Science.gov

Sample records for liec tm strdt

  1. CLOMP_TM

    SciTech Connect

    Gyllenhaal, J.

    2012-06-01

    The CLOMP_TM benchmark was developed to measure the overheads of various mechanisms used to guarantee the generation of correct results in threaded code even when multiple threads might be accessing and/or updating the same memory location at the same time. This includes widely supported mechanisms like OpenMP Atomic and Open MP Critical as well as new mechanisms like Transactional Memory (TM) and Speculative Execution (SE) of threads. The CLOMP_TM benchmark is highly configurable to allow a variety of problem sizes, atomic update region sizes, and potential race condition opportunities to be studied. A wide variety of checks are done on the results to verify the expected answer was actuallyl generated. Thus CLOMP_TM can be used both to measure the overhead for various mechanisms and to check the correctness of their implementation.

  2. GEOMAG[TM] Paradoxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defrancesco, Silvia; Logiurato, Fabrizio; Karwasz, Grzegorz

    2007-01-01

    As often happens, a lot of physics can come out of a toy. What we found interesting is the observation of the magnetic field produced by different configurations built with GEOMAG[TM]. This toy provides small magnetic bars and steel spheres to play with. Amusing 3-D structures can be built; nevertheless, this possibility is not so obvious. Indeed,…

  3. The tmRNA website

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, Corey M.; Williams, Kelly P.

    2014-11-05

    We report that the transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) and its partner protein SmpB act together in resolving problems arising when translating bacterial ribosomes reach the end of mRNA with no stop codon. Their genes have been found in nearly all bacterial genomes and in some organelles. The tmRNA Website serves tmRNA sequences, alignments and feature annotations, and has recently moved to http: //bioinformatics.sandia.gov/tmrna/. New features include software used to find the sequences, an update raising the number of unique tmRNA sequences from 492 to 1716, and a database of SmpB sequences which are served along with the tmRNA sequence from the same organism.

  4. The tmRNA website

    DOE PAGES

    Hudson, Corey M.; Williams, Kelly P.

    2014-11-05

    We report that the transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) and its partner protein SmpB act together in resolving problems arising when translating bacterial ribosomes reach the end of mRNA with no stop codon. Their genes have been found in nearly all bacterial genomes and in some organelles. The tmRNA Website serves tmRNA sequences, alignments and feature annotations, and has recently moved to http: //bioinformatics.sandia.gov/tmrna/. New features include software used to find the sequences, an update raising the number of unique tmRNA sequences from 492 to 1716, and a database of SmpB sequences which are served along with the tmRNA sequence from themore » same organism.« less

  5. The tmRNA website

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Corey M.; Williams, Kelly P.

    2015-01-01

    The transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) and its partner protein SmpB act together in resolving problems arising when translating bacterial ribosomes reach the end of mRNA with no stop codon. Their genes have been found in nearly all bacterial genomes and in some organelles. The tmRNA Website serves tmRNA sequences, alignments and feature annotations, and has recently moved to http://bioinformatics.sandia.gov/tmrna/. New features include software used to find the sequences, an update raising the number of unique tmRNA sequences from 492 to 1716, and a database of SmpB sequences which are served along with the tmRNA sequence from the same organism. PMID:25378311

  6. The tmRNA website.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Corey M; Williams, Kelly P

    2015-01-01

    The transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) and its partner protein SmpB act together in resolving problems arising when translating bacterial ribosomes reach the end of mRNA with no stop codon. Their genes have been found in nearly all bacterial genomes and in some organelles. The tmRNA Website serves tmRNA sequences, alignments and feature annotations, and has recently moved to http://bioinformatics.sandia.gov/tmrna/. New features include software used to find the sequences, an update raising the number of unique tmRNA sequences from 492 to 1716, and a database of SmpB sequences which are served along with the tmRNA sequence from the same organism.

  7. Listening and Legos[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This simple exercise, performed in teams, gives students practice in listening to instructions, particularly when there are restrictions for the communication. The teams compete in a limited amount of time to build a Lego[TM] structure based on the instructions of one team member. Which team listens the best and is most successful?

  8. 75 FR 5068 - Lock + TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock + \\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIII, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications January 22, 2010. On January 8,...

  9. 75 FR 2129 - Lock+TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... January 6, 2010. On November 13, 2009, Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC filed an application, pursuant...,018 megawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Wayne F. Krouse, Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC,...

  10. Modified LaRC(TM)-IA Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, Terry L.; Chang, Alice C.; Hou, Tan H.; Working, Dennis C.

    1994-01-01

    Modified versions of thermoplastic polyimide LaRC(TM)-IA incorporate various amounts of additional, rigid moieties into backbones of LaRC(TM)-IA molecules. Modified versions more resistant to solvents and exhibit higher glass-transition temperatures, yet retain melt-flow processability of unmodified LaRC(TM)-IA.

  11. Applications of TM polarized illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Bruce; Zhou, Jianming; Xie, Peng

    2008-03-01

    The use of transverse electric (TE) polarization has dominated illumination schemes as selective polarization is used for high-NA patterning. The benefits of TE polarization are clear - the interference of diffracted beams remains absolute at oblique angles. Transverse magnetic (TM) polarization is usually considered less desirable as imaging modulation from interference at large angle falls off rapidly as the 1/cosθ. Significant potential remains, however, for the use of TM polarization at large angles when its reflection component is utilized. By controlling the resist/substrate interface reflectivity, high modulation for TM polarization can be maintained for angles up to 90° in the resist. This can potentially impact the design of illumination away from most recent TE-only schemes for oblique imaging angles (high NA). We demonstrate several cases of TM illumination combined with tuned substrate reflectivity for 0.93NA, 1.20NA, and 1.35NA and compare results to TE and unpolarized cases. The goal is to achieve a flat response through polarization at large imaging angles. An additional application of TM illumination is its potential use for double patterning. As double patterning and double exposure approaches are sought in order to meet the needs of 32nm device generations and beyond, materials and process engineering challenges become prohibitive. We have devised a method for frequency doubling in a single exposure using an unconventional means of polarization selection and by making use of the reflective component produced at the photoresist/substrate interface. In doing so, patterns can be deposited into a photoresist film with double density. As an example, using a projection system numerical aperture of 1.20, with water as an immersion fluid, and a conventional polyacrylate 193nm photoresist, pattern resolution at 20nm half-pitch are obtainable (which is 0.125lambda/NA). The process to transfer this geometry into a hardmask layer uses conventional materials

  12. Stereocorrelation of Landsat TM images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, Manfred; Welch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A digital elevation model (DEM) developed from Landsat TM images of a rugged terrain area in north Georgia by automated stereocorrelation techniques yielded an rms error (z), RMSE(z), value of + or - 42 m. Based on the B/H ratio of 0.18 for the Landsat data, this Z-error corresponds to a planimetric correlation accuracy of about + or - 0.3 pixels, confirming that precise correlation can be achieved with operational satellite data. Contours at a 100-m interval interpolated from the DEM show a deviation of + or - 33 m from reference contours obtained from existing 1:24,000-scale maps. The 28.5-m pixel resolution and the weak B/H ratio impose limitations on the accuracy that can be achieved with Landsat TM data. However, it is anticipated that RMSE(z) values of + or - 10 m or less can be achieved with SPOT-1 panchromatic stereo images of 10-m resolution recorded at B/H ratios of 0.5 to 1.0. DEMs generated by stereocorrelation techniques can be used to create orthoimages, perspective views, and topographic map products.

  13. 76 FR 48840 - Lock+TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV Riverbank Hydro No. 4, LLC; Notice of..., and Competing Applications On April 1, 2011, Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV (Hydro Friends) and... Corps of Engineers' (Corps) Lock and Dam No. 5, located on the Mississippi River near Minnesota...

  14. Luminescent and scintillation properties of YAG:Tm and YAG:Ce,Tm single crystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Gorbenko, V.; Savchyn, V.; Suchocki, A.; Wrzesinski, H.; Walczyk, K.; Fabisiak, K.; Bilski, P.; Twardak, A.

    2014-08-01

    The paper is dedicated to studying the luminescent and scintillation properties of the single crystalline films (SCF) of Tm and Tm-Ce doped Y3Al5O12 garnets grown by the liquid phase epitaxy method. We have found that the effective Tm → Ce energy transfer is observed in YAG:Ce,Tm SCF. As a result of such transfer, the scintillation light yield of YAG:Ce,Tm SCF under α-particles excitation can be large in comparison with YAG:Ce SCF counterpart.

  15. Preliminary Evaluation of TM for Soils Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Houston, A. G.; Pitts, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The capability of the LANDSAT TM for providing information for soil association maps and for detecting soil properties (variability within vegetated fields) was assessed using TM imagery of fields in Mississippi County, Arkansas that were planted with rice, cotton, and soybeans. Results indicate that the TM bands are providing information that is related to the soil properties within the field. Over large areas, these bands also appear to provide information that is related to the soil properties that are important to plant condition. While these results are only an indication of the information that TM can provide, they do indicate the TM data--especially, the mid-TR and thermal bands--show the capability for separating vegetated soil landscapes on a broad basis. The analysis at the field level with a growing crop also indicates that TM, with its additional and narrower bands and improved spatial and radiometric resolution is influenced by within field variability due to soils that has to be accounted for in the analysis of TM data.

  16. The GEMnet (TM) global data communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Byung K.; Chitty, Richard; Walters, Dave; Howard, Regan

    1995-01-01

    The GEMnet(TM) (Global Electronics Message network) will provide global digital data communications anywhere in the world at any time for minimum cost. GEMnet(TM) is an end-to-end Non-Voice Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite (NVNG) (sometimes dubbed 'Little LEO') System which consists of a constellation of 38 low Earth orbiting small satellites and a ground segment. The GEMnet(TM) ground segment will consist of subscriber user terminals, gateway stations, a Network Operational Center(NOC), and a backbone network interconnecting the NOC and gateways. This paper will describe the GEMnet(TM) system concept including ground and space segments, system heritage, data communication services, and protocols.

  17. Radiotherapy and Antiangiogenic TM in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohamed K; Miller, Meredith W; Taylor, Jeremy; Gill, Navkiranjit K; Dick, Robert D; Van Golen, Kenneth; Brewer, George J; Merajver, Sofia D

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Tetrathiomolybdate (TM) is a potent nontoxic orally delivered copper complexing agent under development for the last several years for the treatment of Wilson's disease. It has been shown to block angiogenesis in primary and metastatic tumors. Therefore, the combination of cytotoxic radiotherapy (RT) and antiangiogenic TM could target both the existing tumor and the tumor microvasculature in a comprehensive strategy. Using a Lewis lung high metastatic (LLHM) carcinoma mouse tumor model, we demonstrate that the combination of TM and RT is more effective than either used as monotherapy. We also show that their therapeutic effects are additive, with no additional toxicity. We show that TM has no significant cytotoxicity in vitro against LLHM tumor cells, further supporting the antiangiogenic mechanism for its action. PMID:11896571

  18. LaRC(TM)-IA Copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, Terry L.; Chang, Alice C.

    1995-01-01

    Copolyimides modified versions of LaRC(TM)-IA thermoplastic polyimide formulated by incorporating moieties of 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and, alternatively, isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride (IDPA) into LaRC(TM)-IA polymer backbones. Exhibit higher glass-transition temperatures and retain greater fractions of lower-temperature shear moduli at higher temperatures. Copolyimides spun into fibers or used as adhesives, molding powders, or matrix resins in many applications, especially in fabrication of strong, lightweight structural components of aircraft.

  19. Magnetic Properties of Liquid Gd-TM (TM = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Satoru; Shimakura, Hironori; Tahara, Shuta; Okada, Tatsuya

    2016-12-01

    Liquid Gd-TM (TM = Mn, Fe, Ni) alloys on the TM-rich side have relatively small and negative temperature coefficients of the magnetic susceptibility χ, which become large and negative with increasing Gd content. The large and negative temperature coefficient of χ for liquid Co gradually weakens at up to 70 at. % Co with the addition of Gd. Liquid Gd and GdcCo1-c alloys with c ≥ 0.5 also have a relatively large and negative temperature coefficient of χ. Liquid Gd-TM alloys on the Gd-rich side obey the Curie law. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Gd-Fe and Gd-Co alloys exhibit Curie-Weiss behavior on the TM-rich side. The dependence of χ on the composition for liquid Gd-TM (TM = Mn, Fe, Ni) alloys gradually increases with the Gd content, and that for liquid Gd-Co alloys has a minimum at the composition of 20 at. % Gd. The dependences of χ3d and χ4f on the composition due to the 3d- and 4f-electrons were analyzed by subtracting the corresponding data for liquid La-TM alloys from χ for the liquid Gd-TM alloys.

  20. XeF Pumped Tm:YLF Laser Scaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    FOREWARD This report describes work on the Tm3 +: YLF laser carried out by Sanders Associates between 1 April 1980 and 31 May 1981. Tm:YLF is a...fluence to deuermine whether or not the Tm3 +: YLF exhibited unanticipated loss mechanisms, , (b) Experimental demonstration of a Tm:YLU oscillator or...results to a model of a loss-less Tm:YLF amplifier.•" Tm3 + The major scaling concern for the Tm : YLF laser is the possibility of ESA (excited state

  1. QCD For Intel(R) Xeon Phi(tm) and Xeon(tm) processors

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Balint

    2014-09-11

    This library provides a library containing highly optimized Wilson-Dslash, Wilson Clover operator and Krylov subspace solvers for Lattice QCD simulations. The library is targeted at Intel(R) Xeon Phi(tm), and Intel(R) Xeon(tm) processors.

  2. Concurrent Validity of LibQUAL+[TM] Scores: What Do LibQUAL+[TM] Scores Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Cook, Colleen; Kyrillidou, Martha

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the validity of LibQUAL+[TM] scores, and specifically how total and subscale LibQUAL+[TM] scores are associated with self-reported, library-related satisfaction and outcomes scores. Participants included 88,664 students and faculty who completed the American English (n[AE] = 69,494) or the British English (n[BE] =…

  3. Cage Structure Formation of Singly Doped Aluminum Cluster Cations Al n TM + ( TM = Ti, V, Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Sandra M.; Claes, Pieterjan; Neukermans, Sven; Janssens, Ewald

    2011-09-01

    Structural information on free transition metal doped aluminum clusters, Al n TM + ( TM = Ti, V, Cr), was obtained by studying their ability for argon physisorption. Systematic size ( n = 5 - 35) and temperature ( T = 145 - 300 K) dependent investigations reveal that bare Al n + clusters are inert toward argon, while Al n TM + clusters attach one argon atom up to a critical cluster size. This size is interpreted as the geometrical transition from surface-located dopant atoms to endohedrally doped aluminum clusters with the transition metal atom residing in an aluminum cage. The critical size, n crit , is found to be surprisingly large, namely n crit = 16 and n crit = 19 - 21 for TM = V, Cr, and TM = Ti, respectively. Experimental cluster-argon bond dissociation energies have been derived as function of cluster size from equilibrium mass spectra and are in the 0.1-0.3 eV range.

  4. Modeling Cr-to-Tm and Cr-to-Tm-to-Ho energy transfer in YAG crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swetits, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic analysis of energy transfer processes in crystals of YAG doped with varying concentrations of Cr and Tm is described. Both spectral measurements and measurements of the temporal response to pulsed excitation are used to give independent determinations of the microscopic interaction parameter for Cr to Tm transfer. The different factors in influencing the temperature dependence of the Cr to Tm transfer are discussed. The dependence of the Tm cross-relaxation rate on Tm concentration is determined.

  5. The tmRDB and SRPDB resources

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Rosenblad, Magnus Alm; Larsen, Niels; Westergaard, Jesper Cairo; Burks, Jody; Wower, Iwona K.; Wower, Jacek; Gorodkin, Jan; Samuelsson, Tore; Zwieb, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Maintained at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Texas, the tmRNA database (tmRDB) is accessible at the URL with mirror sites located at Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama () and the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Denmark (). The signal recognition particle database (SRPDB) at is mirrored at and the University of Goteborg (). The databases assist in investigations of the tmRNP (a ribonucleoprotein complex which liberates stalled bacterial ribosomes) and the SRP (a particle which recognizes signal sequences and directs secretory proteins to cell membranes). The curated tmRNA and SRP RNA alignments consider base pairs supported by comparative sequence analysis. Also shown are alignments of the tmRNA-associated proteins SmpB, ribosomal protein S1, alanyl-tRNA synthetase and Elongation Factor Tu, as well as the SRP proteins SRP9, SRP14, SRP19, SRP21, SRP54 (Ffh), SRP68, SRP72, cpSRP43, Flhf, SRP receptor (alpha) and SRP receptor (beta). All alignments can be easily examined using a new exploratory browser. The databases provide links to high-resolution structures and serve as depositories for structures obtained by molecular modeling. PMID:16381838

  6. TM-align: a protein structure alignment algorithm based on the TM-score

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    We have developed TM-align, a new algorithm to identify the best structural alignment between protein pairs that combines the TM-score rotation matrix and Dynamic Programming (DP). The algorithm is ∼4 times faster than CE and 20 times faster than DALI and SAL. On average, the resulting structure alignments have higher accuracy and coverage than those provided by these most often-used methods. TM-align is applied to an all-against-all structure comparison of 10 515 representative protein chains from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) with a sequence identity cutoff <95%: 1996 distinct folds are found when a TM-score threshold of 0.5 is used. We also use TM-align to match the models predicted by TASSER for solved non-homologous proteins in PDB. For both folded and misfolded models, TM-align can almost always find close structural analogs, with an average root mean square deviation, RMSD, of 3 Å and 87% alignment coverage. Nevertheless, there exists a significant correlation between the correctness of the predicted structure and the structural similarity of the model to the other proteins in the PDB. This correlation could be used to assist in model selection in blind protein structure predictions. The TM-align program is freely downloadable at . PMID:15849316

  7. Associations with Minspeak[TM] Icons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Merwe, Elmarie; Alant, Erna

    2004-01-01

    Although the Minspeak[TM] approach is used on communication devices worldwide, little research has been conducted on its applicability within specific cultural contexts. The impact that users' familiarity of symbols and associations can have on learnability necessitates more systematic research. This study was an investigation into the…

  8. 78 FR 72922 - TSA Pre✓TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... information collection can be found in Intent To Request Approval From OMB of One New Public Collection of... TSA Pre TM Application Program will have two options. One option is to begin the application process.... Members of the public may apply to this TSA program by voluntarily providing biometric and...

  9. TE and TM pass integrated optic polarizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madaan, Divya; Kaur, Davinder; Sharma, V. K.; Kapoor, A.

    2016-05-01

    A four layer integrated optical waveguide is studied, in which a high index buffer is used along with the metal cladding. The structure can act both as TE and TM pass polarizer. We have designed it for λ=1.55 µm which corresponds to telecommunication wavelength. TiO2 is used as a buffer layer with Au as metal cladding. When metal clad optical waveguides with a high index buffer layer are used there is periodic coupling between lossless modes of waveguide and the lossy modes supported by high index buffer layer with metal clad. We present theoretical results of the effect of buffer thickness on the mode index and the losses. The TM Pass polarizer with TE and TM losses, 1029.19dB/cm and 59.67dB/cm respectively are obtained. Also, TE Pass polarizer with TM and TE losses 1444.74dB/cm and 238.51dB/cm respectively are obtained.

  10. Doors to Discovery [TM]. WWC Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Doors to Discovery[TM], an early childhood curriculum, focuses on the development of children's vocabulary and expressive and receptive language through a learning process called "shared literacy," where adults and children work together to develop literacy-related skills. Literacy activities, organized into thematic units, encourage children's…

  11. Defying Gravity Using Jenga[TM] Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Yin-Soo; Yap, Kueh-Chin

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes how Jenga[TM] blocks can be used to demonstrate the physics of an overhanging tower that appears to defy gravity. We also propose ideas for how this demonstration can be adapted for the A-level physics curriculum. (Contains 8 figures and 1 table.)

  12. The Neuroscience of PowerPoint[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Jared Cooney

    2014-01-01

    Many concepts have been published relevant to improving the design of PowerPoint[TM] (PP) presentations for didactic purposes, including the redundancy, modality, and signaling principles of multimedia learning. In this article, we review the recent neuroimaging findings that have emerged elucidating the neural structures involved in many of these…

  13. CCRS proposal for evaluating LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Cihlar, J.; Goodenough, D. G.; Guertin, F. E. (Principal Investigator); Guindon, B.; Murphy, J.; Butlin, J. M.; Duff, P.; Fitzgerald, A.; Grieve, G.

    1984-01-01

    The measurement of registration errors in LANDSAT MSS data is discussed as well as the development of a revised algorithm for the radiometric calibration of TM data and the production of a geocoded TM image.

  14. Relative radiometric calibration of LANDSAT TM reflective bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Raw thematic mapper (TM) calibration data from pre-launch tests and in-orbit acquisitions from LANDSAT 4 and 5 satellites are analyzed to assess the radiometric characteristics of the TM sensor. A software program called TM radiometric and algorithmic performance program (TRAPP) was used for the majority of analyses. Radiometric uncertainty in the final TM image originates from: (1) scene variability (solar irradiance and atmospheric scattering); (2) optical and electrical variability of the sensor; and (3) variability introduced during image processing.

  15. Investigation of loss processes of Tm and Tm,Ho in YAG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armagan, G.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Bair, C. H.; Inge, A. T.; Hess, R. V.

    1991-01-01

    The loss of excitation from various manifolds of Tm and Tm,Ho in YAG as a function of temperature and concentration is studied. Two probable loss mechanisms - a Tm up-conversion and a Ho up-conversion - are identified. A 785-nm CW diode laser with 400-nW peak power was focused to a small spot on the sample. The emission from the sample observed at 90 deg was monitored through a monochromator with slits open to 3 mm. Intensity of emission was measured by varying the power of the excitation source using a set of neutral density filters. Power is reported as the percentage of the peak power, and the intensity curves were normalized below 20 percent of transmission. The fact that there is emission above the pump energy indicates an up-conversion from excited manifolds. Nonlinear changes in the intensity of the emission from the Tm 3F4 manifold with the pump power reveals a loss of excitation from this manifold. The linear dependence of the 5I7 manifold emission with pump power at low Tm and high Ho concentrations and the gain of energy in the 5I6 manifold of Ho indicate that the 5I7 manifold loss is due to the coupling of Tm and Ho ions.

  16. Reliability and Validity of the Zephyr[TM] BioHarness[TM] to Measure Respiratory Responses to Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailstone, Jono; Kilding, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    The Zephyr[TM] BioHarness[TM] (Zephyr Technology, Auckland, New Zealand) is a wireless physiological monitoring system that has the ability to measure respiratory rate unobtrusively. However, the ability of the BioHarness[TM] to accurately and reproducibly determine respiratory rate across a range of intensities is currently unknown. The aim of…

  17. Evaluating LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Cihlar, J.; Goodenough, D. G.; Guertin, F. E. (Principal Investigator); Murphy, J. M.; Grieve, G.; Simard, R.; Horler, D.; Ahern, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    Interband line pixel misregistrations were determined for the four MSS bands of the Mistassini, Ontario scene and multitemporal registration of LANDSAT-4 products were tested for two different geocoded scenes. Line and pixel misregistrations are tabulated as determined by the manual ground control points and the digital band to band correlation techniques. A method was developed for determining the spectral information content of TM images for forestry applications.

  18. Cryogenic Tm:YAP microchip laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubka, Zbyněk.; Å ulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena; Nejezchleb, Karel; Å koda, Václav

    2016-04-01

    The spectral characteristics of laser active media, and thus those of the laser output, are temperature dependent. Specifically, in almost every crystal host, cooling to low temperatures leads to better heat removal, a higher efficiency and output power, and a reduced lasing threshold. Tm-ion doped lasers have an emission wavelength around 2 μm and are important in medicine for soft tissue cutting and hemostasis, as well as in LIDAR or atmosphere sensing technology. This paper presents the performance-temperature dependency of a 4 at. % doped Tm:YAP microchip. During the experiment the Tm:YAP crystal was placed inside an evacuated liquid nitrogen cryostat on a cooling finger. As its temperature was varied from 80 K to 340 K, changes were observed in the absorption spectrum, ranging from 750 nm to 2000 nm and in the fluorescence spectrum from 1600 nm to 2050 nm. Fluorescence lifetime was seen to rise and fall with decreasing temperature. The laser was pumped by a 792 nm laser diode and at 80 K the maximum output peak power of the laser was 4.6 W with 23 % slope efficiency and 0.6 W threshold, compared to 2.4 W output peak power, 13 % slope efficiency and 3.3 W threshold when at 340 K. The laser emission wavelength changed from 1883 nm to 1993 nm for 80 K and 300 K, respectively.

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of TM for Soils Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Houston, A. G.; Pitts, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    Thematic mapper data acquired over Mississippi County, Arkansas, were examined for utility in separating soil associations within generally level alluvium deposited by the Mississippi River. The 0.76 to 0.90 micron (Band 4) and the 1.55 to 1.75 micron (Band 5) were found to separate the different soil associations fairly well when compared to the USDA-SCS general soil map. The thermal channel also appeared to provide information at this level. A detailed soil survey was available at the field level along with ground observations of crop type, plant height, percent cover and growth stage. Soils within the fields ranged from uniform to soils that occur as patches of sand that stand out strongly against the intermingled areas of dark soil. Examination of the digital values of individual TM bands at the field level indicates that the influence of the soil is greater in TM than it was in MSS bands. The TM appears to provide greater detail of within field variability caused by soils than MSS and thus should provide improved information relating to crop and soil properties. However, this soil influence may cause crop identification classification procedures to have to account for the soil in their algorithms.

  20. A quantum Monte Carlo study of mono(benzene) TM and bis(benzene) TM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, M. Chandler; Kulahlioglu, A. H.; Mitas, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present a study of mono(benzene) TM and bis(benzene) TM systems, where TM = {Mo, W}. We calculate the binding energies by quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) approaches and compare the results with other methods and available experiments. The orbitals for the determinantal part of each trial wave function were generated from several types of DFT functionals in order to optimize for fixed-node errors. We estimate and compare the size of the fixed-node errors for both the Mo and W systems with regard to the electron density and degree of localization in these systems. For the W systems we provide benchmarking results of the binding energies, given that experimental data is not available.

  1. TE/TM Simulations of Interferometric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houshmand, Bijan

    2000-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) measurements at X-, C-, L-, and P-band are used to derive ground topography at meter level resolution. Interpretation of the derived topography requires attention due to the complex interaction of the radar signal with ground cover. The presence of penetrable surfaces such as vegetation, and tree canopies poses a challenge since the depth of penetration depends on a number of parameters such as the operating radar frequency, polarization, incident angle, as well as terrain structure. The dependence of the reconstructed topography on polarization may lead to the characterization of the ground cover. Simulation of interferometric measurements is useful for interpretation of the derived topography (B. Houshmand, Proceedings of URSI, 314, 1997). In this talk , time domain simulations for interferometric measurement for TE- and TM- polarization are presented. Time domain simulation includes the effects of the surface material property as well geometry comparable the radar signal wavelength (B. Houshmand, Proceedings of the URSI, 25, 1998). The IFSAR simulation is carried out in two steps. First, the forward scattering data is generated based on full wave analysis. Next, the electromagnetic information is inverted to generate surface topography. This inversion is based on the well known IFSAR processing technique which is composed of signal compression, and formation of an interferogram. The full wave forward scattering data is generated by the scattered-field formulation of the FDTD algorithm. The simulation is carried out by exciting the computational domain by a radar signal. The scattered field is then computed and translated to the receiving interferometric antennas using the time-domain Huygen's principle. The inversion process starts by compressing the time-domain data. The range compressed data from both receivers are then coregistered to form an interferogram. The resulting interferogram is then related to the

  2. Graphing Calculators, the CBL2[TM] and TI-Interactive[TM] in High School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Bill

    This collection of activities is designed to show how TI-Interactive[TM] and Calculator-based Laboratories (CBL) can be used to explore topics in high school science. The activities address such topics as specific heat, Boyle's Law, Newton's Law of Cooling, and Antarctic Ozone Levels. Teaching notes and calculator instructions are included as are…

  3. Optical Properties of Tm(3+) Ions in Alkali Germanate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.; Barnes, Norman P.; Reichle, Donald J.; Jiang, Shibin

    2006-01-01

    Tm-doped alkali germanate glass is investigated for use as a laser material. Spectroscopic investigations of bulk Tm-doped germanate glass are reported for the absorption, emission and luminescence decay. Tm:germanate shows promise as a fiber laser when pumped with 0.792 m diodes because of low phonon energies. Spectroscopic analysis indicates low nonradiative quenching and pulsed laser performance studies confirm this prediction by showing a quantum efficiency of 1.69.

  4. Triaxial Superdeformed Bands in ^163Tm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattabiraman, N. S.; Ghugre, S. S.; Garg, Umesh; Li, T.; Nayak, B. K.; Zhu, S.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Janssens, R. V. F.

    2002-10-01

    Following the recent discovery of triaxial superdeformation bands in the Z = 71, 72 nuclei [1,2], we have investigated the Z = 69 nucleus ^163 Tm using the reaction ^130 Te( ^37 Cl, 4n) ^163 Tm with a beam energy of 170 MeV. Gamma-ray spectroscopy was performed using the Gammasphere array at LBNL. The data were sorted into a hypercube. The preliminary results have indicated two bands with δ E _γ 60 keV above the previously known 5286 keV, 49/2^- state. These bands appear to talk to one another. It may be recalled that evidence for wobbling motion has recently been reported in the isobaric nucleus ^163 Lu The detailed experimental results and comparisons with the neighboring nuclei will be presented. [1] H. Amro et al, Phys. Lett. B 506, 39(2001). [2] G. Schonwasser eet al., Eur. Phys. J. A13, 291(2002). [3] D. R. Jensen et al, Nucl. Phys. A 703, 3 (2002).

  5. High-power diode-pumped Tm:YLF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellhorn, M.

    2008-04-01

    A high-power, continuous-wave 3.5% Tm3+ doped LiYF4 (Tm:YLF) laser has been developed. Using two Tm:YLF rods in a single cavity, 55 W of laser output at 1910 nm was obtained with a slope efficiency of 49%. The M2 factor was found to be <3. With a single Tm:YLF rod, a maximum laser power of 30 W was obtained with a slope efficiency of 50%. The laser was tuned to the peak absorption wavelength of Ho:YAG of 1907.5 nm by an intracavity quartz etalon with an output power loss < 1 W.

  6. Mechanism of tantalum adhesion on SiLK{sup TM}

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Yue; Yang Shuowang; Chen Xiantong; Lu Dong; Feng Yuanping; Wu Ping

    2005-09-19

    Tantalum adhesion on SiLK{sup TM} was investigated using first-principles method based on density functional theory. Phenylene groups were found to play a major role and the adjacent semi-benzene rings also contribute significantly to Ta adhesion on SiLK{sup TM}. In addition, the degradation effects of H{sub 2}/He reactive plasma clean on Ta adhesion on SiLK{sup TM} was investigated. Based on our findings, argon plasma treatment was suggested and implemented after reactive plasma cleaning process, which resulted in integration of SiLK{sup TM} with Cu up to seven metal layers.

  7. Accelerated Math[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Accelerated Math"[TM], published by Renaissance Learning, is a software tool used to customize assignments and monitor progress in math for students in grades 1-12. The "Accelerated Math"[TM] software creates individualized assignments aligned with state standards and national guidelines, scores student work, and generates…

  8. Full Immersive Virtual Environment Cave[TM] in Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limniou, M.; Roberts, D.; Papadopoulos, N.

    2008-01-01

    By comparing two-dimensional (2D) chemical animations designed for computer's desktop with three-dimensional (3D) chemical animations designed for the full immersive virtual reality environment CAVE[TM] we studied how virtual reality environments could raise student's interest and motivation for learning. By using the 3ds max[TM], we can visualize…

  9. Disability Awareness Night[TM]: 2006 Honorees, Sponsors, Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the 2006 honorees, sponsors, and teams for the Disability Awareness Night[TM]. Disability Awareness Night[TM] is a unique and powerful community outreach program. Its vision is to continue to raise awareness outside of the community of individuals with disabilities to continue the goal that this program will open doors to…

  10. Social Stories[TM]: A Possible Theoretical Rationale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynhout, Georgina; Carter, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Social Stories[TM] are an intervention widely used with individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This paper discusses a possible theoretical rationale that might account for the purported efficacy of Social Stories[TM]. Attributes of individuals with ASD in relation to Social Story intervention including difficulties with theory of mind…

  11. 75 FR 61480 - Cobscook Bay OCGenTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cobscook Bay OCGen\\TM\\ Power; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Cobscook Bay OCGen\\TM\\ Power Project, located in the Cobscook Bay, near the City of Eastport, Washington...

  12. Relative radiometric calibration of LANDSAT TM reflective bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    A common scientific methodology and terminology is outlined for characterizing the radiometry of both TM sensors. The magnitude of the most significant sources of radiometric variability are discussed and methods are recommended for achieving the exceptional potential inherent in the radiometric precision and accuracy of the TM sensors.

  13. Doors to Discovery[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Doors to Discovery"[TM] is an early childhood curriculum that uses thematic units to engage young children and support them as they build an understanding of their world. "Doors to Discovery"[TM] literacy activities are used to encourage children's development in a number of areas identified by research as the foundation for…

  14. Utilising eduroam[TM] Architecture in Building Wireless Community Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huhtanen, Karri; Vatiainen, Heikki; Keski-Kasari, Sami; Harju, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: eduroam[TM] has already been proved to be a scalable, secure and feasible way for universities and research institutions to connect their wireless networks into a WLAN roaming community, but the advantages of eduroam[TM] have not yet been fully discovered in the wireless community networks aimed at regular consumers. This aim of this…

  15. Accelerated Reader[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Accelerated Reader"[TM] is a guided reading intervention used to supplement regular reading instruction in K-12 classrooms. Its aim is to improve students' reading skills through reading practice and quizzes on the books students read. The "Accelerated Reader"[TM] program calls for students to select and read a book and then…

  16. Structural features of the tmRNA-ribosome interaction.

    PubMed

    Bugaeva, Elizaveta Y; Surkov, Serhiy; Golovin, Andrey V; Ofverstedt, Lars-Göran; Skoglund, Ulf; Isaksson, Leif A; Bogdanov, Alexey A; Shpanchenko, Olga V; Dontsova, Olga A

    2009-12-01

    Trans-translation is a process which switches the synthesis of a polypeptide chain encoded by a nonstop messenger RNA to the mRNA-like domain of a transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA). It is used in bacterial cells for rescuing the ribosomes arrested during translation of damaged mRNA and directing this mRNA and the product polypeptide for degradation. The molecular basis of this process is not well understood. Earlier, we developed an approach that allowed isolation of tmRNA-ribosomal complexes arrested at a desired step of tmRNA passage through the ribosome. We have here exploited it to examine the tmRNA structure using chemical probing and cryo-electron microscopy tomography. Computer modeling has been used to develop a model for spatial organization of the tmRNA inside the ribosome at different stages of trans-translation.

  17. Structural features of the tmRNA–ribosome interaction

    PubMed Central

    Bugaeva, Elizaveta Y.; Surkov, Serhiy; Golovin, Andrey V.; Öfverstedt, Lars-Göran; Skoglund, Ulf; Isaksson, Leif A.; Bogdanov, Alexey A.; Shpanchenko, Olga V.; Dontsova, Olga A.

    2009-01-01

    Trans-translation is a process which switches the synthesis of a polypeptide chain encoded by a nonstop messenger RNA to the mRNA-like domain of a transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA). It is used in bacterial cells for rescuing the ribosomes arrested during translation of damaged mRNA and directing this mRNA and the product polypeptide for degradation. The molecular basis of this process is not well understood. Earlier, we developed an approach that allowed isolation of tmRNA–ribosomal complexes arrested at a desired step of tmRNA passage through the ribosome. We have here exploited it to examine the tmRNA structure using chemical probing and cryo-electron microscopy tomography. Computer modeling has been used to develop a model for spatial organization of the tmRNA inside the ribosome at different stages of trans-translation. PMID:19861420

  18. Renal threshold phosphate concentration (TmPO4/GFR).

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, K; Kracht, U; Göpfert, G

    1982-01-01

    The ratio of maximum rate of renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate to glomerular filtration rate (TmPO4/GFR) was determined in 546 schoolchildren, aged between 6 and 17.9 years, using the nomogram of Walton and Bijvoet.1 TmPO4/GFR correlated with chronological age in girls and boys and in each remained significantly higher than in adults. TmPO4/GFR in the children correlated neither with fasting serum immunoreactive calcitonin and parathyroid hormone levels nor with the urinary cyclic AMP excretion. The study showed a parallel decrease in TmPO4/GFR, excretion of total hydroxyproline and serum alkaline phosphatase activities after puberty, with a significant relationship of both these indices of bone turnover to TmPO4/GFR values. This indicates that the high renal phosphate threshold of children may be an important factor for bone mineralisation by providing high extracellular inorganic phosphate concentrations during normal growth. PMID:6280622

  19. Registratiom of TM data to digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Several problems arise when attempting to register LANDSAT thematic mapper data to U.S. B Geological Survey digital elevation models (DEMs). The TM data are currently available only in a rotated variant of the Space Oblique Mercator (SOM) map projection. Geometric transforms are thus; required to access TM data in the geodetic coordinates used by the DEMs. Due to positional errors in the TM data, these transforms require some sort of external control. The spatial resolution of TM data exceeds that of the most commonly DEM data. Oversampling DEM data to TM resolution introduces systematic noise. Common terrain processing algorithms (e.g., close computation) compound this problem by acting as high-pass filters.

  20. Triaxial strongly deformed bands in {sup 160,161}Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Teal, C.; Lagergren, K.; Aguilar, A.; Riley, M. A.; Hartley, D. J.; Simpson, J.; Joss, D. T.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Zhu, S.; Garg, U.; Kondev, F. G.; Wang, X.; Ragnarsson, I.

    2008-07-15

    High-spin states in {sup 160,161}Tm were populated using the {sup 128}Te({sup 37}Cl, 5n and 4n) reactions at a beam energy of 170 MeV. Emitted {gamma} rays were detected in the Gammasphere spectrometer. Two rotational bands with high moments of inertia were discovered, one assigned to {sup 160}Tm, while the other tentatively assigned to {sup 161}Tm. These sequences display features similar to bands observed in neighboring Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu nuclei which have been discussed in terms of triaxial strongly deformed structures. Cranked Nilsson Strutinsky calculations have been performed that predict well-deformed triaxial shapes at high spin in {sup 160,161}Tm.

  1. Intracellular distribution of TM4SF1 and internalization of TM4SF1-antibody complex in vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sciuto, Tracey E.; Merley, Anne; Lin, Chi-Iou; Richardson, Douglas; Liu, Yu; Li, Dan; Dvorak, Ann M.; Dvorak, Harold F.; Jaminet, Shou-Ching S.

    2015-09-25

    Transmembrane-4 L-six family member-1 (TM4SF1) is a small plasma membrane-associated glycoprotein that is highly and selectively expressed on the plasma membranes of tumor cells, cultured endothelial cells, and, in vivo, on tumor-associated endothelium. Immunofluorescence microscopy also demonstrated TM4SF1 in cytoplasm and, tentatively, within nuclei. With monoclonal antibody 8G4, and the finer resolution afforded by immuno-nanogold transmission electron microscopy, we now demonstrate TM4SF1 in uncoated cytoplasmic vesicles, nuclear pores and nucleoplasm. Because of its prominent surface location on tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelium, TM4SF1 has potential as a dual therapeutic target using an antibody drug conjugate (ADC) approach. For ADC to be successful, antibodies reacting with cell surface antigens must be internalized for delivery of associated toxins to intracellular targets. We now report that 8G4 is efficiently taken up into cultured endothelial cells by uncoated vesicles in a dynamin-dependent, clathrin-independent manner. It is then transported along microtubules through the cytoplasm and passes through nuclear pores into the nucleus. These findings validate TM4SF1 as an attractive candidate for cancer therapy with antibody-bound toxins that have the capacity to react with either cytoplasmic or nuclear targets in tumor cells or tumor-associated vascular endothelium. - Highlights: • Anti-TM4SF1 antibody 8G4 was efficiently taken up by cultured endothelial cells. • TM4SF1–8G4 internalization is dynamin-dependent but clathrin-independent. • TM4SF1–8G4 complexes internalize along microtubules to reach the perinuclear region. • Internalized TM4SF1–8G4 complexes pass through nuclear pores into the nucleus. • TM4SF1 is an attractive candidate for ADC cancer therapy.

  2. Upconversion processes in Yb-sensitized Tm:ZBLAN

    SciTech Connect

    Carrig, T.J.; Cockroft, N.J.

    1996-10-01

    A spectroscopic study of 22 rare-earth-ion doped ZBLAN (fluorozirconate) glass was done to study feasibility of sensitizing Tm:ZBLAN with Yb to facilitate development of an efficient, conveniently pumped blue upconversion fiber laser. it was found that, under single-color pumping, 480 nm emission from Tm{sup 3+} was strongest when Yb,Tm:ZBLAN is excited at 975 nm; the strongest blue blue emission was obtained from a glass sample with 2.0 wt% Yb + 0.3 wt% Tm. Also, for weak 975 nm pump intensities, strength of blue upconversion emission can be greatly enhanced by simultaneously pumping at 785 nm. This increased upconversion efficiency is due to reduced number of energy transfer steps needed to populate the Tm{sup 3+} {sup 1}G{sub 4} energy level. Measurements of fluorescence lifetimes vs dopant concentration were also made for Yb{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}, and Pr{sup 3+} transitions in ZBLAN in order to better characterize concentration quenching effects. Energy transfer between Tm{sup 3+} and Pr{sup 3+} in ZBLAN is also described.

  3. Ends of the line for tmRNA-SmpB

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, Corey M.; Lau, Britney Y.; Williams, Kelly P.

    2014-08-13

    Genes for the RNA tmRNA and protein SmpB, partners in the trans-translation process that rescues stalled ribosomes, have previously been found in all bacteria and some organelles. We validate recent identification of tmRNA homologs in oomycete mitochondria by finding partner genes from oomycete nuclei that target SmpB to the mitochondrion. Exhaustive search now identifies a small number of complete, often highly derived, bacterial genomes that appear to lack a functional copy of one or the other partner gene (but not both). Three groups with reduced genomes have lost the central loop of SmpB, which is thought to improve alanylation and EF-Tu activation: Carsonella, Hodgkinia and the hemplasmas (hemotropic Mycoplasma). Carsonella has also lost the SmpB C-terminal tail, thought to stimulate the decoding center of the ribosome. Carsonella moreover exhibits gene overlap such that tmRNA maturation should produce a non-stop smpB mRNA, and one isolate exhibits complete degradation of the tmRNA gene yet its smpB shows no evidence for relaxed selective constraint. After loss of the SmpB central loop in the hemoplasmas, a subclade apparently lost tmRNA. At least some of the tmRNA/SmpB-deficient strains appear to further lack the ArfA and ArfB backup systems for ribosome rescue. The most frequent neighbors of smpB are the tmRNA gene, a ratA/rnfH unit, and the gene for RNaseR, a known physical and functional partner of tmRNA-SmpB. The tmRNA Website has moved and been updated, adding an SmpB sequence database (http://bioinformatics.sandia.gov/tmrna).

  4. Ends of the line for tmRNA-SmpB

    DOE PAGES

    Hudson, Corey M.; Lau, Britney Y.; Williams, Kelly P.

    2014-08-13

    Genes for the RNA tmRNA and protein SmpB, partners in the trans-translation process that rescues stalled ribosomes, have previously been found in all bacteria and some organelles. We validate recent identification of tmRNA homologs in oomycete mitochondria by finding partner genes from oomycete nuclei that target SmpB to the mitochondrion. Exhaustive search now identifies a small number of complete, often highly derived, bacterial genomes that appear to lack a functional copy of one or the other partner gene (but not both). Three groups with reduced genomes have lost the central loop of SmpB, which is thought to improve alanylation andmore » EF-Tu activation: Carsonella, Hodgkinia and the hemplasmas (hemotropic Mycoplasma). Carsonella has also lost the SmpB C-terminal tail, thought to stimulate the decoding center of the ribosome. Carsonella moreover exhibits gene overlap such that tmRNA maturation should produce a non-stop smpB mRNA, and one isolate exhibits complete degradation of the tmRNA gene yet its smpB shows no evidence for relaxed selective constraint. After loss of the SmpB central loop in the hemoplasmas, a subclade apparently lost tmRNA. At least some of the tmRNA/SmpB-deficient strains appear to further lack the ArfA and ArfB backup systems for ribosome rescue. The most frequent neighbors of smpB are the tmRNA gene, a ratA/rnfH unit, and the gene for RNaseR, a known physical and functional partner of tmRNA-SmpB. The tmRNA Website has moved and been updated, adding an SmpB sequence database (http://bioinformatics.sandia.gov/tmrna).« less

  5. Review of Tm and Ho Materials; Spectroscopy and Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.

    2008-01-01

    A review of Tm and Ho materials is presented, covering some fundamental aspects on the spectroscopy and laser dynamics in both single and co-doped systems. Following an introduction to 2- m lasers, applications and historical development, the physics of quasi-four level lasers, energy transfer and modeling are discussed in some detail. Recent developments in using Tm lasers to pump Ho lasers are discussed, and seen to offer some advantages over conventional Tm:Ho lasers. This article is not intended as a complete review, but as a primer for introducing concepts and a resource for further study.

  6. Tm:germanate Fiber Laser: Tuning And Q-switching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Walsh, Brian M.; Reichle, Donald J.; DeYoung, R. J.; Jiang, Shibin

    2007-01-01

    A Tm:germanate fiber laser produced >0.25 mJ/pulse in a 45 ns pulse. It is capable of producing multiple Q-switched pulses from a single p ump pulse. With the addition of a diffraction grating, Tm:germanate f iber lasers produced a wide, but length dependent, tuning range. By s electing the fiber length, the tuning range extends from 1.88 to 2.04 ?m. These traits make Tm:germanate lasers suitable for remote sensin g of water vapor.

  7. Quasi four-level Tm:LuAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jani, Mahendra G. (Inventor); Barnes, Norman P. (Inventor); Hutcheson, Ralph L. (Inventor); Rodriguez, Waldo J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A quasi four-level solid-state laser is provided. A laser crystal is disposed in a laser cavity. The laser crystal has a LuAG-based host material doped to a final concentration between about 2% and about 7% thulium (Tm) ions. For the more heavily doped final concentrations, the LuAG-based host material is a LuAG seed crystal doped with a small concentration of Tm ions. Laser diode arrays are disposed transversely to the laser crystal for energizing the Tm ions.

  8. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in Tm{sup 3+}:YAG

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A. L.; Lauro, R.; Louchet, A.; Chaneliere, T.; Le Goueet, J. L.

    2008-10-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a Tm{sup 3+}:YAG crystal. Tm{sup 3+}:YAG is a promising material for use in quantum information processing applications, but as yet there are few experimental investigations of coherent Raman processes in this material. We investigate the effect of inhomogeneous broadening and Rabi frequency on the transfer efficiency and the width of the two-photon spectrum. Simulations of the complete Tm{sup 3+}:YAG system are presented along with the corresponding experimental results.

  9. ASTROCULTURE (TM) root metabolism and cytochemical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Barta, D. J.; Ming, D. W.; Morrow, R. C.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Physiology of the root system is dependent upon oxygen availability and tissue respiration. During hypoxia nutrient and water acquisition may be inhibited, thus affecting the overall biochemical and physiological status of the plant. For the Astroculture (TM) plant growth hardware, the availability of oxygen in the root zone was measured by examining the changes in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity within the root tissue. ADH activity is a sensitive biochemical indicator of hypoxic conditions in plants and was measured in both spaceflight and control roots. In addition to the biochemical enzyme assays, localization of ADH in the root tissue was examined cytochemically. The results of these analyses showed that ADH activity increased significantly as a result of spaceflight exposure. Enzyme activity increased 248% to 304% in dwarf wheat when compared with the ground controls and Brassica showed increases between 334% and 579% when compared with day zero controls. Cytochemical staining revealed no differences in ADH tissue localization in any of the dwarf wheat treatments. These results show the importance of considering root system oxygenation in designing and building nutrient delivery hardware for spaceflight plant cultivation and confirm previous reports of an ADH response associated with spaceflight exposure.

  10. Coinage metals binding as main group elements: structure and bonding of the carbene complexes [TM(cAAC)2] and [TM(cAAC)2](+) (TM = Cu, Ag, Au).

    PubMed

    Jerabek, Paul; Roesky, Herbert W; Bertrand, Guy; Frenking, Gernot

    2014-12-10

    Quantum chemical calculations using density functional theory have been carried out for the cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbene (cAAC) complexes of the group 11 atoms [TM(cAAC)2] (TM = Cu, Ag, Au) and their cations [TM(cAAC)2](+). The nature of the metal-ligand bonding was investigated with the charge and energy decomposition analysis EDA-NOCV. The calculations show that the TM-C bonds in the charged adducts [TM(cAAC)2](+) are significantly longer than in the neutral complexes [TM(cAAC)2], but the cations have much higher bond dissociation energies than the neutral molecules. The intrinsic interaction energies ΔEint in [TM(cAAC)2](+) take place between TM(+) in the (1)S electronic ground state and (cAAC)2. In contrast, the metal-ligand interactions in [TM(cAAC)2] involve the TM atoms in the excited (1)P state yielding strong TM p(π) → (cAAC)2 π backdonation, which is absent in the cations. The calculations suggest that the cAAC ligands in [TM(cAAC)2] are stronger π acceptors than σ donors. The trends of the intrinsic interaction energies and the bond dissociation energies of the metal-ligand bonds in [TM(cAAC)2] and [TM(cAAC)2](+) give the order Au > Cu > Ag. Calculations at the nonrelativistic level give weaker TM-C bonds, particularly for the gold complexes. The trend for the bond strength in the neutral and charged adducts without relativistic effects becomes Cu > Ag > Au. The EDA-NOCV calculations suggest that the weaker bonds at the nonrelativistic level are mainly due to stronger Pauli repulsion and weaker orbital interactions. The NBO picture of the C-TM-C bonding situation does not correctly represent the nature of the metal-ligand interactions in [TM(cAAC)2].

  11. Todd Moore d/b/a TM Construction Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Todd Moore d/b/a TM Construction (the Company) is located in St. Louis, Missouri. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a residential property constructed prior to 1978, located in St. Louis, Missouri.

  12. DigitalGlobe(TM) Incorporated Corporate and System Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomassie, Brett

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a system update of Quickbird, the world's highest resolution commercial imaging satellite, operated by DigitalGlobe (TM) Incorporated. A satellite comparison of Quickbird, WorldView-60, and WorldView-110 is also presented.

  13. Measurement of the 169Tm (n ,3 n ) 167Tm cross section and the associated branching ratios in the decay of 167Tm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champine, B.; Gooden, M. E.; Krishichayan, Norman, E. B.; Scielzo, N. D.; Stoyer, M. A.; Thomas, K. J.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Wang, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    The cross section for the 169Tm(n ,3 n ) 167Tm reaction was measured from 17 to 22 MeV using quasimonoenergetic neutrons produced by the 2H(d ,n ) 3He reaction. This energy range was studied to resolve the discrepancy between previous (n ,3 n ) cross-section measurements. In addition, the absolute γ -ray branching ratios following the electron-capture decay of 167Tm were measured. These results provide more reliable nuclear data for an important diagnostic that is used at the National Ignition Facility to estimate the yield of reaction-in-flight neutrons produced via the inertial-confinement-fusion plasma in deuterium-tritium capsules.

  14. Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Ho:Tm:LuAG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Filer, Elizabeth D.; Naranjo, Felipe L.; Rodriguez, Waldo J.; Kokta, Milan R.

    1993-01-01

    Ho:Tm:LuAG has been grown, examined spectroscopically, and lased at 2.1 microns. Ho:Tm:LuAG was selected for this experimental investigation when quantum-mechanical modeling predicted that it would be a good laser material for Ho laser operation on one of the 5I7 to 5I8 transitions. Lasing was achieved at 2.100 microns, one of the three wavelengths predicted to be most probable for laser action.

  15. Flashlamp-pumped Ho:Tm:Cr:LuAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jani, Mahendra G. (Inventor); Barnes, Norman P. (Inventor); Murray, Keith E. (Inventor); Kokta, Milan R. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A room temperature solid-state laser is provided. A laser crystal is disposed in a laser cavity. The laser crystal has a LuAG host material doped with a concentration of about 0.35% Ho ions, about 5.57% Tm ions and at least about 1.01% Cr ions. A broadband energizing source such as a flashlamp is disposed transversely to the laser crystal to energize the Ho ions, Tm ions and Cr ions.

  16. Traffic at the tmRNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kelly P.

    2003-01-01

    A partial screen for genetic elements integrated into completely sequenced bacterial genomes shows more significant bias in specificity for the tmRNA gene (ssrA) than for any type of tRNA gene. Horizontal gene transfer, a major avenue of bacterial evolution, was assessed by focusing on elements using this single attachment locus. Diverse elements use ssrA; among enterobacteria alone, at least four different integrase subfamilies have independently evolved specificity for ssrA, and almost every strain analyzed presents a unique set of integrated elements. Even elements using essentially the same integrase can be very diverse, as is a group with an ssrA-specific integrase of the P4 subfamily. This same integrase appears to promote damage routinely at attachment sites, which may be adaptive. Elements in arrays can recombine; one such event mediated by invertible DNA segments within neighboring elements likely explains the monophasic nature of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. One of a limited set of conserved sequences occurs at the attachment site of each enterobacterial element, apparently serving as a transcriptional terminator for ssrA. Elements were usually found integrated into tRNA-like sequence at the 3′ end of ssrA, at subsites corresponding to those used in tRNA genes; an exception was found at the non-tRNA-like 3′ end produced by ssrA gene permutation in cyanobacteria, suggesting that, during the evolution of new site specificity by integrases, tropism toward a conserved 3′ end of an RNA gene may be as strong as toward a tRNA-like sequence. The proximity of ssrA and smpB, which act in concert, was also surveyed. PMID:12533482

  17. A randomised trial comparing the i-gel (TM) with the LMA Classic (TM) in children.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-R; Kim, M-S; Kim, J-T; Byon, H-J; Park, Y-H; Kim, H-S; Kim, C-S

    2012-06-01

    We performed a prospective, randomised trial comparing the i-gel(TM) with the LMA Classic(TM) in children undergoing general anaesthesia. Ninety-nine healthy patients were randomly assigned to either the i-gel or the LMA Classic. The outcomes measured were airway leak pressure, ease of insertion, time taken for insertion, fibreoptic examination and complications. Median (IQR [range]) time to successful device placement was shorter with the i-gel (17.0 (13.8-20.0 [10.0-20.0]) s) compared with the LMA Classic (21.0 (17.5-25.0 [15.0-70.0]) s, p = 0.002). There was no significant difference in oropharyngeal leak pressure between the two devices. A good fibreoptic view of the glottis was obtained in 74% of the i-gel group and in 43% of the LMA Classic group (p < 0.001). There were no significant complications. In conclusion, the i-gel provided a similar leak pressure, but a shorter insertion time and improved glottic view compared with the LMA Classic in children.

  18. Chemotaxis of Silicibacter sp. Strain TM1040 toward Dinoflagellate Products†

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Todd R.; Hnilicka, Kristin; Dziedzic, Amanda; Desplats, Paula; Belas, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The α-proteobacteria phylogenetically related to the Roseobacter clade are predominantly responsible for the degradation of organosulfur compounds, including the algal osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). Silicibacter sp. strain TM1040, isolated from a DMSP-producing Pfiesteria piscicida dinoflagellate culture, degrades DMSP, producing 3-methylmercaptopropionate. TM1040 possesses three lophotrichous flagella and is highly motile, leading to a hypothesis that TM1040 interacts with P. piscicida through a chemotactic response to compounds produced by its dinoflagellate host. A combination of a rapid chemotaxis screening assay and a quantitative capillary assay were used to measure chemotaxis of TM1040. These bacteria are highly attracted to dinoflagellate homogenates; however, the response decreases when homogenates are preheated to 80°C. To help identify the essential attractant molecules within the homogenates, a series of pure compounds were tested for their ability to serve as attractants. The results show that TM1040 is strongly attracted to amino acids and DMSP metabolites, while being only mildly responsive to sugars and the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Adding pure DMSP, methionine, or valine to the chemotaxis buffer resulted in a decreased response to the homogenates, indicating that exogenous addition of these chemicals blocks chemotaxis and suggesting that DMSP and amino acids are essential attractant molecules in the dinoflagellate homogenates. The implication of Silicibacter sp. strain TM1040 chemotaxis in establishing and maintaining its interaction with P. piscicida is discussed. PMID:15294804

  19. Tm3+ and Tm(3+)-Ho3+ co-doped tungsten tellurite glass single mode fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Li, Kefeng; Zhang, Guang; Wang, Xin; Hu, Lili; Kuan, Peiwen; Chen, Danping; Wang, Meng

    2012-04-23

    We investigated the ~2 μm spectroscopic and lasing performance of Tm(3+) and Tm(3+)-Ho(3+) co-doped tungsten tellurite glass single mode fibers with a commercial 800 nm laser diode. The double cladding single mode (SM) fibers were fabricated by using rod-in-tube method. The propagation loss of the fiber was ~2.5 dB/m at 1310 nm. The spectroscopic properties of the fibers were analyzed. A 494 mW laser operating at ~1.9 μm was achieved in a Tm(3+) doped 20 cm long fiber, the slope efficiency was 26%, and the laser beam quality factor M(2) was 1.09. A 35 mW ~2.1 μm laser output was also demonstrated in a 7 cm long of Tm(3+)-Ho(3+) co-doped tungsten tellurite SM fiber.

