Science.gov

Sample records for life cycle meets

  1. The Life Cycle of Academic Management Fads. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Robert

    This study reviewed the literature to trace the evolution and life cycles of seven management techniques related to higher education. The seven case studies involved analysis of a selected sample of periodical, monograph, and technical literature from 1960 to the present. The literature base on each management technique was reviewed in reference…

  2. Meeting Today's Data Life Cycle Expectations: Retrofitting Historical Sea Ice Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center (NSIDC DAAC) has been archiving and distributing passive microwave data for over two decades. In recent years the passive microwave sea ice data sets have become very popular as they showcase the changes in our polar regions. These data sets were created during a time before detailed provenance was deemed important. As a result, the NSIDC DAAC has not required detailed data provenance for these legacy data sets. However, in the aftermath of Climategate and with the ever growing popularity of these data, it is becoming more important to properly capture and make available the provenance for these data sets, from data set production information to data set documentation. In this presentation, we will examine the experiences the NSIDC DAAC has had in changing our culture for capturing information over the life cycle of our data sets.

  3. HIV Life Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 9/8/2016) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  4. Life Cycle Costing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCraley, Thomas L.

    1985-01-01

    Life cycle costing establishes a realistic comparison of the cost of owning and operating products. The formula of initial cost plus maintenance plus operation divided by useful life identifies the best price over the lifetime of the product purchased. (MLF)

  5. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapour pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline and reformate have different octane and vapour pressure...

  6. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapour pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline and reformate have different octane and vapour pressure...

  7. LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment, or LCA, is an environmental accounting and mangement approach that consider all the aspects of resource use and environmental releases associated with an industrial system from cradle-to-grave. Specifically, it is a holistic view of environmental interacti...

  8. LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment, or LCA, is an environmental accounting and mangement approach that consider all the aspects of resource use and environmental releases associated with an industrial system from cradle-to-grave. Specifically, it is a holistic view of environmental interacti...

  9. Mosquito Life Cycle

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Knowing the stages of the mosquito's life will help you prevent mosquitoes around your home and help you choose the right pesticides for your needs, if you decide to use them. All mosquito species go through four distinct stages during their live cycle.

  10. More than meets the eye: detecting cryptic microgeographic population structure in a parasite with a complex life cycle.

    PubMed

    Criscione, Charles D; Vilas, Román; Paniagua, Esperanza; Blouin, Michael S

    2011-06-01

    Nonrandom recruitment of parasites among hosts can lead to genetic differentiation among hosts and mating dynamics that promote inbreeding. It has been hypothesized that strictly aquatic parasites with intermediate hosts will behave as panmictic populations among hosts because ample opportunity exists for random mixing of unrelated individuals during transmission to the definitive host. A previous allozyme study on the marine trematode Lecithochirium fusiforme did not support this hypothesis; in that, there was genetic differentiation among, and significant heterozygote deficiencies within, definitive hosts. We revisit this system and use microsatellites to obtain multilocus genotypes. Our goal was to determine whether cryptic subgroups and/or the presence of clones could account for the apparent deviation from 'panmixia'. We find strong evidence for cryptic subdivision (three genetic clusters) that causes the Wahlund effect and differentiation among definitive hosts. After accounting for these cryptic groups, we see panmictic genetic structure among definitive hosts that is consistent with the 'high mixing in aquatic habitats' hypothesis. We see evidence for cotransmission of clones in all three clusters, but this level of clonal structure did not have a major impact in causing deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and only affected genetic differentiation among hosts in one cluster. A cursory examination of the data may have led to incorrect conclusions about nonrandom transmission. However, it is obvious in this system that there is more than meets the eye in relation to the actual make-up of parasite populations. In general, the methods we employ will be useful for elucidating hidden patterns in other organisms where cryptic structure may be common (e.g. those with limited morphology or complex life histories). © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-11

