drugs and significantly (P < .01) increased arterial PaO2 from 94.0 ± 1.90 mm Hg to 113.0 ± 2.20 mm Hg, and reduced PaCO2 from 36.0 ± 0.77 mm Hg to 27.0 ± 0.98 mm Hg. In conclusion, reduction in PaCO2 and/or increase in PaO2 raised the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. This study also confirmed that lidocaine and articaine have equipotent central nervous system toxicity. PMID:20843225

  5. Anesthetic effects of different volumes of lidocaine for spermatic cord block in cattle.

    PubMed

    Neves, Ana C; Santos Júnior, Juracy Cb; Marucio, Rodrigo L; Midon, Monica; Luna, Stelio Pl

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate three volumes of lidocaine for spermatic cord block to perform castration in cattle. Randomized blinded clinical study. Thirty mixed-breed Nellore cattle, aged 28-40 months and weighing 395±21 (352-452) kg [mean±standard deviation (range)]. Cattle were restrained in a chute and allowed to stand without sedation. Three milliliters of 2% lidocaine without epinephrine were infiltrated subcutaneously at each site of scrotal incision in all animals. The animals were allocated to three groups of 10 animals each. Lidocaine 2% was injected into each spermatic cord using a volume of 2, 3 or 4 mL in groups A, B, or C, respectively. The total volumes of lidocaine used were 10, 12, and 14 mL in groups A, B, and C, respectively. The duration of surgery and the retraction of the testicle (scored as positive or negative according to retraction of the testicle) during the procedure were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way anova followed by Tukey's and chi-square tests. Differences were considered significant when p<0.05. The mean surgical time was shorter in group C than in groups A and B (p<0.001). In groups A, B and C, 90%, 60% and 10% of the animals showed retraction of the testicle, respectively. Fewer animals retracted the spermatic cord in group C than in group A (p=0.002) and B (p=0.02). Optimal spermatic cord block was achieved by injection of 4 mL of 2% lidocaine 5 minutes before castration and following incisional infiltration of lidocaine, in adult cattle weighing about 400 kg. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anaphylaxis to lidocaine with tolerance to articaine in a 12 year old girl.

    PubMed

    Al-Dosary, Khalid; Al-Qahtani, Ahmad; Alangari, Abdullah

    2014-07-01

    True allergic reactions to local anesthetics are extremely rare and constitute less than 1% of all reactions. In addition, many of those allergic reactions are caused by the preservative constituents of the local anesthetics. Here we report a 12 year old girl with anaphylaxis to lidocaine (an amide local anesthetic) on two occasions. The allergy was confirmed by positive skin prick test to the drug. Skin testing and challenge to another amide local anesthetic (articaine) were negative. Subsequently, its use was well tolerated in a dental procedure. Up to our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient who is allergic to lidocaine and tolerant to articaine.

  7. Digital Necrosis After Lidocaine and Epinephrine Injection in the Flexor Tendon Sheath Without Phentolamine Rescue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jacques X; Gray, Jason; Lalonde, Donald H; Carr, Nicholas

    2017-02-01

    The literature generally supports the safety of epinephrine injection in the digits, but recent case reports describe ischemic adverse events associated with the use of lidocaine and epinephrine in which phentolamine rescue was not performed. We present a case of finger necrosis and subsequent amputation in a patient after 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine was injected in the fat and flexor sheaths in the palm for a 3-finger trigger release. Phentolamine rescue was not performed. All surgeons who use epinephrine in the finger should be prepared to reverse vasoconstriction with phentolamine rescue if there is persistently inadequate perfusion of the fingertip.

  8. Partial intravenous anaesthesia in 5 horses using ketamine, lidocaine, medetomidine and halothane.

    PubMed

    Kruger, K; Stegmann, G F

    2009-12-01

    A partial intravenous protocol was used successfully to maintain anaesthesia in 5 healthy horses. Horses were premedicated with acepromazine, romifidine and butorphanol, induced with guaifenesin and ketamine and maintained on a constant rate infusion of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane inhalation anaesthesia. Mean end-tidal halothane concentration to maintain a surgical plane of anaesthesia was 0.8 +/- 0.2%. Mean dobutamine requirement to maintain mean arterial pressure above 9.31 kPa was 0.42 +/- 0.3 microg/kg/min. The administration of relatively low doses of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane resulted in haemodynamically stable anaesthesia, followed by smooth recovery.

  9. Lidocaine Administration Controls MicroRNAs Alterations Observed After Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Rancan, Lisa; Simón, Carlos; Marchal-Duval, Emmeline; Casanova, Javier; Paredes, Sergio Damian; Calvo, Alberto; García, Cruz; Rincón, David; Turrero, Agustín; Garutti, Ignacio; Vara, Elena

    2016-12-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is associated with morbidity and mortality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as regulators of IRI, and they are involved in the pathogenesis of organ rejection. Lidocaine has proven anti-inflammatory activity in several tissues but its modulation of miRNAs has not been investigated. This work aims to investigate the involvement of miRNAs in lung IRI in a lung auto-transplantation model and to investigate the effect of lidocaine. Three groups (sham, control, and Lidocaine), each comprising 6 pigs, underwent a lung autotransplantation. All groups received the same anesthesia. In addition, animals of lidocaine group received a continuous intravenous administration of lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg/h) during surgery. Lung biopsies were taken before pulmonary artery clamp, before reperfusion, 30 minutes postreperfusion (Rp-30), and 60 minutes postreperfusion (Rp-60). Samples were analyzed for different miRNAs (miR-122, miR-145, miR-146a, miR-182, miR-107, miR-192, miR-16, miR-21, miR-126, miR-127, miR142-5p, miR152, miR155, miR-223, and let7) via the use of reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results were normalized with miR-103. The expression of miR-127 and miR-16 did not increase after IRI. Let-7d, miR-21, miR-107, miR-126, miR-145, miR-146a, miR-182, and miR-192 significantly increased at the Rp-60 (control versus sham P < .001). miR-142-5p, miR-152, miR-155, and miR 223 significantly increased at the Rp-30 (control versus sham P < .001) and at the Rp-60 (control versus. sham P < .001). The administration of lidocaine was able to attenuate these alterations in a significant way (control versus Lidocaine P < .001). Lung IRI caused dysregulation miRNA. The administration of lidocaine reduced significantly miRNAs alterations.

  10. Synthesis and antispasmodic activity of lidocaine derivatives endowed with reduced local anesthetic action.

    PubMed

    Costa, Jorge C S; Neves, Josiane S; de Souza, Marcus V N; Siqueira, Rodrigo A; Romeiro, Nelilma C; Boechat, Nubia; e Silva, Patrícia M R; Martins, Marco A

    2008-02-01

    The present structure-activity relationship (SAR) study focused on chemical modifications of the structure of the local anesthetic lidocaine, and indicated analogues having reduced anesthetic potency, but with superior potency relative to the prototype in preventing anaphylactic or histamine-evoked ileum contraction. From the SAR analysis, 2-(diethylamino)-N-(trifluoromethyl-phenyl) and 2-(diethylamino)-N-(dimethyl-phenyl) acetamides were selected as the most promising compounds. New insights into the applicability of non-anesthetic lidocaine derivatives as templates in drug discovery for allergic syndromes are provided.

  11. Modification of the peripheral nerve disturbance in ciguatera poisoning in rats with lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J; Flowers, A E; Capra, M F

    1993-07-01

    Electrophysiological studies were performed on the ventral tail nerve of adult rats following intraperitoneal injection of a crude extract of ciguatoxin from known toxic fish flesh. Ciguatoxin induced significant slowing of both mixed and motor nerve conduction velocities and also significant reductions in both motor and mixed nerve amplitudes. Both absolute and supernormal periods were significantly prolonged together with an increase in the magnitude of the supernormal response. These electrophysiological disturbances were modified or blocked by intraperitoneal lidocaine. These findings suggest that lidocaine may have a potential therapeutic application in the treatment of the neurological disturbance in acute ciguatera poisoning in humans.

  12. No benefit from perioperative intravenous lidocaine in laparoscopic renal surgery: a randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Wuethrich, Patrick Y; Romero, Jacobo; Burkhard, Fiona C; Curatolo, Michele

    2012-11-01

    There is evidence that perioperative intravenous lidocaine administration can reduce analgesic requirement, improve recovery of bowel function and shorten the length of hospital stay. Its effect in laparoscopic renal surgery has not been investigated. To evaluate the effect of systemic lidocaine on the length of hospital stay, readiness for discharge, opioid requirement, bowel function and inflammatory and stress response after laparoscopic renal surgery. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Single tertiary centre where the study was carried out between July 2009 and February 2011. Sixty-four patients completed the study. Inclusion criteria were laparoscopic renal surgery and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I to III. Exclusion criteria were steroid therapy, chronic opioid therapy, allergy to lidocaine, pre-existing bowel dysfunction and arrhythmia. Lidocaine was given as a 1.5 mg kg(-1) bolus during induction of anaesthesia, followed by an intraoperative infusion of 2 and 1.3 mg kg(-1) h(-1) for 24 h postoperatively. Primary outcome was the length of hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were readiness for discharge, opioid consumption, sedation, incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), return of bowel function and inflammatory and stress responses. Length of hospital stay. The length of hospital stay did not differ between the groups [6 days for the lidocaine group, interquartile range (IQR) 5 to 7, range 2 to 8 vs. 5 days for the placebo group, IQR 5 to 6, range 2 to 11; P = 0.24). Lidocaine had no effect on readiness for discharge [4 days for the lidocaine group (IQR 5 to 7, range 2 to 8) vs. 4 days for the placebo group (IQR 5 to 7, range 2 to 11); P = 0.26], opioid consumption, postoperative sedation, PONV, return of bowel function and plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and cortisol. Systemic perioperative lidocaine administration over 24 h did not influence the length of the hospital stay

  13. Effect of perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion on postoperative recovery following laparoscopic Cholecystectomy-A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoli; Sun, Yanxia; Zhang, Xiaomei; Li, Tianzuo; Yang, Binbin

    2017-09-01

    Intravenous lidocaine infusion has been shown to facilitate postoperative recovery after major abdominal surgery. The current randomized controlled study was performed to assess the effect of perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion on pain intensity, bowel function and cytokine response after larparoscopic cholecystectomy. Eighty patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to receive intravenous lidocaine (bolus injection of 1.5 mg/kg lidocaine at induction of anesthesia, then a continuous infusion of 2 mg/kg/h until the end of surgery) or an equal volume of saline. Patients, anesthesiologists, and study personnel were blinded, and anesthesia and multimodal perioperative analgesia were standardized. Blood cytokines were measured at scheduled times within 48 h. Pain scores, opioid consumption, time to first flatus and time to first bowel movement were also measured after surgery. Seventy-one of the 80 patients who were recruited completed the study protocol. Patient demographics were similar in the two groups. Lidocaine significantly reduced pain intensity [visual analogue scale (VAS), 0-10 cm] at 2 h (lidocaine 3.01 ± 0.65 cm vs. placebo 4.27 ± 0.58 cm, p = 0.01) and 6 h (lidocaine 3.38 ± 0.42 cm vs. placebo 4.22 ± 0.67 cm, p = 0.01) and total fentanyl consumption 24 h after surgery (lidocaine 98.27 ± 16.33 μg vs. placebo 187.49 ± 19.76 μg, p = 0.005). Time to first flatus passage (lidocaine 20 ± 11 h vs. placebo 29 ± 10 h, p = 0.01) and time to first bowel movement (lidocaine 41 ± 16 h vs. placebo 57 ± 14 h, p = 0.01) were also significantly shorter in patients who received lidocaine. Intravenous lidocaine infusion experienced less cytokine release than the control group. This study indicates that perioperative systemic lidocaine improves postoperative recovery and attenuates the initiation of excessive inflammatory response following laparoscopic cholecystectomy

  14. Impact of tetrodotoxin application and lidocaine supplementation on equine jejunal smooth muscle contractility and activity of the enteric nervous system in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tappenbeck, K; Hoppe, S; Geburek, F; Feige, K; Huber, K

    2014-09-01

    By blocking the enteric nervous system (ENS) using tetrodotoxin (TTX), previous studies have documented the contractility-enhancing (CE) effects of lidocaine in equine intestinal smooth muscle (SM) at the level of SM cells and/or interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). The present study examined the impact of ENS deactivation on CE lidocaine effects, and investigated the effects of lidocaine on ENS activity. TTX application did not affect the CE effects of lidocaine, indicating that these were not mediated by TTX-sensitive sodium channels. Application of TTX or ≥100 mg/L lidocaine reduced ENS activity. Although such concentrations of lidocaine exceed therapeutic blood concentrations, tissue concentrations may be higher with the potential to reduce ENS activity and impair intestinal motility in vivo. Improved understanding of underlying mechanisms is relevant for therapeutic use of lidocaine in horses with postoperative ileus.

  15. A double-blind randomised comparison of ropivacaine 0.5%, bupivacaine 0.375% - lidocaine 1% and ropivacaine 0.5% - lidocaine 1% mixtures for cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Perello, A; George, J; Skelton, V; Pateman, J

    2000-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy and side-effects of plain ropivacaine compared with ropivacaine-lidocaine and bupivacaine-lidocaine mixtures for peribulbar blocks in cataract surgery. Ninety patients were randomly allocated to three groups and received peribulbar blockade using one of the three solutions. Speed of onset and quality of blockade were assessed using akinesia, surgical satisfaction and patient satisfaction. Complications and cardiovascular side-effects were noted. There was a slower onset of akinesia using ropivacaine alone, although at 10 min after injection all groups were equal in this respect. There was no difference in surgical or patient satisfaction between the groups. There were no differences in pain on injection, preblock and postblock blood pressure, heart rate or oxygen saturation. The optimal time to surgical incision after peribulbar blockade is not less than 15 min and plain ropivacaine fulfils this criterion.

  16. Comparison of anesthesia with a morphine-lidocaine-ketamine infusion or a morphine-lidocaine epidural on time to extubation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wendt-Hornickle, Erin; Snyder, Lindsey B C

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the time to extubation in two commonly used methods of analgesia in dogs undergoing elective pelvic limb orthopedic procedures. Prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical study. Twenty-five adult, client-owned, healthy dogs aged 4.4 ± 1.6 years and weighing 38.5 ±3.5 kg. All dogs were premedicated with dexmedetomidine (5-10 μg kg(-1)) intramuscularly (IM) and anesthesia was induced with propofol (2-6 mg kg(-1)) intravenously (IV). Atipamazole (0.05-0.1 mg kg(-1)) was administered IM after instrumentation. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Dogs were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In one group, morphine (0.1 mg kg(-1)) and lidocaine (2% lidocaine added to a total volume of 0.2 mL kg(-1)) were administered epidurally and a saline placebo constant rate infusion (CRI) was administered IV (group EPI). In the other group (group MLK), morphine (4 μg kg(-1) minute(-1)), lidocaine (50 μg kg(-1) minute(-1)) and ketamine (10 μg kg(-1) minute(-1)) were administered as an IV CRI and a saline placebo was administered by epidural injection. Temperature at the discontinuation of isoflurane, temperature at extubation, time to extubation, duration of inhalation anesthesia and duration of surgery were recorded. No significant differences between the groups were found in time to extubation, temperature at the end of surgery, temperature at extubation and total surgical time. Total anesthesia time was significantly longer in group EPI. Administration of MLK at the doses reported in this study did not prolong the time to extubation in comparison with a morphine-lidocaine epidural nerve block. The results indicate that concern over prolonging the time to extubation is not a reason to avoid the administration of MLK. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  17. Effectiveness of pre-peritoneal continuous wound infusion with lidocaine for pain control following ovariohysterectomy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Morgaz, Juan; Muñoz-Rascón, Pilar; Serrano-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Navarrete, Rocío; Domínguez, Juan Manuel; Fernández-Sarmiento, José Andrés; Gómez-Villamandos, Rafael J; Serrano, Juan Manuel; Granados, María Del Mar

    2014-12-01

    This study compared the post-operative analgesic efficacy of continuous lidocaine administration with that of intramuscular (IM) methadone in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Thirty-eight dogs were divided randomly into two groups. Following surgery, the lidocaine group (L) received a continuous lidocaine infusion (2 mg/kg/h) through a wound catheter inserted in the pre-peritoneal space; the control group (C) received methadone (0.2 mg/kg IM). A dynamic and interactive visual analogue scale (DIVAS), the Scale-Form Glasgow Composite Measure Scale (CMPS-SF), mechanical wound thresholds, heart rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure were assessed pre-operatively and 2, 4, 6, 18, and 24 h after surgery. The presence of the wound catheter prevented the evaluator from remaining blinded to group allocations. Plasma lidocaine and cortisol levels were measured 2, 6, 18, and 24 h after surgery. There were no intergroup differences in any pain assessment scale scores at any time point. Stable intravenous lidocaine levels were observed. Four animals in the control group but none in the lidocaine group required rescue analgesia. There were no differences in complication rates between groups. Continuous locoregional lidocaine delivered via a wound catheter between the parietal peritoneum and abdominal muscle offers effective analgesia in dogs during ovariohysterectomy and appears to be a promising analgesic option in veterinary surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Administered with or without Adrenaline for the Paravertebral Brachial Plexus Block in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Troncy, Eric; Guillot, Martin; Varin, France

    2017-01-01

    Adrenaline is known to prolong the duration of local anesthesia but its effects on the pharmacokinetic processes of local anesthetic drugs are not fully understood. Our objective was to develop a compartmental model for quantification of adrenaline’s impact on the pharmacokinetics of perineurally-injected lidocaine in the dog. Dogs were subjected to paravertebral brachial plexus block using lidocaine alone or adrenalinated lidocaine. Data was collected through a prospective, randomised, blinded crossover protocol performed over three periods. Blood samples were collected during 180 minutes following block execution. Compartmental pharmacokinetic models were developed and their goodness-of-fit were compared. The lowering effects of adrenaline on the absorption of lidocaine were statistically determined with one-sided tests. A one-compartment disposition model with two successive zero-order absorption processes best fitted our experimental data. Adrenaline decreased the peak plasma lidocaine concentration by approximately 60% (P < 0.001), decreased this local anesthetic’s fast and slow zero-order absorption rates respectively by 50% and 90% (P = 0.046, and P < 0.001), which respective durations were prolonged by 90% and 1300% (P < 0.020 and P < 0.001). Lidocaine demonstrated a previously unreported atypical absorption profile following its paravertebral injection in dogs. Adrenaline decreased the absorption rate of lidocaine and prolonged the duration of its absorption. PMID:28068408

  19. Pharmacokinetics of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Administered with or without Adrenaline for the Paravertebral Brachial Plexus Block in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Choquette, Amélie; Troncy, Eric; Guillot, Martin; Varin, France; Del Castillo, Jérôme R E

    2017-01-01

    Adrenaline is known to prolong the duration of local anesthesia but its effects on the pharmacokinetic processes of local anesthetic drugs are not fully understood. Our objective was to develop a compartmental model for quantification of adrenaline's impact on the pharmacokinetics of perineurally-injected lidocaine in the dog. Dogs were subjected to paravertebral brachial plexus block using lidocaine alone or adrenalinated lidocaine. Data was collected through a prospective, randomised, blinded crossover protocol performed over three periods. Blood samples were collected during 180 minutes following block execution. Compartmental pharmacokinetic models were developed and their goodness-of-fit were compared. The lowering effects of adrenaline on the absorption of lidocaine were statistically determined with one-sided tests. A one-compartment disposition model with two successive zero-order absorption processes best fitted our experimental data. Adrenaline decreased the peak plasma lidocaine concentration by approximately 60% (P < 0.001), decreased this local anesthetic's fast and slow zero-order absorption rates respectively by 50% and 90% (P = 0.046, and P < 0.001), which respective durations were prolonged by 90% and 1300% (P < 0.020 and P < 0.001). Lidocaine demonstrated a previously unreported atypical absorption profile following its paravertebral injection in dogs. Adrenaline decreased the absorption rate of lidocaine and prolonged the duration of its absorption.

  20. A comparison of mepivacaine versus lidocaine for episcleral (sub-tenon's) block for cataract surgery in an ambulatory setting.

    PubMed

    Ripart, Jacques; Nouvellon, Emmanuel; Chaumeron, Arnaud; Chanial-Bourgaux, Catherine; Mahamat, Aba

    2006-01-01

    For eye surgery, motor block is still often requested by the surgeon. For cataract surgery, rapid block resolution allows eyelids to move and allows eye-patch removal. Therefore, short-duration block is useful in early rehabilitation for ambulatory surgery. Lidocaine is classically assumed to have shorter duration than mepivacaine. Therefore, lidocaine alone might be considered as an alternative to mepivacaine. In this randomized, double-blind study, we compared mepivacaine 2% (n = 22) and lidocaine 2% (n = 25) in 47 patients who received episcleral (sub-Tenon's) block for cataract surgery. Akinesia score was measured 1, 5, 10, and 15 minutes and 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after the end of injection. Primary outcome was block duration (time from injection to full recovery). Secondary outcomes were time to block onset and best akinesia score for each patient. Complications were recorded. The 2 groups were similar for demographic and anesthetic features. We observed no significant difference between mepivacaine and lidocaine in terms of onset, quality of akinesia, and block duration. One case of ocular hypertonia and 1 case of strabismus were observed in the lidocaine group, which could be imputed to hyaluronidase unavailability during the study period or to increased lidocaine myotoxicity. We found no argument to favor lidocaine over mepivacaine in episcleral (sub-Tenon's) eye block, especially in terms of motor-block duration.

  1. Comparison of topical tetracaine, adrenaline, and cocaine anesthesia with lidocaine infiltration for repair of lacerations in children.

    PubMed

    Hegenbarth, M A; Altieri, M F; Hawk, W H; Greene, A; Ochsenschlager, D W; O'Donnell, R

    1990-01-01

    Local anesthetic infiltration is painful and frightening for children. We prospectively compared a topical alternative, TAC solution (tetracaine 0.5%, adrenaline 1:2,000, cocaine 11.8%), with 1% lidocaine infiltration for use in laceration repair in 467 children. Adequate anesthesia of facial and scalp wounds was achieved for 81% of TAC-treated wounds versus 87% of lidocaine-treated wounds (P = .005). TAC was less effective on extremity wounds; 43% had effective anesthesia compared with 89% of lidocaine-treated extremity wounds (P less than .0001). No systemic toxicity was observed. The incidence of wound infection was 2.2% for both TAC and lidocaine. Wound dehiscence occurred in seven TAC- and two lidocaine-treated facial or scalp wounds (4.5% vs 1.8%, NS) and in five TAC- and four lidocaine-treated extremity wounds (20% vs 17.4%, NS). The unusually high rate of dehiscence was due partially to recurrent trauma or coincident infection. TAC was well accepted by patients and parents. We encourage the careful use of TAC as a less painful alternative to lidocaine infiltration for selected scalp and facial lacerations in children.

  2. Effectiveness of lidocaine infusion for status epilepticus in childhood: a retrospective multi-institutional study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Hideji; Yamano, Tsunekazu; Hayashi, Kitami; Osawa, Makiko; Kondo, Kyoko; Aihara, Masao; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Hamano, Shinichiro; Izumi, Tatsurou; Kaneko, Kenichiro; Kato, Ikuko; Matsukura, Makoto; Minagawa, Kimio; Miura, Toshio; Ohtsuka, Yoko; Sugai, Kenji; Takahashi, Takao; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideto

    2008-09-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of intravenous lidocaine therapy for managing of status epilepticus (SE) during childhood in a retrospective multi-institutional study. Questionnaires were sent to 28 hospitals concerning patients admitted for SE who were managed with lidocaine, assessing patient characteristics, treatment protocols and efficacy. In 279 treated patients, 261 SE occurrences at ages between 1 month and 15 years were analyzed. SE was classified as showing continuous, clustered, or frequently repeated seizures. Considering efficacy and side effects in combination, the usefulness of lidocaine was classified into six categories: extremely useful, useful, slightly useful, not useful, associated with deterioration, or unevaluated. In 148 SE cases (56.7%), lidocaine was rated as useful or extremely useful. Multivariate analysis indicated lidocaine was to be useful in SE with clustered and frequently repeated seizures, and SE attributable to certain acute illnesses, such as convulsions with mild gastroenteritis. Efficacy was poor when SE caused by central nervous system (CNS) infectious disease. Standard doses (approximately 2mg/kg as a bolus, 2mg/kg/h as maintenance) produced better outcomes than lower or higher doses. Poor responders to the initial bolus injection of lidocaine were less likely to respond to subsequent continuous infusion than good initial responders. We recommend lidocaine for use in SE with clustered or frequently repeated seizures, and in SE associated with benign infantile convulsion and convulsions with mild gastroenteritis. Lidocaine should be initiated with a bolus of 2mg/kg. If SE is arrested by the bolus, continuous maintenance infusion should follow; treatment should proceed to different measures when SE shows a poor response to the initial bolus of lidocaine.