  20. Ends of the line for tmRNA-SmpB

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Corey M.; Lau, Britney Y.; Williams, Kelly P.

    2014-01-01

    Genes for the RNA tmRNA and protein SmpB, partners in the trans-translation process that rescues stalled ribosomes, have previously been found in all bacteria and some organelles. During a major update of The tmRNA Website (relocated to http://bioinformatics.sandia.gov/tmrna), including addition of an SmpB sequence database, we found some bacteria that lack functionally significant regions of SmpB. Three groups with reduced genomes have lost the central loop of SmpB, which is thought to improve alanylation and EF-Tu activation: Carsonella, Hodgkinia, and the hemoplasmas (hemotropic Mycoplasma). Carsonella has also lost the SmpB C-terminal tail, thought to stimulate the decoding center of the ribosome. We validate recent identification of tmRNA homologs in oomycete mitochondria by finding partner genes from oomycete nuclei that target SmpB to the mitochondrion. We have moreover identified through exhaustive search a small number of complete, but often highly derived, bacterial genomes that appear to lack a functional copy of either the tmRNA or SmpB gene (but not both). One Carsonella isolate exhibits complete degradation of the tmRNA gene sequence yet its smpB shows no evidence for relaxed selective constraint, relative to other genes in the genome. After loss of the SmpB central loop in the hemoplasmas, one subclade apparently lost tmRNA. Carsonella also exhibits gene overlap such that tmRNA maturation should produce a non-stop smpB mRNA. At least some of the tmRNA/SmpB-deficient strains appear to further lack the ArfA and ArfB backup systems for ribosome rescue. The most frequent neighbors of smpB are the tmRNA gene, a ratA/rnfH unit, and the gene for RNaseR, a known physical and functional partner of tmRNA-SmpB. PMID:25165464

  1. Ends of the line for tmRNA-SmpB.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Corey M; Lau, Britney Y; Williams, Kelly P

    2014-01-01

    Genes for the RNA tmRNA and protein SmpB, partners in the trans-translation process that rescues stalled ribosomes, have previously been found in all bacteria and some organelles. During a major update of The tmRNA Website (relocated to http://bioinformatics.sandia.gov/tmrna), including addition of an SmpB sequence database, we found some bacteria that lack functionally significant regions of SmpB. Three groups with reduced genomes have lost the central loop of SmpB, which is thought to improve alanylation and EF-Tu activation: Carsonella, Hodgkinia, and the hemoplasmas (hemotropic Mycoplasma). Carsonella has also lost the SmpB C-terminal tail, thought to stimulate the decoding center of the ribosome. We validate recent identification of tmRNA homologs in oomycete mitochondria by finding partner genes from oomycete nuclei that target SmpB to the mitochondrion. We have moreover identified through exhaustive search a small number of complete, but often highly derived, bacterial genomes that appear to lack a functional copy of either the tmRNA or SmpB gene (but not both). One Carsonella isolate exhibits complete degradation of the tmRNA gene sequence yet its smpB shows no evidence for relaxed selective constraint, relative to other genes in the genome. After loss of the SmpB central loop in the hemoplasmas, one subclade apparently lost tmRNA. Carsonella also exhibits gene overlap such that tmRNA maturation should produce a non-stop smpB mRNA. At least some of the tmRNA/SmpB-deficient strains appear to further lack the ArfA and ArfB backup systems for ribosome rescue. The most frequent neighbors of smpB are the tmRNA gene, a ratA/rnfH unit, and the gene for RNaseR, a known physical and functional partner of tmRNA-SmpB.

  2. Magnetic structures and physical properties of Tm3Cu4Ge4 and Tm3Cu4Sn4.

    PubMed

    Baran, S; Kaczorowski, D; Szytuła, A; Gil, A; Hoser, A

    2013-02-13

    Tm(3)Cu(4)Ge(4) crystallizes in the orthorhombic Gd(3)Cu(4)Ge(4)-type crystal structure (space group Immm) whereas Tm(3)Cu(4)Sn(4) crystallizes in a distorted variant of this structure (monoclinic space group C2/m). The compounds were studied by means of neutron diffraction, specific heat, electrical resistivity and magnetic measurements. Analysis of experimental data revealed the presence of an antiferromagnetic order below 2.8 K in both compounds. In Tm(3)Cu(4)Ge(4) the magnetic unit cell is doubled in respect to the crystal unit cell and the magnetic structure can be described by a propagation vector k = [0, 1/2, 0]. A larger magnetic unit cell was found in Tm(3)Cu(4)Sn(4), given by a propagation vector k = [1/2, 1/2, 0] (for simplicity the orthorhombic description is used for both the germanide and the stannide). Close to 2 K, in each compound an incommensurate antiferromagnetic order develops. This low-temperature magnetic phase is characterized by a propagation vector k = [1/4, 0, k(z)], where k(z) is close to 0.49 and 0.47 in Tm(3)Cu(4)Ge(4) and Tm(3)Cu(4)Sn(4), respectively. The antiferromagnetic phase transitions are clearly seen in the bulk magnetic and specific heat data of both compounds.

  3. The Castor 120 (TM) motor: Development and qualification testing results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilden, Jack G.; Poirer, Beverly M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses Thiokol Corporation's static test results for the development and qualification program of the Castor 120(TM) motor. The demonstration program began with a 25,000-pound motor to demonstrate the new technologies and processes that would be used on the larger Castor 120(TM) motor. The Castor 120(TM) motor was designed to be applicable as a first stage, second stage, or strap-on motor. Static test results from the Castor 25 and two Castor 120(TM) motors are discussed in this paper. The results verified the feasibility of tailoring the propellant grain configuration and nozzle throat diameter to meet various customer requirements. The first and second motors were conditioned successfully at ambient temperature and 28 F, respectively, to demonstrate that the design could handle a wide range of environmental launch conditions. Furthermore, the second Castor 120(TM) motor demonstrated a systems tunnel and forward skirt extension to verify flight-ready stage hardware. It is anticipated that the first flight motor will be ready by the fall of 1994.

  4. Efficient Q-switched Tm:YAG ceramic slab laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuaiyi; Wang, Mingjian; Xu, Lin; Wang, Yan; Tang, Yulong; Cheng, Xiaojin; Chen, Weibiao; Xu, Jianqiu; Jiang, Benxue; Pan, Yubai

    2011-01-17

    Characteristics of Tm:YAG ceramic for high efficient 2-μm lasers are analyzed. Efficient diode end-pumped continuous-wave and Q-switched Tm:YAG ceramic lasers are demonstrated. At the absorbed pump power of 53.2W, the maximum continuous wave (cw) output power of 17.2 W around 2016 nm was obtained with the output transmission of 5%. The optical conversion efficiency is 32.3%, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 36.5%. For Q-switched operation, the shortest width of 69 ns was achieved with the pulse repetition frequency of 500 Hz and single pulse energy of 20.4 mJ, which indicates excellent energy storage capability of the Tm:YAG ceramic.

  5. TM digital image products for applications. [computer compatible tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Gunther, F. J.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D.

    1984-01-01

    The image characteristics of digital data generated by LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) are discussed. Digital data from the TM resides in tape files at various stages of image processing. Within each image data file, the image lines are blocked by a factor of either 5 for a computer compatible tape CCT-BT, or 4 for a CCT-AT and CCT-PT; in each format, the image file has a different format. Nominal geometric corrections which provide proper geodetic relationships between different parts of the image are available only for the CCT-PT. It is concluded that detector 3 of band 5 on the TM does not respond; this channel of data needs replacement. The empty bin phenomenon in CCT-AT images results from integer truncations of mixed-mode arithmetric operations.

  6. Intracellular Distribution of TM4SF1 and Internalization of TM4SF1-antibody Complex in Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sciuto, Tracey E.; Merley, Anne; Lin, Chi-Iou; Richardson, Douglas; Liu, Yu; Li, Dan; Dvorak, Ann M.; Dvorak, Harold F.; Jaminet, Shou-Ching S.

    2015-01-01

    Transmembrane-4 L-six family member-1 (TM4SF1) is a small plasma membrane-associated glycoprotein that is highly and selectively expressed on the plasma membranes of tumor cells, cultured endothelial cells, and, in vivo, on tumor-associated endothelium. Immunofluorescence microscopy also demonstrated TM4SF1 in cytoplasm and, tentatively, within nuclei. With monoclonal antibody 8G4, and the finer resolution afforded by immuno-nanogold transmission electron microscopy, we now demonstrate TM4SF1 in uncoated cytoplasmic vesicles, nuclear pores and nucleoplasm. Because of its prominent surface location on tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelium, TM4SF1 has potential as a dual therapeutic target using an antibody drug conjugate (ADC) approach. For ADC to be successful, antibodies reacting with cell surface antigens must be internalized for delivery of associated toxins to intracellular targets. We now report that 8G4 is efficiently taken up into cultured endothelial cells by uncoated vesicles in a dynamin-dependent, clathrin-independent manner. It is then transported along microtubules through the cytoplasm and passes through nuclear pores into the nucleus. These findings validate TM4SF1 as an attractive candidate for cancer therapy with antibody-bound toxins that have the capacity to react with either cytoplasmic or nuclear targets in tumor cells or tumor-associated vascular endothelium. PMID:26241677

  7. Enhanced rock discrimination using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Andre, C. G.; Marcell, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The application of TM data to rock discrimination is discussed. Sixteen specific terrains derived from geologic maps are examined on TM images of the Arabian shield obtained on Apr. 14, 1984; visual enhancement procedures are applied to the images. The rock types observed in the test site are described; the major sedimentary formations in the test area are laterite and sandstone. The data reveal that the layered rocks in the outcrop consist of a variety of metamorphosed volcanics, metamorphosed sediments, and amphibolite, and the intrusive complex is composed of several classes of mafic and acidic rocks.

  8. Preliminary study of Kelso Dunes using AVIRIS, TM, and AIRSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Pung; Blumberg, Dan G.; Greeley, Ronald

    1995-01-01

    Remote sensing of sand dunes helps in the understanding of aeolian process and provides important information about the regional geologic history, environmental change, and desertification. Remotely sensed data combined with field studies are valuable in studying dune morphology, regional aeolian dynamics, and aeolian depositional history. In particular, active and inactive sands of the Kelso Dunes have been studied using landsat TM and AIRSAR. In this report, we describe the use of AVIRIS data to study the Kelso dunes and to compare the AVIRIS information with that from TM and AIRSAR.

  9. Spectroscopic characterization of dynamical processes for Tm,Ho:YAG lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armagan, G.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Edwards, W. C.; Inge, A. T.; Dibartolo, B.

    1991-01-01

    The energy transfer processes in Tm,Ho:YAG lasers were investigated in spectral studies and measurements of the temporal response to pulsed excitation. These processes include the population of the 3H4 pump band of Tm, cross-relaxation in Tm, the transfer of energy from Tm to Ho, and various loss mechanisms. It was found that the Tm cross-relaxation is due to a dipole-dipole interaction between Tm ions and that the rate of this process is a function of temperature and ion concentration.

  10. Upconversion luminescence and mechanisms of Tm(3+)/Yb(3+)-codoped oxyhalide tellurite glasses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shiqing; Fang, Dawei; Zhang, Zaixuan; Jiang, Zhonghong

    2005-11-01

    To obtain efficient blue upconversion laser glasses, upconversion luminescence and mechanisms of Tm(3+)/Yb(3+)-codoped oxyhalide tellurite glasses were investigated under 980 nm excitation. The results showed that upconversion blue and red emission intensities of Tm(3+) first increase, reach its maximum at Tm(2)O(3)%=0.1 mol %, and then decrease with increasing Tm(2)O(3) content. The effect of Tm(2)O(3) content on upconversion intensity is discussed, and possible effect mechanisms are evaluated. The investigated results were conducing to increase upconversion luminescence efficiency of Tm(3+).

  11. Kinematics at the intersection of the Garlock and Death Valley fault zones, California: Integration of TM data and field studies. LANDSAT TM investigation proposal TM-019

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Michael; Verosub, Ken

    1987-01-01

    Processing and interpretation of Thematic Mapper (TM) data, extensive field work, and processing of SPOT data were continued. Results of these analyses led to the testing and rejecting of several of the geologic/tectonic hypotheses concerning the continuation of the Garlock Fault Zone (GFZ). It was determined that the Death Valley Fault Zone (DVFZ) is the major through-going feature, extending at least 60 km SW of the Avawatz Mountains. Two 5 km wide fault zones were identified and characterized in the Soda and Bristol Mountains, forming a continuous zone of NW trending faulting. Geophysical measurements indicate a buried connection between the Avawatz and the Soda Mountains Fault Zone. Future work will involve continued field work and mapping at key locations, further analyses of TM data, and conclusion of the project.

  12. Synthesis and Study of Optical properties of MgO based TM oxide (TM=Cu, Mn and Zn) nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamizh Selvi, K.; Alamelumangai, K.; Priya, M.; Rathnakumari, M.; Kumar, P. Suresh; Sagadevan, Suresh

    2016-11-01

    A nanocomposite of MgO based transition metal (TM) oxide (TM=Zn, Mn, and Cu) was synthesized using sol-gel method. The powder x-ray diffraction confirmed the phase purity and particle size. The surface morphology and elemental composition were examined by High resolution scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The change in optical band gap of the synthesized nanocomposites, by increasing the Mg content was determined using UV-vis spectra and the luminescent properties were analyzed using photoluminescence spectra.

  13. Diode pumped tunable lasers based on Tm:CaF2 and Tm:Ho:CaF2 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šulc, Jan; Němec, Michal; Jelinková, Helena; Doroshenko, Maxim E.; Fedorov, Pavel P.; Osiko, Vyacheslav V.

    2014-02-01

    The Tm:CaF2 (4% of TmF3) and Tm:Ho:CaF2 (2% of TmF3, 0.3% of HoF3) ceramics, prepared using hot pressing, and hot formation technique had been used as an active medium of diode pumped mid-infrared tunable laser. A fibre (core diameter 400 μm, NA = 0.22) coupled laser diode (LIMO, HLU30F400-790) was used to longitudinal pumping. The laser diode was operating in the pulsed regime (6 ms pulse length, 10 Hz repetition rate). The duty-cycle 6% ensures a low thermal load even under the maximum diode pumping power amplitude 25W (ceramics samples were only air-cooled). The laser diode emission wavelength was 786 nm. The 80mm long semi-hemispherical laser resonator consisted of a flat pumping mirror (HR @ 1.85 - 2.15 μm, HT @ 0.78 μm) and a curved (r = 150mm) output coupler with a reflectivity of ˜ 98% @ 1.85 - 2.0 μm for Tm:CaF2 laser or ˜ 99.5% @ 2.0 - 2.15 μm for Ho:Tm:CaF2. Tuning of the laser was accomplished by using a birefringent filter (single 1.5mm thick quartz plate) placed inside the optical resonator at the Brewster angle. Both samples offered broad and smooth tuning possibilities in mid-IR spectral range and the lasers were continuously tunable over ˜ 100 nm. The obtained Tm:CaF2 tunability ranged from 1892 to 1992nm (the maximum output energy 1.8mJ was reached at 1952nm for absorbed pumping energy 78 mJ). In case of Tm:Ho:CaF2 laser tunability from 2016 to 2111nm was reached (the maximum output energy 1.5mJ was reached at 2083nm for absorbed pumping energy 53 mJ). Both these material are good candidates for a future investigation of high energy, ultra-short, laser pulse generation.

  14. Conductively Cooled Ho:Tm:LuLiF Laser Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo; Petros, M.; Petzar, Paul; Lee, Hyung; Singh, U.

    2008-01-01

    A conductively-cooled Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser head can amplify 80mJ/340ns probe pulses into 400mJ when the pump pulse energy is close to amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) threshold, 5.6J. For a small signal, the double-pass amplification exceeds 25.

  15. SantosTM: A New Generation of Virtual Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Generation of Virtual Humans Jingzhou Yang, Tim Marler , HyungJoo Kim, Kimberly Farrell, Anith Mathai, Steven Beck, Karim Abdel-Malek and Jasbir Arora...2005-01-1407 SantosTM: A New Generation of Virtual Humans Jingzhou Yang, Tim Marler , HyungJoo Kim, Kimberly Farrell

  16. [Candida arthritis of the TM joint complicating chronic otitis media].

    PubMed

    Semlali, S; Nassar, I; Fikri, M; El Quessar, A; El Hassani, Mr; Chakir, N; Jiddane, M

    2004-11-01

    Infectious arthritis of the temporomandibular joint is very uncommon, and arthritis of the TM joint as a result of candida albicans infection has not previously been reported. The authors describe a patient treated for chronic otitis media complicated by arthritis of the temporomandibular joint. The diagnosis was made using CT scan and bacteriologic sampling.

  17. Non-explosive actuation for the ORBCOMM (TM) satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Anthony; Courtney, Craig; Moran, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Spool-based non-explosive actuator (NEA) devices are used for three important holddown and release functions during the establishment of the ORBCOMM (TM) constellation. Non-explosive separation nuts are used to restrain and release the 26 individual satellites into low earth orbit. Cable release mechanisms based on the same technology are used to release the solar arrays and antenna boom.

  18. Tilted axis rotation in odd-odd {sup 164}Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Wang, X.Z.; Zhang, J.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Ten band structures are observed in {sup 164}Tm, among them sets of parallel and anti-parallel couplings of the proton and neutron spins. The Tilted Axis Cranking scheme is applied for the first time to an odd-odd nucleus in a prominent region of nuclear deformation.

  19. An Excel[TM] Model of a Radioactive Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, D. G. H.

    2009-01-01

    A computer model of the decay of a radioactive series, written in Visual Basic in Excel[TM], is presented. The model is based on the random selection of cells in an array. The results compare well with the theoretical equations. The model is a useful tool in teaching this aspect of radioactivity. (Contains 4 figures.)

  20. Behavioral response of Culex quinquefasciatus to DUET(TM) insecticide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DuetTM insecticide contains the active ingredients prallethrin, sumithrin, and piperonyl butoxide. The excitatory effects of prallethrin reportedly cause resting mosquitoes to take flight and contact more droplets, thus improving insecticide efficacy. This premise was tested with female Culex quin...

  1. Words Their Way[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Words Their Way"[TM] is an approach to phonics, vocabulary, and spelling instruction for students in kindergarten through high school. The program can be implemented as a core or supplemental curriculum and aims to provide a practical way to study words with students. The purpose of word study (which involves examining, manipulating,…

  2. Supporting Moral Development: The Virtues Project[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, Gerrit

    2011-01-01

    The Virtues Project[TM] was founded in Canada in 1991 by Linda Kavelin Popov, Dan Popov, and John Kavelin who were concerned about the level of violence among families and youth. In studying sacred traditions and cultures around the world, they identified a set of common virtues. These were used to develop a pedagogical model that has applications…

  3. Information Retention from PowerPoint[TM] and Traditional Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoy, April; Proctor, Robert W.; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2009-01-01

    The benefit of PowerPoint[TM] is continuously debated, but both supporters and detractors have insufficient empirical evidence. Its use in university lectures has influenced investigations of PowerPoint's effects on student performance (e.g., overall quiz/exam scores) in comparison to lectures based on overhead projectors, traditional lectures…

  4. Fluency Formula[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Fluency Formula"[TM] is a supplemental curriculum designed to promote reading fluency for first- through sixth-grade students. The program emphasizes automatic recognition of words, decoding accuracy, and oral expressiveness as the foundation for building reading fluency. A daily 10- to 15-minute lesson is delivered in the classroom.…

  5. Landsat-D TM application to porphyry copper exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M.; Brown, D.; Sadowski, R.; Lepley, L.

    1982-01-01

    For a number of years Landsat data have been used to locate areas of iron oxide occurrences which might be associated with hydrothermal alteration zones. However, the usefulness of the Landsat data was restricted because of certain limitations of the spectral information provided by Landsat. A new generation multispectral scanner will, therefore, be carried by the fourth Landsat, which is to be launched in July, 1982. This instrument, called the Thematic Mapper (TM), will have seven channels and provide data with 30 m spatial resolution. Two of the spectral channels (1.6 micron and 2.2 micron) should allow detection of hydrous minerals. Possible applications of Landsat-D TM data for copper exploration were studied on the basis of a comparison of Landsat data with simulated TM data acquired using an aircraft scanner instrument. Three porphyr copper deposits in Arizona were selected for the study. It is concluded that the new Landsat-D TM scanner will provide Exploration geologists with a new improved tool for surveying mineral resources on a global basis.

  6. Single-frequency lasing of monolithic Ho,Tm:YLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Deyst, John P.; Storm, Mark E.

    1993-01-01

    Single-frequency lasing in monolithic crystals of holmium-thulium-doped YLF (Ho,Tm:YLF) is reported. A maximum single-frequency output power of 6 mW at a wavelength of 2.05 microns is demonstrated. Frequency tuning is also described.

  7. Magnetization reversal in TmCrO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshii, Kenji

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► We observed two magnetization reversals in TmCrO{sub 3}. ► The reversal at 28 K is attributed to antiparallel coupling between Cr{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}. ► The other reversal originates from spin reorientation. ► Magnetocaloric effect is observed at the spin reorientation temperature. ► Characteristic magnetization switching is demonstrated. -- Abstract: The perovskite chromite TmCrO{sub 3} shows magnetization reversal at two temperatures. The reversal at ∼28 K is attributed to the antiparallel coupling between Tm{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} moments, while that at the lower temperature (∼6–7 K) is rooted in a rotation of the magnetic moments. Magnetocaloric measurements offer a relatively large entropy change (∼4–5 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1}) at the lower temperature. The reversal at ∼28 K is accompanied by a sign change of an exchange-bias-like field. The absence of the training effect suggests that this behavior is rooted in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy. The existence of the two magnetization reversals offers the characteristic switching of magnetization. For example, the magnetization is flipped without changing the direction of the applied magnetic field.

  8. Montessori(TM) Math by Colors [CD Rom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    Montessori(TM) Learning Software programs are purportedly built upon the core concept of the Montessori philosophy, that a major path to intellectual development is through a child's hands and senses. Math by Colors, recommended for ages 4 to 8, encourages hands-on discovery by allowing the child to choose the right color from the assembled paint…

  9. CPR[TM]: Adopting an Out-of-Discipline Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Kay E.

    2008-01-01

    Calibrated Peer Review[TM] (CPR) is a web-based instructional tool that encourages "writing gain for students" without adding "grading pain for the instructor!" The use of CPR provides students frequent opportunities to hone both writing as well as peer review skills in a guided environment. And once an assignment is authored, instructors have…

  10. The Tomato mosaic virus 30 kDa movement protein interacts differentially with the resistance genes Tm-2 and Tm-2(2).

    PubMed

    Weber, H; Ohnesorge, S; Silber, M V; Pfitzner, A J P

    2004-08-01

    In tomato plants ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), the genes Tm-2 and Tm-2(2) confer resistance to Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV). Sequence analysis of ToMV strains able to break the Tm-2 or Tm-2(2) resistance revealed distinct amino acid exchanges in the viral 30 kDa protein, suggesting that the movement protein is recognized by both resistance genes to induce the plant defense reaction. To analyze the interactions between the ToMV movement protein and the Tm-2 and Tm-2(2) genes in detail, we generated transgenic tomato lines expressing various movement protein gene constructs. Crosses of the transgenic tomato lines with cultivars containing either the Tm-2 or the Tm-2(2) gene demonstrated that both genes are able to elicit a hypersensitive reaction in response to movement proteins from resistance inducing ToMV strains. However, the domains and the structural requirements for induction of the necrotic response by the ToMV movement protein are completely different for either resistance gene. In the context of the Tm-2 gene, the resistance determinant lies within the N-terminal 188 amino acids of the ToMV movement protein. Interaction of the 30 kDa protein with the Tm-2(2) gene requires two distinct domains localized at the C-terminus and in a different region of the protein, respectively.

  11. Sealing ability of grar MTA AngelusTM, CPM TM and MBPc used as apical plugs.

    PubMed

    Orosco, Fernando Accorsi; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Bernadineli, Norberti; Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes de

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the sealing ability of apical plugs fabricated with gray MTA Angelus sealer, CPM TM sealer and MBPc sealer. The root canals of 98 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with #5 to #1 Gates Glidden drills according to the crown-down technique until the #1 drill could pass through the apical foramen. The specimens were then prepared with K-files, starting with an ISO 50 until an ISO 90 could be visualized 1 mm beyond the apex. After root canal preparation, the external surface of each root was rendered impermeable and roots were assigned to 3 experimental groups (n = 30), which received a 5-mm thick apical plug of gray MTA Angelus, CPM and MBPc, and two control groups (n=4). The remaining portion of the canal in the experimental groups was filled by the lateral condensation technique. The teeth of each group, properly identified, were fixed on utility wax by their crowns and were placed in plastic flasks, leaving the apex free and facing upward. The flasks were filled with 0.2% Rhodamine B solution, pH 7.0, so as to completely cover the root apex of all teeth. The sealing ability was analyzed by measuring 0.2% Rhodamine B leakage after all groups had been maintained in this solution for 48 hours. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn test with a=5%. The results showed that, among the tested materials used for fabrication of apical plugs, MBPc sealer had the least amount of leakage with statistically significant difference (p<0.05).

  12. Observation of bistable upconversion emission in Tm,Yb codoped yttria nanocrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Li, H.; Zhang, X. L.; Peng, Y. F.; Nie, M.; Jiang, B.; Zhang, X. W.; Li, R. M.

    2010-11-01

    Nonlinear upconversion emission properties in Tm and Yb codoped yttria nanocrystal have been studied under 973 nm laser excitation. Intrinsic bistability and hysteresis have been observed for the bright blue upconversion luminescence of Tm3+ ions at room temperature. The mechanism of the Tm3+ bistable emission is mainly related to laser-induced local thermal effects which cause the enhancement of sequential multi-photon energy transfer upconversion of Yb3+-Tm3+ pairs.

  13. Type II integral membrane protein, TM of J paramyxovirus promotes cell-to-cell fusion.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuo; Hung, Cher; Paterson, Reay G; Michel, Frank; Fuentes, Sandra; Place, Ryan; Lin, Yuan; Hogan, Robert J; Lamb, Robert A; He, Biao

    2015-10-06

    Paramyxoviruses include many important animal and human pathogens. Most paramyxoviruses have two integral membrane proteins: fusion protein (F) and attachment proteins hemagglutinin, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase, or glycoprotein (G), which are critical for viral entry into cells. J paramyxovirus (JPV) encodes four integral membrane proteins: F, G, SH, and transmembrane (TM). The function of TM is not known. In this work, we have generated a viable JPV lacking TM (JPV∆TM). JPV∆TM formed opaque plaques compared with JPV. Quantitative syncytia assays showed that JPV∆TM was defective in promoting cell-to-cell fusion (i.e., syncytia formation) compared with JPV. Furthermore, cells separately expressing F, G, TM, or F plus G did not form syncytia whereas cells expressing F plus TM formed some syncytia. However, syncytia formation was much greater with coexpression of F, G, and TM. Biochemical analysis indicates that F, G, and TM interact with each other. A small hydrophobic region in the TM ectodomain from amino acid residues 118 to 132, the hydrophobic loop (HL), was important for syncytial promotion, suggesting that the TM HL region plays a critical role in cell-to-cell fusion.

  14. 76 FR 38618 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; StormReadyTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... recognized for their efforts in preparing for hazardous weather. To this end, the National Weather Service... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; StormReady\\TM\\, TsunamiReady\\TM\\ and StormReady/TsunamiReady\\TM\\ Application Forms AGENCY: National...

  15. TM7 detection in human microbiome: are PCR primers and FISH probes specific enough?

    PubMed Central

    Sizova, Maria V.; Doerfert, Sebastian N.; Gavrish, Ekaterina; Epstein, Slava S.

    2015-01-01

    TM7 appears important and omnipresent because it is repeatedly detected by molecular techniques in diverse environments. Here we report that most of primers and FISH probes thought to be TM7-specific do hybridize with multiple species from oral and vaginal cavity. This calls for re-examination of TM7 distribution and abundance. PMID:25957511

  16. The Military Child Education Coalition[TM]: Supporting Military Families during Deployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surles, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    The Military Child Education Coalition (MCEC[TM]) has recently released a new support for military families facing deployment, with the addition of another kit to its "Growing, Learning, and Understanding: Making Meaning through Early Literacy"[TM] (GLU[TM]) initiative. The GLU initiative focuses on developing early literacy skills in children…

  17. 78 FR 59363 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: TSA Pre✓TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ...: TSA Pre TM Application Program AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-day... individuals seeking to enroll in the TSA Pre TM Application Program. DATES: Send your comments by October 28... Title: TSA Pre TM Application Program. ] Type of Request: New collection. OMB Control Number: Not...

  18. Questioning LibQUAL+[TM]: Expanding Its Assessment of Academic Library Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, William B.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines LibQUAL+[TM]'s instrument, fundamental assumption, and research approach and proposes a functional/technical model of academic library effectiveness. This expanded view of library effectiveness complements LibQUAL+[TM], emphasizing it to be dependent upon users' experience of service delivery, as LibQUAL+[TM] recognizes.…

  19. Flash-lamp-pumped Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG and Ho:Tm:Er:YLF lasers: experimental results of a single, long pulse length comparison.

    PubMed

    Jani, M G; Barnes, N P; Murray, K E

    1997-05-20

    Flash-lamp-pumped, room-temperature Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG and Ho:Tm:Er:YLF are compared for single but long pulse operation, with pulse lengths of approximately 1.0 mus. Under similar operating conditions in normal-mode operation, a slope efficiency of 0.0331 was observed for Ho:Tm:Er:YLF compared with 0.0047 for Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG. For Q-switched operation, Ho:Tm:Er:YLF yielded a slope efficiency of 0.0075. In comparison, a slope efficiency of 0.0012 was obtained for Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG. Two methods of producing long pulse lengths are compared: pulse selection of normal-mode relaxation oscillations and Q-switching in a long resonator. Theoretical models developed in a companion paper for normal-mode relaxation oscillations and Q-switching in quasi-four-level solid-state lasers are in agreement with the experimental results.

  20. LD dual-end-pumped CW Tm:YLF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin-yu; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Yong-ji; Wang, Chao; Jin, Guang-yong

    2013-09-01

    We report on a LD dual-end-pumped 792nm continuous wave operation Tm:YLF laser. Firstly, the rate equation of LD end-pumped CW operation Tm:YLF laser were established, in which the energy transfer upconversion and without energy transfer upconversion under continuous-wave considerate were considered, as well the pump threshold and the slope efficiency of the laser system were analyzed. Simultaneously, the cavity stability condition and the pattern matching of the plano- concave resonator were analyzed according to ABCD Matrix theory. Comparing respectively the laser threshold and the slope efficiency and optical-optical conversion efficiency under circumstances which the output mirror transmittance of 15% and 23%. In addition, the M2 of the output laser were contrasted and analyzed in adjusting the resonator cavity length by using different radius of curvature of the output mirror in 150mm, 200mm and 300mm all in the above case. As the process of thermal lens focal length changing greater than 90mm, it exhibited that the two fundamental modes in the cavity resonator matched well in numerical simulation when the radius of curvature of the output mirror was 300mm, as well the two fundamental modes matched well when it more than 100mm in a certain pump power. We designed a single LD dual-end-pumped continuous wave operation Tm:YLF laser. Using Tm:YLF (3 at.%) crystal for gain medium, which the size was 3×3×14mm3. In experiments, the Tm:YLF laser crystal keeps 291K and the temperature control method is water cooling. The length of the resonator was 135mm when L shape plano-concave resonator was applied, and the radius of curvature output mirror was 300mm, as well as the temperature of the Tm:YLF laser crystal was 291K. The output laser we observed by this system and the central laser wavelength was 1944nm. The threshold power was 8.11W and the highest output power reaches to 4.01W when the totally input pump power was 17W, and the optical conversion efficiency was 23

  1. Single-trench waveguide TE-TM mode converter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Hun; Takei, Ryohei; Shoji, Yuya; Mizumoto, Tetsuya

    2009-07-06

    A TE-TM mode converter is proposed in a single trench GaInAsP/InP waveguide, which is fabricated by a single masking and etching process. Use of single-trench structure makes the design and the fabrication much simpler. The design of single-trench mode converter is described together with its fabrication in this article. We investigated the dependence of conversion efficiency on the waveguide width, trench depth, and trench position. Also, the wavelength dependence of mode conversion efficiency was calculated in a wavelength range between 1.5 microm to 1.58 microm. 95% TE-TM mode conversion was measured at a wavelength of 1.55 microm in a fabricated device with a 210-microm half-beat length.

  2. BOREAS RSS-8 Snow Maps Derived from Landsat TM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy; Chang, Alfred T. C.; Foster, James L.; Chien, Janeet Y. L.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-8 team utilized Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images to perform mapping of snow extent over the Southern Study Area (SSA). This data set consists of two Landsat TM images that were used to determine the snow-covered pixels over the BOREAS SSA on 18 Jan 1993 and on 06 Feb 1994. The data are stored in binary image format files. The RSS-08 snow map data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  3. Pulsed Tm:YAG laser ablation of knee joint tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei-Qiang; Vari, Sandor G.; Duffy, J. T.; Miller, J. M.; Weiss, Andrew B.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1992-06-01

    We investigated the effect of a free-running 2.01 micron pulsed Tm:YAG laser on bovine knee joint tissues. Ablation rates of fresh fibrocartilage, hyaline cartilage, and bone were measured in saline as a function of laser fluence (160 - 640 J/cm2) and fiber core size (400 and 600 microns). All tissues could be effectively ablated and the ablation rate increased linearly with the increasing fluence. Use of fibers of different core sizes, while maintaining constant energy fluence, did not result in significant difference in ablation rate. Histology analyses of the ablated tissue samples reveal average Tm:YAG radiation induced thermal damage (denatunalization) zones ranging between 130 and 540 microns, depending on the laser parameters and the tissue type.

  4. ALDUO(TM) Algae Cultivation Technology for Delivering Sustainable Omega-3s, Feed, and Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xuemei

    2012-09-24

    * ALDUO(TM) Algae Production Technology Cellana?s Proprietary, Photosynthetic, & Proven * ALDUO(TM) Enables Economic Algae Production Unencumbered by Contamination by Balancing Higher-Cost PBRs with Lower-Cost Open Ponds * ALDUO(TM) Advantages * ALDUO(TM) Today o Large collection of strains for high value co-products o Powerful Mid-scale Screening & Optimization System o Solution to a Conflicting Interest o Split Pond Yield Enhancement o Heterotrophy & mixotrophy as a "finishing step" o CO2 Mitigation-flue Gas Operation o Worldwide Feed Trials with Livestock & Aquatic Species * ALDUO(TM) Technology Summarized

  5. Spectroscopic, luminescent and laser properties of nanostructured CaF2:Tm materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyapin, A. A.; Fedorov, P. P.; Garibin, E. A.; Malov, A. V.; Osiko, V. V.; Ryabochkina, P. A.; Ushakov, S. N.

    2013-08-01

    The laser quality transparent СаF2:Tm fluoride ceramics has been prepared by hot forming. Comparative study of absorption and emission spectra of СаF2:Tm (4 mol.% TmF3) ceramic and single crystal samples demonstrated that these materials possess almost identical spectroscopic properties. Laser oscillations of СаF2:Tm ceramics were obtained at 1898 nm under diode pumping, with the slope efficiency of 5.5%. Also, the continuous-wave (CW) laser have been obtained for СаF2:Tm single crystal at 1890 nm pumped by a diode laser was demonstrated.

  6. Secondary Forest Age and Tropical Forest Biomass Estimation Using TM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. F.; Kimes, D. S.; Salas, W. A.; Routhier, M.

    1999-01-01

    The age of secondary forests in the Amazon will become more critical with respect to the estimation of biomass and carbon budgets as tropical forest conversion continues. Multitemporal Thematic Mapper data were used to develop land cover histories for a 33,000 Square kM area near Ariquemes, Rondonia over a 7 year period from 1989-1995. The age of the secondary forest, a surrogate for the amount of biomass (or carbon) stored above-ground, was found to be unimportant in terms of biomass budget error rates in a forested TM scene which had undergone a 20% conversion to nonforest/agricultural cover types. In such a situation, the 80% of the scene still covered by primary forest accounted for over 98% of the scene biomass. The difference between secondary forest biomass estimates developed with and without age information were inconsequential relative to the estimate of biomass for the entire scene. However, in futuristic scenarios where all of the primary forest has been converted to agriculture and secondary forest (55% and 42% respectively), the ability to age secondary forest becomes critical. Depending on biomass accumulation rate assumptions, scene biomass budget errors on the order of -10% to +30% are likely if the age of the secondary forests are not taken into account. Single-date TM imagery cannot be used to accurately age secondary forests into single-year classes. A neural network utilizing TM band 2 and three TM spectral-texture measures (bands 3 and 5) predicted secondary forest age over a range of 0-7 years with an RMSE of 1.59 years and an R(Squared) (sub actual vs predicted) = 0.37. A proposal is made, based on a literature review, to use satellite imagery to identify general secondary forest age groups which, within group, exhibit relatively constant biomass accumulation rates.

  7. Mass balance investigation of alpine glaciers through LANDSAT TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayr, Klaus J.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data of the Pasterze Glacier and the Kleines Fleisskees in the Austrian Alps was undertaken and compared with meteorological data of nearby weather stations. Alpine or valley glaciers can be used to study regional and worldwide climate changes. Alpine glaciers respond relatively fast to a warming or cooling trend in temperature through an advance or a retreat of the terminus. In addition, the mass balance of the glacier is being affected. Last year two TM scenes of the Pasterze Glacier of Aug. 1984 and Aug. 1986 were used to study the difference in reflectance. This year, in addition to the scenes from last year, one MSS scene of Aug. 1976 and a TM scene from 1988 were examined for both the Pasterze Glacier and the Kleines Fleisskees. During the overpass of the LANDSAT on 6 Aug. 1988 ground truthing on the Pasterze Glacier was undertaken. The results indicate that there was considerable more reflectance in 1976 and 1984 than in 1986 and 1988. The climatological data of the weather stations Sonnblick and Rudolfshuette were examined and compared with the results found through the LANDSAT data. There were relations between the meteorological and LANDSAT data: the average temperature over the last 100 years showed an increase of .4 C, the snowfall was declining during the same time period but the overall precipitation did not reveal any significant change over the same period. With the use of an interactive image analysis computer, the LANDSAT scenes were studied. The terminus of the Pasterze Glacier retreated 348 m and the terminus of the Kleines Fleisskees 121 m since 1965. This approach using LANDSAT MSS and TM digital data in conjunction with meteorological data can be effectively used to monitor regional and worldwide climate changes.

  8. Chromitite Prospecting Using Landsat TM and Aster Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiranvand Pour, A.; Hashim, M.; Pournamdari, M.

    2015-10-01

    Studying the ophiolite complexes using multispectral remote sensing satellite data are interesting because of high diversity of minerals and the source of podiform chromitites. This research developed an approach to discriminate lithological units and detecting host rock of chromitite bodies within ophiolitic complexes using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data. Three main ophiolite complexes located in south of Iran have been selected for the study. Spectral transform techniques, including minimum noise fraction (MNF) and specialized band ratio were employed to detect different rock units and the identification of high-potential areas of chromite ore deposits within ophiolitic complexes. A specialized band ratio (4/1, 4/5, 4/7) of ASTER, MNF components and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) on ASTER and Landsat TM data were used to distinguish ophiolitic rock units. Results show that the specialized band ratio was able to identify different rock units and serpentinized dunite as host rock of chromitites within ophiolitic complexes, appropriately. MNF components of ASTER and Landsat TM data were suitable to distinguish ophiolitic rock complexes at a regional scale. The integration of SAM and Feature Level Fusion (FLF) used in this investigation discriminated the ophiolitic rock units and prepared detailed geological map for the study area. Accordingly, high potential areas (serpentinite dunite) were identified in the study area for chromite exploration targets.The approach used in this research offers the image processing techniques as a robust, reliable, fast and cost-effective method for detecting serpentinized dunite as host rock of chromitite bodies within vast ophiolite complexes using ASTER and Landsat TM satellite data.

  9. Cleaning Spectralon(TM) To Maintain Reflectance Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiegman, Albert; Bruegge, Carl; Plett, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Hydrocarbon impurities removed and stability of Spectralon(TM) towards ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet radiation greatly enhanced by baking material at 90 degrees C for 24 h in vacuum of 10 to negative 5th power torr. After vacuum bake, material handled with white cotton, lint-free gloves in clean environment (preferably cleanroom). As material has tendency to reabsorb volatile organic compounds, stored and transported only in clean, air-tight (preferably glass or oil-free metal) containers.

  10. Actively Cooled SLMS(TM) Technology for HEL Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacoby, Marc T.; Goodman, William A.; Reily, Jack C.; Kegley, Jeffrey R.; Haight, Harlan J.; Tucker, John; Wright, Ernest R.; Hogue, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Mr. Jacoby is the Chief Scientist for Schafer's Lightweight Optical Systems business area with twenty four years experience in laser and optical systems for space and military applications. He and colleague Dr. Goodman conceived and developed Silicon Lightweight Mirrors (SLMS(TM)) technologies for space applications from the extreme UV to FAR IR wavelengths. Schafer has demonstrated two different methods for actively cooling our Silicon Lightweight Mirrors (SLMS(TM)) technology. Direct internal cooling was accomplished by flowing liquid nitrogen through the continuous open cell core of the SLMS(TM) mirror. Indirect external cooling was accomplished by flowing liquid nitrogen through a CTE matched Cesic square-tube manifold that was bonded to the back of the mirror in the center. Testing was done in the small 4-foot thermal/vacuum chamber located at the NASA/MSFC X-Ray Calibration Facility. Seven thermal diodes were located over the front side of the 5 inch diameter mirror and one was placed on the outlet side of the Cesic manifold. Results indicate that the mirror reaches steady state at 82K in less than four minutes for both cooling methods. The maximum temperature difference of the eight diodes was less than 200 mK when the mirror was internally cooled and covered with MLI to insulate it from the large 300 K aluminum plate that was used to mount it.

  11. Performance evaluation and geologic utility of LANDSAT 4 TM and MSS scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, H. N.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments using artificial targets (polyethylene sheets) to help calibrate and evaluate atmospheric effects as well as the radiometric precision and spatial characteristics of the NS-001 and TM sensor systems were attempted and show the technical feasibility of using plastic targets for such studies, although weather precluded successful TM data acquisition. Tapes for six LANDSAT 4 TM scenes were acquired and data processing began. Computer enhanced TM simulator and LANDSAT 4 TM data were compared for a porphyry copper deposit in Southern Arizona. Preliminary analyses performed on two TM scenes acquired in the CCT-PT format, show the TM data appear to contain a marked increase in geologically useful information; however, a number of instrumental processing artifacts may well limit the ability of the geologist to fully extract this information.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of KY3F10:Yb:Nd:Tm crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, H. M.; Courrol, L. C.; Gomes, L.; Bertram, R.; Baldochi, S. L.; Ranieri, I. M.

    2010-11-01

    Energy transfer processes that generate thulium blue and ultraviolet emissions by upconversion were studied in KY3F10:Tm (KY3F:Tm), using Nd3+ and Yb3+ as sensitizers of Tm3+. The upconversion mechanisms were determined by exciting into the Nd and Tm absorption bands with a diode laser at 797nm. It was observed that the intensity of the Tm3+ blue and ultraviolet emissions in 484, 453, 366 and 350 nm were very dependent of the Yb3+ concentration in the samples, confirming that the main energy transfer processes involve Nd3+ and Yb3+ ions. KY3F10:Nd (1.3 mol%):Tm (0.5 mol%) crystals codoped with 5, 10, 20 and 30 mol% Yb were prepared by slow cooling from the melt, to establish the optimal Yb concentration that maximizes the Nd3+→Yb3+→Tm3+ energy transfer.

  13. Magnetism, structures and stabilities of cluster assembled TM@Si nanotubes (TM = Cr, Mn and Fe): a density functional study.

    PubMed

    Dhaka, Kapil; Bandyopadhyay, Debashis

    2016-08-02

    The present study reports transition metal (TM = Cr, Mn and Fe) doped silicon nanotubes with tunable band structures and magnetic properties by careful selection of cluster assemblies as building blocks using the first-principles density functional theory. We found that the transition metal doping and in addition, the hydrogen termination process can stabilize the pure silicon nanoclusters or cluster assemblies and then it could be extended as magnetic nanotubes with finite magnetic moments. Study of the band structures and density of states (DOS) of different empty and TM doped nanotubes (Type 1 to Type 4) show that these nanotubes are useful as metals, semiconductors, semi-metals and half-metals. These designer magnetic materials could be useful in spintronics and magnetic devices of nanoscale order.

  14. The loss of Tm7sf gene accelerates skin papilloma formation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bellezza, I.; Gatticchi, L.; Sordo, R. del; Peirce, M. J.; Sidoni, A.; Roberti, R.; Minelli, A.

    2015-01-01

    The 3β-hydroxysterol Δ14-reductase, encoded by the Tm7sf2 gene, is an enzyme involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Cholesterol and its derivatives control epidermal barrier integrity and are protective against environmental insults. To determine the role of the gene in skin cholesterol homeostasis, we applied 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) to the skin of Tm7sf2+/+ and Tm7sf2-/- mice. TPA increased skin cholesterol levels by inducing de novo synthesis and up-take only in Tm7sf2+/+ mouse, confirming that the gene maintains cholesterol homeostasis under stress conditions. Cholesterol sulfate, one of the major players in skin permeability, was doubled by TPA treatment in the skin of wild-type animals but this response was lost in Tm7sf2-/- mice. The expression of markers of epidermal differentiation concomitant with farnesoid-X-receptor and p38 MAPK activation were also disrupted in Tm7sf2-/- mice. We then subjected Tm7sf2+/+ and Tm7sf2-/- mice to a classical two-stage skin carcinogenesis protocol. We found that the loss of Tm7sf2 increased incidence and multiplicity of skin papillomas. Interestingly, the null genotype showed reduced expression of nur77, a gene associated with resistance to neoplastic transformation. In conclusion, the loss of Tm7sf2 alters the expression of proteins involved in epidermal differentiation by reducing the levels of cholesterol sulfate. PMID:25804527

  15. Structural, EPR and optical properties of Zn0.75TM0.25O (TM = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) aerogel nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayari, Amor; El Mir, Lassaad; Jürgen von Bardeleben, Hans

    2014-07-01

    ZnO nanopowders with different 3d transition metal (TM) doping (TM = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) were synthesized by a new protocol based on slow hydrolyse of zinc acetate dissolved in methanol and supercritical drying in ethyl alcohol. The prepared Zn1-xTMxO (x = 0.25) nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). The results demonstrated that the TM dopant significantly affects the structural and magnetic properties of the samples. From the XRD spectra, the lattice parameters, average crystallite size and microstrain values were obtained. All ZnTMO nanoparticles show an expansion of the lattice parameters compared those of the bulk samples. Unit cell volume was minimized with Fe doping and increased as the atomic number of the dopant moved away from Fe. The XRD pattern indicates the formation of hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO for all the TM dopants. Electron microscopy characterization showed that the size of the Zn1-xTMxO particles is about 25 nm did not change significantly for the different dopants. Optical absorption measurements show that band gap energies of the TM-doped ZnO nanoparticles are around 3.2 eV. The Urbach energy of the ZnTMO nanopowders varies with the TM dopant. From magnetic measurements we observed the presence of room temperature ferromagnetic order in our TM-doped ZnO samples. EPR spectra confirm that TM ions were mainly incorporated as TM2+, occupying the Zn2+ sites in the wurtzite structure of ZnO. Room temperature ferromagnetic order was observed only in Ni- and Co-doped ZnO samples, whereas Mn- and Fe-doped powders showed only antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic interactions, respectively. The correlation between the structural and magnetic properties as a function of the TM dopant is discussed.

  16. Blue and green up-conversion in ZBLAN Tm3+,Yb3+-codoped glasses pumped with LD 970-nm laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wanghe; Kan, Shidong; Zang, Chuanyi

    1998-08-01

    The quality of synthesized ZBLAN:Tm3+,Yb3+ glasses is analyzed and an efficient up-concentration in the blue and green light of Tm3+ containing different concentration ratio of Tm3+:Yb3+ demonstrated under LD 970 nm pumping. The up-conversion process of Tm3+ in ZBLAN:Tm3+,Yb3+ glasses are presented. The up-conversion in green can be limited restrained by the concentration of Yb3+.

  17. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  18. Microtox(TM) characterization of foundry sand residuals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bastian, K.C.; Alleman, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Although foundry residuals, consisting mostly of waste Sands, represent a potentially attractive, high-volume resource for beneficial reuse applications (e.g. highway embankment construction), prospective end users are understandably concerned about unforeseen liabilities stemming from the use of these residuals. This paper, therefore, focuses on the innovative use of a microbial bioassay as a means of developing a characterization of environmental suitability extending beyond the analytical coverage already provided by mandated chemical-specific tests (i.e., TCLP, etc.). Microtox(TM) bioassays were conducted on leachates derived from residuals obtained at a wide range of facilities, including: 11 gray and ductile iron foundries plus one each steel and aluminum foundries. In addition, virgin sand samples were used to establish a relative 'natural' benchmark against which the waste foundry sands could then be compared in terms of their apparent quality. These bioassay tests were able to effectively 'fingerprint' those residuals whose bioassay behavior was comparable to that of virgin materials. In fact, the majority of gray and ductile iron foundry residuals tested during this reported study elicited Microtox(TM) response levels which fell within or below the virgin sand response range, consequently providing another quantifiable layer of Support for this industry's claim that their sands are 'cleaner than dirt.' However, negative Microtox(TM) responses beyond that of the virgin sands were observed with a number of foundry samples (i.e. four of the 11 gray or ductile iron sands plus both non-iron sands). Therefore, the latter results would suggest that these latter residuals be excluded from beneficial reuse for the immediate future, at least until the cause and nature of this negative response has been further identified.

  19. DIME Students Show Off their Lego(TM) Challenge Creation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Two students show the Lego (TM) Challenge device they designed and built to operate in the portable drop tower demonstrator as part of the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  20. Wakefield calculation for superconducting TM110 cavity without azimuthal symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Bellantoni, Leo; Burt, Graeme; /Lancaster U.

    2006-08-01

    The 3.9GHz TM{sub 110} mode deflecting cavity developed at FNAL has many applications, including use as a longitudinal bunch profile diagnostic, and as a crab cavity candidate for the ILC. These applications involve beams with substantial time structure. For the 13-cell version intended for the bunch profile application, long-range wakes have been evaluated in the frequency domain and short-range wakes have been evaluated in the time domain. Higher-order interactions of the main field in the cavity with the beam have also been parameterized. Pedagogic derivations are included as appendices.

  1. KIWIN(TM): From prototype to product for use.

    PubMed

    Drake, Maurice; Wilson, Shona; Warren, David; Elfrink, Vicky; Hay, Eleanor

    2006-01-01

    2005 has seen the birth of the product KIWIN(TM)--an educational technology for nursing students in New Zealand involving web-based technology supported by Pocket PCs in the field. Nursing students use the technology to collect clinically relevant data at the point-of-care and transmit to a secure central server for storage using cradle synchronisation, WiFi or cellular wireless modalities. Later retrieval via the Internet enables collation of details, refinement of work, and construction with print-off of care reports to meet academic requirements. This demonstration will showcase the development to the international community. Critique and review will be welcomed.

  2. Sprinkler arrangement for UiTM's stadium field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nur Lina; Kadir, Norhidayah A.; Safaron, Saiful Bahri; Suder, Nurazeera Md; Omar, Nurul Wahidah

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the arrangement of water sprinkler at Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam stadium field. There are 35 number of sprinklers used with 7 × 5 arrangement. The current problem is that as there are too many sprinkler used, the overlapping area becomes too large and hence leads to waste. In order to minimize the number of sprinklers used as well as the overlapping area, new arrangement of sprinklers is proposed. The validity of the developed arrangement is tested by using Microsoft Excel and mathematical software, MAPLE 14. Finally, there are six possible arrangements that can be used to replace the current arrangement.

  3. Ho:YLF Laser Pumped by TM:Fiber Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Kohei; Ishii, Shoken; Itabe, Toshikazu; Asai, Kazuhiro; Sato, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    A 2-micron Ho:YLF laser end-pumped by 1.94-micron Tm:fiber laser is described. A ring resonator of 3m length is adopted for the oscillator. The laser is a master oscillator and an amplifier system. It is operated at high repetition rate of 200-5000 Hz in room temperature. The laser outputs were about 9W in CW and more than 6W in Q-switched operation. This laser was developed to be used for wind and CO2 measurements.

  4. The Astroculture (tm)-1 experiment on the USML-1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, Theodore; Bula, R. J.; Morrow, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    Permanent human presence in space will require a life support system that minimizes athe need for resupply of consumables from Earth resources. Plants that convert radiant energy to chemical energy via photosynthesis are a key component of a bioregenerative life support system. Providing the proper root environment for plants in reduced gravity is an essential aspect of the development of facilities for growing plants in a space environment. The ASTROCULTURE(TM)-1 experiment, included in the USML-1 mission, successfully demonstrated the ability of the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics porous tube water delivery system to control water movement through a rooting matrix in a microgravity environment.

  5. Cloning and characterization of the durable tomato mosaic virus resistance gene Tm-2(2) from Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    Lanfermeijer, Frank C; Dijkhuis, Jos; Sturre, Marcel J G; de Haan, Peter; Hille, Jacques

    2003-07-01

    In tomato, infections by tomato mosaic virus are controlled by durable Tm-2(2) resistance. In order to gain insight into the processes underlying disease resistance and its durability, we cloned and analysed the Tm-2(2) resistance gene and the susceptible allele, tm-2. The Tm-2(20 gene was isolated by transposon tagging using a screen in which plants with a destroyed Tm-2(2) gene survive. The Tm-2(2) locus consists of a single gene that encodes an 861 amino acid polypeptide, which belongs to the CC-NBS-LRR class of resistance proteins. The putative tm-2 allele was cloned from susceptible tomato lines via PCR with primers based on the Tm-2(2) sequence. Interestingly, the tm-2 gene has an open reading frame that is comparable to the Tm-2(2) allele. Between the tm-2 and the Tm-2(2) polypeptide 38 amino acid differences are present of which 26 are located in the second half of the LRR-domain. Susceptible tomato plants, which were transformed with the Tm-2(2) gene, displayed resistance against ToMV infection. In addition, virus specificity, displayed by the Tm-2(2) resistance was conserved in these transgenic lines. To explain the durability of this resistance, it is proposed that the Tm-2(2)-encoded resistance is aimed at the Achilles' heel of the virus.

  6. Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Q. J.; Wang, Q. P.; Chang, J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Liu, Z. J.; Yu, G. Y.

    2010-04-01

    Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped tellurite glass has been prepared. Density, refractive index, optical absorption, Judd-Ofelt parameters and spontaneous transition probabilities of Tm3+ have been measured and calculated, respectively. Intense blue three-photon upconversion fluorescence and S-band (1470 nm) fluorescence were investigated under the excitation of a 980 nm diode laser at room temperature. Judd-Ofelt parameters, strong blue three-photon upcoversion emission of Tm3+ in glass indicate that Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped tellurite glass is a promising blue color upconversion optical and laser material. In addition, experiment results showed the 980 nm laser was more efficient than 808 nm laser when pumping Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped tellurite glass, Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped tellurite glass also could be a promising material for S-band amplification.

  7. tmRNAs that encode proteolysis-inducing tags are found in all known bacterial genomes: A two-piece tmRNA functions in Caulobacter

    PubMed Central

    Keiler, Kenneth C.; Shapiro, Lucy; Williams, Kelly P.

    2000-01-01

    A general mechanism in bacteria to rescue stalled ribosomes and to clear the cell of incomplete polypeptides involves an RNA species, tmRNA (SsrA), which functions as both a tRNA and an mRNA. This RNA encodes a peptide tag that is incorporated at the end of the aberrant polypeptide and targets it for proteolysis. We have identified a circularly permuted version of the tmRNA gene in α-proteobacteria as well as in a lineage of cyanobacteria. The genes in these two groups seem to have arisen from two independent permutation events. As a result of the altered genetic structure, these tmRNAs are composed of two distinct RNA molecules. The mature two-piece tmRNAs are predicted to have a tRNA-like domain and an mRNA-like domain similar to those of standard one-piece tmRNAs, with a break located in the loop containing the tag reading frame. A related sequence was found in the mitochondrial genome of Reclinomonas americana, but only the tRNA-like portion is retained. Although several sequence and structural motifs that are conserved among one-piece tmRNAs have been lost, the α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus produces a functional two-piece tmRNA. PMID:10884408

  8. Discrimination of lithologic units using geobotanical and LANDSAT TM spectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnie, R. W.; Defeo, N. J.

    1986-01-01

    Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data were correlated with lithologic units, geobotanical forest associations, and geomorphic site parameters in the Ridge and Valley Province of Pennsylvania. Both the TM and forest association data can be divided into four groups based on their lithology (sandstone or shale) and geomorphic aspect (north or south facing). In this clastic sedimentary terrane, geobotanical associations are useful indicators of lithology and these different geobotanical associations are detectable in LANDSAT TM data.

  9. Role of Bandwidth in Computation of NDVI From Landsat TM and NOAA AVHRR Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. K.; Vijayan, D.; Prasad, T. S.; Tirumaladevi, N. Ch.