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  12. LIFE CYCLE COSTING IN INDUSTRY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The widespread use of Life Cycle Costing in non-defense industry and the enthusiasm exhibited toward it by company officials give strong support to...the value and the validity of the Life Cycle Cost concept. Industry’s ability to overcome problems associated with Life Cycle Costing provides

  13. Environmental profile of typical anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems meeting increasingly stringent treatment standards from a life cycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Duan, Zuoshan

    2012-12-01

    Stringent new legislation for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is currently motivating innovation and optimization of wastewater treatment technologies. Evaluating the environmental performance of a wastewater treatment system is a necessary precursor before proposing implementation of WWTPs designed to address the global requirements for reduced resource use, energy consumption and environmental emissions. However, developing overly-sophisticated treatment methods may lead to negative environmental effects. This study was conducted to employ a process modeling approach from a life cycle perspective to construct and evaluate six anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems that include a water line, sludge line and bioenergy recovery system and was designed to meet different treatment standards in China. The results revealed that improved treatments optimized for local receiving watercourses can be realized at the cost of higher resource consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Optimal Scenarios were also identified from different positive perspectives.

  14. Recycling and Life Cycle Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit

    2010-01-01

    This chapter addresses recycling and life cycle considerations related to the growing use of lightweight materials in vehicles. The chapter first addresses the benefit of a life cycle perspective in materials choice, and the role that recycling plays in reducing energy inputs and environmental impacts in a vehicle s life cycle. Some limitations of life cycle analysis and results of several vehicle- and fleet-level assessments are drawn from published studies. With emphasis on lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and polymer composites, the status of the existing recycling infrastructure and technological challenges being faced by the industry also are discussed.

  15. Life Cycle of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  16. Reducing Life-Cycle Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodvoets, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Presents factors to consider when determining roofing life-cycle costs, explaining that costs do not tell the whole story; discussing components that should go into the decision (cost, maintenance, energy use, and environmental costs); and concluding that important elements in reducing life-cycle costs include energy savings through increased…

  17. Life Cycle of a Pencil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Explains a project called "Life Cycle of a Pencil" which was developed by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Describes the life cycle of a pencil in stages starting from the first stage of design to the sixth stage of product disposal. (YDS)

  18. Life Cycle of a Pencil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Explains a project called "Life Cycle of a Pencil" which was developed by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Describes the life cycle of a pencil in stages starting from the first stage of design to the sixth stage of product disposal. (YDS)

  19. Life Cycle Engineering & Design Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    order to capture these impacts, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was developed. LCA differs from other pollution prevention techniques in that it...inventories all the resource, energy and cost inputs to a product, as well as the impacts from the associated waste streams, health and ecological burdens, and evaluates opportunities to improve the system on a life cycle scale.

  20. Life Cycle Assessment for Biofuels

    EPA Science Inventory

    A presentation based on life cycle assessment (LCA) for biofuels is given. The presentation focuses on energy and biofuels, interesting environmental aspects of biofuels, and how to do a life cycle assessment with some examples related to biofuel systems. The stages of a (biofuel...

  1. Reducing Life-Cycle Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodvoets, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Presents factors to consider when determining roofing life-cycle costs, explaining that costs do not tell the whole story; discussing components that should go into the decision (cost, maintenance, energy use, and environmental costs); and concluding that important elements in reducing life-cycle costs include energy savings through increased…