  3. Duration of action of mepivacaine and lidocaine in equine palmar digital perineural blocks in an experimental lameness model.

    PubMed

    Hoerdemann, Mona; Smith, Rachael L; Hosgood, Giselle

    2017-10-01

    To establish and compare the onset and duration of action of 2 local anesthetics based on objective lameness and skin sensitivity assessment. Interventional crossover experimental trial with balanced randomization. Eight horses. Reversible forelimb lameness was induced in 8 horses. A palmar digital nerve block (PDNB) was applied with mepivacaine or lidocaine (both 2%). Quantitative lameness and skin sensitivity data were collected with an inertial sensor system and a force gauge, respectively. The times to lameness resolution/skin desensitization (T1), consistent lameness detection/partial return of skin sensitivity (T2), and complete return of lameness/skin sensitivity (T3) were determined and compared between treatments and assessment methods. Mepivacaine blocks resolved lameness in 8/8 horses, compared to 3/8 horses with lidocaine blocks. Both agents led to skin desensitization in 8/8 horses. Skin desensitization occurred sooner than lameness resolution after mepivacaine (P = .047). Duration of action was longer with mepivacaine than lidocaine (mean T3_lameness mepivacaine 366 minutes, lidocaine 113 minutes (P = .038); T3_skin mepivacaine 195 minutes, lidocaine 63 minutes [P ≤ .001]). Skin sensitivity returned sooner than lameness after lidocaine block at T3 (P = .015). The use of lidocaine in PDNBs for the purpose of lameness diagnosis should be reassessed, as it may not resolve lameness despite loss of skin sensation. Mepivacaine is superior, with a reliable onset and longer duration of action. Skin desensitization as an indicator for the onset of action or effectiveness of PDNBs for mepivacaine and lidocaine, or as a measure of the duration of action of lidocaine PDNBs should be interpreted with caution. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  4. Intrathecal fentanyl-induced pruritus is more severe in combination with procaine than with lidocaine or bupivacaine.

    PubMed

    Mulroy, M F; Larkin, K L; Siddiqui, A

    2001-01-01

    Fentanyl is used as an additive to prolong intrathecal anesthesia with both lidocaine and low-dose bupivacaine in the outpatient setting to minimize voiding or discharge delays. Pruritus is the most common side effect. When using procaine as a substitute for lidocaine, we perceived an increased frequency and severity of pruritus. We compared prospectively the frequency and severity of itching with combinations of fentanyl with lidocaine, bupivacaine, and procaine. After institutional review board approval, 135 patients requesting neuraxial anesthesia were asked to evaluate the presence and severity (using a 100 point verbal pruritus score [VPS]) of itching 30 minutes after injection of their spinal anesthetic, on arrival to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), and at the time of resolution of their block. Choice of anesthetic drug and dose and the use of intravenous sedation was left to the discretion of the attending and resident anesthesiologist. Thirty-three patients received lidocaine and fentanyl, 47 received bupivacaine and fentanyl, and 55 received procaine and fentanyl. In the lidocaine group, 21% of patients experienced pruritus compared with 55% of the bupivacaine group and 55% of the procaine group (P =.003). The average VPS at 30 minutes postblock was 18.4 in the procaine group compared with 0 and 5.5 in the lidocaine and bupivacaine groups (P =.06). On admission to the PACU, it was 37 compared with 16 and 20 for lidocaine and bupivacaine, respectively (P =.006). Procaine produces a higher frequency of pruritus than that seen with lidocaine-fentanyl combinations and a greater severity of pruritus than seen with lidocaine-fentanyl and bupivacaine-fentanyl spinal anesthesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2001;26:252-256.

  5. Effect of intraoperative lidocaine on anesthetic consumption, and bowel function, pain intensity, analgesic consumption and hospital stay after breast surgery

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soo Joo; Jeong, Hui Yeon; Lee, Jeong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Perioperative lidocaine infusion improves postoperative outcomes, mostly after abdominal and urologic surgeries. Knowledge of the effect of lidocaine on peripheral surgeries is limited. Presently, we investigated whether intraoperative lidocaine infusion reduced anesthetic consumption, duration of ileus, pain intensity, analgesic consumption and hospital stay after breast plastic surgeries. Methods Sixty female patients, aged 20-60 years, enrolled in this prospective study were randomly and equally divided to two groups. One group (n = 30) received a 1.5 mg/kg bolus of lidocaine approximately 30 min before incision followed by continuous infusion of lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg/h) until skin closure (lidocaine group). The other group (n = 30) was untreated (control group). Balanced inhalation (sevoflurane) anesthesia and multimodal postoperative analgesia were standardized. End tidal sevoflurane concentration during surgery, time to the first flatus and defecation, visual analog pain scale (0-10), analgesic consumption and associated side effects at 24, 48, and 72 h after surgery, hospital stay, and patient's general satisfaction were assessed. Results Compared to the control group, intraoperative lidocaine infusion reduced by 5% the amount of sevoflurane required at similar bispectral index (P = 0.014). However, there were no significant effects of lidocaine regarding the return of bowel function, postoperative pain intensity, analgesic sparing and side effects at all time points, hospital stay, and level of patient's satisfaction for pain control. Conclusions Low dose intraoperative lidocaine infusion offered no beneficial effects on return of bowel function, opioid sparing, pain intensity and hospital stay after various breast plastic surgeries. PMID:22679539

  6. A Nav1.7 channel mutation associated with hereditary erythromelalgia contributes to neuronal hyperexcitability and displays reduced lidocaine sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Patrick L; Jackson, James O; Waxman, Stephen G; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Cummins, Theodore R

    2007-06-15

    Mutations in the TTX-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channel subtype Nav1.7 have been implicated in the painful inherited neuropathy, hereditary erythromelalgia. Hereditary erythromelalgia can be difficult to treat and, although sodium channels are targeted by local anaesthetics such as lidocaine (lignocaine), some patients do not respond to treatment with local anaesthetics. This study examined electrophysiological differences in Nav1.7 caused by a hereditary erythromelalgia mutation (N395K) that lies within the local anaesthetic binding site of the channel. The N395K mutation produced a hyperpolarized voltage dependence of activation, slower kinetics of deactivation, and impaired steady-state slow inactivation. Computer simulations indicate that the shift in activation is the major determinant of the hyperexcitability induced by erythromelalgia mutations in sensory neurons, but that changes in slow inactivation can modulate the overall impact on excitability. This study also investigated lidocaine inhibition of the Nav1.7-N395K channel. We show that the N395K mutation attenuates the inhibitory effects of lidocaine on both resting and inactivated Nav1.7. The IC50 for lidocaine was estimated at 500 microM for inactivated wild-type Nav1.7 and 2.8 mM for inactivated Nav1.7-N395K. The N395K mutation also significantly reduced use-dependent inhibition of lidocaine on Nav1.7 current. In contrast, a different hereditary erythromelalgia mutation (F216S), not located in the local anaesthetic binding site, had no effect on lidocaine inhibition of Nav1.7 current. Our observation of reduced lidocaine inhibition on Nav1.7-N395K shows that the residue N395 is critical for lidocaine binding to Nav1.7 and suggests that the response of individuals with hereditary erythromelalgia to lidocaine treatment may be determined, at least in part, by their specific genotype.

  7. Evaluation of the effect of intravenous lidocaine on propofol requirements during total intravenous anaesthesia as measured by bispectral index.

    PubMed

    Altermatt, F R; Bugedo, D A; Delfino, A E; Solari, S; Guerra, I; Muñoz, H R; Cortínez, L I

    2012-06-01

    I.V. lidocaine is increasingly used as an adjuvant during general anaesthesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of i.v. lidocaine in reducing propofol anaesthetic requirements during total i.v. anaesthesia (TIVA) maintenance and to evaluate its effect on early recovery from anaesthesia. Forty adult patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under TIVA were randomly allocated into the lidocaine group (administered 1.5 mg kg(-1) i.v. lidocaine over 5 min followed by 2 mg kg(-1) h(-1)) and the control group (administered an equal volume of saline). Propofol was administered using a target-controlled infusion to maintain the bispectral index values between 40 and 60. After surgery, all infusions were discontinued and the time to extubation was recorded. Serial arterial blood samples were drawn to assess drug plasma levels. The maintenance dose of propofol was significantly lower in the lidocaine group [6.00 (0.97) mg kg(-1) h(-1)] vs the control group [7.25 (1.13) mg kg(-1) h(-1); P=0.01]. Propofol plasma levels measured at the end of the infusion were 3.71 (0.89) μg ml(-1) in the lidocaine group and 3.67 (1.28) μg ml(-1) in the control group (P=0.91). The median time to extubation was longer (11.0 min; range: 10.0-21.0) in the lidocaine group vs the control group (8.3 min; range: 5.5-12.5; P=0.02). I.V. lidocaine reduces propofol requirements during the maintenance phase of TIVA, particularly during surgical stimulation. This sparing effect is associated with an increased time to extubation. Owing to its effect on early recovery from anaesthesia, i.v. lidocaine should be taken into account when used as a component of i.v. anaesthesia.

  8. A Nav1.7 channel mutation associated with hereditary erythromelalgia contributes to neuronal hyperexcitability and displays reduced lidocaine sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, Patrick L; Jackson, James O; Waxman, Stephen G; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Cummins, Theodore R

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in the TTX-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channel subtype Nav1.7 have been implicated in the painful inherited neuropathy, hereditary erythromelalgia. Hereditary erythromelalgia can be difficult to treat and, although sodium channels are targeted by local anaesthetics such as lidocaine (lignocaine), some patients do not respond to treatment with local anaesthetics. This study examined electrophysiological differences in Nav1.7 caused by a hereditary erythromelalgia mutation (N395K) that lies within the local anaesthetic binding site of the channel. The N395K mutation produced a hyperpolarized voltage dependence of activation, slower kinetics of deactivation, and impaired steady-state slow inactivation. Computer simulations indicate that the shift in activation is the major determinant of the hyperexcitability induced by erythromelalgia mutations in sensory neurons, but that changes in slow inactivation can modulate the overall impact on excitability. This study also investigated lidocaine inhibition of the Nav1.7-N395K channel. We show that the N395K mutation attenuates the inhibitory effects of lidocaine on both resting and inactivated Nav1.7. The IC50 for lidocaine was estimated at 500 μm for inactivated wild-type Nav1.7 and 2.8 mm for inactivated Nav1.7-N395K. The N395K mutation also significantly reduced use-dependent inhibition of lidocaine on Nav1.7 current. In contrast, a different hereditary erythromelalgia mutation (F216S), not located in the local anaesthetic binding site, had no effect on lidocaine inhibition of Nav1.7 current. Our observation of reduced lidocaine inhibition on Nav1.7-N395K shows that the residue N395 is critical for lidocaine binding to Nav1.7 and suggests that the response of individuals with hereditary erythromelalgia to lidocaine treatment may be determined, at least in part, by their specific genotype. PMID:17430993

  9. Decreasing Effect of Lidocaine·HCl on the Thickness of the Neuronal and Model Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Min; Park, Jong-Sun; Kim, Jae-Han; Baek, Jin-Hyun; Yoon, Tae-Gyun; Lee, Do-Keun; Ryu, Won-Hyang; Chung, In-Kyo; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the mechanism of action of a local anesthetic, lidocaine·HCl. Energy transfer between the surface fluorescent probe, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid, and the hydrophobic fluorescent probe, 1,3-di(1-pyrenyl) propane, was used to determine the effect of lidocaine·HCl on the thickness (D) of the synaptosomal plasma membrane vesicles (SPMV) isolated from the bovine cerebral cortex, and liposomes of the total lipids (SPMVTL) and phospholipids (SPMVPL) extracted from the SPMV. The thickness (D) of the intact SPMV, SPMVTL and SPMVPL were 1.044±0.008, 0.914±0.005 and 0.890±0.003 (arbitrary units, n=5) at 37℃ (pH 7.4), respectively. Lidocaine·HCl decreased the thickness of the neuronal and model membrane lipid bilayers in a dose-dependent manner with a significant decrease in the thickness, even at 0.1 mM. The decreasing effect of lidocaine·HCl on the membrane thickness might be responsible for some, but not all of its anesthetic action. PMID:23946683

  10. A fatal accidental subarachnoid injection of lidocaine and levobupivacaine during a lumbar paravertebral block.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Tritapepe, Luigi; Montana, Angelo; Indorato, Francesca; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido

    2015-11-01

    Paravertebral block (PVB) is the technique of injecting a local anesthetic solution alongside the vertebral column, close to where the spinal nerves emerge, resulting in unilateral somatic and sympathetic nerve blockade. Here is reported a fatal case involving a 60-year-old woman with spondylitis arthropathy, who developed cardiac and respiratory arrest 40min after receiving an accidental subarachnoid injection (L5-S1 bilaterally) of depomedrol lidocaine and levobupivacaine. A complete autopsy including histological and toxicological analyses was performed in order to establish the cause of death. Liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) and GC-MS analysis were performed according to a previously published method. Lidocaine and bupivacaine were detected both in blood, at concentrations of 14.8mg/L and 13.3mg/L respectively, and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at concentrations of 287.1mg/L and 464.2mg/L respectively. Both lidocaine and bupivacaine were also detected in the urine. The toxicological findings along with the autopsy allowed us to establish that the accidental subarachnoid injection of lidocaine and levobupivacaine had led to a progressive hypotension and normovolaemic shock caused by a severe ganglionic block, determining the patient's death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Lidocaine on HT-29 and SW480 Colon Cancer Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Bundscherer, Anika C; Malsy, Manuela; Bitzinger, Diane I; Wiese, Christoph H R; Gruber, Michael A; Graf, Bernhard M

    2017-04-01

    Evidence is growing that the risk of cancer dissemination may be enhanced during the perioperative period. Whether particular anesthetic techniques influence oncological outcome is still under discussion. For pain management, lidocaine can be administered perioperatively by intravenous, intraperitoneal or epidural infusion. Here we investigated the effect of lidocaine on colon carcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and SW480) in vitro. ELISA BrdU (Roche) for cell proliferation and FITC Annexin V detection kit (BD Pharming) for apoptosis analysis were applied. Cell-cycle profiles were investigated by flow cytometry. Cell-cycle arrest was induced in both cell lines by 1000 μM lidocaine, while no inhibition of cell proliferation was detected. Apoptosis decreased in SW480 but not in HT-29 cells. Lidocaine induces cell-cycle arrest in both colon carcinoma cell lines in vitro. The effective drug concentration can be obtained by local infiltration. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of lidocaine infiltration on cost of rhinoplasty made under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Goktas, Ugur; Isik, Daghan; Kati, Ismail; Atik, Bekir; Soyoral, Lokman

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of combined and noncombined lidocaine with adrenaline infiltration in general anesthesia (GA) procedures, in which the standard anesthesia depth is monitored by Bispectral Index monitoring, on minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) levels and the costs. Following approval by the local ethics committee, an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I–II group of 40 adult patients for whom elective rhinoplasties under GA were planned was divided into 2 double-blind randomized groups. In group 1, GA and lidocaine + adrenaline were administered, whereas in group 2, only GA and adrenaline were administered. All the patients who had been taken to the operation room underwent electrocardiography and measurements of the peripheral oxygen saturation, end-tidal carbon dioxide, heart rate, mean blood pressure, and Bispectral Index monitoring. Using the operation time and the MAC% values, the total consumed inhalation agent amounts were calculated, and the cost difference was determined. The mean blood pressure values were lower in group 1 (P < 0.05). In group 1, the MAC% was 20.83% lower than that of group 2; the consumed desflurane amount was 20.29%, and the cost was 20.29% lower than that of group 2 (P < 0.05). In rhinoplasties under GA, the lidocaine + adrenaline combination infiltration not only decreased inhaled anesthetic requirement and cost but also supported the hemodynamic stability. In addition, surgical satisfaction increased in the lidocaine + adrenaline group because of small number of agitated patients during the recovery period.

  13. Treatment of localized neuropathic pain after disk herniation with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster

    PubMed Central

    Likar, Rudolf; Kager, Ingo; Obmann, Michael; Pipam, Wolfgang; Sittl, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess treatment with the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster for peripheral neuropathic pain after disk herniation. Study design Case series, single center, retrospective data. Patients and methods Data of 23 patients treated for neuropathic pain with the lidocaine plaster for up to 24 months after a protrusion or prolapse of the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar vertebral disks were retrospectively analyzed. Changes in overall pain intensity, in intensity of different pain qualities and of allodynia and hyperalgesia were evaluated. Results Patients (14 female/nine male, mean age 53.5 ± 10.4 years) presented with radiating pain into the abdomen, back, neck, shoulder, or legs and feet with a mean pain intensity of 8.3 ± 1.5 on the 11-point Likert scale. Mean treatment duration was 7.6 months; 52% of the patients received lidocaine plaster as monotherapy. At the end of the observation, mean overall pain intensity had been reduced to 3.1 ± 1.8. All other parameters also improved. The treatment was well tolerated. Conclusion These results point to a safe and effective treatment approach with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster for localized neuropathic pain related to disk herniation. However, owing to the small sample size, further investigation in a larger-scale controlled trial is warranted. PMID:22973116

  14. Treatment of localized neuropathic pain after disk herniation with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster.

    PubMed

    Likar, Rudolf; Kager, Ingo; Obmann, Michael; Pipam, Wolfgang; Sittl, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    To assess treatment with the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster for peripheral neuropathic pain after disk herniation. Case series, single center, retrospective data. Data of 23 patients treated for neuropathic pain with the lidocaine plaster for up to 24 months after a protrusion or prolapse of the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar vertebral disks were retrospectively analyzed. Changes in overall pain intensity, in intensity of different pain qualities and of allodynia and hyperalgesia were evaluated. Patients (14 female/nine male, mean age 53.5 ± 10.4 years) presented with radiating pain into the abdomen, back, neck, shoulder, or legs and feet with a mean pain intensity of 8.3 ± 1.5 on the 11-point Likert scale. Mean treatment duration was 7.6 months; 52% of the patients received lidocaine plaster as monotherapy. At the end of the observation, mean overall pain intensity had been reduced to 3.1 ± 1.8. All other parameters also improved. The treatment was well tolerated. These results point to a safe and effective treatment approach with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster for localized neuropathic pain related to disk herniation. However, owing to the small sample size, further investigation in a larger-scale controlled trial is warranted.

  15. The Use of Intravenous Lidocaine for the Management of Acute Pain Secondary to Traumatic Ankle Injury.

    PubMed

    Sin, Billy; Gritsenko, Diana; Tam, Grace; Koop, Kimberly; Mok, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Sports-related injuries are a frequent cause of visits to the emergency department (ED) across the United States. A majority of these injuries affect the lower extremities with the ankle as the most frequently reported site. Most sports-related injuries are not severe enough to require inpatient hospitalization; however, they often lead to acute distress and pain which require prompt treatment with analgesics. Approximately 22% of patients who presented to the ED required pharmacotherapy for acute pain management. Opioids have been traditionally used for the management of severe acute pain in the ED; however, there are growing concerns for opioid overuse and misuse. As a result, there is growing controversy regarding the appropriate selection of analgesic agents, optimal dosing, and need for outpatient therapy which has contributed to changes in prescribing patterns of opioids in the ED. Lidocaine, a class 1b antiarrhythmic, has been utilized as an analgesic agent. Its use has been documented for the management of intractable chronic pain caused by cancer, stroke, neuropathies, or nephrolithiasis. However, literature describing the use of intravenous lidocaine for the management of acute pain secondary to trauma is limited to a single case series. This case report describes the use of intravenous lidocaine in a 17-year-old male who presented to the ED in acute distress secondary to ankle dislocation and fracture. This report serves to describe additional clinical experience with intravenous lidocaine for the management of acute pain secondary to ankle fracture in the emergency department.

  16. The efficacy of intraurethral lidocaine in optical internal urethrotomy for anterior urethral stricture: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Cem, Nedim Y; Yildiray, Yıldız; Berat, Cem Ö; Mehmet, Melih S; Ömer, Gökhan D; Ahmet, Metin H; Ekrem, Özyuvalı; Ali, Ayyıldız

    2017-04-20

    Male anterior urethral strictures can be treated successfully with the help of optical internal urethrotomy (OIU) and is usually performed under general or regional anaesthesia. In this study, we determined the efficacy of intraurethral lidocaine in OIU for anterior urethral stricture in an outpatient setting. 157 patients with anterior urethral strictures underwent OIU under local urethral anaesthesia with lidocaine. Optical urethrotomy was performed with a cold-cutting knife. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate patient discomfort and pain levels. Using local anaesthesia with lidocaine 2%, internal urethrotomy under vision was successfully completed in 151 of 157 patients.. The overall success rate 96.1%.A total of 125 patients experienced mild , 26 patients moderate and 6 patients severe pain. The procedure was not completed in six patients because of severe pain. These patients went on OIU under general anesthesia. 18 (11.4%) recurrent strictures were seen during at least 6 months of follow up. Topical intraurethral lidocaine is a simple and efficacious anaesthesia technique for surgical procedures on the anterior urethra. It is a safe, cost-effective and a well tolerated procedure .OIU under topical anesthesia can be easily performed and satisfactorily completed in an outpatient setting. It's anesthetic efficacy and reasonable success rate when compared with the other anesthetic techniques may provide an alternative approach in the management of urethral strictures.

  17. Test of a model of antiarrhythmic drug action. Effects of quinidine and lidocaine on myocardial conduction.

    PubMed

    Hondeghem, L; Katzung, B G

    1980-06-01

    The effects of quinidine and lidocaine on the maximum upstroke velocity (Vmax) of the ventricular myocardial action potential were compared with the effects predicted by a model over a wide range of driving rates, rhythm disturbances and holding potentials. These rate-, rhythm- and voltage-dependent effects were accurately predicted by the proposed model. The model was also able to predict several previously undocumented properties of the drugs: 1) If lidocaine decreases Vmax of a pulse train, the steady state is reached within a few action potentials. 2) The poststimulation recovery of Vmax in the presence of lidocaine or quinidine can occur in a multiexponential fashion, if the membrane potential is kept at the potential where both the fast (operating mainly at more negative membrane potentials) and the slow (operating at more positive potentials) recovery processes are operative. 3) Hyperpolarization markedly attenuates the rate-dependent drug effects. 4) Combinations of lidocaine and quinidine have a superadditive effect on the Vmax of early extrasystoles.

  18. Use-dependent block of single sodium channels by lidocaine in guinea pig ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, T V; Courtney, K R; Clusin, W T

    1989-01-01

    Single sodium channel openings have been recorded from cell-attached patches of isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes. A paired pulse protocol was used to test the hypothesis that channel openings are required for lidocaine block. While the averaged ensemble current during the test pulse was much reduced, there was no correlation between the appearance of channel openings during the conditioning pulse and the subsequent test pulse. Analysis of single channel records demonstrated that the unit conductance of open channels was not changed by lidocaine. The block of ensemble INa was explained by roughly equal reductions in number of open channel events, and in the average duration of opening for each event. These results suggest that lidocaine binding to Na+ channels is dependent upon voltage, but may occur before channel opening. A lidocaine-modified channel can still open, but will be less likely to remain open than a drug-free channel. These results are consistent with block of a pre-open state of the channel. PMID:2548633

  19. [Comparative study on effect of acupuncture and lidocaine block for lumbar myofascial pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Gui-Mei; Lin, Mou-De; Wang, Lu-Ying

    2013-03-01

    To observe the clinical efficacy of acupuncture at Jiaji (EX-B 2) points mainly for lumbar myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Sixty-six cases of MPS were randomized into an acupuncture group and a lidocaine group, 33 cases in each group. The acupuncture group was treated with acupuncture at Jiaji (EX-B 2) points combined with needling local myofascial trigger points (MTrP), and the lidocaine group was treated with local block at trigger points with lidocaine injection. The treatment was given once every 2 days. After three and five times of the treatment, the simplified McGill scale, Oswestry disability index (ODI) and pressure-pain threshold were assessed to compare the therapeutic effects between the two groups. After treatment, the scores of simplified McGill and ODI of two groups were obviously reduced while the score of pressure-pain threshold was obviously increased (all P < 0.01). After three and five times of the treatment, there were no significant differences in above scores between the two groups (all P > 0.05). Acupuncture at Jiaji (EX-B 2) points combined with needling MTrP is an effective and safe therapy for lumbar MPS, the therapeutic effect is equal to lidocaine block.