    The observations for wheat, onion, potato and chickpea over the Crop Growth Cycle (CGC) in 3 nm bandwidth were converted to AVHRR and TM bands in visible/red and near-IR spectral regions. Correlation between TM and AVHRR NDVI were very high for all these crops. The additional 0.725-0.76 μm bandwidth in AVHRR as compared to TM was causing reduction in NDVI values for AVHRR when crop NDVI value was more than 0.46

  10. Energy transfer rates of KY3F10:Yb:Nd:Tm crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courrol, L. C.; Linhares, H. M. S. M. D.; Librantz, A. F. H.; Baldochi, S. L.; Gomes, L.; Ranieri, I. M.

    2010-11-01

    In this work we present the spectroscopic properties of KY3F10 (KY3F) single crystals doped with thulium and also co-doped with ytterbium and/or neodymium, KY3F:Yb:Nd:Tm and KY3F:Nd:Tm. The most important processes that lead to the thulium up conversion emissions were identified. The absorption spectra of the samples were measured at room temperature in the range of 200 nm-1200 nm. The emission spectra were obtained by exciting the samples with a 797 nm laser diode and were analyzed using a lock-in amplifier technique. A time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy technique was employed to measure the luminescence decays and to determine the mechanisms involved in the energy transfer up-conversion processes. Analysis of the energy transfer processes dynamics in KY3F:Yb:Tm:Nd crystal, using selective pulsed-laser excitations, shows that the energy transfer from Nd3+ to Yb3+ ions is the mechanism responsible for the enhancement of the blue up-conversion efficiency when compared with the Yb:Tm system. In the case of KY3F:Nd:Tm it is observed emissions at 350, 355 and 452 nm excited by an additional Yb:Tm step cross relaxation, Yb (2F5/2) : Tm (1G4) that populates the 1D2 (Tm3+) excited level. A study of the energy transfer processes in KY3F:Yb:Tm:Nd crystal showed that the 1G4 excited level is mainly populated by the sequence of two nonradiative energy processes that starts well after the Nd3+ and Tm3+ excitation at 797nm: Nd (4F3/2) → Yb (2F7/2) followed by Yb (2F5/2) → Tm (3H4) → Tm (1G4).

  11. F-200(TM): The new solution for fire protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Alfred J.; Walter, Gerald J.

    1995-01-01

    For more than two decades, halon 1301 has been protecting personnel and valuable aircraft and aerospace equipment from the hazards of fire. Only halon 1301 offered the advantages of being clean, odorless, colorless, electrically non-conductive and safe for occupied areas. However, concerns about the depletion of stratospheric ozone and the resulting Montreal Protocol mandated the production phase-out of halon 1301 on December 31, 1993. Prior to this phase-out, Great Lakes Chemical Corporation, the world's leading manufacturer of halon, directed substantial research efforts toward the rapid development of a safe, clean, and effective halon replacement. Some of the criteria for the development of a clean agent included: that it be an effective fire extinguisher; that it be safe for personnel; that it be safe for the environment; that it be safe for valuable assets; that it be cost effective; and that it be able to withstand the rigors of independent approvals. As the result of this research, Great Lakes developed FM-200(TM) is 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 3-hepta-fluoropropane. This paper discusses the physical properties of FM-200(TM) and its efficiency as an extinguishant.

  12. Multiquasiparticle states in the neutron-rich nucleus 174Tm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, R. O.; Lane, G. J.; Dracoulis, G. D.; Byrne, A. P.; Nieminen, P.; Watanabe, H.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chowdhury, P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.

    2013-07-01

    Deep inelastic and transfer reactions with an 820-MeV, 136Xe beam and various ytterbium and lutetium targets have been employed to study high-spin structures in the neutron-rich thulium isotopes beyond 171Tm. Results in the doubly odd nucleus, 174Tm, include the identification of numerous new two- and four-quasiparticle intrinsic states including several isomers below 1 MeV, and the observation of the Kπ=4- ground state rotational band populated via direct decay from a τ=153(10)-μs, Kπ=14- isomer at 2092 keV. The 398-keV, M1 transition linking the isomer and ground state band is abnormally fast for a highly forbidden, ΔK=10 decay. This relative enhancement is explained in terms of mixing of the 13- level with the nearby 13- member of a Kπ=8- rotational band, with an interaction strength of V ≈ 1.4 keV. Multiquasiparticle calculations are compared with the observed states.

  13. Seasonal LAI in slash pine estimated with LANDSAT TM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Gholz, Henry L.

    1990-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI, total area of leaves per unit area of ground) of most forest canopies varies throughout the year, yet for logistical reasons it is difficult to estimate anything more detailed than a seasonal maximum LAI. To determine if remotely sensed data can be used to estimate LAI seasonally, field measurements of LAI were compared to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values derived using LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data, for 16 fertilized and control slash pine plots on 3 dates. Linear relationships existed between NDVI and LAI with R(sup 2) values of 0.35, 0.75, and 0.86 for February 1988, September 1988, and March, 1989, respectively. This is the first reported study in which NDVI is related to forest LAI recorded during the month of sensor overpass. Predictive relationships based on data from eight of the plots were used to estimate the LAI of the other eight plots with a root-mean-square error of 0.74 LAI, which is 15.6 percent of the mean LAI. This demonstrates the potential use of LANDSAT TM data for studying seasonal dynamics in forest canopies.

  14. Ceramic bracket debonding with Tm:fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirkan, İrem; Sarp, Ayşe Sena Kabaş; Gülsoy, Murat

    2016-06-01

    Lasers have the potential for reducing the required debonding force and can prevent the mechanical damage given to the enamel surface as a result of conventional debonding procedure. However, excessive thermal effects limit the use of lasers for debonding purposes. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal parameters of 1940-nm Tm:fiber laser for debonding ceramic brackets. Pulling force and intrapulpal temperature measurements were done during laser irradiation simultaneously. A laser beam was delivered in two different modes: scanning the fiber tip on the bracket surface with a Z shape movement or direct application of the fiber tip at one point in the center of the bracket. Results showed that debonding force could be decreased significantly compared to the control samples, in which brackets were debonded by only mechanical force. Intrapulpal temperature was kept equal or under the 5.5°C threshold value of probable thermal damage to pulp. Scanning was found to have no extra contribution to the process. It was concluded that using 1940-nm Tm:fiber laser would facilitate the debonding of ceramic brackets and can be proposed as a promising debonding tool with all the advantageous aspects of fiber lasers.

  15. Seasonal LAI in slash pine estimated with Landsat TM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Gholz, Henry L.

    1992-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI, total area of leaves per unit area of ground) of most forest canopies varies throughout the year, yet for logistical reasons it is difficult to estimate anything more detailed than a seasonal maximum LAI. To determine if remotely sensed data can be used to estimate LAI seasonally, field measurements of LAI were compared to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values derived using Lnandsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data, for 16 fertilized and control slash pine plots on 3 dates. Linear relationships existed between NDVI and LAI with R (sup 2) values of 0.35, 0.75, and 0.86 for February 1988, September 1988, and March, 1989, respectively. This is the first reported study in which NDVI is related to forest LAI recorded during the month of sensor overpass. Predictive relationships based on data from eight of the plots were used to estimate the LAI of the other eight plots with a root-mean-square error of 0.74 LAI, which is 15.6 percent of the mean LAI. This demonstrates the potential use of Landsat TM data for studying seasonal dynamics in forest canopies.

  16. Algorithm for PM10 Mapping using Landsat TM Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwee San, Hslim; Matjafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, Abdul K.; Chow Jeng, C. J.

    section A new algorithm was developed for detecting and mapping air pollution from Landsat TM images PM10 measumenets were collected simultaneously with the satellite image acquisition The algorithm was derived based on the aerosol optical reflectance model and it was calibrated to measure the concentration of the pollutants The measured satellite reflectance at the top of the atmosphere rho TOA was subtracted by the amount given by the surface reflectance to obtain the atmospheric reflectance A total of 7 dates of Landsat TM satellite images were analysed in this study The atmospheric reflectance values corresponding to the locations of the PM10 measurements of the each image ware combined and related to their PM10 values The collected PM10 measurements were combined for algorithm calibration The coefficients of the calibrated algorithm were determined and used to generate the air quality maps for all images This newly developed algorithm was used to estimate PM10 concentration over Penang and produced a high degree of accuracy

  17. Antiviral Resistance Protein Tm-22 Functions on the Plasma Membrane1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tianyuan; Liu, Dan; Niu, Xiaolin; Qian, Lichao; Han, Lu; Liu, Na; Zhao, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    The tomato Tobacco mosaic virus resistance-22 (Tm-22) gene encodes a coiled-coil-nucleotide binding site-Leu-rich repeat protein lacking a conventional plasma membrane (PM) localization motif. Tm-22 confers plant extreme resistance against tobamoviruses including Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) by recognizing the avirulence (Avr) viral movement protein (MP). However, the subcellular compartment where Tm-22 functions is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Tm-22 interacts with TMV MP to form a protein complex at the PM. We show that both inactive and active Tm-22 proteins are localized to the PM. When restricted to PM by fusing Tm-22 to the S-acylated PM association motif, the Tm-22 fusion protein can still induce a hypersensitive response cell death, consistent with its activation at the PM. Through analyses of viral MP mutants, we find that the plasmodesmata (PD) localization of the Avr protein MP is not required for Tm-22 function. These results suggest that Tm-22-mediated resistance takes place on PM without requirement of its Avr protein to be located to PD. PMID:28258211

  18. Adenovirus-Mediated FKHRL1/TM Sensitizes Melanoma Cells to Apoptosis Induced by Temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Michael E.; McNally, Lacey R.; Nitz, Jonathan; McMasters, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Melanoma exhibits variable resistance to the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ). We evaluated the potential of adenovirus expressing forkhead human transcription factor like 1 triple mutant (Ad-FKHRL1/TM) to sensitize melanoma cells to TMZ. Four melanoma cell lines were treated with Ad-FKHRL1/TM and TMZ, alone or in combination. Apoptosis was assessed by activation and inhibition of caspase pathway, nuclei fragmentation, and annexin V staining. The potential therapeutic efficacy of Ad-FKHRL1/TM with TMZ was also assessed in a mouse melanoma xenograft model. Combination therapy of Ad-FKHRL1/TM and TMZ resulted in greater cell killing (<20% cell viability) compared with single therapy and controls (p<0.05). Combination indices of Ad-FKHRL1/TM and TMZ therapy indicated significant (p<0.05) synergistic killing effect. Greater apoptosis induction was found in cells treated with Ad-FKHRL1/TM and TMZ than with Ad-FKHRL1/TM or TMZ-treated cells alone. Treatment with TMZ enhanced adenovirus transgene expression in a cell type-dependent manner. In an in vivo model, combination therapy of Ad-FKHRL1/TM with TMZ results in greater tumor growth reduction in comparison with single treatments. We suggest that Ad-FKHRL1/TM is a promising vector to sensitize melanoma cells to TMZ, and that a combination of both approaches would be effective in the clinical setting. PMID:25238278

  19. TM7SF1 (GPR137B): a novel lysosome integral membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jialin; Xia, Libin; Lu, Meiqing; Zhang, Binhua; Chen, Yueping; Xu, Rang; Wang, Lizhuo

    2012-09-01

    In the previous proteomic study of human placenta, transmembrane 7 superfamily member 1 (TM7SF1) was found enriched in lysosome compartments. TM7SF1 encodes a 399-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 45 kDa. Bioinformatic analysis of its amino acid sequence showed that it is a multipass transmembrane protein containing a potential dileucine-based lysosomal targeting signal and four putative N-glycosylation sites. By percoll-gradient centrifugation and further subfraction ways, the lysosomal solute and membrane compartments were isolated respectively. Immunoblotting analysis indicated that TM7SF1 was co-fractioned with lysosome associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2), which was only detected in lysosomal membrane compartments whereas not detected in the solute compartments. Using specific anti-TM7SF1 antibody and double-immunofluorescence with lysosome membrane protein LAMP1 and Lyso-Tracker Red, the colocalisations of endogenous TM7SF1 with lysosome and late endosome markers were demonstrated. All of this indicated that TM7SF1 is an integral lysosome membrane protein. Rat ortholog of TM7SF1 was found to be strongly expressed in heart, liver, kidney and brain while not or low detected in other tissues. In summary, TM7SF1 was a lysosomal integral membrane protein that shows tissue-specific expression. As a G-protein-coupled receptor in lysosome membrane, TM7SF1 was predicted function as signal transduction across lysosome membrane.

  20. Spectroscopic and laser characterization of Yb,Tm:KLu(WO4)2 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiko, P. A.; Serres, J. M.; Mateos, X.; Demesh, M. P.; Yasukevich, A. S.; Yumashev, K. V.; Petrov, V.; Griebner, U.; Aguiló, M.; Díaz, F.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a comprehensive spectroscopic and laser characterization of monoclinic Yb,Tm:KLu(WO4)2 crystals. Stimulated-emission cross-section spectra corresponding to the 3F4 → 3H6 transition of Tm3+ ions are determined. The radiative lifetime of the 3F4 state of Tm3+ ions is 0.82 ms. The maximum Yb3+ → Tm3+ energy transfer efficiency is 83.9% for 5 at.% Yb - 8 at.% Tm doping. The fractional heat loading for Yb,Tm:KLu(WO4)2 is 0.45 ± 0.05. Using a hemispherical cavity and 5 at.% Yb - 6 at.% Tm doped crystal, a maximum CW power of 227 mW is achieved at 1.983-2.011 μm with a maximum slope efficiency η = 14%. In the microchip laser set-up, the highest slope efficiency is 20% for a 5 at.% Yb- 8 at.% Tm doped crystal with a maximum output power of 201 mW at 1.99-2.007 μm. Operation of Yb,Tm:KLu(WO4)2 as a vibronic laser emitting at 2.081-2.093 μm is also demonstrated.

  1. Trapping processes in CaS:Eu{sup 2+},Tm{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Dongdong; Jia, Weiyi; Evans, D. R.; Dennis, W. M.; Liu, Huimin; Zhu, Jing; Yen, W. M.

    2000-09-15

    CaS:Eu{sup 2+},Tm{sup 3+} is a persistent red phosphor. Thermoluminescence was measured under different excitation and thermal treatment conditions. The results reveal that the charge defects, created by substituting Tm{sup 3+} for Ca{sup 2+}, serve as hole traps for the afterglow at room temperature. Tm{sup 3+} plays the role of deep electron trapping centers, capturing electrons either through the conduction band or directly from the excited Eu{sup 2+} ions. These two processes, in which two different sites of Tm{sup 3+} are involved, correspond to two traps with different depths. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Modeling a Hypothetical {sup 170}Tm Source for Brachytherapy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Enger, Shirin A.; D'Amours, Michel; Beaulieu, Luc

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To perform absorbed dose calculations based on Monte Carlo simulations for a hypothetical {sup 170}Tm source and to investigate the influence of encapsulating material on the energy spectrum of the emitted electrons and photons. Methods: GEANT4 Monte Carlo code version 9.2 patch 2 was used to simulate the decay process of {sup 170}Tm and to calculate the absorbed dose distribution using the GEANT4 Penelope physics models. A hypothetical {sup 170}Tm source based on the Flexisource brachytherapy design with the active core set as a pure thulium cylinder (length 3.5 mm and diameter 0.6 mm) and different cylindrical source encapsulations (length 5 mm and thickness 0.125 mm) constructed of titanium, stainless-steel, gold, or platinum were simulated. The radial dose function for the line source approximation was calculated following the TG-43U1 formalism for the stainless-steel encapsulation. Results: For the titanium and stainless-steel encapsulation, 94% of the total bremsstrahlung is produced inside the core, 4.8 and 5.5% in titanium and stainless-steel capsules, respectively, and less than 1% in water. For the gold capsule, 85% is produced inside the core, 14.2% inside the gold capsule, and a negligible amount (<1%) in water. Platinum encapsulation resulted in bremsstrahlung effects similar to those with the gold encapsulation. The range of the beta particles decreases by 1.1 mm with the stainless-steel encapsulation compared to the bare source but the tissue will still receive dose from the beta particles several millimeters from the source capsule. The gold and platinum capsules not only absorb most of the electrons but also attenuate low energy photons. The mean energy of the photons escaping the core and the stainless-steel capsule is 113 keV while for the gold and platinum the mean energy is 160 keV and 165 keV, respectively. Conclusions: A {sup 170}Tm source is primarily a bremsstrahlung source, with the majority of bremsstrahlung photons being

  3. Effects of Aerospace Contaminants on EPIKOTE(TM) 862 / EPIKURE(TM)-W Filament Winding Resin System: An Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffet, Mitchell Lee

    This thesis presents the findings of extensive experiments to determine the effects of various common aerospace chemicals on EPIKOTE(TM) 862 (resin) and EPIKURE(TM) W (curing agent), a resin system utilized in filament wound carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CRP) structures. Test specimens of the neat resin system were fabricated and exposed for up to 6 months at room temperature to 11 fluids representing typical aerospace chemicals found on the flight line, and to 74°C tap water. Post exposure the samples were tested in torsion using a rheometer, which performed strain sweeps and frequency sweeps on all the samples. In addition, a subset of the samples received a temperatures sweep. The rheology test parameters represented the nominal stress levels CRP structures would expect to see in operation. In addition to the rheological tests, dimensional and mass measurements were made of the samples both pre and post exposure to study the physical changes due to the chemical interactions. Based on the results, a common detergent, MEK on structures manufactured with the 862W resin system should be prevented or severely limited. It had a significant impact on the performance of the resin system within 3 months, with no visible indications of the degradation. The resins system had good chemical resistance to all the other chemicals used in this study including hot water.

  4. The ecological controls on the prevalence of candidate division TM7 in polar regions.

    PubMed

    Winsley, Tristrom J; Snape, Ian; McKinlay, John; Stark, Jonny; van Dorst, Josie M; Ji, Mukan; Ferrari, Belinda C; Siciliano, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    The candidate division TM7 is ubiquitous and yet uncultured phylum of the Bacteria that encompasses a commonly environmental associated clade, TM7-1, and a "host-associated" clade, TM7-3. However, as members of the TM7 phylum have not been cultured, little is known about what differs between these two clades. We hypothesized that these clades would have different environmental niches. To test this, we used a large-scale global soil dataset, encompassing 223 soil samples, their environmental parameters and associated bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data. We correlated chemical, physical and biological parameters of each soil with the relative abundance of the two major classes of the phylum to deduce factors that influence the groups' seemingly ubiquitous nature. The two classes of the phylum (TM7-1 and TM7-3) were indeed distinct from each other in their habitat requirements. A key determinant of each class' prevalence appears to be the pH of the soil. The class TM7-1 displays a facultative anaerobic nature with correlations to more acidic soils with total iron, silicon, titanium and copper indicating a potential for siderophore production. However, the TM7-3 class shows a more classical oligotrophic, heterotroph nature with a preference for more alkaline soils, and a probable pathogenic role with correlations to extractable iron, sodium and phosphate. In addition, the TM7-3 was abundant in diesel contaminated soils highlighting a resilient nature along with a possible carbon source. In addition to this both classes had unique co-occurrence relationships with other bacterial phyla. In particular, both groups had opposing correlations to the Gemmatimonadetes phylum, with the TM7-3 class seemingly being outcompeted by this phylum to result in a negative correlation. These ecological controls allow the characteristics of a TM7 phylum preferred niche to be defined and give insight into possible avenues for cultivation of this previously uncultured group.

  5. Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer in Er-Tm co-doped bismuth silicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Zhilan; Li, Kefeng; Zhang, Lei; Cheng, Jimeng; Hu, Lili

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the spectroscopic properties of and energy transfer processes in Er-Tm co-doped bismuth silicate glass. The Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ and Tm3+ are calculated, and the similar values indicate that the local environments of these two kinds of rare earth ions are almost the same. When the samples are pumped at 980 nm, the emission intensity ratio of Tm:3F4 → 3H6 to Er:4I13/2 → 4I15/2 increases with increased Er3+ and Tm3+ contents, indicating energy transfer from Er:4I13/2 to Tm:3F4. When the samples are pumped at 800 nm, the emission intensity ratio of Er:4I13/2 → 4I15/2 to Tm:3H4 → 3F4 increases with increased Tm2O3 concentration, indicating energy transfer from Tm:3H4 to Er:4I13/2. The rate equations are given to explain the variations. The microscopic and macroscopic energy transfer parameters are calculated, and the values of energy transfer from Er:4I13/2 to Tm:3F4 are found to be higher than those of the other processes. For the Tm singly-doped glass pumped at 800 nm and Er-Tm co-doped glass pumped at 980 nm, the pumping rate needed to realize population reversion is calculated. The result shows that when the Er2O3 doping level is high, pumping the co-doped glass by a 980 nm laser is an effective way of obtaining a low-threshold ˜2 μm gain.

  6. Evidence indicating that the TM4, EL2, and TM5 of the melanocortin 3 receptor Do not participate in ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Schiöth, H B; Muceniece, R; Szardenings, M; Prusis, P; Wikberg, J E

    1996-12-24

    The TM4, EL2 and TM5 show low amino acid homology within the MC receptor family. Three mutants of the human MC3 receptor were created in order to investigate the participation of these regions in ligand binding. The TM4, EL2 and TM5 were separately changed by multiple mutagenesis so that their amino acid sequences became identical with the human MC1 receptor. The mutants were expressed in COS cells and they bound peptide ligands in the same fashion as the wild type MC3 receptor clone. Our results indicate that the amino acids that were mutated in the MC3 receptor do not affect the binding of MSH peptides. The data provide further evidence, that the mutated regions may not participate at all in ligand binding, as indicated by modelling experiments and homology comparison.

  7. Results of a Telephone Survey of Television Station Managers Concerning the NASA SCI Files(TM) and NASA CONNECT(TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Perry, Jeannine

    2004-01-01

    A telephone survey of television station managers concerning 2 instructional television programs, the NASA SCI Files(TM) and NASA CONNECT(TM), offered by the NASA Langley Center for Distance Learning (CDL) was conducted. Using a 4-point scale, with 4 being very satisfied, survey participants reported that they were either very satisfied (77.1 percent) or satisfied (19.9 percent) with the overall (educational and technical) quality of the NASA SCI Files(TM). Using a 4-point scale, with 4 being very satisfied, survey participants reported that they were either very satisfied (77.9 percent) or satisfied (19.1 percent) with the overall (educational and technical) quality of NASA CONNECT(TM) .

  8. Measurements of the 169Tm(n,2n)168Tm cross section between 9.0 and 17.5 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soter, J.; Bhike, Megha; Krishichayan, Fnu; Finch, S. W.; Tornow, W.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of the 169Tm(n,2n)168Tm cross section have been performed in 0.5 MeV intervals for neutron energies ranging from 9.0 MeV to 17.5 MeV in order to resolve discrepancies in the current literature data. The neutron activation technique was used with 90Zr and 197Au as monitor foils. After irradiation, de-excitation gamma rays were recorded off-line with High-Purity Germanium (HPGE) detectors in TUNL's Low-Background Counting Facility. In addition, data for the 169Tm(n,3n)167Tm reaction have also been obtained from 15.5 MeV to 17.5 MeV. The results of these measurements provide the basis for investigating properties of the interial confinement fusion plasma in deuterium-tritium (DT) capsules at the National Ignition Facility located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  9. Modelling of graphene Q-switched Tm lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasukevich, A. S.; Loiko, P.; Gusakova, N. V.; Serres, J. M.; Mateos, X.; Yumashev, K. V.; Kuleshov, N. V.; Petrov, V.; Griebner, U.; Aguiló, M.; Díaz, F.

    2017-04-01

    We report on a model of diode-pumped Thulium lasers passively Q-switched by a graphene saturable absorber applicable also for any other ;fast; saturable absorber. It reasonably predicts the dependence of the pulse duration, pulse energy and pulse repetition frequency on the absorbed power. The model is applied in the present work for a Tm: KLuW microchip laser passively Q-switched with a multi-layer graphene saturable absorber. The laser generates 1 W at 1926 nm with a slope efficiency of 39%. Stable 190 ns /4.1 μJ pulses are achieved at a pulse repetition frequency of 260 kHz. The potential of graphene for the generation of few-ns pulses at 2 μm is discussed.

  10. Leanergy(TM): how lean manufacturing can improve energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Riche, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency has become a competitive issue for industrial companies. The evolution of energy prices and regulation will make this issue even more important in the future. For several years, the energy-intensive chemical industry has been implementing corrective actions. Helped by the absorption of base load energy consumption by larger production volumes, specific energy consumption (KWh per production unit) has been significantly reduced in recent years. However, most plants have reached the end of their first action plan based on improving the utilities performance. The Leanergy(TM) method developed by the consultancy company Okavango-energy, is a structured approach based on lean manufacturing which widens the scope of saving sources to process and operations. Starting from the analysis of actual production requirements, Okavango is able to adjust consumption to minimum requirements and so remove any energy consumption that does not contribute to the added value creation.

  11. Excited-state absorption measurements of Tm3+-doped crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szela, J. W.; Mackenzie, J. I.

    2012-06-01

    High resolution, absolute excited-state absorption (ESA) spectra, at room temperature, from the long-lived 3F4 energy level of several crystals doped with trivalent thulium (Tm3+) ions have been measured employing high-brightness narrowband (FWHM <30 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) as a probe wavelength. The aim of this investigation was to determine the strength of ESA channels at wavelengths addressable by commercially available semiconductor laser diodes operating around 630-680 nm. The favourable lifetime of the 3F4 manifold and negligible ground-state absorption (GSA) for the red-wavelength second-step excitation, ensures a direct and efficient route for a dual-wavelength pumping scheme of the thulium ion, which will enable blue-green laser emission from its 1G4 upper-laser level.

  12. Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Dewald, J.D.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Micijevic, E.; Ruggles, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed degradations in the IC, a new procedure was implemented for U.S.-processed data in May 2003. This new calibration procedure is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration model for the instrument's reflective bands (1-5 and 7) and is derived, in part, from the IC response without the related degradation effects and is tied to the cross calibration with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. Reflective-band absolute radiometric accuracy of the instrument tends to be on the order of 7% to 10%, based on a variety of calibration methods.

  13. Characterization of radiometric calibration of LANDSAT-4 TM reflective bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.

    1984-01-01

    Prelaunch and postlaunch internal calibrator, image, and background data is to characterize the radiometric performance of the LANDSAT-4 TM and to recommend improved procedures for radiometric calibration. All but two channels (band 2, channel 4; band 5, channel 3) behave normally. Gain changes relative to a postlaunch reference for channels within a band vary within 0.5 percent as a group. Instrument gain for channels in the cold focal plane oscillates. Noise in background and image data ranges from 0.5 to 1.7 counts. Average differences in forward and reverse image data indicate a need for separate calibration processing of forward and reverse scans. Precision is improved by increasing the pulse integration width from 31 to 41 minor frames, depending on the band.

  14. Light-assisted collisions in ultracold Tm atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cojocaru, I. S.; Pyatchenkov, S. V.; Snigirev, S. A.; Luchnikov, I. A.; Kalganova, E. S.; Vishnyakova, G. A.; Kublikova, D. N.; Bushmakin, V. S.; Davletov, E. T.; Tsyganok, V. V.; Belyaeva, O. V.; Khoroshilov, A.; Sorokin, V. N.; Sukachev, D. D.; Akimov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    We studied light-assisted collisions of Tm atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), working on a weak cooling transition at 530.7 nm [4 f13(F2o) 6 s2,J =7 /2 ,F =4 to 4 f12(H36) 5 d5 /26 s2,J =9 /2 ,F =5 ]. We observed a strong influence from radiation trapping and light-assisted collisions on the dynamics of this trap. We carefully separated these two contributions and measured the binary loss rate constant at different laser powers and detuning frequencies near the cooling transition. Analyzing losses from the MOT, we found the light-assisted inelastic binary loss rate constant to reach values of up to β =10-9c m3/s and gave the upper bound on a branching ratio k <0.8 ×10-6 for the 530.7 nm transition.

  15. De novo gene synthesis design using TmPrime software.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo-Huang; Bode, Marcus; Huang, Mo Chao; Cheong, Wai Chye; Lim, Li Shi

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents TmPrime, a computer program to design oligonucleotide for both ligase chain reaction (LCR)- and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based de novo gene synthesis. The program divides a long input DNA sequence based on user-specified melting temperatures and assembly conditions, and dynamically optimizes the length of oligonucleotides to achieve homologous melting temperatures. The output reports the melting temperatures, oligonucleotide sequences, and potential formation of secondary structures in a PDF file, which will be sent to the user via e-mail. The program also provides functions on sequence pooling to separate long genes into smaller pieces for multipool assembly and codon optimization for expression based on the highest organism-specific codon frequency. This software has been successfully used in the design and synthesis of various genes with total length >20 kbp. This program is freely available at http://prime.ibn.a-star.edu.sg.

  16. Effects of substitutional atoms on the properties of γ'-(Fe 1- xTM x) 4N (TM = Co, Ni) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Desheng; Li, Fashen; Yang, Jingbo; Kong, Yong; Gao, Meizhen

    1997-02-01

    We report on the influence of substitutional atoms TM (TM = Co, Ni) on the properties of (Fe 1- xTM x) 4N compounds. The structure and magnetic properties were studied by X-ray diffraction, vibrating-sample magnetometer measurement and Mössbauer spectroscopy. All the samples exhibit a γ'-Fe 4N-type structure. The substitution of Co for iron is random, but Ni has a preference for the comer sites. The hyperfine field and the isomer shift of γ'-(Fe 1- xTM x) 4N are closely related to the concentration of the substitutional atom and its site occupation. All these can be readily explained by the increase of 3d electrons and the decrease of unit-cell volume. Combining the saturation magnetization and the hyperfine field, the magnetic moment of transition-metal atom in γ'-(Fe 1- xTM x) 4N has been derived. Using high-pressure Mössbauer spectra, the magnetovolume effect and the chemical bonding effect of the TM atom has been investigated for the first time.

  17. Tm-doped TiO2 and Tm2Ti2O7 pyrochlore nanoparticles: enhancing the photocatalytic activity of rutile with a pyrochlore phase

    PubMed Central

    De los Santos, Desiré M; Aguilar, Teresa; Sánchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Fernández-Lorenzo, Concha; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Piñero, Jose Carlos; Blanco, Ginesa; Martín-Calleja, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tm-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using a water-controlled hydrolysis reaction. Analysis was performed in order to determine the influence of the dopant concentration and annealing temperature on the phase, crystallinity, and electronic and optical properties of the resulting material. Various characterization techniques were utilized such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy. For the samples annealed at 773 and 973 K, anatase phase TiO2 was obtained, predominantly internally doped with Tm3+. ICP–AES showed that a doping concentration of up to 5.8 atom % was obtained without reducing the crystallinity of the samples. The presence of Tm3+ was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy: the incorporation of Tm3+ was confirmed by the generation of new absorption bands that could be assigned to Tm3+ transitions. Furthermore, when the samples were annealed at 1173 K, a pyrochlore phase (Tm2Ti2O7) mixed with TiO2 was obtained with a predominant rutile phase. The photodegradation of methylene blue showed that this pyrochlore phase enhanced the photocatalytic activity of the rutile phase. PMID:25821701

  18. Classification of forest growth stage using Landsat TM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Gerard, Patrick D.; Evans, David L.

    2005-09-01

    This study examined the utility of polytomous logistic regression in pixel classification of remotely sensed images by the growth stage of forests. For a population of grouped continuous categories, the assumption of normal distribution of independent variables, which is often required in multivariate classification methods, may not be appropriate. Two types of polytomous logistic regression procedures, multinomial and cumulative logistic regression, were used to classify Landsat TM data by growth stage (regeneration-immature, intermediate, and mature) of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forest in the east central Mississippi. Multinomial logistic regression is typically used for analysis of unordered categorical data. Cumulative logistic regression is one of the most commonly used methods of ordinal logistic regression which is generally preferred to analyze ordered categorical data, although, it imposes restrictions on the data. Three hundred sample points were located randomly throughout the study site and vectors of pixel values of four bands of Landsat TM data were used to predict growth stage at each sample location. The results were compared to that of parametric and nonparametric discriminant analysis, k-nearest neighbor method. Non-normal distribution of independent variables indicated a violation of the assumptions for parametric discriminant analysis. Classification with cumulative logistic regression using four bands was performed first. However, the assumption of the model was not met. So, the classification was also performed using only band 4 which appeared to meet the assumption. The error rate of cumulative logistic regression was 39.12% with all the bands and 37.70% with band 4 alone. Although error rate with cumulative logistic regression with band 4 alone resulted in the lowest error rate, the improvement over other methods was marginal. The error rate of k-nearest neighbor method varied from 38.68 to 48.06% depending on choice of the value of k.

  19. BOREAS TE-18, 30-m, Radiometrically Rectified Landsat TM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-18 team used a radiometric rectification process to produce standardized DN values for a series of Landsat TM images of the BOREAS SSA and NSA in order to compare images that were collected under different atmospheric conditions. The images for each study area were referenced to an image that had very clear atmospheric qualities. The reference image for the SSA was collected on 02-Sep-1994, while the reference image for the NSA was collected on 21-Jun-1995. the 23 rectified images cover the period of 07-Jul-1985 to 18 Sep-1994 in the SSA and from 22-Jun-1984 to 09-Jun-1994 in the NSA. Each of the reference scenes had coincident atmospheric optical thickness measurements made by RSS-11. The radiometric rectification process is described in more detail by Hall et al. (199 1). The original Landsat TM data were received from CCRS for use in the BOREAS project. The data are stored in binary image-format files. Due to the nature of the radiometric rectification process and copyright issues, these full-resolution images may not be publicly distributed. However, a spatially degraded 60-m resolution version of the images is available on the BOREAS CD-ROM series. See Sections 15 and 16 for information about how to possibly acquire the full resolution data. Information about the full-resolution images is provided in an inventory listing on the CD-ROMs. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  20. BOREAS TE-18, 60-m, Radiometrically Rectified Landsat TM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-18 team used a radiometric rectification process to produce standardized DN values for a series of Landsat TM images of the BOREAS SSA and NSA in order to compare images that were collected under different atmospheric conditions. The images for each study area were referenced to an image that had very clear atmospheric qualities. The reference image for the SSA was collected on 02-Sep-1994, while the reference image for the NSA was collected on 2 1 Jun-1995. The 23 rectified images cover the period of 07-Jul-1985 to 18-Sep-1994 in the SSA and 22-Jun-1984 to 09-Jun-1994 in the NSA. Each of the reference scenes had coincident atmospheric optical thickness measurements made by RSS-11. The radiometric rectification process is described in more detail by Hall et al. (1991). The original Landsat TM data were received from CCRS for use in the BOREAS project. Due to the nature of the radiometric rectification process and copyright issues, the full-resolution (30-m) images may not be publicly distributed. However, this spatially degraded 60-m resolution version of the images may be openly distributed and is available on the BOREAS CD-ROM series. After the radiometric rectification processing, the original data were degraded to a 60-m pixel size from the original 30-m pixel size by averaging the data over a 2- by 2-pixel window. The data are stored in binary image-format files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  1. The Space House TM : Space Technologies in Architectural Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gampe, F.; Raitt, D.

    2002-01-01

    The word "space" has always been associated with and had a profound impact upon architectural design. Until relatively recently, however, the term has been used in a different sense to that understood by the aerospace community - for them, space was less abstract, more concrete and used in the context of space flight and space exploration, rather than, say, an empty area or space requiring to be filled by furniture. However, the two senses of the word space have now converged to some extent. Interior designers and architects have been involved in designing the interior of Skylab, the structure of the International Space Station, and futuristic space hotels. Today, architects are designing, and builders are building, houses, offices and other structures which incorporate a plethora of new technologies, materials and production processes in an effort not only to introduce innovative and adventurous ideas but also in an attempt to address environmental and social issues. Foremost among these new technologies and materials being considered today are those that have been developed for and by the space industry. This paper examines some of these space technologies, such as energy efficient solar cells, durable plastics, air and water filtration techniques, which have been adapted to both provide power while reducing energy consumption, conserve resources and so on. Several of these technologies have now been employed by the European Space Agency to develop a Space House TM - the first of its kind, which will be deployed not so much on planets like Mars, but rather here on Earth. The Space House TM, which exhibits many innovative features such as high strength light-weight carbon composites, active noise-damped, (glass and plastic) windows, low-cost solar arrays and latent heat storage, air and water purification systems will be described.

  2. Does LibQUAL+[TM] Account for Student Loyalty to a University College Library?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgesen, Oyvind; Nesset, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to find out whether LibQUAL+[TM]can account for student loyalty to the library of an institution of higher education. LibQUAL+[TM] is a marketing tool that is used to measure perceived service quality of libraries, and the present analysis aims at validating this service quality instrument within a more…

  3. THE RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF WHEAT PROTEIN ISOLATE PROLITE TM 200 SUSPENSIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linear and non-linear rheological properties of wheat protein isolate PROLITE TM 200 suspensions were investigated as a function of concentration and pH. Linear dynamic viscoelastic properties for PROLITE TM 200 were strongly dependent on concentration and pH. The higher the concentration, the str...

  4. TM4SF1 Promotes Metastasis of Pancreatic Cancer via Regulating the Expression of DDR1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jia-chun; Zhang, Yi; He, Si-jia; Li, Ming-ming; Cai, Xiao-lei; Wang, Hui; Xu, Lei-ming; Cao, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Transmembrane-4-L-six-family-1(TM4SF1), a four-transmembrane L6 family member, is highly expressed in various pancreatic cancer cell lines and promotes cancer cells metastasis. However, the TM4SF1-associated signaling network in metastasis remains unknown. In the present study, we found that TM4SF1 affected the formation and function of invadopodia. Silencing of TM4SF1 reduced the expression of DDR1 significantly in PANC-1 and AsPC-1 cells. Through double fluorescence immuno-staining and Co-immunoprecipitation, we also found that TM4SF1 colocalized with DDR1 and had an interaction with DDR1. In addition, upregulating the expression of DDR1 rescued the inhibitory effects of cell migration and invasion, the expression of MMP2 and MMP9 and the formation and function of invadopodia when TM4SF1 silenced. In pancreatic cancer tissues, qRT-PCR and scatter plots analysis further determined that TM4SF1 had a correlation with DDR1. Collectively, our study provides a novel regulatory pathway involving TM4SF1, DDR1, MMP2 and MMP9, which promotes the formation and function of invadopodia to support cell migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer. PMID:28368050

  5. Comparison of spectroscopic properties of Tm and Ho in YAG and YLF crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armagan, G.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Inge, A. T.; Di Bartolo, B.

    1991-01-01

    The paper compares the cross-relaxation, energy transfer and loss processes in Tm- and Ho-doped YAG and YLF as a function of temperature, Tm concentration, and excitation power. Significant differences in the behavior of Tm and Tm,Ho in YAG and YLF crystals were found. The cross-relaxation rates of Tm(6 pct) are faster in YLF (about 5 microsec) than YAG (about 10 microsec). The energy transfer rates between Tm and Ho are faster in YLF than YAG. The time it takes for the maximum intensity of 1.7-micron emission to drop 10 percent is 25 microsec for YLF:Tm(6 pct),Ho(0.6 pct) and 65 microsec YAG:Tm(6 pct),Ho(0.5 pct). The losses occurring with increasing pump power for 2.1-micron emission of the above samples are 30 percent less in YLF than YAG. These qualitative differences point to YLF as a valuable 2-micron laser host material.

  6. Systemic GLIPR1-ΔTM protein as a novel therapeutic approach for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Karantanos, Theodoros; Tanimoto, Ryuta; Edamura, Kohei; Hirayama, Takahiro; Yang, Guang; Golstov, Alexei A; Wang, Jianxiang; Kurosaka, Shinji; Park, Sanghee; Thompson, Timothy C

    2014-04-15

    GLIPR1 is a p53 target gene known to be downregulated in prostate cancer, and increased endogenous GLIPR1 expression has been associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species, increased apoptosis, decreased c-Myc protein levels and increased cell cycle arrest. Recently, we found that upregulation of GLIPR1 in prostate cancer cells increases mitotic catastrophe through interaction with heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) and downregulation of Aurora kinase A and TPX2. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms of recombinant GLIPR1 protein (glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1-transmembrane domain deleted [GLIPR1-ΔTM]) uptake by prostate cancer cells and the efficacy of systemic GLIPR1-ΔTM administration in a prostate cancer xenograft mouse model. GLIPR1-ΔTM was selectively internalized by prostate cancer cells, leading to increased apoptosis through reactive oxygen species production and to decreased c-Myc protein levels. Interestingly, GLIPR1-ΔTM was internalized through clathrin-mediated endocytosis in association with Hsc70. Systemic administration of GLIPR1-ΔTM significantly inhibited VCaP xenograft growth. GLIPR1-ΔTM showed no evidence of toxicity following elimination from mouse models 8 hr after injection. Our results demonstrate that GLIPR1-ΔTM is selectively endocytosed by prostate cancer cells, leading to increased reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis, and that systemic GLIPR1-ΔTM significantly inhibits growth of VCaP xenografts without substantial toxicity.

  7. TM4SF1 Promotes Metastasis of Pancreatic Cancer via Regulating the Expression of DDR1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia-Chun; Zhang, Yi; He, Si-Jia; Li, Ming-Ming; Cai, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Hui; Xu, Lei-Ming; Cao, Jia

    2017-04-03

    Transmembrane-4-L-six-family-1(TM4SF1), a four-transmembrane L6 family member, is highly expressed in various pancreatic cancer cell lines and promotes cancer cells metastasis. However, the TM4SF1-associated signaling network in metastasis remains unknown. In the present study, we found that TM4SF1 affected the formation and function of invadopodia. Silencing of TM4SF1 reduced the expression of DDR1 significantly in PANC-1 and AsPC-1 cells. Through double fluorescence immuno-staining and Co-immunoprecipitation, we also found that TM4SF1 colocalized with DDR1 and had an interaction with DDR1. In addition, upregulating the expression of DDR1 rescued the inhibitory effects of cell migration and invasion, the expression of MMP2 and MMP9 and the formation and function of invadopodia when TM4SF1 silenced. In pancreatic cancer tissues, qRT-PCR and scatter plots analysis further determined that TM4SF1 had a correlation with DDR1. Collectively, our study provides a novel regulatory pathway involving TM4SF1, DDR1, MMP2 and MMP9, which promotes the formation and function of invadopodia to support cell migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer.

  8. O*NET[TM] Career Exploration Tools. Version 3.0.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Developed by the U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Information Network (O*NET) team, the O*NET[TM] Career Exploration Tools (Version 3.0) consist of three main parts: (1) the Interest Profiler; (2) the Work Importance Locator; and (3) the O*NET[TM] Occupations Combined List. The Interest Profiler is a self-assessment career exploration tool…

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of the Lignocellulose Decomposer Thermobifida fusca Strain TM51.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Akos; Barna, Terézia; Nagy, István; Horváth, Balázs; Nagy, István; Táncsics, András; Kriszt, Balázs; Baka, Erzsébet; Fekete, Csaba; Kukolya, József

    2013-07-11

    Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Thermobifida fusca strain TM51, which was isolated from the hot upper layer of a compost pile in Hungary. T. fusca TM51 is a thermotolerant, aerobic actinomycete with outstanding lignocellulose-decomposing activity.

  10. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dona, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Jenson, Alfred B.; Bonde, Robert K.; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild.

  11. In Search of an Uncultured Human-Associated TM7 Bacterium in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Dinis, Jorge M.; Barton, David E.; Ghadiri, Jamsheed; Surendar, Deepa; Reddy, Kavitha; Velasquez, Fernando; Chaffee, Carol L.; Lee, Mei-Chong Wendy; Gavrilova, Helen; Ozuna, Hazel; Smits, Samuel A.; Ouverney, Cleber C.

    2011-01-01

    We have identified an environmental bacterium in the Candidate Division TM7 with ≥98.5% 16S rDNA gene homology to a group of TM7 bacteria associated with the human oral cavity and skin. The environmental TM7 bacterium (referred to as TM7a-like) was readily detectable in wastewater with molecular techniques over two years of sampling. We present the first images of TM7a-like cells through FISH technique and the first images of any TM7 as viable cells through the STARFISH technique. In situ quantification showed TM7 concentration in wastewater up to five times greater than in human oral sites. We speculate that upon further characterization of the physiology and genetics of the TM7a-like bacterium from environmental sources and confirmation of its genomic identity to human-associated counterparts it will serve as model organisms to better understand its role in human health. The approach proposed circumvents difficulties imposed by sampling humans, provides an alternative strategy to characterizing some diseases of unknown etiology, and renders a much needed understanding of the ecophysiological role hundreds of unique Bacteria and Archaea strains play in mixed microbial communities. PMID:21701585

  12. "Zones of Tolerance" in Perceptions of Library Service Quality: A LibQUAL+[TM] Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Colleen; Heath, Fred M.; Thompson, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    One of the two major ways of interpreting LibQUAL+[TM] data involves placing perceived service quality ratings within "zones of tolerance" defined as the distances between minimally-acceptable and desired service quality levels. This study compared zones of tolerance on the 25 LibQUAL+[TM] items across undergraduate, graduate student and…

  13. LibQUAL+[TM]: A Methodological Suite; Reliability and Structure of LibQUAL+[TM] Scores: Measuring Perceived Library Service Quality; Score Norms for Improving Library Service Quality: A LibQUAL+[TM] Study; ARL Index and Other Validity Correlates of LibQUAL+[TM] Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Fred M.; Thompson, Bruce; Cook, Colleen; Thompson, Russel L.; Kyrillidou, Martha

    2002-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss LibQUAL+[TM], a collaborative effort of the Association of Research Libraries and Texas A&M University responding to the need for greater accountability in measuring the delivery of library services to research library users. Discusses the reliability of LibQUAL+[TM] scores in measuring perceived library…

  14. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M; Bossart, Gregory D; Jenson, Alfred B; Bonde, Robert K; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-07-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild.

  15. iPad[TM]: Enhancing Learning & Communication for Students with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Brian; Besko-Maughan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The iPad[TM] is a revolutionary technology for use in our 21st century classrooms. It is profoundly changing both the manner in which teachers present instructional content, as well as the way students process and learn new information. The multi-sensory design of the iPad[TM] makes it an ideal tool for teaching students with special needs. This…

  16. Final Comparison of TM and MSS Data for Surface Mine Assessment in Logan County, West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, R. G.; Blodget, H. W.; Marcell, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of classifications during both raw and transformed MSS and TM data sets from 4 September 1982 were performed for the Logan County, West Virginia study area. The object was to compare the utility of TM and MSS data for delineating small, irregular ground features, particularly surface mines, and also to test data reduction/transformation techniques (band selection, canonical analysis, and principal components) in relation to a traditional means of unsupervised classification. Statistical results demonstrate that, on the average, the TM classifications yielded an overall .53 factor of improvement relative to the MSS classifications. When the accuracies for only three minor (in terms of areal extent) land use categories are examined, the factor of improvement for TM over MSS increases to 1.48; i.e., the TM is nearly one and one-half times better than the MSS for delineating small and irregular ground features such as contour strip mines.

  17. Return of backbending in 169Tm and the effect of the N =98 deformed shell gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgar, Md. A.; Roy, T.; Mukherjee, G.; Dhal, A.; Bhattacharya, Soumik; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bhattacharya, C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chaudhuri, A.; Banerjee, K.; Kundu, S.; Manna, S.; Pandey, R.; Meena, J. K.; Palit, R.; Biswas, S.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.; Singh, P.; Choudhury, D.

    2017-03-01

    The high spin excited states of 169Tm been studied via the 169Tm (32S, '32S)169Tm* reaction at a beam energy of 164 MeV. The γ rays were detected using an array of 19 Compton-suppressed clover HPGe detectors. The band based on the [411 ] 1 /2+ Nilsson orbital has been extended to observe the band crossing for the first time in this nucleus. A sharp backbending, similar to 165Tm, is observed in this nucleus which is in complete contrast with its immediate neighbor 167Tm. The data were interpreted in the cranked shell model approach by calculating the total Routhian surfaces, crossing frequencies, and the interaction strengths for these nuclei which are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. It is suggested that the N =98 deformed shell gap has larger effect in determining the nature of alignment than its shape driving effect.

  18. A First Evaluation of LANDSAT TM Data to Monitor Suspended Sediments in Lakes. [Lake Chicot, Arkansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiebe, F. R.; Ritchie, J. C.; Boatwright, G. O.

    1985-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT to monitor and track changes in the water quality of Lake Chicot, Arizona was assessed using MSS and TM digital data from nine water sites. Results show that: (1) TM Bands 1, 2, 3, and 4 appear to be providing information on concentrations of particulate matter suspended in surface waters. These bands are also highly interrelated for water samples; (2) preliminary evaluation indicates that TM Band 3 showed the best relationship to surface suspended solids; (3) TM Bands 5 and 7 are useful for separating water from nonwater areas; (4) the MSS Bands 2 and 3 can be related to suspended solids in surface water, as has already been shown from previous LANDSAT research; and (5) analysis of TM Band 6 indicates that while synoptic temperature patterns may be discerned, the digital sensitivity to a two degree temperature difference is low.

  19. Electrochemical Preparation of Al-Li-Er-Tm Alloys by Co-reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi; Zhang, Milin; Han, Wei; Li, Mei; Ye, Ke; Yang, Yusheng; Yan, Yongde; Zhang, Meng

    2013-12-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Al, Li, Er, and Tm was investigated on tungsten electrodes in LiCl-KCl-AlF3-ErCl3-TmCl3 melts. The results indicated that the co-reduction of Al, Li, Er, and Tm occurs at current densities more negative than -0.469 A cm-2 or applied potentials more negative than -2.31 V. The strengthen phases of Al3Er and Al3Tm were prepared by galvanostatic electrolysis and characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. ICP-AES analyses showed that the content of lithium, erbium, and thulium in Al-Li-Er-Tm alloys could be controlled by adjusting AlF3 concentration and electrochemical parameters.

  20. Upconversion energy transfer in Yb3+/Tm3+ doped tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żmojda, J.; Dorosz, D.; Kochanowicz, M.; Dorosz, J.

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents energy transfer in tellurite glass from the system TeO2 - GeO2 - PbO - PbF2- BaO - Nb2O5 - LaF3 doped with Yb3+/Tm3+ ions. Under the excitation of 976 nm laser a strong blue emission (477 nm) corresponding to the transition 1G4 --> 3H6 in thulium ions was observed. Analysing the influence of the content of Tm3+ ions on the level of luminescence obtained by the mechanism of upconversion it was established that the most effective energy transfer between Yb 3+--> Tm3+ ions took place in the matrix doped in the following proportion: 1 Yb3+:0.1 Tm3+ (%mol). Based on the non-resonant process of energy transfer between Yb3+ and Tm3+ ions the mechanism of upconversion was discussed.

  1. Analysis of the thermal effects in diode-pumped Tm:YAG ceramic slab lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaojin; Shang, Jianhua; Jiang, Benxue

    2017-03-01

    Tm:YAG ceramics with a quasi-three-level system are sensitive to temperature. The optical and thermodynamic properties of Tm:YAG ceramics can change with changing temperature, and this affects the output power stability and beam quality of lasers. Thus temperature control is a key and difficult problem for Tm:YAG lasers, especially for high power laser output. In combination with slab structure and grad-doping techniques for composite ceramics, the temperature distributions of Tm:YAG ceramics are analyzed. It is found that the temperature difference of a rationally designed grad-doping Tm:YAG ceramic can be reduced significantly with the same absorption pump power, which results in higher output power and beam quality.

  2. Recoil Decay Tagging Study Of Transitional Proton Emitters 145,146,147Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, A.P.; Woods, P.J.; Davinson, T.; Liu, Z.; Davids, C.N.; Seweryniak, D.; Carpenter, M.P.; Hammond, N.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Mukherjee, G.; Sinha, S.; Blank, B.; Freeman, S.J.; Hoteling, N.; Shergur, J.; Walters, W.B.; Scholey, C.; Sonzogni, A.A.; Woehr, A.

    2005-04-05

    Gamma rays from the transitional proton emitting nuclei 145,146,147Tm have been observed using the recoil-decay tagging technique. The ground state band of 147Tm was confirmed and extended and the unfavoured signature sequence was observed. A ground state rotational band with properties of a decoupled h11/2 band was observed in 145Tm. In addition coincidences between the proton fine structure line and the 2+{yields}0+ {gamma}-ray transition in 144Er were detected at the focal plane of the FMA. This is the first time that coincidences between proton radioactive decays and {gamma} rays have been seen. The particle decay of 146Tm has been measured with improved statistics and a rotational band similar to 147Tm has been observed.

  3. A second eukaryotic group with mitochondrion-encoded tmRNA

    PubMed Central

    Hafez, Mohamed; Burger, Gertraud; Steinberg, Sergey V.; Lang, Franz

    2013-01-01

    In bacteria, stalled ribosomes are rescued by transfer-mRNA (tmRNA) that catalyzes two steps. First, a non-encoded alanine is added to the incomplete polypeptide chain by the tRNAAla-like portion of tmRNA, and second, the ribosome switches to the mRNA-like domain of tmRNA, thus resuming protein synthesis. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded mt-tmRNA is so far only known from jakobid protists, but we posit that the corresponding ssrA gene may also reside in other mtDNAs. Here we present a highly sensitive covariance model built from jakobid ssrA genes that identifies previously unrecognized ssrA homologs in mtDNAs of oomycetes. These genes, located in previously unassigned genomic regions, are circular permuted as in α-Protobacteria, implying that pre-tmRNA is processed and the two pieces are held together by non-covalent interactions. RNA-Seq data from Phytophthora sojae confirm predicted processing sites as well as post-transcriptional addition of 3′ CCA, a prerequisite for tmRNAs to be charged with alanine by alanyl-tRNA synthetase. Structure modeling of oomycete tmRNAs infers that the mRNA-like domain is lacking as in jakobids. Features of mitochondrial tmRNAs include the G-U pair at position three of the acceptor stem, a hallmark of bacterial tmRNAs, and a T-loop sequence that differs from that of standard tRNAs and most bacterial tmRNAs, forming alternative, virtually isosteric tertiary interactions with the D-loop. The anticodon stem has two additional G-A base pairs formed between the D-loop and the variable region, shortening the length of the variable region to a single nucleotide. PMID:23823571

  4. Structure probing of tmRNA in distinct stages of trans-translation

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Natalia; Lindell, Magnus; Pavlov, Michael; Holmberg Schiavone, Lovisa; Wagner, E. Gerhart H.; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2007-01-01

    Ribosomes stalled on problematic mRNAs in bacterial cells can be rescued by transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), its helper protein (small protein B, SmpB), and elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) through a mechanism called trans-translation. In this work we used lead(II) footprinting to probe the interactions of tmRNA with SmpB and other components of the translation machinery at different steps of the trans-translation cycle. Ribosomes with a short nascent peptide stalled on a truncated mRNA were reacted with Ala-tmRNA•EF-Tu•GTP, SmpB, and other translation components to initiate and execute trans-translation. Free tmRNA was probed with lead(II) acetate with and without SmpB, and ribosome bound tmRNA was probed in one of four different trans-translation states stabilized by antibiotic addition or selective exclusion of translation components. For comparison, we also analyzed lead(II) cleavage patterns of tmRNA in vivo in a wild-type as well as in an SmpB-deficient Escherichia coli strain. We observed some specific cleavages/protections in tmRNA for the individual steps of trans-translation, but the overall tmRNA conformation appeared to be similar in the stages analyzed. Our findings suggest that, in vivo, a dominant fraction of tmRNA is in complex with SmpB and that, in vitro, SmpB remains tmRNA bound at the initial steps of trans-translation. PMID:17400816

  5. 77 FR 31069 - Pricing for the 2012 America the Beautiful Quarters Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Beautiful Quarters Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the... Beautiful Quarters Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM . The coins will be offered for sale at a...

  6. Brain temperature by Biosensor Imaging of Redundant Deviation in Shifts (BIRDS): comparison between TmDOTP5- and TmDOTMA-.

    PubMed

    Coman, Daniel; Trubel, Hubert K; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2010-04-01

    Chemical shifts of complexes between paramagnetic lanthanide ions and macrocyclic chelates are sensitive to physiological variations (of temperature and/or pH). Here we demonstrate utility of a complex between thulium ion (Tm(3+)) and the macrocyclic chelate 1,4,7,10-tetramethyl 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate (or DOTMA(4-)) for absolute temperature mapping in rat brain. The feasibility of TmDOTMA(-) is compared with that of another Tm(3+)-containing biosensor which is based on the macrocyclic chelate 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane- 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(methylene phosphonate) (or DOTP(8-)). In general, the in vitro and in vivo results suggest that Biosensor Imaging of Redundant Deviation in Shifts (BIRDS) which originate from these agents (but exclude water) can provide temperature maps with good accuracy. While TmDOTP(5-) emanates three major distinct proton resonances which are differentially sensitive to temperature and pH, TmDOTMA(-) has a dominant pH-insensitive proton resonance from a -CH(3) group to allow higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) temperature assessment. Temperature (and pH) sensitivities of these resonances are practically identical at low (4.0T) and high (11.7T) magnetic fields and at nominal repetition times only marginal SNR loss is expected at the lower field. Since these resonances have extremely short relaxation times, high-speed chemical shift imaging (CSI) is needed to detect them. Repeated in vivo CSI scans with BIRDS demonstrate excellent measurement stability. Overall, results with TmDOTP(5-) and TmDOTMA(-) suggest that BIRDS can be reliably applied, either at low or high magnetic fields, for functional studies in rodents.

  7. 75 FR 41517 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Over The RiverTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... responsible for restoring the river corridor according to the standards defined by permitting and approval... Proposed Over The River TM Art Project, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... (EIS) for the Proposed Over The River TM Art Project (Over The River TM Draft EIS) and by this...