  2. An Integrated Approach to Life Cycle Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chytka, T. M.; Brown, R. W.; Shih, A. T.; Reeves, J. D.; Dempsey, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is the evaluation of the impacts that design decisions have on a system and provides a framework for identifying and evaluating design benefits and burdens associated with the life cycles of space transportation systems from a "cradle-to-grave" approach. Sometimes called life cycle assessment, life cycle approach, or "cradle to grave analysis", it represents a rapidly emerging family of tools and techniques designed to be a decision support methodology and aid in the development of sustainable systems. The implementation of a Life Cycle Analysis can vary and may take many forms; from global system-level uncertainty-centered analysis to the assessment of individualized discriminatory metrics. This paper will focus on a proven LCA methodology developed by the Systems Analysis and Concepts Directorate (SACD) at NASA Langley Research Center to quantify and assess key LCA discriminatory metrics, in particular affordability, reliability, maintainability, and operability. This paper will address issues inherent in Life Cycle Analysis including direct impacts, such as system development cost and crew safety, as well as indirect impacts, which often take the form of coupled metrics (i.e., the cost of system unreliability). Since LCA deals with the analysis of space vehicle system conceptual designs, it is imperative to stress that the goal of LCA is not to arrive at the answer but, rather, to provide important inputs to a broader strategic planning process, allowing the managers to make risk-informed decisions, and increase the likelihood of meeting mission success criteria.

  3. Equipment life cycle costs minimised.

    PubMed

    Kuligowski, Sharon

    2004-11-01

    With the cost of energy now a major component of building operating costs, NHS Trust managers increasingly focus on estimating total life cycle costs of equipment such as boiler room and heat, steam and incineration plant. "Life cycle costing" is a broad term and encompasses a wide range of techniques that take into account both initial and future costs as well as the savings of an investment over a period of time.

  4. Photovoltaics: Life-cycle Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis V. M.; Kim, H.C.

    2009-10-02

    Life-cycle analysis is an invaluable tool for investigating the environmental profile of a product or technology from cradle to grave. Such life-cycle analyses of energy technologies are essential, especially as material and energy flows are often interwoven, and divergent emissions into the environment may occur at different life-cycle-stages. This approach is well exemplified by our description of material and energy flows in four commercial PV technologies, i.e., mono-crystalline silicon, multi-crystalline silicon, ribbon-silicon, and cadmium telluride. The same life-cycle approach is applied to the balance of system that supports flat, fixed PV modules during operation. We also discuss the life-cycle environmental metrics for a concentration PV system with a tracker and lenses to capture more sunlight per cell area than the flat, fixed system but requires large auxiliary components. Select life-cycle risk indicators for PV, i.e., fatalities, injures, and maximum consequences are evaluated in a comparative context with other electricity-generation pathways.

  5. Optimization of data life cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, C.; Gasthuber, M.; Giesler, A.; Hardt, M.; Meyer, J.; Rigoll, F.; Schwarz, K.; Stotzka, R.; Streit, A.

    2014-06-01

    Data play a central role in most fields of science. In recent years, the amount of data from experiment, observation, and simulation has increased rapidly and data complexity has grown. Also, communities and shared storage have become geographically more distributed. Therefore, methods and techniques applied to scientific data need to be revised and partially be replaced, while keeping the community-specific needs in focus. The German Helmholtz Association project "Large Scale Data Management and Analysis" (LSDMA) aims to maximize the efficiency of data life cycles in different research areas, ranging from high energy physics to systems biology. In its five Data Life Cycle Labs (DLCLs), data experts closely collaborate with the communities in joint research and development to optimize the respective data life cycle. In addition, the Data Services Integration Team (DSIT) provides data analysis tools and services which are common to several DLCLs. This paper describes the various activities within LSDMA and focuses on the work performed in the DLCLs.

  6. Hepatitis C viral life cycle.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tetsuro; Ishii, Koji; Aizaki, Hideki; Wakita, Takaji

    2007-10-10

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been recognized as a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide. Molecular studies of the virus became possible with the successful cloning of its genome in 1989. Although much work remains to be done regarding early and late stages of the HCV life cycle, significant progress has been made with respect to the molecular biology of HCV, especially the viral protein processing and the genome replication. This review summarizes our current understanding of genomic organization of HCV, features of the viral protein characteristics, and the viral life cycle.

  7. Environmental life-cycle assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchain, Randolph E., Jr.; Gregory, Jeremy R.; Olivetti, Elsa A.