  20. Do lubricants with 2% lidocaine gel have an effect on patient comfort in diagnostic cystoscopy?

    PubMed

    Goktug, Hasan Nedim Goksel; Ozturk, Ufuk; Sener, Nevzat Can; Tuygun, Can; Bakırtas, Hasan; Imamoglu, M Abdurrahim

    2014-01-01

    Patients undergoing both rigid and flexible cystoscopic evaluation suffer from a great deal of pain and discomfort. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of lidocaine gel anestesia on patient comfort on diagnostic rigid cystoscopy. 11 mL of lubricant gel applied to each patient via the external meatus in 10 s. Patients were randomized into three groups. In group 1, liquid glycerine was applied and cystoscopy was immediately performed, in group 2 lidocaine gel (Aqua Touch™: İstem Tıbbi Cihaz Ve Sanayi Ltd.Şti, Ostim, Ankara, Türkiye) was applied and the procedure undergone immediately and in group 3, lidocaine gel was applied and penis was clemped for 10 minutes before the procedure. VAS forms were filled to determine the discomfort and pain during cystoscopy and the first micturation after. After the evaluation between groups, VAS scores were significantly lower in Group II and III than Group I and in Group III than in Group II (p < 0.05). When post micturation VAS scores were evaluated, VAS scores were significantly lower in Group II than Group I and in Group III than in Group II (p < 0.05). The application of local anesthetic lidocaine gel in rigid cystoscopy, is a practical, safe and efficient method to improve patient comfort when applied in appropriate dose and waiting duration.

  1. Anal fissure in children: a 10-year clinical experience with nifedipine gel with lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Klin, Baruch; Efrati, Yigal; Berkovitch, Matitiahu; Abu-Kishk, Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of the use of nifedipine gel with lidocaine in the treatment of acute anal fissures in children by reviewing the cases of 106 children with acute anal fissure treated conservatively by nifedipine gel with lidocaine between the years 2003-2012. The patients included in this study were 48 males and 58 females. Their clinical presentation consisted of constipation, rectal bleeding, anal pain, perianal itching, abdominal pain, irritability and rectal prolapse. Posterior, anterior, both anterior and posterior, multiple, both posterior and lateral locations were the main physical findings in 65, 23, 10, 7, and 1 cases. Ninety-nine patients completed the 4-week treatment course of nifedipine gel with lidocaine successfully (93.40%), with complete healing of the fissure. The recurrence rate observed was very low (6.60%). Topical 0.2% nifedipine with lidocaine appears an efficient mode of treatment for anal fissures in children, with a significant healing rate and no side effects.

  2. Protective effect of lidocaine during regional myocardial ischemia: an altered pathophysiologic response assessed by NADH fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, D.W.; Walls, J.T.; Anderson, R.E.; Harrison, C.E. Jr.

    1982-07-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the effects of lidocaine on ischemic myocardium, which was induced by coronary artery constriction in open-chested dogs. A real-time epicardial fluorescent technique to detect in vivo-reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) during 60 seconds of ischemia was used. Blood flow of ischemic myocardium was measured by using radioactive microspheres of 9 +/- 1 micrometers (mean +/- SE) and was compared with that of normal myocardium, shown by injection of alpha-zurine blue dye. Lidocaine effectively reduced peak NADH fluorescence by 18.6%, from 93.9 +/- 7.2 to 76.4 +/-4.1 mV (p less than 0.005). Lidocaine delayed the onset of fluorescence (2.2 +/- 0.2 versus 1.3 +/- 0.1 s p less than 0.002) and facilitated the recovery from ischemia (38.4 +/- 2.9 versus 54.8 +/- 2.9 s p less than 0.001). Increase in NADH concentration during ischemia correlated (r.0.76, p less than 0.006) with ischemic fluorescence. These findings were independent of altered hemodynamics or change in myocardial blood flow. Results indicate that lidocaine provides myocardial cellular protection during transient ischemia; there is an altered NADH fluorescent response to coronary artery occlusion.

  3. Anesthetic efficacy of a combination of hyaluronidase and lidocaine with epinephrine in inferior alveolar nerve blocks.

    PubMed Central

    Ridenour, S.; Reader, A.; Beck, M.; Weaver, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of a buffered lidocaine with epinephrine solution compared to a combination buffered lidocaine with epinephrine plus hyaluronidase solution in inferior alveolar nerve blocks. Thirty subjects randomly received an inferior alveolar nerve block using 1 of the 2 solutions at 2 separate appointments using a repeated-measures design. Mandibular anterior and posterior teeth were blindly pulp tested at 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes postinjection. No response from the subject to the maximum output (80 reading) of the pulp tester was used as the criterion for pulpal anesthesia. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive readings of 80 were obtained. A postoperative survey was used to measure pain and trismus. The results demonstrated 100% of the subjects had profound lip numbness with both solutions for inferior alveolar nerve blocks. The anesthetic success rates for individual teeth ranged from 20 to 80%. There were no significant differences (P > .05) between the 2 solutions. However, the combination lidocaine/hyaluronidase solution resulted in a significant increase in postoperative pain and trismus. It was concluded that adding hyaluronidase to a buffered lidocaine solution with epinephrine did not statistically increase the incidence of pulpal anesthesia in inferior alveolar nerve blocks and, because of its potential tissue damaging effect, it should not be added to local anesthetic solutions for inferior alveolar nerve blocks. PMID:11495405

  4. [Evaluation of sciatic nerve damage following intraneural injection of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and lidocaine in rats].

    PubMed

    Sen, Oznur; Sayilgan, Nevzat Cem; Tutuncu, Ayse Cigdem; Bakan, Mefkur; Koksal, Guniz Meyanci; Oz, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    The local anesthetics may cause neurotoxicity. We aimed to compare the neurotoxic potential of different local anesthetics, local anesthetic induced nerve damage and pathological changes of a peripheral nerve. Sixty Wistar rats weighing 200-350g were studied. Rats were assigned into 3 groups and 26-gauge needle was inserted under magnification into the left sciatic nerve and 0.2mL of 0.5% bupivacaine, 5% levobupivacaine, and 2% lidocaine were injected intraneurally. An individual who was blind to the specifics of the injection monitored the neurologic function on postoperative 1st day, and daily thereafter. Neurologic examination included assessment for the presence and severity of nociception and grasping reflexes. At the 7th day sciatic nerve specimen was taken for evaluation of histopathologic changes. There was no statistical difference detected among groups regarding grasping reflex and histopathologic evaluation. Two cases in bupivacaine group, 1 case in levobupivacaine group and 2 cases in lidocaine group had slight grasping, while 1 case in lidocaine group had no grasping reflex on the seventh day. Severe axonal degeneration was observed in all groups, respectively in bupivacaine group 4 (20%), levobupivacaine group 3 (15%), and lidocaine group 6 (30%). In all groups, histopathological damage frequency and severity were more than the motor deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of sciatic nerve damage following intraneural injection of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and lidocaine in rats.

    PubMed

    Sen, Oznur; Sayilgan, Nevzat Cem; Tutuncu, Ayse Cigdem; Bakan, Mefkur; Koksal, Guniz Meyanci; Oz, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    The local anesthetics may cause neurotoxicity. We aimed to compare the neurotoxic potential of different local anesthetics, local anesthetic induced nerve damage and pathological changes of a peripheral nerve. Sixty Wistar rats weighing 200-350g were studied. Rats were assigned into 3 groups and 26-gauge needle was inserted under magnification into the left sciatic nerve and 0.2mL of 0.5% bupivacaine, 5% levobupivacaine, and 2% lidocaine were injected intraneurally. An individual who was blind to the specifics of the injection monitored the neurologic function on postoperative 1st day, and daily thereafter. Neurologic examination included assessment for the presence and severity of nociception and grasping reflexes. At the 7th day sciatic nerve specimen was taken for evaluation of histopathologic changes. There was no statistical difference detected among groups regarding grasping reflex and histopathologic evaluation. Two cases in bupivacaine group, 1 case in levobupivacaine group and 2 cases in lidocaine group had slight grasping, while 1 case in lidocaine group had no grasping reflex on the seventh day. Severe axonal degeneration was observed in all groups, respectively in bupivacaine group 4 (20%), levobupivacaine group 3 (15%), and lidocaine group 6 (30%). In all groups, histopathological damage frequency and severity were more than the motor deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. NaHCO3-Buffered Lidocaine Gel for Outpatient Rigid Cystoscopy in Men.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Cheng, Yanxin; Li, Jun; Chen, Yongxue; Yuan, Jinge; Yang, Shuhong; Shi, Huiqiao; Li, Wenpin; Yang, Shijie; Wang, Wei; Xu, Guanjie; Zhao, Senming

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of NaHCO3-buffered lidocaine gel as a topical anesthetic agent for pain relief for rigid cystoscopy. Prospective randomized controlled trial. ASA I-II male patients undergoing rigid cystoscopy randomly received 10 mL 2% Carbocaine lidocaine gel with 1 mL 0.9% saline (group 1) or 1 mL 5% NaHCO3 solution (group 2). After 3 minutes exposure, the cystoscope was inserted into the urethra. On receiving the gel, cystoscope insertion, and intravesical observation, pain score was recorded using the visual analog scale. The gel pH with or without NaHCO3 was 7.20 and 6.41, respectively. The concentration of soluble lidocaine in the gel was stable for 24 hours or more. The visual analog scale score in group 2 was significantly lower (1.3 ± 0.9) than in group 1 (5.28 ± 1.99). No adverse effects were recorded. Alkalized lidocaine gel resulted in successful analgesia for rigid cystoscopy in men without adverse effects. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Lidocaine transportation through a cellophane membrane by wide range AC frequencies].

    PubMed

    Izumikawa, Hitomi

    2005-06-01

    This study examined whether lidocaine molecules can be transported through an artificial membrane by the application of AC. A cellophane membrane was placed between donor and receptor compartments. The donor compartment was filled with lidocaine hydrochloride (40 and 60 mmol/l) and the receptor compartment with pure water. A sine wave at 5 voltage levels and 5 frequencies was applied between the parallel plate electrodes. The impedance of the solution in the receptor compartment was measured to determine the concentration of the lidocaine. The transportation efficiency in the condition of high concentration was markedly enhanced with the application of 15 and 20 V at every frequency. Although no frequency dependence was observed in the 500 Hz to 100 kHz range, the transportation efficiency was markedly enhanced at 1 MHz. It is considered that lidocaine ions are transported by vibration or rotation energy induced by AC. The formation of electrode polarization is decreased in the high-frequency range resulting in attenuation of the voltage drop in the solution and increase of the transportation efficiency with the passage of AC.

  8. Regional lidocaine anesthesia without exsanguination for outpatient management of upper extremity fractures.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, G. A.; Hayes, W. M.; Cornwal, R.

    1995-01-01

    The use of small dose intravenous lidocaine without exsanguination for upper extremity fractures in children and adults is described. A twenty-plus year experience with this technique in the outpatient setting has shown it to be effective and safe. Attention to detail is essential and inadvertent tourniquet release must be avoided. Images Figure 1 PMID:7634037

  9. Health economic evidence of 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in post-herpetic neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Liedgens, Hiltrud; Obradovic, Marko; Nuijten, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common and most debilitating complication of herpes zoster, and involves considerable associated costs. Objective This paper presents results from nine health economic studies undertaken in eight European countries that compared lidocaine medicated plaster with gabapentin and/or pregabalin in PHN. It aims to support the increasing need for published cost-effectiveness data for health care decision-making processes in Europe. Methods All studies were based on a similar core Markov model with data derived from clinical trials, local Delphi panels, and official national price and tariff lists. The main outcome measure was cost per quality-adjusted life year gained; time without pain or intolerable adverse events was also included as a secondary outcome measure. All studies focused on an elderly population of patients with PHN who had insufficient pain relief with standard analgesics and could not tolerate or had contraindications to tricyclic antidepressants. Results Despite considerable differences in many of the variables used, the results showed remarkable similarity and suggested that use of lidocaine medicated plaster offered cost-savings in many of the countries studied, where it proved a highly cost-effective alternative to both gabapentin and pregabalin. Conclusion Lidocaine medicated plaster is a cost-effective alternative to gabapentin and pregabalin in the treatment of PHN. These savings are largely the result of the superior safety profile of the lidocaine medicated plaster. PMID:24348056

  10. Health economic evidence of 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in post-herpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Liedgens, Hiltrud; Obradovic, Marko; Nuijten, Mark

    2013-11-25

    Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common and most debilitating complication of herpes zoster, and involves considerable associated costs. This paper presents results from nine health economic studies undertaken in eight European countries that compared lidocaine medicated plaster with gabapentin and/or pregabalin in PHN. It aims to support the increasing need for published cost-effectiveness data for health care decision-making processes in Europe. All studies were based on a similar core Markov model with data derived from clinical trials, local Delphi panels, and official national price and tariff lists. The main outcome measure was cost per quality-adjusted life year gained; time without pain or intolerable adverse events was also included as a secondary outcome measure. All studies focused on an elderly population of patients with PHN who had insufficient pain relief with standard analgesics and could not tolerate or had contraindications to tricyclic antidepressants. Despite considerable differences in many of the variables used, the results showed remarkable similarity and suggested that use of lidocaine medicated plaster offered cost-savings in many of the countries studied, where it proved a highly cost-effective alternative to both gabapentin and pregabalin. Lidocaine medicated plaster is a cost-effective alternative to gabapentin and pregabalin in the treatment of PHN. These savings are largely the result of the superior safety profile of the lidocaine medicated plaster.

  11. Comparison of Iontophoretic Lidocaine to EMLA Cream for Pain Reduction Prior to Intravenous Cannulation in Adults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    iontophoresis of local anesthetics for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia . Gibson and Cooke, in 1959, used lidocaine and pilocarpine iontophoresis to...throat, oral surgery, lithotripsy, and there are some anecdotal reports of its use for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia . Hallen, Carlsson, and

  12. Lidocaine attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia and release of norepinephrine in the amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Renee N.; Canal, Clint E.; Gold, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    When administered near the time of training, protein synthesis inhibitors such as anisomycin impair later memory. A common interpretation of these findings is that memory consolidation requires new protein synthesis initiated by training. However, recent findings support an alternative interpretation that abnormally large increases in neurotransmitter release after injections of anisomycin may be responsible for producing amnesia. In the present study, a local anesthetic was administered prior to anisomycin injections in an attempt to mitigate neurotransmitter actions and thereby attenuate the resulting amnesia. Rats received lidocaine and anisomycin injections into the amygdala 130 and 120 min, respectively, prior to inhibitory avoidance training. Memory tests 48 hr later revealed that lidocaine attenuated anisomycin-induced amnesia. In other rats, in vivo microdialysis was performed at the site of amygdala infusion of lidocaine and anisomycin. As seen previously, anisomycin injections produced large increases in release of norepinephrine in the amygdala. Lidocaine attenuated the anisomycin-induced increase in release of norepinephrine but did not reverse anisomycin inhibition of protein synthesis, as assessed by c-Fos immunohistochemistry. These findings are consistent with past evidence suggesting that anisomycin causes amnesia by initiating abnormal release of neurotransmitters in response to the inhibition of protein synthesis. PMID:21453778

  13. Investigation of Efficacy of Lidocaine Spray for Sedated Esophagogastroduodenoscopy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Artan, Reha; Yılmaz, Aygen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Our aim in this study is to investigate efficacy of topical lidocaine spray for sedated esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in children. Methods The endoscopy of children aged between 3-18 years who underwent EGD in our endoscopy unit. Intravenous (IV) midazolam and ketamine were used for sedation. Prior to sedation, endoscopy nurse applied topical lidocaine 10% with pump spray at 1 mg/kg dose in group 1, and distilled water via identically scaled pump spray in group 2, in a double blinded fashion. Results Sedation was not applied in 24.1% of the cases in topical lidocaine spray group (LS group) and in 5.7% of the cases in distilled water spray group (DS group). Gag reflex was observed in 6.5% of cases in LS group and 33.3% of cases in DS group (p=0.024), increased oral secretion was observed in 9.3% of cases in LS group and 51.7% of cases in DS group (p=0.038), sore throat was observed in 3.7% of cases in LS group and 35.6% of cases in DS group (p=0.019) and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion The study showed that topical pharyngeal lidocaine reduces both requirement and amount of IV sedation before EGD in children and sore throat, gag reflex and decreased oral secretion increase. PMID:28730132

  14. Investigation of Efficacy of Lidocaine Spray for Sedated Esophagogastroduodenoscopy in Children.

    PubMed

    Basturk, Ahmet; Artan, Reha; Yılmaz, Aygen

    2017-06-01

    Our aim in this study is to investigate efficacy of topical lidocaine spray for sedated esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in children. The endoscopy of children aged between 3-18 years who underwent EGD in our endoscopy unit. Intravenous (IV) midazolam and ketamine were used for sedation. Prior to sedation, endoscopy nurse applied topical lidocaine 10% with pump spray at 1 mg/kg dose in group 1, and distilled water via identically scaled pump spray in group 2, in a double blinded fashion. Sedation was not applied in 24.1% of the cases in topical lidocaine spray group (LS group) and in 5.7% of the cases in distilled water spray group (DS group). Gag reflex was observed in 6.5% of cases in LS group and 33.3% of cases in DS group (p=0.024), increased oral secretion was observed in 9.3% of cases in LS group and 51.7% of cases in DS group (p=0.038), sore throat was observed in 3.7% of cases in LS group and 35.6% of cases in DS group (p=0.019) and the difference was statistically significant. The study showed that topical pharyngeal lidocaine reduces both requirement and amount of IV sedation before EGD in children and sore throat, gag reflex and decreased oral secretion increase.

  15. Tolperisone: evaluation of the lidocaine-like activity by molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Fels, G

    1996-04-01

    Tolperisone (1), a muscle relaxant with lidocaine-like activity, was compared to lidocaine (2) by molecular modeling methods. Conformational search analysis has been employed to find the global minima of these compounds along with numerous low energy conformations from which specific conformers were extracted that show good superimposition of the structural features important for protein binding. Two additional compounds, mepi- (3) and bupivacaine (4), were included in the analysis to validate the method as these ligands show very close structural and pharmacological relationship to lidocaine (2) and are assumed to bind to an identical site. As a result we find conformers of all four ligands that have exactly the same position and orientation of the potential sites for hydrogen bonding with the rest of the molecule showing close comparison of the three-dimensional geometry. Semiempirical calculations furthermore reveal good agreement of the electrostatic potentials of these conformations indicating similar interactions with a receptor. We conclude that tolperisone (1) and lidocaine (2) despite their chemical divergence can still attach to identical protein binding sites.

  16. Efficacy of Intravenous Lidocaine During Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Gastric Neoplasm: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Eun; Choi, Jong Bum; Koo, Bon-Nyeo; Jeong, Hae Won; Lee, Byung Ho; Kim, So Yeon

    2016-05-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an advanced therapy for early gastric neoplasm and requires sedation with adequate analgesia. Lidocaine is a short-acting local anesthetic, and intravenous lidocaine has been shown to have analgesic efficacy in surgical settings. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of intravenous lidocaine on analgesic and sedative requirements for ESD and pain after ESD.Sixty-six patients scheduled for ESD randomly received either intravenous lidocaine as a bolus of 1.5 mg/kg before sedation, followed by continuous infusion at a rate of 2 mg/kg/h during sedation (lidocaine group; n = 33) or the same bolus and infusion volumes of normal saline (control group; n = 33). Sedation was achieved with propofol and fentanyl. The primary outcome was fentanyl requirement during ESD. We recorded hemodynamics and any events during ESD and evaluated post-ESD epigastric and throat pain.Fentanyl requirement during ESD reduced by 24% in the lidocaine group compared with the control group (105 ± 28 vs. 138 ± 37 μg, mean ± SD; P < 0.001). The lidocaine group reached sedation faster [40 (20-100) vs. 55 (30-120) s, median (range); P = 0.001], and incidence of patient movement during ESD decreased in the lidocaine group (3% vs. 26%, P = 0.026). Numerical rating scale for epigastric pain was significantly lower at 6 hours after ESD [2 (0-6) vs. 3 (0-8), median (range); P = 0.023] and incidence of throat pain was significantly lower in the lidocaine group (27% vs. 65%, P = 0.003). No adverse events associated with lidocaine were discovered.Administration of intravenous lidocaine reduced fentanyl requirement and decreased patient movement during ESD. Moreover, it alleviated epigastric and throat pain after ESD. Thus, we conclude that the use of intravenous adjuvant lidocaine is a new and safe sedative method during ESD.

  17. Assessment of membrane protection by /sup 31/P-NMR effects of lidocaine on calcium-paradox in myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Hirosumi; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Teragaki, Masakazu; Takeuchi, Kazuhide; Takeda, Takeda; Ikata, Mari; Ishikawa, Makoto; Miura, Iwao

    1989-01-01

    In studying calcium paradox, perfused rat hearts were used to investigate the myocardial protective effects of lidocaine. Intracellular contents of phosphates were measured using the /sup 31/P-NMR method. In hearts reexposed to calcium, following 3 minute calcium-free perfusion, a rapid contracture occurred, followed by rapid and complete disappearance of intracellular phosphates with no resumption of cardiac function. In hearts where lidocaine was administered from the onset of the calcium-free perfusion until 2 minutes following the onset of reexposure to calcium, both intracellular phosphates and cardiac contractility were maintained. Therefore, it can be said that cell membranes were protected by lidocaine.