  8. 76 FR 15047 - Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Silver Proof SetTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... United States Mint Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Silver Proof Set\\TM\\, etc. ACTION: Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Silver Proof Set TM ; 2010 United States Mint Silver Proof Set TM ; 2011 United States Mint America the Beautiful...

  9. Using Landsat TM data to model corn and soybean yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candanedo Guevara, Martin Edmundo

    2001-07-01

    Early research in agriculture used remotely sensed data mostly for the identification of spectral signatures, where crop type/area classification would depend on data acquired from hand-held or truck-mounted instruments. Through time different approaches were taken for crop type/area classification, such as a systematic sampling of inventory ground data that were used later for training and testing using image processing techniques. Later, technology such as the global positioning system (GPS) and geographic information systems (GIS) were used for application to precision agriculture. These new tools provided a better meaning to understand and analyze the complex variability of the crop-soil-atmosphere system to estimate crop yields. The present research used data collected in the Management System Evaluation Area (MSEA) in 1998 and two Landsat thematic Mapper images (July and August) to analyze the crop variability. Ground truth parameters, such as chlorophyll, leaf area index (LAI), and electricity conductivity, were collected throughout the growing season. In addition, vegetation indexes (VI) such as the Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), simple vegetation index (SVI), soil adjusted ratio vegetation index (SARVI), were computed for the two images. Both ground truth data and VI's were statistically analyzed with yield measurements taken with an on-the-go yield monitor to estimate a best fit yield model for use with soybeans and corn. The correlation analysis within a Landsat pixel reported SVI52 (r = 0.62), SVI53 (r = 0.56), and SVI54 (r = 0.53) as the most significant relationships. The results from the ground truth data vs. on-the-go yields reported total clay (%) (r = 0.90), leaf area (r = 0.76), and tissue plant analysis (r = 0.73) A stepwise regression analysis was performed using the Landsat TM images and the VI's selected. A series of linear models were evaluated taking into account the Landsat TM and yield while varying the scale (1 pixel to

  10. The Tm7sf2 Gene Deficiency Protects Mice against Endotoxin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Del Sordo, Rachele; Peirce, Matthew J.; Sidoni, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol is essential for diverse cellular functions and cellular and whole-body cholesterol homeostasis is highly controlled. Cholesterol can also influence cellular susceptibility to injury. The connection between cholesterol metabolism and inflammation is exemplified by the Tm7sf2 gene, the absence of which reveals an essential role in cholesterol biosynthesis under stress conditions but also results in an inflammatory phenotype, i.e. NF-κB activation and TNFα up-regulation. Here, by using Tm7sf2+/+and Tm7sf2−/− mice, we investigated whether the Tm7sf2 gene, through its role in cholesterol biosynthesis under stress conditions, is involved in the renal failure induced by the administration of LPS. We found that the loss of Tm7sf2 gene results in significantly reduced blood urea nitrogen levels accompanied by decreased renal inflammatory response and neutral lipid accumulation. The increased expression of fatty acids catabolic enzymes reduces the need of the renal autophagy, a known crucial nutrient-sensing pathway in lipid metabolism. Moreover, we observed that the Tm7sf2 insufficiency is responsible for the inhibition of the NF-κB signalling thus dampening the inflammatory response and leading to a reduced renal damage. These results suggest a pivotal role for Tm7sf2 in renal inflammatory and lipotoxic response under endotoxemic conditions. PMID:26540160

  11. The Tm7sf2 Gene Deficiency Protects Mice against Endotoxin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Gatticchi, Leonardo; Bellezza, Ilaria; Del Sordo, Rachele; Peirce, Matthew J; Sidoni, Angelo; Roberti, Rita; Minelli, Alba

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol is essential for diverse cellular functions and cellular and whole-body cholesterol homeostasis is highly controlled. Cholesterol can also influence cellular susceptibility to injury. The connection between cholesterol metabolism and inflammation is exemplified by the Tm7sf2 gene, the absence of which reveals an essential role in cholesterol biosynthesis under stress conditions but also results in an inflammatory phenotype, i.e. NF-κB activation and TNFα up-regulation. Here, by using Tm7sf2+/+and Tm7sf2-/- mice, we investigated whether the Tm7sf2 gene, through its role in cholesterol biosynthesis under stress conditions, is involved in the renal failure induced by the administration of LPS. We found that the loss of Tm7sf2 gene results in significantly reduced blood urea nitrogen levels accompanied by decreased renal inflammatory response and neutral lipid accumulation. The increased expression of fatty acids catabolic enzymes reduces the need of the renal autophagy, a known crucial nutrient-sensing pathway in lipid metabolism. Moreover, we observed that the Tm7sf2 insufficiency is responsible for the inhibition of the NF-κB signalling thus dampening the inflammatory response and leading to a reduced renal damage. These results suggest a pivotal role for Tm7sf2 in renal inflammatory and lipotoxic response under endotoxemic conditions.

  12. Possible undercompensation effect in the Kondo insulator (Yb,Tm)B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, P. A.; Nemkovski, K. S.; Mignot, J.-M.; Clementyev, E. S.; Ivanov, A. S.; Rols, S.; Bewley, R. I.; Filipov, V. B.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.

    2014-03-01

    The effects of Tm substitution on the dynamical magnetic response of Yb1-xTmxB12 (x=0, 0.08, 0.15, and 0.75) and Lu0.92Tm0.08B12 compounds have been studied using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering. Major changes were observed in the spectral structure and temperature evolution of the Yb contribution to the inelastic response for a rather low content of magnetic Tm ions. A sizable influence of the RB12 host (YbB12, as compared to LuB12 or pure TmB12) on the crystal-field splitting of the Tm3+ ion is also reported. The results point to a specific effect of impurities carrying a magnetic moment (Tm, as compared to Lu or Zr) in a Kondo insulator, which is thought to reflect the "undercompensation" of Yb magnetic moments, originally Kondo screened in pure YbB12. A parallel is made with the strong effect of Tm substitution on the temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient in Yb1-xTmxB12, which was reported previously.

  13. Determination of dosimetric characteristics of OptiSeed(TM) a plastic brachytherapy (103)Pd source.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhonglu; Hertel, Nolan E

    2005-09-01

    A new (103)Pd plastic brachytherapy source, OptiSeed(TM) Model 1032P, is being introduced by International Brachytherapy sa (IBt). Measurements of the dose distributions about the source were performed using LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) in Virtual Water(TM). MCNP5 calculations were performed to determine the dose distributions in Virtual Water(TM) and liquid water. The source dose rate constant, radial dose function, anisotropy function and anisotropy factor have been determined following the updated AAPM TG-43 recommendations. The measured dose rate constant in the Virtual Water(TM) phantom was determined to be 0.727+/-6.9% cGyh(-1)U(-1), and the computed value is 0.716+/-2.1% cGyh(-1)U(-1). The Monte-Carlo simulation yielded a dose rate constant of 0.665+/-2.1% cGyh(-1)U(-1) in water. The measured dose rate constant in water is 0.675+/-7.5% cGyh(-1)U(-1). It is determined by multiplying the dose rate constant measured in the Virtual Water(TM) phantom with the ratio of the value calculated in water to that in Virtual Water(TM). The average of the measured and calculated dose rate constant is 0.670+/-5.5% cGyh(-1)U(-1). The radial dose functions of the new source were measured for distances ranging from 1 to 7 cm in a Virtual Water(TM) phantom. The anisotropy functions in Virtual Water(TM) phantom were measured for distances of 2, 3, 5, and 7 cm. The Monte-Carlo computed radial dose functions, anisotropy functions, and anisotropy factors in both Virtual Water(TM) phantom and water are reported.

  14. A Novel Role for Tm7sf2 Gene in Regulating TNFα Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bellezza, Ilaria; Roberti, Rita; Gatticchi, Leonardo; Del Sordo, Rachele; Rambotti, Maria Grazia; Marchetti, Maria Cristina; Sidoni, Angelo; Minelli, Alba

    2013-01-01

    We have explored the role of Tm7sf2 gene, which codifies for 3β-hydroxysterol Δ14-reductase, an endoplasmic reticulum resident protein, in the sensitivity to endoplasmic reticulum stress and in the resulting inflammatory response. We used mouse embryonic fibroblasts, derived from Tm7sf2+/+ and Tm7sf2−/− mice, to determine the in vitro effects of thapsigargin on NF-κB activation. Our results show that the Tm7sf2 gene controls the launch of the unfolded protein response and presides an anti-inflammatory loop thus its absence correlates with NF-κB activation and TNFα up-regulation. Our data also show that Tm7sf2 gene regulates liver X receptor activation and its absence inhibits LXR signalling. By expressing the hTm7sf2 gene in KO MEFs and observing a reduced NF-κB activation, we have confirmed that Tm7sf2 gene is linked to NF-κB activation. Finally we used genetically modified mice in an in vivo model of ER stress and of inflammation. Our results show a significant increase in renal TNFα expression after tunicamycin exposure and in the oedematogenic response in Tm7sf2−/− mice. In conclusion, we have shown that the Tm7sf2 gene, to date involved only in cholesterol biosynthesis, also controls an anti-inflammatory loop thereby confirming the existence of cross talk between metabolic pathways and inflammatory response. PMID:23935851

  15. Phenotypic and physiological characterization of the epibiotic interaction between TM7x and its basibiont Actinomyces

    PubMed Central

    Bor, Batbileg; Poweleit, Nicole; Bois, Justin S.; Cen, Lujia; Bedree, Joseph K.; Zhou, Z. Hong; Gunsalus, Robert P.; Lux, Renate; McLean, Jeffrey S.; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    Despite many examples of obligate epibiotic symbiosis (one organism living on the surface of another) in nature, such an interaction has rarely been observed between two bacteria. Here, we further characterize a newly reported interaction between a human oral obligate parasitic bacterium TM7x (cultivated member of Candidatus Saccharimonas formerly Candidate Phylum TM7), and its basibiont Actinomyces odontolyticus species (XH001), providing a model system to study epiparasitic symbiosis in the domain Bacteria. Detailed microscopic studies indicate that both partners display extensive morphological changes during symbiotic growth. XH001 cells manifested as short rods in monoculture, but displayed elongated and hyphal morphology when physically associated with TM7x. Interestingly, these dramatic morphological changes in XH001 were also induced in oxygen-depleted conditions, even in the absence of TM7x. Targeted qRT-PCR analyses revealed that both the physical association with TM7x as well as oxygen depletion triggered up-regulation of key stress response genes in XH001, and in combination, these conditions act in an additive manner. TM7x and XH001 co-exist with relatively uniform cell morphologies under nutrient-replete conditions. However, upon nutrient depletion, TM7x-associated XH001 displayed a variety of cell morphologies, including swollen cell body, clubbed ends and even cell lysis, and a large portion of TM7x cells transformed from ultrasmall cocci into elongated cells. Our study demonstrates a highly dynamic interaction between epibiont TM7x and its basibiont XH001 in response to physical association or environmental cues such as oxygen level and nutritional status, as reflected by their morphological and physiological changes during symbiotic growth. PMID:26597961

  16. Broadband 1.20 μm emission in Tm3+-doped and Tm3+/Tb3+, Eu3+ codoped gallogermanate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bo; Tao, Lili; Tsang, Yuen Hong; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun

    2012-09-01

    Broadband 1.20 μm emission originating from the Thulium (Tm3+): 1G4 → 3H4 transition was observed in Tm3+-doped gallogermanate glasses under 476.5 nm excitation. The stimulated emission cross-section is calculated to be 2.85 × 10-21 cm2 using the Füchtbauer-Ladenburg approach. Difficulty in the population inversion between the upper 1G4 and lower 3H4 levels resulting from the cross relaxation process Tm3+ [1G4, 3H6] → [3H4, 3H5] was overcome by the incorporation of Terbium (Tb3+) and Europium (Eu3+) ions. A Judd-Ofelt analysis was performed based on the absorption spectrum and the derived intensity parameters (Ω2 = 4.65 × 10-20, Ω4 = 1.51 × 10-20, and Ω6 = 1.42 × 10-20 cm2) reveal a strong asymmetry and covalent environment between Tm3+ ions and ligands in the host matrix. The results indicate that the Tm3+/Tb3+, Eu3+ codoping scheme is promising in the development of amplifiers and lasers operating at the relatively unexplored 1.2 μm wavelength region.

  17. A comparison of mode instability in Yb- and Tm-doped fiber amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Arlee V.; Smith, Jesse J.

    2016-03-01

    We use a detailed numerical model of stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering to compare mode instability thresholds in cladding pumped Tm3+-doped and Yb3+-doped fiber amplifiers. The Tm-doped fiber amplifies 2040 nm light using a 790 nm pump; the Yb-doped fiber amplifies 1060 nm light using a 976 nm pump. The predicted instability threshold of the Tm-doped fiber is found to be higher than that of the Yb-doped fiber, even though its heat load is much higher. We attribute the higher threshold in part to its longer signal wavelength, and in part to stronger gain saturation.

  18. High-power diode-pumped Tm:YLF slab laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellhorn, M.; Ngcobo, S.; Bollig, C.

    2009-02-01

    A 2% Tm3+-doped LiYF4(Tm:YLF) slab is double-end-pumped by two laser diode stacks. The pumped volume has a rectangular cross section. The Tm:YLF laser produced 148 W of continuos-wave output at 1912 nm in a beam with M {/x 2}≈199 and M {/y 2}≈1.7 for 554 W of incident pump power. The slope efficiency with respect to the incident pump power was 32.6%, and the optical-to-optical efficiency was 26.7%.

  19. Up-conversion in YLF:Yb3+,Tm3+ laser crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachuk, Alexandra M.; Razumova, Irene K.; Joubert, Maria-France; Moncorge, Richard

    1998-12-01

    We have studied the Yb3+ (reversible reaction) Tm3+ nonradiative energy transfer processes responsible for population of the 1G4 thulium level under Yb3+ or Tm3+ selective laser excitation of YLF:Tm3+,Yb3+ crystal. The microparameters and the rates of the energy transfer via cross-relaxation schemes are determined. It is concluded that the process of populating the 1G4 thulium level is greatly affected by up-conversion processes not only from the 3H4 but also from the 3F4 level, proceeding within the static decay model.

  20. Wheat yield estimation at the farm level using TM Landsat and agrometeorological data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudorff, B. F. T.; Batista, G. T.

    1991-01-01

    A model for estimating wheat yields on the farm level was developed, that integrates the Landsat TM data and agrometeorological information. Results obtained for a test site in southern Brasil for years of 1986 and 1987 show that the vegetation index derived from Landsat TM could account for the 60 to 40 percent wheat-yield variability observed between the two crop years. Compared to results using either the Landsat TM vegetation index or the agrometeorological data alone, the joint use of both types of data in a single model yielded a significant improvement.

  1. Synergistic use of MOMS-01 and Landsat TM data. [Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothery, David A.; Francis, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    Imagery covering the Socompa volcano and debris avalanche deposit in northern Chile was acquired by MOMS-01 when the sun was low in the western sky. Illumination from the west shows many important topographic features to advantage. These are inconspicuous or indistinguishable on Landsat TM images acquired at higher solar elevation. The effective spatial resolution of MOMS-01 is similar to that of the TM and its capacity for spectral discrimination is less. A technique has been developed to combine the multispectral information offered by TM with the topographic detail visible on MOMS-01 imagery recorded at a time of low solar elevation.

  2. Human hTM. cap alpha. gene: Expression in muscle and nonmuscle tissue

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, A.R.; Gooding, C.

    1988-01-01

    The authors isolated a cDNA clone from a human skeletal muscle library which contains the complete protein-coding sequence of a skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin. This cDNA sequence defines a fourth human tropomyosin gene, the hTM..cap alpha.. gene, which is distinct from the hTM/sub nm/ gene encoding a closely related isoform of skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin. In cultured human fibroblasts, the hTM..cap alpha.. gene encodes both skeletal-muscle- and smooth-muscle-type ..cap alpha..-tropomyosins by using an alternative mRNA-splicing mechanism.

  3. Approaches for optimizing the calibration standard of Tewameter TM 300.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Maria; Richter, Stefan; Elsner, Peter; Fluhr, Joachim W

    2006-11-01

    Calibration of devices measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is in intensive discussion. Comparative studies revealed that comparable measuring systems, e.g. open and closed chamber systems, do not always deliver the same results, even when expressing the measured values in SI units, namely in g/m(2)/h. Therefore, adequate and reliable calibration procedures need to be established. We were able to test the reliability of a multi-step calibration algorithm for an open chamber system such as Tewameter TM 300. In order to achieve reliable measurements, the maintenance of stable microclimate conditions without air turbulences is mandatory. The TEWL values should be compared with those determined gravimetrically on heated skin simulators. The reproducibility of the results is warranted by consecutive measurements on different adjacent spots of a defined area. Preheating of the probe sensors is an effective approach for shortening the measuring time and gaining a rapid steady-state. The accurate calibration of the probe can be checked under laboratory conditions any time. The critical point of the calibration and ultimately the accuracy of in vivo measurements maintain the steady functional capacity of the probes during the entire duration of continuous studies. The studied calibration procedure ensures these requirements.

  4. Remodeling census population with spatial information from Landsat TM imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yuan, Y.; Smith, R.M.; Limp, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    In geographic information systems (GIS) studies there has been some difficulty integrating socioeconomic and physiogeographic data. One important type of socioeconomic data, census data, offers a wide range of socioeconomic information, but is aggregated within arbitrary enumeration districts (EDs). Values reflect either raw counts or, when standardized, the mean densities in the EDs. On the other hand, remote sensing imagery, an important type of physiogeographic data, provides large quantities of information with more spatial details than census data. Based on the dasymetric mapping principle, this study applies multivariable regression to examine the correlation between population counts from census and land cover types. The land cover map is classified from LandSat TM imagery. The correlation is high. Census population counts are remodeled to a GIS raster layer based on the discovered correlations coupled with scaling techniques, which offset influences from other than land cover types. The GIS raster layer depicts the population distribution with much more spatial detail than census data offer. The resulting GIS raster layer is ready to be analyzed or integrated with other GIS data. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. TM4SF1 Promotes Gemcitabine Resistance of Pancreatic Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Vijaya; Arumugam, Thiruvengadam; Deng, Defeng; Li, Zhaoshen; Xu, Leiming; Logsdon, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    Background TM4SF1 is overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and affects the development of this cancer. Also, multidrug resistance (MDR) is generally associated with tumor chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer. However, the correlation between TM4SF1 and MDR remains unknown. This research aims to investigate the effect of TM4SF1 on gemcitabine resistance in PDAC and explore the possible molecular mechanism between TM4SF1 and MDR. Methods The expression of TM4SF1 was evaluated in pancreatic cancer cell lines and human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE) cell lines by quantitative RT-PCR. TM4SF1 siRNA transfection was carried out using Hiperfect transfection reagent to knock down TM4SF1. The transcripts were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, RT-PCR and western blotting for further study. The cell proliferation and apoptosis were obtained to investigate the sensitivity to gemcitabine of pancreatic cancer cells after silencing TM4SF1 in vitro. We demonstrated that cell signaling of TM4SF1 mediated chemoresistance in cancer cells by assessing the expression of multidrug resistance (MDR) genes using quantitative RT-PCR. In vivo, we used orthotopic pancreatic tumor models to investigate the effect of proliferation after silencing TM4SF1 by a lentivirus-mediated shRNA in MIA PaCa-2 cell lines. Results The mRNA expression of TM4SF1 was higher in seven pancreatic cancer cell lines than in HPDE cell lines. In three gemcitabine-sensitive cell lines (L3.6pl, BxPC-3, SU86.86), the expression of TM4SF1 was lower than that in four gemcitabine-resistant cell lines (MIA PaCa-2, PANC-1, Hs766T, AsPC-1). We evaluated that TM4SF1 was a putative target for gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer cells. Using AsPC-1, MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1, we investigated that TM4SF1 silencing affected cell proliferation and increased the percentages of cell apoptosis mediated by treatment with gemcitabine compared with cells which were treated with negative control. This resistance was

  6. Theoretical and Experimental Study on Thermoelectric Properties of Ba8TM x Ga y Ge46- x- y (TM = Zn, Cu, Ag) Type I Clathrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leszczynski, Juliusz; Kolezynski, Andrzej; Juraszek, Jarosław; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    In the type I clathrates Ba8TM x Ga y Ge46- x- y (TM = group 10 to 12 elements) where some of the Ge framework atoms are substituted by Zn, Cu or Ag, the transition-metal elements prefer to occupy the 6 c site. Preliminary band-structure calculations showed that this substitution implies modification of the electronic bands in the vicinity of the energy gap. By appropriate tailoring of the band structure, improved thermoelectric properties can be obtained. More detailed full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method calculations within density functional theory (DFT) were performed using the WIEN2k package for compositions where the transition element TM fully occupies the 6 c site. Additional analysis of the properties of the electron density topology within Bader's atoms-in-molecules approach was carried out to study the chemical bonding in intermetallic clathrates. To verify the theoretical predictions, polycrystalline samples of the type I clathrates Ba8TM x Ga y Ge46- x- y (TM = Zn, Cu, Ag) modified by transition-metal element substitution for Ge were obtained. The samples were characterized using powder x-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity were measured in the temperature range from 320 K to 720 K. Several models were used to fit the experimental results for the electronic transport properties and to estimate the energy gap. Vacancies at the Ge site were considered responsible for deviations from the desired properties, and appropriate defect equations correlating the vacancies and TM concentration are presented. Finally, the results of DFT calculations are compared with the experiments, showing good agreement with theoretically predicted cell parameters and general observations of the transport properties.

  7. Anti-cancer Activity of Novel TM4SF5-Targeting Antibodies through TM4SF5 Neutralization and Immune Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hye-Mi; Ryu, Jihye; Song, Jin Myeong; Lee, Yunhee; Kim, Hye-Jin; Ko, Dongjoon; Choi, Inpyo; Kim, Sang Jick; Lee, Jung Weon; Kim, Semi

    2017-01-01

    The transmembrane four L6 family member 5 (TM4SF5) protein is a novel molecular target for the prevention and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. TM4SF5 is highly expressed in liver, colon, esophageal, and pancreatic cancers and is implicated in tumor progression. Here, we screened monoclonal antibodies that specifically bound to the extracellular loop 2 (EC2) of TM4SF5 from a phage-displayed murine antibody (single-chain variable fragment; scFv) library. We constructed and characterized chimeric antibodies, Ab27 and Ab79, of scFv fused with Fc domain of human IgG1. The affinity (KD) of Ab27 and Ab79 for soluble EC2 was approximately 9.2 nM and 16.9 nM, respectively, as determined by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Ab27 and Ab79 efficiently bound to native TM4SF5 on the cell surface were internalized into the cancer cells, leading to a decrease in cell surface TM4SF5. Ab27 and Ab79 inhibited the proliferation and invasion of TM4SF5-positive liver and colon cancer cells and reduced FAK and c-Src phosphorylation. Ab27 and Ab79 also enhanced anoikis sensitivity and reduced survivin. Ab27 mediated antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro. Ab27 and Ab79 efficiently inhibited tumor growth in a liver cancer xenograft model. These results strongly support the further development of Ab27 as a novel anti-cancer agent in the clinic. PMID:28255353

  8. Consistency of L4 TM absolute calibration with respect to the L5 TM sensor based on near-simultaneous image acquisition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Malla, R.; Micijevic, E.; Mettler, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Landsat archive provides more than 35 years of uninterrupted multispectral remotely sensed data of Earth observations. Since 1972, Landsat missions have carried different types of sensors, from the Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) camera to the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). However, the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensors on Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5), launched in 1982 and 1984 respectively, are the backbone of an extensive archive. Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of L5 TM data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) was updated to use an improved lifetime gain model, based on the instrument's detector response to pseudo-invariant desert site data and cross-calibration with the L7 ETM+. However, no modifications were ever made to the radiometric calibration procedure of the Landsat 4 (L4) TM data. The L4 TM radiometric calibration procedure has continued to use the Internal Calibrator (IC) based calibration algorithms and the post calibration dynamic ranges, as previously defined. To evaluate the "current" absolute accuracy of these two sensors, image pairs from the L5 TM and L4 TM sensors were compared. The number of coincident image pairs in the USGS EROS archive is limited, so the scene selection for the cross-calibration studies proved to be a challenge. Additionally, because of the lack of near-simultaneous images available over well-characterized and traditionally used calibration sites, alternate sites that have high reflectance, large dynamic range, high spatial uniformity, high sun elevation, and minimal cloud cover were investigated. The alternate sites were identified in Yuma, Iraq, Egypt, Libya, and Algeria. The cross-calibration approach involved comparing image statistics derived from large common areas observed eight days apart by the two sensors. This paper summarizes the average percent differences in reflectance estimates obtained between the

  9. Consistency of L4 TM absolute calibration with respect to the L5 TM sensor based on near-simultaneous image acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Helder, Dennis L.; Malla, Rimy; Micijevic, Esad; Mettler, Cory J.

    2007-09-01

    The Landsat archive provides more than 35 years of uninterrupted multispectral remotely sensed data of Earth observations. Since 1972, Landsat missions have carried different types of sensors, from the Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) camera to the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). However, the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensors on Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5), launched in 1982 and 1984 respectively, are the backbone of an extensive archive. Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of L5 TM data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) was updated to use an improved lifetime gain model, based on the instrument's detector response to pseudo-invariant desert site data and cross-calibration with the L7 ETM+. However, no modifications were ever made to the radiometric calibration procedure of the Landsat 4 (L4) TM data. The L4 TM radiometric calibration procedure has continued to use the Internal Calibrator (IC) based calibration algorithms and the post calibration dynamic ranges, as previously defined. To evaluate the "current" absolute accuracy of these two sensors, image pairs from the L5 TM and L4 TM sensors were compared. The number of coincident image pairs in the USGS EROS archive is limited, so the scene selection for the cross-calibration studies proved to be a challenge. Additionally, because of the lack of near-simultaneous images available over well-characterized and traditionally used calibration sites, alternate sites that have high reflectance, large dynamic range, high spatial uniformity, high sun elevation, and minimal cloud cover were investigated. The alternate sites were identified in Yuma, Iraq, Egypt, Libya, and Algeria. The cross-calibration approach involved comparing image statistics derived from large common areas observed eight days apart by the two sensors. This paper summarizes the average percent differences in reflectance estimates obtained between the

  10. Origin of modulated phases and magnetic hysteresis in TmB4

    DOE PAGES

    Wierschem, Keola; Sunku, Sai Swaroop; Kong, Tai; ...

    2015-12-23

    In this study, we investigate the low-temperature magnetic phases in TmB4, a metallic quantum magnet on the geometrically frustrated Shastry-Sutherland lattice, using coordinated experimental and theoretical studies. Our results provide an explanation for the appearance of the intriguing fractional plateau in TmB4 and accompanying magnetic hysteresis. Together with observation of the bump in the half plateau, our results support the picture that the magnetization plateau structure in TmB4 is strongly influenced by the zero-field modulated phases. We present a phenomenological model to explain the appearance of the modulated phases and a microscopic Hamiltonian that captures the complete magnetic behavior ofmore » TmB4.« less

  11. Er3+ - Tm3+ energy transfer in YLiF4 (YLF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenier, A.; Moncorge, R.; Pedrini, C.

    1990-06-01

    The Er3+ - Tm3+ energy transfers are analyzed in doubly doped YLiF4:Er3+, Tm3+ single crystals. A good description of the excited state dynamics is achieved with models based on rate equations and using lifetime data. It is shown that the down-conversion of the Er3+ excitation energy is very efficient, except in the case of 4I11/2 excitation where strong up-conversion and excited-state absorption processes may occur. These results confirm what was already observed in other strongly doped Er3+ systems. The largest part of the Er3+ - Tm3+ energy transfer arises between the lowest excited states of the two impurity ions, namely 4I11/2 of Er3+ and 3F4 of Tm3+. Both direct- and back-transfers are so efficient that they induce a Boltzmann distribution of the populations of these excited states at room temperature.

  12. Thermal expansion, heat capacity and magnetostriction of RAl3 (R = Tm, Yb, Lu) single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Bud'ko, S.; Frenerick, J.; Mun, E.; Canfield, P.; Schmiedeshoff, G.

    2007-12-13

    We present thermal expansion and longitudinal magnetostriction data for cubic RAl{sub 3} (R = Tm, Yb, Lu) single crystals. The thermal expansion coefficient for YbAl{sub 3} is consistent with an intermediate valence of the Yb ion, whereas the data for TmAl{sub 3} show crystal electric field contributions and have strong magnetic field dependences. de Haas-van Alphen like oscillations were observed in the magnetostriction data for YbAl{sub 3} and LuAl{sub 3}, several new extreme orbits were measured and their effective masses were estimated. Specific heat data taken at 0 and 140 kOe for both LuAl{sub 3} and TmAl{sub 3} for T {le} 200 K allow for the determination of a crystal electric field splitting scheme for TmAl{sub 3}.

  13. Tm,Ho:YLF laser end-pumped by a semiconductor diode laser array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An Ho:YLF crystal including Tm as sensitizers for the activator Ho, is optically pumped with a semiconductor diode laser array to generate 2.1 micron radiation with a pump power to output power of efficiency as high as 68 percent. The prior-art dual sensitizer system of Er and Tm requires cooling, such as by LN2, but by using Tm alone and decreasing the concentrations of Tm and Ho, and decreasing the length of the laser rod to about 1 cm, it has been demonstrated that laser operation can be obtained from a temperature of 77 K with an efficiency as high as 68 percent up to ambient room temperature with an efficiency at that temperature as high as 9 percent.

  14. Injection-seeded operation of a Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Sammy W.; Hale, Charley P.; Magee, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Single-frequency Tm,Ho:YAG lasers operating near 2 microns are attractive sources for several applications including eye-safe laser radar (lidar) and pumping of AgGaSe2 parametric oscillators for efficient generation of longer wavelengths. As part of a program to develop a coherent lidar system using Tm,Ho:YAG lasers, a diode laser-pumped tunable CW single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG laser and a flashlamp-pumped single-transverse-mode Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser were developed. The CW laser was used to injection-seed the flashlamp-pumped laser, resulting in SLM Q-switched output. Operational characteristics of the CW and Q-switched lasers and injection-seeding results are reported.

  15. LANDSAT-D MSS/TM tuned orbital jitter analysis model LDS900

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollak, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    The final LANDSAT-D orbital dynamic math model (LSD900), comprised of all test validated substructures, was used to evaluate the jitter response of the MSS/TM experiments. A dynamic forced response analysis was performed at both the MSS and TM locations on all structural modes considered (thru 200 Hz). The analysis determined the roll angular response of the MSS/TM experiments to improve excitation generated by component operation. Cross axis and cross experiment responses were also calculated. The excitations were analytically represented by seven and nine term Fourier series approximations, for the MSS and TM experiment respectively, which enabled linear harmonic solution techniques to be applied to response calculations. Single worst case jitter was estimated by variations of the eigenvalue spectrum of model LSD 900. The probability of any worst case mode occurrence was investigated.

  16. BOREAS Level-3p Landsat TM Imagery: Geocoded and Scaled At-sensor Radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickeson, Jaime; Knapp, David; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Cihlar, Josef

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the level-3p Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were used to supplement the level-3s Landsat TM products. Along with the other remotely sensed images, the Landsat TM images were collected in order to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes radiant energy, detailed land cover, and biophysical parameter maps such as Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Although very similar to the level-3s Landsat TM products, the level-3p images were processed with ground control information, which improved the accuracy of the geographic coordinates provided. Geographically, the level-3p images cover the BOREAS Northern Study Area (NSA) and Southern Study Area (SSA). Temporally, the four images cover the period of 20-Aug-1988 to 07-Jun-1994. Except for the 07-Jun-1994 image, which contains seven bands, the other three contain only three bands.

  17. Induced thulium magnetisation in the `green phase' Tm 2BaCuO 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Glen A.; Gubbens, Paul C. M.

    1999-10-01

    A 169Tm Mössbauer investigation over the temperature range 0.3-300 K is reported for the orthorhombic Pnma phase of Tm 2BaCuO 5. The behaviour of the nuclear quadrupole splitting is shown to be consistent with significantly different crystal field schemes for the two Tm sites. Tm moments induced by the antiferromagnetically ordered Cu sub-lattice ( TN1=19 K) are observed to be very small with saturation values of just 0.503(6) μ B and 0.23(1) μ B. On the basis of the crystal field analysis, the moments are predicted to align with the b-axis and are able to be identified with their respective sites.

  18. An Efficient End-Pumped Ho:Tm:YLF Disk Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Ji-Rong; Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, Upendra N.; Barnes, Norman P.

    2000-01-01

    An efficient diode-pumped, room temperature Ho:Tm:YLF disk amplifier was realized by end-pump configuration. Compared to side pump configuration, about a factor three improvement in system efficiency has been demonstrated.

  19. Analysis of a TM sub 01 Circular to TE sub 10 Rectangular Waveguide Mode Converter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    2.12) into (2.9) ard (2.10), we obtain pTM QTM -_ ZIZ"T M ( -(Q TM) + (3) 1(, TM) p=l q=1 pTE QTE E vI TE() f(a, TE) +H( 3) T EPq (--- a ( , r E -.. a...3.26), (3.28), and (3.29) into (3.18)-(3.23) gives (________,__ ppq(x + xo) (),(Y+Z Z+) -- _ - gX epq (3.30) HL(Q4TM W= ( +)eP q (x + x0 ) (3.31...jkIo(sinh (y10 (LI + z)) + Z 1Y0E cosh( yo(L 1 + ))) *,04E(Y+,z )WA(sinh tlo(Ll - X.)) + Z, y1 E c y1 o(L1 - xo))) (3.33) E)(QA E) = f4 ,E(y+,z+) ePq (z

  20. Infrared to visible upconversion fluorescence in Yb,Tm:YAG single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenwei; Xu, Xiaodong; Wu, Feng; Zhao, Guangjun; Zhao, Zhiwei; Zhou, Guoqing; Xu, Jun

    2007-04-01

    Absorption spectrum from 400 to 2000 nm and upconversion fluorescence spectra under 940 nm pumping of YAG single crystal codoped with 5 at.% Yb3+ and 4 at.% Tm3+ were studied at room temperature. The blue upconversion emission centered at 483 nm corresponds to the transition 1G4 → 3H6, the emission band around 646 nm corresponds to the transition 1G4 → 3F4 of Tm3+. Energy transfer from Yb3+ to Tm3+ is mainly nonradiative and the transfer efficiency was experimentally assessed. The line strengths, transition probabilities and radiative lifetimes of 1G4 level were calculated by using Judd-Ofelt theory. Gain coefficient calculated from spectra shows that the upconversion corresponding with transitions 1G4 → 3H6 in YAG doped with Yb3+ and Tm3+ is potentially useful for blue light output.

  1. Graphene Q-switched Tm:KY(WO4)2 waveguide laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kifle, E.; Mateos, X.; Loiko, P.; Yumashev, K.; Yasukevich, A.; Petrov, V.; Griebner, U.; Aguiló, M.; Díaz, F.

    2017-04-01

    We report on the first Tm3+-doped double tungstate waveguide laser passively Q-switched by a graphene saturable absorber using a 12.4 µm-thick 3 at.% Tm:KY0.58Gd0.22Lu0.17(WO4)2 epitaxial layer grown on a (0 1 0)-oriented pure KY(WO4)2 substrate. This laser generated 5.8 nJ/195 ns pulses at 1831.8 nm corresponding to a pulse repetition frequency of 1.13 MHz. These are the shortest pulses achieved in passively Q-switched Tm waveguide lasers. The laser slope efficiency was 9% and the Q-switching conversion efficiency reached 45%. Graphene is promising for the generation of ns pulses at ~2 µm in Tm3+-doped double tungstate waveguide lasers operating in the MHz-range.

  2. Origin of modulated phases and magnetic hysteresis in TmB4

    SciTech Connect

    Wierschem, Keola; Sunku, Sai Swaroop; Kong, Tai; Ito, Toshimitsu; Canfield, Paul C.; Panagopoulos, Christos; Sengupta, Pinaki

    2015-12-23

    In this study, we investigate the low-temperature magnetic phases in TmB4, a metallic quantum magnet on the geometrically frustrated Shastry-Sutherland lattice, using coordinated experimental and theoretical studies. Our results provide an explanation for the appearance of the intriguing fractional plateau in TmB4 and accompanying magnetic hysteresis. Together with observation of the bump in the half plateau, our results support the picture that the magnetization plateau structure in TmB4 is strongly influenced by the zero-field modulated phases. We present a phenomenological model to explain the appearance of the modulated phases and a microscopic Hamiltonian that captures the complete magnetic behavior of TmB4.

  3. Structural, spectral-luminescent, and lasing properties of nanostructured Tm : CaF{sub 2} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabochkina, P A; Lyapin, A A; Osiko, Vyacheslav V; Fedorov, Pavel P; Ushakov, S N; Kruglova, M V; Sakharov, N V; Garibin, E A; Gusev, P E; Krutov, M A

    2012-09-30

    The structure and the spectral-luminescent properties of CaF{sub 2} - TmF{sub 3} fluoride ceramics and single crystals are studied. AFM investigations revealed a layered nanostructure of grains, which was not observed in reference samples of single crystals. It is found that the spectral-luminescent properties of CaF{sub 2} - TmF{sub 3} ceramics and single crystals are similar. Lasing at the {sup 3}F{sub 4} {yields} {sup 3}H{sub 6} transition of Tm{sup 3+} ions in CaF{sub 2} - TmF{sub 3} ceramics (wavelength 1898 nm) under diode pimping is obtained for the first time. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  4. Tm:germanate Fiber Laser for Planetary Water Vapor Atmospheric Profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; De Young, Russell

    2009-01-01

    The atmospheric profiling of water vapor is necessary for finding life on Mars and weather on Earth. The design and performance of a water vapor lidar based on a Tm:germanate fiber laser is presented.

  5. Asymmetric linear efficiency and bunching mechanisms of TM modes for electron cyclotron maser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, T. H.; Huang, W. C.; Yao, H. Y.; Hung, C. L.; Chen, W. C.; Su, B. Y.

    2017-02-01

    This study examines the transverse magnetic (TM) waveguide modes, which have long been considered as the unsuitable ones for the operation of the electron cyclotron maser. The beam-wave coupling strength of the TM modes, as expected, is found to be relatively weak as compared with that of the transverse electric (TE) waveguide modes. Unlike TE modes, surprisingly, the linear behavior of the TM modes depends on the sign of the wave number kz. The negative kz has a much stronger linear efficiency than that of the positive kz. The bunching mechanism analysis further exhibits that the azimuthal bunching and axial bunching do not compete but cooperate with each other for the backward-wave operation (negative kz). The current findings are encouraging and imply that TM modes might be advantageous to the gyrotron backward-wave oscillators.

  6. LANDSAT-4 Science Characterization Early Results. Volume 3, Part 2: Thematic Mapper (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The calibration of the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper is discussed as well as the atmospheric, radiometric, and geometric accuracy and correction of data obtained with this sensor. Methods are given for assessing TM band to band registration.

  7. The ecological controls on the prevalence of candidate division TM7 in polar regions

    PubMed Central

    Winsley, Tristrom J.; Snape, Ian; McKinlay, John; Stark, Jonny; van Dorst, Josie M.; Ji, Mukan; Ferrari, Belinda C.; Siciliano, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    The candidate division TM7 is ubiquitous and yet uncultured phylum of the Bacteria that encompasses a commonly environmental associated clade, TM7-1, and a “host-associated” clade, TM7-3. However, as members of the TM7 phylum have not been cultured, little is known about what differs between these two clades. We hypothesized that these clades would have different environmental niches. To test this, we used a large-scale global soil dataset, encompassing 223 soil samples, their environmental parameters and associated bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data. We correlated chemical, physical and biological parameters of each soil with the relative abundance of the two major classes of the phylum to deduce factors that influence the groups' seemingly ubiquitous nature. The two classes of the phylum (TM7-1 and TM7-3) were indeed distinct from each other in their habitat requirements. A key determinant of each class' prevalence appears to be the pH of the soil. The class TM7-1 displays a facultative anaerobic nature with correlations to more acidic soils with total iron, silicon, titanium and copper indicating a potential for siderophore production. However, the TM7-3 class shows a more classical oligotrophic, heterotroph nature with a preference for more alkaline soils, and a probable pathogenic role with correlations to extractable iron, sodium and phosphate. In addition, the TM7-3 was abundant in diesel contaminated soils highlighting a resilient nature along with a possible carbon source. In addition to this both classes had unique co-occurrence relationships with other bacterial phyla. In particular, both groups had opposing correlations to the Gemmatimonadetes phylum, with the TM7-3 class seemingly being outcompeted by this phylum to result in a negative correlation. These ecological controls allow the characteristics of a TM7 phylum preferred niche to be defined and give insight into possible avenues for cultivation of this previously uncultured group. PMID

  8. Peripheral selectivity of the novel cannabinoid receptor antagonist TM38837 in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Klumpers, Linda E; Fridberg, Marianne; de Kam, Marieke L; Little, Paul B; Jensen, Niels Ole; Kleinloog, Hendrik D; Elling, Christian E; van Gerven, Joop M A

    2013-01-01

    Aim Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) antagonists show central side effects, whereas beneficial effects are most likely peripherally mediated. In this study, the peripherally selective CB1 antagonist TM38837 was studied in humans. Methods This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. On occasions 1–4, 24 healthy subjects received 5 × 4 mg THC with TM38837 100 mg, 500 mg or placebo, or placebos only. During occasion 5, subjects received placebo TM38837 + THC with rimonabant 60 mg or placebo in parallel groups. Blood collections and pharmacodynamic (PD) effects were assessed frequently. Pharmacokinetics (PK) and PD were quantified using population PK−PD modelling. Results The TM38837 plasma concentration profile was relatively flat compared with rimonabant. TM38837 showed an estimated terminal half-life of 771 h. THC induced effects on VAS feeling high, body sway and heart rate were partly antagonized by rimonabant 60 mg [−26.70% [90% confidence interval (CI) −40.9, −12.6%]; −7.10%, (90%CI −18.1, 5.3%); −7.30%, (90% CI −11.5%, −3.0%) respectively] and TM38837 500 mg [−22.10% (90% CI −34.9, −9.4%); −12.20% (90% CI −21.6%, −1.7%); −8.90% (90% CI −12.8%, −5.1%) respectively]. TM38837 100 mg had no measurable feeling high or body sway effects and limited heart rate effects. Conclusions Rimonabant showed larger effects than TM38837, but the heart rate effects were similar. TM38837 100 mg had no impact on CNS effects, suggesting that this dose does not penetrate the brain. This TM38837 dose is predicted to be at least equipotent to rimonabant with regard to metabolic disorders in rodent models. These results provide support for further development of TM38837 as a peripherally selective CB1 antagonist for indications such as metabolic disorders, with a reduced propensity for psychiatric side effects. PMID:23601084

  9. TM4SF1: a new vascular therapeutic target in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chi-Iou; Merley, Anne; Sciuto, Tracey E.; Li, Dan; Dvorak, Ann M.; Melero-Martin, Juan M.; Dvorak, Harold F.; Jaminet, Shou-Ching S.

    2014-01-01

    Transmembrane-4 L-six family member-1 (TM4SF1) is a small plasma membrane glycoprotein that regulates cell motility and proliferation. TM4SF1 is an attractive cancer target because of its high expression in both tumor cells and on the vascular endothelial cells lining tumor blood vessels. We generated mouse monoclonal antibodies against human TM4SF1 in order to evaluate their therapeutic potential; 13 of the antibodies we generated reacted with extracellular loop-2 (EL2), TM4SF1’s larger extracellular, lumen-facing domain. However, none of these antibodies reacted with mouse TM4SF1, likely because the EL2 of mouse TM4SF1 differs significantly from that of its human counterpart. Therefore, to test our antibodies in vivo, we employed an established model of engineered human vessels in which human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC) and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are incorporated into Matrigel plugs that are implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient nude mice. We modified the original protocol by (i) pre-culturing human ECFC on laminin, fibronectin, and collagen coated plates; and (ii) increasing the ECFC/MSC ratio. These modifications significantly increased the human vascular network in Matrigel implants. Two injections of one of our anti-TM4SF1 EL2 monoclonal antibodies, 8G4, effectively eliminated the human vascular component present in these plugs; they also abrogated human PC3 prostate cancer cells that were incorporated into the ECFC/MSC Matrigel mix. Together these studies provide a mouse model for assessing tumor xenografts that are supplied by a human vascular network and demonstrate that anti-TM4SF1 antibodies such as 8G4 hold promise for cancer therapy. PMID:24986520

  10. Energy Levels and Branching Ratios of Tm3+ in Ten Garnet Laser Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    Judd - Ofelt parameters for Tm 3 + in garnets............................................... 8 3. Energy levels of the 1H, and 3 F4 multiplets of Tm 3...electric dipole line strengths, Sed, are from et al [7] were used to calculate the Judd - Ofelt table 6 of that reference. The branching ratio for parameters...while f14 approximately equals the T--- experimental values, and the calculated Ql6 is ij T) ij(6) approximately five times too large. Judd - Ofelt T

  11. TM4SF1: a new vascular therapeutic target in cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Iou; Merley, Anne; Sciuto, Tracey E; Li, Dan; Dvorak, Ann M; Melero-Martin, Juan M; Dvorak, Harold F; Jaminet, Shou-Ching S

    2014-10-01

    Transmembrane-4 L-six family member-1 (TM4SF1) is a small plasma membrane glycoprotein that regulates cell motility and proliferation. TM4SF1 is an attractive cancer target because of its high expression in both tumor cells and on the vascular endothelial cells lining tumor blood vessels. We generated mouse monoclonal antibodies against human TM4SF1 in order to evaluate their therapeutic potential; 13 of the antibodies we generated reacted with extracellular loop-2 (EL2), TM4SF1's larger extracellular, lumen-facing domain. However, none of these antibodies reacted with mouse TM4SF1, likely because the EL2 of mouse TM4SF1 differs significantly from that of its human counterpart. Therefore, to test our antibodies in vivo, we employed an established model of engineered human vessels in which human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC) and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are incorporated into Matrigel plugs that are implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient nude mice. We modified the original protocol by (1) preculturing human ECFC on laminin, fibronectin, and collagen-coated plates, and (2) increasing the ECFC/MSC ratio. These modifications significantly increased the human vascular network in Matrigel implants. Two injections of one of our anti-TM4SF1 EL2 monoclonal antibodies, 8G4, effectively eliminated the human vascular component present in these plugs; they also abrogated human PC3 prostate cancer cells that were incorporated into the ECFC/MSC Matrigel mix. Together, these studies provide a mouse model for assessing tumor xenografts that are supplied by a human vascular network and demonstrate that anti-TM4SF1 antibodies such as 8G4 hold promise for cancer therapy.

  12. Improving classification of crop residues using digital land ownership data and Landsat TM imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhuang, Xin; Engel, Bernard A.; Baumgardner, Marion F.; Swain, Philip H.

    1991-01-01

    Plant residue on the surface of cultivated soils in Miami County, Indiana is analyzed in terms of quantity and type with Landsat TM data to generate information for a conservation program for agricultural soil. The Landsat data are enhanced with land-ownership data in a geographic information system to facilitate classification with maximum-likelihood, minimum-distance, and neural-network classifiers. The most effective classifications resulted from the use of the neural network on the enhanced TM data.

  13. Specific interactions among transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) proteins and phosphoinositide 4-kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Yauch, R L; Hemler, M E

    2000-01-01

    In earlier work we established that phosphoinositide 4-kinase (PI 4-kinase) may associate with transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF, tetraspanin) proteins, but critical specificity issues were not addressed. Here we demonstrate that at least five different TM4SF proteins (CD9, CD63, CD81, CD151 and A15/TALLA1) can associate with a similar or identical 55 kDa type II PI 4-kinase. These associations were specific, since we found no evidence for other phosphoinositide kinases (e.g. phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phosphoinositide-4-phosphate 5-kinase) associating with TM4SF proteins, and many other TM4SF proteins (including CD82 and CD53) did not associate with PI 4-kinase. CD63-PI 4-kinase complexes were almost entirely intracellular, and thus are distinct from other TM4SF-PI 4-kinase complexes (e.g. involving CD9), which are largely located in the plasma membrane. These results suggest that a specific subset of TM4SF proteins may recruit PI 4-kinase to specific membrane locations, and thereby influence phosphoinositide-dependent signalling. PMID:11042117

  14. Use of the TM tasseled cap transform for interpretation of spectral contrasts in an urban scene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goward, S. N.; Wharton, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    Investigations are being conducted with the objective to develop automated numerical image analysis procedures. In this context, an examination is performed of physically-based multispectral data transforms as a means to incorporate a priori knowledge of land radiance properties in the analysis process. A physically-based transform of TM observations was developed. This transform extends the Landsat MSS Tasseled Cap transform reported by Kauth and Thomas (1976) to TM data observations. The present study has the aim to examine the utility of the TM Tasseled Cap transform as applied to TM data from an urban landscape. The analysis conducted is based on 512 x 512 subset of the Washington, DC November 2, 1982 TM scene, centered on Springfield, VA. It appears that the TM tasseled cap transformation provides a good means to explain land physical attributes of the Washington scene. This result provides a suggestion regarding a direction by which a priori knowledge of landscape spectral patterns may be incorporated into numerical image analysis.

  15. Blue upconversion emission from Tm3+ sensitized by Nd3+ in aluminum oxide crystalline ceramic powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakov, N.; Gómez, L. A.; Rátiva, D. J.; Maciel, G. S.

    2009-02-01

    Upconversion (UC) emission in thulium (Tm3+) and neodymium (Nd3+) co-doped aluminum oxide ceramic powders prepared by combustion synthesis was investigated at room temperature using a continuous wave laser operating at 800 nm. Our sample containing Tm3+ (1 wt.%) did not show any UC emission but our sample co-doped with Tm3+ and Nd3+ in 1:2 wt.% proportion presented blue (˜480 nm) UC intensity more than one order of magnitude larger than our sample co-doped with Tm3+ and Nd3+ in 1:1 wt.% proportion. X-ray diffraction data showed the presence of α-Al2O3 and REAlO3 (RE=Tm or Nd) crystalline phases in co-doped powders, while the singly doped powder has only α-Al2O3 phase. Our results show that the UC emission efficiency of Tm3+ and the host crystalline structure can be tailored by manipulating the Nd3+ doping concentration.

  16. Up-conversion processes in Yb-sensitized Tm:ZBLAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrig, Timothy J.; Cockroft, Nigel J.

    1996-11-01

    A systematic spectroscopic study of 22 rate-earth-ion doped ZBLAN glass samples was conducted to investigate the feasibility of sensitizing Tm:ZBLAN with Yb to facilitate the development of an efficient and conveniently pumped blue upconversion fiber laser. It was determined that, under conditions of single-color pumping, 480 nm emission from Tm3+ is strongest when Yb, Tm:ZBLAN is excited at a wavelength of approximately 975 nm. In this case, the strongest blue emission was obtained from a ZBLAN glass sample with a nominal dopant concentration of approximately 2.0 wt percent Yb + 0.3 wt percent Tm. Additionally, it was demonstrated that for weak 975 nm pump intensities, the strength of the blue upconversion emission can be greatly enhanced by simultaneously pumping at approximately 785 nm. This increase in upconversion efficiency is due to a reduction in the number of energy transfer steps needed to populate the Tm3+ 1G4 energy level. Measurements of fluorescence lifetimes as a function of dopant concentration wee also made for Yb3+, and Pr3+ transitions in ZBLAN in order to better characterize concentration quenching effects. Energy transfer between Tm3+ and Pr3+ in ZBLAN is also described.

  17. Transplantation of iPSC-derived TM cells rescues glaucoma phenotypes in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei; Gramlich, Oliver W.; Laboissonniere, Lauren; Jain, Ankur; Sheffield, Val C.; Trimarchi, Jeffrey M.; Tucker, Budd A.; Kuehn, Markus H.

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a common cause of vision loss or blindness and reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) has been proven beneficial in a large fraction of glaucoma patients. The IOP is maintained by the trabecular meshwork (TM) and the elevation of IOP in open-angle glaucoma is associated with dysfunction and loss of the postmitotic cells residing within this tissue. To determine if IOP control can be maintained by replacing lost TM cells, we transplanted TM-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells into the anterior chamber of a transgenic mouse model of glaucoma. Transplantation led to significantly reduced IOP and improved aqueous humor outflow facility, which was sustained for at least 9 wk. The ability to maintain normal IOP engendered survival of retinal ganglion cells, whose loss is ultimately the cause for reduced vision in glaucoma. In vivo and in vitro analyses demonstrated higher TM cellularity in treated mice compared with littermate controls and indicated that this increase is primarily because of a proliferative response of endogenous TM cells. Thus, our study provides in vivo demonstration that regeneration of the glaucomatous TM is possible and points toward novel approaches in the treatment of this disease. PMID:27274060

  18. Infrared luminescence of Tm{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} codoped lanthanum aluminum germanate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Qiang; Zhang Guang; Chen Guorong; Qiu Jianrong; Chen Danping

    2010-01-15

    Tm{sup 3+} doped and Tm{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} codoped lanthanum aluminum germanate (LAG) glasses are prepared by melt-quenching method and characterized optically. Based on the measurement of absorption spectrum, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters ({Omega}{sub 2},{Omega}{sub 4},{Omega}{sub 6}) are calculated. The radiation emission rates, branching ratios, and lifetimes of Tm{sup 3+} are calculated to evaluate the spectroscopic properties of Tm{sup 3+} in LAG glass. The infrared emission properties of the samples are investigated and the results show that the 1.8 {mu}m emission can be greatly enhanced by adding proper amount of Yb{sup 3+} under the excitation of 980 nm. The energy transfer processes of Yb{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+}-Tm{sup 3+} are analyzed, and the results show that Yb{sup 3+} ions can transfer their energy to Tm{sup 3+} ions with high efficiency and large energy transfer coefficient.

  19. Hypervariability within the Rifin, Stevor and Pfmc-2TM superfamilies in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Lavazec, Catherine; Sanyal, Sohini; Templeton, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    The human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, possesses a broad repertoire of proteins that are proposed to be trafficked to the erythrocyte cytoplasm or surface, based upon the presence within these proteins of a Pexel/VTS erythrocyte-trafficking motif. This catalog includes large families of predicted 2 transmembrane (2TM) proteins, including the Rifin, Stevor and Pfmc-2TM superfamilies, of which each possesses a region of extensive sequence diversity across paralogs and between isolates that is confined to a proposed surface-exposed loop on the infected erythrocyte. Here we express epitope-tagged versions of the 2TM proteins in transgenic NF54 parasites and present evidence that the Stevor and Pfmc-2TM families are exported to the erythrocyte membrane, thus supporting the hypothesis that host immune pressure drives antigenic diversity within the loop. An examination of multiple P.falciparum isolates demonstrates that the hypervariable loop within Stevor and Pfmc-2TM proteins possesses sequence diversity across isolate boundaries. The Pfmc-2TM genes are encoded within large amplified loci that share profound nucleotide identity, which in turn highlight the divergences observed within the hypervariable loop. The majority of Pexel/VTS proteins are organized together within sub-telomeric genome neighborhoods, and a mechanism must therefore exist to differentially generate sequence diversity within select genes, as well as within highly defined regions within these genes.

  20. Sensitivity of Landsat MSS and TM to land cover change in the Golden Horseshoe, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGibbon, Jamie; Chen, Dongmei

    2008-10-01

    An ideal situation for conducting change detection is to use multi-temporal images acquired from the same sensor. However, many conditions (such as the discontinuity of sensors, weather conditions) would bring an end to the ideal temporal change detection. Imagery availability issues will force change detection studies in the future to increasingly incorporate multiple sensors. This study conducted change detection between Landsat TM (TM) and Landsat MSS (MSS) images from July 30, 1995 to June 2, 2003. The study area was centered on the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in south-central Ontario, Canada. Post-classification change detection was used to determine the type of change between the images. Results demonstrated that despite the different spatial resolution of the MSS and TM data, the change detection using both MSS and TM was similar in results to that of TM alone. A change detection where MSS is resampled to 30 meters was most effective in capturing the amount and type of change in the TM change study.