    2017-07-01

    Concerns about the planet's health call for a careful evaluation of the environmental impact of materials choices. Life-cycle assessment is a tool that can help identify sustainable materials pathways by considering the burdens of materials both during production and as a product.

  8. Menopause: A Life Cycle Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evarts, Barbara Kess; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    Family therapists need to address the issue of menopause proactively to be of benefit to couples and families during this transitional period in the family life cycle. Physical, psychological, and psychosocial factors affecting the menopausal woman and her family, and ways to address these issues in counseling are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  9. LIFE CYCLE INITIATIVES IN USEPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing awareness that a single-issue approach to an environmental problem may not lead to an efective long-term strategy. Instead, governments and industries around the world are seeing the value and need to look at the entire life cycle of products and processes from...

  10. Sourcing Life Cycle Inventory Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection and validation of quality lifecycle inventory (LCI) data can be the most difficult and time-consuming aspect of developing a life cycle assessment (LCA). Large amounts of process and production data are needed to complete the LCI. For many studies, the LCA analyst ...

  11. Menopause: A Life Cycle Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evarts, Barbara Kess; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    Family therapists need to address the issue of menopause proactively to be of benefit to couples and families during this transitional period in the family life cycle. Physical, psychological, and psychosocial factors affecting the menopausal woman and her family, and ways to address these issues in counseling are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  12. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (videotape)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Originally developed for the US EPA Regions, this presentation is available to the general public via the internet. The presentation focuses on the basics of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) including the ISO 14040 series framework and a quick overview of each of the steps wi...

  13. Sourcing Life Cycle Inventory Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection and validation of quality lifecycle inventory (LCI) data can be the most difficult and time-consuming aspect of developing a life cycle assessment (LCA). Large amounts of process and production data are needed to complete the LCI. For many studies, the LCA analyst ...

  14. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (videotape)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Originally developed for the US EPA Regions, this presentation is available to the general public via the internet. The presentation focuses on the basics of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) including the ISO 14040 series framework and a quick overview of each of the steps wi...

  15. The Model Life-cycle: Training Module

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Model Life-Cycle includes identification of problems & the subsequent development, evaluation, & application of the model. Objectives: define ‘model life-cycle’, explore stages of model life-cycle, & strategies for development, evaluation, & applications.

  16. Life Cycle Costing Procurement Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Life Cycle Costing (LCC) is an acquisition or procurement technique which considers operating, maintenance, and other costs of ownership as well as acquisition price, in the award of contracts for hardware and related support. The objective of this technique is to insure that the hardware procured will result in the lowest overall ownership cost to the Government during the life of the hardware. This interim guide is limited to the necessary guidelines for implementing LCC in the procurement of less than a complete weapon system in a competitive environment where the

  17. Does It Have a Life Cycle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2010-01-01

    If life continues from generation to generation, then all plants and animals must go through a life cycle, even though it may be different from organism to organism. Is this what students have "learned," or do they have their own private conceptions about life cycles? The formative assessment probe "Does It Have a Life Cycle?" reveals some…

  18. Does It Have a Life Cycle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2010-01-01

    If life continues from generation to generation, then all plants and animals must go through a life cycle, even though it may be different from organism to organism. Is this what students have "learned," or do they have their own private conceptions about life cycles? The formative assessment probe "Does It Have a Life Cycle?" reveals some…