  18. [Topical anesthesia for cataract surgery with phacoemulsification: lidocaine 2% vs ropivacaine 1%. Preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Lo Martire, N; Savastano, S; Rossini, L; Pinchera, L; Caracciolo, F; Savastano, M C; Rossini, P; Panariti, R; Mondello, E; Epifanio, A

    2002-06-01

    The safety, tolerability and efficacy of ropivacaine 1% vs lidocaine 2% for phacoemulsification using topical anesthesia during cataract surgery, are compared. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study comparing two agents for topical anesthesia is reported. Operative Unit of Ophthalmology, general Hospital. 1893 consecutively patients were studied (ASA 1-3, 738 males, 1155 females, age 71.8+/-9.7 years, range 35-90 years) undergoing routine phacoemulsification under topical 2% lidocaine (group I) and 1% ropivacaine (group II). The mains outcome measures of the study were: - the total dose of local anesthetic for obtaining a reduction of corneal sensation measured with the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer (value>3); - the pain recorded with visual analogic scale and verbal scale at: T1 = the first injection of local anesthetic; T2 = corneal incision; T3 = the end of surgery; T4 = 1h after surgery; T5 = the first postoperative day; - any requirement for additional intraoperative injection anesthesia and systemic sedation when needed; - surgeon assessments of operative conditions and patient cooperation; - patients' subjective level of comfort; - complications. Topical anesthesia using lidocaine 2% was significantly more painful than the ropivacaine 1%. The onset of anesthesia adequate for surgery was similar in all two groups. There were differences between the groups with respect to perioperative analgesia because the VAS was significantly higher in lidocaine group than in ropivacaine group. There were no statistically differences between the two groups at the follow-up. Inadequate anesthesia was seen in 8.05% (74/919 patients) cases of group I vs 0.9% (22/974 patients) of group II. Sedation was needed only in 10 patients and 6 patients of group I and II respectively. The surgeon assessment showed more patient cooperation in the ropivacaine group (83%). Satisfactory comfort (level 1) was reported by 60.4% in the lidocaine group and 86.8% in the ropivacaine group. In

  19. Benefits of intravenous lidocaine on post-operative pain and acute rehabilitation after laparoscopic nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Tauzin-Fin, Patrick; Bernard, Olivier; Sesay, Musa; Biais, Matthieu; Richebe, Philippe; Quinart, Alice; Revel, Philippe; Sztark, Francois

    2014-07-01

    Intravenous (I.V.) lidocaine has analgesic, antihyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and is known to accelerate the return of bowel function after surgery. We evaluated the effects of I.V. lidocaine on pain management and acute rehabilitation protocol after laparoscopic nephrectomy. A total of 47 patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic nephrectomy were included in a two-phase observational study where I.V. lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg/h) was introduced, in the second phase, during surgery and for 24 h post-operatively. All patients underwent the same post-operative rehabilitation program. Post-operative pain scores, opioid consumption and extent of hyperalgesia were measured. Time to first flatus and 6 min walking test (6MWT) were recorded. Patient demographics were similar in the two phases (n = 22 in each group). Lidocaine significantly reduced morphine consumption (median [25-75% interquartile range]; 8.5 mg[4567891011121314151617] vs. 25 mg[1920212223242526272829303132]; P < 0.0001), post-operative pain scores (P < 0.05) and hyperalgesia extent on post-operative day 1-day 2-day 4 (mean ± standard deviation (SD); 1.5 ± 0.9 vs. 4.3 ± 1.2 cm (P < 0.001), 0.6 ± 0.5 vs. 2.8 ± 1.2 cm (P < 0.001) and 0.13 ± 0.3 vs. 1.2 ± 1 cm (P < 0.001), respectively). Time to first flatus (mean ± SD; 29 ± 7 h vs. 48 ± 15 h; P < 0.001) and 6MWT at day 4 (189 ± 50 m vs. 151 ± 53 m; P < 0.001) were significantly enhanced in patients with i.v. lidocaine. Intravenous (I.V.) lidocaine could reduce post-operative morphine consumption and improve post-operative pain management and post-operative recovery after laparoscopic nephrectomy. I.V. lidocaine could contribute to better post-operative rehabilitation.

  20. The effect of lidocaine, bupivacaine and ropivacaine in nasal packs on pain and hemorrhage after septoplasty.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Emin; Gungor, Gurcan; Alimoglu, Yalcin; Kilic, Erkan; Tarakci, Eylem; Bozkurt, Pervin; Enver, Ozgun

    2011-05-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of local anesthetics soaked in Merocel nasal packs on hemorrhage and pain after septoplasty. The methodology includes a prospective double-blind study that was conducted in patients undergoing septoplasty because of nasal septal deviation. The study included 143 patients. The patients were divided into four groups. Each group received 1% lidocaine + 0.000625% adrenalin, 0.375% ropivacaine, 0.25% bupivacaine as study groups or 0.9% sodium chloride as a control group in their Merocel packs postoperatively. The local anesthetics or sodium chloride were reapplied at the eighth postoperative hour. Each patient was given a questionnaire where verbal analog score and amount of postoperative hemorrhage was noted. The statistical analysis was performed using two sided t test on each patient group at each time point. The results included the patients in the control group needing rescue drug most often. There was no statistically significant difference between bupivacaine and lidocaine plus adrenalin in the patients who requested rescue drug. The patients in the ropivacaine group requested rescue drug more frequently than the bupivacaine and lidocaine plus adrenalin groups. Bupivacaine group had significantly better pain scores versus control group at all intervals except for the first postoperative hour.The bupivacaine group had better pain scores versus ropivacaine and lidocaine plus adrenalin groups in the 4th, 8th and the 24th hours. The bupivacaine group had better pain scores versus lidocaine plus adrenalin in the 12th, 16th and the 20th hours. The ropivacaine group had significantly better pain scores versus control group in the 8th, 12th, 16th, 20th and 24th postoperative hours. The ropivacaine group scored better than lidocaine plus adrenalin group just in the 16th hour. The lidocaine plus adrenalin group had significantly better pain scores versus control group in 4th and 12th hours. There was no statistically significant

  1. Isoform-specific lidocaine block of sodium channels explained by differences in gating.

    PubMed

    Nuss, H B; Kambouris, N G; Marbán, E; Tomaselli, G F; Balser, J R

    2000-01-01

    When depolarized from typical resting membrane potentials (V(rest) approximately -90 mV), cardiac sodium (Na) currents are more sensitive to local anesthetics than brain or skeletal muscle Na currents. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, lidocaine block of hH1 (human cardiac) Na current greatly exceeded that of mu1 (rat skeletal muscle) at membrane potentials near V(rest), whereas hyperpolarization to -140 mV equalized block of the two isoforms. Because the isoform-specific tonic block roughly parallels the drug-free voltage dependence of channel availability, isoform differences in the voltage dependence of fast inactivation could underlie the differences in block. However, after a brief (50 ms) depolarizing pulse, recovery from lidocaine block is similar for the two isoforms despite marked kinetic differences in drug-free recovery, suggesting that differences in fast inactivation cannot entirely explain the isoform difference in lidocaine action. Given the strong coupling between fast inactivation and other gating processes linked to depolarization (activation, slow inactivation), we considered the possibility that isoform differences in lidocaine block are explained by differences in these other gating processes. In whole-cell recordings from HEK-293 cells, the voltage dependence of hH1 current activation was approximately 20 mV more negative than that of mu1. Because activation and closed-state inactivation are positively coupled, these differences in activation were sufficient to shift hH1 availability to more negative membrane potentials. A mutant channel with enhanced closed-state inactivation gating (mu1-R1441C) exhibited increased lidocaine sensitivity, emphasizing the importance of closed-state inactivation in lidocaine action. Moreover, when the depolarization was prolonged to 1 s, recovery from a "slow" inactivated state with intermediate kinetics (I(M)) was fourfold longer in hH1 than in mu1, and recovery from lidocaine block in hH1 was similarly

  2. A New Anaesthetic Protocol for Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio): Propofol Combined with Lidocaine

    PubMed Central

    Valentim, Ana M.; Félix, Luís M.; Carvalho, Leonor; Diniz, Enoque; Antunes, Luís M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The increasing use of zebrafish model has not been accompanied by the evolution of proper anaesthesia for this species in research. The most used anaesthetic in fishes, MS222, may induce aversion, reduction of heart rate, and consequently high mortality, especially during long exposures. Therefore, we aim to explore new anaesthetic protocols to be used in zebrafish by studying the quality of anaesthesia and recovery induced by different concentrations of propofol alone and in combination with different concentrations of lidocaine. Material and Methods In experiment A, eighty-three AB zebrafish were randomly assigned to 7 different groups: control, 2.5 (2.5P), 5 (5P) or 7.5 μg/ml (7.5P) of propofol; and 2.5 μg/ml of propofol combined with 50, (P/50L), 100 (P/100L) or 150 μg/ml (P/150L) of lidocaine. Zebrafish were placed in an anaesthetic water bath and time to lose the equilibrium, reflex to touch, reflex to a tail pinch, and respiratory rate were measured. Time to gain equilibrium was also assessed in a clean tank. Five and 24 hours after anaesthesia recovery, zebrafish were evaluated concerning activity and reactivity. Afterwards, in a second phase of experiments (experiment B), the best protocol of the experiment A was compared with a new group of 8 fishes treated with 100 mg/L of MS222 (100M). Results In experiment A, only different concentrations of propofol/lidocaine combination induced full anaesthesia in all animals. Thus only these groups were compared with a standard dose of MS222 in experiment B. Propofol/lidocaine induced a quicker loss of equilibrium, and loss of response to light and painful stimuli compared with MS222. However zebrafish treated with MS222 recovered quickly than the ones treated with propofol/lidocaine. Conclusion In conclusion, propofol/lidocaine combination and MS222 have advantages in different situations. MS222 is ideal for minor procedures when a quick recovery is important, while propofol/lidocaine is best to

  3. Benefits of intravenous lidocaine on post-operative pain and acute rehabilitation after laparoscopic nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tauzin-Fin, Patrick; Bernard, Olivier; Sesay, Musa; Biais, Matthieu; Richebe, Philippe; Quinart, Alice; Revel, Philippe; Sztark, Francois

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Intravenous (I.V.) lidocaine has analgesic, antihyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and is known to accelerate the return of bowel function after surgery. We evaluated the effects of I.V. lidocaine on pain management and acute rehabilitation protocol after laparoscopic nephrectomy. Materials and Methods: A total of 47 patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic nephrectomy were included in a two-phase observational study where I.V. lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg/h) was introduced, in the second phase, during surgery and for 24 h post-operatively. All patients underwent the same post-operative rehabilitation program. Post-operative pain scores, opioid consumption and extent of hyperalgesia were measured. Time to first flatus and 6 min walking test (6MWT) were recorded. Results: Patient demographics were similar in the two phases (n = 22 in each group). Lidocaine significantly reduced morphine consumption (median [25-75% interquartile range]; 8.5 mg[4567891011121314151617] vs. 25 mg[1920212223242526272829303132]; P < 0.0001), post-operative pain scores (P < 0.05) and hyperalgesia extent on post-operative day 1-day 2-day 4 (mean ± standard deviation (SD); 1.5 ± 0.9 vs. 4.3 ± 1.2 cm (P < 0.001), 0.6 ± 0.5 vs. 2.8 ± 1.2 cm (P < 0.001) and 0.13 ± 0.3 vs. 1.2 ± 1 cm (P < 0.001), respectively). Time to first flatus (mean ± SD; 29 ± 7 h vs. 48 ± 15 h; P < 0.001) and 6MWT at day 4 (189 ± 50 m vs. 151 ± 53 m; P < 0.001) were significantly enhanced in patients with i.v. lidocaine. Conclusion: Intravenous (I.V.) lidocaine could reduce post-operative morphine consumption and improve post-operative pain management and post-operative recovery after laparoscopic nephrectomy. I.V. lidocaine could contribute to better post-operative rehabilitation. PMID:25190945

  4. Intravenous lidocaine infusions in a multidirectional model of treatment of neuropathic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Przeklasa-Muszyńska, Anna; Kocot-Kępska, Magdalena; Dobrogowski, Jan; Wiatr, Maciej; Mika, Joanna

    2016-10-01

    Neuropathic pain, is caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system, leads to deterioration of the quality of life of patients. Most commonly, this deterioration is due to the inefficacy of treatment or to the adverse effects of systemic treatment. Pharmacotherapy of neuropathic pain involves the use of antiepileptic agents, antidepressants, and opioids that may lead to numerous adverse effects, particularly in elderly patients. Intravenous infusions of lidocaine may improve the efficacy of the analgesic treatment of neuropathic pain patients while not causing any significant adverse effects. In our study, we carried out a retrospective analysis of 85 patients with various neuropathic pain syndromes. In this group, 81 patients received 3-25 intravenous infusions of lidocaine (5mg/kg of body weight over 30min). In the remaining 4 patients, the treatment was discontinued after the first infusion due to the lack of efficacy. The analgesic effect of intravenous lidocaine was better when the intensity of pain experienced before the infusion was high. In addition, better effects were observed in elderly patients. No need to interrupt the infusion occurred in any of the patients. No serious adverse effects were observed either. Transient dizziness, not requiring additional treatment, occurred in 5 patients after the infusion. The best therapeutic effects of lidocaine infusion was observed in pain symptoms characterized by the highest intensity of baseline pain. Intravenous lidocaine administered at the dose of 5mg/kg of body weight over 30min is effective, safe and caused no significant adverse effects. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of intracuff alkalinized 2% lidocaine on emergence coughing, sore throat, and hoarseness in smokers.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Laís Helena Camacho; Lima, Rodrigo Moreira e; Aguiar, Andressa Simões; Braz, José Reinaldo Cerqueira; Carness, Jeffrey M; Módolo, Norma Sueli Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated whether endotracheal tube (ETT) intracuff alkalinized lidocaine was superior to saline in blunting emergence coughing, postoperative sore throat, and hoarseness in smokers. In our prospective, double-blind trial, we enrolled 50 smoking patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia including nitrous oxide (N2O). Patients were randomly allocated to receive either ETT intracuff 2% lidocaine plus 8.4% sodium bicarbonate (L group), or ETT intracuff 0.9% saline (S group). The ETT cuff was inflated to achieve a cuff pressure that prevented air leak during positive pressure ventilation. Incidence of emergence coughing, sore throat, and hoarseness were analyzed. The volume of inflation solution, the intracuff pressure, the duration of anesthesia, the time elapsed to extubation after discontinuation of anesthesia, and the volume of the inflation solution and the air withdrawn from the ETT cuff were also recorded. Intracuff alkalinized 2% lidocaine was superior to saline in blunting emergence coughing (p < 0.001). The incidence of sore throat was significantly lower in the L group at the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) (p = 0.02). However, at 24 hours after extubation, sore throat incidence was similar in both groups (p = 0.07). Incidence of hoarseness was similar in both groups. Intracuff pressure in the saline group increased with time while the intracuff pressure in the lidocaine group remained constant. The present study demonstrated that the intracuff alkalinized 2% lidocaine was superior to saline in decreasing the incidence of emergence coughing and sore throat during the postoperative period in smokers.

  6. Effect of Hyaluronidase Addition to Lidocaine for Trigger Point Injection in Myofascial Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Won; Lee, Chul Joong; Lee, Sangmin M; Shin, Byung Seop; Jun, Byunghui; Sim, Woo Seog

    2015-10-07

    This randomized, double-blind study compared the efficacy of hyaluronidase co-injection with that of local anesthesia alone on the degree of pain and quality of life in patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Sixty-one adults, aged 25 to 75 years, with MPS affecting both trapezius muscles were randomly assigned to one of the 2 treatment groups: lidocaine (group L: n = 31) or hyaluronidase (group H: n = 30). All patients received Trigger point injection (TPI). Group L received 3.2 mL 0.5% lidocaine alone. Group H received the same solution of lidocaine mixed with hyaluronidase (600 iu/mL). Patients were followed for 14 days (pre- and post-TPI days 0, 1, 4, 7, and 14) with the verbal numerical rating scale (VNRS), and the primary outcome was VNRS on day 7. Also, we evaluated the neck disability index (NDI) and the short form of brief pain inventory (BPI-SF) on pre- and post-TPI day 14. In both groups, VNRS decreased on days 4, 7, and 14 compared to the pre-TPI. However, in group H, VNRS decreased on day 1 also. There were no significant differences of VNRS between the 2 groups during 14 days. NDI and BPI-SF scores also significantly decreased after TPI in both groups. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of VNRS, NDI, or BPI-SF scores. However, TPI consisting of lidocaine mixed with hyaluronidase worked more effectively than lidocaine alone on post-TPI day 1. Further, hyaluronidase showed a tendency to reduce TPI-related soreness. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  7. Effects of lidocaine and droxicainide on myocardial necrosis: a comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, D.B.; Cheung, W.M.; Ribeiro, L.G.; Maroko, P.R.

    1983-06-01

    Lidocaine has been shown to protect ischemic myocardium, but the degree of its effectiveness is not yet well established. Therefore, in this study, the effects of this drug on ultimate infarct size were examined quantitatively. Another member of the same class of drugs, droxicainide (ALS1249), DL-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-pipecolinyl-2,6-dimethylanilide hydrochloride, is a new antiarrhythmic agent that has shown a good therapeutic index in the initial experimental studies. Accordingly, the effects of this drug on ultimate infarct size were examined and compared with those of lidocaine. Coronary artery occlusion was performed on 29 dogs. One minute later, technetium-99m labeled microspheres were injected into the left atrium for assessment of the hypoperfused zone (the zone at risk of infarction). Fifteen minutes after occlusion, the dogs were randomized into three groups: 9 dogs served as a control group, 10 were given lidocaine and 10 were given the same dosage of droxicainide. Six hours after occlusion, the dogs were sacrificed and the hearts cut into 3 mm thick slices and incubated in triphenyltetrazolium chloride to delineate the area of myocardial damage. Autoradiography of the same slices provided images of the areas of myocardial hypoperfusion. Thereafter, in each dog, the percent of hypoperfused area that evolved to necrosis was calculated. In control dogs, it was 85.6 +/- 2.0%; in lidocaine-treated dogs, 68.1 +/- 4.1% (p less than 0.01), a reduction of 20%; and in droxicainide-treated dogs, 50.1 +/- 5.3%, a reduction of 41% (p less than 0.001 versus control and p less than 0.005 versus lidocaine).

  8. Sedation with xylazine and lumbosacral epidural administration of lidocaine and xylazine for umbilical surgery in calves.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C A; Constable, P D; Huhn, J C; Morin, D E

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether anesthesia consisting of sedation induced by intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride and lumbosacral analgesia induced by epidural administration of lidocaine and xylazine is useful for umbilical surgery in neonatal calves. Prospective study. 6 neonatal male dairy calves. Calves were sedated with xylazine (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb] of body weight, i.m.), and 5 minutes later a 2% solution of lidocaine (0.18 to 0.24 ml/kg [0.08 to 0.11 ml/lb]) and xylazine (0.05 mg/kg [0.022 mg/lb]) were administered into the lumbosacral epidural space. Calves were positioned in dorsal recumbency, and the umbilical structures were resected. Local infusion of lidocaine, cranial to the umbilicus, was required in 5 of 6 calves to provide adequate analgesia. Xylazine sedation was reversed with tolazoline (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], i.v.). Calves maintained adequate cardiac output and oxygen delivery throughout the procedure but were hypotensive. Reversal of xylazine-induced sedation with tolazoline caused transient sinus bradycardia and sinus arrest, accompanied by severe systemic arterial hypotension. All calves regained a suckle reflex within 10 minutes and were able to stand within 90 minutes. Intramuscular administration of xylazine for sedation and epidural administration of lidocaine and xylazine for analgesia failed to provide satisfactory analgesia for umbilical resection without supplemental local infiltration of lidocaine. The anesthetic protocol is most useful when respiratory compromise or cost are concerns and the surgical procedure can be completed in < 1 hour. Caution should be exercised when tolazoline is administered intravenously to reverse xylazine-induced sedation in calves.

  9. [Comparison between topical anaesthesia with cocaine versus lidocaine plus adrenaline for outpatient laser dacryocystorhinostomy].

    PubMed

    Alañón, F; Alañón, M A; Jiménez, J A; Calero, B; Noriega, A; Plaza, G

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of topical anaesthesia with cocaine versus lidocaine plus adrenaline for outpatient transcanalicular and endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (TCLDCR) with diode laser under sedation. A double blind randomised clinical trial was designed using topical anaesthesia for outpatient TCLDCR in the treatment of adult epiphora. A total of 92 patients were enrolled, and randomly allocated to be operated on under sedation and topical anaesthesia with cocaine 4% pledgets versus sedation and topical anaesthesia with lidocaine 2% plus 1/100.000 adrenaline pledgets. Main outcome measures were postoperative comfort, evaluated by a visual analogue scale, presence of secondary effects (blood pressure, heart rate), and resolution of epiphora, evaluated by Munk's scale and endoscopic control. Patients in both groups reported being comfortable during and immediately after TCLDCR. Visualization of the operative field was adequate, and surgery was successfully completed in all cases. Complications were more common in the cocaine group: Sixteen patients from the cocaine group had high blood pressures, versus 2 patients from the lidocaine group (RR=8). Mean blood loss was 6.09 ml in cocaine group, versus 2.05 ml in lidocaine group (RR=6). Both parameters were statistically significant (p=1,1×10(-9)). There were no cases of postoperative epistaxis requiring nasal packing or hospital admission in any group. Success rate was similar in the 2 groups (86.96% group 1 and 89.13% group 2), after 6 months of follow-up. The combination of topical lidocaine and adrenaline is more effective for outpatient transcanalicular and endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy than topical cocaine. Patient comfort was adequate in both groups, but high blood pressure and blood loss more common after cocaine. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Lidocaine, Dexmedetomidine or Their Combination on the Minimum Alveolar Concentration of Sevoflurane in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    MORAN-MUÑOZ, Rafael; IBANCOVICHI, J. A.; Gutierrez-BLANCO, Eduardo; ACEVEDO-ARCIQUE, Carlos M.; Victoria MORA, J. Mauro; TENDILLO, Francisco J.; SANTOS-GONZALEZ, Martin; YAMASHITA, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the effects of lidocaine (LIDO) and dexmedetomidine (DEX) or their combination (LIDO–DEX), administered by constant-rate infusion (CRI), on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane in dogs. Seven healthy mongrel dogs were used with a 2-week washout interval between treatments in this study. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen, and MAC of sevoflurane was determined after 90 min equilibration period in the dogs (SEV-MACBASAL). Then, sevoflurane MAC was determined again in the dogs after 45 min equilibration period of one of the following treatments: an intravenous loading dose of lidocaine 2 mg/kg followed by 6 mg/kg/hr CRI (SEV-MACLIDO); an intravenous loading dose of dexmedetomidine 2 µg/kg followed by 2 µg/kg/hr CRI (SEV-MACDEX); or their combination (SEV-MACLIDO-DEX). These SEV-MACs were determined in duplicate. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc Tuckey test when appropriate. The SEV-MACBASAL was 1.82 ± 0.06%, SEV-MACLIDO was 1.38 ± 0.08%, SEV-MACDEX was 1.22 ± 0.10%, and SEV-MACLIDO-DEX was 0.78 ± 0.06%. The CRI administration of lidocaine, dexmedetomidine and their combination produced a significant reduction in the MAC of sevoflurane by 26.1 ± 9.0% (P<0.0001), 43.7 ± 11.8% (P<0.0002) and 54.4 ± 9.8% (P<0.0001), respectively. The MAC reduction was significantly greater after the CRI combination of lidocaine and dexmedetomidine when compared with lidocaine CRI (P<0.0001) or dexmedetomidine CRI treatments (P<0.025). PMID:24572631

  11. Transient impairment of the axolemma following regional anaesthesia by lidocaine in humans

    PubMed Central

    Moldovan, Mihai; Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob; Kjær, Troels Wesenberg; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Krarup, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The local anaesthetic lidocaine is known to block voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs), although at high concentration it was also reported to block other ion channel currents as well as to alter lipid membranes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the clinical regional anaesthetic action of lidocaine could be accounted for solely by the block of VGSCs or whether other mechanisms are also relevant. We tested the recovery of motor axon conduction and multiple measures of excitability by ‘threshold-tracking’ after ultrasound-guided distal median nerve regional anaesthesia in 13 healthy volunteers. Lidocaine caused rapid complete motor axon conduction block localized at the wrist. Within 3 h, the force of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle and median motor nerve conduction studies returned to normal. In contrast, the excitability of the motor axons at the wrist remained markedly impaired as indicated by a 7-fold shift of the stimulus–response curves to higher currents with partial recovery by 6 h and full recovery by 24 h. The strength–duration properties were abnormal with markedly increased rheobase and reduced strength–duration time constant. The changes in threshold during electrotonus, especially during depolarization, were markedly reduced. The recovery cycle showed increased refractoriness and reduced superexcitability. The excitability changes were only partly similar to those previously observed after poisoning with the VGSC blocker tetrodotoxin. Assuming an unaltered ion-channel gating, modelling indicated that, apart from up to a 4-fold reduction in the number of functioning VGSCs, lidocaine also caused a decrease of passive membrane resistance and an increase of capacitance. Our data suggest that the lidocaine effects, even at clinical ‘sub-blocking’ concentrations, could reflect, at least in part, a reversible structural impairment of the axolemma. PMID:24710060

  12. Lidocaine Test Increases the Success Rates of Corticosteroid Injection in Impingement Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Jun; Lee, Hyo Sun