  1. Coevolution and Hierarchical Interactions of Tomato mosaic virus and the Resistance Gene Tm-1

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Mawatari, Natsuki; Miyashita, Shuhei; Kishino, Hirohisa; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    During antagonistic coevolution between viruses and their hosts, viruses have a major advantage by evolving more rapidly. Nevertheless, viruses and their hosts coexist and have coevolved, although the processes remain largely unknown. We previously identified Tm-1 that confers resistance to Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), and revealed that it encodes a protein that binds ToMV replication proteins and inhibits RNA replication. Tm-1 was introgressed from a wild tomato species Solanum habrochaites into the cultivated tomato species Solanum lycopersicum. In this study, we analyzed Tm-1 alleles in S. habrochaites. Although most part of this gene was under purifying selection, a cluster of nonsynonymous substitutions in a small region important for inhibitory activity was identified, suggesting that the region is under positive selection. We then examined the resistance of S. habrochaites plants to ToMV. Approximately 60% of 149 individuals from 24 accessions were resistant to ToMV, while the others accumulated detectable levels of coat protein after inoculation. Unexpectedly, many S. habrochaites plants were observed in which even multiplication of the Tm-1-resistance-breaking ToMV mutant LT1 was inhibited. An amino acid change in the positively selected region of the Tm-1 protein was responsible for the inhibition of LT1 multiplication. This amino acid change allowed Tm-1 to bind LT1 replication proteins without losing the ability to bind replication proteins of wild-type ToMV. The antiviral spectra and biochemical properties suggest that Tm-1 has evolved by changing the strengths of its inhibitory activity rather than diversifying the recognition spectra. In the LT1-resistant S. habrochaites plants inoculated with LT1, mutant viruses emerged whose multiplication was not inhibited by the Tm-1 allele that confers resistance to LT1. However, the resistance-breaking mutants were less competitive than the parental strains in the absence of Tm-1. Based on these results, we

  2. The complex of tmRNA-SmpB and EF-G on translocating ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Ramrath, David J F; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Rother, Kristian; Wittek, Daniela; Pech, Markus; Mielke, Thorsten; Loerke, Justus; Scheerer, Patrick; Ivanov, Pavel; Teraoka, Yoshika; Shpanchenko, Olga; Nierhaus, Knud H; Spahn, Christian M T

    2012-05-06

    Bacterial ribosomes stalled at the 3' end of malfunctioning messenger RNAs can be rescued by transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA)-mediated trans-translation. The SmpB protein forms a complex with the tmRNA, and the transfer-RNA-like domain (TLD) of the tmRNA then enters the A site of the ribosome. Subsequently, the TLD-SmpB module is translocated to the P site, a process that is facilitated by the elongation factor EF-G, and translation is switched to the mRNA-like domain (MLD) of the tmRNA. Accurate loading of the MLD into the mRNA path is an unusual initiation mechanism. Despite various snapshots of different ribosome-tmRNA complexes at low to intermediate resolution, it is unclear how the large, highly structured tmRNA is translocated and how the MLD is loaded. Here we present a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of a fusidic-acid-stalled ribosomal 70S-tmRNA-SmpB-EF-G complex (carrying both of the large ligands, that is, EF-G and tmRNA) at 8.3 Å resolution. This post-translocational intermediate (TI(POST)) presents the TLD-SmpB module in an intrasubunit ap/P hybrid site and a tRNA(fMet) in an intrasubunit pe/E hybrid site. Conformational changes in the ribosome and tmRNA occur in the intersubunit space and on the solvent side. The key underlying event is a unique extra-large swivel movement of the 30S head, which is crucial for both tmRNA-SmpB translocation and MLD loading, thereby coupling translocation to MLD loading. This mechanism exemplifies the versatile, dynamic nature of the ribosome, and it shows that the conformational modes of the ribosome that normally drive canonical translation can also be used in a modified form to facilitate more complex tasks in specialized non-canonical pathways.

  3. Stability of one- and two-layers [TM(Benzene)m]±1, m ≤ 3; TM = Fe, Co, and Ni, complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Raúl; Castro, Miguel

    2016-12-01

    The structural and energetic properties for neutral and charged complexes of transition metal atoms and benzene molecules, TM(C6H6)m ≤ 3, TM = Fe, Co, Ni, were studied using density functional theory. Including dispersion corrections all-electron calculations were done with the BPW91-D2 and M11L functionals. Basis sets of 6-311++G(2d,2p) and Def2TZVP quality were employed. Binding energies, D0, ionization energies, IE, and electron affinities, EA, were determined for the located ground states. Structural and electronic parameters accounting for the stability of TM(C6H6)m were also addressed. Metal-carbon (η2-η6) coordination occur in the neutral and positively charged TM(C6H6)1,2 species. But in the Cosbnd C6H6 and Nisbnd C6H6 ions the metal atom seats on two hydrogen atoms, η2H, of the benzene ring, with the peculiarity that the ground state geometries are planar. In the neutral and charged TM(C6H6)3, TM = Fe, Co and Ni species a benzene molecule lies in the external region and by means of CH-π and π-π stacking interactions it is bonded to the ligands lying in the first coordination layer. Although weak, some external molecules present direct interactions with the metal atom. The D0 for the molecules in the outer region is much smaller than the one for the ligands in the first layer. Therefore, solvent behavior is exhibited by the studied neutral and charged [TM(C6H6)3]±1 complexes. Experiment and theory agree that: D0(Fe+(C6H6)2) > D0(Co+(C6H6)2) > D0(Ni+C6H6)2) and D0(NiC6H6) > D0(CoC6H6). Reasonable accuracy was found for the D0 of each complex; other tendencies are not fully reproduced at these levels of theory. The small D0's of CoC6H6 and NiC6H6 and those of the anions, complicate their determination. In general, the EA increases from m = 1 to 2 and from 2 to 3. The IE decreases from m = 1 to 3, being due to delocalization trough the Cδ-sbnd Hδ+⋯π network of bonds.

  4. TM4 of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 experiences substrate-induced motion during the transport cycle

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Xiuliang; Tan, Feng; Wu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Xiuping; Lu, Lingli; Zou, Xiaoming; Qu, Shaogang

    2016-01-01

    Excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2), also known as glial glutamate transporter type 1 (GLT-1), plays an important role in maintaining the extracellular glutamate concentrations below neurotoxic levels. The highly conserved TM2 transmembrane domain of GLT-1 maintains a stable position during the transport cycle; however, the effect of the transport cycle on the topology of TM4 in not well established. To further reveal the function of TM4, two cysteine pairs between TM2 and TM4 were introduced using site-directed mutagenesis. A significant decrease of transport activity was observed in the I93C/V241C and I97C/V241C mutants upon application of the oxidative cross-linking reagent, copper (II) (1,10-phenanthroline)3 (CuPh), which suggests that a conformational shift is essential for transporter activity. Furthermore, the decrease in activity by CuPh crosslinking was enhanced in external media with glutamate or potassium, which suggests that TM2 and TM4 assume closer proximity in the inward-facing conformation of the transporter. Our results suggest that the TM4 domain of GLT-1, and potentially other glutamate transporters, undergoes a complex conformational shift during substrate translocation, which involves an increase in the proximity of the TM2 and TM4 domains in the inward-facing conformation. PMID:27698371

  5. Cultivation of a human-associated TM7 phylotype reveals a reduced genome and epibiotic parasitic lifestyle.

    PubMed

    He, Xuesong; McLean, Jeffrey S; Edlund, Anna; Yooseph, Shibu; Hall, Adam P; Liu, Su-Yang; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Esquenazi, Eduardo; Hunter, Ryan C; Cheng, Genhong; Nelson, Karen E; Lux, Renate; Shi, Wenyuan

    2015-01-06

    The candidate phylum TM7 is globally distributed and often associated with human inflammatory mucosal diseases. Despite its prevalence, the TM7 phylum remains recalcitrant to cultivation, making it one of the most enigmatic phyla known. In this study, we cultivated a TM7 phylotype (TM7x) from the human oral cavity. This extremely small coccus (200-300 nm) has a distinctive lifestyle not previously observed in human-associated microbes. It is an obligate epibiont of an Actinomyces odontolyticus strain (XH001) yet also has a parasitic phase, thereby killing its host. This first completed genome (705 kb) for a human-associated TM7 phylotype revealed a complete lack of amino acid biosynthetic capacity. Comparative genomics analyses with uncultivated environmental TM7 assemblies show remarkable conserved gene synteny and only minimal gene loss/gain that may have occurred as TM7x adapted to conditions within the human host. Transcriptomic and metabolomic profiles provided the first indications, to our knowledge, that there is signaling interaction between TM7x and XH001. Furthermore, the induction of TNF-α production in macrophages by XH001 was repressed in the presence of TM7x, suggesting its potential immune suppression ability. Overall, our data provide intriguing insights into the uncultivability, pathogenicity, and unique lifestyle of this previously uncharacterized oral TM7 phylotype.

  6. Cultivation of a human-associated TM7 phylotype reveals a reduced genome and epibiotic parasitic lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    He, Xuesong; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Edlund, Anna; Yooseph, Shibu; Hall, Adam P.; Liu, Su-Yang; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Esquenazi, Eduardo; Hunter, Ryan C.; Cheng, Genhong; Nelson, Karen E.; Lux, Renate; Shi, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    The candidate phylum TM7 is globally distributed and often associated with human inflammatory mucosal diseases. Despite its prevalence, the TM7 phylum remains recalcitrant to cultivation, making it one of the most enigmatic phyla known. In this study, we cultivated a TM7 phylotype (TM7x) from the human oral cavity. This extremely small coccus (200–300 nm) has a distinctive lifestyle not previously observed in human-associated microbes. It is an obligate epibiont of an Actinomyces odontolyticus strain (XH001) yet also has a parasitic phase, thereby killing its host. This first completed genome (705 kb) for a human-associated TM7 phylotype revealed a complete lack of amino acid biosynthetic capacity. Comparative genomics analyses with uncultivated environmental TM7 assemblies show remarkable conserved gene synteny and only minimal gene loss/gain that may have occurred as TM7x adapted to conditions within the human host. Transcriptomic and metabolomic profiles provided the first indications, to our knowledge, that there is signaling interaction between TM7x and XH001. Furthermore, the induction of TNF-α production in macrophages by XH001 was repressed in the presence of TM7x, suggesting its potential immune suppression ability. Overall, our data provide intriguing insights into the uncultivability, pathogenicity, and unique lifestyle of this previously uncharacterized oral TM7 phylotype. PMID:25535390

  7. Closure of the Cytoplasmic Gate Formed by TM5 and TM11 during Transport in the Oxalate/Formate Exchanger from Oxalobacter formigenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    OxlT, the oxalate/formate exchanger of Oxalobacter formigenes, is a member of the major facilitator superfamily of transporters. In the present work, substrate (oxalate) was found to enhance the reactivity of the cysteine mutant S336C on the cytoplasmic end of helix 11 to methanethiosulfonate ethyl carboxylate. In addition, S336C is found to spontaneously cross-link to S143C in TM5 in either native or reconstituted membranes under conditions that support transport. Continuous wave EPR measurements are consistent with this result and indicate that positions 143 and 336 are in close proximity in the presence of substrate. These two residues are localized within helix interacting GxxxG-like motifs (G140LASG144 and S336DIFG340) at the cytoplasmic poles of TM5 and TM11. Pulse EPR measurements were used to determine distances and distance distributions across the cytoplasmic or periplasmic ends of OxlT and were compared with the predictions of an inside-open homology model. The data indicate that a significant population of transporter is in an outside-open configuration in the presence of substrate; however, each end of the transporter exhibits significant conformational heterogeneity, where both inside-open and outside-open configurations are present. These data indicate that TM5 and TM11, which form part of the transport pathway, transiently close during transport and that there is a conformational equilibrium between inside-open and outside-open states of OxlT in the presence of substrate. PMID:25409483

  8. Comparison of tunable lasers based on diode pumped Tm-doped crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena; Koranda, Petr; Černý, Pavel; Jabczyński, Jan K.; Żendzian, Waldemar; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Urata, Yoshiharu; Higuchi, Mikio

    2008-12-01

    We report on continuously tunable operation of a diode pumped lasers based on Tm-doped materials, emitting in the 1.8 - 2.μ1 m spectral band. In our study we compare results obtained with three various single crystals doped by Tm3+ ions: Yttrium Aluminum perovskite YAP (YAlO3), Gadolinium orthovanadate GdVO4, and Yttrium Lithium Fluoride YLF (YLiF4). Following samples were available: the 3mm long a-cut crystal rod of Tm:YAP with 4% at. Tm/Y (diameter 3 mm); the 8mm long b-cut crystal rod of Tm:YLF with 3.5% at. Tm/Y (diameter 3 mm); the 2.7mm long a-cut crystal block of Tm:GdVO4 with 2% at. Tm/Gd (crystal face 5×3 mm). For active medium pumping, the laser diode radiation was used. Because the tested samples differs significantly in absorption spectra, two fibre-coupled (core diameter 400 µm) temperature-tuned laser diodes were used: first operating at wavelength 793nm was used for Tm:YAP and Tm:YLF; the second operating at wavelength 802nm was used for Tm:GdVO4. In both cases, the continuous power up to 20W was available for pumping. The diode radiation was focused into the active crystal by two achromatic doublet lenses with the focal length f = 75 mm. The measured radius of pumping beam focus inside the crystal was 260 µm. The longitudinally diode pumped crystals were tested in linear, 80mm long, hemispherical laser cavity. The curved (radius 150mm) output coupler reflectivity was ~ 97 % in range from 1.8 up to 2.1 μm. The pumping flat mirror had maximal reflectivity in this range and it had high transmission around 0.8 μm. A 1.5mm thick birefringent plate made from quartz (Lyot filter) inserted under a Brewster's angle was used as a tuning element. This plate was placed inside the resonator between the crystal and the output coupler. Using Tm:YAP crystal, the maximal output power of 2.8W in this set-up was obtained. The laser could be tuned from 1865nm up to 2036nm with a maximum at 1985 nm. Laser based on Tm:YLF crystal was tunable from 1835nm up to

  9. Use of the Aromascan(TM) Instrument for Nonsubjective Evaluation of Rodent Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scribner, K. A.; Steele, M. K.; Hinds, W. E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the verification and utilization of the AromaScan(TM) (Hollis, NH) instrument for the ground-based evaluation of odor containment by various spaceflight habitats developed at NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC). The AromaScan(TM) instrument is an electronic odor detection system consisting of 32 polymer sensors that respond differentially to 10 different chemical groups present in an air sample. The AromaScan(TM) system also includes neural network software for constructing a database of known odors, against which an unknown odor can be compared. At present, the standard method for characterizing rodent odor containment during the development and testing of spaceflight hardware is the use of a human odor assessment panel. However, this can be a very time consuming and costly process, and the results are inherently subjective. The AromaScan(TM) system should produce more consistent and objective results, as well as a cost savings in the long term. To test and verify the AromaScan(TM) instrument, daily air samples will be collected from the exhaust port of rodent habitats, during experiment development tests, then injected into the instrument and used to create a database of recognizable odors. Human sniff tests will be performed in conjunction with the AromaScan(TM) analysis, and the results will be correlated. We will then teach the neural network to differentiate between an acceptable and an unacceptable odor profile, as defined by the human sniff test, and to be able to accurately identify an odor that would not pass a sniff panel. The results of our efforts will be to verify that the AromaScan(TM) system is a valuable alternative to human sniff panel assessments for the early iterative process of designing and testing rodent waste filters for spaceflight. Acceptance by a human panel will remain one of the final criteria for successful rodent habitat development.

  10. tmChem: a high performance approach for chemical named entity recognition and normalization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chemical compounds and drugs are an important class of entities in biomedical research with great potential in a wide range of applications, including clinical medicine. Locating chemical named entities in the literature is a useful step in chemical text mining pipelines for identifying the chemical mentions, their properties, and their relationships as discussed in the literature. We introduce the tmChem system, a chemical named entity recognizer created by combining two independent machine learning models in an ensemble. We use the corpus released as part of the recent CHEMDNER task to develop and evaluate tmChem, achieving a micro-averaged f-measure of 0.8739 on the CEM subtask (mention-level evaluation) and 0.8745 f-measure on the CDI subtask (abstract-level evaluation). We also report a high-recall combination (0.9212 for CEM and 0.9224 for CDI). tmChem achieved the highest f-measure reported in the CHEMDNER task for the CEM subtask, and the high recall variant achieved the highest recall on both the CEM and CDI tasks. We report that tmChem is a state-of-the-art tool for chemical named entity recognition and that performance for chemical named entity recognition has now tied (or exceeded) the performance previously reported for genes and diseases. Future research should focus on tighter integration between the named entity recognition and normalization steps for improved performance. The source code and a trained model for both models of tmChem is available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/tmChem. The results of running tmChem (Model 2) on PubMed are available in PubTator: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/PubTator PMID:25810774

  11. Absence of tmRNA Has a Protective Effect against Fluoroquinolones in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Brito, Liliana; Wilton, Joana; Ferrándiz, María J; Gómez-Sanz, Alicia; de la Campa, Adela G; Amblar, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    The transfer messenger RNA (tmRNA), encoded by the ssrA gene, is a small non-coding RNA involved in trans-translation that contributes to the recycling of ribosomes stalled on aberrant mRNAs. In most bacteria, its inactivation has been related to a decreased ability to respond to and recover from a variety of stress conditions. In this report, we investigated the role of tmRNA in stress adaptation in the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. We constructed a tmRNA deletion mutant and analyzed its response to several lethal stresses. The ΔssrA strain grew slower than the wild type, indicating that, although not essential, tmRNA is important for normal pneumococcal growth. Moreover, deletion of tmRNA increased susceptibility to UV irradiation, to exogenous hydrogen peroxide and to antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis and transcription. However, the ΔssrA strain was more resistant to fluoroquinolones, showing twofold higher MIC values and up to 1000-fold higher survival rates than the wild type. Deletion of SmpB, the other partner in trans-translation, also reduced survival to levofloxacin in a similar extent. Accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species associated to moxifloxacin and levofloxacin treatment was also highly reduced (∼100-fold). Nevertheless, the ΔssrA strain showed higher intracellular accumulation of ethidium bromide and levofloxacin than the wild type, suggesting that tmRNA deficiency protects pneumococcal cells from fluoroquinolone-mediated killing. In fact, analysis of chromosome integrity revealed that deletion of tmRNA prevented the fragmentation of the chromosome associated to levofloxacin treatment. Moreover, such protective effect appears to relay mainly on inhibition of protein synthesis, since a similar effect was observed with antibiotics that inhibit that process. The emergence and spread of drug-resistant pneumococci is a matter of concern and these results contribute to a better comprehension of the mechanisms

  12. Absence of tmRNA Has a Protective Effect against Fluoroquinolones in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Liliana; Wilton, Joana; Ferrándiz, María J.; Gómez-Sanz, Alicia; de la Campa, Adela G.; Amblar, Mónica

    2017-01-01

    The transfer messenger RNA (tmRNA), encoded by the ssrA gene, is a small non-coding RNA involved in trans-translation that contributes to the recycling of ribosomes stalled on aberrant mRNAs. In most bacteria, its inactivation has been related to a decreased ability to respond to and recover from a variety of stress conditions. In this report, we investigated the role of tmRNA in stress adaptation in the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. We constructed a tmRNA deletion mutant and analyzed its response to several lethal stresses. The ΔssrA strain grew slower than the wild type, indicating that, although not essential, tmRNA is important for normal pneumococcal growth. Moreover, deletion of tmRNA increased susceptibility to UV irradiation, to exogenous hydrogen peroxide and to antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis and transcription. However, the ΔssrA strain was more resistant to fluoroquinolones, showing twofold higher MIC values and up to 1000-fold higher survival rates than the wild type. Deletion of SmpB, the other partner in trans-translation, also reduced survival to levofloxacin in a similar extent. Accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species associated to moxifloxacin and levofloxacin treatment was also highly reduced (∼100-fold). Nevertheless, the ΔssrA strain showed higher intracellular accumulation of ethidium bromide and levofloxacin than the wild type, suggesting that tmRNA deficiency protects pneumococcal cells from fluoroquinolone-mediated killing. In fact, analysis of chromosome integrity revealed that deletion of tmRNA prevented the fragmentation of the chromosome associated to levofloxacin treatment. Moreover, such protective effect appears to relay mainly on inhibition of protein synthesis, since a similar effect was observed with antibiotics that inhibit that process. The emergence and spread of drug-resistant pneumococci is a matter of concern and these results contribute to a better comprehension of the mechanisms

  13. Crystal growth and characterization of Tm doped mixed rare-earth aluminum perovskite

    SciTech Connect

    Totsuka, Daisuke; Yanagida, Takayuki; Sugiyama, Makoto; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (Lu{sub x}Gd{sub y}Y{sub 0.99-x-y}Tm{sub 0.01})AP single crystals were grown by the {mu}-PD method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grown crystals were single phase with perovskite structure (Pbnm). Significant segregation of Lu and Gd was detected in the growth direction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some absorption bands due to Tm{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+} and color centers were exhibited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radioluminescence spectra showed several emission peaks ascribed to Tm{sup 3+} and Gd{sup 3+}. -- Abstract: In this work, we present results of structural characterization and optical properties including radio luminescence of (Lu{sub x}Gd{sub y}Y{sub 0.99-x-y}Tm{sub 0.01})AP single crystal scintillators for (x, y) = (0.30, 0.19), (0, 0.19) and (0, 0) grown by the micro-pulling-down ({mu}-PD) method. The grown crystals were single phase materials with perovskite structure (Pbnm) as confirmed by XRD and had a good crystallinity. The distribution of the crystal constituents in growth direction was evaluated, and significant segregation of Lu and Gd was detected in (Lu{sub 0.30}Gd{sub 0.19}Y{sub 0.50}Tm{sub 0.01})AP sample. The crystals demonstrated 70% transmittance in visible wavelength range and some absorption bands due to Tm{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+} and color centers were exhibited in 190-900 nm. The radioluminescence measurement under X-ray irradiation demonstrated several emission peaks ascribed to 4f-4f transitions of Tm{sup 3+} and Gd{sup 3+}. The ratio of emission intensity in longer wavelength range was increased when Y was replaced by Lu or Gd.

  14. Conserved Asp-137 is important for both structure and regulatory functions of cardiac α-tropomyosin (α-TM) in a novel transgenic mouse model expressing α-TM-D137L.

    PubMed

    Yar, Sumeyye; Chowdhury, Shamim A K; Davis, Robert T; Kobayashi, Minae; Monasky, Michelle M; Rajan, Sudarsan; Wolska, Beata M; Gaponenko, Vadim; Kobayashi, Tomoyoshi; Wieczorek, David F; Solaro, R John

    2013-06-07

    α-Tropomyosin (α-TM) has a conserved, charged Asp-137 residue located in the hydrophobic core of its coiled-coil structure, which is unusual in that the residue is found at a position typically occupied by a hydrophobic residue. Asp-137 is thought to destabilize the coiled-coil and so impart structural flexibility to the molecule, which is believed to be crucial for its function in the heart. A previous in vitro study indicated that the conversion of Asp-137 to a more typical canonical Leu alters flexibility of TM and affects its in vitro regulatory functions. However, the physiological importance of the residue Asp-137 and altered TM flexibility is unknown. In this study, we further analyzed structural properties of the α-TM-D137L variant and addressed the physiological importance of TM flexibility in cardiac function in studies with a novel transgenic mouse model expressing α-TM-D137L in the heart. Our NMR spectroscopy data indicated that the presence of D137L introduced long range rearrangements in TM structure. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements demonstrated that α-TM-D137L has higher thermal stability compared with α-TM, which correlated with decreased flexibility. Hearts of transgenic mice expressing α-TM-D137L showed systolic and diastolic dysfunction with decreased myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity and cardiomyocyte contractility without changes in intracellular Ca(2+) transients or post-translational modifications of major myofilament proteins. We conclude that conversion of the highly conserved Asp-137 to Leu results in loss of flexibility of TM that is important for its regulatory functions in mouse hearts. Thus, our results provide insight into the link between flexibility of TM and its function in ejecting hearts.

  15. Visible to near-infrared down-shifting in Tm3+ doped fluoride glasses for solar cells efficiency enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maalej, Olfa; Merigeon, Julien; Boulard, Brigitte; Girtan, Mihaela

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, down-conversion of Tm3+ doped fluoride ZLAG glasses with composition of 70.2ZrF4-(23.4-x)LaF3-0.6AlF3-5.8GaF3-xTmF3 (x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3 and 5 mol%) were tested as encapsulation materials for solar cells. The current density - voltage (J-V) characterizations were performed under solar simulator irradiation. The influence of Tm3+ concentration on the mono crystalline silicon solar cells performances was investigated. A slight increase of the solar cell efficiency was observed in the case of fluoride ZLAG for Tm3+ doping concentrations up to 1 mol% Tm3+. Further increase of the Tm3+ concentration leads to a decrease of solar cell conversion efficiency as a result of concentration quenching.

  16. Chlorine injury and the comparative performance of Colisure (TM), ColiLert (TM) and ColiQuik (TM) for the enumeration of coliform bacteria and E.coli in drinking water.

    PubMed

    McFeters, G A; Pyle, B H; Gillis, S J; Acomb, C J; Ferrazza, D

    1993-01-01

    Several factors have stimulated interest in recently developed substrate specific media for the detection of coliform bacteria in water. This study compared the performance of Colisure (TM) (Millipore), ColiLert (TM) (Environetics) and ColiQuick (TM) (Hach) with accepted membrane filtration and MPN methodologies for the enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in chlorinated water. The performance of all three media was compared, in MPN configuration, with LTB/MPN (confirmed) using a variety of drinking and source water samples, both with and without chlorination. The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test yielded statistical correlations between results obtained with each of the three new enzyme detection media and accepted reference methods for the detection of low numbers of total coliforms. Another series of tests compared the performance of Colisure with accepted methods (LTB/MPN confirmed with BGLB and EC-MUG) in the detection of total coliforms and E. coli in sewage-spiked samples simulating contaminated drinking water, using an USEPA/AWWA test protocol. The results demonstrated that Colisure detected these indicator bacteria with greater sensitivity than the accepted methods and that this difference increased between 24 and 28 hours of incubation. The results of this study collectively support the validity of the new enzyme detection method for the detection of low levels of coliform bacteria and E. coli in source water and contaminated drinking water.

  17. Up-conversion emission in KGd(WO 4 ) 2 single crystals triply-doped with Er 3+ /Yb 3+ /Tm 3+ , Tb 3+ /Yb 3+ /Tm 3+ and Pr 3+ /Yb 3+ /Tm 3+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprowicz, D.; Brik, M. G.; Majchrowski, A.; Michalski, E.; Głuchowski, P.

    2011-09-01

    Triply-doped single crystals KGd(WO 4) 2:Er 3+/Yb 3+/Tm 3+, KGd(WO 4) 2:Tb 3+/Yb 3+/Tm 3+ and KGd(WO 4) 2:Pr 3+/Yb 3+/Tm 3+ were grown by the Top Seeded Solution Growth (TSSG) method, with an aim of getting efficient up-converted multicolored luminescence, which subsequently can be used for generation of white light. Such an aim determined the choice of the triply doped compounds: excitation of the Yb 3+ ions in the infrared spectral region is followed by red, green and blue emission from other dopants. It was shown that all these systems exhibit multicolor up-conversion fluorescence under 980 nm laser irradiation. Detailed spectroscopic studies of their absorption and luminescence spectra were performed. From the analysis of the dependence of the intensity of fluorescence on the excitation power the conclusion was made about significant role played by the host's conduction band and other possible defects of the KGd(WO 4) 2 crystal lattice in the up-conversion processes.

  18. Bushen Zhuangjin decoction inhibits TM-induced chondrocyte apoptosis mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    LIN, PINGDONG; WENG, XIAPING; LIU, FAYUAN; MA, YUHUAN; CHEN, HOUHUANG; SHAO, XIANG; ZHENG, WENWEI; LIU, XIANXIANG; YE, HONGZHI; LI, XIHAI

    2015-01-01

    Chondrocyte apoptosis triggered by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Bushen Zhuangjin decoction (BZD) has been widely used in the treatment of OA. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the inhibitory effects of BZD on chondrocyte apoptosis remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BZD on ER stress-induced chondrocyte apoptosis using a chondrocyte in vitro model of OA. Chondrocytes obtained from the articular cartilage of the knee joints of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were detected by immunohistochemical staining for type II collagen. The ER stress-mediated apoptosis of tunicamycin (TM)-stimulated chondrocytes was detected using 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA). We found that 4-PBA inhibited TM-induced chondrocyte apoptosis, which confirmed the successful induction of chondrocyte apoptosis. BZD enhanced the viability of the TM-stimulated chondrocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as shown by MTT assay. The apoptotic rate and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) of the TM-stimulated chondrocytes treated with BZD was markedly decreased compared with those of chondrocytes not treated with BZD, as shown by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, Annexin V-FITC binding assay and JC-1 assay. To further elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the inhibitory effects of BZD on TM-induced chondrocyte apoptosis mediated by ER stress, the mRNA and protein expression levels of binding immunoglobulin protein (Bip), X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1), activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4), C/EBP-homologous protein (Chop), caspase-9, caspase-3, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. In the TM-stimulated chondrocytes treated with BZD, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Bip, Atf4, Chop, caspase-9, caspase-3

  19. Evaluation of the boundary layer dynamics of the TM5 model over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, E. N.; Bergamaschi, P.; Karstens, U.; Krol, M.; Segers, A.; Schmidt, M.; Levin, I.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Fisher, R. E.; Kazan, V.; Klein Baltink, H.; Lowry, D.; Manca, G.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Moncrieff, J.; Pal, S.; Ramonet, M.; Scheeren, H. A.; Williams, A. G.

    2016-09-01

    We evaluate the capability of the global atmospheric transport model TM5 to simulate the boundary layer dynamics and associated variability of trace gases close to the surface, using radon (222Rn). Focusing on the European scale, we compare the boundary layer height (BLH) in the TM5 model with observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admnistration (NOAA) Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) and also with ceilometer and lidar (light detection and ranging) BLH retrievals at two stations. Furthermore, we compare TM5 simulations of 222Rn activity concentrations, using a novel, process-based 222Rn flux map over Europe (Karstens et al., 2015), with harmonised 222Rn measurements at 10 stations. The TM5 model reproduces relatively well the daytime BLH (within 10-20 % for most of the stations), except for coastal sites, for which differences are usually larger due to model representation errors. During night, however, TM5 overestimates the shallow nocturnal BLHs, especially for the very low observed BLHs (< 100 m) during summer. The 222Rn activity concentration simulations based on the new 222Rn flux map show significant improvements especially regarding the average seasonal variability, compared to simulations using constant 222Rn fluxes. Nevertheless, the (relative) differences between simulated and observed daytime minimum 222Rn activity concentrations are larger for several stations (on the order of 50 %) than the (relative) differences between simulated and observed BLH at noon. Although the nocturnal BLH is often higher in the model than observed, simulated 222Rn nighttime maxima are actually larger at several continental stations. This counterintuitive behaviour points to potential deficiencies of TM5 to correctly simulate the vertical gradients within the nocturnal boundary layer, limitations of the 222Rn flux map, or issues related to the definition of the nocturnal BLH. At several stations the simulated decrease of 222Rn activity

  20. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kevin P.

    1993-01-01

    Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. Direct measurements of rate of soil loss using the SEDIMENT (Soil Erosion DIrect measureMENT) technique, indicated high and varying rates of soil loss among the sites since tree establishment. Erosion estimates from the USLE and SEDIMENT methods suggest that erosion rates have been severe in the past, but because significant amounts of soil have already been eroded, and the surface is now armored by rock debris, present erosion rates are lower. Indicators of accelerated erosion were still present on all sites, however, suggesting that the USLE underestimated erosion within the study area.

  1. DAG-TM Concept Element 11 CNS Performance Assessment: ADS-B Performance in the TRACON

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, Rajesh S.

    2004-01-01

    Distributed Air/Ground (DAG) Traffic Management (TM) is an integrated operational concept in which flight deck crews, air traffic service providers and aeronautical operational control personnel use distributed decision-making to enable user preferences and increase system capacity, while meeting air traffic management (ATM) safety requirements. It is a possible operational mode under the Free Flight concept outlined by the RTCA Task Force 3. The goal of DAG-TM is to enhance user flexibility/efficiency and increase system capacity, without adversely affecting system safety or restricting user accessibility to the National Airspace System (NAS). DAG-TM will be accomplished with a human-centered operational paradigm enabled by procedural and technological innovations. These innovations include automation aids, information sharing and Communication, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) / ATM technologies. The DAG-TM concept is intended to eliminate static restrictions to the maximum extent possible. In this paradigm, users may plan and operate according to their preferences - as the rule rather than the exception - with deviations occurring only as necessary. The DAG-TM concept elements aim to mitigate the extent and impact of dynamic NAS constraints, while maximizing the flexibility of airspace operations

  2. Improvement in absolute calibration accuracy of Landsat-5 TM with Landsat-7 ETM+ data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Micijevic, E.; Teillet, P.M.; Helder, D.L.; ,

    2005-01-01

    The ability to detect and quantify changes in the Earth's environment depends on satellites sensors that can provide calibrated, consistent measurements of Earth's surface features through time. A critical step in this process is to put image data from subsequent generations of sensors onto a common radiometric scale. To evaluate Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper's (TM) utility in this role, image pairs from the L5 TM and Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors were compared. This approach involves comparison of surface observations based on image statistics from large common areas observed eight days apart by the two sensors. The results indicate a significant improvement in the consistency of L5 TM data with respect to L7 ETM+ data, achieved using a revised Look-Up-Table (LUT) procedure as opposed to the historical Internal Calibrator (IC) procedure previously used in the L5 TM product generation system. The average percent difference in reflectance estimates obtained from the L5 TM agree with those from the L7 ETM+ in the Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) bands to within four percent and in the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands to within six percent.

  3. High efficiency Tm3+-doped fiber seed source of optimum fiber length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Jin, Guang-yong; Wang, Ji; Li, Xu

    2016-10-01

    A high efficiency Tm3+-doped fiber seed source system has demonstrated. The pumping laser and output laser in the optical fiber distribution were analyzed. High performance output laser would be obtained by reasonable design of laser parameters, selecting the optimum length of gain fiber, and increasing injection power. Tm3+-doping concentration of 7.5×1024 m-3 and the optimum length of gain fiber of 2 m were used in the experiments. The continuous wave laser with output power of 5.01 W and the beam quality of M2x = 1.35, M2y = 1.51 was obtained by fiber coil diameters of 10 cm and injection power of 17.61 W. A slope efficiency and conversion efficiency were up to 36.2% and 28.4%, respectively. The fiber length of 1 m, 1.5 m, 2 m, 2.5 m, 3 m were chosen in the experiments, and the effects of different fiber lengths on the output characteristic were researched. The laser loss was reduced, and the conversion efficiency and beam quality were improved effectively by selecting the length of gain fiber and Tm3+-doping concentration reasonably. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that a higher output power can be achieved by increasing the injection power. It provides a strong experimental foundation for further researching on high power Tm3+-doped pulse fiber amplifier by using this Tm3+-doped fiber laser as a seed source system.

  4. Analysis of influence factors on 2 μm Tm3+-doped fiber laser output characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Jin, Guang-yong; Wang, Ji

    2016-10-01

    The affecting factors of 2 μm Tm3+-doped fiber laser output characteristics were theoretical analyzed. On the basis of the energy level structure and optical absorption properties of Tm3+ ion, combining with the basic principle of Tm3+-doped fiber laser, and starting from the energy level structures and the cross relaxation processes of Tm3+ ion, the three pumping methods of Tm doped fiber laser (TDF) were analyzed and discussed. The influences of output characteristics by different influence factors were simulated. Based on optimization of the equations, for different fiber lengths, doping concentrations and pumping absorption coefficients and other influence factors, the laser output characteristics under different conditions were obtained and analyzed. Combination the simulation analysis, through the reasonable design and the selection of the optimum parameters of the laser system, the high laser output performance scan be achieved by improving the injection power and controlling of fiber coil diameter. The influences of different factors on the output characteristics were analyzed in the issue. The high laser output performances can be obtained and the laser loss was reduced by selecting the parameters of the laser system properly.

  5. RadBallTM Technology Testing and MCNP Modeling of the Tungsten Collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfán, Eduardo B.; Foley, Trevor Q.; Rusty Coleman, J.; Jannik, G. Timothy; Holmes, Christopher J.; Oldham, Mark; Adamovics, John; Stanley, Steven J.

    2010-11-01

    The UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a remote, non-electrical, radiation-mapping device known as RadBallTM, which can locate and quantify radioactive hazards within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. RadBallTM consists of a colander-like outer shell that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer sphere. The outer shell works to collimate radiation sources and those areas of the polymer sphere that are exposed react, becoming increasingly more opaque, in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer sphere is imaged in an optical-CT scanner, which produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. Subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation matrix provides information on the spatial distribution of sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. RadBallTM has no power requirements and can be positioned in tight or hard-to reach locations. The RadBallTM technology has been deployed in a number of technology trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the UK and facilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This study focuses on the RadBallTM testing and modeling accomplished at SRNL.

  6. LANDSAT TM image data quality analysis for energy-related applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wukelic, G. E.; Foote, H. P.; Petrie, G. M.; Barnard, J. C.; Eliason, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    This project represents a no-cost agreement between National Aeronautic Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA GSFC) and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL is a Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory operted by Battelle Memorial Institute at its Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The objective of this investigation is to evaluate LANDSAT's thematic mapper (TM) data quality and utility characteristics from an energy research and technological perspective. Of main interest is the extent to which repetitive TM data might support DOE efforts relating to siting, developing, and monitoring energy-related facilities, and to basic geoscientific research. The investigation utilizes existing staff and facility capabilities, and ongoing programmatic activities at PNL and other DOE national laboratories to cooperatively assess the potential usefulness of the improved experimental TM data. The investigation involves: (1) both LANDSAT 4 and 5 TM data, (2) qualitative and quantitative use consideration, and 3) NASA P (corrected) and A (uncorrected) CCT analysis for a variety of sites of DOE interest. Initial results were presented at the LANDSAT Investigator's Workshops and at specialized LANDSAT TM sessions at various conferences.

  7. Density functional investigation of CO and NO adsorption on TM-decorated C60 fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mahdy, A. M.

    2016-10-01

    We have analysed the adsorptions of CO and NO molecules on pristine, TM (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) in TM-doped fullerene C60 by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations at B3LYP/6-31g(d) theoretical level. This work revealed that the transition metal doped fullerenes were more highly sensitive to CO and NO adsorption than that of pure fullerene C60. The Fe-doped fullerenes C60 displayed the strongest interaction with C and N atoms of CO and NO molecules respectively. The nature of charge transfer between the d-orbitals of TM, and the π* orbital of the nearby C and N of CO and NO are clarified. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis reveals that the electronic configuration of the doped TM metal represents a qualitative change with respect to that of the free-metal. The binding of CO and NO precursor is mostly dominated by the metal E (i) (XO ..TM) pairwise additive contributions, and the role of the C60 is not restricted to supporting the metal.

  8. Intense upconversion luminescence and origin study in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped calcium scandate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Jiahua; Hao, Zhendong; Zhang, Xia; Zhao, Jihong; Luo, Yongshi

    2012-09-01

    Doping concentration optimized CaSc2O4:0.004Tm3+/0.1Yb3+ shows stronger upconversion luminescence (UCL) than doping concentration also optimized typical oxide upconverting phosphor Y2O3:0.004Tm3+/0.1Yb3+ upon 980 nm laser diode pump. The two-step up converted 3H4 → 3H6 near infrared emission peaked around 800 nm and the three-step up converted 1G4 → 3H6 blue emission around 480 nm of Tm3+ is enhanced by a factor of 3.5 and 2.2, respectively. On analyzing the 2F5/2 → 2F7/2 emission intensities and decay curves of Yb3+ in the two hosts, we reveal that Yb3+ in CaSc2O4 exhibits both a larger absorption cross section at 980 nm and Yb3+ → Tm3+ first step energy transfer coefficient (9.29 × 10-17 cm3 s-1) than that (2.87 × 10-17 cm3 s-1) in Y2O3, indicating that CaSc2O4 is an excellent host for achieving very intense UCL in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped oxide upconverting materials.

  9. TM-25659-Induced Activation of FGF21 Level Decreases Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in Skeletal Muscle via GCN2 Pathways.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jong Gab; Yi, Sang-A; Choi, Sung-E; Kang, Yup; Kim, Tae Ho; Jeon, Ja Young; Bae, Myung Ae; Ahn, Jin Hee; Jeong, Hana; Hwang, Eun Sook; Lee, Kwan-Woo

    2015-12-01

    The TAZ activator 2-butyl-5-methyl-6-(pyridine-3-yl)-3-[2'-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl]-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine] (TM-25659) inhibits adipocyte differentiation by interacting with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. TM-25659 was previously shown to decrease weight gain in a high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. However, the fundamental mechanisms underlying the effects of TM-25659 remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of TM-25659 on skeletal muscle functions in C2 myotubes and C57BL/6J mice. We studied the molecular mechanisms underlying the contribution of TM-25659 to palmitate (PA)-induced insulin resistance in C2 myotubes. TM-25659 improved PA-induced insulin resistance and inflammation in C2 myotubes. In addition, TM-25659 increased FGF21 mRNA expression, protein levels, and FGF21 secretion in C2 myotubes via activation of GCN2 pathways (GCN2-phosphoeIF2α-ATF4 and FGF21). This beneficial effect of TM-25659 was diminished by FGF21 siRNA. C57BL/6J mice were fed a HF diet for 30 weeks. The HF-diet group was randomly divided into two groups for the next 14 days: the HF-diet and HF-diet + TM-25659 groups. The HF diet + TM-25659-treated mice showed improvements in their fasting blood glucose levels, insulin sensitivity, insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, and inflammation, but neither body weight nor food intake was affected. The HF diet + TM-25659-treated mice also exhibited increased expression of both FGF21 mRNA and protein. These data indicate that TM-25659 may be beneficial for treating insulin resistance by inducing FGF21 in models of PA-induced insulin resistance and HF diet-induced insulin resistance.

  10. Comparative Genomics of Candidate Phylum TM6 Suggests That Parasitism Is Widespread and Ancestral in This Lineage.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Yun Kit; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Parks, Donovan H; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Candidate phylum TM6 is a major bacterial lineage recognized through culture-independent rRNA surveys to be low abundance members in a wide range of habitats; however, they are poorly characterized due to a lack of pure culture representatives. Two recent genomic studies of TM6 bacteria revealed small genomes and limited gene repertoire, consistent with known or inferred dependence on eukaryotic hosts for their metabolic needs. Here, we obtained additional near-complete genomes of TM6 populations from agricultural soil and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor metagenomes which, together with the two publicly available TM6 genomes, represent seven distinct family level lineages in the TM6 phylum. Genome-based phylogenetic analysis confirms that TM6 is an independent phylum level lineage in the bacterial domain, possibly affiliated with the Patescibacteria superphylum. All seven genomes are small (1.0-1.5 Mb) and lack complete biosynthetic pathways for various essential cellular building blocks including amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides. These and other features identified in the TM6 genomes such as a degenerated cell envelope, ATP/ADP translocases for parasitizing host ATP pools, and protein motifs to facilitate eukaryotic host interactions indicate that parasitism is widespread in this phylum. Phylogenetic analysis of ATP/ADP translocase genes suggests that the ancestral TM6 lineage was also parasitic. We propose the name Dependentiae (phyl. nov.) to reflect dependence of TM6 bacteria on host organisms.

  11. Comparative Genomics of Candidate Phylum TM6 Suggests That Parasitism Is Widespread and Ancestral in This Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Yun Kit; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Parks, Donovan H.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Candidate phylum TM6 is a major bacterial lineage recognized through culture-independent rRNA surveys to be low abundance members in a wide range of habitats; however, they are poorly characterized due to a lack of pure culture representatives. Two recent genomic studies of TM6 bacteria revealed small genomes and limited gene repertoire, consistent with known or inferred dependence on eukaryotic hosts for their metabolic needs. Here, we obtained additional near-complete genomes of TM6 populations from agricultural soil and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor metagenomes which, together with the two publicly available TM6 genomes, represent seven distinct family level lineages in the TM6 phylum. Genome-based phylogenetic analysis confirms that TM6 is an independent phylum level lineage in the bacterial domain, possibly affiliated with the Patescibacteria superphylum. All seven genomes are small (1.0–1.5 Mb) and lack complete biosynthetic pathways for various essential cellular building blocks including amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides. These and other features identified in the TM6 genomes such as a degenerated cell envelope, ATP/ADP translocases for parasitizing host ATP pools, and protein motifs to facilitate eukaryotic host interactions indicate that parasitism is widespread in this phylum. Phylogenetic analysis of ATP/ADP translocase genes suggests that the ancestral TM6 lineage was also parasitic. We propose the name Dependentiae (phyl. nov.) to reflect dependence of TM6 bacteria on host organisms. PMID:26615204

  12. Distinct tmRNA sequence elements facilitate RNase R engagement on rescued ribosomes for selective nonstop mRNA decay.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Krithika; Zafar, Hina; Karzai, A Wali

    2014-01-01

    trans-Translation, orchestrated by SmpB and tmRNA, is the principal eubacterial pathway for resolving stalled translation complexes. RNase R, the leading nonstop mRNA surveillance factor, is recruited to stalled ribosomes in a trans-translation dependent process. To elucidate the contributions of SmpB and tmRNA to RNase R recruitment, we evaluated Escherichia coli-Francisella tularensis chimeric variants of tmRNA and SmpB. This evaluation showed that while the hybrid tmRNA supported nascent polypeptide tagging and ribosome rescue, it suffered defects in facilitating RNase R recruitment to stalled ribosomes. To gain further insights, we used established tmRNA and SmpB variants that impact distinct stages of the trans-translation process. Analysis of select tmRNA variants revealed that the sequence composition and positioning of the ultimate and penultimate codons of the tmRNA ORF play a crucial role in recruiting RNase R to rescued ribosomes. Evaluation of defined SmpB C-terminal tail variants highlighted the importance of establishing the tmRNA reading frame, and provided valuable clues into the timing of RNase R recruitment to rescued ribosomes. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that productive RNase R-ribosomes engagement requires active trans-translation, and suggest that RNase R captures the emerging nonstop mRNA at an early stage after establishment of the tmRNA ORF as the surrogate mRNA template.

  13. The role of charge transfer in the oxidation state change of Ce atoms in the TM13-CeO2(111) systems (TM = Pd, Ag, Pt, Au): a DFT + U investigation.

    PubMed

    Tereshchuk, Polina; Freire, Rafael L H; Ungureanu, Crina G; Seminovski, Yohanna; Kiejna, Adam; Da Silva, Juarez L F

    2015-05-28

    Despite extensive studies of transition metal (TM) clusters supported on ceria (CeO2), fundamental issues such as the role of the TM atoms in the change in the oxidation state of Ce atoms are still not well understood. In this work, we report a theoretical investigation based on static and ab initio molecular dynamics density functional theory calculations of the interaction of 13-atom TM clusters (TM = Pd, Ag, Pt, Au) with the unreduced CeO2(111) surface represented by a large surface unit cell and employing Hubbard corrections for the strong on-site Coulomb correlation in the Ce f-electrons. We found that the TM13 clusters form pyramidal-like structures on CeO2(111) in the lowest energy configurations with the following stacking sequence, TM/TM4/TM8/CeO2(111), while TM13 adopts two-dimensional structures at high energy structures. TM13 induces a change in the oxidation state of few Ce atoms (3 of 16) located in the topmost Ce layer from Ce(IV) (itinerant Ce f-states) to Ce(III) (localized Ce f-states). There is a charge flow from the TM atoms to the CeO2(111) surface, which can be explained by the electronegativity difference between the TM (Pd, Ag, Pt, Au) and O atoms, however, the charge is not uniformly distributed on the topmost O layer due to the pressure induced by the TM13 clusters on the underlying O ions, which yields a decrease in the ionic charge of the O ions located below the cluster and an increase in the remaining O ions. Due to the charge flow mainly from the TM8-layer to the topmost O-layer, the charge cannot flow from the Ce(IV) atoms to the O atoms with the same magnitude as in the clean CeO2(111) surface. Consequently, the effective cationic charge decreases mainly for the Ce atoms that have a bond with the O atoms not located below the cluster, and hence, those Ce atoms change their oxidation state from IV to III. This increases the size of the Ce(III) compared with the Ce(IV) cations, which builds-in a strain within the topmost Ce layer, and

  14. Duty cycle estimate of photoresist gratings via monitoring TM/TE diffraction efficiency ratio during development.

    PubMed

    Shen, Biyao; Zeng, Lijiang; Li, Lifeng

    2016-10-20

    We present an in situ duty cycle control method that relies on monitoring the TM/TE diffraction efficiency ratio of the -1st transmitted order during photoresist development. Owing to the anisotropic structure of a binary grating, at an appropriately chosen angle of incidence, diffraction efficiencies in TE and TM polarizations vary with groove depth proportionately, while they vary with duty cycle differently. Thus, measuring the TM/TE diffraction efficiency ratio can help estimate the duty cycle during development while eliminating the effect of photoresist thickness uncertainty. We experimentally verified the feasibility of this idea by fabricating photoresist gratings with different photoresist thicknesses. The experimental results were in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  15. Upconversion emission properties of CeO2: Tm3+, Yb3+ inverse opal photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Gong; Wu, Hangjun; Yang, Zhengwen; Liao, Jiayan; Lai, Shenfeng; Qiu, Jianbei; Song, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    The ordered and disordered templates were assembled by vertical deposition of polystyrene microspheres. The CeO2: Tm3+, Yb3+ precursor solution was used to infiltrate into the voids of the ordered and disordered templates, respectively. Then the ordered and disordered templates were calcined at 950°C in an air furnace, and the CeO2: Tm3+, Yb3+ inverse opals were obtained. The upconversion emissions from CeO2: Tm3+, Yb3+ inverse opals were suppressed due to the photon trapping caused by Bragg reflection of lattice planes when the upconversion emission band was in the range of the photonic band gaps in the inverse opals.

  16. Polarized spectral properties of Tm 3+:K 5Bi(MoO 4) 4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z. Q.; Tang, J. F.; Huang, J. H.; Gong, X. H.; Chen, Y. J.; Lin, Y. F.; Luo, Z. D.; Huang, Y. D.

    2011-11-01

    Trivalent thulium-doped K 5Bi(MoO 4) 4 single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. Its polarized absorption and fluorescence spectra and fluorescence decay curves were recorded at room temperature. On the basis of the Judd-Ofelt theory, the spectral parameters of the Tm 3+:K 5Bi(MoO 4) 4 crystal were calculated. The cross relaxations between Tm 3+ ions were analyzed. The emission cross sections of the 3F 4 → 3H 6 transition were obtained by the Fuchtbauer-Ladenburg formula and then the gain cross sections around 1.9 μm were calculated. The peak emission cross section and width of emission band around 1.9 μm are comparable to those for Tm 3+:YAG and the tunable range is about 280 nm for the potential ˜1.9 μm laser operation via the 3F 4 → 3H 6 transition.

  17. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kevin P.; Ridd, Merrill K.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of Landsat TM data for detecting soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands, and the potential of the spectral data for assigning the universal soil loss equation (USLE) crop managemnent (C) factor to varying cover types within the woodlands are assessed. Results show greatly accelerated rates of soil erosion on pinyon-juniper sites. Percent cover by pinyon-juniper, total soil-loss, and total nonliving ground cover accounted for nearly 70 percent of the variability in TM channels 2, 3, 4, and 5. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion than the biotic and abiotic field variables. Satellite data were more sensitive to vegetation variation than the USLE C factor, and USLE was found to be a poor predictor of soil loss on pinyon-juniper sites. A new string-to-ground soil erosion prediction technique is introduced.

  18. Effect of a triaxial nuclear shape on proton tunneling: the decay and structure of 145Tm.

    PubMed

    Seweryniak, D; Blank, B; Carpenter, M P; Davids, C N; Davinson, T; Freeman, S J; Hammond, N; Hoteling, N; Janssens, R V F; Khoo, T L; Liu, Z; Mukherjee, G; Robinson, A; Scholey, C; Sinha, S; Shergur, J; Starosta, K; Walters, W B; Woehr, A; Woods, P J

    2007-08-24

    Gamma rays deexciting states in the proton emitter 145Tm were observed using the recoil-decay tagging method. The 145Tm ground-state rotational band was found to exhibit the properties expected for an h{11/2} proton decoupled band. In addition, coincidences between protons feeding the 2{+} state in 144Er and the 2{+}-->0{+} gamma-ray transition were detected, the first measurement of this kind, leading to a more precise value for the 2{+} excitation energy of 329(1) keV. Calculations with the particle-rotor model and the core quasiparticle coupling model indicate that the properties of the pi{11/2} band and the proton-decay rates in 145Tm are consistent with the presence of triaxiality with an asymmetry parameter gamma approximately 20 degrees .

  19. LD-cladding-pumped 50 pm linewidth Tm 3+ -doped silica fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Yunjun, Zhang; Baoquan, Yao; Youlun, Ju; Hui, Zhou; Yuezhu, Wang

    2008-05-26

    We report on a Tm(3+)-doped fiber laser source operating at 1936.4 nm with a very narrow linewidth (50 pm) laser output. Up to 2.4 W cw laser power was obtained from an 82 cm long Tm(3+)-doped multimode-core fiber cladding pumped by a 792 nm laser diode (LD). The fiber laser cavity included a high-reflective dichroic and a low-reflective FBG output coupler. The multimode fiber Bragg grating (FBG) transmission spectrum and output laser spectrum were measured. By adjusting the distance between the dichroic and the Tm(3+)-doped fiber end, the multipeak laser spectrum changed to a single-peak laser spectrum.

  20. Cartographic feature extraction with integrated SIR-B and Landsat TM images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, R.; Ehlers, Manfred

    1988-01-01

    A digital cartographic multisensor image database of excellent geometry and improved resolution was created by registering SIR-B images to a rectified Landsat TM reference image and applying intensity-hue-saturation enhancement techniques. When evaluated against geodetic control, RMSE(XY) values of approximately + or - 20 m were noted for the composite SIR-B/TM images. The completeness of cartographic features extracted from the composite images exceeded those obtained from separate SIR-B and TM image data sets by approximately 10 and 25 percent, respectively, indicating that the composite images may prove suitable for planimetric mapping at a scale of 1:100,000 or smaller. At present, the most effective method for extracting cartographic information involves digitizing features directly from the image processing display screen.

  1. A Continuous-Wave Diode-Side-Pumped Tm:YAG Laser with Output 51 W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Fu; Xu, Yi-Ting; Li, Cheng-Ming; Zong, Nan; Xu, Jia-Lin; Cui, Qian-Jin; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Bo, Yong; Peng, Qin-Jun; Cui, Da-Fu; Xu, Zu-Yan

    2008-10-01

    A compact diode-side-pumped Tm:YAG laser is presented, which can output 51 W of cw power at 2.02μm. The Tm:YAG rod is side pumped by nine diode arrays with the central wavelength of 783nm and the with bandwidth of about 2.5 nm at 25° C. To decrease the thermal effect on the both ends and dissipate the heat effectively, one composite Tm:YAG rod with the undoped YAG end caps and the screw threads on the side surface of the rod is used as the laser crystal. The maximum optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of the 2.02-μm laser output is 14.2%, with a slope efficiency of 26.8%.

  2. A First Evaluation of LANDSAT TM Data to Monitor Suspended Sediments in Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiebe, F. R.; Ritchie, J. C.; Boatwright, G. O.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison was made between ground data collected from Lake Chicot, Arkansas, and Thematic Mapper (TM) data collected on September 23, 1982. A preliminary analysis of limited data indicate tht Thematic Mapper data may be useful in monitoring suspended sediment and chlorophyll in a lake with high suspended sediment loads. Total suspended loads ranged from 168 to 508 mg/l. TM Band 3 appears to be most useful with Bands 1, 2 and 4 also containing useful information relative to suspended sediments. Considering water data only, Bands 1, 2 and 3 appear to provide similar information. Bands 3 and 4 are also significantly related. Bands 5 and 7 appear to have independent information content relative to the presence or absence of water. Insufficient range of water temperature ground truth data made an evaluation of TM Band 6 difficult.

  3. Microstructure-property relationships in Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg Weldalite (tm) alloys, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langan, T. J.; Pickens, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of the ultrahigh strength Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy, Weldalite (tm) 049, were studied. Specifically, the microstructural features along with tensile strength, weldability, Young's modulus and fracture toughness were studied for Weldalite (tm) 049 type alloys with Li contents ranging from 1.3 to 1.9 wt. pct. The tensile properties of Weldalite 049 and Weldalite 049 reinforced with TiB2 particles fabricated using the XD (tm) process were also evaluated at cryogenic, room, and elevated temperatures. In addition, an experimental alloy, similar in composition to Weldalite 049 but without the Ag+Mg, was fabricated. The microstructure of this alloy was compared with that of Weldalite 049 in the T6 condition to assess the effect of Ag+Mg on nucleation of strengthening phases in the absence of cold work.

  4. High-power gain-switched Tm(3+)-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yulong; Xu, Lin; Yang, Yi; Xu, Jianqiu

    2010-10-25

    Gain-switched by a 1.914-µm Tm:YLF crystal laser, a two-stage Tm(3+) fiber laser has been achieved 100-W level ~2-µm pulsed laser output with a slope efficiency of ~52%. With the 6-m length of Tm fiber, the laser wavelength was centered at 2020 nm with a bandwidth of ~25 nm. Based on an acousto-optic switch, the pulse repetition rate can be modulated from 500 Hz to 50 kHz, and the laser pulse width can be tuned between 75 ns and ~1 µs. The maximum pulse energy was over 10 mJ, and the maximum pulse peak power was 138 kW. By using the fiber-coiling-induced mode-filtering effect, laser beam quality of M2 = 1.01 was obtained. Further scaling the pulse energy and average power from such kind of gain-switched fiber lasers was also discussed.

  5. Multiphoton upconversion emission switching in Tm,Yb co-doped nanocrystalline yttria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Dong, G. Z.; Zhang, X. L.; Nie, M.; Cui, J. H.; Zhang, X. W.; Li, R. M.

    2010-10-01

    Multiphoton upconversion luminescence (UL) properties from the Yb3+-sensitized Tm3+ ions in nanocrystalline yttria host were studied experimentally under 973 nm laser excitation. Bright pure blue luminescence in the visible spectral region was performed even at low pump excitation level. An interesting chromatic switching behavior was observed for the near-infrared and blue spectral bands at room temperature, showing a pump intensity-controlled emission wavelength switcher. The chromatic switching is intrinsically associated with the competition of two-photon UL and three-photon UL processes. Moreover, the wavelength switching of Stark emission of Tm3+ 1G4 state took place as the pump intensity rises enough. This phenomenon is attributed to pump induced photothermal effect changing the distribution of Stark level populations in Tm3+ 1G4 energy state.