  19. Technology development life cycle processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, David Franklin

    2013-05-01

    This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

  20. Life cycle of cytosolic prions

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Julia; Vorberg, Ina

    2013-01-01

    Prions are self-templating protein aggregates that were originally identified as the causative agent of prion diseases in mammals, but have since been discovered in other kingdoms. Mammalian prions represent a unique class of infectious agents that are composed of misfolded prion protein. Prion proteins usually exist as soluble proteins but can refold and assemble into highly ordered, self-propagating prion polymers. The prion concept is also applicable to a growing number of non-Mendelian elements of inheritance in lower eukaryotes. While prions identified in mammals are clearly pathogens, prions in lower eukaryotes can be either detrimental or beneficial to the host. Prion phenotypes in fungi are transmitted vertically from mother to daughter cells during cell division and horizontally during mating or abortive mating, but extracellular phases have not been reported. Recent findings now demonstrate that in a mammalian cell environment, protein aggregates derived from yeast prion domains exhibit a prion life cycle similar to mammalian prions propagated ex vivo. This life cycle includes a soluble state of the protein, an induction phase by exogenous prion fibrils, stable replication of prion entities, vertical transmission to progeny and natural horizontal transmission to neighboring cells. Our data reveal that mammalian cells contain all co-factors required for cytosolic prion propagation and dissemination. This has important implications for understanding prion-like properties of disease-related protein aggregates. In light of the growing number of identified functional amyloids, cell-to-cell propagation of cytosolic protein conformers might not only be relevant for the spreading of disease-associated proteins, but might also be of more general relevance under non-disease conditions. PMID:24021964

  1. Life cycle of cytosolic prions.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Julia; Vorberg, Ina

    2013-01-01

    Prions are self-templating protein aggregates that were originally identified as the causative agent of prion diseases in mammals, but have since been discovered in other kingdoms. Mammalian prions represent a unique class of infectious agents that are composed of misfolded prion protein. Prion proteins usually exist as soluble proteins but can refold and assemble into highly ordered, self-propagating prion polymers. The prion concept is also applicable to a growing number of non-Mendelian elements of inheritance in lower eukaryotes. While prions identified in mammals are clearly pathogens, prions in lower eukaryotes can be either detrimental or beneficial to the host. Prion phenotypes in fungi are transmitted vertically from mother to daughter cells during cell division and horizontally during mating or abortive mating, but extracellular phases have not been reported. Recent findings now demonstrate that in a mammalian cell environment, protein aggregates derived from yeast prion domains exhibit a prion life cycle similar to mammalian prions propagated ex vivo. This life cycle includes a soluble state of the protein, an induction phase by exogenous prion fibrils, stable replication of prion entities, vertical transmission to progeny and natural horizontal transmission to neighboring cells. Our data reveal that mammalian cells contain all co-factors required for cytosolic prion propagation and dissemination. This has important implications for understanding prion-like properties of disease-related protein aggregates. In light of the growing number of identified functional amyloids, cell-to-cell propagation of cytosolic protein conformers might not only be relevant for the spreading of disease-associated proteins, but might also be of more general relevance under non-disease conditions.

  2. 77 FR 19278 - Informational Meeting on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... participants knowledgeable in nuclear fuel cycles, particularly including those from the public, universities... Informational Meeting on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options AGENCY: Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies, Office of Nuclear.... At this meeting, input is being sought from participants knowledgeable in nuclear fuel...

  3. LIFE CYCLE COSTING IN SYSTEM ACQUISITION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Life cycle costing is defined as the process of estimating all those costs--development, production, operation, and support--which can influence the...acquisition of major defense hardware systems. After discussion of its objectives and characteristics, life cycle costing is separated into three...a) for different stages of the system life cycle , (b) for ’incremental improvement’ systems and ’new generation’ systems, and (c) for overall system

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARISON OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done on various gasoline blends, The purpose of this study is to compare several gasoline blends of 95 and 98 octaine, that meet the vapour pressure upper limit requirement of 60 kPa. This study accounts for the gasoline losses due to evaporation ...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARISON OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done on various gasoline blends, The purpose of this study is to compare several gasoline blends of 95 and 98 octaine, that meet the vapour pressure upper limit requirement of 60 kPa. This study accounts for the gasoline losses due to evaporation ...

  6. From life cycle talking to taking action

    EPA Science Inventory

    The series of Life Cycle Management (LCM) conferences has aimed to create a platform for users and developers of life cycle assessment tools to share their experiences as they challenge traditional environmental management practices, which are narrowly confined (“gate-to-gate”) a...