    2016-10-01

    To determine whether lidocaine test injections would increase the success rate of corticosteroid injection for treatment of impingement syndrome. Two hundred thirty-nine patients diagnosed with impingement syndrome were allocated to the lidocaine test (LC) group (N = 139) and the subacromial (SA) group (N = 100). The LC group received 1 ml of 1% lidocaine injection into the subacromial bursa under ultrasound guidance and a second injection of the steroid solution into the subacromial bursa or glenohumeral joint according to the response. The SA group received the same amount of steroid injection into the subacromial bursa without a prior lidocaine injection. Categorical outcomes were utilized and subjects were grouped based on percentage pain relief. Clinical improvement was expressed in terms of the patient's global impression of change (PGIC) as 'not improved,' 'slightly improved,' and 'much improved. In the LC group, 76 of the 139 patients (54% [95 CI 46-63%]) showed '50-80% improvement' and 15 (11% [95% CI 6.6-17%]) patients showed 'more than 80% improvement' at 3 weeks after the injection. While in the SA group, 29 of the 100 patient (29% [95% CI 21-39%]) showed '50-80% improvement' and 13 (13% [95% CI 7.7-21%]) showed 'more than 80% 3 weeks after the injection (χ(2) = 15.073, P = 0.001). This difference persisted at 3 months (χ(2 )=( )8.015, P = 0.018). The chi-square test of PGIC at 3 weeks also showed significant differences (P < 0.001). This was the first study to show that a lidocaine pre-injection increases the success rate of steroid injection in patients suspected of having impingement syndrome. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Comparison of indomethacin suppository and lidocaine cream on post-episiotomy pain: A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Delaram, Masoumeh; Dadkhah, Narges-Khaton; Jafarzadeh, Loabat

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the most important problems after episiotomy is perineal pain which is more severe on the first day of postpartum period. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effects of indomethacin suppository and lidocaine cream in the management of post-episiotomy pain. Materials and Methods: In a randomized, controlled trial, 60 primiparous women who had mediolateral episiotomy received 50 mg indomethacin suppository (n = 30) or 2% lidocaine cream (n = 30) in the postpartum period in Hajar Hospital in Shahrekord (Iran). The mean severity of post-episiotomy pain was assessed with the first complaint and at 6, 12, and 24 h after the delivery, and compared in the two groups. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used for pain recording and data were analyzed with independent-samples t-test, χ2, and Fisher's exact tests, and significance was defined as P < 0.05. Results: With the first complaint of pain, the mean intensity of pain was 4.9 (1.9) in the indomethacin group and 4.9 (1.8) in the lidocaine group, and the difference was not significant (P = 0.25). Six hours after birth, it was 3.3 (1.3) in the indomethacin group and 3.2 (1.9) in the lidocaine group, and there was not a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.90). No significant difference was found between the two groups at 12 h after birth [2.3 (1.7) vs 2.5 (1.7); P = 0.59]. Also, the difference was not significant at 24 h after birth [1.5 (1.3) vs 1.8 (1.3); P = 0.31]. Conclusions: It was concluded from the study that indomethacin suppository and lidocaine cream have similar efficacy on episiotomy pain relief on the first day of postpartum period. PMID:26257799

  14. Addition of Lidocaine Injection Immediately before Physiotherapy for Frozen Shoulder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wei-Chun; Wang, Tao-Liang; Lin, Yi-Jia; Hsieh, Lin-Fen; Tsai, Chun-Mei; Huang, Kuang-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The intraarticular injection of lidocaine immediately before a physiotherapy session may relieve pain during the stretching and mobilization of the affected joint in patients with a frozen shoulder, thus enhancing the treatment effect. To compare the effects of intraarticular injection of lidocaine plus physiotherapy to that of physiotherapy alone in the treatment of a frozen shoulder, a prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted in the rehabilitation department of a private teaching hospital. Patients with a frozen shoulder were randomized into the physiotherapy group or the lidocaine injection plus physiotherapy (INJPT) group. The subjects in the INJPT group underwent injection of 3 ml of 1% lidocaine into the affected shoulder 10 to 20 minutes before each physiotherapy session. In each group, the treatment lasted 3 months. The primary outcome measures were the active and passive range of motion of the affected shoulder. The secondary outcome measures were the results of the Shoulder Disability Questionnaire, the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The outcome measures were evaluated before treatment and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 months after the start of treatment. The group comparisons showed significantly greater improvement in the INJPT group, mainly in active and passive shoulder range of motion in flexion and external rotation and improvements in pain and disability (P < 0.05); however, no significant group difference was seen in the SF-36 results. The intraarticular injection of lidocaine immediately before a physiotherapy session might be superior to physiotherapy alone in the treatment of a frozen shoulder. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01817348 PMID:25714415

  15. Comparison of Lidocaine Gel-Assisted Transconjunctival and Transcutaneous Local Anesthesia for Outpatient Eyelid Surgery.

    PubMed

    Rafailov, Leon; Kulak, Amy; Weedon, Jeremy; Shinder, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Determine whether transconjunctival local anesthesia using 2% lidocaine gel decreases pain perception in comparison with transcutaneous anesthesia in patients undergoing outpatient eyelid surgery. This is a randomized controlled clinical trial. This study approved by an institutional review board and adhered to the Declaration of Helsinki and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. A total of 120 patients undergoing bilateral upper or lower eyelid surgery were enlisted. Topical 2% lidocaine gel was administered to the palpebral conjunctiva for 1 minute, followed by a local transconjunctival injection. Local anesthetic was administered to the contralateral eyelid by a transcutaneous approach without use of topical anesthetic. Both injections were 1 ml of 1% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:100,000 on a 30-gauge needle. After each injection, patients rated the pain on a 0-to-10 visual analog scale. Patients were also asked for preference between the 2 sides. The mean pain scores were 2.33 (standard deviation 0.98) for the transconjunctival side and 3.42 (standard deviation 0.88) for the transcutaneous side. The reduction in pain scores for lidocaine gel-treated sides was statistically significant (p < 0.001) when controlling for side of intervention, upper versus lower eyelid procedures, sex of participants, and type of procedure. In addition, 85% of participants found the transconjunctival injection to be less painful than the transcutaneous (p < 0.001). Transconjunctival local anesthesia in conjunction with topical anesthesia with 2% lidocaine gel provides a clinically and statistically significant decrease in perceived pain when compared with transcutaneous anesthesia in patients undergoing outpatient eyelid surgery.

  16. The effects of remifentanil, lidocaine, metoclopramide, or ketamine pretreatment on propofol injection pain.

    PubMed

    Polat, Reyhan; Aktay, Meltem; Ozlü, Onur

    2012-06-01

    Propofol injection pain is a frequent and a well-known complaint distressing for the patients. Although the ethiology of this pain remains obscure, the ideal method for the prevention of propofol injection pain is still controversial. Local anesthetics, opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ketamine, metoclopramide, droperidol have been tested. We aimed to conduct a study comparing various drugs with saline, lidocaine and together at the same time. In this randomized, double-blind, prospective trial a total of 250 patients (ASA I-II) undergoing elective surgery with general anesthesia were randomly allocated into five groups. After premedication of 3 mg midazolam im, patients received either 2 mL (0.02 mg) of remifentanil (n = 50, Group R), 2mL (40 mg) of lidocaine (n = 50, Group L), 2 mL (10 mg) of metoclopramide (n = 50, Group M), or 2mL (100 microg/kg) of ketamine (n = 50, Group K) and 2 mL of saline. Pain intensity was evaluated through the use of a verbal rating scale, 0 = none, 1 = mild pain, 2 = moderate pain, and 3 = severe pain. Pretreatment with remifentanil 0.02 mg, % 2 lidocaine 40 mg, metoclopramide 10 mg, and ketamine 100 microg/kg yields propofol induced pain 38%, 76%, 76%, and 58% respectively. Pretreatment with lidocaine or metoclopramide equally and significantly reduced the incidence and severity of propofol induced pain (76%). Lidocaine and metoclopramide were equally and the most effective treatments in attenuating pain during intravenous injection of propofol compared to pretreatment with remifentanil and ketamine.

  17. Case studies illustrating the management of trigeminal neuropathic pain using topical 5% lidocaine plasters

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Zehra; Renton, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Chronic trigeminal pain, with its severe related functional problems, is difficult to treat. Treatment is often empirically based on medications used for other chronic pain conditions. Systemic sodium channel and calcium channel blocking agents may cause a multitude of complications that are often poorly tolerated by the patient. Aim: The aim of this case report was to assess the efficacy of topical 5% lidocaine plasters in reducing pain and reducing adjuvant medication in patients with orofacial neuropathic pain. Method: Fourteen patients with chronic orofacial pain conditions referred to the oral surgery department were instructed to wear 5% lidocaine plasters for 12 hours each day over the painful area. The conditions included post-surgical neuropathy (n = 10), multiple sclerosis-related pain (n = 1), persistent idiopathic facial pain (n = 1), Ramsay Hunt syndrome (post-herpetic neuralgia, n = 1) and trigeminal neuralgia (n = 1). Data were collected on patient demographics, pain levels and medication. Results: Pain levels improved in 12 out of 14 patients. Nine patients had a reduction in adjuvant medication, two of whom completely stopped adjuvant treatment. Conclusion: This case series demonstrates that of the use of 5% lidocaine plasters may play a useful role in the management of chronic trigeminal pain. A suggested novel approach for the management of orofacial pain, for clinicians, is presented. Summary points Management of chronic orofacial pain continues to be a major challenge to the clinician. Patients are often placed on a multitude of medications in an attempt to alleviate pain without success. Topical 5% lidocaine plasters, currently used for the management of post-herpetic neuralgia, offer the option of locally targeting trigeminal pain without the multiple side-effects of systemic medication. This case series demonstrates that lidocaine plasters decrease verbal pain scores in extraoral, trigeminal and neuropathic pain, and reduce the use of other

  18. Intravenous administration of lidocaine directly acts on spinal dorsal horn and produces analgesic effect: An in vivo patch-clamp analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kurabe, Miyuki; Furue, Hidemasa; Kohno, Tatsuro

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous lidocaine administration produces an analgesic effect in various pain states, such as neuropathic and acute pain, although the underlying mechanisms remains unclear. Here, we hypothesized that intravenous lidocaine acts on spinal cord neurons and induces analgesia in acute pain. We therefore examined the action of intravenous lidocaine in the spinal cord using the in vivo patch-clamp technique. We first investigated the effects of intravenous lidocaine using behavioural measures in rats. We then performed in vivo patch-clamp recording from spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons. Intravenous lidocaine had a dose-dependent analgesic effect on the withdrawal response to noxious mechanical stimuli. In the electrophysiological experiments, intravenous lidocaine inhibited the excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) evoked by noxious pinch stimuli. Intravenous lidocaine also decreased the frequency, but did not change the amplitude, of both spontaneous and miniature EPSCs. However, it did not affect inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Furthermore, intravenous lidocaine induced outward currents in SG neurons. Intravenous lidocaine inhibits glutamate release from presynaptic terminals in spinal SG neurons. Concomitantly, it hyperpolarizes postsynaptic neurons by shifting the membrane potential. This decrease in the excitability of spinal dorsal horn neurons may be a possible mechanism for the analgesic action of intravenous lidocaine in acute pain. PMID:27188335

  19. Liquid-liquid miscibility gaps and hydrate formation in drug-water binary systems: pressure-temperature phase diagram of lidocaine and pressure-temperature-composition phase diagram of the lidocaine-water system.

    PubMed

    Ceolin, René; Barrio, Maria; Tamarit, Josep-Lluis; Veglio, Nestor; Perrin, Marc-Antoine; Espeau, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    The pressure-temperature (P-T) melting curve of lidocaine was determined (dP/dT = 3.56 MPa K(-1)), and the lidocaine-water system was investigated as a function of temperature and pressure. The lidocaine-water system exhibits a monotectic equilibrium at 321 K (ordinary pressure) whose temperature increases as the pressure increases until the two liquids become miscible. A hydrate, unstable at ordinary pressure, was shown to form, on increasing the pressure, from about 70 MPa at low temperatures (200-300 K). The thermodynamic conditions of its stability were inferred from the location of the three-phase equilibria involving the hydrate in the lidocaine-water pressure-temperature-mole fraction (P-T-x) diagram.

  20. Comparative effect of lidocaine and bupivacaine on glucose uptake and lactate production in the perfused working rat heart

    SciTech Connect

    Cronau, L.H. Jr.; Merin, R.G.; Aboulish, E.; Steenberg, M.L.; Maljorda, A.

    1986-03-01

    It has been suggested that at equivalent therapeutic concentrations, lidocaine and bupivacaine may have different cardiotoxic potency. In the isolated working rat heart preparation, the effect of a range of lidocaine and bupivacaine concentrations on glucose uptake and lactate production (LP) were observed. Insulin was added, 10 ..mu../L, to Ringer's solution containing /sup 3/H-labeled glucose to measure the glycolytic flux (GF). The effect of the local anesthetics on LP at the indicated concentrations were similar. Lidocaine appears to depress the glycolytic flux from exogenous glucose to a lesser degree. Bupivacaine, 10 mg/L, depresses VO/sub 2/ to a greater degree than does lidocaine, 40 mg/L.

  1. Efficacy of the topical 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in the treatment of chronic post-thoracotomy neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Pasquale; Passavanti, Maria Beatrice; Fiorelli, Alfonso; Aurilio, Caterina; Colella, Umberto; De Nardis, Lorenzo; Donatiello, Valerio; Pota, Vincenzo; Pace, Maria Caterina

    2017-05-01

    To assess the efficacy of the topical 5% lidocaine medicated plaster (Versatis(®), Grünenthal GmbH, Aachen, Germany) in patients with post-thoracotomy neuropathic pain. Patients were randomized to receive the topical 5% lidocaine medicated plaster (n = 33) or non-medicated placebo plasters (n = 30) for 12 h every day for 8 weeks. Laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) were measured, and various questionnaires/scales completed. Numeric Rating Scale pain scores improved significantly (p < 0.01) more in topical 5% lidocaine medicated plaster than in placebo recipients. The same was true for N2 and P2 LEP latency and amplitude, and other parameters. The study included neurophysiological findings and confirmed the efficacy of the topical 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in patients with chronic post-thoracotomy neuropathic pain.

  2. Postoperative pain control in cats: clinical trials with pre-emptive lidocaine epidural co-administered with morphine or methadone.

    PubMed

    DeRossi, Rafael; Hermeto, Larissa Correa; Jardim, Paulo Henrique Affonseca; de Andrade Bicudo, Natalia; de Assis, Klebs Tavares

    2016-11-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of epidural lidocaine in combination with either methadone or morphine for postoperative analgesia in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Methods Under general anesthesia, 24 cats that underwent ovariohysterectomy were randomly allocated into three treatment groups of eight each. Treatment 1 included 2% lidocaine (4.0 mg/kg); treatment 2 included lidocaine and methadone (4.0 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg, respectively); and treatment 3 included lidocaine and morphine (4.0 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg, respectively). All drugs were injected in a total volume of 0.25 ml/kg via the lumbosacral route in all cats. During the anesthetic and surgical periods, the physiologic variables (respiratory and heart rate, arterial blood pressure and rectal temperature) were measured at intervals of time zero, 10 mins, 20 mins, 30 mins, 60 mins and 120 mins. After cats had recovered from anesthesia, a multidimensional composite pain scale was used to assess postoperative analgesia 2, 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 h after epidural. Results The time to first rescue analgesic was significantly ( P <0.05) prolonged in cats that received both lidocaine and methadone or lidocaine and morphine treatments compared with those that received lidocaine treatment alone. All cats that received lidocaine treatment alone required rescue analgesic within 2 h of epidural injections. All treatments produced significant cardiovascular and respiratory changes but they were within an acceptable range for healthy animals during the surgical period. Conclusions and relevance The two combinations administered via epidural allowed ovariohysterectomy with sufficient analgesia in cats, and both induced prolonged postoperative analgesia.

  3. Peribulbar anesthesia for cataract surgery: Effect of lidocaine warming and alkalinization on injection pain, motor and sensory nerve blockade

    PubMed Central

    Jaichandran, Venkatakrishnan; Vijaya, Lingam; George, Ronnie Jacob; InderMohan, Bhanulakshmi

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To compare self-reported pain and efficacy of warmed, alkalinized, and warmed alkalinized lidocaine with plain 2% lidocaine at room temperature for peribulbar anesthesia in cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: Through a prospective, single-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial 200 patients were divided into four groups. They received either lidocaine at operating room temperature 18°C, control group (Group C), lidocaine warmed to 37°C (Group W), lidocaine alkalinized to a pH of 7.09 ± 0.10 (Group B) or lidocaine at 37°C alkalinized to a pH of 6.94 ± 0.05 (Group WB). All solutions contained Inj. Hyaluronidase 50 IU/ml. Pain was assessed using a 10-cm visual analog score scale. Time of onset of sensory and motor blockade and time to onset of postoperative pain were recorded by a blinded observer. Results: Mean pain score was significantly lower in Group B and WB compared with Group C (P < 0.001). Onset of analgesia was delayed in Group C compared with Group B (P = 0.021) and WB (P < 0.001). Mean time taken for the onset of complete akinesia and supplementation required for the block was significantly lower in Group B. Time of onset of pain after operation was significantly earlier in Group W compared with Group C (P = 0.036). Conclusion: Alkalinized lidocaine with or without warming produced less pain than lidocaine injected at room temperature. Alkalinization enhances the effect of warming for sensory nerve blockade, but warming does not enhance alkalinization, in fact it reduces the efficacy of alkalinized solution for blocking the motor nerves in the eye. PMID:20195031

  4. Effects of lidocaine and esmolol infusions on hemodynamic changes, analgesic requirement, and recovery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy operations.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Serpil Dagdelen; Ustun, Faik Emre; Sener, Elif Bengi; Koksal, Ersin; Ustun, Yasemin Burcu; Kaya, Cengiz; Ozkan, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effects of lidocaine and esmolol infusions on intraoperative hemodynamic changes, intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirements, and recovery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery. The first group (n=30) received IV lidocaine infusions at a rate of 1.5mg/kg/min and the second group (n=30) received IV esmolol infusions at a rate of 1mg/kg/min. Hemodynamic changes, intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirements, and recovery characteristics were evaluated. In the lidocaine group, systolic arterial blood pressures values were lower after the induction of anesthesia and at 20min following surgical incision (p<0.05). Awakening time was shorter in the esmolol group (p<0.001); Ramsay Sedation Scale scores at 10min after extubation were lower in the esmolol group (p<0.05). The modified Aldrete scores at all measurement time points during the recovery period were relatively lower in the lidocaine group (p<0.05). The time to attain a modified Aldrete score of ≥9 points was prolonged in the lidocaine group (p<0.01). Postoperative resting and dynamic VAS scores were higher in the lidocaine group at 10 and 20min after extubation (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively). Analgesic supplements were less frequently required in the lidocaine group (p<0.01). In laparoscopic cholecystectomies, lidocaine infusion had superiorities over esmolol infusions regarding the suppression of responses to tracheal extubation and postoperative need for additional analgesic agents in the long run, while esmolol was more advantageous with respect to rapid recovery from anesthesia, attenuation of early postoperative pain, and modified Aldrete recovery (MAR) scores and time to reach MAR score of 9 points. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. [Effects of lidocaine and esmolol infusions on hemodynamic changes, analgesic requirement, and recovery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy operations].

    PubMed

    Dogan, Serpil Dagdelen; Ustun, Faik Emre; Sener, Elif Bengi; Koksal, Ersin; Ustun, Yasemin Burcu; Kaya, Cengiz; Ozkan, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effects of lidocaine and esmolol infusions on intraoperative hemodynamic changes, intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirements, and recovery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery. The first group (n=30) received IV lidocaine infusions at a rate of 1.5mg/kg/min and the second group (n=30) received IV esmolol infusions at a rate of 1mg/kg/min. Hemodynamic changes, intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirements, and recovery characteristics were evaluated. In the lidocaine group, systolic arterial blood pressures values were lower after the induction of anesthesia and at 20min following surgical incision (p<0.05). Awakening time was shorter in the esmolol group (p<0.001); Ramsay Sedation Scale scores at 10min after extubation were lower in the esmolol group (p<0.05). The modified Aldrete scores at all measurement time points during the recovery period were relatively lower in the lidocaine group (p<0.05). The time to attain a modified Aldrete score of ≥9 points was prolonged in the lidocaine group (p<0.01). Postoperative resting and dynamic VAS scores were higher in the lidocaine group at 10 and 20min after extubation (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively). Analgesic supplements were less frequently required in the lidocaine group (p<0.01). In laparoscopic cholecystectomies, lidocaine infusion had superiorities over esmolol infusions regarding the suppression of responses to tracheal extubation and postoperative need for additional analgesic agents in the long run, while esmolol was more advantageous with respect to rapid recovery from anesthesia, attenuation of early postoperative pain, and modified Aldrete recovery (MAR) scores and time to reach MAR score of 9 points. Copyright © 2014. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  6. The effects of chemical and physical penetration enhancers on the percutaneous permeation of lidocaine through equine skin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of physical and chemical permeation enhancers on in vitro transdermal permeation of lidocaine was investigated in the horse. Therefore, the effect of six vehicles (phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), 50% ethanol, 50% propylene glycol, 50% isopropylalcohol, 50% isopropylalcohol/isopropylmyristate and 50% dimethylsulfoxide) was examined as well as the effect of microneedle pretreatment with different needle lengths on transdermal drug delivery of lidocaine. The skin was obtained from the thorax of six Warmblood horses and was stored up to two weeks at - 20°C. Franz-type diffusion cells were used to study the transdermal permeation through split skin (600 μm thickness). The amount of lidocaine in the receptor fluid was determined by UV–VIS high-performance liquid chromatography. Results All investigated vehicle supplementations diminished the transdermal flux of lidocaine through equine skin in comparison to pure PBS except dimethylsulfoxide, which resulted in comparable permeation rates to PBS. The maximum flux (Jmax) was 1.6-1.8 fold lower for lidocaine applied in 50% ethanol, propylene glycol, isopropylalcohol and isopropylalcohol/isopropylmyristate. A significant higher Jmax of lidocaine was observed when lidocaine was applied in PBS onto microneedle pretreated skin with similar permeation rates in both needle lengths. After 6 hours, 1.7 fold higher recovery rates were observed in the microneedle pretreated skin samples than in the untreated control samples. The lagtimes were reduced to 20–50% in the microneedle pretreated skin samples. Conclusion Microneedles represent a promising tool for transdermal lidocaine application in the horse with a rapid systemic bioavailability. PMID:24950611

  7. Lidocaine reduces the transition to slow inactivation in Nav1.7 voltage-gated sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, Patrick L; Jarecki, Brian W; Cummins, Theodore R

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The primary use of local anaesthetics is to prevent or relieve pain by reversibly preventing action potential propagation through the inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels. The tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channel subtype Nav1.7, abundantly expressed in pain-sensing neurons, plays a crucial role in perception and transmission of painful stimuli and in inherited chronic pain syndromes. Understanding the interaction of lidocaine with Nav1.7 channels could provide valuable insight into the drug's action in alleviating pain in distinct patient populations. The aim of this study was to determine how lidocaine interacts with multiple inactivated conformations of Nav1.7 channels. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We investigated the interactions of lidocaine with wild-type Nav1.7 channels and a paroxysmal extreme pain disorder mutation (I1461T) that destabilizes fast inactivation. Whole cell patch clamp recordings were used to examine the activity of channels expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. KEY RESULTS Depolarizing pulses that increased slow inactivation of Nav1.7 channels also reduced lidocaine inhibition. Lidocaine enhanced recovery of Nav1.7 channels from prolonged depolarizing pulses by decreasing slow inactivation. A paroxysmal extreme pain disorder mutation that destabilizes fast inactivation of Nav1.7 channels decreased lidocaine inhibition. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Lidocaine decreased the transition of Nav1.7 channels to the slow inactivated state. The fast inactivation gate (domain III–IV linker) is important for potentiating the interaction of lidocaine with the Nav1.7 channel. PMID:21232038

  8. Lidocaine controls pain and allows safe wound bed preparation and debridement of digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Braschi, Francesca; Bartoli, Francesca; Bruni, Cosimo; Fiori, Ginevra; Fantauzzo, Claudia; Paganelli, Lucia; De Paulis, Amato; Rasero, Laura; Matucci-Cerinic, M

    2017-01-01

    In Systemic Sclerosis (SSc), digital ulcers (DU) are painful, difficult to heal, and frequently infected. To reduce the risk of bacterial infection and to prevent chronicity, it is essential to carefully remove necrotic tissue from DU, with maximum patient comfort. Debridement, although very efficacious, is invasive and causes local pain: lidocaine is a local anesthetic commonly used as to fight pain during debridement procedures. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of lidocaine 4 % in pain control during debridement procedure of DU in SSc. One hundred eight DU characterized by pain Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) >3/10 before starting the procedure were treated with lidocaine 4 % (lidocaine cloridrate 200 mg in 5 ml of injecting solution). Pain was measured with NRS (0-10) before starting debridement, after 15 min of lidocaine application and at the end of the procedure. In DU, in respect to baseline (mean NRS 6.74 ± 2.96), pain after application of lidocaine 4 % for 15 min was significantly lower (mean NRS 2.83 ± 2.73) (p < 0.001). At the end of the procedure, pain control was still maintained and significantly lower (mean NRS 2.88 ± 2.65) in respect to baseline (p < 0.001). No systemic adverse event due to topical lidocaine were observed. In SSc, topical application of lidocaine 4 % significantly reduces pain, allowing a safe debridement procedure, thus improving the management of DU.