  6. Peculiarities in the plasma resonance of binary amorphous Al TM alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiehler, M.; Giegengack, U.; Barzola-Quiquia, J.; Rauchhaupt, J.; Schulze, S.; Häussler, P.

    2007-05-01

    Simple amorphous phases have shown to be ideal model systems for exploring the mechanisms of structure formation in a Hume-Rothery manner. In these systems the electron density is the key quantity. We briefly review measurements for simple amorphous alloys (s- and p-electrons at the Fermi energy only), especially for amorphous semiconductors. The results coincide excellently with theory, using the usual valencies of the elements. In contrary, adding elements with d-electrons as in binary amorphous Al TM alloys (TM: Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) causes a breakdown of this simple approach. All the 3d-TM seem to exhibit an identical effective valency. In both cases, the electron densities obtained are compared to those, necessary for explaining structural data.

  7. Improvement of KinectTM Sensor Capabilities by Fusion with Laser Sensing Data Using Octree

    PubMed Central

    Chávez, Alfredo; Karstoft, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    To enhance sensor capabilities, sensor data readings from different modalities must be fused. The main contribution of this paper is to present a sensor data fusion approach that can reduce KinectTM sensor limitations. This approach involves combining laser with KinectTM sensors. Sensor data is modelled in a 3D environment based on octrees using a probabilistic occupancy estimation. The Bayesian method, which takes into account the uncertainty inherent in the sensor measurements, is used to fuse the sensor information and update the 3D octree map. The sensor fusion yields a significant increase of the field of view of the KinectTM sensor that can be used for robot tasks. PMID:22666006

  8. DIGITAL PROCESSING TECHNIQUES FOR IMAGE MAPPING WITH LANDSAT TM AND SPOT SIMULATOR DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, Pat S.; ,

    1984-01-01

    To overcome certain problems associated with the visual selection of Landsat TM bands for image mapping, the author used a quantitative technique that ranks the 20 possible three-band combinations based upon their information content. Standard deviations and correlation coefficients can be used to compute a value called the Optimum Index Factor (OIF) for each of the 20 possible combinations. SPOT simulator images were digitally processed and compared with Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) images covering a semi-arid region in northern Arizona and a highly vegetated urban area near Washington, D. C. Statistical comparisons indicate the more radiometric or color information exists in certain TM three-band combinations than in the three SPOT bands.

  9. Anomalous charge transport in RB12 (R = Ho, Er, Tm, Lu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluchanko, N.; Bogomolov, L.; Glushkov, V.; Demishev, S.; Ignatov, M.; Khayrullin, Eu.; Samarin, N.; Sluchanko, D.; Levchenko, A.; Shitsevalova, N.; Flachbart, K.

    High precision measurements of Hall RH(T) and Seebeck S(T) coefficients have been carried out for the first time on single crystals of rare earth dodecaborides RB12 (R D Ho, Er, Tm, Lu) at temperatures 1.8-300 K. Low temperature anomalies detected on the temperature dependencies of RH(T) and S(T) are associated with antiferromagnetic phase transitions in HoB12, ErB12 and TmB12 compounds. The observed discrepancy between the change of charge carriers' mobility and de-Gennes factor (g - 1)2 J(J + 1) (J - angular momentum of the 4f shell) in the set of HoB12-TmB12 allows us to conclude about the appreciable influence of spin fluctuations on the charge transport in these compounds with B12 atomic clusters.

  10. Regional Geolgical Mapping in Tropical Environments Using Landsat TM and Srtm Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiranvand Pour, A.; Hashim, M.

    2015-10-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data were used to produce geological maps in tropical environments. Lineament, lithology and landform maps were produced for all states in peninsular Malaysia in this study. Kedah, Perak and Terengganu states have been selected as case studies to demonstrate the results of the data and techniques used. Directional filtering technique was applied to Landsat TM bands 4, 5 and 3 for lineament mapping. The lithology map was produced using Landsat TM bands combination consist of bands 4, 3 and 2. Digital elevation model and landform map were produced using SRTM data in 3 Dimension (3D) and 2 Dimension (2D) perspective views, respectively. The produced geological maps and the remote sensing data and methods applied in this study are mostly appropriate for hazard risk mapping applications and mineral exploration projects in the peninsular Malaysia and tropical environments.

  11. Experimental study of a VBG-based Tm : YLF slab laser at different output coupler parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, X M; Ding, Y; Dai, T Y; Zhao, K; Yao, B Q

    2015-04-30

    The performance of a Tm : YLF slab laser is studied at different output coupler parameters. Use is made of a 20-mm-long a-cut slab crystal doped with 2.5 at. % thulium ions. With a volume Bragg grating and a Fabry – Perot etalon, the selected output wavelength of this Tm : YLF slab laser is 1908 nm. For the optimised output coupler with a transmission of 20% and a radius of curvature of 300 mm, the output power exceeds 74.1 W and the slope efficiency with respect to the absorbed pump power reaches 48.4%. In addition, the beam quality of the Tm : YLF slab laser is improved. (lasers)

  12. Cubic to tetragonal phase transition of Tm{sup 3+} doped nanocrystals in oxyfluoride glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yiming; Fu, Yuting; Shi, Yahui; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Hua E-mail: yuhua@nankai.edu.cn; Zhao, Lijuan E-mail: yuhua@nankai.edu.cn

    2016-02-15

    Tm{sup 3+} ions doped β-PbF{sub 2} nanocrystals in oxyfluoride glass ceramics with different doping concentrations and thermal temperatures are prepared by a traditional melt-quenching and thermal treatment method to investigate the structure and the phase transition of Tm{sup 3+} doped nanocrystals. The structures are characterized by X-ray diffraction Rietveld analysis and confirmed with numerical simulation. The phase transitions are proved further by the emission spectra. Both of the doping concentration and thermal temperature can induce an O{sub h} to D{sub 4h} site symmetry distortion and a cubic to tetragonal phase transition. The luminescence of Tm{sup 3+} doped nanocrystals at 800 nm was modulated by the phase transition of the surrounding crystal field.

  13. Spectroscopic investigation of Cr to Tm energy transfer in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armagan, G.; Di Bartolo, B.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1989-01-01

    A series of experiments has been conducted in order to examine the nature of the energy transfer process between the Cr(3+) and Tm(3+) ions in YAG. Data are obtained on various samples doped with Cr(3+) and/or Tm(3+). These data include absorption, luminescence, excitation spectra and time-resolved response to pulsed excitation. The measurements were carried out over a range of temperatures from 78 to 350 K. The rate of nonradiative energy transfer from Cr(3+) to Tm(3+) depends on temperature, and in the region from 200 to 350 K, this dependence is due primarily to the thermal variation in the radiative decay probability of the Cr ion.

  14. Ab initio study of pressure induced structural and electronic properties in TmPo

    SciTech Connect

    Makode, Chandrabhan Pataiya, Jagdish; Sanyal, Sankar P.; Panwar, Y. S.; Aynyas, Mahendra

    2015-06-24

    We report an ab initio calculation of pressure induced structural phase transition and electronic properties of Thulium Polonide (TmPo).The total energy as a function of volume is obtained by means of self-consistent tight binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA). It is found that TmPo is stable in NaCl-type (B{sub 1}-phase) structure to CsCl-type (B{sub 2}-phase) structure of this compound in the pressure range of 7.0 GPa. We also calculate the lattice parameter (a{sub 0}), bulk modulus (B{sub 0}), band structure and density of states. From energy diagram it is observed that TmPo exhibit metallic behavior. The calculated values of equilibrium lattice parameter and bulk modulus are in general good agreement.

  15. BOREAS RSS-15 SIR-C and Landsat TM Biomass and Landcover Maps of the NSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Ranson, K. Jon

    2000-01-01

    As part of BOREAS, the RSS-15 team conducted an investigation using SIR-C, X-SAR, and Landsat TM data for estimating total above-ground dry biomass for the SSA and NSA modeling grids and component biomass for the SSA. Relationships of backscatter to total biomass and total biomass to foliage, branch, and bole biomass were used to estimate biomass density across the landscape. The procedure involved image classification with SAR and Landsat TM data and development of simple mapping techniques using combinations of SAR channels. For the SSA, the SIR-C data used were acquired on 06-Oct-1994, and the Landsat TM data used were acquired on 02-Sep-1995. The maps of the NSA were developed from SIR-C data acquired on 13-Apr-1994. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  16. Information content of data from the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS). [Arkansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Software was constructed to reformat data to band interlevel format and analysis software was developed in an effort to quantify the increased information content (statistical variability within a data set) of thematic mapper data as compared to that from the LANDSAT 4 multispectral band scanner. Computer runs were carried out for several subareas from a data set acquired simultaneously by TM and MSS over a test area in northeast Arkansas, one of the most agriculturally diverse sea areas in the country. The 6 visible-near IR channels of the TM provide more information than the 4 channels of the MSS. A rough estimate of 20 bits per pixel for TM, and 10 bits per pixel for the MSS was computed for these subareas. These numbers are to be revised downward when allowance is made for noise in the data.

  17. High-power 2-μm diode-pumped Tm:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Raymond J.; Sutton, Steven B.; Honea, Eric C.; Skidmore, Jay A.; Emanuel, Mark A.

    1996-03-01

    Using a scalable diode end-pumping technology developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory we have demonstrated a compact Tm:YAG laser capable of generating greater than 50 W of cw 2 micrometer laser output power. The design and operational characteristics of this laser, which was built originally for use in assessing laser surgical techniques, are discussed. The 2 micrometer radiation produced by the 3F4 - 3H6 transition of Tm3+ has many practical applications because it is strongly absorbed by water and also because it is an 'eye-safe' wavelength. The strong absorption of 2 micrometer radiation by water makes this transition a very attractive candidate for performing laser surgical procedures as most tissue types are predominately composed of liquid water. The fact that 2 micrometer radiation is considered 'eye-safe' makes this transition attractive for laser range finding and remote sensing applications where other laser wavelengths could pose a safety hazard. At sufficiently high doping densities, Tm3+ exhibits a beneficial two-for-one quantum pump efficiency enabling well developed AlGaAs laser diode arrays to be used as efficient excitation sources. Many applications requiring 2 micrometer laser radiation such as remote sensing, laser radar, anti sensor, sensor spoofing, and OPO pumping have driven the development of diode pumped all solid state TM3+ laser systems because of their potential for efficiency, compactness, and ruggedness. Here we focus on Tm3+:YAG and the scalable diode end-pumping technology developed at LLNL which enables higher average power operation of diode pumped Tm3+ laser systems than has previously been possible. To date we have demonstrated cw operation of this laser to power levels of 51 W. The end-pumping technology used is the same as was previously used to demonstrate a 100 mJ Q-switched Nd:YLF laser. (Truncated.)

  18. Culture-independent detection of "TM7" bacteria in a streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurogi, T.; Linh, N. T. T.; Kuroki, T.; Yamada, T.; Hiraishi, A.

    2014-02-01

    Nitrification in biological wastewater treatment processes has been believed for long time to take place under neutral conditions and is inhibited under acidic conditions. However, we previously constructed acidophilic nitrifying sequencing-batch reactors (ANSBRs) being capable of nitrification at < pH 4 and harboring bacteria of the candidate phylum "TM7" as the major constituents of the microbial community. In light of the fact that the 16S rRNA of TM7 bacteria has a highly atypical base substitution possibly responsible for resistance to streptomycin at the ribosome level, this study was undertaken to construct streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying (SRAN) reactors and to demonstrate whether TM7 bacteria are abundant in these reactors. The SRAN reactors were constructed by seeding with nitrifying sludge from an ANSBR and cultivating with ammonium-containing mineral medium (pH 4.0), to which streptomycin at a concentration of 10, 30 and 50 mg L-1 was added. In all reactors, the pH varied between 2.7 and 4.0, and ammonium was completely converted to nitrate in every batch cycle. PCR-aided denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that some major clones assigned to TM7 bacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were constantly present during the overall period of operation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with specific oligonucleotide probes also showed that TM7 bacteria predominated in all SRAN reactors, accounting for 58% of the total bacterial population on average. Although the biological significance of the TM7 bacteria in the SRAN reactors are unknown, our results suggest that these bacteria are possibly streptomycin-resistant and play some important roles in the acidophilic nitrifying process.

  19. An unusual mechanism for EF-Tu activation during tmRNA-mediated ribosome rescue.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mickey R; Buskirk, Allen R

    2014-02-01

    In bacteria, ribosomes stalled on truncated mRNAs are rescued by transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) and its protein partner SmpB. Acting like tRNA, the aminoacyl-tmRNA/SmpB complex is delivered to the ribosomal A site by EF-Tu and accepts the transfer of the nascent polypeptide. Although SmpB binding within the decoding center is clearly critical for licensing tmRNA entry into the ribosome, it is not known how activation of EF-Tu occurs in the absence of a codon-anticodon interaction. A recent crystal structure revealed that SmpB residue His136 stacks on 16S rRNA nucleotide G530, a critical player in the canonical decoding mechanism. Here we use pre-steady-state kinetic methods to probe the role of this interaction in ribosome rescue. We find that although mutation of His136 does not reduce SmpB's affinity for the ribosomal A-site, it dramatically reduces the rate of GTP hydrolysis by EF-Tu. Surprisingly, the same mutation has little effect on the apparent rate of peptide-bond formation, suggesting that release of EF-Tu from the tmRNA/SmpB complex on the ribosome may occur prior to GTP hydrolysis. Consistent with this idea, we find that peptidyl transfer to tmRNA is relatively insensitive to the antibiotic kirromycin. Taken together, our studies provide a model for the initial stages of ribosomal rescue by tmRNA.

  20. An unusual mechanism for EF-Tu activation during tmRNA-mediated ribosome rescue

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mickey R.; Buskirk, Allen R.

    2014-01-01

    In bacteria, ribosomes stalled on truncated mRNAs are rescued by transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) and its protein partner SmpB. Acting like tRNA, the aminoacyl-tmRNA/SmpB complex is delivered to the ribosomal A site by EF-Tu and accepts the transfer of the nascent polypeptide. Although SmpB binding within the decoding center is clearly critical for licensing tmRNA entry into the ribosome, it is not known how activation of EF-Tu occurs in the absence of a codon–anticodon interaction. A recent crystal structure revealed that SmpB residue His136 stacks on 16S rRNA nucleotide G530, a critical player in the canonical decoding mechanism. Here we use pre-steady-state kinetic methods to probe the role of this interaction in ribosome rescue. We find that although mutation of His136 does not reduce SmpB's affinity for the ribosomal A-site, it dramatically reduces the rate of GTP hydrolysis by EF-Tu. Surprisingly, the same mutation has little effect on the apparent rate of peptide-bond formation, suggesting that release of EF-Tu from the tmRNA/SmpB complex on the ribosome may occur prior to GTP hydrolysis. Consistent with this idea, we find that peptidyl transfer to tmRNA is relatively insensitive to the antibiotic kirromycin. Taken together, our studies provide a model for the initial stages of ribosomal rescue by tmRNA. PMID:24345396

  1. Culture-independent detection of 'TM7' bacteria in a streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying process

    SciTech Connect

    Kurogi, T.; Linh, N. T. T.; Kuroki, T.; Yamada, T.; Hiraishi, A.

    2014-02-20

    Nitrification in biological wastewater treatment processes has been believed for long time to take place under neutral conditions and is inhibited under acidic conditions. However, we previously constructed acidophilic nitrifying sequencing-batch reactors (ANSBRs) being capable of nitrification at < pH 4 and harboring bacteria of the candidate phylum 'TM7' as the major constituents of the microbial community. In light of the fact that the 16S rRNA of TM7 bacteria has a highly atypical base substitution possibly responsible for resistance to streptomycin at the ribosome level, this study was undertaken to construct streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying (SRAN) reactors and to demonstrate whether TM7 bacteria are abundant in these reactors. The SRAN reactors were constructed by seeding with nitrifying sludge from an ANSBR and cultivating with ammonium-containing mineral medium (pH 4.0), to which streptomycin at a concentration of 10, 30 and 50 mg L{sup −1} was added. In all reactors, the pH varied between 2.7 and 4.0, and ammonium was completely converted to nitrate in every batch cycle. PCR-aided denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that some major clones assigned to TM7 bacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were constantly present during the overall period of operation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with specific oligonucleotide probes also showed that TM7 bacteria predominated in all SRAN reactors, accounting for 58% of the total bacterial population on average. Although the biological significance of the TM7 bacteria in the SRAN reactors are unknown, our results suggest that these bacteria are possibly streptomycin-resistant and play some important roles in the acidophilic nitrifying process.

  2. Tm:GGAG crystal for 2μm tunable diode-pumped laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šulc, Jan; Boháček, Pavel; Němec, Michal; Fibrich, Martin; Jelínková, Helena; Trunda, Bohumil; Havlák, Lubomír.; Jurek, Karel; Nikl, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The spectroscopy properties and wavelength tunability of diode pumped laser based on Tm-doped mixed gadolinium-gallium-aluminium garnet Gd3(GaxAl1-x)5O12 (Tm:GGAG) single crystal were investigated for the first time. The crystal was grown by Czochralski method in a slightly oxidative atmosphere using an iridium crucible. The tested Tm:GGAG sample was cut from the grown crystal boule perpendicularly to growth direction (c-axis). The composition of sample was determined using electron microprobe X-ray elemental analysis. For spectroscopy and laser experiments 3.5mm thick plane-parallel face-polished plate (without AR coatings) with composition Gd2.76Tm0.0736Ga2.67Al2.50O12 (2.67 at.% Tm/Gd) was used. A fiber (core diameter 400 μm, NA= 0.22) coupled laser diode (emission wavelength 786 nm) was used for longitudinal Tm:GGAG pumping. The laser diode was operating in the pulsed regime (10 ms pulse length, 10 Hz repetition rate, maximum power amplitude 18 W). The 145mm long semi-hemispherical laser resonator consisted of a flat pumping mirror (HR @ 1.8- 2.10 μm, HT @ 0.78 μm) and curved (r = 150mm) output coupler with a reflectivity of » 97% @ 1.8- 2.10 µm. The maximum laser output power amplitude 1.14W was obtained at wavelength 2003nm for absorbed pump power amplitude 4.12W. The laser slope efficiency was 37% in respect to absorbed pumping power. Wavelength tuning was accomplished by using 2mm thick MgF2 birefringent filter placed inside the laser resonator at the Brewster angle. The laser was continuously tunable over 180nm in a spectral region from 1856nm to 2036 nm.

  3. The separation of TM and TE wave in multi-layer metamaterial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lijuan; Yu, Guanxia; Wang, Qian

    2014-02-01

    A mixed-structure form of one-dimensional metamaterial structure composed of single negative permittivity material and anisotropic metamaterial has been investigated in this paper. Such a multi-layer metamaterial structure constitutes special resonant structures, which can be used to control wave propagation and realize the complete separation of TM and TE wave by choosing specific parameters. Theoretical analysis and numerical calculations have been performed to confirm the above results. Specifically, augments in incident angles of TM and TE waves make complete transmission frequencies right shift, and the thicknesses of this resonant structure determine propagation modes and propagation frequencies.

  4. Atmospheric correction of LANDSAT TM thermal band using surface energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, Alain; Devaux-Ros, Claire; Moran, M. Susan

    1994-01-01

    Thermal infrared data of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) are hardly used, probably due to the difficulties met when trying to correct them for atmospheric effects. A method for correcting these data was designed, based on surface energy balance estimation of known wet and dry targets included in the TM image to be corrected. This method, only using the image itself and local meteorological data was tested and validated on various surfaces: agricultural, forest and rangeland. The root mean square error on corrected temperatures is on the order of 1C.

  5. Fabrication of a Demountable TM020 Cavity from Large Grain Ingot Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammosser, John; Kim, Sang-Ho

    2011-03-01

    A novel TM020 demountable test cavity has been fabricated by the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) from large grain niobium ingot sheets. This TM020 cavity is designed to have a demountable test plate at the base of the cavity to allow for measuring RF properties as well as performing surface science analysis in an aim to develop plasma processing as a cleaning method for niobium cavities. Large grain ingot sheet fabrication methods were chosen to reduce the cost of the cavity and to produce smooth surfaces at high electric field locations with standard chemistry techniques, i.e. buffered chemical polish.

  6. BOREAS RSS-7 Landsat TM LAI IMages of the SSA and NSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Chen, Jing; Cihlar, Josef

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Remote Sensing Science (BOREAS RSS-7) team used Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images processed at CCRS to produce images of Leaf Area Index (LAI) for the BOREAS study areas. Two images acquired on 06-Jun and 09-Aug-1991 were used for the SSA, and one image acquired on 09-Jun-1994 was used for the NSA. The LAI images are based on ground measurements and Landsat TM Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR) images. The data are stored in binary image-format files.

  7. Hysteretic magnetoresistance and unconventional anomalous Hall effect in the frustrated magnet TmB4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunku, Sai Swaroop; Kong, Tai; Ito, Toshimitsu; Canfield, Paul C.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Sengupta, Pinaki; Panagopoulos, Christos

    2016-05-01

    We study TmB4, a frustrated magnet on the Archimedean Shastry-Sutherland lattice, through magnetization and transport experiments. The lack of anisotropy in resistivity shows that TmB4 is an electronically three-dimensional system. The magnetoresistance (MR) is hysteretic at low temperature even though a corresponding hysteresis in magnetization is absent. The Hall resistivity shows unconventional anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and is linear above saturation despite a large MR. We propose that complex structures at magnetic domain walls may be responsible for the hysteretic MR and may also lead to the AHE.

  8. High-power spectral beam combining of linearly polarized Tm:fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Shah, Lawrence; Sims, R Andrew; Kadwani, Pankaj; Willis, Christina C C; Bradford, Joshua B; Sincore, Alex; Richardson, Martin

    2015-02-01

    To date, high-power scaling of Tm:fiber lasers has been accomplished by maximizing the power from a single fiber aperture. In this work, we investigate power scaling by spectral beam combination of three linearly polarized Tm:fiber MOPA lasers using dielectric mirrors with a steep transition from highly reflective to highly transmissive that enable a minimum wavelength separation of 6 nm between individual laser channels within the wavelength range from 2030 to 2050 nm. Maximum output power is 253 W with M(2)<2, ultimately limited by thermal lensing in the beam combining elements.

  9. Diode-pumped mode-locked femtosecond Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal laser.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; Xie, G Q; Gao, W L; Yuan, P; Qian, L J; Yu, H H; Zhang, H J; Wang, J Y

    2012-04-15

    A diode-end-pumped passively mode-locked femtosecond Tm-doped calcium lithium niobium gallium garnet (Tm:CLNGG) disordered crystal laser was demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. With a 790 nm laser diode pumping, stable CW mode-locking operation was obtained by using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror. The disordered crystal laser generated mode-locked pulses as short as 479 fs, with an average output power of 288 mW, and repetition rate of 99 MHz in 2 μm spectral region.

  10. Monitoring marine ecological changes on the east coast of Bahrain with Landsat TM

    SciTech Connect

    Zainal, A.J.M.; Dalby, D.H.; Robinson, I.S. Michigan Environmental Research Inst., Ann Arbor )

    1993-03-01

    An evaluation is made of the potential of Landsat TM imagery for detecting and quantifying the changes occurring in the marine habitat of a reef complex on the east coast of Bahrain. The study gives attention to TM images acquired during 1985-1992 under various tidal conditions; principal component and false color composites of the temporal images were applied to these to identify changed areas. Then, postclassification comparisons were employed together with digital elevation data to quantify the magnitude of habitat change. 11 refs.

  11. Hysteretic magnetoresistance and unconventional anomalous Hall effect in the frustrated magnet TmB4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunku, Sai Swaroop; Kong, Tai; Ito, Toshimitsu; Canfield, Paul C.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Sengupta, Pinaki; Panagopoulos, Christos

    We study TmB4, a frustrated magnet on the Archimedean Shastry-Sutherland lattice, through magnetization and transport experiments. The lack of anisotropy in resistivity shows that TmB4 is an electronically three-dimensional system. The magnetoresistance (MR) is hysteretic at low-temperature even though a corresponding hysteresis in magnetization is absent. The Hall resistivity shows unconventional anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and is linear above saturation despite a large MR. We suggest that both hysteretic MR and AHE arise from the formation of complex non-coplanar structures at magnetic domain walls. Current address: Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University.

  12. Diode-Pumped Thulium (Tm)/Holmium (Ho) Composite Fiber 2.1-Micrometers Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    fibers of undoped clad (~ ∅ 200 μm), Tm-doped clad (~ ∅ 75 μm), and Ho-doped core (~ ∅ 23 μm). Through the 2-for-1 process, a single 808-nm diode light ...ARL-TR-7452 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Diode -Pumped Thulium (Tm)/Holmium (Ho) Composite Fiber 2.1-μm Laser by G...is no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-7452 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Diode -Pumped Thulium

  13. LANDSAT-4 TM image data quality analysis for energy-related applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wukelic, G. E.; Foote, H. P.

    1983-01-01

    LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data performance and utility characteristics from an energy research and technology perspective is evaluated. The program focuses on evaluating applicational implications of using such data, in combination with other digital data, for current and future energy research and technology activities. Prime interest is in using TM data for siting, developing and operating federal energy facilities. Secondary interests involve the use of such data for resource exploration, environmental monitoring and basic scientific initiatives such as in support of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program.

  14. Fabrication of a Demountable TM{sub 020} Cavity from Large Grain Ingot Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Mammosser, John; Kim, Sang-Ho

    2011-03-31

    A novel TM{sub 020} demountable test cavity has been fabricated by the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) from large grain niobium ingot sheets. This TM{sub 020} cavity is designed to have a demountable test plate at the base of the cavity to allow for measuring RF properties as well as performing surface science analysis in an aim to develop plasma processing as a cleaning method for niobium cavities. Large grain ingot sheet fabrication methods were chosen to reduce the cost of the cavity and to produce smooth surfaces at high electric field locations with standard chemistry techniques, i.e. buffered chemical polish.

  15. Hysteretic magnetoresistance and unconventional anomalous Hall effect in the frustrated magnet TmB4

    DOE PAGES

    Sunku, Sai Swaroop; Kong, Tai; Ito, Toshimitsu; ...

    2016-05-11

    We study TmB4, a frustrated magnet on the Archimedean Shastry-Sutherland lattice, through magnetization and transport experiments. The lack of anisotropy in resistivity shows that TmB4 is an electronically three-dimensional system. The magnetoresistance (MR) is hysteretic at low temperature even though a corresponding hysteresis in magnetization is absent. The Hall resistivity shows unconventional anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and is linear above saturation despite a large MR. In conclusion, we propose that complex structures at magnetic domain walls may be responsible for the hysteretic MR and may also lead to the AHE.

  16. Mapping micro-urban heat islands using LANDSAT TM and a GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aniello, Cathy; Morgan, Ken; Busbey, Arthur; Newland, Leo

    1995-10-01

    LANDSAT TM satellite data and GIS software were used to map micro-urban heat islands in a portion of Dallas, Texas. Unsupervised classifications were performed on a LANDSAT subscene to extract tree cover information which was merged with TM band 6 data (thermal) to make a map showing the location of micro-urban heat islands and wooded areas. Results indicate the presence of micro-urban heat islands are resulting from the lack of tree cover related to newly developed residential neighborhoods, parking lots, business districts, apartment complexes, and shopping centers. All micro-urban heat islands were radiative in nature, with highest temperatures in the center.

  17. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 2000-2001 NASA CONNECT(TM) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Frank, Kari Lou; Lambert, Matthew A.

    2002-01-01

    This report contains the results of the evaluation conducted for the 2000-2001 NASA CONNECT(TM) program conducted in March 2001. The analysis is based on the results collected from 154 surveys collected from educators registered for the program. Respondents indicated that the objectives for each program were met; the programs were aligned with the national (mathematics, science, and technology) standards; the programs were developmentally (grade level) appropriate; and the programs in the 2000-2001 NASA CONNECT(TM) series enhanced/enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  18. Development of a (170)Tm source for mercury monitoring studies in humans using XRF.

    PubMed

    Timmaraju, K Phanisree; Fajurally, Bibi Najah; Armstrong, Andrea F; Chettle, David R

    2016-04-01

    The goals of the present study were to develop a (170)Tm radioisotope and generate a K XRF spectrum of mercury. Thulium foil and thulium oxide powder were both tested for impurities and the latter was found to be a better prospect for further studies. The (170)Tm radioisotope was developed from thulium oxide powder following the method of disolution and absorption. A suitable source holder and collimator were also designed based on Monte Carlo simulations. Using the radioisotope thus developed, a mercury XRF spectrum was successfully generated.

  19. Information theoretic comparisons of original and transformed data from Landsat MSS and TM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The dispersion and concentration of signal values in transformed data from the Landsat-4 MSS and TM instruments are analyzed using a communications theory approach. The definition of entropy of Shannon was used to quantify information, and the concept of mutual information was employed to develop a measure of information contained in several subsets of variables. Several comparisons of information content are made on the basis of the information content measure, including: system design capacities; data volume occupied by agricultural data; and the information content of original bands and Tasseled Cap variables. A method for analyzing noise effects in MSS and TM data is proposed.

  20. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 2001-2002 NASA CONNECT(tm) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Frank, Kari Lou; Lambert, Matthew A.; Williams, Amy C.

    2002-01-01

    NASA CONNECT(tm) is a research and standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (television and web-based) programs for students in grades 6-8. Respondents who evaluated the programs in the 2001-2002 NASA CONNECT(tm) series reported that (1) they used the programs in the series; (2) the goals and objectives for the series were met; (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) the program content was developmentally appropriate for grade level; and (5) the programs in the series enhanced and enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  1. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 2002-2003 NASA SCIence Files(TM) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Lambert, Matthew A.; Williams, Amy C.

    2004-01-01

    NASA SCIence Files (tm) is a research-, inquiry-, and standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 60-minute instructional distance learning (television and web-based) programs for students in grades 3-5. Respondents who evaluated the programs in the 2002-2003 NASA SCIence Files (tm) series reported that (1) they used the programs in the series; (2) the goals and objectives for the series were met; (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) the program content was developmentally appropriate for grade level; and (5) the programs in the series enhanced and enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  2. First principles study of structural, electronic, magnetic and elastic properties of Mg0.75TM0.25S (TM=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gous, M. H.; Meddour, A.; Bourouis, Ch.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work is to predict the structural, electronic, magnetic and elastic properties of Mg1-xTMxS (TM=Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) compound in the zinc blende Ferromagnetic phase using first principal approach. The structural and elastic properties are performed using the generalized gradient approximation proposed by Wu and Cohen(WC-GGA). However, the electronic and magnetic properties have been performed using modified Becke-Johnson potential combined with the LDA correlation (mBJLDA). The results show that all compounds Mg1-xMnxS, Mg1-xFexS and Mg1-xNixS exhibit a half-metallic ferromagnetic character with 100% spin-polarization at the Fermi level, except Mg1-xCoxS is a metal. For each compounds study here, the total magnetic momentum is an integer equal to magnetic moments of TM atom in their free space charge value. Due to the p-d hybridization, there is a small local magnetic moment on the Mg and S sites; whereas, the local magnetic moments of TM atom reduce from their free space charge value. In addition, we investigate the mechanical behavior of MgS and Mg1-xTMxS; all compounds studied here are mechanically stable and exhibit a strong anisotropic behavior.

  3. The Speaking Section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] (SSTiBT): Test-Takers' Reported Strategic Behaviors. TOEFL iBT[TM] Research Report. RR-09-30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill; Huang, Li-Shih; Barkaoui, Khaled; Brooks, Lindsay; Lapkin, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study responds to the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) research agenda concerning the need to understand the processes and knowledge that test-takers utilize. Specifically, it investigates the strategic behaviors test-takers reported using when taking the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] (SSTiBT). It also investigates…

  4. How Do Raters from India Perform in Scoring the TOEFL iBT[TM] Speaking Section and What Kind of Training Helps? TOEFL iBT[TM] Research Report. RR-09-31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the scoring of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based Test (TOEFL iBT[TM]) Speaking section by bilingual or multilingual speakers of English and 1 or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the Speaking section for…

  5. Solvated Electron Technology{sup TM}. Non-Thermal Alternative to Waste Incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Foutz, W.L.; Rogers, J.E.; Mather, J.D.

    2008-07-01

    Solvated Electron Technology (SET{sup TM}) is a patented non-thermal alternative to incineration for treating Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and other mixed waste by destroying organic hazardous components. SET{sup TM} is a treatment process that destroys the hazardous components in mixed waste by chemical reduction. The residual material meets land disposal restriction (LDR) and TSCA requirements for disposal. In application, contaminated materials are placed into a treatment cell and mixed with the solvated electron solution. In the case of PCBs or other halogenated contaminants, chemical reactions strip the halogen ions from the chain or aromatic ring producing sodium chloride and high molecular weight hydrocarbons. At the end of the reaction, ammonia within the treatment cell is removed and recycled. The reaction products (such as sodium salts) produced in the process remain with the matrix. The SET{sup TM} process is 99.999% effective in destroying: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); trichloroethane (TCA) and trichloroethene (TCE); dioxins; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX); pesticides; fungicides; herbicides; chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), explosives and chemical-warfare agents; and has successfully destroyed many of the wastes listed in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 261. In September 2007, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Research and Development permit for SET for chemical destruction of 'pure' Pyranol, which is 60% PCBs. These tests were completed in November 2007. SET{sup TM} is recognized by EPA as a non-thermal process equivalent to incineration and three SET{sup TM} systems have been permitted by EPA as commercial mobile PCB destruction units. This paper describes in detail the results of select bench-, pilot-, and commercial-scale treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes for EPA, Department of Energy (DOE), and the Department of Defense(DoD), and the

  6. Ligand field splittings in core level transitions for transition metal (TM) oxides: Tanabe-Sugano diagrams and (TM) dangling bonds in vacated O-atom defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucovsky, Gerry; Wu, Kun; Pappas, Brian; Whitten, Jerry

    2013-04-01

    Defect states in the forbidden band-gap below the conduction band edge are active as electron traps in nano-grain high-) transition metal (TM) oxides with thickness >0.3 nm, e.g., ZrO2 and HfO2. These oxides have received considerable attention as gate-dielectrics in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices, and more recently are emerging as candidates for charge storage and memory devices. To provide a theoretical basis for device functionality, ab-initio many-electron theory is combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to study O K edge and TM core level transitions. These studies identify ligand field splittings (ΔLF) for defect state features,. When compared with those obtained from O-atom and TM-atom core spectroscopic transitions, this provides direct information about defect state sun-nm bonding arrangements. comparisons are made for (i) elemental TiO2 and Ti2O3 with different formal ionic charges, Ti4+ and Ti3+ and for (ii) Magneli Phase alloys, TinO2n-1, n is an integer 9>=n>3, and (TiO2)x(HfO2)1-x alloys. The alloys display multi-valent behavior from (i) different ionic-charge states, (ii} local bond-strain, and (iii) metallic hopping transport. The intrinsic bonding defects in TM oxides are identified as pairs of singly occupied dangling bonds. For 6-fold coordinated Ti-oxides defect excited states in 2nd derivative O K pre-edge spectra are essentially the same as single Ti-atom d2 transitions in Tanabe-Sugano (T-S) diagrams. O-vacated site defects in 8-fold coordinated ZrO2 and HfO2 are described by d8 T-S diagrams. T-S defect state ordering and splittings are functions of the coordination and symmetry of vacated site bordering TM atoms. ΔLF values from the analysis of T-S diagrams indicate medium range order (MRO) extending to 3rd and 4th nearest-neighbor (NN) TM-atoms. Values are different for 6-fold Ti, and 8-fold ZrO2 and HfO2, and scale inversely with differences in respective formal ionic radii. O-vacated site bonding

  7. The Vitamin E Analog Gamma-Tocotrienol (GT3) and Statins Synergistically Up-Regulate Endothelial Thrombomodulin (TM)

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Rupak; Ghosh, Sanchita P.; Zhou, Daohong; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Statins; a class of routinely prescribed cholesterol-lowering drugs; inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzymeA reductase (HMGCR) and strongly induce endothelial thrombomodulin (TM); which is known to have anti-inflammatory; anti-coagulation; anti-oxidant; and radioprotective properties. However; high-dose toxicity limits the clinical use of statins. The vitamin E family member gamma-tocotrienol (GT3) also suppresses HMGCR activity and induces TM expression without causing significant adverse side effects; even at high concentrations. To investigate the synergistic effect of statins and GT3 on TM; a low dose of atorvastatin and GT3 was used to treat human primary endothelial cells. Protein-level TM expression was measured by flow cytometry. TM functional activity was determined by activated protein C (APC) generation assay. Expression of Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), one of the key transcription factors of TM, was measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). TM expression increased in a dose-dependent manner after both atorvastatin and GT3 treatment. A combined treatment of a low-dose of atorvastatin and GT3 synergistically up-regulated TM expression and functional activity. Finally; atorvastatin and GT3 synergistically increased KLF2 expression. These findings suggest that combined treatment of statins with GT3 may provide significant health benefits in treating a number of pathophysiological conditions; including inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27869747

  8. The Effects of TM on Concurrent Heart Rate, Peripheral Blood Pulse Volume, and the Alpha Wave Frequency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukas, Jerome S.

    Through observation of 26 subjects over a 3 month period, this research project measured the effects of transcendental meditation (TM) on concurrent heart rate, peripheral blood pulse volume, and the alpha wave frequency. The subjects were assigned randomly to three groups. One group practiced TM as prescribed by the International Meditation…

  9. Using Video Social Stories[TM] to Increase Task Engagement for Middle School Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David F.; Kildare, Laura K.; Smith, Catherine C.; McMahon, Don D.; Quinn-Brown, Luella

    2012-01-01

    Four middle school students with autism spectrum disorders participated in a brief functional analysis and a video Social Stories[TM] intervention to remediate attention-seeking and task-avoidance behaviors. Results indicated that matching video Social Stories[TM] to specific functions of behaviors increased task-engagement behaviors in the…

  10. Dopant distribution in a Tm(3+)-Yb(3+) codoped silica based glass ceramic: an infrared-laser induced upconversion study.

    PubMed

    Lahoz, F; Martin, I R; Mendez-Ramos, J; Nunez, P

    2004-04-01

    The optically active dopant distribution in a Tm(3+)-Yb(3+) doped silica based glass ceramic sample has been investigated. A systematic analysis of the upconversion fluorescence of the Tm(3+)-Yb(3+) codoped glass and glass ceramic has been performed at room temperature. Tm(3+) and Yb(3+) single doped glass and glass ceramics have also been included in the study. Upon infrared excitation at 790 nm into the (3)H(4) level of the Tm(3+) ions a blue upconversion emission is observed, which is drastically increased in the Yb(3+) codoped samples. A rate equation model confirmed the energy transfer upconversion mechanism. Based on these results, the temporal dynamic curves of the levels involved in the upconversion process, (3)H(4), (2)F(5/2), and (1)G(4) were interpreted in the glass ceramic samples. The contribution of the optically active Tm(3+) and Yb(3+) ions in the crystalline and in the vitreous phase of the glass ceramic was distinguished and the ratio of Tm(3+) ions in the crystalline phase could be quantified for the 1 mol % Tm(3+)-2.5 mol % Yb(3+) glass ceramic. A surprising result was obtained for that concentration: the main contribution to the upconversion emission of the glass ceramic is due to Tm(3+)-Yb(3+) ions in the vitreous phase.

  11. ARAGORN, a program to detect tRNA genes and tmRNA genes in nucleotide sequences

    PubMed Central

    Laslett, Dean; Canback, Bjorn

    2004-01-01

    A computer program, ARAGORN, identifies tRNA and tmRNA genes. The program employs heuristic algorithms to predict tRNA secondary structure, based on homology with recognized tRNA consensus sequences and ability to form a base-paired cloverleaf. tmRNA genes are identified using a modified version of the BRUCE program. ARAGORN achieves a detection sensitivity of 99% from a set of 1290 eubacterial, eukaryotic and archaeal tRNA genes and detects all complete tmRNA sequences in the tmRNA database, improving on the performance of the BRUCE program. Recently discovered tmRNA genes in the chloroplasts of two species from the ‘green’ algae lineage are detected. The output of the program reports the proposed tRNA secondary structure and, for tmRNA genes, the secondary structure of the tRNA domain, the tmRNA gene sequence, the tag peptide and a list of organisms with matching tmRNA peptide tags. PMID:14704338

  12. Shedding light on microbial dark matter: a TM6 bacterium as natural endosymbiont of a free-living amoeba.

    PubMed

    Delafont, Vincent; Samba-Louaka, Ascel; Bouchon, Didier; Moulin, Laurent; Héchard, Yann

    2015-12-01

    The TM6 phylum belongs to the so-called microbial dark matter that gathers uncultivated bacteria detected only via DNA sequencing. Recently, the genome sequence of a TM6 bacterium (TM6SC1) has led to suggest that this bacterium would adopt an endosymbiotic life. In the present paper, free-living amoebae bearing a TM6 strain were isolated from a water network. The amoebae were identified as Vermamoeba vermiformis and the presence of a TM6 strain was detected by polymerase chain reaction and microscopy. The partial sequence of its 16S rRNA gene showed this strain to be closely related to the sequenced TM6SC1 strain. These bacteria displayed a pyriform shape and were found within V. vermiformis. Therefore, these bacteria were named Vermiphilus pyriformis. Interactions studies showed that V. pyriformis was highly infectious and that its relation with V. vermiformis was specific and highly stable. Finally, it was found that V. pyriformis inhibited the encystment of V. vermiformis. Overall, this study describes for the first time an endosymbiotic relationship between a TM6 bacterium and a free-living amoeba in the environment. It suggests that other bacteria of the TM6 phylum might also be endosymbiotic bacteria and may be found in other free-living amoebae or other organisms.

  13. 76 FR 21802 - Notice Announcing the Price of the 2010 America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... United States Mint Notice Announcing the Price of the 2010 America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver... America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM . In accordance with 31 U.S.C. 5112(u) & 9701(b), the United States Mint 2010 America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM...

  14. Formation of new Tm3+ tetragonal symmetry optical centers in CaF2 hot-formed laser ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshenko, M. E.; Alimov, O. K.; Papashvili, A. G.; Martynova, K. A.; Konyushkin, V. A.; Nakladov, A. N.; Osiko, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    By means of time-resolved site-selective spectroscopy the formation of new Tm3+ optical centers with modified local environment and presumably tetragonal local symmetry in CaF2 hot-formed laser quality ceramics is observed. The spectroscopic properties of these new Tm3+ optical centers are investigated and shown to differ strongly from that for regular tetragonal optical centers.

  15. Scaling Users' Perceptions of Library Service Quality Using Item Response Theory: A LibQUAL+ [TM] Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Youhua; Thompson, Bruce; Cook, C. Colleen

    2005-01-01

    LibQUAL+[TM] data to date have not been subjected to the modern measurement theory called polytomous item response theory (IRT). The data interpreted here were collected from 42,090 participants who completed the "American English" version of the 22 core LibQUAL+[TM] items, and 12,552 participants from Australia and Europe who…

  16. Population inversion of 1G4 excited state of Tm3+ investigated by means of numerical solutions of the rate equations system in Yb:Tm:Nd:LiYF4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Librantz, André Felipe Henriques; Gomes, Laércio; Courrol, Lilia Coronato; Ranieri, Izilda Marcia; Baldochi, Sonia Lícia

    2009-06-01

    In this work we present the spectroscopic properties of LiYF4 (YLF) single crystals activated with thulium and codoped with ytterbium and neodymium ions. The most important processes that lead to the thulium upconversion emissions in the blue region were identified. A time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy technique was employed to measure the luminescence decays and to determine the most important mechanisms involved in the upconversion process that populates G14(Tm3+) excited state. Analysis of the energy transfer processes dynamics using selective pulsed laser excitations in Yb:Tm:Nd, Tm:Nd, and Tm:Yb YLF crystals shows that the energy transfer from Nd3+ to Yb3+ ions is the mechanism responsible for the enhancement in the blue upconversion efficiency in the Yb:Tm:Nd:YLF when compared with the Yb:Tm system. A study of the energy transfer processes in YLF:Yb:Tm:Nd crystal showed that the G14 excited level is mainly populated by a sequence of two nonradiative energy transfers that start well after the Nd3+ and Tm3+ excitations at 797 nm according to Nd3+(F43/2)→Yb3+(F27/2), followed by Yb3+(F25/2)→Tm(H34)→Tm3+(G14) . Results of numerical simulation of the rate equations system showed that a population inversion for 481.4 nm laser emission line is attained for a pumping rate threshold of 26 s-1, which is equivalent to an intensity of 880 W cm-2 for a continuous laser pumping at 797 nm. On the other hand, a population inversion was not observed for the case of 960 nm (Yb3+) pumping.

  17. Identification of an amino acid residue required for differential recognition of a viral movement protein by the Tomato mosaic virus resistance gene Tm-2(2).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michie; Yamamoto-Katou, Ayako; Katou, Shinpei; Hirai, Katsuyuki; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ohashi, Yuko; Mitsuhara, Ichiro

    2011-07-01

    The Tm-2 gene of tomato and its allelic gene, Tm-2(2), confer resistance to Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) and encode a member of the coiled-coil/nucleotide binding-ARC/leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein class of plant resistance (R) genes. Despite exhibiting only four amino acid differences between the products of Tm-2 and Tm-2(2), Tm-2(2) confers resistance to ToMV mutant B7, whereas Tm-2 is broken by ToMV-B7. An Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system was used to study the mechanism of differential recognition of the movement proteins (MPs), an avirulence factor for ToMV resistance, of ToMV-B7 by Tm-2 and Tm-2(2). Although resistance induced by Tm-2 and Tm-2(2) is not usually accompanied by hypersensitive response (HR), Tm-2 and Tm-2(2) induced HR-like cell death by co-expression with MP of a wild-type ToMV, a strain that causes resistance for these R genes, and Tm-2(2) but not Tm-2 induced cell death with B7-MP in this system. Site-directed amino acid mutagenesis revealed that Tyr-767 in the LRR of Tm-2(2) is required for the specific recognition of the B7-MP. These results suggest that the Tyr residue in LRR contributes to the recognition of B7-MP, and that Tm-2 and Tm-2(2) are involved in HR cell death.

  18. Too Good for Drugs[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Too Good for Drugs"[TM] is designed to promote life skills, character values, resistance skills to negative peer influence, and resistance to the use of illegal drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. The program, which targets elementary and middle school students, is based on classroom discussions and structured activities that center on…

  19. A Differential Temperature-Dependent Dielectric Relaxation Study of Organoclay Cloisite^{TM}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Abhimanyu; Kumar, Rohtash; Asokan, K.; Rawat, Kamla; Kanjilal, D.

    2017-01-01

    We report variation in the dielectric relaxation profiles of an important class of commercially available Cloisite ^{TM} organoclays, 25A, 15A, 30B and 10A, which are extensively used as rheology modifiers. A systematic and comprehensive comparison is made of their dielectric permittivity ({{ɛ}^' }}), and loss ({{ɛ}^' ' }}), conductivity ({σ}^' }) and loss tangent (tan δ ) parameters as function of temperature. The dispersion profiles showed relatively higher values for {{ɛ}^' }}, {ɛ}^' ' }}, σ^' } and tan δ for the Cloisite^{TM}30B samples in low-frequency region. A clear temperature-dependent transition in the values of {{ɛ}^' }} and {{ɛ}^' ' }} was noticed for Cloisite^{TM}25A sample at 436 K, which was independent of frequency, ω . The values of {{ɛ}^' }} and {{ɛ }^' ' }} showed 1/ω dependence with temperature. Cloisite^{TM}30B sample showed a marked decrease in the value of tan δ with increase in temperature compared to other samples. Thus, it was concluded that these clays bear signature dielectric properties regardless of the fact that they all belong to the same structural class of clays. Considering the large-scale use of these clays in many industrial products the above-mentioned results are of significant importance.

  20. 78 FR 57149 - Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency, Lock+TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency, Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund III..., Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On July 23, 2013, Western Minnesota Municipal Power... permit applications, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study...

  1. Efficient Operation of Conductively Cooled Ho:Tm:LuLiF Laser Oscillator/Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingxin; Trieu, Bo; Petros, M.; Petzar, Paul; Lee, Hyung; Singh, U.

    2008-01-01

    A conductively-cooled Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser oscillator generates 1.6J normal mode pulses at 10Hz with optical to optical efficiency of 20%. When the laser head module is used as the amplifier, the double-pass small-signal amplification excesses 25.

  2. Luminescent properties of Tm3+/ Ho3+ co-doped LiYF4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shan-shan; Xia, Hai-ping; Dong, Yan-ming; Fu, Li; Gu, Xue-mei; Zhang, Jian-li; Wang, Dong-jie; Jiang, Hao-chuan; Chen, Bao-jiu

    2014-11-01

    Ho3+ with various concentrations and Tm3+ with molar concentration of 1.28% are co-doped in LiYF4 (YLF) single crystals. The luminescent properties of the crystals are investigated through emission spectra, emission cross section and decay curves under the excitation of 808 nm. The energy transfer from Tm3+ to Ho3+ and the optimum fluorescence emission of Ho3+ around 2.05 μm are investigated. The emission intensity at 2.05 μm keeps increasing with the molar concentration of Ho3+ improved from 0.50% to 1.51% when the molar concentration of Tm3+ is kept at 1.28%. Moreover, for the co-doped crystals in which the molar concentrations of Tm3+ and Ho3+ are 1.28% and 1.51%, respectively, the maximum emission cross section reaches 0.760×10-20 cm2 and the maximum fluorescence lifetime is 21.98 ms. All the parameters suggest that these materials have more advantages in the future 2.0 μm laser applications.

  3. Compact hybrid TM-pass polarizer for silicon-on-insulator platform.

    PubMed

    Alam, Muhammad; Aitchsion, J Stewart; Mojahedi, Mohammad

    2011-05-20

    Hybrid waveguides consisting of a metal plane separated from a high-index medium by a low-index spacer have recently attracted a lot of interest. TM and TE modes are guided in two different layers in these structures and their properties can be controlled in different manners by changing the waveguide dimensions and material properties. We examine the effects of different parameters on the characteristics of the two modes in such structures. We show that by properly choosing the dimensions, it is possible to cut off the TE mode while the TM mode can still be guided in a well-confined manner. Using this property of the hybrid guide, we propose a TM-pass polarizer. The proposed device is very compact and compatible with the silicon-on-insulator platform. Finite-difference time-domain simulation indicates that such a polarizer can provide a high extinction of the TE mode for a reasonable insertion loss of the TM mode.

  4. Rare Functional Variant in TM2D3 is Associated with Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grove, Megan L.; Naj, Adam; Vronskaya, Maria; DeStefano, Anita L.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Smith, Albert V.; Amin, Najaf; Sims, Rebecca; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A.; Choi, Seung-Hoan; Lopez, Oscar L.; Beiser, Alexa; Ikram, M. Arfan; Garcia, Melissa E.; Hayward, Caroline; Ripatti, Samuli; Franks, Paul W.; Hallmans, Göran; Rolandsson, Olov; Jansson, Jan-Håkon; Porteous, David J.; Salomaa, Veikko; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Rice, Kenneth M.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Levy, Daniel; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Emilsson, Valur; Rotter, Jerome I.; Aspelund, Thor; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Launer, Lenore J.; Hofman, Albert; Wang, Li-San; Williams, Julie; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Psaty, Bruce M.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shulman, Joshua M.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    2016-01-01

    We performed an exome-wide association analysis in 1393 late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) cases and 8141 controls from the CHARGE consortium. We found that a rare variant (P155L) in TM2D3 was enriched in Icelanders (~0.5% versus <0.05% in other European populations). In 433 LOAD cases and 3903 controls from the Icelandic AGES sub-study, P155L was associated with increased risk and earlier onset of LOAD [odds ratio (95% CI) = 7.5 (3.5–15.9), p = 6.6x10-9]. Mutation in the Drosophila TM2D3 homolog, almondex, causes a phenotype similar to loss of Notch/Presenilin signaling. Human TM2D3 is capable of rescuing these phenotypes, but this activity is abolished by P155L, establishing it as a functionally damaging allele. Our results establish a rare TM2D3 variant in association with LOAD susceptibility, and together with prior work suggests possible links to the β-amyloid cascade. PMID:27764101

  5. [Contrastive analysis on soil alkalinization predicting models based on measured reflectance and TM image reflectance].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Xiong, Hei-Gang; Long, Tao; Lu, Wen-Juan

    2011-01-01

    Based on the monitored data of soil pH and measured Vis-NIR reflectance on spot in Qitai oasis alkalinized area in Xinjiang, as well as comparison of the relationship between measured reflectance and soil pH and the relationship between TM reflectance and soil pH, both of the reflectance multivariate linear regression models were built to evaluate soil alkalinization level, and the model accuracy of pH fitting was discussed with error inspection of post-sample. The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between soil pH and reflectance. With pH rising the reflectance increased concurrently. So the alkalinization soil characterized by hardening had good spectral response characteristics. Both measured reflectance and TM image reflectance had good potential ability for change detection of the alkalinization soil. The pH predicting model of measured reflectance had higher accuracy and the major error was from different hardening state. If building model by TM reflectance directly, the accuracy of fitting was lower because of the vegetation information in image spectrum. With the vegetation factor removed with NDVI, the accuracy of TM predicting model was near the accuracy of measured reflectance predicting model, and both of the model levels were good.

  6. Using Web 2.0 Technologies to Meet Quality Matters[TM] (QM) Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollacia, Lissa; McCallister, Terrie

    2009-01-01

    Quality Matters[TM] (QM) is a set of standards to measure the quality of instruction and design in online or hybrid courses. Adopted by a growing number of institutions nationwide, QM is based on best practices and instructional design research. To meet or exceed QM standards requires that resources and learning activities in an online course…

  7. Treating Traumatized Children after Hurricane Katrina: Project Fleur-de Lis[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Jaycox, Lisa H.; Walker, Douglas W.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Langley, Audra K.; DuClos, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Project Fleur-de-lis[TM] (PFDL) was established to provide a tiered approach to triage and treat children experiencing trauma symptoms after Hurricane Katrina. PFDL provides school screening in schools in New Orleans and three tiers of evidence-based treatment (EBT) to disaster-exposed children utilizing a public health approach to meet the…

  8. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Kids Living Fit[TM] Program: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speroni, Karen Gabel; Earley, Cynthia; Atherton, Martin

    2007-01-01

    After-school programs can be implemented by school nurses to facilitate healthy lifestyle choices in children with the goal of decreasing obesity. Kids Living Fit[TM] (KLF), an after-school program designed by community hospital nurses, was implemented in elementary schools and focused on best lifestyle choices regarding foods consumed and…

  9. Tm:YLF Pumped Ho:YAG and Ho:LuAG Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Reichle, Donald J.; Walsh, Brian M.; Axenson, Theresa J.

    2004-01-01

    Room temperature Ho:YAG and Ho:LuAG lasers pumped by a Tm:YLF laser demonstrated a 3.4 mJ threshold and 0.41 slope efficiency, incident optical to laser output energy. Results for numerous rod lengths, Ho concentrations, and output mirror reflectivities are presented.

  10. Wide-bandwidth Tm-based amplifier for laser acceleration driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeland, Drew A.; Vetrovec, John; Litt, Amardeep S.

    2016-03-01

    We report on an investigation of novel 2 μm thulium (Tm)-based laser accelerator driver (LAD) offering efficient generation of high-energy pulses with high-peak power at high pulse repetition rate (PRF), high efficiency, and with near-diffraction-limited beam quality (BQ). Laser acceleration of electrons by ultrashortpulse laser-generated plasmas offers accelerators of much reduced size and cost compared to conventional accelerators of the same energy, thus replacing the traditional mammoth-size and costly accelerator research facilities with room-size systems1. A LAD operating at 2 μm wavelength offers ponderomotive forces four times that of 1 μm wavelength and six times that of a traditional 0.8 μm wavelength LAD. In addition, the Tm bandwidth of nearly 400 nm offers > 15% tunability and generation of ultrashort pulses down to <30 fs. The "2-for- 1" pump quantum efficiency of the Tm ion enables > 20% wall-plug efficiency. This work presents a preliminary analysis of Tm-based LAD configurations.