  7. The Life Cycle of Everyday Stuff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike; Ireton, Shirley Watt

    Life cycle assessment is an important tool for technology planning as solid waste disposal options dwindle and energy prices continue to increase. This guide investigates the life cycles of products. The activities in this book are suitable for secondary earth science, environmental science, physical science, or integrated science lessons. The…

  8. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following document provides an introductory overview of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and describes the general uses and major components of LCA. This document is an update and merger of two previous EPA documents on LCA ("Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Princip...

  9. The Life Cycle of Everyday Stuff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike; Ireton, Shirley Watt

    Life cycle assessment is an important tool for technology planning as solid waste disposal options dwindle and energy prices continue to increase. This guide investigates the life cycles of products. The activities in this book are suitable for secondary earth science, environmental science, physical science, or integrated science lessons. The…

  10. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following document provides an introductory overview of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and describes the general uses and major components of LCA. This document is an update and merger of two previous EPA documents on LCA ("Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Princip...

  11. The priming of periodical cicada life cycles.

    PubMed

    Grant, Peter R

    2005-04-01

    Periodical cicadas in the genus Magicicada have unusually long life cycles for insects, with periodicities of either 13 or 17 years. Biologists have explained the evolution of these prime number period lengths in terms of resource limitation, enemy avoidance, hybridization and climate change. Here, I question two aspects of these explanations: that the origin of the life cycles was associated with Pleistocene ice age events, and that they evolved from shorter life cycles through the lengthening of nymphal stages in annual increments. Instead, I suggest that these life cycles evolved earlier than the Pleistocene and involved an abrupt transition from a nine-year to a 13-year life cycle, driven, in part, by interspecific competition.

  12. HUBBLE SNAPSHOT CAPTURES LIFE CYCLE OF STARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper right of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right and lower left of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). The 'proplyds' in NGC 3603 are 5 to 10 times larger in size and correspondingly also more massive. This single view nicely illustrates the entire stellar life cycle of stars, starting with the Bok globules and giant gaseous pillars, followed by circumstellar disks, and progressing to evolved massive stars in the young starburst cluster. The blue supergiant with its ring and bipolar outflow marks the end of the life cycle. The color difference between the supergiant's bipolar outflow and the diffuse

  13. HUBBLE SNAPSHOT CAPTURES LIFE CYCLE OF STARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper right of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right and lower left of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). The 'proplyds' in NGC 3603 are 5 to 10 times larger in size and correspondingly also more massive. This single view nicely illustrates the entire stellar life cycle of stars, starting with the Bok globules and giant gaseous pillars, followed by circumstellar disks, and progressing to evolved massive stars in the young starburst cluster. The blue supergiant with its ring and bipolar outflow marks the end of the life cycle. The color difference between the supergiant's bipolar outflow and the diffuse

  14. Life Cycle. K-6 Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    Life Cycle is one of the units of a K-6 unified science curriculum program. The unit consists of four organizing sub-themes: (1) past life (focusing on dinosaurs and fossil formation, types, and importance); (2) animal life (examining groups of invertebrates and vertebrates, cells, reproduction, and classification systems); (3) plant life…

  15. Life Cycle. K-6 Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    Life Cycle is one of the units of a K-6 unified science curriculum program. The unit consists of four organizing sub-themes: (1) past life (focusing on dinosaurs and fossil formation, types, and importance); (2) animal life (examining groups of invertebrates and vertebrates, cells, reproduction, and classification systems); (3) plant life…

  16. NiH2 Cycle Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollandsworth, Roger P.; Armantrout, Jon D.; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2002-01-01

    Cycle life studies have been performed at Eagle Picher Technologies (EPT), on HST Mantech design cells with various pedigrees of slurry and dry sinter processed electrodes, to evaluate peak load voltage performance during generic load profile testing. These tests provide information for determining voltage and capacity fade (degradation) mechanisms, and their impact on nickel hydrogen cell cycle life. Comparison of peak load voltage fade, as a function of State of Charge and cycle life, with capacity data from HST indicates that the cycle life limiting mechanism is due to impedance growth, and formation of a second discharge plateau. With a second plateau on discharge, capacity from the cell is still available, but at an unacceptable low voltage of 0.8 V per cell (17.6 V battery). Data shows that cell impedance increases with cycle number and depth of discharge, as expected.