  9. Lack of impact of intravenous lidocaine on analgesia, functional recovery, and nociceptive pain threshold after total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Frédéric; Cherif, Kamel; Gentili, Marc Edouard; Enel, Dominique; Abe, Emuri; Alvarez, Jean Claude; Mazoit, Jean Xavier; Chauvin, Marcel; Bouhassira, Didier; Fletcher, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Background The analgesic effect of perioperative low doses intravenous lidocaine has been demonstrated after abdominal surgery. This study aimed to evaluate whether a continuous intravenous (IV) low-dose lidocaine infusion reduced postoperative pain and modified nociceptive pain threshold after total hip arthroplasty. Methods Sixty patients participated in this randomised double-blinded study. Thirty patients received lidocaine 1% (lido group) with a 1.5 mg.kg−1 IV bolus in 10 min followed by a 1.5 mg.kg−1.h−1 IV infusion and other patients received saline (control group). These regimens were started 30 min before surgical incision and stopped one hour after skin closure. Lidocaine blood concentrations were measured at the end of administration. In both groups, postoperative analgesia was provided exclusively by patient-controlled IV morphine. Pain scores, morphine consumption, operative hip flexion were recorded over 48 h. In addition, pressure pain thresholds and the extent of hyperalgesia around surgical incision were systematically measured at 24 and 48h. Results In comparison with the placebo, lidocaine did not induce any opioid-sparing effect during the first 24 hours (− 2 mg with 95 CI [−5; 9]; p = 0.55). There was no significant difference regarding the effects of lidocaine and placebo on pain score, pressure pain thresholds, extent in the area of hyperalgesia, and maximal degree of active hip flexion tolerated. Mean plasma lidocaine concentration was 2,1 ± 0,4 μg/ml. Conclusion Low dose perioperative IV lidocaine after total hip arthroplasty offers no beneficial effect on postoperative analgesia and does not modify pressure and tactile pain thresholds. PMID:18580181

  10. Durability of Benefit From Repeated Intravenous Lidocaine Infusions in Fibromyalgia Patients: A Case Series and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Marks, David M.; Newhouse, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a painful disorder with no curative treatments, and available medications typically provide partial relief of pain. Reported here is the effective use of serial intravenous lidocaine infusions for the chronic management of 3 patients with fibromyalgia. The details of the infusion procedure are described, and relevant literature is reviewed. Lidocaine infusions should be considered in fibromyalgia patients who are refractory to other treatments, and a positive response to 1 infusion may justify repeated infusions for chronic management. PMID:26835161

  11. Effect of lidocaine spray in pain management during office-based endometrial sampling: A randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, H; Aksoy, U; Ozyurt, S; Acmaz, G; Babayigit, M A; Yücel, B; Aydin, T

    2016-01-01

    Office-based endometrial sampling is the most frequently performed gynaecological procedure. The procedure is usually associated with pain and discomfort. Several anaesthetic and analgesic techniques (e.g., non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, paracervical block, misoprostol and topical anaesthetics) are used for pain management during endometrial sampling. There is no comprehensive study using lidocaine in spray form; we sought to investigate the analgesic efficacy of 10% lidocaine spray in patients undergoing office-based endometrial biopsy. We conducted a prospective, randomised (lidocaine spray (n = 60) and placebo (n = 60), respectively), double-blind study. The mean pain score during procedure was 3.51 ± 1.51 in the lidocaine spray group and 5.11 ± 1.66 in the placebo group. Lidocaine spray treatment significantly lowered the pain scores compared with placebo (p < 0.001). Lidocaine spray can be accepted as a non-invasive, easy to apply and more comfortable anaesthetic method for office-based endometrial sampling.

  12. Lidocaine 10% spray to the cervix reduces pain during intrauterine device insertion: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Hüseyin; Aksoy, Ülkü; Ozyurt, Sezin; Açmaz, Gökhan; Babayigit, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    Fear of pain during intrauterine device (IUD) insertion can be a barrier to widespread use of this safe and highly effective contraceptive method. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of topical 10% lidocaine spray for pain control during IUD insertion. A total of 200 subjects with the request for IUD insertion were included in the study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: lidocaine spray (n=100) and placebo (n=100). The pain experienced during the procedure was measured immediately after insertion by a standard Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) administered by a separate researcher with maintenance of allocation concealment. The mean pain score during the procedure was 1.01±1.20 in the lidocaine spray group and 3.23±1.60 in the placebo spray group (p<0.001). Lidocaine spray treatment significantly lowered the overall procedural pain score compared with placebo. Significant pain reduction during IUD insertion can be achieved by using 10% lidocaine spray alone. Lidocaine spray can be accepted as a non-invasive, easy to apply and more comfortable local anaesthetic method for IUD insertion. NCT02020551. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Use-dependent effects of lidocaine on conduction in canine myocardium: application of the modulated receptor hypothesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Davis, J; Matsubara, T; Scheinman, M M; Katzung, B; Hondeghem, L H

    1986-07-01

    Lidocaine is a commonly used antiarrhythmic drug that causes use-dependent blockade of sodium channels in vitro and reduces conduction velocity in vitro and in vivo. According to the modulated receptor hypothesis of antiarrhythmic drug action, lidocaine has a low affinity for rested sodium channels but a high affinity for open and inactivated channels. In the present experiments, we characterized use-dependent conduction slowing and recovery from slowing by lidocaine in anesthetized dogs. The His-to-ventricular conduction interval was used as the indicator of conduction velocity. We found that prolongation of conduction time was greater as the stimulation frequency was increased. Moreover, on abruptly changing the stimulation frequency, a new steady-state conduction time was approached in two to three depolarizations. On discontinuation of stimulation, the conduction time of progressively less premature extrastimuli shortened exponentially with a terminal phase time constant of 152 +/- 115 msec. These effects by lidocaine were enhanced during acidosis and enhancement was reversed by correction of the acidosis. It is concluded that the effects in vivo of lidocaine on conduction under several conditions of rate, rhythm, and pH are similar to its effects on the maximum upstroke velocity of the action potential in vitro. Although these experiments were not designed to validate the modulated receptor hypothesis, it appears that the modulated receptor hypothesis can predict the effects of lidocaine on conduction in vivo.

  14. Effective Concentration of Lidocaine Plus Fentanyl for Caudal Block in Patients Undergoing Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinguo; Zhou, Honglan; An, Wei; Gao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study determined the effective concentration (EC) of lidocaine plus 75 μg fentanyl for caudal block in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy. Methods. Consecutive male patients scheduled for TRUS guided prostate biopsy were enrolled. The mixed solution for caudal block contained lidocaine and 75 μg fentanyl, in total 20 mL. The concentration of lidocaine was determined using the up-and-down method, starting at 0.8% (a step size of 0.1%). A successful caudal block was defined by no pain perception during biopsy. The EC50 of lidocaine for successful caudal block was calculated and side effects were evaluated. Results. A total of 23 patients were recruited. The EC50 of lidocaine for successful caudal block was 0.53%. Conclusions. Lidocaine of 0.53% combined with 75 μg fentanyl resulted in excellent caudal block in 50% of male patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. PMID:27872761

  15. 5% Lidocaine Medicated Plaster for the Treatment of Postherpetic Neuralgia: A Review of the Clinical Safety and Tolerability.

    PubMed

    Navez, Marie Louise; Monella, Christopher; Bösl, Irmgard; Sommer, Daniela; Delorme, Claire

    2015-06-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a common, very painful, and often long-lasting complication of herpes zoster which is frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated. It mainly affects the elderly, many of whom are already treated for comorbidities with a variety of systemic medications and are thus at high risk of drug-drug interactions. An efficacious and safe treatment with a low interaction potential is therefore of high importance. This review focuses on the safety and tolerability of the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster, a topical analgesic indicated for the treatment of PHN. The available literature (up to June 2014) was searched for publications containing safety data regarding the use of the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in PHN treatment; unpublished clinical safety data were also included in this review. The 5% lidocaine medicated plaster demonstrated good short- and long-term tolerability with low systemic uptake (3 ± 2%) and minimal risk for systemic adverse drug reactions (ADRs). ADRs related to topical lidocaine treatment were mainly application site reactions of mild to moderate intensity. The treatment discontinuation rate was generally below 5% of patients. In one trial, the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster was better tolerated than systemic treatment with pregabalin. The 5% lidocaine medicated plaster provides a safe alternative to systemic medications for PHN treatment, including long-term pain treatment.

  16. Efficacy of intravenous lidocaine to reduce pain and distress associated with propofol infusion in pediatric patients during procedural sedation.

    PubMed

    Depue, Kent; Christopher, Norman C; Raed, Mona; Forbes, Michael L; Besunder, James; Reed, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that young children experience an increased incidence and severity of discomfort during propofol infusion. Evaluations of varied interventions to reduce or eliminate this discomfort with adult subjects suggest that premedication with intravenously administered lidocaine (0.5 mg/kg) offers the best overall effectiveness. Because this regimen's efficacy in a pediatric population is undocumented, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to determine the effectiveness of intravenous lidocaine pretreatment to alleviate pain in pediatric subjects before propofol infusion. Subjects (aged 2-7 years) scheduled for painless diagnostic procedures received either a saline placebo or 1 of 2 lidocaine doses before administering propofol. To capture the patient's baseline behavioral state, a trained observer administered the validated face, legs, activity, cry, consolability pain assessment scale before propofol infusion. During deep sedation induction, the sedating physician, a trained research assistant, and the patient's parent documented maximum distress using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Ninety-one subjects participated. We found no difference in VAS pain scores between groups pretreated with lidocaine 0.25 mg/kg, lidocaine 0.5 mg/kg, and placebo. Statistical analysis also found no interrater differences between parents, physician, or observer VAS scores. Our data do not support using lidocaine pretreatment to alleviate pain/discomfort in pediatric patients during propofol infusion.

  17. Epidural administration of fixed volumes of xylazine and lidocaine for anesthesia of dairy cattle undergoing flank surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Inhyung; Yamada, Haruo

    2005-09-01

    A modified method for epidural anesthesia in standing cattle undergoing flank surgery in which fixed volumes of xylazine and lidocaine were injected is described, along with results in 18 cattle. A Tuohy needle was inserted into the L1-2 intervertebral space from a dorsal midline approach, positioning of the needle tip in the epidural space was confirmed by use of the hanging drop technique, the needle was slowly advanced 7 to 10 mm to penetrate the epidural fat, and the anesthetic solution was then administered. In the initial 8 cattle, the anesthetic solution consisted of 1 mL of 2% xylazine and 4 mL of 2% lidocaine. However, 1 of these cattle became recumbent prior to surgery. Therefore, the dose of lidocaine was decreased, and in the subsequent 10 cattle, the anesthetic solution consisted of 1 mL of 2% xylazine and 3 mL of 2% lidocaine. Surgery was begun 30 minutes after epidural administration of anesthetic; surgery time ranged from 27 to 276 minutes. Sedation and anesthesia were adequate, except in 1 cow that received the lower dose of lidocaine and became recumbent during suturing of the incision. The modified epidural anesthesia technique with injection of fixed volumes of xylazine and lidocaine appears to be an adequate method for anesthesia of standing cattle undergoing flank surgery.

  18. A comparison between articaine HCl and lidocaine HCl in pediatric dental patients.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F; Gagnon, S; Leblanc, D

    2000-01-01

    Three identical single-dose, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, active-controlled multicenter studies were conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of articaine HCl (4% with epinephrine 1:100,000) to that of lidocaine HCl (2% with epinephrine 1:100,000) in patients aged 4 years to 79 years, with subgroup analysis on subjects 4 to < 13 years. Fifty subjects under the age of 13 years were treated in the articaine group and 20 subjects under the age of 13 were treated with lidocaine. Subjects were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive articaine or lidocaine. Efficacy was determined on a gross scale immediately following the procedure by having both the subject and investigator rate the pain experienced by the subject during the procedure using a visual analog scale (VAS). Safety was evaluated by measuring vital signs before and after administration of anesthetic (1 and 5 minutes post-medication and at the end of the procedure) and by assessing adverse events throughout the study. Adverse events were elicited during telephone follow-up at 24 hours and 7 days after the procedure. Pediatric patients received equal volumes, but higher mg/kg doses, of articaine than lidocaine during both simple and complex dental procedures. Pain ratings: Articaine: VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) scores (from 0 to 10 cm) by patients 4 to < 13 years of age were 0.5 for simple procedures and 1.1 for complex procedures, and average investigator scores were 0.4 and 0.6 for simple and complex procedures, respectively. Lidocaine: patients 0.7 (simple) and 2.3 (complex); investigators 0.3 (simple) and 2.8 (complex). Adverse events: No serious adverse events related to the articaine occurred. The only adverse event considered related to articaine was accidental lip injury in one patient. VAS scores indicate that articaine is an effective local anesthetic in children and that articaine is as effective as lidocaine when measured on this gross scale. Articaine 4% with epinephrine 1:100,000 is

  19. Ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel in rabbits after topical ocular administration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Ding, Li; Xu, Xiaowen; Lin, Hongda; Sun, Chenglong; You, Linjun

    2015-12-01

    Lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel is a novel ophthalmic preparation for topical ocular anesthesia. The study is aimed at evaluating the ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel in rabbits after ocular topical administration. Thirty-six rabbits were randomly placed in 12 groups (3 rabbits per group). The rabbits were quickly killed according to their groups at 0 (predose), 0.0833, 0.167, 0.333, 0.667, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h postdose and then the ocular tissue and plasma samples were collected. All the samples were analyzed by a validated LC-MS/MS method. The test result showed that the maximum concentration (C max) of lidocaine in different ocular tissues and plasma were all achieved within 20 min after drug administration, and the data of C max were (2,987 ± 1814) μg/g, (44.67 ± 12.91) μg/g, (26.26 ± 7.19) μg/g, (11,046 ± 2,734) ng/mL, and (160.3 ± 61.0) ng/mL for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The data of the elimination half-life in these tissues were 1.5, 3.2, 3.5, 1.9, and 1.7 h for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The intraocular lidocaine levels were significantly higher than that in plasma, and the elimination half-life of lidocaine in cornea, conjunctiva, and aqueous humor was relatively longer than that in tear fluid and plasma. The high intraocular penetration, low systemic exposure, and long duration in the ocular tissues suggested lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel as an effective local anesthetic for ocular anesthesia during ophthalmic procedures.

  20. Amiodarone, Lidocaine, or Placebo in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Kudenchuk, Peter J; Brown, Siobhan P; Daya, Mohamud; Rea, Thomas; Nichol, Graham; Morrison, Laurie J; Leroux, Brian; Vaillancourt, Christian; Wittwer, Lynn; Callaway, Clifton W; Christenson, James; Egan, Debra; Ornato, Joseph P; Weisfeldt, Myron L; Stiell, Ian G; Idris, Ahamed H; Aufderheide, Tom P; Dunford, James V; Colella, M Riccardo; Vilke, Gary M; Brienza, Ashley M; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Gray, Pamela C; Gray, Randal; Seals, Norman; Straight, Ron; Dorian, Paul

    2016-05-05

    Antiarrhythmic drugs are used commonly in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest for shock-refractory ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia, but without proven survival benefit. In this randomized, double-blind trial, we compared parenteral amiodarone, lidocaine, and saline placebo, along with standard care, in adults who had nontraumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, shock-refractory ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia after at least one shock, and vascular access. Paramedics enrolled patients at 10 North American sites. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge; the secondary outcome was favorable neurologic function at discharge. The per-protocol (primary analysis) population included all randomly assigned participants who met eligibility criteria and received any dose of a trial drug and whose initial cardiac-arrest rhythm of ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia was refractory to shock. In the per-protocol population, 3026 patients were randomly assigned to amiodarone (974), lidocaine (993), or placebo (1059); of those, 24.4%, 23.7%, and 21.0%, respectively, survived to hospital discharge. The difference in survival rate for amiodarone versus placebo was 3.2 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.4 to 7.0; P=0.08); for lidocaine versus placebo, 2.6 percentage points (95% CI, -1.0 to 6.3; P=0.16); and for amiodarone versus lidocaine, 0.7 percentage points (95% CI, -3.2 to 4.7; P=0.70). Neurologic outcome at discharge was similar in the three groups. There was heterogeneity of treatment effect with respect to whether the arrest was witnessed (P=0.05); active drugs were associated with a survival rate that was significantly higher than the rate with placebo among patients with bystander-witnessed arrest but not among those with unwitnessed arrest. More amiodarone recipients required temporary cardiac pacing than did recipients of lidocaine or placebo. Overall, neither

  1. Analgesic effects of adding lidocaine to morphine pumps after orthopedic surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Alebouyeh, Mahmoud Reza; Imani, Farnad; Rahimzadeh, Poupak; Entezary, Saeed Reza; Faiz, Seyed Hamid Reza; Soraya, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Opiate is used in patient-controlled intravenous analgesia pumps (PCIA) for controlling pain in post-surgical patients. Other drugs are remarkably added to opioid pumps to enhance quality, lengthen analgesia, and reduce side effects. Lidocaine, a local anesthetic which inhibits sodium channels, has anesthetic and analgesic effects when injected locally or intravenously. The objective of this study is to evaluate the analgesic effects of adding lidocaine 1% to different doses of morphine via IV pump to patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) after orthopedic surgeries. Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 60 patients who had undergone orthopedic surgery of lower extremities were divided into three equal groups to control postoperative pain. Intravenous pump with 5 ml/h flow rate was used as the analgesic method. The solution consisted of lidocaine 1% plus 20 mg morphine for the first group, lidocaine 1% plus 10 mg morphine for the second group, and only 20 mg morphine for the third group (control group). Patients were checked every 12 h, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS), extra opioid doses, nausea/vomiting, and sedation scale were examined. Results: Pain score was lower in the first group compared to the other two groups. Mean VAS was 2.15 ± 0.2, 2.75 ± 0.2, and 2 ± 0.25 on the first day and 1.88 ± 0.1, 2.74 ± 0.3, and 2.40 ± 0.3 on the second day, respectively, in the three groups and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01 and <0.05, respectively). Also, 10% of patients in the first group needed extra opioid doses, while this figure was 30% in the second group and 25% in the third group (P < 0.01). Nausea/vomiting and sedation scores were not statistically different among the three groups. Conclusion: Compared to lidocaine 1% plus 10 mg morphine or 20 mg morphine alone in PCIA, adding lidocaine 1% to 20 mg morphine decreases the pain score and opioid dose after orthopedic surgeries without having side effects. PMID

  2. Lidocaine Induces Apoptosis and Suppresses Tumor Growth in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells In Vitro and in a Xenograft Model In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Xing, Wei; Chen, Dong-Tai; Pan, Jia-Hao; Chen, Yong-Hua; Yan, Yan; Li, Qiang; Xue, Rui-Feng; Yuan, Yun-Fei; Zeng, Wei-An

    2017-05-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have focused on the potential beneficial effects of regional anesthetics, and the differences in cancer prognosis may be the result of anesthetics on cancer biologic behavior. However, the function and underlying mechanisms of lidocaine in hepatocellular carcinoma both in vitro and in vivo have been poorly studied. Human HepG2 cells were treated with lidocaine. Cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were assessed. The effects of lidocaine on apoptosis-related and mitogen-activated protein kinase protein expression were evaluated by Western blot analysis. The antitumor activity of lidocaine in hepatocellular carcinoma with or without cisplatin was investigated with in vitro experiments and also with animal experiments. Lidocaine inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The authors also found that lidocaine arrested cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle (63.7 ± 1.7% vs. 72.4 ± 3.2%; P = 0.0143) and induced apoptosis (1.7 ± 0.3% vs. 5.0 ± 0.7%; P = 0.0009). Lidocaine may exert these functions by causing an increase in Bax protein and activated caspase-3 and a corresponding decrease in Bcl-2 protein through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 pathways. More importantly, for the first time, xenograft experiments (n = 8 per group) indicated that lidocaine suppressed tumor development (P < 0.0001; lidocaine vs. control) and enhanced the sensitivity of cisplatin (P = 0.0008; lidocaine plus cisplatin vs. cisplatin). The authors' findings suggest that lidocaine may exert potent antitumor activity in hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, combining lidocaine with cisplatin may be a novel treatment option for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  3. Locoregional Anesthesia for Dental Treatment in Cardiac Patients: A Comparative Study of 2% Plain Lidocaine and 2% Lidocaine with Epinephrine (1:100,000)

    PubMed Central

    Laragnoit, Alessandra Batistela; Neves, Ricardo Simões; Neves, Itamara Lúcia Itagiba; Vieira, Joaquim Edson

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study analyzes hemodynamic changes in patients with cardiac valvular diseases submitted to dental treatment under local anesthesia containing epinephrine. METHODS This randomized clinical trial was performed at the Dental Division of the Instituto do Coração do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil). Patients were separated into two groups with the help of an aleatory number table: 2% plain lidocaine (PL, n= 31) and 2% lidocaine with epinephrine (1:100,000) (LE, n= 28). Blood pressure, heart rate, oxygenation and electrocardiogram data were all recorded throughout the procedure. State and trait anxiety levels were measured. RESULTS Fifty-nine patients were selected for the LE group (n=28), with an average age of 40.3 ± 10.9, or for the PL group (n=31), age 42.2 ± 10.3. No differences were shown in blood pressure, heart rate and pulse oximetry values before, during and after local anesthesia injection between the two groups. State and trait anxiety levels were not different. Arrhythmias observed before dental anesthesia did not change in shape or magnitude after treatment. Complaints of pain during the dental procedure were more frequent within the PL group, which received a higher amount of local anesthesia. CONCLUSION Lidocaine with epinephrine (1:100,000) provided effective local anesthesia. This treatment did not cause an increase in heart rate or blood pressure and did not cause any arrhythmic changes in patients with cardiac valvular diseases. PMID:19330241

  4. Lidocaine Sensitizes the Cytotoxicity of Cisplatin in Breast Cancer Cells via Up-Regulation of RARβ2 and RASSF1A Demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kehan; Yang, Jianxue; Han, Xuechang

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that lidocaine is toxic to various types of cells. And a recent study has confirmed that lidocaine exerts a demethylation effect and regulates the proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines. To recognize a potential anti-tumor effect of lidocaine, we evaluated the DNA demethylation by lidocaine in human breast cancer lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, and determined the influence of demethylation on the toxicity to these cells of cisplatin, which is a commonly utilized anti-tumor agent for breast cancer. Results demonstrated that lidocaine promoted a significant global genomic demethylation, and particularly in the promoters of tumor suppressive genes (TSGs), RARβ2 and RASSF1A. Further, the lidocaine treatment increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis and enhanced cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. The combined treatment with both lidocaine and cisplatin promoted a significantly higher level of MCF-7 cell apoptosis than singular lidocaine or cisplatin treatment. Moreover, the abrogation of RARβ2 or RASSF1A expression inhibited such apoptosis. In conclusion, the present study confirms the demethylation effect of lidocaine in breast cancer cells, and found that the demethylation of RARβ2 and RASSF1A sensitized the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in breast cancer cells. PMID:25526566

  5. The relation between the duty cycle and anesthetic effect in lidocaine iontophoresis using alternating current.

    PubMed

    Wakita, Ryo; Nakajima, Atsushi; Haida, Yu; Umino, Masahiro; Fukayama, Haruhisa

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the effect of the duty cycle on the anesthetic effect during lidocaine alternating current (AC) iontophoresis. A solution of 2% lidocaine was delivered to the medial antecubital skin for 20 minutes using AC iontophoresis with a duty cycle of 60%, 70%, or 80%. The von Frey test was then performed to evaluate the anesthetic effect. In the groups treated with a duty cycle of 80% or 70% the touch thresholds (TT) were significantly elevated from 0 minutes to 30 minutes and from 0 minutes to 20 minutes. TT were significantly elevated at 0 minutes in the group treated with a 60% duty cycle. The anesthetic effect was significantly enhanced in a duty cycle-dependent manner.