  11. Understanding the multiferroicity in TmMn2O5 by a magnetically induced ferrielectric model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, L.; Li, X.; Liu, M. F.; Li, P. L.; Yan, Z. B.; Zeng, M.; Qin, M. H.; Gao, X. S.; Liu, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetically induced electric polarization behaviors in multiferroic TmMn2O5 in response to varying temperature and magnetic field are carefully investigated by means of a series of characterizations including the high precision pyroelectric current technique. Here polycrystalline rather than single crystal samples are used for avoiding the strong electrically self-polarized effect in single crystals, and various parallel experiments on excluding the thermally excited current contributions are performed. The temperature-dependent electric polarization flop as a major character is identified for different measuring paths. The magneto-current measurements indicate that the electric polarization in the low temperature magnetic phase region has different origin from that in the high temperature magnetic phase. It is suggested that the electric polarization does have multiple components which align along different orientations, including the Mn3+-Mn4+-Mn3+ exchange striction induced polarization PMM, the Tm3+-Mn4+-Tm3+ exchange striction induced polarization PTM, and the low temperature polarization PLT probably associated with the Tm3+ commensurate phase. The observed electric polarization flop can be reasonably explained by the ferrielectric model proposed earlier for DyMn2O5, where PMM and PTM are the two antiparallel components both along the b-axis and PLT may align along the a-axis. Finally, several issues on the unusual temperature dependence of ferroelectric polarizations are discussed. PMID:27713482

  12. An Evaluation of the Components of a Social Stories[TM] Intervention Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iskander, Jeannette M.; Rosales, Rocio

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of Social Stories[TM], and Social Stories paired with a differential reinforcement procedure on disruptive behaviors of two elementary school children diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We implemented a…

  13. Guidelines for Graphing Data with Microsoft[R] PowerPoint[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Erin E.; Reichow, Brian; Wolery, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Graphs are vital components for analyzing data in the experimental analysis of behavior using single subject research methods. This paper extends the previous literature on the construction of single subject graphs by providing instructions for using Microsoft[R] Power Point[TM] and Microsoft[R] PowerPoint for Mac[R], and describes improved…

  14. An Analysis of Social Stories[TM] Research Using an Evidence-Based Practice Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Michael R.; Menendez, Anthony L.; Wheeler, John J.; Carter, Stacy L.; Chitiyo, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    The number of Social Stories[TM] studies and reviews has increased in recent years, yet concerns regarding quality and effect sizes continue to be expressed. With the emphasis on evidence-based practices (EBPs) for the education and treatment of people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), this issue becomes of paramount importance as…

  15. HTML::GMap-A High Level Perl Wrapper Around the Google Maps(TM) API

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed HTML::GMap, a generic, high-level Perl wrapper, to easily build web-based geographic map displays on top of the Google MapsTM Mapping Service. Using HTML::GMap, we built custom display tools to present the molecular diversity data generated by the National Science Foundation-suppor...

  16. Attitudes toward Learning about and Working with Computers of Students at UiTM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Rugayah; Mustapha, Wan Narita

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the attitudes toward learning about and working with computers of Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam students. Attitudes were studied in an attempt to ascertain factors such as anxiety, confidence, liking and, usefulness at the university level. A total of 300 students at various stages of education…

  17. Caring School Community[TM] (Formerly, the Child Development Project). What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Caring School Community[TM]" ("CSC") is a modified version of a program formerly known as the "Child Development Project." The program aims to promote core values, prosocial behavior, and a schoolwide feeling of community. The program consists of four elements originally developed for the "Child Development…

  18. Caring School Community[TM] (Formerly, The Child Development Project). Revised. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Caring School Community"[TM] ("CSC") is a modified version of a program formerly known as the "Child Development Project" ("CDP"). The "CSC" program has been recently revised to eliminate some elements of the "CDP" that were shown in evaluation studies to be inconsistently or poorly…

  19. Laser operation of a Tm:Y2O3 planar waveguide.

    PubMed

    Szela, Jakub W; Sloyan, Katherine A; Parsonage, Tina L; Mackenzie, Jacob I; Eason, Robert W

    2013-05-20

    We demonstrate the first Tm-doped yttria planar waveguide laser to our knowledge, grown by pulsed laser deposition. A maximum output power of 35 mW at 1.95 μm with 9% slope efficiency was achieved from a 12 μm-thick film grown on a Y(3)Al(5)O(12) substrate.

  20. Design data brochure for the Owens-Illinois Sunpak (TM) air-cooled solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information necessary to evaluate the design and installation of the Owens-Illinois Sunpak TM Air-Cooled Solar Collector is presented. Information includes collector features, fluid flow, thermal performance, installation and system tips. The collector utilizes a highly selective wavelength coating in combination with vacuum insulation, which virtually eliminates conduction and convention losses.

  1. SYBR safe(TM) efficiently replaces ethidium bromide in Aspergillus fumigatus gene disruption.

    PubMed

    Canela, H M S; Takami, L A; Ferreira, M E S

    2017-02-08

    Invasive aspergillosis is a disease responsible for high mortality rates, caused mainly by Aspergillus fumigatus. The available drugs are limited and this disease continues to occur at an unacceptable frequency. Gene disruption is essential in the search for new drug targets. An efficient protocol for A. fumigatus gene disruption was described but it requires ethidium bromide, a genotoxic agent, for DNA staining. Therefore, the present study tested SYBR safe(TM), a non-genotoxic DNA stain, in A. fumigatus gene disruption protocol. The chosen gene was cipC, which has already been disrupted successfully in our laboratory. A deletion cassette was constructed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used in A. fumigatus transformation. There was no statistical difference between the tested DNA stains. The success rate of S. cerevisiae transformation was 63.3% for ethidium bromide and 70% for SYBR safe(TM). For A. fumigatus gene disruption, the success rate for ethidium bromide was 100 and 97% for SYBR safe(TM). In conclusion, SYBR safe(TM) efficiently replaced ethidium bromide, making this dye a safe and efficient alternative for DNA staining in A. fumigatus gene disruption.

  2. Optical decoherence studies of Tm3 +:Y3Ga5O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, C. W.; Sinclair, N.; Tittel, W.; Cone, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    Decoherence of the 795 nm 3H6 to 3H4 transition in 1 %Tm3 +:Y3Ga5O12 (Tm:YGG) is studied at temperatures as low as 1.2 K. The temperature, magnetic field, frequency, and time scale (spectral diffusion) dependence of the optical coherence lifetime is measured. Our results show that the coherence lifetime is impacted less by spectral diffusion than other known thulium-doped materials. Photon echo excitation and spectral hole burning methods reveal uniform decoherence properties and the possibility to produce full transparency for persistent spectral holes across the entire 56 GHz inhomogeneous bandwidth of the optical transition. Temperature-dependent decoherence is well described by elastic Raman scattering of phonons with an additional weaker component that may arise from a low density of glass-like dynamic disorder modes (two-level systems). Analysis of the observed behavior suggests that an optical coherence lifetime approaching 1 ms may be possible in this system at temperatures below 1 K for crystals grown with optimized properties. Overall, we find that Tm:YGG has superior decoherence properties compared to other Tm-doped crystals and is a promising candidate for applications that rely on long coherence lifetimes, such as optical quantum memories and photonic signal processing.

  3. Origins of tmRNA: the missing link in the birth of protein synthesis?

    PubMed

    Macé, Kevin; Gillet, Reynald

    2016-09-30

    The RNA world hypothesis refers to the early period on earth in which RNA was central in assuring both genetic continuity and catalysis. The end of this era coincided with the development of the genetic code and protein synthesis, symbolized by the apparition of the first non-random messenger RNA (mRNA). Modern transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) is a unique hybrid molecule which has the properties of both mRNA and transfer RNA (tRNA). It acts as a key molecule during trans-translation, a major quality control pathway of modern bacterial protein synthesis. tmRNA shares many common characteristics with ancestral RNA. Here, we present a model in which proto-tmRNAs were the first molecules on earth to support non-random protein synthesis, explaining the emergence of early genetic code. In this way, proto-tmRNA could be the missing link between the first mRNA and tRNA molecules and modern ribosome-mediated protein synthesis.

  4. Waterford Early Reading Level One[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Waterford Early Reading Level One"[TM] is an emergent literacy curriculum that uses computer-based technology to prepare children for reading. It begins with a tutorial to familiarize the child with the computer and mouse and a reading placement evaluation to assess and determine whether a child should work on "Level One"…

  5. Learning from the Market: Integrating "The Stock Market Game" (tm) across the Curriculum. EconomicsAmerica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Economic Education, New York, NY.

    This book is designed to help teachers connect "The Stock Market Game" (tm) and the school curriculum. Three key economic themes developed in the lessons include: (1) stock buyers engage in economizing behavior; (2) market economies encourage the production of wealth; and (3) market activity takes place in the context of a legal…

  6. Learning Designer[TM]: A Theory-Based SCORM-Compliant Content Development Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Lim, Doo H.; Kim, Minkyung

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a recently developed e-learning design and development tool called Learning Designer[TM] (version 1.0). Learning Designer assists learning designers and developers to build e-learning courses with Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) compliant learning objects using decision-making aids and recommended templates…

  7. 77 FR 69548 - Price for the 2012 Limited Edition Silver Proof SetTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2012 Limited Edition Silver Proof Set TM AGENCY: United States Mint..., Associate Director for Sales and Marketing, United States Mint, 801 9th Street NW., Washington, DC 20220,...

  8. Social Stories[TM]: Does the Research Evidence Support the Popularity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styles, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The use of Social Stories[TM] appears to be popular among educational psychologists (EPs) and other children's services professionals as an intervention for enhancing the social functioning of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). This article explores and evaluates the research evidence upon which this apparent popularity is based.…

  9. Excited-state absorption of Tm3 + -doped single crystals at photon-avalanche wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, N.; Moncorgé, R.; Manaa, H.; Descroix, E.; Laporte, P.; Guyot, Y.

    1996-04-01

    Excited-state absorption (ESA) spectra calibrated in units of cross sections are reported in the case of Tm3+-doped YAG, YAP, and Y2O3 single crystals around wavelengths at which photon-avalanche absorptions were observed recently. The peak ESA cross sections are compared with those obtained theoretically by using the Judd-Ofelt approach.

  10. Linearly-polarized Tm-doped double-clad fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D. Z.; Liu, W.; Chen, T.; Ye, W.; Shen, Y. H.

    2010-08-01

    We report a linearly polarized Tm doped fiber laser. The fiber laser was set up by using a piece of polarization maintaining Tm doped double clad fiber of 5 m length as gain medium and a polarization beam splitter as a polarization selector. The fiber laser was pumped by a fiber pigtailed laser diode working at 790 nm with a maximum output power of 90 W. The linearly polarized Tm laser operated at wavelength around 2030 nm. A maximum output power up to 21.9 W was achieved when the pump power was 63.27 W with a threshold of 11.92 W, a slope efficiency of about 43.7%, and a polarization extinction ratio of 92.7% (11.37 dB). In addition to the blue fluorescence, we also observed the violet fluorescence under high pump power level. The up-conversion fluorescence was considered to be attributed to the 1 G 4 → 3 H 6, and 1 D 2 → 3 F 4 transitions of Tm ions, respectively.

  11. Luminescence properties of Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped lead alumina bismuth borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goud, K. Krishna Murthy; Reddy, M. Chandra Shekhar; Rao, B. Appa

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports on the spectroscopic properties of Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped lead alumina bismuth borate glasses. Optical absorption spectra of these Samples were recorded at room temperature in the wavelength range 350-2000 nm. The absorption spectra exhibited the bands at 658 nm (3H6→3F2), 686 nm (3H6→3F3), 792 nm (3H6→3H4), 1211 nm (3H6→3H5) and 1663 nm (3H6→3F4) due to Tm3+ ions. The band at 977 nm (2F7/2→2F5/2) is due to Yb3+ ions. Optical band gap (Eopt) and Urbach energy (ΔE) values were calculated from the spectra. It was observed that the value of optical band gap decreases with increase in the concentration of Tm3+ ions. The upconversion luminescence spectra were measured under excitation of 980 nm laser diode, and the intense blue (470 nm) and green (656 nm) emission were simultaneously observed at room temperature. A proposed upconversion mechanism involving energy transfer from Yb3+ to Tm3+ has been presented.

  12. Multiphoton upconversion process in Tm 3+ doped ZBLAN glass by CW laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianfu; Wang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Zhankui

    2009-11-01

    Blue, even ultraviolet emissions and very strong red emissions have been observed in ZBLAN glass doped with Tm 3+ under 800 nm CW laser excitation. The red emissions were demonstrated to be of sequential two-photon process, while the ultraviolet emissions be of three-photon process, according to the intensity dependence.

  13. The DEDEPRO[TM] Model for Regulating Teaching and Learning: Recent Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Fuente Arias, Jesus; Justicia, Fernando Justicia

    2007-01-01

    Research on "self-regulated learning" has evolved from classic models focused exclusively on the student and the learning process, to models which take into consideration the context or the teaching process, as an element which can stimulate self-regulation in students. The DEDEPRO[TM] model is offered as a model of the latter type,…

  14. Silicon-nanowire-based optical hybrid with insensitive operation for TE/TM states of polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Zhai, Yumeng; Mao, Jinbin; Lu, Yunqing; Xu, Ji; Dai, Daoxin

    2017-02-01

    An optical 90° hybrid consisting of a polarization splitter-rotator (PSR) and a multimode interferometer (MMI) is proposed to realize insensitive optical frequency mixing for TE/TM states of polarization. The PSR is based on the mode hybridization and mode coupling between waveguides; input light at a fundamental transverse electric (TE) mode and a transverse magnetic (TM) mode are output at separate ports, but both output signals are in the fundamental TE mode. These two output fields are then guided to the MMI, where the optical frequency mixing with the light of a local oscillator takes place. This mixing is then independent of the state of polarization of the hybrid input light. We designed such an optical hybrid based on silicon-nanowire waveguides. At a wavelength of 1540 nm, simulation results for the hybrid show a transmission efficiency of 98.6% or 95.8% for TE- or TM-polarized input light, respectively, while the transmission efficiencies for both polarizations are above 90% in a 30 nm wavelength range, namely [1525 nm, 1555 nm]. Further, in the wavelength range [1510 nm, 1565 nm], the transmission imbalance between the output fields is below 0.85 dB for TE- or TM-polarized input light, respectively, while the phase errors in both cases are less than 4°.

  15. A New LiNbO3 TE/TM Mode Splitter Using Tipe Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hai-Lin; Wang, Hui-Ming; Tu, Yuan-Kuang

    1989-02-01

    A new type TE/TM mode splitter on both Z-cut and X-cut Y-propagate LiNbO3 substrates was proposed by combining a Y-branch waveguide, a proton-exchanged polarizer, and a metal-clad polarizer. Combination of Titanium-indiffusion and Proton-exchanged process was used for the sample preparation.

  16. Using EPAS[TM] to Evaluate School-Based Intervention Programs: GEAR UP. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2007

    2007-01-01

    This brief examines how the ACT's EPAS[TM] (Educational Planning and Assessment System) can be used to evaluate school-based intervention programs. Specific evaluation considered is that of the federal government's Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP), an initiative designed to increase the college awareness…

  17. Introgression of Clearfield(TM) rice crop traits into weedy red rice outcrosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to determine the impact of introgression of crop alleles into weedy rice populations. Seeds of 89 weedy rice accessions collected from Arkansas fields in 11 counties, with a history of Clearfield(TM) rice production, were planted in 2011 and treated with two applications of im...

  18. Behavior Breakthroughs[TM]: Future Teachers Reflect on a Focused Game Designed to Teach ABA Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowdermilk, John; Martinez, Deborah; Pecina, Julie; Beccera, Lisa; Lowdermilk, Carey

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the use of a focused educational game. The game, "Behavior Breakthroughs"[TM], was created to teach people that work with children with autism, appropriate behavior management techniques. A group of undergraduate, teacher education students played the game and provided feedback on their experiences.

  19. Half-metallic ferromagnetism in TM-doped MgH2 hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhal, M.; Bhihi, M.; Naji, S.; Mounkachi, O.; Benyoussef, A.; Loulidi, M.; El Kenz, A.

    2015-06-01

    We show that, in addition to its thermodynamic properties that make it a good candidate for hydrogen storage, the MgH2 hydride exhibits interesting magnetic properties when doped with some transition metals (TM). Using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method (KKR) combined with the coherent potential approximation in the framework of first-principle calculations, we study the half-metallic ferromagnetic properties of the MgH2 doped with TM: Co, V, Cr, Ti; Mg0.95TM0.05H2. The ferromagnetic state energy is computed and compared with the disordered local moment state energy. We show, from the electronic structure, that doping MgH2 with TM elements can convert the material to a half-metallic with a high wide impurity band and high magnetic moment. We have found that the corresponding Curie temperature is bigger than the room temperature, which is considered as a relevant parameter for spintronic applications. Moreover, the mechanism of the hybridization and the interaction between the magnetic ions are also investigated showing that the double exchange is the underlying mechanism responsible for the magnetism of such materials.

  20. 76 FR 65563 - Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... United States Mint Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM AGENCY... announcing the re-pricing of the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins. The price of the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins will be lowered from $279.95 to $229.95....

  1. 77 FR 840 - Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... United States Mint Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM AGENCY... announcing the re-pricing of the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins. The price of the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins will be lowered from $229.95 to $204.95....

  2. Using Localized Survey Items to Augment Standardized Benchmarking Measures: A LibQUAL+[TM] Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Cook, Colleen; Kyrillidou, Martha

    2006-01-01

    The LibQUAL+[TM] protocol solicits open-ended comments from users with regard to library service quality, gathers data on 22 core items, and, at the option of individual libraries, also garners ratings on five items drawn from a pool of more than 100 choices selected by libraries. In this article, the relationship of scores on these locally…

  3. Faculty Perception of Information Control Using LibQUAL+[TM] Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayongo, Jessica; Jones, Sherri

    2008-01-01

    The LibQUAL+[TM] survey was used in 2006 to assess library service quality at the University of Notre Dame. While results showed that the Libraries were meeting users' expectations for service in most areas, a closer examination of the data revealed dissatisfaction from a subgroup of users in one particular dimension of library services. This…

  4. Effects of magnetic anisotropy and exchange in Tm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}

    SciTech Connect

    Pirogov, A. N. Bogdanov, S. G.; Rosenfeld, E. V.; Park, J.-G.; Choi, Y. N.; Lee, Seongsu; Prokes, K.; Golosova, N. O.; Sashin, I. L.; Kudrevatykh, N. V.; Skryabin, Yu. N.; Vokhmyanin, A. P.

    2012-11-15

    Neutron diffraction experiments have been carried out to study the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of two (2b and 2d) Tm sublattices and four (4f, 6g, 12j, and 12k) Fe sublattices in ferrimagnetic compound Tm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} (space group P6{sub 3}/mmc). We have determined the temperature dependence of the magnitude and orientation of magnetization for each of the thulium and iron sublattices in the range (10-300) K. A spontaneous rotation (at about 90 K) of the Tm and Fe sublattice magnetizations from the c-axis to the basal plane is accompanied by a drastic change in the magnetization magnitude, signifying a large magnetization anisotropy. Both Tm sublattices exhibit an easy-axis type of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The Fe sublattices manifest both the uniaxial and planar anisotropy types. The sublattice formed by Fe atoms at the 4f position reveals the largest planar anisotropy constant. The Fe atoms at the 12j position show a uniaxial anisotropy. We find that the inelastic neutron scattering spectra measured below and above the spin-reorientation transition are remarkably different.

  5. High Energy Double-Pulsed Ho:Tm:YLF Laser Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Braud, Alain; Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, Upendra N.

    2002-01-01

    A high energy double-pulsed Ho:Tm:YLF 2-micrometer laser amplifier has been demonstrated. 600 mJ per pulse pair under Q-switch operation is achieved with the gain of 4.4. This solid-state laser source can be used as lidar transmitter for multiple lidar applications such as coherent wind and carbon dioxide measurements.

  6. Highly Efficient Operation of Tm:fiber Laser Pumped Ho:YLF Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Yingxin; Petros, M.; Yu, Jirong; Petzar, Paul; Trieu, Bo; Chen, Sam; Lee, Hyung; Singh, U.

    2006-01-01

    A 19 W, TEM(sub 00) mode, Ho:YLF laser pumped by continuous wave Tm:fiber laser has been demonstrated at the room temperature. The slope efficiency and optical-to-optical efficiency are 65% and 55%, respectively.

  7. Water quality assessment with simultaneous Landsat-5 TM data at Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Braga, C.Z.F.; Setzer, A.W. ); Lacerda, L.D. de )

    1993-06-01

    This study aims at determining relationships between water quality parameters and digital data from the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM). The study area was the Guanabara Bay, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Water samples were collected on two dates, coincident with Landsat passages, and when different tide conditions were present at the Bay. TM Bands 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6, band ratios 1 / 3 and 2 / 3, and principal component analysis of TM Bands 1-4 were compared with in situ measurements and laboratory analysis of water samples. Some water quality parameters were very well correlated with the digital remotely sensed data, especially during high tide: for instance, iron and manganese concentrations in total suspended solids; salinity and Secchi depth; temperature and Secchi depth; temperature and total suspended solids; total suspended solids and Bands 4 and 6; Secchi depth and Bands 4 and 6; temperature and Band 6. Lower correlation coefficients, although also significant, were found for the low tide condition. No correlation was found with chlorophyll-a concentrations. TM data were shown to be adequate to analyze temperature, Secchi depth, total suspended solids, and iron and manganese contents in the total suspended solids for the polluted estuary area studied.

  8. Pilot Testing "Okay with Asthma"[TM]: An Online Asthma Intervention for School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tami H.; Hauenstein, Emily J.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is the leading cause of missed school days despite advancements in asthma treatment. This may be, in part, due to a lack of understanding about asthma. "Okay With Asthma"[TM], an online story with psychosocial management strategies for school-age children, was pilot tested to measure its effect on asthma knowledge and attitude. The online…

  9. Apprenticeship Carolina[TM]: Building a 21st Century Workforce through Statewide Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieritz, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    Apprenticeship Carolina[TM] is a new division of the South Carolina Technical College System that has increased employer use of registered apprenticeship by 123% since July 2007. The initiative's success spans multiple industry clusters and is built through statewide collaborations that include public-private, state-local, and state-federal…

  10. High power 2 {micro}m wing-pumped Tm{sup 3+}:YAG laser

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.J.; Sutton, S.B.; Honea, E.C.; Skidmore, J.A.; Emanuel, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Using a scalable diode end-pumping technology developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory the authors have demonstrated a compact Tm{sup 3+}:YAG laser capable of generating greater than 50 W of cw 2 {micro}m laser output power. The design and operational characteristics of this laser will be discussed.

  11. High power 2 {mu}m diode-pumped Tm:YAG laser

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.J.; Sutton, S.B.; Honea, E.C.; Skidmore, J.A.; Emanuel, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Using a scaleable diode end-pumping technology developed at LLNL, we have demonstrated a compact Tm:YAG laser capable of generating more than 50 W of cw 2 {mu}m laser output power. The design and operational characteristics of this laser, which was built originally for use in assessing laser surgical techniques, are discussed.

  12. The Academic English Language Needs of Industrial Design Students in UiTM Kedah, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adzmi, Nor Aslah; Bidin, Samsiah; Ibrahim, Syazliyati; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the academic English language lacks and needs of Industrial Design students in Universiti Teknologi MARA Kedah (UiTM). It highlights the lacks and needs for English for Academic Purposes in helping the students to succeed in the program through the usage of English language. The research tools used were in…

  13. Development of LaRC (TM): IA thermoplastic polyimide coated aerospace wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, Jack

    1995-01-01

    NASA Langley has invented LaRC(exp TM) IA and IAX which are thermoplastic polyimides with good melting, thermal and chemical resistance properties. It was the objective of this contract to prepare and extrude LaRC (exp TM) polyimide onto aircraft wire and evaluate the polymers performance in this critical application. Based on rheology and chemical resistance studies at Imitec, LaRC (exp TM) IAX melts readily in an extruder, facilitating the manufacture of thin wall coatings. The polyimide does not corode the extruder, develop gel particles nor advance in viscosity. The insulated wire was tested according to MiL-W-22759E test specifications. The resulting wire coated with LaRC (exp TM) IAX displayed exceptional properties: surface resistance, non blocking, non burning, hot fluid resistance, impulse dielectric, insulation resistance, low temperature flexibility, thermal aging, wire weight, dimensions, negligible high temperature shrinkage and stripability. The light weight and other properties merit its application in satellites, missiles and aircraft applications. The extruded IAX results in a polyimide aircraft insulation without seams, outstanding moisture resistance, continuous lengths and abrasion resistance.

  14. New results for geologic units mapping of Utah test sites using Landsat TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.; Marcell, R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper continues a study on the accuracy of geological mapping using Landsat Thematic Mapper data (Short, 1984). In June 1976, both the White Mountain alteration zone and the Waterpocket Fold sedimentary rock sites in Utah were surveyed by the Bendix 24-band scanner on a NASA NC-130B aircraft. Mid-June 1984 TM data for these two sites have been processed like the 1976 data to test the quality of simulation of TM data. Principal-components (PC) color composite images for White Mountain show close correspondence to the Bendix PC images. At this site carbonate strata are uniquely discriminated in both Bendix and TM composites that use an inverted PC 3 image. Alunite/kaolinite and hematite/limonite alteration zones developed on volcanic flows are also sharply separated, but iron oxide and silicified zones are less so. The accuracy of rock-units mapping at the Waterpocket Fold site by supervised classification of the June TM data is significantly better, reaching 70 percent in the best case, than for January 1983 data for that site.

  15. Construction of pTM series plasmids for gene expression in Brucella species.

    PubMed

    Tian, Mingxing; Qu, Jing; Bao, Yanqing; Gao, Jianpeng; Liu, Jiameng; Wang, Shaohui; Sun, Yingjie; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing

    2016-04-01

    Brucellosis, the most common widespread zoonotic disease, is caused by Brucella spp., which are facultative, intracellular, Gram-negative bacteria. With the development of molecular biology techniques, more and more virulence-associated factors have been identified in Brucella spp. A suitable plasmid system is an important tool to study virulence genes in Brucella. In this study, we constructed three constitutive replication plasmids (pTM1-Cm, pTM2-Amp, and pTM3-Km) using the replication origin (rep) region derived from the pBBR1-MCS vector. Also, a DNA fragment containing multiple cloning sites (MCSs) and a terminator sequence derived from the pCold vector were produced for complementation of the deleted genes. Besides pGH-6×His, a plasmid containing the groE promoter of Brucella spp. was constructed to express exogenous proteins in Brucella with high efficiency. Furthermore, we constructed the inducible expression plasmid pZT-6×His, containing the tetracycline-inducible promoter pzt1, which can induce expression by the addition of tetracycline in the Brucella culture medium. The constructed pTM series plasmids will play an important role in the functional investigation of Brucella spp.

  16. Origins of tmRNA: the missing link in the birth of protein synthesis?

    PubMed Central

    Macé, Kevin; Gillet, Reynald

    2016-01-01

    The RNA world hypothesis refers to the early period on earth in which RNA was central in assuring both genetic continuity and catalysis. The end of this era coincided with the development of the genetic code and protein synthesis, symbolized by the apparition of the first non-random messenger RNA (mRNA). Modern transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) is a unique hybrid molecule which has the properties of both mRNA and transfer RNA (tRNA). It acts as a key molecule during trans-translation, a major quality control pathway of modern bacterial protein synthesis. tmRNA shares many common characteristics with ancestral RNA. Here, we present a model in which proto-tmRNAs were the first molecules on earth to support non-random protein synthesis, explaining the emergence of early genetic code. In this way, proto-tmRNA could be the missing link between the first mRNA and tRNA molecules and modern ribosome-mediated protein synthesis. PMID:27484476

  17. White Lighting Upconversion in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ Co-Doped CaWO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jun Ho; Yeop Lee, Sang; Shim, Kwang Bo; Ryu, Jeong Ho

    2012-05-01

    Controllable white upconversion (UC) luminescence was obtained from Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped CaWO4. Under the excitation of a 980 nm single wavelength laser diode, the Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped CaWO4 exhibited bright white UC luminescence composed of blue emission from Tm3+ and green and red emissions from Ho3+ visible to the naked eye. The intensity ratios of green, red, and blue UC emissions varied with Tm3+/Ho3+ concentrations, which can control white UC emission ranging from the cool to the warm region. Various white UC colors can be easily changed by adjusting the Tm3+/Ho3+ concentrations in the CaWO4 matrix.

  18. Ultrahigh-Q TE/TM dual-polarized photonic crystal holey fishbone-like nanobeam cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Chao-Sheng; Gao, Ya-Song; Wu, Xiao-Zan; Li, Ming-Jun; Zhong, Jian-Xin

    2014-12-01

    We propose and theoretically investigate a one-dimensional photonic crystal holey fishbone-like silicon nanobeam cavity that simultaneously supports both fundamental transverse-electric (TE) and second-order transverse-magnetic (TM) modes, \\text{TE}00 and \\text{TM}20 modes. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations show that with thin cavity thickness and compact cavity size, the cavity possesses ultrahigh Q (Q_\\text{TE}>107 , Q_\\text{TM}>106 ), along with small mode volume and high confinement factor, for both \\text{TE}00 and \\text{TM}20 modes. We believe our proposed cavity could be beneficial for nonlinear frequency conversion, optomechanics and other applications where dual-polarized TE/TM modes are needed.

  19. tmBioC: improving interoperability of text-mining tools with BioC

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Ritu; Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Mao, Yuqing; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    The lack of interoperability among biomedical text-mining tools is a major bottleneck in creating more complex applications. Despite the availability of numerous methods and techniques for various text-mining tasks, combining different tools requires substantial efforts and time owing to heterogeneity and variety in data formats. In response, BioC is a recent proposal that offers a minimalistic approach to tool interoperability by stipulating minimal changes to existing tools and applications. BioC is a family of XML formats that define how to present text documents and annotations, and also provides easy-to-use functions to read/write documents in the BioC format. In this study, we introduce our text-mining toolkit, which is designed to perform several challenging and significant tasks in the biomedical domain, and repackage the toolkit into BioC to enhance its interoperability. Our toolkit consists of six state-of-the-art tools for named-entity recognition, normalization and annotation (PubTator) of genes (GenNorm), diseases (DNorm), mutations (tmVar), species (SR4GN) and chemicals (tmChem). Although developed within the same group, each tool is designed to process input articles and output annotations in a different format. We modify these tools and enable them to read/write data in the proposed BioC format. We find that, using the BioC family of formats and functions, only minimal changes were required to build the newer versions of the tools. The resulting BioC wrapped toolkit, which we have named tmBioC, consists of our tools in BioC, an annotated full-text corpus in BioC, and a format detection and conversion tool. Furthermore, through participation in the 2013 BioCreative IV Interoperability Track, we empirically demonstrate that the tools in tmBioC can be more efficiently integrated with each other as well as with external tools: Our experimental results show that using BioC reduces >60% in lines of code for text-mining tool integration. The tmBioC toolkit

  20. Apoptosis-like cell death in Leishmania donovani treated with KalsomeTM10, a new liposomal amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Shadab, Md.; Jha, Baijayanti; Asad, Mohammad; Deepthi, Makaraju; Kamran, Mohd.; Ali, Nahid

    2017-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to elucidate the cell death mechanism in Leishmania donovani upon treatment with KalsomeTM10, a new liposomal amphotericin B. Methodology/Principal findings We studied morphological alterations in promastigotes through phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and disruption of mitochondrial integrity was determined by flow cytometry using annexinV-FITC, JC-1 and mitotraker, respectively. For analysing oxidative stress, generation of H2O2 (bioluminescence kit) and mitochondrial superoxide O2− (mitosox) were measured. DNA fragmentation was evaluated using terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) and DNA laddering assay. We found that KalsomeTM10 is more effective then Ambisome against the promastigote as well as intracellular amastigote forms. The mechanistic study showed that KalsomeTM10 induced several morphological alterations in promastigotes typical of apoptosis. KalsomeTM10 treatment showed a dose- and time-dependent exposure of PS in promastigotes. Further, study on mitochondrial pathway revealed loss of mitochondrial membrane potential as well as disruption in mitochondrial integrity with depletion of intracellular pool of ATP. KalsomeTM10 treated promastigotes showed increased ROS production, diminished GSH levels and increased caspase-like activity. DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest was observed in KalsomeTM10 treated promastigotes. Apoptotic DNA fragmentation was also observed in KalsomeTM10 treated intracellular amastigotes. KalsomeTM10 induced generation of ROS and nitric oxide leads to the killing of the intracellular parasites. Moreover, endocytosis is indispensable for KalsomeTM10 mediated anti-leishmanial effect in host macrophage. Conclusions KalsomeTM10 induces apoptotic-like cell death in L. donovani parasites to exhibit its anti-leishmanial function. PMID:28170432

  1. Tm-doped vanadates under pulsed pumping with variable duty-cycle: impact on lasing and fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šulc, Jan; Černý, Pavel; Jelínková, Helena; Ryba-Romanowski, Witold; Lisiecki, Radoslaw; Solarz, Piotr; Dominiak-Dzik, Grazina; Urata, Yoshiharu; Higuchi, Mikio

    2008-04-01

    Lasing and fluorescence behavior of thulium doped YVO 4, GdVO 4, and LuVO 4 single crystals were investigated under pulsed pumping with variable duty cycle up to CW. This allowed us to study properties of these crystals in dependence on thermal load in a broad range. Following crystals were investigated: Tm:YVO 4 (5 at.% Tm/Y, grown by the Czochralski technique), Tm:GdVO 4 (2, 4, and 6 at.% Tm/Gd, grown by the floating-zone technique), and Tm:LuVO 4 (3 at.% Tm/Y, grown by the floating-zone technique). For pumping a fibre-coupled (core diameter 400 μm) laser diode operating in range from 800 up to 803nm was used (available CW power 20 W). All tested crystals were investigated under CW and pulsed pumping (pulse length 4 ms). Under pulsed pumping (4% duty cycle), the lasing was demonstrated with all samples. Under CW pumping only Tm:GdVO 4 crystal was lasing. For Tm:YVO 4 and Tm:LuVO 4 crystals, a lasing was not reached for pumping with duty cycle higher than 60 %, and the strong blue emission was observed. Detailed measurement of visible emission for broad range of pumping duty cycles (from 4 up to 60%) showed the exponential increase of Tm 3+ integral emission intensity in bands around 480 and 700 nm. Comparison with the results obtained for fixed duty cycle and variable crystal holder temperature (290 - 310 K) allowed us to find a relation between the duty cycle and temperature of pumped part of the crystal. Measurement of infrared fluorescence temporal behavior in dependence on duty cycle gives us possibility to study a relative population of lasing level in dependence on temperature.

  2. A procedure for radiometric recalibration of Landsat 5 TM reflective-band data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Haque, M.O.; Micijevic, E.; Barsi, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    From the Landsat program's inception in 1972 to the present, the Earth science user community has been benefiting from a historical record of remotely sensed data. The multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone for this extensive archive. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for the L5 TM imagery used the detectors' response to the internal calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset for each detector. The IC system degraded with time, causing radiometric calibration errors up to 20%. In May 2003, the L5 TM data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science Center through the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) were updated to use a lifetime lookup-table (LUT) gain model to radiometrically calibrate TM data instead of using scene-specific IC gains. Further modification of the gain model was performed in 2007. The L5 TM data processed using IC prior to the calibration update do not benefit from the recent calibration revisions. A procedure has been developed to give users the ability to recalibrate their existing level-1 products. The best recalibration results are obtained if the work-order report that was included in the original standard data product delivery is available. However, if users do not have the original work-order report, the IC trends can be used for recalibration. The IC trends were generated using the radiometric gain trends recorded in the NLAPS database. This paper provides the details of the recalibration procedure for the following: 1) data processed using IC where users have the work-order file; 2) data processed using IC where users do not have the work-order file; 3) data processed using prelaunch calibration parameters; and 4) data processed using the previous version of the LUT (e.g., LUT03) that was released before April 2, 2007.

  3. On the efficiency of Tm-doped 2μm lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dalfsen, K.; Aravazhi, S.; Grivas, C.; García-Blanco, S. M.; Pollnau, M.

    2015-02-01

    A potassium double tungstate layer with the composition KY0.40Gd0.29Lu0.23Tm0.08(WO4)2 was grown onto a pure KY(WO4)2 substrate by liquid-phase epitaxy, microstructured by standard lithography and Ar-ion etching, and overgrown by a pure KY(WO4)2 layer. The end-facets were polished. Laser experiments were performed on these buried, ridge-type channel waveguides in a resonator with one butt-coupled mirror and Fresnel reflection from the other end-facet, resulting in a high output-coupling degree of 89%, compared to intrinsic round-trip losses of only 2%. By pumping with a Ti:Sapphire laser at 794 nm, 1.6 W of output power at 1.84 μm with a maximum slope efficiency of ~80% was obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this result represents the most efficient 2-μm channel waveguide laser to date. We determined the optimum Tm3+ concentration in double tungstate channel waveguides to be at least 8at.% for efficient lasing. The theoretical limit of the slope efficiency depends on the Stokes efficiency which here is 43.2%, the outcoupling efficiency which here is 99%, and the pump quantum efficiency. The pump quantum efficiency of a 2-μm Tm3+ laser pumped around 800 nm hinges on the efficiency of its cross-relaxation process. By fitting the macroscopic cross-relaxation parameter which linearly depends on the Tm3+ concentration to concentration-dependent luminescence- decay data, calculating the overall decay rate of the pump level, and deriving the concentration-dependent pump quantum efficiency, we obtain a theoretical limit for the slope efficiency of 83% for the chosen Tm3+ concentration. The experimental slope efficiency of ~80% closely approaches this limit.

  4. Energy transfer and energy level decay processes in Tm{sup 3+}-doped tellurite glass

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, Laercio; Lousteau, Joris; Milanese, Daniel; Scarpignato, Gerardo C.; Jackson, Stuart D.

    2012-03-15

    The primary excited state decay and energy transfer processes in singly Tm{sup 3+}-doped TeO{sub 2}:ZnO:Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}:GeO{sub 2} (TZBG) glass relating to the {sup 3}F{sub 4}{yields}{sup 3}H{sub 6}{approx}1.85 {mu}m laser transition have been investigated in detail using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Selective laser excitation of the {sup 3}H{sub 4} manifold at 794 nm, the {sup 3}H{sub 5} manifold at 1220 nm, and {sup 3}F{sub 4} manifold at 1760 nm has established that the {sup 3}H{sub 5} manifold is entirely quenched by multiphonon relaxation in tellurite glass. The luminescence from the {sup 3}H{sub 4} manifold with an emission peak at 1465 nm suffers strong suppression due to cross relaxation that populates the {sup 3}F{sub 4} level with a near quadratic dependence on the Tm{sup 3+} concentration. The {sup 3}F{sub 4} lifetime becomes longer as the Tm{sup 3+} concentration increases due to energy migration and decreases to 2.92 ms when [Tm{sup 3+}] = 4 mol. % as a result of quasi-resonant energy transfer to free OH{sup -} radicals present in the glass at concentrations between 1 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and 2 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. Judd-Ofelt theory in conjunction with absorption measurements were used to obtain the radiative lifetimes and branching ratios of the energy levels located below 25 000 cm{sup -1}. The spectroscopic parameters, the cross relaxation and Tm{sup 3+}({sup 3}F{sub 4}) {yields} OH{sup -} energy transfer rates were used in a numerical model for laser transitions emitting at 2335 nm and 1865 nm.

  5. Theoretical investigation of electronic, magnetic and optical properties of ZnSe doped TM and co-doped with MnTM (TM: Fe, Cr, Co): AB-initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behloul, M.; Salmani, E.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-12-01

    Based upon the first principal spin density functional calculation, the electronic, magnetic and optical properties of ZnTMSe and ZnMnTMSe where TM=Fe, Cr, Co are studied using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent potential approximation (KKR-CPA) method within the local density (LDA)and the self-interaction-corrected(SIC) approximation. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different type of dopant and concentration on ferromagnetic and half metallic behavior of ZnSe. Therefore the magnetic disorder local moment (DLM) and the ferromagnetic state are investigated for different concentrations of Mn, Fe, Cr and Co; also the advantages of co-doped ZnSe with TM elements, behavior at room temperature are discussed. The electronic structure and optical properties are studied employing the local density (LDA) and the self-interaction-corrected (SIC) approximation. Moreover, the X-ray spectra modeling are in good agreement with the electronic and magnetic properties results.

  6. Optical spectroscopy and diode-pumped laser characteristics of codoped Tm-Ho:YLF and Tm-Ho:BaYF: a comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornacchia, F.; Sani, E.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Marano, M.; Taccheo, S.; Galzerano, G.; Laporta, P.

    Single crystals of monoclinic BaY2F8 and tetragonal LiYF4 codoped with the same Tm3+ and Ho3+ concentrations were successfully grown by the Czochralski method. Here we present a comparative analysis of the two hosts including spectroscopic characterization and cw diode-pumped laser experiments in the 2-μm wavelength region at room temperature. The main differences between the two hosts are a lower slope efficiency associated with a much wider tuning range (2005-2094 nm) of BaY2F8 with respect to LiYF4.

  7. Characterization of LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS Image Quality for the Interpretation of California's Agricultural Resources. [Central Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degloria, S. D.; Colwell, R. N.

    1985-01-01

    The quality of LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data was determined by analyzing TM spectral and spatial performance in terms of spectral variability of natural targets and the TM-ground instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) variability in level and mountainous terrain; and by assessing the suitability of TM and MSS image products for characterizing renewable resourse features. The TM data should be extremelly valuable for crop type and area proportion estimation; undating agricultural land use survey maps at 1:24,000 scale and smaller, field boundary definition; and determining the size and location of individual farmsteads. Ongoing research activities are focused on making spectral and spatial analyses of both MSS and TM analytical film products. The improved spectral, spatial, and radiometric quality of the TM data, should promote a renewed emphasis and interest in direct visual interpretation of these image products, both for updating and improving land stratification in support of resource inventory and for enhancing the image analyst's contribution to computer-assisted analysis procedures.

  8. Highly Tm3+ doped germanate glass and its single mode fiber for 2.0 μm laser

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xin; Tang, Guowu; Yang, Qi; Chen, Xiaodong; Qian, Qi; Zhang, Qinyuan; Yang, Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Highly Tm3+ doped optical fibers are urgently desirable for 2.0 μm compact single-frequency fiber laser and high-repetition-rate mode-locked fiber laser. Here, we systematically investigated the optical parameters, energy transfer processes and thermal properties of Tm3+ doped barium gallo-germanate (BGG) glasses. Highly Tm3+ doped BGG glass single mode (SM) fibers were fabricated by the rod-in-tube technique. The Tm3+ doping concentration reaches 7.6 × 1020 ions/cm3, being the reported highest level in Tm3+ doped BGG SM fibers. Using ultra short (1.6 cm) as-drawn highly Tm3+ doped BGG SM fiber, a single-frequency fiber laser at 1.95 μm has been demonstrated with a maximum output power of 35 mW when in-band pumped by a home-made 1568 nm fiber laser. Additionally, a multilongitudinal-mode fiber laser at 1.95 μm has also been achieved in a 10 cm long as-drawn active fiber, yielding a maximum laser output power of 165 mW and a slope efficiency of 17%. The results confirm that the as-drawn highly Tm3+ doped BGG SM fibers are promising in applications that require high gain and high power from a short piece of active optical fiber. PMID:26828920

  9. Bright white upconversion luminescence from Er 3+-Tm 3+-Yb 3+ doped CaSnO 3 powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, X. L.; Jia, C. H.; Li, G. Q.; Zhang, W. F.

    2011-11-01

    Bright white upconversion luminescence from Er 3+-Tm 3+-Yb 3+ doped CaSnO 3 powders is obtained under the diode laser excitation of 980 nm. It is composed of three primary colors of red, green and blue emissions, which originate from the transitions of 4F 9/2 → 4I 15/2, ( 2H 11/2, 4S 3/2) → 4I 15/2 of Er 3+ ions and 1G 4 → 3H 6 of Tm 3+ ions, respectively. The efficient upconversion emission is attributed to the energy transfer between Yb 3+ and Er 3+ or Tm 3+ions. Moreover, it is observed that Tm 3+ acts as the quenching center for the green upconversion luminescence from Er 3+ ions, and the sensitizer for the red and blue luminescence when the Tm 3+ doping content is less than 0.3 mol%. This is interpreted in terms of the efficient energy transfer between Tm 3+ and Er 3+ ions. The calculated color coordinates fall within the white region in the standard 1931 CIE chromaticity diagram, indicating the potential applications of Er 3+-Tm 3+-Yb 3+ doped CaSnO 3 in the field of displaying and lasers, etc.

  10. Highly Tm3+ doped germanate glass and its single mode fiber for 2.0 μm laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xin; Tang, Guowu; Yang, Qi; Chen, Xiaodong; Qian, Qi; Zhang, Qinyuan; Yang, Zhongmin

    2016-02-01

    Highly Tm3+ doped optical fibers are urgently desirable for 2.0 μm compact single-frequency fiber laser and high-repetition-rate mode-locked fiber laser. Here, we systematically investigated the optical parameters, energy transfer processes and thermal properties of Tm3+ doped barium gallo-germanate (BGG) glasses. Highly Tm3+ doped BGG glass single mode (SM) fibers were fabricated by the rod-in-tube technique. The Tm3+ doping concentration reaches 7.6 × 1020 ions/cm3, being the reported highest level in Tm3+ doped BGG SM fibers. Using ultra short (1.6 cm) as-drawn highly Tm3+ doped BGG SM fiber, a single-frequency fiber laser at 1.95 μm has been demonstrated with a maximum output power of 35 mW when in-band pumped by a home-made 1568 nm fiber laser. Additionally, a multilongitudinal-mode fiber laser at 1.95 μm has also been achieved in a 10 cm long as-drawn active fiber, yielding a maximum laser output power of 165 mW and a slope efficiency of 17%. The results confirm that the as-drawn highly Tm3+ doped BGG SM fibers are promising in applications that require high gain and high power from a short piece of active optical fiber.

  11. Tetraspanin TM4SF5 mediates loss of contact inhibition through epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human hepatocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sin-Ae; Lee, Sung-Yul; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Oh, Min-A; Kang, Eun-Sil; Kim, Yong-Bae; Seo, Woo Duck; Choi, Suyong; Nam, Ju-Ock; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Kitajima, Shigetaka; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Semi; Hwang, Yoon-Jin; Kim, In-San; Park, Ki Hun; Lee, Jung Weon

    2008-01-01

    The growth of normal cells is arrested when they come in contact with each other, a process known as contact inhibition. Contact inhibition is lost during tumorigenesis, resulting in uncontrolled cell growth. Here, we investigated the role of the tetraspanin transmembrane 4 superfamily member 5 (TM4SF5) in contact inhibition and tumorigenesis. We found that TM4SF5 was overexpressed in human hepatocarcinoma tissue. TM4SF5 expression in clinical samples and in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines correlated with enhanced p27Kip1 expression and cytosolic stabilization as well as morphological elongation mediated by RhoA inactivation. These TM4SF5-mediated effects resulted in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via loss of E-cadherin expression. The consequence of this was aberrant cell growth, as assessed by S-phase transition in confluent conditions, anchorage-independent growth, and tumor formation in nude mice. The TM4SF5-mediated effects were abolished by suppressing the expression of either TM4SF5 or cytosolic p27Kip1, as well as by reconstituting the expression of E-cadherin. Our observations have revealed a role for TM4SF5 in causing uncontrolled growth of human hepatocarcinoma cells through EMT. PMID:18357344

  12. Fiber-optic thermometry using thermal radiation from Tm end doped SiO{sub 2} fiber sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Kentaro; Katsumata, Toru; Komuro, Shuji; Aizawa, Hiroaki

    2014-04-15

    Fiber-optic thermometry based on temperature dependence of thermal radiation from Tm{sup 3+} ions was studied using Tm end doped SiO{sub 2} fiber sensor. Visible light radiation peaks due to f-f transition of Tm{sup 3+} ion were clearly observed at λ = 690 and 790 nm from Tm end doped SiO{sub 2} fibers sensor at the temperature above 600 °C. Thermal radiation peaks are assigned with f-f transition of Tm{sup 3+} ion, {sup 1}D{sub 2}-{sup 3}H{sub 6}, and {sup 1}G{sub 4}-{sup 3}H{sub 6}. Peak intensity of thermal radiation from Tm{sup 3+} ion increases with temperature. Intensity ratio of thermal radiation peaks at λ = 690 nm against that at λ = 790 nm, I{sub 790/690}, is suitable for the temperature measurement above 750 °C. Two-dimensional temperature distribution in a flame is successfully evaluated by Tm end doped SiO{sub 2} fiber sensor.

  13. Development of flashlamp-pumped Q-switched Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG lasers for mid-infrared LIDAR application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Young S.; Kim, Kyong H.; Whitney, Donald A.; Hess, Robert V.; Barnes, Norman P.; Bair, Clayton H.; Brockman, Philip

    1989-01-01

    A flashlamp-pumped 2.1 micron Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG laser was studied for both normal mode and Q-switched operations under a wide variety of experimental conditions in order to optimize performance. Laser output energy, slope efficiency, threshold and pulselength were determined as a function of operating temperature, output mirror reflectivity, input electrical energy and Q-switch opening time. The measured normal-mode laser thresholds of a Ho(3+) (0.45 atomic percent):Tm(3+) (2.5 atomic percent):Cr(3+) (0.8 atomic percent):YAG crystal ranged form 26 to 50 J between 120 and 200 K with slope efficiencies up to 0.36 percent with a 60 percent reflective output mirror. Under Q-switched operation the slope efficiency was 90 percent of the normal-mode result. Development of solid state lasers with Ho(3+), Tm(3+) and/or Er(3+) doped crystals has been pursued by NASA for eye-dafe mid-infrared LIDAR (light detection and ranging) application. As a part of the project, the authors have been working on evaluating Ho(3+):Tm(3+):Cr(3+):YAG crystals for normal-mode and Q-switched 2.1 micron laser operations in order to determine an optimum Tm(3+) concentration under flashlamp pumping conditions. Lasing properties of the Ho(3+) in the mid-infrared region have been studied by many research groups since the early 1960's. However, the technology of those lasers is still premature for lidar application. In order to overcome the inefficiency related to narrow absorption bands of the Ho(3+), Tm(3+) and Er(3+), the erbium has been replaced by chromium. The improvement in flashlamp-pumped Ho(3+) laser efficiency has been demonstrated recently by several research groups by utilizing the broad absorption spectrum of Cr(3+) which covers the flashlamp's emission spectrum. Efficient energy transfer to the Tm(3+) and then the Ho(3+) occurs subsequently. It is known that high Tm(3+) concentration and low Ho(3+) concentration are preferred to achieve a quantum efficiency approaching two and to avoid

  14. Superconductivity in LaT(M)BN and La3T(M2)B2N3 (T(M) = transition metal) synthesized under high pressure.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Naoki; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Hosono, Hideo

    2012-02-08

    Various layered boronitrides (LaN)(n)(T(M2)B(2)) (T(M) = transition metal; n = 2, 3) have been prepared using a high-pressure synthesis technique in which an inverse α-PbO-type T(M2)B(2) layer is separated by two or three rock salt-type LaN layers and these layers are connected through linear (BN) units. The electronic states of the distinguishing (BN) unit and intermediate rock salt-type LaN layer are discussed on the basis of density functional theory calculations. Bulk superconductivity has been found in LaNiBN (T(c) ≈ 4.1 K), CaNiBN (T(c) ≈ 2.2 K), and LaPtBN (T(c) ≈ 6.7 K), where the Fermi level E(F) is located in the bands composed of the T(M)(d)-B(2p) antibonding state and the main T(M)(d) band resides well below E(F). The non-superconductive T(M)-based compounds exhibit Pauli paramagnetic behavior, in which the highly itinerant nature of the electrons caused by strong T(M)(d)-B(2p) covalent bonding suppresses the long-range magnetic ordering.

  15. Platinum-TM (TM = Fe, Co) alloy nanoparticles dispersed nitrogen doped (reduced graphene oxide-multiwalled carbon nanotube) hybrid structure cathode electrocatalysts for high performance PEMFC applications.

    PubMed

    Vinayan, B P; Ramaprabhu, S

    2013-06-07

    The efforts to push proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) for commercial applications are being undertaken globally. In PEMFC, the sluggish kinetics of oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) at the cathode can be improved by the alloying of platinum with 3d-transition metals (TM = Fe, Co, etc.) and with nitrogen doping, and in the present work we have combined both of these aspects. We describe a facile method for the synthesis of a nitrogen doped (reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)) hybrid structure (N-(G-MWNTs)) by the uniform coating of a nitrogen containing polymer over the surface of the hybrid structure (positively surface charged rGO-negatively surface charged MWNTs) followed by the pyrolysis of these (rGO-MWNTs) hybrid structure-polymer composites. The N-(G-MWNTs) hybrid structure is used as a catalyst support for the dispersion of platinum (Pt), platinum-iron (Pt3Fe) and platinum-cobalt (Pt3Co) alloy nanoparticles. The PEMFC performances of Pt-TM alloy nanoparticle dispersed N-(G-MWNTs) hybrid structure electrocatalysts are 5.0 times higher than that of commercial Pt-C electrocatalysts along with very good stability under acidic environment conditions. This work demonstrates a considerable improvement in performance compared to existing cathode electrocatalysts being used in PEMFC and can be extended to the synthesis of metal, metal oxides or metal alloy nanoparticle decorated nitrogen doped carbon nanostructures for various electrochemical energy applications.

  16. Initial Investigation Into User Acceptance Of VISIDEP (tm) Three-Dimensional Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mclaurir, A. Porter; Jones, Edwin R.; Cathey, LeConte

    1987-06-01

    Little if any research has been done on the acceptability of the VISIDEP (tm) three-dimensional image to viewers. The authors have had experiences which indicated to them that such acceptance would be readily obtained and that viewers would find the depth illusion satisfactory in almost every video screen, format. However, no controlled data collection has previously been carried out. This paper reports the first investigation with controls which results in evidence confirming the views held by the authors concerning the viewer and VISIDEP (tm) presentations. Several avenues of needed study were identified. As an initial investigation, the study attempts to establish future questions and trends rather than extensive amounts of hard data and findings. The results are reported as such.

  17. Hydrostatic pressure effect on magnetic phase transition and magnetocaloric effect of metamagnetic TmZn compound

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lingwei; Hu, Guanghui; Qi, Yang; Umehara, Izuru

    2017-01-01

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is an intrinsic thermal response of all magnetic solids which has a direct and strong correlation with the corresponding magnetic phase transition. It has been well recognized that the magnetic phase transition can be tuned by adjusting applied pressure. Therefore, we perform the high hydrostatic pressure magnetization measurements (up to 1.4 GPa) on a recently reported giant MCE material of TmZn. The results indicate that the Curie temperature of TC increases from 8.4 K at the ambient pressure to 11.5 K under the pressure of 1.4 GPa. The field-induced first order metamagnetic transition is getting weak with increasing pressure, which results in a reduction of MCE. The hydrostatic pressure effect on the magnetic phase transition and MCE in the metamagnetic TmZn is discussed. PMID:28205628

  18. Theoretical and experimental investigations of injection-locked signal extraction of Tm:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chunting; Chen, Fei; Dai, Tongyu; Ju, Youlun

    2015-11-01

    Injection-seeded is an effective method to obtain high-power pulsed laser with pure spectrum, which is useful to be the laser source of a coherent Doppler LIDAR or a differential absorption LIDAR. In order to achieve the useful injection-locked signal, mode matching between master laser and slave laser is necessary. In this paper, various factors influencing on the extraction of injection-locked signal are analyzed theoretically. Then, experiments on an injection-seeded Tm:YAG laser are carried on, and injection-locked signal is extracted successfully. Moreover, an injection-seeded Tm:YAG laser is achieved, with pulsed single-frequency at 2013 nm, output energy of 3.16 mJ, and pulse width of 238.7 ns, at a repetition rate of 100 Hz.

  19. Experimental study into single-longitudinal-mode Tm,Ho:YVO4 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Tong-Yu; Han, Liu; Yao, Bao-Quan; Ju, You-Lun; Yu, Kuai-Kuai; Wang, Yue-Zhu

    2015-11-01

    The single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) Tm,Ho:YVO4 lasers were achieved by microchip configuration and double Fabry-Perot structure at room temperature. In the case of the microchip configuration laser, the maximum SLM power up to 17 mW was obtained on 2052.4 nm at 15 °C. In order to improve the output power of the SLM laser, it was implemented that the configuration of double Fabry-Perot etalons was used into the study of Tm,Ho:YVO4 lasers. Utilizing such configuration, the laser generated up to 95 mW output power in SLM at the wavelength of 2051.3 nm. With the angle of the Fabry-Perot etalons varied, the wavelength of the SLM laser could be turned from 2050.4 nm to 2051.3 nm, corresponding to a turning frequency of -64 GHz.

  20. High-power diode-end-pumped Tm:LiLuF4 slab lasers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaojin; Zhang, Shuaiyi; Xu, Jianqui; Peng, Haiyan; Hang, Yin

    2009-08-17

    Diode-end-pumped continuous-wave and acousto-optics Q-switched Tm:LiLuF(4) slab lasers were demonstrated. The a-cut Tm:LiLuF(4) slab with doping concentrations of 2 at.% was pumped by fast-axis collimated laser diodes at room temperature. The maximum continuous-wave output power of 10.4 W was obtained while the absorbed pump power was 31.6 W and the cavity length was 30 mm. For Q-switched operation, we got the maximum pulse energy of 8 mJ with pulse width of 315.2 ns at 1 KHz pulse repetition frequency.

  1. Moessbauer study of amorphous (FeTM){sub 80}B{sub 20}

    SciTech Connect

    Orue, I.; Plazaola, F.; Fernandez-Gubieda, M.L.; Gutierrez, J.; Barandiaran, J.M.

    1994-03-01

    As-cast ferromagnetic amorphous alloys of nominal composition (FeTM){sub 80}B{sub 20} have been studied by Moessbauer Spectroscopy, being TM one transition metal atom, Ni, Cr, Mo or Pd. A detailed analysis of the isomer shift, IS, and hyperfine field distribution, HFD, at Fe sites is reported in order to achieve some conclusions about the Chemical Short Range Order and the electronic structure in these alloys. HFD changes found in (FeNi)B for Ni rich concentrations suggest the existence of Fe atoms strongly interacting with Ni. Small amounts of Cr and Mo shift the HFD to lower values of hyperfine field, B{sub hf}, while Pd enhances the B{sub hf}.