  17. NiH2 Cycle Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollandsworth, Roger P.; Armantrout, Jon D.; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2002-01-01

    Cycle life studies have been performed at Eagle Picher Technologies (EPT), on HST Mantech design cells with various pedigrees of slurry and dry sinter processed electrodes, to evaluate peak load voltage performance during generic load profile testing. These tests provide information for determining voltage and capacity fade (degradation) mechanisms, and their impact on nickel hydrogen cell cycle life. Comparison of peak load voltage fade, as a function of State of Charge and cycle life, with capacity data from HST indicates that the cycle life limiting mechanism is due to impedance growth, and formation of a second discharge plateau. With a second plateau on discharge, capacity from the cell is still available, but at an unacceptable low voltage of 0.8 V per cell (17.6 V battery). Data shows that cell impedance increases with cycle number and depth of discharge, as expected.

  18. All about Animal Life Cycles. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    While watching the development from tadpole to frog, caterpillar to butterfly, and pup to wolf, children learn about the life cycles of animals, the different stages of development, and the average life spans of a variety of creatures. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life Science: characteristics…

  19. All about Animal Life Cycles. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    While watching the development from tadpole to frog, caterpillar to butterfly, and pup to wolf, children learn about the life cycles of animals, the different stages of development, and the average life spans of a variety of creatures. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life Science: characteristics…

  20. Life cycle assessment of gasoline blending options.

    PubMed

    Mata, Teresa M; Smith, Raymond L; Young, Douglas M; Costa, Carlos A V

    2003-08-15

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapor pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline, and reformate have different octane and vapor pressure values as well as different potential environmental impacts. Because the octane and vapor pressure values are nonlinearly related to impacts, the results of this study show that some blends are better for the environment than others. To determine blending component compositions, simulations of a reformer were done at various operating conditions. The reformate products of these simulations had a wide range of octane values and potential environmental impacts. Results of the study indicate that for low-octane gasoline (95 Research Octane Number), lower reformer temperatures and pressures generally decrease the potential environmental impacts. However, different results are obtained for high-octane gasoline (98 RON), where increasing reformer temperatures and pressures increase the reformate octane values faster than the potential environmental impacts. The higher octane values for reformate allow blends to have less reformate, and therefore high-octane gasoline can have lower potential environmental impacts when the reformer is operated at higher temperatures and pressures. In the blends studied, reformate and cracked gasoline have the highest total impacts, of which photochemical ozone creation is the largest contributor (assuming all impact categories are equally weighted). Alkylate has a much lower total potential environmental impact but does have higher impact values for human toxicity by ingestion, aquatic toxicity, terrestrial toxicity, and acidification. Therefore, depending on environmental priorities, different gasoline blends and operating conditions should be chosen to meet octane and vapor pressure specifications.

  1. Life cycle cost based program decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, James S.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: background (space propulsion facility assessment team final report); changes (Advanced Launch System, National Aerospace Plane, and space exploration initiative); life cycle cost analysis rationale; and recommendation to panel.

  2. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: AN INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying relevant inputs and outputs of the defined system and evaluating their potential impacts. This article outlines the four components ...