  6. High pressure study of molecular dynamics of protic ionic liquid lidocaine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiety-Pospiech, A.; Wojnarowska, Z.; Pionteck, J.; Pawlus, S.; Grzybowski, A.; Hensel-Bielowka, S.; Grzybowska, K.; Szulc, A.; Paluch, M.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of pressure on the molecular dynamics of protic ionic liquid lidocaine hydrochloride, a commonly used pharmaceutical, by means of dielectric spectroscopy and pressure-temperature-volume methods. We observed that near Tg the pressure dependence of conductivity relaxation times reveals a peculiar behavior, which can be treated as a manifestation of decoupling between ion migration and structural relaxation times. Moreover, we discuss the validity of thermodynamic scaling in lidocaine HCl. We also employed the temperature-volume Avramov model to determine the value of pressure coefficient of glass transition temperature, dTg/dP|P = 0.1. Finally, we investigate the role of thermal and density fluctuations in controlling of molecular dynamics of the examined compound.

  7. Haemostatic effects of adrenaline-lidocaine subcutaneous infiltration at donor sites.

    PubMed

    Gacto, P; Miralles, F; Pereyra, J J; Perez, A; Martínez, E

    2009-05-01

    This study sought methods in burn surgery to reduce postoperative pain and blood loss at donor sites. A prospective, randomised, controlled, blinded trial included 56 people undergoing burn surgery, divided into two groups. Both groups received subcutaneous infiltration at donor sites, with either 1:500,000 adrenaline solution containing added lidocaine or with 0.45% normal saline (controls). Outcome measurements included amount of intraoperative bleeding, need for electrocautery, days the hydrocolloid dressing remained on donor sites, percentage of re-epithelialised skin at donor sites 1 week after surgery and viability of skin grafts. Results indicated that subcutaneous adrenaline-lidocaine infiltration at donor sites reduced intraoperative bleeding, decreased postoperative pain, shortened the duration of surgery and general anaesthesia and accelerated re-epithelialisation at the donor site. The overall graft take in both groups was similar.

  8. Opiate refractory pain from an intestinal obstruction responsive to an intravenous lidocaine infusion.

    PubMed

    Bafuma, Patrick J; Nandi, Arun; Weisberg, Michael

    2015-10-01

    A 24-year-old female patient presented to our community emergency department (ED) for abdominal pain that had progressively worsened over the last 28 hours. Of note, 1 month prior to her presentation, the patient had a colostomy due to a rectal abscess and required stoma revision 5 days prior to her visit to our ED. The patient's pain was refractory to opiate analgesia in our ED, but experienced significant relief after an intravenous lidocaine infusion. Computer tomography of the abdomen and pelvis ultimately revealed a large bowel obstruction just proximal to the colostomy site. Historically, options for ED management of severe pain have been limited beyond narcotic analgesia. For patients whom are refractory to opiates in the ED, or for whom opiates are contraindicated, lidocaine infusions have shown promise for a variety of both acute and chronic painful conditions.

  9. Development of an ANN optimized mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen and lidocaine for dental pain.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Amjad; Syed, Muhammad Ali; Abbas, Nasir; Hanif, Sana; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Hussain, Khalid; Akhlaq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2016-06-01

    A novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen (FLB) and lidocaine HCl (LID) was prepared to relieve dental pain. Tablet formulations (F1-F9) were prepared using variable quantities of mucoadhesive agents, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate (SA). The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time, swellability index and in vitro release of active agents. Release of both drugs depended on the relative ratio of HPMC:SA. However, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time were better in formulations, containing higher proportions of HPMC compared to SA. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was applied to optimise formulations based on known effective parameters (i.e., mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesion time and drug release), which proved valuable. This study indicates that an effective buccal tablet formulation of flurbiprofen and lidocaine can be prepared via an optimized ANN approach.

  10. Poly(acrylic acid) microspheres loaded with lidocaine: preparation and characterization for arterial embolization.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dai-Chao; Lu, Wan-Liang; Sa, Er-A; Gu, Meng-Jie; Lu, Xiao-Jing; Fan, Tian-Yuan

    2012-10-15

    A new embolic agent, poly(acrylic acid) microspheres (PMs), was synthesized and the cytocompatibility was proved by mouse L929 fibroblast cells. An analgesic drug, lidocaine, was loaded on the PMs to relief pain caused by embolization. PMs and lidocaine loaded microspheres (LMs) were characterized by investigating infrared spectrum, morphology, particle size, and equilibrium water contents (EWC). A series of tests were employed to evaluate the elasticity of PMs, LMs and Embosphere™, including once compression, twice compression, and stress relaxation test. The pressures of PMs and LMs passing through a catheter were measured on line by our new designed device. Drug release was studied with T-cell apparatus. The properties of PMs and LMs were proved to be suitable for embolization. Both PMs and LMs in this study might be potential embolic agents in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of ropivacaine and lidocaine with epinephrine for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry. A randomized study.

    PubMed

    Krzemiński, Tadeusz Faustyn; Gilowski, Łukasz; Wiench, Rafał; Płocica, Iwona; Kondzielnik, Piotr; Sielańczyk, Andrzej

    2011-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of maxillary infiltration anesthesia with 0.5% plain ropivacaine or 2% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:100,000. 60 volunteers received 1.8 ml of the anesthetic for infiltration anesthesia of maxillary central and lateral incisors and canine teeth. The onset time and duration of pulp anesthesia were assessed with an electric pulp tester. The duration time of numbness of the upper lip was also monitored. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after administration of the solution. The efficacy of anesthesia of the lateral and central incisors was 100% for both anesthetics. There were small insignificant differences in effectiveness of canine pulp anesthesia. The mean onset time was significantly shorter for ropivacaine--2.2 minutes vs. 5.1 for lidocaine. Ropivacaine also had a significantly longer duration of action--mean time 79.2 minutes. Ropivacaine caused statistically significant increases in blood pressure and heart rate.

  12. Lidocaine spray alone is similar to spray plus viscous solution for pharyngeal observation during transoral endoscopy: a clinical randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Tomoyuki; Asahina, Yoshiro; Waseda, Yohei; Kitamura, Kazuya; Kagaya, Takashi; Seike, Takuya; Okada, Kazuhiro; Inada, Yuki; Takabatake, Hisashi; Orita, Noriaki; Yanase, Yuko; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Ninomiya, Itasu; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims It is important to examine the pharynx during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Pharyngeal anesthesia using topical lidocaine is generally used as pretreatment. In Japan, lidocaine viscous solution is the anesthetic of choice, but lidocaine spray is applied when the former is considered insufficient. However, the relationship between the extent of pharyngeal anesthesia and accuracy of observation is unclear. We compared the performance of lidocaine spray alone versus lidocaine spray combined with lidocaine viscous solution for pharyngeal observation during transoral endoscopy. Patients and methods In this prospective, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial conducted between January and March 2015, 327 patients were randomly assigned to lidocaine spray alone (spray group, n = 157) or a combination of spray and viscous solution (combination group, n = 170). We compared the number of pharyngeal observable sites (non-inferiority test), pain by visual analogue scale, observation time, and the number of gag reflexes between the two groups. Results The mean number of images of suitable quality taken at the observable pharyngeal sites in the spray group was 8.33 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 7.94 – 8.72) per patient, and 8.77 (95 % CI: 8.49 – 9.05) per patient in the combination group. The difference in the number of observable pharyngeal sites was – 0.44 (95 % CI: – 0.84 to – 0.03, P = 0.01). There were no differences in pain, observation time, or number of gag reflexes between the 2 groups. Subgroup analysis of the presence of sedation revealed no differences between the two groups for the number of pharyngeal observation sites and the number of gag reflexes. However, the number of gag reflexes was higher in the spray group compared to the combination group in a subgroup analysis that looked at the absence of sedation. Conclusions Lidocaine spray for pharyngeal anesthesia was not

  13. Efficacy of lidocaine on preventing incidence and severity of pain associated with propofol using in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Bing-chen; Yang, Chun-song; Zhang, Ling-li; Zhang, Wen-sheng; Fu, Yu-zhi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Propofol injection pain was considered as one conundrum during clinical anesthesia. The systematic review about the effect of lidocaine in reducing injection pain among children has not been established. The aim of the study was to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of such intervention. Methods: The literature search was performed from the inception to the May 31, 2016 in PubMed, Ovid EMBASE, and Cochrane database. All randomized controlled trials that using lidocaine for propofol injection pain in children were enrolled. The primary outcome included the incidence of injection pain and the incidence of propofol injection pain in different degrees. The data were combined to calculate the relative ratio and relevant 95% confidence interval. A meta-analysis was performed following the guidelines of the Cochrane Reviewer's Handbook and the PRISMA statement. Results: Data from the included 11 studies indicated that the incidence of injection pain was lower in lidocaine group than the incidence in saline control group and in propofol lipuro (medium- and long-chain triglycerides) group (pain occurrence: 22.1% in lidocaine vs 66.8% in saline, RR with 95% 0.34 [0.26, 0.43], I2 = 38%; 30.5% in lidocaine vs 46.9% in propofol lipuro, RR with 95% 0.68 [0.46, 1.00], I2 = 9%). There was no difference between lidocaine and ketamine/alfentanil both in reducing pain occurrence and in reducing pain severity (pain occurrence: 29.7% in lidocaine vs 25.8% in ketamine, RR with 95% 1.47 [0.16, 13.43], I2 = 94%; 31.0% in lidocaine vs 30.7% in alfentanil, RR with 95% 1.01 [0.69, 1.46], I2 = 11%). And the reported side effects revealed that the safety of lidocaine in pediatric patients was acceptable. Conclusion: Compared with ketamine and alfentanil, lidocaine would be served as one more effective treatment in consideration of its well-matched efficacy, acceptable accessibility, and reasonable safety. However, more high-quality evidences in

  14. Methemoglobin levels in generally anesthetized pediatric dental patients receiving prilocaine versus lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Gutenberg, Lauren L; Chen, Jung-Wei; Trapp, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure and compare peak methemoglobin levels and times to peak methemoglobin levels following the use of prilocaine and lidocaine in precooperative children undergoing comprehensive dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia. Ninety children, 3-6 years of age, undergoing dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia were enrolled and randomly assigned into 3 equal groups: group 1, 4% prilocaine plain, 5 mg/kg; group 2, 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, 2.5 mg/kg; and group 3, no local anesthetic. Subjects in groups 1 and 2 were administered local anesthetic prior to restorative dental treatment. Methemoglobin levels (SpMET) were measured and recorded throughout the procedure using a Masimo Radical-7 Pulse Co-Oximeter (Masimo Corporation, Irvine, Calif, RDS-1 with SET software with methemoglobin interface). Data were analyzed using chi-square, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson correlation (significance of P < .05). Group 1 had a significantly higher mean peak SpMET level at 3.55% than groups 2 and 3 at 1.63 and 1.60%, respectively. The mean time to peak SpMET was significantly shorter for group 3 at 29.50 minutes than that of group 1 at 62.73 and group 2 at 57.50 minutes. Prilocaine, at 5 mg/kg in pediatric dental patients, resulted in significantly higher peak SpMET levels than lidocaine and no local anesthetic. In comparison to no local anesthetic, the administration of prilocaine and lidocaine caused peak SpMET levels to occur significantly later in the procedure.

  15. Methemoglobin Levels in Generally Anesthetized Pediatric Dental Patients Receiving Prilocaine Versus Lidocaine

    PubMed Central

    Gutenberg, Lauren L.; Chen, Jung-Wei; Trapp, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure and compare peak methemoglobin levels and times to peak methemoglobin levels following the use of prilocaine and lidocaine in precooperative children undergoing comprehensive dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia. Ninety children, 3–6 years of age, undergoing dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia were enrolled and randomly assigned into 3 equal groups: group 1, 4% prilocaine plain, 5 mg/kg; group 2, 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine, 2.5 mg/kg; and group 3, no local anesthetic. Subjects in groups 1 and 2 were administered local anesthetic prior to restorative dental treatment. Methemoglobin levels (SpMET) were measured and recorded throughout the procedure using a Masimo Radical-7 Pulse Co-Oximeter (Masimo Corporation, Irvine, Calif, RDS-1 with SET software with methemoglobin interface). Data were analyzed using chi-square, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson correlation (significance of P < .05). Group 1 had a significantly higher mean peak SpMET level at 3.55% than groups 2 and 3 at 1.63 and 1.60%, respectively. The mean time to peak SpMET was significantly shorter for group 3 at 29.50 minutes than that of group 1 at 62.73 and group 2 at 57.50 minutes. Prilocaine, at 5 mg/kg in pediatric dental patients, resulted in significantly higher peak SpMET levels than lidocaine and no local anesthetic. In comparison to no local anesthetic, the administration of prilocaine and lidocaine caused peak SpMET levels to occur significantly later in the procedure. PMID:24010987

  16. The efficacy and safety of intravenous lidocaine for analgesia in the older adult: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Daykin, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Opioids remain the mainstay of analgesia for the treatment of moderate to severe acute pain. Even in the young, the use of opioids can be associated with an increased incidence of post-operative complications such as respiratory depression, vomiting, pruritus, excessive sedation, slowing of gastrointestinal function, and urinary retention. The need to manage acute pain in the older patient is becoming more common as the population ages, and increasingly older patients are undergoing more major surgery. Medical conditions are more common in older people and can result in the requirement of systemic analgesia for fractures, malignancy, nociceptive or neuropathic pain and peripheral vascular disease. Effective pain control can be difficult in older patients as there is a higher incidence of coexistent diseases, polypharmacy and age-related changes in physiology, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Consequently, due to the fear of respiratory depression in older people, this leads to inadequate doses of opioid being given for the treatment of their pain. Lidocaine has analgesic, anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and is metabolized by the liver which is limited by perfusion, and heart failure or drugs can alter this, affecting its clearance. Therefore, there are concerns regarding safety in older patients as plasma concentrations have both intersubject and intrasubject variability. The aim of this literature review is to assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous lidocaine as an adjuvant in pain management for the older patient. In total, 12 studies fulfilled the criteria. Lidocaine infusions were found to reduce pain scores and be opioid sparing in abdominal and urological surgery, in patients with opioid-refractory malignancy pain, neuropathic pain and critical limb ischaemia. Patients with malignancy were more likely to develop adverse effects, but no patients required treatment for lidocaine toxicity. PMID:28386401

  17. Intrauterine lidocaine for pain control during laminaria insertion: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Rebecca J; Liberty, Abigail

    2014-12-01

    To determine if intrauterine administration of 5 cc of 2% lidocaine in addition to paracervical block reduces pain during laminaria insertion, when compared with paracervical block and saline placebo. This was a randomized, double blind placebo-controlled trial. Women presenting for abortion by dilation and evacuation (D&E) at 14-24 weeks gestational age were randomized to receive an intrauterine instillation of either 5 mL of 2% lidocaine or 5 mL of normal saline, in addition to standard paracervical block with 20 cc of 0.25% bupivacaine. Our primary outcome was self-reported pain scores on a 100mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) immediately following laminaria insertion. Secondary outcome was self-reported VAS pain score indicating the maximum level of pain experienced during the 24-48-h interval between laminaria insertion and D&E procedure. Seventy-two women were enrolled, and data for 67 women were analyzed, only two of whom were more than 21 weeks on gestation. The range of pain scores at both time points was large (1-90 mm at laminaria insertion; 0-100mm in laminaria-D&E interval). Mean pain scores were not different between treatment groups at laminaria insertion, (33 vs. 32, p=.8) or in the laminaria - D&E interval (43 vs. 44, p=.9). Intrauterine administration of 5 cc of 2% lidocaine in addition to paracervical block did not reduce pain with laminaria insertion when compared to paracervical block with saline placebo. Intrauterine lidocaine combined with paracervical block does not improve pain control at laminaria insertion when compared with paracervical block and saline placebo. Wide variation in pain scores and persistent pain after laminaria insertion suggests patient would benefit from more effective methods of pain control at laminaria insertion and during the post-laminaria interval. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hyaluron Filler Containing Lidocaine on a CPM Basis for Lip Augmentation: Reports from Practical Experience.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Tanja C; Sattler, Gerhard; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2016-06-01

    Lip augmentation with hyaluronic acid fillers is established. As monophasic polydensified hyaluronic acid products with variable density, CPM-HAL1 (Belotero Balance Lidocaine, Merz Aesthetics, Raleigh, NC) and CPM-HAL2 (Belotero Intense Lidocaine, Merz Aesthetics, Raleigh, NC) are qualified for beautification and particularly natural-looking rejuvenation, respectively. The aim of this article was to assess the handling and outcome of lip augmentation using the lidocaine-containing hyaluronic acid fillers, CPM-HAL1 and CPM-HAL2. Data were documented from patients who received lip augmentation by means of beautification and/or rejuvenation using CPM-HAL1 and/or CPM-HAL2. Observation period was 4 months, with assessment of natural outcome, evenness, distribution, fluidity, handling, malleability, tolerability, as well as patient satisfaction and pain. A total of 146 patients from 21 German centers participated. Physicians rated natural outcome and evenness as good or very good for more than 95% of patients. Distribution, fluidity, handling, and malleability were assessed for both fillers as good or very good in more than 91% of patients. At every evaluation point, more than 93% of patients were very or very much satisfied with the product. A total of 125 patients (85.6%) experienced transient injection-related side effects. Pain intensity during the procedure was mild (2.72 ± 1.72 on the 0-10 pain assessment scale) and abated markedly within 30 minutes (0.42 ± 0.57). Lip augmentation with hyaluronic acid fillers produced a long-term cosmetic result. Due to the lidocaine content, procedural pain was low and transient. Accordingly, a high degree of patient satisfaction was achieved that was maintained throughout the observation period.

  19. [Comparison of granisetron and lidocaine on reducing injection pain of etomidate: a controlled randomized study].

    PubMed

    Saliminia, Alireza; Azimaraghi, Omid; Javadi, Amir; Abdoulahpoor, Maryam; Movafegh, Ali

    2017-08-18

    Reducing pain on injection of anesthetic drugs is of importance to every anesthesiologist. In this study we pursued to define if pretreatment by granisetron reduces the pain on injection of etomidate similar to lidocaine. Thirty patients aged between 18 and 50 years of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class I or II, whom were candidates for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery were enrolled in this study. Two 20 gauge cannulas were inserted into the veins on the dorsum of both hands and 100mL of normal saline was administered during a 10min period from each cannula. Using an elastic band as a tourniquet, venous drainage of both hands was occluded. 2mL of granisetron was administered into one hand and 2mL of lidocaine 2% at the same time into the other hand. One minute later the elastic band was opened and 2mL of etomidate was administered to each hand with equal rates. The patients were asked to give a score from 0 to 10 (0=no pain, 10=severe pain) to each the pain sensed in each hand. Two patients were deeply sedated after injection of etomidate and unable to answer any questions. The mean numerical rating score for injection pain of intravenously administered etomidate after intravenous granisetron was 2.3±1.7, which was lower when compared with pain sensed due to intravenously administered etomidate after administration of lidocaine 2% (4.6±1.8), p<0.05. The result of this study demonstrated that, granisetron reduces pain on injection of etomidate more efficiently than lidocaine. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  20. Effect of endovenous lidocaine on analgesia and serum cytokines: double-blinded and randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Michele Purper; Godoy, Maria Celoni de Mello; Schlosser, Rochelle Silveira; Ortiz, Rafael Purper; Godoy, Jõao Pedro Mello; Santiago, Eduardo Sagrillo; Rigo, Flávia Karine; Beck, Verônica; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; Menezes, Miriam Seligman

    2016-12-01

    This trial aimed to compare postoperative analgesia, opioid consumption, duration of ileus and hospital stay, and cytokine levels in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies who received intravenous lidocaine in comparison with a control group. Prospective, longitudinal, double-blind, and randomized study. Operating room and postoperative recovery area. Forty-four American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II patients older than 17 years, undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, under general anesthesia. The first group received intravenous lidocaine during the procedure until 1 hour postoperatively, whereas the second group received saline. Both groups received dipyrone and morphine patient-controlled analgesia. Pain was assessed by Visual Numeric Scale at rest and when coughing at different times after the end of the surgery. Blood samples were taken at the end of procedure and 24 hours later. The total morphine patient-controlled analgesia demand, the time for the first flatus, and the length of hospital stay were also recorded. Groups were similar in relation to sex (P= .2), age (P= .5), weight (P= .08), and length of surgery (P= .6). No differences were observed regarding the intensity of postoperative pain between the groups, either at rest (P= .76) or when coughing (P= .31), in morphine consumption (P= .9), and in the duration of ileus (P= .5) or length of hospital stay (P= .9). The inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-1 (P= .02), IL-6 (P< .01), interferon-γ (P< .01), and tumor necrosis factor α (P< .01) showed significant reduction in the lidocaine group against the placebo group, except IL-10 (P= .01), that, because of its anti-inflammatory effects, increased its concentration. Intravenous lidocaine was not able to reduce postoperative pain, opioid consumption, and duration of ileus or length of hospital stay. However, its anti-inflammatory effect was noticeable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Experimental Pain and Lidocaine on Mechanical Somatosensory Profile and Face Perception.

    PubMed

    Costa, Yuri Martins; Castrillon, Eduardo E; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Rodrigues Conti, Paulo César; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Svensson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effects of experimental muscle pain and topical lidocaine applied to the skin overlying the masseter muscle on the mechanical somatosensory profile and face perception of the masseter muscle in healthy participants. A total of 28 healthy participants received a 45-minute application of a lidocaine or placebo patch to the skin overlying the masseter muscle followed by one injection of 0.2 mL sterile solution of monosodium glutamate. Measurements were taken four times during each session of quantitative sensory testing (QST) (T0 = baseline, T1 = 45 minutes after patch application, T2 = immediately after glutamate injection, and T3 = 25 minutes after the glutamate injection), and the following variables were measured: mechanical detection threshold (MDT), mechanical pain threshold (MPT), pressure pain threshold (PPT), pain report (pain on palpation, pain spreading on palpation, and pain intensity), pain drawing, and perceptual distortion. Multi-way within-subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to the data. The highest MDTs were present at T2 (F = 49.28, P < .001), the lowest PPTs were present at T2 and T3 (F = 21.78, P < .001), and the largest magnitude and area of perceptual distortion were reported at T2 (F > 6.48, P < .001). Short-lasting experimental muscle pain was capable of causing loss of tactile sensitivity as well as perceptual distortion of the face, regardless of preconditioning with a topical lidocaine patch. Short-term application of a lidocaine patch did not significantly affect the mechanical somatosensory profile.

  2. The stability and microbial contamination of bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine used for lameness diagnostics in horses.