  2. Diode-pumped continuous wave tunable and graphene Q-switched Tm:LSO lasers.

    PubMed

    Feng, T L; Zhao, S Z; Yang, K J; Li, G Q; Li, D C; Zhao, J; Qiao, W C; Hou, J; Yang, Y; He, J L; Zheng, L H; Wang, Q G; Xu, X D; Su, L B; Xu, J

    2013-10-21

    We have investigated the lasing characteristics of Tm:LSO crystal in three operation regimes: continuous wave (CW), wavelength tunable and passive Q-switching based on graphene. In CW regime, a maximum output power of 0.65 W at 2054.9 nm with a slope efficiency of 21% was achieved. With a quartz plate, a broad wavelength tunable range of 145 nm was obtained, corresponding to a FWHM of 100 nm. By using a graphene saturable absorber mirror, the passively Q-switched Tm:LSO laser produced pulses with duration of 7.8 μs at 2030.8 nm under a repetition rate of 7.6 kHz, corresponding to pulse energy of 14.0 μJ.

  3. BOREAS Level-3b Landsat TM Imagery: At-sensor Radiances in BSQ Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime; Knapp, David; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Cihlar, Josef

    2000-01-01

    For BOREAS, the level-3b Landsat TM data, along with the other remotely sensed images, were collected in order to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes radiant energy, detailed land cover, and biophysical parameter maps such as FPAR and LAI. Although very similar in content to the level-3a Landsat TM products, the level-3b images were created to provide users with a directly usable at-sensor radiance image. Geographically, the level-3b images cover the BOREAS NSA and SSA. Temporally, the images cover the period of 22-Jun-1984 to 09-Jul-1996. The images are available in binary, image format files.

  4. Hydrostatic pressure effect on magnetic phase transition and magnetocaloric effect of metamagnetic TmZn compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lingwei; Hu, Guanghui; Qi, Yang; Umehara, Izuru

    2017-02-01

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is an intrinsic thermal response of all magnetic solids which has a direct and strong correlation with the corresponding magnetic phase transition. It has been well recognized that the magnetic phase transition can be tuned by adjusting applied pressure. Therefore, we perform the high hydrostatic pressure magnetization measurements (up to 1.4 GPa) on a recently reported giant MCE material of TmZn. The results indicate that the Curie temperature of TC increases from 8.4 K at the ambient pressure to 11.5 K under the pressure of 1.4 GPa. The field-induced first order metamagnetic transition is getting weak with increasing pressure, which results in a reduction of MCE. The hydrostatic pressure effect on the magnetic phase transition and MCE in the metamagnetic TmZn is discussed.

  5. Production and characterization of biodegradable nanofibers via Forcespinning(TM) technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEachin, Zachary T.

    Among the myriad of methods for polymer nanofiber production, there are only a few methods that can produce submicron range fibers in bulk from melt or solution samples. The Forcespinning(TM) method allows a substantial increase in sample yield; this greatly reduces the time needed to produce bulk quantities of fibers which may be critical in many fields of research and industry, in particularly in fields relating to biopolymers. The aim of the first study was to utilize this method to form non-woven mats of polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers and to quantitatively analyze the production and characterization of the produced fibers. The morphology and degree of crystallinity were characterized by SEM, DSC, and XRD. Additionally, as a second project, microcrystalline cellulose fibers were successfully regenerated from the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate using the Forcespinning(TM) method. Similarly, the cellulose fibers were subjected to various characterization techniques such as SEM, XRD, TGA, and FITR.

  6. Scheduling bus services in Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Mawardi; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Oughalime, Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    This study deals with bus scheduling problem in a local public university. Given existing bus daily trips, set of buses used and set of policy, the aims of this study are to optimize the use of buses for in-campus trips and to cover the trip demands. This study is conducted at Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Shah Alam that involves six-zone trips and a single depot. The bus scheduling problem in UiTM is formulated using the integer programming model and the LINGO 12.0 software is used for solving this bus scheduling model. The results of this model showed that the number of buses can be reduced during off-peak hours. Furthermore, optimal trips can also be identified from the results.

  7. Second-kind integral solvers for TE and TM problems of diffraction by open arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Oscar P.; Lintner, StéPhane K.

    2012-12-01

    We present a novel approach for the numerical solution of problems of diffraction by open arcs in two dimensional space. Our methodology relies on composition of weighted versions of the classical integral operators associated with the Dirichlet and Neumann problems (TE and TM polarizations, respectively) together with a generalization to the open-arc case of the well known closed-surface Calderón formulae. When used in conjunction with spectrally accurate discretization rules and Krylov-subspace linear algebra solvers such as GMRES, the new second-kind TE and TM formulations for open arcs produce results of high accuracy in small numbers of iterations—for low and high frequencies alike.

  8. TE and TM beam decomposition of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Timor

    2011-03-01

    The present contribution is concerned with applying beam-type expansion to planar aperture time-harmonic electromagnetic field distribution in which the propagating elements, the electromagnetic beam-type wave objects, are decomposed into transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) field constituents. This procedure is essential for applying Maxwell's boundary conditions for solving different scattering problems. The propagating field is described as a discrete superposition of tilted and shifted TE and TM electromagnetic beams over the frame-based spatial-directional expansion lattice. These vector wave objects are evaluated either by applying differential operators to scalar beam propagators, or by using plane-wave spectral representations. Explicit asymptotic expressions for scalar, as well as for electromagnetic, Gaussian beam propagators are presented as well.

  9. Mitigation of photodegradation in 790nm-pumped Tm-doped fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frith, G.; Carter, A.; Samson, B.; Faroni, J.; Farley, K.; Tankala, K.; Town, G. E.

    2010-02-01

    The capability of Tm-doped silica fibers pumped at 790nm to efficiently produce high power emission in the 1.9~2.1μm region has been well documented to date but little has been presented on the reliability of this technology. Early experiments highlighted that photodarkening can be a significant concern when Tm-doped silica fibers are exposed to high intensity blue light. We present a discussion of the processes responsible for the production of blue light in Tmdoped fibers pumped at 790nm and how fiber composition influences these processes. Through optimization of fiber composition we have demonstrated highly efficient lasers exhibiting less than 1% output power degradation per thousand hours.

  10. Blue Upconversion Luminescence in Tm3+/Yb3+ Codoped CaWO4 Polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan-Ling; Wang, Yun-Long; Shi, Lian-Sheng; Tan, Xiang

    2013-08-01

    We investigate the upconversion emission of CaWO4:Tm3+/Yb3+ polycrystals prepared by the high-temperature solid-state method. The crystal structure of the polycrystals is characterized by means of x-ray diffraction. Under the excitation of a 980 nm continuous wave diode laser, the samples show intense blue upconversion emissions centered at 473 nm, corresponding to the 1G4→3H6 transition of Tm3+. The dependence of the upconversion emission intensity on the pump power of a laser diode is measured, and the results indicate that the two-photon and three-photon processes contribute simultaneously to the blue upconversion emissions. The possible multi-photon upconversion process and upconversion mechanisms are discussed.

  11. Intense upconversion fluorescence in Tm 3+/Yb3+ codoped alumina lead borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Murthy Goud, K.; Shekhar Reddy, M. Chandra; Appa Rao, B.

    2016-09-01

    The Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped alumina lead borate glasses were prepared by the conventional melt quenching technique. Optical absorption and FTIR spectra were recorded. The upconversion fluorescence spectra exhibited weak blue (480 nm) and intense red (660 nm) emissions due to 1G4 → 3H6 and 1G4 → 3H4 transitions, respectively. The results concluded that both emissions are due to three photon absorption process. It has been observed that in the upconversion efficiency increases with the increase in the concentration of Yb3+ ions. The strong red upconversion fluorescence indicate that Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped alumina lead borate glasses can be used as potential host material for upconversion lasers.

  12. Structure of three-quasiparticle isomers in {sup 169}Ho and {sup 171}Tm.

    SciTech Connect

    Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J.; Hughes, R. O.; Kondev, F. G.; Watanabe, H.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A.; Stefanescu, I.; Chowdhury, P.

    2010-09-17

    A three-quasiparticle isomer with {tau}=170(8) {micro}s and K{sup {pi}} = (19/2{sup +}) has been identified in the neutron-rich isotope {sup 169}Ho. The isomer decays with K-forbidden transitions to members of a band associated with the 7/2-[523] proton configuration, whose structure is characterized through analysis of the in-band {gamma}-ray branching ratios. In the isotone {sup 171}Tm, the rotational band based on the known 19/2{sup +}, three-quasiparticle isomer has also been observed. Alternative one-proton two-neutron configurations for the isomer in {sup 169}Ho are discussed in terms of multiquasiparticle calculations and through a comparison with the structures observed in {sup 171}Tm.

  13. Structure of the human smoothened receptor 7TM bound to an antitumor agent

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong; Wu, Huixian; Katritch, Vsevolod; Han, Gye Won; Huang, Xi-Ping; Liu, Wei; Siu, Fai Yiu; Roth, Bryan L.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2013-01-01

    The smoothened (SMO) receptor, a key signal transducer in the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is both responsible for the maintenance of normal embryonic development and implicated in carcinogenesis. The SMO receptor is classified as a class Frizzled (class F) G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), although the canonical Hh signaling pathway involves the transcription factor Gli and the sequence similarity with class A GPCRs is less than 10%. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.5 Å resolution of the transmembrane domain of the human SMO receptor bound to the small molecule antagonist LY2940680. Although the SMO receptor shares the seven transmembrane helical (7TM) fold, most conserved motifs for class A GPCRs are absent, and the structure reveals an unusually complex arrangement of long extracellular loops stabilized by four disulfide bonds. The ligand binds at the extracellular end of the 7TM bundle and forms extensive contacts with the loops. PMID:23636324

  14. Upconversion against direct emission in Er3+-Tm3+-codoped tellurite-glass containing gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G. Rivera, V. A.; Silva, O. B.; El-Amraoui, M.; Ledemi, Y.; Messaddeq, Y.; Marega, E.

    2015-03-01

    Gold nanoparticle embedded in Er3+-Tm3+-codoped tellurite-glass are able produce two effects on the emission properties these glasses: (i) quenching on direct-emission under excitation by a 405 nm laser diode, or (ii) enhancement on upconversion-emission under excitation by a 976 nm laser diode in these glasses. Both effects were investigated from the luminescence decay dynamics of ions. The localized surface plasmon resonance band of gold nanoparticles at around 580 nm resulted in the quenching/enhancement of Er3+-Tm3+ emission for the Er3+:(4S3/2→4I15/2) transition. These hybrid materials can be utilized for various photonic applications, e.g. infrared to visible light converters or emitting green light.

  15. EMPHASIS(TM)/Nevada Unstructured FEM Implementation Version 2.1.1.

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, C. David; Pointon, Timothy D.; Cartwright, Keith

    2014-08-01

    EMPHASIS TM /NEVADA is the SIERRA/NEVADA toolkit implementation of portions of the EMP HASIS TM code suite. The purpose of the toolkit i m- plementation is to facilitate coupling to other physics drivers such as radi a- tion transport as well as to better manage code design, implementation, co m- plexity, and important verification and validation processes. This document describes the theory and implementation of the unstructured finite - element method solver , associated algorithms, and selected verification and valid a- tion . Acknowledgement The author would like to recognize all of the ALEGRA team members for their gracious and willing support through this initial Nevada toolkit - implementation process. Although much of the knowledge needed was gleaned from document a- tion and code context, they were always willing to consult personally on some of the less obvious issues and enhancements necessary.

  16. Deep ultraviolet photoluminescence of Tm-doped AlGaN alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Nepal, N.; Zavada, J. M.; Lee, D. S.; Steckl, A. J.; Sedhain, A.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2009-03-16

    The ultraviolet (UV) photoluminescence (PL) properties of Tm-doped Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (0.39{<=}x{<=}1) alloys grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy were probed using above-bandgap excitation from a laser source at 197 nm. The PL spectra show dominant UV emissions at 298 and 358 nm only for samples with x=1 and 0.81. Temperature dependence of the PL intensities of these emission lines reveals exciton binding energies of 150 and 57 meV, respectively. The quenching of these UV emissions appears related to the thermal activation of the excitons bound to rare-earth structured isovalent (RESI) charge traps, which transfer excitonic energy to Tm{sup 3+} ions resulting in the UV emissions. A model of the RESI trap levels in AlGaN alloys is presented.

  17. Structure of three-quasiparticle isomers in {sup 169}Ho and {sup 171}Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J.; Hughes, R. O.; Kondev, F. G.; Chiara, C. J.; Watanabe, H.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A.; Stefanescu, I.; Chowdhury, P.

    2010-09-15

    A three-quasiparticle isomer with {tau}=170(8) {mu}s and K{sup {pi}=} (19/2{sup +}) has been identified in the neutron-rich isotope {sup 169}Ho. The isomer decays with K-forbidden transitions to members of a band associated with the 7/2{sup -}[523] proton configuration, whose structure is characterized through analysis of the in-band {gamma}-ray branching ratios. In the isotone {sup 171}Tm, the rotational band based on the known 19/2{sup +}, three-quasiparticle isomer has also been observed. Alternative one-proton two-neutron configurations for the isomer in {sup 169}Ho are discussed in terms of multiquasiparticle calculations and through a comparison with the structures observed in {sup 171}Tm.

  18. Ab initio study of electronic and magnetic properties in TM-doped 2D silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, M.; Shen, Y. H.; Yin, T. L.

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic properties of SiC monolayer with different TM atoms and substitutional sites are investigated using first-principles method. Magnetism is observed for all the TM dopants. The magnetic moments and binding energies are quite different between Si (TMSi) and C (TMC) sites. Dependent to the larger magnetic moments and binding energy, we also investigate the interaction between two Mn atoms in the TMSi system. The results show that the ferromagnetic states are originated by the p-d hybridization mechanism between Mn and its neighboring C atoms. Moreover, the antiferromagnetic coupling is observed with increasing Mn-Mn distance, which can be explained by two-impurity Haldane-Anderson model using quantum Monte Carlo method.

  19. Intra-annual NDVI validation of the Landsat 5 TM radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Groeneveld, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    Multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone of the extensive archive of moderate‐resolution Earth imagery. Even after more than 24 years of service, the L5 TM is still operational. Given the longevity of the satellite, the detectors have aged and the sensor's radiometric characteristics have changed since launch. The calibration procedures and parameters in the National Land Archive Production System (NLAPS) have also changed with time. Revised radiometric calibrations in 2003 and 2007 have improved the radiometric accuracy of recently processed data. This letter uses the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a metric to evaluate the radiometric calibration. The calibration change has improved absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic radiometry and will provide the basis for continued long‐term studies of the Earth's land surfaces.

  20. Engima of a thermal anomaly - A TM/AVHRR study of the volcanic Arabian highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Andre, C. G.; Masuoka, P. M.

    1987-01-01

    Discovery of a large thermal anomaly in the western Arabian highlands on Landsat TM imagery is reported. The anomaly, 15 C warmer than surroundings, forms a 2-km-wide arc around the southern flank of Jebel Chada, a volcano active in 1256 AD. It is recorded by AVHRR imagery as well, despite the 1.1-km spatial resolution of this sensor. Air photos and geologic maps show no bedrock unit that corresponds to the anomaly. Digital techniques were applied to the TM and AVHRR data, including contrast enhancement, density slicing, principal components analysis, and construction of multiband composite images. It is concluded that the anomaly results from a thin cover of volcanic ash or cinder that is optically indistinguishable from underlying basalt, rather than from internal (volcanic or hydrologic) heat sources.

  1. Engineering of TM1459 from Thermotoga maritima for Increased Oxidative Alkene Cleavage Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Matthias; Trunk, Sarah; Hall, Mélanie; Schwab, Helmut; Steiner, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative cleavage of alkenes is a widely employed process allowing oxyfunctionalization to corresponding carbonyl compounds. Recently, a novel biocatalytic oxidative alkene cleavage activity on styrene derivatives was identified in TM1459 from Thermotoga maritima. In this work we engineered the enzyme by site-saturation mutagenesis of active site amino acids to increase its activity and to broaden its substrate scope. A high-throughput assay for the detection of the ketone products was successfully developed. Several variants with up to twofold improved conversion level of styrene derivatives were successfully identified. Especially, changes in or removal of the C-terminus of TM1459 increased the activity most significantly. These best variants also displayed a slightly enlarged substrate scope. PMID:27713741

  2. L5 TM radiometric recalibration procedure using the internal calibration trends from the NLAPS trending database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Haque, Md. O.; Micijevic, E.; Barsi, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    From the Landsat program's inception in 1972 to the present, the earth science user community has benefited from a historical record of remotely sensed data. The multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone for this extensive archive. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset for each detector. The IC system degraded with time causing radiometric calibration errors up to 20 percent. In May 2003 the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) was updated to use a gain model rather than the scene acquisition specific IC gains to calibrate TM data processed in the United States. Further modification of the gain model was performed in 2007. L5 TM data that were processed using IC prior to the calibration update do not benefit from the recent calibration revisions. A procedure has been developed to give users the ability to recalibrate their existing Level-1 products. The best recalibration results are obtained if the work order report that was originally included in the standard data product delivery is available. However, many users may not have the original work order report. In such cases, the IC gain look-up table that was generated using the radiometric gain trends recorded in the NLAPS database can be used for recalibration. This paper discusses the procedure to recalibrate L5 TM data when the work order report originally used in processing is not available. A companion paper discusses the generation of the NLAPS IC gain and bias look-up tables required to perform the recalibration.

  3. Detecting biotic and hydrogeochemical processes in large peat basins with Landsat TM imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Paul H.

    1989-01-01

    A survey was made of three large peat basins in boreal North America with Landsat TM imagery and field sampling. False-color composites composed of Bands 2, 3, and 4 are particularly effective in discriminating the major vegetation types and the important hydrogeochemical processes in these peatlands. This imagery indicates that the discharge of alkaline groundwater provides one of the most important regional and local controls on peatland development.

  4. Magnetic properties of TM-Co-Fe-Ti spinel oxides (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordanengo, B.; de Melo, M. A. C.; Takeuchi, A. Y.; Silva, P. R. J.; Saitovitch, H.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Moyo, T.

    1997-04-01

    Spin glass-like behavior has been recently observed in a ceramic Zn0.5Co0.9Fe1.2Ti0.4O4 spinel oxide.1 This motivated our interest to study how the spin glass-like behavior of magnetic clusters in a diamagnetic matrix correlates to that of nonmagnetic or weakly magnetic clusters in a ferromagnetic matrix, Mössbauer effect, ac susceptibility, field cooled and zero field cooled magnetization, hysteresis loops, and γ-γ perturbed angular correlation (PAC) have been measured for TM0.5-xCo0.9Fe1.2+xTi0.4O4 (x=0.0 and 0.2) spinel oxide with TM=Zn and Cu. The variation of coercive field with temperature has been found to fit a double exponential function form Hc(T)=H1e-β1T+H2e-β2T where Hi and βi are constants for the sample with x=0.0 and TM=Zn. The exponential increase in coercive field can be linked to increased effective clusters arising from ions occupying A and B sites with Fe on both sites. This is in agreement with the Mössbauer measurements which show superparamagnetic fluctuations. The ac susceptibility and Mössbauer spectra for Zn0.5Co0.9Fe1.2Ti0.4O4 show a glass transition temperature (about 320 K). Room temperature PAC measurements on Hf doped samples with TM=Zn showed different interaction frequencies, consistent with magnetic order in the Fe enriched case. Different behavior is observed in the sample with Cu for which the ordering temperature is about 480 K.

  5. Tellurite photonic crystal fiber with Er 3+-Tm 3+ for broadband optical amplifier in 1550nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chillcce, E. F.; Cordeiro, C. M. B.; Rodriguez, E.; Brito Cruz, C. H.; César, C. L.; Barbosa, L. C.

    2006-02-01

    Er 3+-Tm 3+ co-doped tellurite photonic crystal fiber was fabricated via a stack-and-draw procedure and without using extrusion in any stage. The final fiber presents a 187 nm bandwidth of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) intensity around 1550nm when pumped with 790nm. In this manuscript a soft-glass tube fabrication technique, using the centrifugation method, is also shown.

  6. Parametric and Nonparametric Analysis of LANDSAT TM and MSS Imagery for Detecting Submerged Plant Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackleson, S. G.; Klemas, V.

    1984-01-01

    The spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of LANDSAT TM and MSS imagery for detecting submerged aquatic vegetation are assessed. The problem is approached from two perspectives; purely stochastic or nonparametric in a radiative sense and theoretical in which radiative transfer equations are used to predict upwelling radiance at satellite altitude. The spectral and radiometric aspects of the theoretical approach are addressed with which a submerged plant canopy is distinguished from a surrounding bottom of sand or mud.

  7. Thermoluminescent and Monte Carlo dosimetry of a new 170Tm brachytherapy source.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Sona; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Shirvani-Arani, Simindokht; Bahrami-Samani, Ali; Saidi, Pooneh

    2014-03-01

    In this Study characteristics of a new 170Tm brachytherapy seed using thermoluminescent dosimeter and also the Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate between calculated and measured values was determined. Titanium tube contained Tm(NO3)3 powders bombardment at the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) for a period of 7 days at a flux of 2-3 × 10(13) neutrons/cm2 s. To obtain the radial dose function, g(r), and the anisotropy function, F(r, θ), according to the AAPM TG-43U1 recommendations, 30 cm × 30 cm × 15 cm phantoms of Perspex slabs were used. Brachytherapy dose distributions were simulated with the MCNP5 Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport code. The MCPLIB04 photon cross-section library was applied using data from ENDF/B-VI. Cell-heating tally, F6 was employed to calculate absorbed dose in two separate runs for both beta and gamma particles. The calculated dose rate constant for the HDR source was found to be 1.113 ± 0.021 cGyU(-1) h(-1). Nominal uncertainty in the measured and calculated radial dose functions, g(r), for the IR-(170)Tm source in Perspex is tabulated is approximately 6% (ranging from 2% to 9%). The anisotropy function, F(r, θ), of the IR-(170)Tm source was measured at radial distances of r = 1.5, 2, 3, 5 cm relative to the seed center, and polar angles θ ranging from 0° to 330° in 30° increments.

  8. Blue laser emission from dual-wavelength-pumped Tm:ZBLAN fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiest, Todd E.; Hinkel, Daniel S.

    1997-07-01

    Thulium- (Tm-)doped fluorozirconate (ZBLAN) fiber can be pumped by infrared (IR) light that is resonant with the 4f electronic energy levels. With the long lifetimes of these levels, upconversion processes are possible. Accompanied by the appropriate IR wavelengths and optical feedback, upconversion can result in lasing near 480 nm with powers over 100 mW. We discuss the parameters of our laser experiment and the expected results.

  9. Predictive Mapping of Topsoil Organic Carbon in an Alpine Environment Aided by Landsat TM

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Renmin; Rossiter, David G.; Liu, Feng; Lu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Fan; Yang, Fei; Zhao, Yuguo; Li, Decheng; Zhang, Ganlin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the reflectance of Landsat TM imagery for mapping soil organic Carbon (SOC) content in an Alpine environment. The studied area (ca. 3*104 km2) is the upper reaches of the Heihe River at the northeast edge of the Tibetan plateau, China. A set (105) of topsoil samples were analyzed for SOC. Boosted regression tree (BRT) models using Landsat TM imagery were built to predict SOC content, alone or with topography and climate covariates (temperature and precipitation). The best model, combining all covariates, was only marginally better than using only imagery. Imagery alone was sufficient to build a reasonable model; this was a bit better than only using topography and climate covariates. The Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient values of the imagery only model and the full model are very close, larger than the topography and climate variables based model. In the full model, SOC was mainly explained by Landsat TM imagery (65% relative importance), followed by climate variables (20%) and topography (15% of relative importance). The good results from imagery are likely due to (1) the strong dependence of SOC on native vegetation intensity in this Alpine environment; (2) the strong correlation in this environment between imagery and environmental covariables, especially elevation (corresponding to temperature), precipitation, and slope aspect. We conclude that multispectral satellite data from Landsat TM images may be used to predict topsoil SOC with reasonable accuracy in Alpine regions, and perhaps other regions covered with natural vegetation, and that adding topography and climate covariables to the satellite data can improve the predictive accuracy. PMID:26473739

  10. Room temperature 2 μm Tm,Ho : YLF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronti, B.; Cornacchia, F.; Di Lieto, A.; Maroni, P.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.

    2003-03-01

    We present the results obtained with a Tm,Ho : YLF crystal, grown in the new crystals growth facility realized in the Dipartimento di Fisica of the Università di Pisa. The 2 μm laser performance has been studied for three different pump sources, a Ti : Sapphire, a diode—tuned at 792.7 nm—and a Co : MgF 2 laser, tuned at 1.682 μm.

  11. Predictive Mapping of Topsoil Organic Carbon in an Alpine Environment Aided by Landsat TM.

    PubMed

    Yang, Renmin; Rossiter, David G; Liu, Feng; Lu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Fan; Yang, Fei; Zhao, Yuguo; Li, Decheng; Zhang, Ganlin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the reflectance of Landsat TM imagery for mapping soil organic Carbon (SOC) content in an Alpine environment. The studied area (ca. 3*104 km2) is the upper reaches of the Heihe River at the northeast edge of the Tibetan plateau, China. A set (105) of topsoil samples were analyzed for SOC. Boosted regression tree (BRT) models using Landsat TM imagery were built to predict SOC content, alone or with topography and climate covariates (temperature and precipitation). The best model, combining all covariates, was only marginally better than using only imagery. Imagery alone was sufficient to build a reasonable model; this was a bit better than only using topography and climate covariates. The Lin's concordance correlation coefficient values of the imagery only model and the full model are very close, larger than the topography and climate variables based model. In the full model, SOC was mainly explained by Landsat TM imagery (65% relative importance), followed by climate variables (20%) and topography (15% of relative importance). The good results from imagery are likely due to (1) the strong dependence of SOC on native vegetation intensity in this Alpine environment; (2) the strong correlation in this environment between imagery and environmental covariables, especially elevation (corresponding to temperature), precipitation, and slope aspect. We conclude that multispectral satellite data from Landsat TM images may be used to predict topsoil SOC with reasonable accuracy in Alpine regions, and perhaps other regions covered with natural vegetation, and that adding topography and climate covariables to the satellite data can improve the predictive accuracy.

  12. Nafion(TM) Coats For Electrodes In Liquid-Feed Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.; Surampudi, Subbarao; Halpert, Gerald; Vamos, Eugene; Frank, Harvey A.

    1995-01-01

    Coating or impregnation with commercially available material enables oxidation of organic liquid fuels. Nafion(TM) investigated for use in application because of known combination of desirable characteristics: It is perfluorinated, hydrophilic, proton-conducting ion-exchange polymer exhibiting relatively high thermal and electrochemical stability and not detrimental to kinetics of electrochemical processes. Available in solubilized form and used to apply stable coats to surfaces of electrodes.

  13. Energy transfer rates and population inversion investigation of 1G4 and 1D2 excited states of Tm3+ in Yb:Tm:Nd:KY3F10 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi da Silva, Horácio; Linhares, M. D.; Henriques Librantz, André Philipe; Gomes, Laércio; Coronato Courrol, Lilia; Baldochi, Sonia Lícia; Ranieri, Izilda Marcia

    2011-04-01

    In this work we present the spectroscopic properties of KY3F10 (KY3F) single crystals activated with thulium and co-doped with ytterbium and neodymium ions. The most important processes that lead to the thulium up-conversion emissions in the blue and ultraviolet regions were identified. A time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy technique was employed to measure the luminescence decays and to determine the most important mechanisms involved in the up-conversion process that populates 1G4 and 1D2 (Tm3+) excited states. Analysis of the energy-transfer processes dynamics using selective pulsed-laser excitations in Yb:Tm:Nd, Tm:Nd, and Tm:Yb KY3F crystals show that the energy transfer from Nd3+ to Yb3+ ions is the mechanism responsible for the enhancement of the blue up-conversion efficiency in the Yb:Tm:Nd:KY3F when compared with the Yb:Tm system. A study of the energy transfer processes in Yb:Tm:Nd:KY3F crystal showed that the 1G4 excited level is mainly populated by a sequence of two nonradiative energy transfers that starts well after the Nd3+ and Tm3+ excitation at 797 nm according to: Nd3+ (4F3/2) → Yb3+ (2F7/2) followed by Yb3+ (2F5/2) → Tm (3H4) → Tm3+ (1G4). Results of numerical simulation of the rate equations system showed that a population inversion for 483.1 nm laser emission line is attained for a pumping rate threshold of 98 s-1, which is equivalent to an intensity of 3.3 KW cm-2 for a continuous laser pumping at 797 nm for Yb(30 mol%):Tm(0.5 mol%):Nd(1 mol%):KY3F. Nevertheless, best Yb3+ concentration for the laser emission near 483.1 nm was estimated to be within 40 and 50 mol%. On the other hand, a population inversion was not observed for the case of 960 nm (Yb3+) pumping.

  14. PalymSys (TM): An extended version of CLIPS for construction and reasoning using blackboards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Travis; Ballard, Dan

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes PalymSys(TM) -- an extended version of the CLIPS language that is designed to facilitate the implementation of blackboard systems. The paper first describes the general characteristics of blackboards and shows how a control blackboard architecture can be used by AI systems to examine their own behavior and adapt to real-time problem-solving situations by striking a balance between domain and control reasoning. The paper then describes the use of PalymSys in the development of a situation assessment subsystem for use aboard Army helicopters. This system performs real-time inferencing about the current battlefield situation using multiple domain blackboards as well as a control blackboard. A description of the control and domain blackboards and their implementation is presented. The paper also describes modifications made to the standard CLIPS 6.02 language in PalymSys(TM) 2.0. These include: (1) a dynamic Dempster-Shafer belief network whose structure is completely specifiable at run-time in the consequent of a PalymSys(TM) rule, (2) extension of the run command including a continuous run feature that enables the system to run even when the agenda is empty, and (3) a built-in communications link that uses shared memory to communicate with other independent processes.

  15. Comparative rice seed toxicity tests using filter paper, growth pouch-tm, and seed tray methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.

    1993-01-01

    Paper substrate, especially circular filter paper placed inside a Petri dish, has long been used for the plant seed toxicity test (PSTT). Although this method is simple and inexpensive, recent evidence indicates that it gives results that are significantly different from those obtained using a method that does not involve paper, especially when testing metal cations. The study compared PSTT using three methods: filter paper, Growth Pouch-TM, and seed tray. The Growth Pouch-TM is a commercially available device. The seed tray is a newly designed plastic receptacle placed inside a Petri dish. The results of the Growth Pouch-TM method showed no toxic effects on rice for Ag up to 40 mg L-1 and Cd up to 20 mg L-1. Using the seed tray method, IC50 (50% inhibitory effect concentration) values were 0.55 and 1.4 mg L-1 for Ag and Cd, respectively. Although results of filter paper and seed tray methods were nearly identical for NaF, Cr(VI), and phenol, the toxicities of cations Ag and Cd were reduced by using the filter paper method; IC50 values were 22 and 18 mg L-1, respectively. The results clearly indicate that paper substrate is not advisable for PSTT.

  16. Inner-shell magnetic dipole transition in Tm atoms: A candidate for optical lattice clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukachev, D.; Fedorov, S.; Tolstikhina, I.; Tregubov, D.; Kalganova, E.; Vishnyakova, G.; Golovizin, A.; Kolachevsky, N.; Khabarova, K.; Sorokin, V.

    2016-08-01

    We consider a narrow magneto-dipole transition in the 169Tm atom at the wavelength of 1.14 μ m as a candidate for a two-dimensional-optical lattice clock. Calculating dynamic polarizabilities of the two clock levels [Xe] 4 f136 s2(J =7 /2 ) and [Xe] 4 f136 s2(J =5 /2 ) in the spectral range from 250 to 1200 nm, we find a "magic" wavelength for the optical lattice at 807 nm. Frequency shifts due to black-body radiation (BBR), the van der Waals interaction, the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction, and other effects which can perturb the transition frequency are calculated. The transition at 1.14 μ m demonstrates low sensitivity to the BBR shift corresponding to 8 ×10-17 in fractional units at room temperature which makes it an interesting candidate for high-performance optical clocks. The total estimated frequency uncertainty is less than 5 ×10-18 in fractional units. By direct excitation of the 1.14 μ m transition in Tm atoms loaded into an optical dipole trap, we set the lower limit for the lifetime of the upper clock level [Xe] 4 f136 s2(J =5 /2 ) of 112 ms which corresponds to a natural spectral linewidth narrower than 1.4 Hz. The polarizability of the Tm ground state was measured by the excitation of parametric resonances in the optical dipole trap at 532 nm.

  17. A bitmap index technology adapt to original TM/ETM+ image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianzhong; Chen, Xiaoling; Chen, Biyu; Sun, Yechao

    2009-10-01

    Spatial database is an essential component of Geographic Information System (GIS). With the development of modern remote sensors and data acquiring instruments, the amount of spatial data increases with geometric series. Retrieval required data in such massive database is a challenging issue to database engineers. Therefore, building efficient index is significant to spatial database. In this paper, bitmap index technology, which is rarely used in spatial database, is taken into consideration. In this paper, TM/ETM+ images covered main land of China are selected to establish a spatial database. In order to rapidly inquire and retrieval required data from the spatial database, an effective spatial index is very important. A bitmap index solution for original TM/ETM+ image is advanced in this paper. The bitmap index schema, which indexes field by building "0" and "1" binary bit vectors, is designed based on analyzing its principle and applicable conditions. In the image database, the strategy is programmed to implementation and applied for data retrieval. So that complex querying operations can be transformed to bitwise logical operations. A users' interface is developed based on building such bitmap index for original TM/ETM+ images database. Then the paper probes into the bitmap index update mechanism to address problems resulted from inserting and deleting images operation. In order to address the problem of high cardinality, an encoded bitmap index technology is proposed as well. At last, a simple comparison and efficiency analysis is carried out to illuminate its applicability.

  18. Calcium Oxalate Stone Agglomeration Inhibition [tm] Reflects Renal Stone-Forming Activity.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, J S; Cole, F E; Romani, W; Husserl, F E; Fuselier, H A; Kok, D J; Erwin, D T

    2000-04-01

    Louisiana and other Gulf South states comprise a "Stone Belt" where calcium oxalate stone formers (CaOx SFs) are found at a high rate of approximately 5%. In these patients, the agglomeration of small stone crystals, which are visible in nearly all morning urine collections, forms stones that can become trapped in the renal parenchyma and the renal pelvis. Without therapy, about half of CaOx SFs repeatedly form kidney stones, which can cause excruciating pain that can be relieved by passage, fragmentation (lithotripsy), or surgical removal. The absence of stones in "normal" patients suggests that there are stone inhibitors in "normal" urines.At the Ochsner Renal Stone Clinic, 24-hour urine samples are collected by the patient and sent to the Ochsner Renal Stone Research Program where calcium oxalate stone agglomeration inhibition [tm] measurements are performed. Urine from healthy subjects and inactive stone formers has demonstrated strongly inhibited stone growth [tm] in contrast to urine from recurrent CaOx SFs. [tm] data from 1500 visits of 700 kidney stone patients have been used to evaluate the risk of recurrence in Ochsner's CaOx SF patients. These data have also been used to demonstrate the interactive roles of certain identified urinary stone-growth inhibitors, citrate and Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), which can be manipulated with medication to diminish recurrent stone formation. Our goal is to offer patients both financial and pain relief by reducing their stones with optimized medication, using medical management to avoid costly treatments.

  19. DNA condensation by TmHU studied by optical tweezers, AFM and molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Olbrich, Carsten; Brutzer, Hergen; Salomo, Mathias; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Keyser, Ulrich F.; Kremer, Friedrich

    2010-01-01

    The compaction of DNA by the HU protein from Thermotoga maritima (TmHU) is analysed on a single-molecule level by the usage of an optical tweezers-assisted force clamp. The condensation reaction is investigated at forces between 2 and 40 pN applied to the ends of the DNA as well as in dependence on the TmHU concentration. At 2 and 5 pN, the DNA compaction down to 30% of the initial end-to-end distance takes place in two regimes. Increasing the force changes the progression of the reaction until almost nothing is observed at 40 pN. Based on the results of steered molecular dynamics simulations, the first regime of the length reduction is assigned to a primary level of DNA compaction by TmHU. The second one is supposed to correspond to the formation of higher levels of structural organisation. These findings are supported by results obtained by atomic force microscopy. PMID:22210966

  20. Quick Look Analysis of TM Data of the Washington, District of Columbia Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.; Irons, J. R.; Markham, B. L.; Latty, R. S.; Stauffer, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    A fixed factor analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) approach was used to quantify the impact of each TM sensor characteristic (spectral, spatial, and radiometric resolutions) on classification accuracy. All assessments were made relative to MSS sensor characteristics, and the impact of each characteristic was assessed individually, and in all possible combinations. Thematic Mapper data acquired over the Washington, D.C. area on November 2, 1982 were utilized to conduct the experiment. The following results were obtained: the reduction of quantization level from eight bits to six bits caused a decrease in overall accuracy (7%); the use of only three bands (TM 2, 3 and 4) covering the isible and near infrared portion of the spectrum caused a decrease in overall accuracy (7%); and the decrease in spatial resolution resulted in an increase in overall accuracy (4%). Results indicate that the increased radiometric and spectral resolution of the TM instrument do provide increased information content. The result of the spatial resolution degradation is somewhat misleading, in that the result is more a function of spatial resolution.

  1. Effect of the Texel muscling QTL (TM-QTL) on spine characteristics in purebred Texel lambs

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, C.L.; Lambe, N.R.; Maltin, C.A.; Knott, S.; Bünger, L.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work showed that the Texel muscling QTL (TM-QTL) results in pronounced hypertrophy in the loin muscle, with the largest phenotypic effects observed in lambs inheriting a single copy of the allele from the sire. As the loin runs parallel to the spinal vertebrae, and the development of muscle and bone are closely linked, the primary aim of this study was to investigate if there were any subsequent associations between TM-QTL inheritance and underlying spine characteristics (vertebrae number, VN; spine region length, SPL; average length of individual vertebrae, VL) of the thoracic, lumbar, and thoracolumbar spine regions. Spine characteristics were measured from X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans for 142 purebred Texel lambs which had been previously genotyped. Least-squares means were significantly different between genotype groups for lumbar and thoracic VN and lumbar SPL. Similarly for these traits, contrasts were shown to be significant for particular modes of gene action but overall were inconclusive. In general, the results showed little evidence that spine trait phenotypes were associated with differences in loin muscling associated with the different TM-QTL genotypes. PMID:25844019

  2. Intense red upconversion emission of Yb/Tm/Ho triply-doped tellurite glasses.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Huan; Zhou, Zhiguang; He, Jianli; Lin, Aoxiang

    2012-05-20

    By conventional melting and quenching methods, 3Yb2O3-0.2Tm2O3-xHo2O3 (wt%, x=0.2~1.2) was doped into an easily fiberized tellurite glass with composition of 78TeO2-10ZnO-12Na2O (mol%) to form YTH-TZN78 glasses. Under 976 nm excitation, the direct sensitizing effect of Yb ions (Yb→Ho) and indirect sensitizing and self-depopulating effects of Tm ions (Yb→Tm→Ho) were found to present intense red upconversion emission at 657 nm (Red, Ho:5F5→5I8) and were responsible for the absence of the usually observed 484 nm emission (Blue, Tm:1G4→3H36). Regardless of the dopant concentration of Ho ions, the intensity of the red emission at 657 nm (Red, Ho:5F5→5I8) is about three times stronger than that of the green one at 543 nm (Green, Ho:5S2→5I8). For this certain red emission at 657 nm, 0.4 wt% Ho2O3-doped YTH-TZN78 glass was found to present the highest emission intensity and is therefore determined as a promising active tellurite glass for red fiber laser development.

  3. Neutron Scattering Cross Section Measurements for 169Tm via the (n,n') Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Alimeti, Afrim; Kegel, Gunter H.R.; Egan, James J.; DeSimone, David J.; McKittrick, Thomas M.; Ji, Chuncheng; Tremblay, Steven E.; Roldan, Carlos; Chen Xudong; Kim, Don S.

    2005-05-24

    The neutron physics group at the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) has been involved in a program of scattering cross-section measurements for highly deformed nuclei such as 159Tb, 169Tm, 232Th, 235U, 238U, and 239Pu. Ko et al. have reported neutron inelastic scattering data from 169Tm for states above 100 keV via the (n,n'{gamma}) reaction at incident energies in the 0.2 MeV to 1.0 MeV range. In the present research, in which the time-of-flight method was employed, direct (n,n') measurements of neutrons scattered from 169Tm in the 0.2 to 1.0 MeV range were taken. It requires that our 5.5-MeV Van de Graaff accelerator be operated in the pulsed and bunched beam mode producing subnanosecond pulses at a 5-MHz repetition frequency. Neutrons are produced by the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction using a thin metallic elemental lithium target.

  4. Affordances of computers in teacher-student interactions: The case of interactive physicsTM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    The study reported here is part of a larger project designed to understand student learning during conversations with their teacher over and about a computer-based Newtonian microworld (Interactive PhysicsTM). At the focus of this report are affordances of the microworld to a teacher who engaged his students in conversations about representations of phenomenal objects and conceptual entities that constitute the microworld. The study shows how the teacher used the context of Interactive PhysicsTM to identify students' ways of seeing and talking science. He then implemented a series of strategies to make forces visible to students. Data are provided to illustrate that students' learning was not local but persistent, so that they used appropriate canonical science talk without teacher support. The conclusion focuses on Interactive PhysicsTM as a tool that does not embed meaning as such, but takes on meaning as part of the specific (scientific) practices in the context of which it was used.This view of science as a discourse helps us to see scientific literacy not as the acquisition of specific facts and procedures or even as the refinement of a mental model, but as a socially and culturally produced way to thinking and knowing, with its own ways of talking, reasoning, and acting; its own norms, beliefs, and values; its own institutions; its shared history; and even its shared mythologies (Roseberry, Warren, & Conant, 1992, p. 65).Received: 2 February 1994; Revised: 8 July 1994;

  5. Phonon Drag and Magnetic Anomalies, of Thermopower, in RB12 (R = Ho, Er, Tm, Lu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushkov, V.; Demishev, S.; Ignatov, M.; Khayrullin, E.; Sluchanko, N.; Shitsevalov, N.; Levchenko, A.; Filipov, V.; Flachbart, K.; Siemensmeyer, K.

    2008-01-01

    High precision measurements of the Seebeck coefficient S(T) were carried out on the single crystals of RB12 (R = Ho, Er, Tm, Lu) at temperatures 2-300 K. It was shown that the effects of phonon drag result from vibrations of rare earth ions (ℏ ωE≈10-33 meV) in the rigid framework structure of the B12 clusters and determine the main contribution to thermopower at intermediate temperatures (30-300 K). The correlated behavior of transport parameters favors the appreciable enhancement of spin fluctuations in the sequence of magnetic compounds (HoB12-TmB12) when approaching to the valence instability state in YbB12. The giant increase in S(T) detected in the vicinity of the Néel temperature TN for HoB12, ErB12, and TmB12 seems to result from the density of states renormalization caused by antiferromagnetic ordering.

  6. Helium Cryo Testing of a SLMS(TM) (Silicon Lightweight Mirrors) Athermal Optical Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacoby, Marc T.; Goodman, William A.; Stahl, H. Philip; Keys, Andrew S.; Reily, Jack C.; Eng, Ron; Hadaway, James B.; Hogue, William D.; Kegley, Jeffrey R.; Siler, Richard

    2003-01-01

    SLMS (TM) a thermal technology has been demonstrated in the small 4-foot helium cryogenic test chamber located at the NASA/MSFC X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). A SLMS (TM) Ultraviolet Demonstrator Mirror (UVDM) produced by Schafer under a NASA/MSFC Phase I SBIR was helium cryo tested both free standing and bonded to a Schafer designed prototype carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide (Cesic) mount. Surface figure data was obtained with a test measurement system that featured an Instantaneous Phase Interferometer (IPI) by ADE Phase Shift. The test measurement system s minimum resolvable differential figure deformation and possible contributions from test chamber ambient to cryo window deformation are under investigation. The free standing results showed differential figure deformation of 10.4 nm rms from 295K to 27K and 3.9 nm rms after one cryo cycle. The surface figure of the UVDM degraded by lambda/70 rms HeNe once it was bonded to the prototype Cesic mount. The change was due to a small astigmatic aberration in the rototype Cesic mount due to lack of finish machining and not the bonding technique. This effect was seen in SLMST (TM) optical assembly results, which showed differential figure deformation of 46.5 nm rms from 294K to 27K, 42.9 nm rms from 294K to 77K, 28.0 nm rms from 294K to 193K and 6.2 nm rms after one cryo cycle.

  7. Optical properties and frequency upconversion fluorescence in a Tm3+ -doped alkali niobium tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Gadiaere; L.; Cassanjes, Fabia C.; de Araújo, Cid B.; Jerez, Vladimir A.; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.; Messaddeq, Younes; Poulain, Marcel

    2003-03-01

    Optical spectroscopic properties of Tm3+-doped 60TeO2-10GeO2-10K2O-10Li2O-10Nb2O5 glass are reported. The absorption spectra were obtained and radiative parameters were determined using the Judd-Ofelt theory. Characteristics of excited states were studied in two sets of experiments. Excitation at 360 nm originates a relatively narrow band emission at 450 nm attributed to transition 1D2→3F4 of the Tm3+ ion with photon energy larger than the band-gap energy of the glass matrix. Excitation at 655 nm originates a frequency upconverted emission at 450 nm (1D2→3F4) and emission at 790 nm (3H4→3H6). The radiative lifetimes of levels 1D2 and 3H4 were measured and the differences between their experimental values and the theoretical predictions are understood as due to the contribution of energy transfer among Tm3+ ions.

  8. Comparison between refraction measured by Spot Vision ScreeningTM and subjective clinical refractometry

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Daniela Lima; Villela, Flávio Fernandes; Orlandin, Luis Fernando; Eiji, Fernando Naves; Dantas, Daniel Oliveira; Alves, Milton Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Spot Vision ScreeningTM as an autorefractor by comparing refraction measurements to subjective clinical refractometry results in children and adult patients. METHODS: One-hundred and thirty-four eyes of 134 patients were submitted to refractometry by Spot and clinical refractometry under cycloplegia. Patients, students, physicians, staff and children of staff from the Hospital das Clínicas (School of Medicine, University of São Paulo) aged 7-50 years without signs of ocular disease were examined. Only right-eye refraction data were analyzed. The findings were converted in magnitude vectors for analysis. RESULTS: The difference between Spot Vision ScreeningTM and subjective clinical refractometry expressed in spherical equivalents was +0.66±0.56 diopters (D), +0.16±0.27 D for the vector projected on the 90 axis and +0.02±0.15 D for the oblique vector. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the statistical significance of the difference between the two methods, we consider the difference non-relevant in a clinical setting, supporting the use of Spot Vision ScreeningTM as an ancillary method for estimating refraction. PMID:26934234

  9. Overmoded subterahertz surface wave oscillator with pure TM{sub 01} mode output

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guangqiang; Zeng, Peng; Wang, Dongyang; Wang, Jianguo; Li, Shuang

    2016-02-15

    Overmoded O-type Cerenkov generators using annular electron beams are facing the problem of multi-modes output due to the inevitable structural discontinuities. A simple but effective method to achieve the pure TM{sub 01} mode output is applied on the 0.14 THz overmoded surface wave oscillator (SWO) in this paper. In spite of still using an overmoded slow wave structure to ensure the easy fabrication, the followed smooth circular waveguide is shrinkingly tapered to the output waveguide with appropriate radius that it cuts off other higher modes except TM{sub 01} mode. Moreover, the modified device here has the same power capacity as the previous one according to the numerical analysis. By optimized lengths of the transition waveguide and tapered waveguide, particle-in-cell simulation results indicate that the subterahertz wave with output power increased 14.2% at the same frequency is obtained from the proposed SWO under the previous input conditions, and importantly, the output power is all carried by TM{sub 01} mode as expected. Further simulation results in the pulse regime confirm the feasibility of the optimized structure in the actual experiments. This simple and viable design is also applicable to overmoded devices in the lower frequency band of subterahertz wave.

  10. Bulk Processing of the Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ Archive of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northrop, A.; Lavender, S.; Saunier, S.; Gascon, F.; Biasutti, R.; Fischer, P.; Hoersch, B.; Colamussi, G.; Meloni, M.; Paciucci, A.; Galli, L.; Ferrara, R.; Mica, S.

    2016-08-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has acquired Landsat data over Europe, Northern Africa and the Middle East during the last 40 years.A new ESA Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) processor was developed to align historical products to the highest quality standards.Achievements include the processing of >900,000 TM/ETM+ high-quality products between 1984 and 2011 from the Kiruna (KSE), Maspalomas (MPS) and Matera (MTI) archives.The reprocessed TM/ETM+ datasets are available for free, immediate download through ESA's fast and simple dissemination service (https://landsat- ds.eo.esa.int/app/), and browsing system, EOLI. During 2016 a new version of the processor is being developed for MSS data, which dates back more than 40 years, with the data gradually becoming available during 2016 and 2017.The ESA Landsat processor algorithm enhancement, together with the results of the ESA archive bulk- processing regarding production, quality control and data validation are herein presented.

  11. Research of quasi-three-level thermal effect of diode-pumped Tm:YAG crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Yanxiong; Man, Da; Wang, Caili; Liu, Wenwen; Niu, Haisha

    2014-11-01

    The combination of volumetric heating of the laser material by the absorbed pump radiation and surface cooling required for heat extraction leads to a no uniform temperature distribution in the rod. With the coactions of pump field and coolant, the temperature gradient is formed within laser working medium, and then the thermal effects including thermal lens, thermal stress birefringence, etc. They all seriously restrict the output characteristics of laser. The uniform temperature field distribution in laser working medium weakens the influences of thermal effects in laser. The thermal effect of Tm:YAG laser generated by laser-diode pumping the Tm:YAG crystal is analyzed. After considering the quasi three-level structure of the crystal and the distribution of transmission power in the cavity, a more actual temperature field in the crystal is obtained by revamping the heat conversion coefficient. The thermal effects mechanics were analyzed at first, and then the physical and mathematical thermal analysis models were established based on the theoretical knowledge of thermal effects in LD pumped Tm:YAG laser. The method can be applied to the laser thermal effect research of quasi three-level. The analysis and the result can be referred to the thermal effect research of the solid state laser end-pumped by the LD and the optimal design of resonant cavity.

  12. High power resonant pumping of Tm-doped fiber amplifiers in core- and cladding-pumped configurations.

    PubMed

    Creeden, Daniel; Johnson, Benjamin R; Rines, Glen A; Setzler, Scott D

    2014-11-17

    We have demonstrated ultra-high efficiency amplification in Tm-doped fiber with both core- and cladding-pumped configurations using a resonant tandem-pumping approach. These Tm-doped fiber amplifiers are pumped in-band with a 1908 nm Tm-doped fiber laser and operate at 1993 nm with >90% slope efficiency. In a core-pumped configuration, we have achieved 92.1% slope efficiency and 88.4% optical efficiency at 41 W output power. In a cladding-pumped configuration, we have achieved 123.1 W of output power with 90.4% optical efficiency and a 91.6% slope efficiency. We believe these are the highest optical efficiencies achieved in a Tm-doped fiber amplifier operating in the 2-micron spectral region.

  13. Phase transformations and phase relations in Ti{sub 50}Pd{sub (50-x)}TM{sub x} alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A.J.; Sluiter, M.H.; Harmon, B.N.; Tanner, L.E.

    1994-07-15

    The effect of transition metal (TM) substitution for Pd in Ti{sub 5O}Pd{sub (50-x}TM{sub x} alloys with x between 5 and 37.5 at.% and TM = V, Cr, Mn and Fe are being characterized by transmission electron microscopy and First-Principles Alloy Theory modeling. The goal is to obtain detailed structural information related to the ternary phase relations and transformations that are necessary for effective shape-memory alloy development. Thus far, the authors have found that the tend to have pseudobinary eutectoid-like configurations with a terminal TiPd and a non-close-packed long period ordered structure type crystal structure) based on the stoichiometry Ti{sub 2}PdTM. The systems exhibit a conventional martensitic transformation, as well as a new type of displacive transformation that shear-modulates B2 to produce a periodically distorted, but non-close-packed metastable product phase.

  14. Geologic Utility of LANSDAT-4 TM Data. [Death Valley, California and the Silver Bell area of southern Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M.; Kahle, A. B.; Gillespie, A.; Conel, J.; Lang, H.

    1985-01-01

    The performance of the TM vis-a-vis various geological applications was quantified by analyzing: (1) the geological utility of the data with respect to the increased spatial resolution and number of bands (compared to the MSS); (2) the geometric accuracy; (3) the radiometric performance of the TM scanner. Preliminary analyses were performed on TM scenes: over Death Valley, California, and over southern Arizona. Both scenes were acquired in CCT-PT format, where the data were geometrically and radiometrically corrected. Overall, the TM data appears to contain a marked increase in geologically useful information; however, a number of instrumental or processing artifacts may well limit the ability of the geologist to fully extract this information.

  15. Blue shift of Tm 3+ upconversion owing to Nd 3+ in yttrium oxide powders pumped by pulsed red laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakov, Nikifor; Maciel, Glauco S.

    2011-02-01

    Tm3+:Y2O3 powder prepared by combustion synthesis exhibits blue emission centered at λ ∼ 450 nm, corresponding to 1D2 → 3F4 transition of Tm3+, when the sample is irradiated by a pulsed (5 ns, 10 Hz) red laser operating at λ ∼ 690 nm. The blue emission band shifts to λ ∼ 480 nm, corresponding to 1G4 → 3H6 transition of Tm3+, when Nd3+ is added to the sample. When the laser is tuned to λ ∼ 680 nm, the blue shift effect is not observed. The shifting effect is explained based on single shot laser excitation and energy transfer mechanisms involving Tm3+ and Nd3+ ions.

  16. Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hai; Liu, Ke; Lin, Lin; Hou, Yanyan; Yang, Dianlai; Ma, Tiecheng; Pun, Edwin Yun Bun; An, Qingda; Yu, Jiayou; Tanabe, Setsuhisa

    2006-11-01

    Tm(3+)/Yb(3+)-doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite (LKBBT) glasses have been fabricated and characterized. Density, refractive index, optical absorption, absorption and emission cross-sections of Yb(3+), Judd-Ofelt parameters and spontaneous transition probabilities of Tm(3+) have been measured and calculated, respectively. Intense blue three-photon upconversion fluorescence and near-infrared two-photon upconversion fluorescence were investigated under the excitation of a 980 nm diode laser at room temperature. Wide infrared transmission window, high refractive index and strong blue three-photon upconversion emission of Tm(3+) indicate that Tm(3+)/Yb(3+) co-doped LKBBT glasses are promising upconversion optical and laser materials.

  17. Energy transfer processes between Tm(3+) and Ho(3+) in LiYF4. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oezen, Goenuel

    1991-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of the crystal LiYF4 doped with Thulium (Tm) and Holmium (Ho) ions are studied. The basic processes are discussed that regulate the transfer of energy between these two ions in this crystal. In this system Tm is considered the donor ion and the Ho the acceptor ion. Spectral data were obtained on three samples available: LiYF4:Tm(3+) (0.5 percent), LiYF4:Ho(3+) (1 percent), and LiYF4:Tm(3+) (5 percent), Ho(3+) (0.2 percent). Spectral data, which include absorption, luminescence, excitation, and the response to pulsed excitation in a wide range of temperatures, allowed to look at the energy transfer processes by considering the kinetic evolution of the emission of the two ions (donor and acceptor) involved in the process and the basic spectroscopic properties related to them. This inclusive approach has led to the validation of the physical model.

  18. 78 FR 44140 - Intent To Request Approval From OMB of One New Public Collection of Information: TSA PreTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Intent To Request Approval From OMB of One New Public Collection of Information: TSA Pre TM Trusted Traveler Program AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 60-day notice. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) invites...

  19. 2 μm emission properties and hydroxy groups quenching of Tm3+ in germanate-tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Muzhi; Lu, Yu; Cao, Ruijie; Tian, Ying; Xu, Shiqing; Zhang, Junjie

    2016-07-01

    Tm3+ activated germanate-tellurite glasses with good thermal stability and anti-crystallization ability were prepared. Efficient 2 μm fluorescence was observed in the optimal concentration Tm3+ doped glass and the corresponding radiative properties were investigated. For Tm3+: 3F4 → 3H6 transition, high spontaneous radiative transition probability (260.75 s-1) and large emission cross section (7.66 × 10-21 cm2) were obtained from the prepared glass. According to Dexter's and Forster's theory, energy transfer microscopic parameters were computed to elucidate the observed 2 μm emissions in detail. Besides, the effect of hydroxy groups quenching was also quantificationally investigated based on simplified rate equations. Results demonstrate that the optimal concentration Tm3+ doped germanate-tellurite glass possessing excellent spectroscopic properties might be an attractive candidate for 2 μm laser or amplifier.

  20. Evaluation of the Radiometric Quality of the TM Data Using Clustering, Linear Transformations and Multispectral Distance Measures. [Illinois

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolucci, L. A.; Dean, M. E.; Anuta, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    The radiometric quality of LANDSAT 4 TM data for the classification and identification of Earth surface features was evaluated. Techniques employed in the evaluation included clustering, data compression (linear transformations), multispectral distance measures, and hierarchical classification methods. TM and MSS data for the Chicago, Illinois test site were studied. In order to determine the radiometric quality of the TM thermal data for temperature mapping of surface water, a test site was selected within the area covered by the TM scene (Scene ID: 40101-16025) gathered over Illinois. This site was chosen because it includes a surface water body with a large range of temperatures, i.e., a cooling pond for the Dresden nuclear power plant and the junction of two rivers.