    PubMed

    Adler, D M T; Cornett, C; Damborg, P; Verwilghen, D R

    2016-12-01

    Local anaesthetics (LAs) are frequently used for diagnostic procedures in equine veterinary practice. The objective of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical stability and bacterial contamination of bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine used for lameness examinations in horses. The LAs were stored in 12 different groups at different temperatures (-18 °C to 70 °C), light intensities and in common veterinary field conditions for up to 16 months. The pH, presence of bacterial contamination and concentrations of LAs and methylparaben (a preservative present in lidocaine) were determined serially in both new and repeatedly punctured (RP) vials. Mepivacaine remained chemically stable. A 1.9% increase in bupivacaine concentration was evident in one group, whereas a 1.9-3.7% decrease was noted in six groups. Risk factors associated with a change in concentration were light and RP vials. Lidocaine concentration decreased 6.3% in one group and increased 5.3-7.2% in two groups. Risk factors for degradation were heat and RP vials whereas storage in practice vehicles was a risk factor for increased concentrations. Methylparaben decreased 8.3-75.0% in seven groups, and RP vials, heat and storage in practice vehicles were risk factors for degradation. No contamination was present in any of the LAs and pH remained stable. Commercially available solutions of lidocaine, mepivacaine and bupivacaine stored under common veterinary field conditions are extremely stable and sterile for extended periods. The minor changes in concentration documented in this study are unlikely to affect anaesthetic efficacy during equine lameness examinations. When using products containing methylparaben, degradation of the preservative over time is to be expected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anesthetic effects of clove oil and lidocaine-HCl on marine medaka (Oryzias dancena).

    PubMed

    Park, In-Seok; Park, Sung Jun; Gil, Hyun Woo; Nam, Yoon Kwon; Kim, Dong Soo

    2011-02-01

    Fish may be anesthetized for various experimental and practical purposes, primarily to immobilize them in order to facilitate handling. Marine medaka (Oryzias dancena) is a teleost fish used in marine ecotoxicology studies. Despite the importance of anesthesia in handling experimental fish, the effects of anesthesia in marine medaka have not yet been investigated. In this study, the authors evaluated the anesthetic effects (time required for anesthesia to take effect and recovery time) of two anesthetic agents, clove oil and lidocaine-HCl, on marine medaka. They anesthetized fish at different water temperatures (23 °C, 26 °C and 29 °C) and using different concentrations of clove oil (50 ppm, 75 ppm, 100 ppm, 125 ppm, 150 ppm and 175 ppm) or lidocaine-HCl (300 ppm, 400 ppm, 500 ppm, 600 ppm, 700 ppm and 800 ppm). The time required for anesthesia to take effect decreased significantly as both anesthetic concentration and water temperature increased for both clove oil and lidocaine-HCl. To anesthetize marine medaka within approximately 1 min, the optimal concentrations for clove oil were 125 ppm at 23 °C, 100 ppm at 26 °C and 75 ppm at 29 °C and for lidocaine-HCl were 800 ppm at 23 °C and 700 ppm at both 26 °C and 29 °C. The authors also compared anesthetic effects in marine medaka of different sizes. Both anesthetic exposure time and recovery time were significantly shorter for smaller fish than for larger fish. These results provide a useful foundation for the laboratory handling of marine medaka.

  4. Lidocaine inhibits the invasion and migration of TRPV6-expressing cancer cells by TRPV6 downregulation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan; Gou, Hui; Zhu, Jiang; Tian, Si; Yu, Lehua

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that local anesthetics have a broad spectrum of pharmacological actions, acting as nerve blocks, and treating pain and cardiac arrhythmias via blocking of the sodium channel. The use of local anesthetics could reduce the possibility of cancer metastasis and recurrence following surgical tumor excision. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of lidocaine upon the invasion and migration of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 6 (TRPV6)-expressing cancer cells. Human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, prostatic cancer PC-3 cells and ovarian cancer ES-2 cells were treated with lidocaine. Cell viability was quantitatively determined by MTT assay. The migration of the cells was evaluated using the wound healing assay, and the invasion of the cells was assessed using a Transwell assay. Calcium (Ca2+) measurements were performed using a Fluo-3 AM fluorescence kit. The expression of TRPV6 mRNA and protein in the cells was determined by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. The results suggested that lidocaine inhibits the cell invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231, PC-3 and ES-2 cells at lower than clinical concentrations. The inhibitory effect of lidocaine on TRPV6-expressing cancer cells was associated with a reduced rate of calcium influx, and could occur partly as a result of the downregulation of TRPV6 expression. The use of appropriate local anesthetics may confer potential benefits in clinical practice for the treatment of patients with TRPV6-expressing cancer. PMID:27446413

  5. Topical lidocaine patch 5% may target a novel underlying pain mechanism in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Galer, Bradley S; Sheldon, Eric; Patel, Nileshkumar; Codding, Chris; Burch, Francis; Gammaitoni, Arnold R

    2004-09-01

    Recent literature and animal research has provided insight to potentially new analgesic targets for managing osteoarthritis (OA) pain. Primary afferent neurons located in affected joints express excessive amounts of abnormally functioning sodium (Na) channels on their surface in response to the inflammatory process. These Na channels may play an integral role in production of pain and hyperalgesia. Hence, the authors set out to conduct a 2-week, open-label, multicenter proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of lidocaine patch 5% monotherapy in adults with OA pain of the knee (n = 20). Patients with OA of one or both knees who were experiencing inadequate pain relief (defined as an average daily pain intensity of > 4 on a 0 to 10 pain scale) with their current analgesic regimen (i.e. APAP, NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors, tramadol) were enrolled and had all analgesic medications discontinued. Treatment with the lidocaine patch 5% resulted in significant improvements in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA Index (WOMAC) pain, stiffness, physical function subscales and composite index (48.4, 41.1, 47.0, and 46.8% improvements respectively, p < 0.01). In addition, significant improvement was noted for pain intensity, pain relief, and pain interference with quality of life as measured by the Brief Pain Inventory (p < 0.05). The lidocaine patch 5% was generally well tolerated and no patients discontinued due to treatment-related adverse events. Given the open-label design, lack of a control group, and small sample size, the findings from our pilot study need to be confirmed by larger randomized controlled trials. Topical lidocaine patch 5% may provide clinicians with a novel, non-systemic therapy for OA pain with a unique mechanism of action.

  6. Treatment of neuropathic pain with 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster: Five years of clinical experience

    PubMed Central

    Delorme, Claire; Navez, Marie L; Legout, Valérie; Deleens, Rodrigue; Moyse, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain is often severe and adversely affects patients’ quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To perform a retrospective, observational study investigating the efficacy and safety of treating refractory chronic neuropathic pain with 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster, in patients attending pain centres. METHODS: Medical records from 467 patients treated with 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster were evaluated for efficacy (maximum and minimum pain intensities and coanalgesic consumption) and adverse events. Data from an initial assessment and at least one follow-up visit had to be available, and separate analyses were conducted for the general population and the subpopulation older than 70 years of age. RESULTS: Of the patients enrolled, 25.0% were older than 70 years of age. While 20.6% had postherpetic neuralgia, 76.3% had other types of peripheral pain. Approximately 78.1% of cases of peripheral neuropathic pain followed surgery, and 23% were post-traumatic pain. The time from onset to referral was more than one year in two-thirds of cases. All patients experienced pain of at least moderate severity (mean [± SD] 11-point numerical rating scale score 5.2±2.4 to 8.2±1.6). Treatment with 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster reduced pain intensity by more than 50% in 45.5% of patients, and by at least 30% in 82.2%. Of note, the consumption of analgesics and coanalgesics was significantly reduced. Results were similar in both the general population and the subpopulation older than 70 years of age, at high risk and often receiving multiple medications. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of refractory neuropathic pain with 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster clearly demonstrated efficacy and an excellent safety profile in patients with refractory neuropathic pain. PMID:22059196

  7. Long-term treatment of neuropathic pain with a 5% lidocaine medicated plaster.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Ilca Ricarda; Tzabazis, Alexander; Likar, Rudolf; Sittl, Reinhard; Griessinger, Norbert

    2010-02-01

    The 5% lidocaine medicated plaster is a topical treatment for peripheral neuropathic pain symptoms (e.g. burning, shooting and stabbing pain) and is registered for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. This study examined the efficacy and tolerability of long-term treatment with the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in patients with localized neuropathic pain conditions. Twenty patients with localized neuropathic pain [postoperative neuropathic pain (n = 14); complex regional pain syndrome (n = 2); and postherpetic neuralgia (n = 4)], who had been successfully treated with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster, were followed up by telephone interview after 3 and 5 years. Questions were related to the efficacy, development of tolerance, tolerability, wear time and comfort of the plaster. At 3 years, 10 out of 20 (50%) initial responders were still using the plasters with no decline in analgesic efficacy. After 5 years, eight of the original 20 responders (40%) maintained treatment and continued to experience effective pain relief. The 12 responders who discontinued treatment did so because they no longer required analgesic therapy (n = 4); their health insurer refused to fund treatment (n = 2); they were lost to follow-up (n = 1); or had died from an illness unrelated to plaster treatment (n = 5). No patient discontinued because of inadequate analgesia or intolerable side effects. Reversible erythema occurred in two patients wearing the plaster for more than 16 h. There were no systemic side effects. The 5% lidocaine medicated plaster provides sustained pain relief over long-term treatment in patients with neuropathic pain of various causes and is well tolerated.

  8. [Effect of intraoperative intravenous lidocaine on pain and plasma interleukin-6 in patients undergoing hysterectomy].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Caio Marcio Barros de; Sakata, Rioko Kimiko; Slullitel, Alexandre; Salomão, Reinaldo; Lanchote, Vera Lucia; Issy, Adriana Machado

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a predictor of trauma severity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of intravenous lidocaine on pain severity and plasma IL-6 after hysterectomy. A prospective, randomized, comparative, double-blind study with 40 patients, aged 18-60 years. G1 received lidocaine (2mg.kg(-1).h(-1)) or G2 received 0.9% saline solution during the operation. Anesthesia was induced with O2/isoflurane. Pain severity (T0: awake and 6, 12, 18 and 24hours), first analgesic request, and dose of morphine in 24hours were evaluated. IL-6 was measured before starting surgery (T0), five hours after the start (T5), and 24hours after the end of surgery (T24). There was no difference in pain severity between groups. There was a decrease in pain severity between T0 and other measurement times in G1. Time to first supplementation was greater in G2 (76.0±104.4min) than in G1 (26.7±23.3min). There was no difference in supplemental dose of morphine between G1 (23.5±12.6mg) and G2 (18.7±11.3mg). There were increased concentrations of IL-6 in both groups from T0 to T5 and T24. There was no difference in IL-6 dosage between groups. Lidocaine concentration was 856.5±364.1 ng.mL(-1) in T5 and 30.1±14.2 ng.mL(-1) in T24. Intravenous lidocaine (2mg.kg(-1).h(-1)) did not reduce pain severity and plasma levels of IL-6 in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the isoflurane-sparing effects of lidocaine infusion during umbilical surgery in calves.

    PubMed

    Vesal, Nasser; Spadavecchia, Claudia; Steiner, Adrian; Kirscher, Franziska; Levionnois, Olivier L

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the isoflurane-sparing effects of lidocaine administered by constant rate infusion (CRI) during umbilical surgery in calves. Randomized 'blinded' prospective clinical study. Thirty calves (mean 4.7 ± SD 2.5 weeks old) undergoing umbilical surgery. After premedication with xylazine (0.1 mg kg(-1) , IM), anaesthesia was induced with ketamine (4 mg kg(-1) , IV) and maintained with isoflurane in O(2) administered through a circle breathing system. The calves were assigned randomly to receive a bolus of 2 mg kg(-1) lidocaine IV after induction of anaesthesia, followed by CRI of 50 μg kg(-1) minute(-1) (group L, n=15) or a bolus and CRI of 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl, group S, n=15). End-tidal isoflurane was adjusted to achieve adequate depth of anaesthesia. Heart rate, direct arterial blood pressure and body temperature were measured intraoperatively. Groups were compared by t- tests, anova or Mann-Whitney rank sum test as appropriate. The end-tidal concentration of isoflurane (median, IQR) was significantly lower in group L [1.0% (0.94-1.1)] compared to group S [1.2% (1.1-1.5)], indicating a 16.7% reduction in anaesthetic requirement during lidocaine CRI. Cardiopulmonary parameters and recovery times did not differ significantly between groups. Lidocaine CRI may be used as a supplement to inhalation anaesthesia during umbilical surgery in calves in countries where such a protocol would be within the legal requirements for veterinary use in food animals. This study did not show any measurable benefit to the calves other than a reduction in isoflurane requirement. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2011 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  10. When local anesthesia becomes universal: Pronounced systemic effects of subcutaneous lidocaine in bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus).

    PubMed

    Williams, Catherine J A; Alstrup, Aage K O; Bertelsen, Mads F; Jensen, Heidi M; Leite, Cleo A C; Wang, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    Sodium channel blockers are commonly injected local anesthetics but are also routinely used for general immersion anesthesia in fish and amphibians. Here we report the effects of subcutaneous injection of lidocaine (5 or 50mgkg(-1)) in the hind limb of bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) on reflexes, gular respiration and heart rate (handled group, n=10) or blood pressure and heart rate via an arterial catheter (catheterized group n=6). 5mgkg(-1) lidocaine did not cause loss of reflexes or change in heart rate in the handled group, but was associated with a reduction in gular respiratory rate (from 99±7 to 81±17breathsmin(-1)). 50mgkg(-1) lidocaine caused a further reduction in respiratory rate to 59±15breathsmin(-1), and led to a progressive loss of righting reflex (10/10 loss by 40min), palpebral reflex (9/10 loss at 70min), and contralateral toe pinch withdrawal (9/10 loss at 70min). Reflexes were regained over 4h. Systemic sedative effects were not coupled to local anti-nociception, as a forceps pinch test at the site of injection provoked movement at the height of the systemic effect (tested at 81±4min). Amphibians are routinely subject to general anesthesia via exposure to sodium channel blockers such as MS222 or benzocaine, however caution should be exercised when using local injectable lidocaine in amphibians, as it appears to dose-dependently cause sedation, without necessarily preventing local nociception for the duration of systemic effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lidocaine Prevents Oxidative Stress-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction of the Systemic Artery in Rats With Intermittent Periodontal Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takumi; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Feng, Guo-Gang; Kazaoka, Yoshiaki; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    Periodontal inflammation causes endothelial dysfunction of the systemic artery. However, it is unknown whether the use of local anesthetics during painful dental procedures alleviates periodontal inflammation and systemic endothelial function. This study was designed to examine whether the gingival or systemic injection of lidocaine prevents oxidative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction of the systemic artery in rats with intermittent periodontal inflammation caused by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Some rats received 1500 µg LPS injections to the gingiva during a week interval from the age of 8 to 11 weeks (LPS group). Lidocaine (3 mg/kg), LPS + lidocaine (3 mg/kg), LPS + lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg), and LPS + lidocaine (3 mg/kg, IP) groups simultaneously received gingival 1.5 or 3 mg/kg or IP 3 mg/kg injection of lidocaine on the same schedule as the gingival LPS. Isolated aortas or mandibles were subjected to the evaluation of histopathologic change, isometric force recording, reactive oxygen species, and Western immunoblotting. Mean blood pressure and heart rate did not differ among the control, LPS, LPS + lidocaine (3 mg/kg), and lidocaine (3 mg/kg) groups. LPS application reduced acetylcholine (ACh, 10 to 10 mol/L)-induced relaxation (29% difference at ACh 3 × 10 mol/L, P = .01), which was restored by catalase. Gingival lidocaine (1.5 and 3 mg/kg) dose dependently prevented the endothelial dysfunction caused by LPS application (24.5%-31.1% difference at ACh 3 × 10 mol/L, P = .006 or .001, respectively). Similar to the gingival application, the IP injection of lidocaine (3 mg/kg) restored the ACh-induced dilation of isolated aortas from rats with the LPS application (27.5% difference at ACh 3 × 10 mol/L, P < .001). Levels of reactive oxygen species were double in aortas from the LPS group (P < .001), whereas the increment was abolished by polyethylene glycol-catalase, gingival lidocaine (3 mg/kg), or the combination. The LPS induced a 4-fold increase in the

  12. Cardiovascular Alterations After Injection of 2% Lidocaine With Norepinephrine 1:50,000 (Xylestesin) in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Faraco, Fatima Neves; Armonia, Paschoal Laercio; Malamed, Stanley F

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the cardiovascular effects produced by intravascular injection of 2% lidocaine with 20 μg/mL of norepinephrine on systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures and heart rate of rats at the following times: control period, during the injection (first 15 seconds), during the first minute, and at the end of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after drug administration. The study was performed on 13 male Wistar rats with weights between 200 grams and 220 grams that were awake during the recording of these parameters. The dose administered was proportional to 1 cartridge of local anesthetic (1.8 mL) in an average-size human, which is equivalent to 0.51 mg/kg of lidocaine hydrochloride and 0.51 μg/kg of norepinephrine hydrochloride. The average time of injection was 15.7 seconds. The results of this study showed significant increases in systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure and a noticeable decrease in heart rate. The greatest variation occurred in the systolic blood pressure. The greatest alterations occurred during injection and within the first minute following administration of the anesthetic solution. We would anticipate these changes in the parameters analyzed to be clinically significant. Thus, dentists using 2% lidocaine with norepinephrine 20 μg/mL should be very careful to avoid intravascular injection. PMID:17579502

  13. Cardiovascular alterations after injection of 2% lidocaine with norepinephrine 1:50,000 (xylestesin) in rats.

    PubMed

    Faraco, Fatima Neves; Armonia, Paschoal Laercio; Malamed, Stanley F

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the cardiovascular effects produced by intravascular injection of 2% lidocaine with 20 microg/mL of norepinephrine on systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures and heart rate of rats at the following times: control period, during the injection (first 15 seconds), during the first minute, and at the end of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after drug administration. The study was performed on 13 male Wistar rats with weights between 200 grams and 220 grams that were awake during the recording of these parameters. The dose administered was proportional to 1 cartridge of local anesthetic (1.8 mL) in an average-size human, which is equivalent to 0.51 mg/kg of lidocaine hydrochloride and 0.51 microg/kg of norepinephrine hydrochloride. The average time of injection was 15.7 seconds. The results of this study showed significant increases in systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure and a noticeable decrease in heart rate. The greatest variation occurred in the systolic blood pressure. The greatest alterations occurred during injection and within the first minute following administration of the anesthetic solution. We would anticipate these changes in the parameters analyzed to be clinically significant. Thus, dentists using 2% lidocaine with norepinephrine 20 mug/mL should be very careful to avoid intravascular injection.

  14. Pain behaviour after castration of piglets; effect of pain relief with lidocaine and/or meloxicam.

    PubMed

    Kluivers-Poodt, M; Zonderland, J J; Verbraak, J; Lambooij, E; Hellebrekers, L J

    2013-07-01

    Behavioural responses and the effect of lidocaine and meloxicam on behaviour of piglets after castration were studied. A total of 144 piglets of 2 to 5 days of age were allocated to one of six treatments: castration (CAST), castration with lidocaine (LIDO), castration with meloxicam (MELO), castration with lidocaine and meloxicam (L + M), handling (SHAM) and no handling (NONE). Behaviour was observed for 5 days after the procedure, growth until weaning was recorded and characteristics of the castration wound noted. MELO piglets showed significantly (P < 0.05) more no pain-related behaviour than CAST and LIDO at the afternoon after castration, and were not significantly different from SHAM and NONE. LIDO piglets showed an increase (P < 0.001) in tail wagging, lasting for 3 days. This increase was not seen in L + M piglets. The occurrence of several behaviours changed with age, independent of treatment. A treatment effect on growth was not found. Wound healing was rapid in all treatments, but thickening of the heal was observed in several piglets, suggesting perturbation in the cicatrization process. Our study showed a pain-relieving effect of meloxicam after castration. Local anaesthesia resulted in piglets performing more tail wagging during the first few days after castration, which was prevented by administering meloxicam in combination with local anaesthesia.

  15. Comparison of the effects of lidocaine and fentanyl in epidural anesthesia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Saritas, Z K; Saritas, T B; Pamuk, K; Korkmaz, M; Demirkan, I; Yaprakci, M V; Sivaci, R G

    2014-01-01

    The study included 12 clinically healthy, adult male dogs of various breeds, admitted to our clinic for castration. After general anesthesia with sevoflurane, we administered epidural fentanyl (1 mcg/kg) to fentanyl group, while lidocaine group was given Lidocaine (3 mg/kg) through epidural administration. When hemodynamic parameters were stabilized, first measurements were recorded at minutes 0, 15, 30, 60 in both groups, which included Heart Rate (HR), body temperature, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), glucose (GLC), and hemoglobin (HB) measurements. In addition, serum samples were obtained from arterial blood at the same measurement times, and pH, pO₂, pCO₂, HCO₃, %O₂ Saturation, BE levels were measured. For hematological analysis, WBC, RBC, HCT, THR counts were performed. For serum biochemical analysis, venous blood samples were collected at minutes 0 and 60 and CK, TP, UREA, ALT, AST, ALB, GGT, CRE, CK-MB parameters were assessed using auto-analyzer. Moreover, cortisol levels were measured in the samples collected at minutes 0, 30, and 60.Mean arterial blood pressure values measured at minutes 15, 30 and 60 were found significantly lower in the fentanyl group (p<0.01). In conclusion, we suggest that epidural anesthesia with lidocaine and fentanyl can provide an effective and safe option in high-risk groups (Tab. 5, Fig. 1, Ref. 24).

  16. Effect of Lidocaine-Ketamine Infusions Combined with Morphine or Fentanyl in Sevoflurane-Anesthetized Pigs.

    PubMed

    Re, Michela; Canfrán, Susana; Largo, Carlota; Gómez de Segura, Ignacioa A

    2016-01-01

    Providing lidocaine, ketamine, and an opioid greatly decreases the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of volatile anesthetics in dogs. However, the efficacy of this combination shows marked interspecies variation, and opioids are likely to be less effective in pigs than in other species. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of constant-rate infusion of lidocaine and ketamine combined with either morphine or fentanyl on the MAC of sevoflurane in pigs. In a prospective, randomized, crossover design, 8 healthy crossbred pigs were premedicated with ketamine and midazolam, and anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane. Pigs then received ketamine (0.6 mg/kg/h) and lidocaine (3 mg/kg/h) combined with either morphine (0.24 mg/kg/h; MLK) or fentanyl (0.0045 mg/kg/h; FLK) after a loading dose; the control group received Ringers lactate solution. The anesthetic-sparing action of the 2 infusion protocols was calculated according to the MAC, by using dewclaw clamping as the standard noxious stimulus. The sevoflurane MAC (mean ± 1 SD) was 2.0% ± 0.2%, 1.9% ± 0.4%, and 1.8% ± 0.2% in the control, MLK, and FLK groups, respectively. No differences among groups or treatments were found. In conclusion, the administration of MLK or FLK at the studied doses did not reduce the MAC of sevoflurane in pigs.

  17. [Use of intrarectal lidocaine gel in ultrasound-guided transrectal biopsies of the prostate].

    PubMed

    García Mediero, J M; Martínez-Piñeiro Lorenzo, L; Núñez Mora, C; de Fata Chillón, F Ramón; Cruz Jimeno, J L; Alonso y Gregorio, S; de la Peña Barthel, J J

    2003-01-01

    To know in a quantitative manner the degree of discomfort and pain of the biopsies of the prostate and to evaluate the effectiveness of the transrectal lidocaine. We performed 140 transrectal biopsies of the prostate, Patients were included on a random basis into two arms: one of them received intrarectal lidocaine, 20 mg (group 1, n = 71) and the other group received placebo (group 2, n = 28) both of them ten minutes prior the proceeding. The global pain mean was 3.7 (0 no pain, 10 highest pain) and the global discomfort mean was 3.5. The group 1 patients showed a trend to feel less pain and discomfort although it did not reach the necessary statistic significance (p = 0.7 y p = 0.5 respectively). We do not achieve the good results obtained by other groups in order to decrease the degree of pain and discomfort with the use of intrarectal lidocaine. We did not find relationship between the PSA level, previous biopsies, intrarectal lidocaina and degree of information received and the degree of pain and discomfort.

  18. Use of adrenalin with lidocaine in hand surgery☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas Novais Junior, Ronaldo Antonio; Bacelar Costa, Jorge Ribamar; de Morais Carmo, Jose Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Objective Because of the received wisdom within our setting that claims that local anesthesia should not be used with adrenalin in hand surgery; we conducted a study using lidocaine with adrenalin, to demonstrate its safety, utility and efficacy. Methods We conducted a prospective study in which, in wrist, hand and finger surgery performed from July 2012 onwards, we used local anesthesia compri