  3. Betanodavirus: Dissection of the viral life cycle.

    PubMed

    Low, C-F; Syarul Nataqain, B; Chee, H-Y; Rozaini, M Z H; Najiah, M

    2017-04-27

    Progressive research has been recently made in dissecting the molecular biology of Betanodavirus life cycle, the causative pathogen of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in economic important marine fish species. Establishment of betanodavirus infectious clone allows the manipulation of virus genome for functional genomic study, which elucidates the biological event of the viral life cycle at molecular level. The betanodavirus strategizes its replication by expressing anti-apoptosis/antinecrotic proteins to maintain the cell viability during early infection. Subsequently utilizes and controls the biological machinery of the infected cells for viral genome replication. Towards the late phase of infection, mass production of capsid protein for virion assembly induces the activation of host apoptosis pathway. It eventually leads to the cell lysis and death, which the lysis of cell contributes to the accomplishment of viral shedding that completes a viral life cycle. The recent efforts to dissect the entire betanodavirus life cycle are currently reviewed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT - A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of life cycle impact assessment has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Methodologies are currently available to address specific locations within North America, Europe and Asia. Internationally researchers are working togethe...

  5. Life-cycle cost analysis task summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, M.

    1980-01-01

    The DSN life cycle cost (LCC) analysis methodology was completed. The LCC analysis methodology goals and objectives are summarized, as well as the issues covered by the methodology, its expected use, and its long range implications.

  6. Residential Mobility, Age, and the Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, William; Arsdol, Maurice D. Van, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A life cycle explanation of residential mobility is presented. It posits that age-related events in a normative context influence moving probabilities for homogeneous populations who have relatively uniform socialization. (Author)

  7. Simplified Life-Cycle Cost Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, D. S.; Lorden, G.; Eisenberger, I.

    1983-01-01

    Simple method for life-cycle cost (LCC) estimation avoids pitfalls inherent in formulations requiring separate estimates of inflation and interest rates. Method depends for validity observation that interest and inflation rates closely track each other.

  8. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: AN INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying relevant inputs and outputs of the defined system and evaluating their potential impacts. This article outlines the four components ...

  9. Techno-Economics & Life Cycle Assessment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Davis, R.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the techno-economic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) capabilities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and describes the value of working with NREL on TEA and LCA.

  10. Life Cycle of the Career Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffy, Betty E., Ed.; Wolfe, Michael P, Ed.; Pasch, Suzanne H., Ed.; Enz, Billie J., Ed.

    This book demonstrates how teachers and administrators can work collaboratively on maintaining continual growth, focusing on the Life Cycle of the Career Teacher Model, which crosses the continuum of practice from preservice preparation through professional development. Case studies illustrate the Reflection-Renewal-Growth Cycle Model in action.…

  11. Life cycle assessment: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Guinée, Jeroen B; Heijungs, Reinout; Huppes, Gjalt; Zamagni, Alessandra; Masoni, Paolo; Buonamici, Roberto; Ekvall, Tomas; Rydberg, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) has developed fast over the last three decades. Whereas LCA developed from merely energy analysis to a comprehensive environmental burden analysis in the 1970s, full-fledged life cycle impact assessment and life cycle costing models were introduced in the 1980s and 1990 s, and social-LCA and particularly consequential LCA gained ground in the first decade of the 21st century. Many of the more recent developments were initiated to broaden traditional environmental LCA to a more comprehensive Life Cycle Sustainability Analysis (LCSA). Recently, a framework for LCSA was suggested linking life cycle sustainability questions to knowledge needed for addressing them, identifying available knowledge and related models, knowledge gaps, and defining research programs to fill these gaps. LCA is evolving into LCSA, which is a transdisciplinary integration framework of models rather than a model in itself. LCSA works with a plethora of disciplinary models and guides selecting the proper ones, given a specific sustainability question. Structuring, selecting, and making the plethora of disciplinary models practically available in relation to different types of life cycle sustainability questions is the main challenge.

  12. A case study by life cycle assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuyun

    2017-05-01

    This article aims to assess the potential environmental impact of an electrical grinder during its life cycle. The Life Cycle Inventory Analysis was conducted based on the Simplified Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) Drivers that calculated from the Valuation of Social Cost and Simplified Life Cycle Assessment Model (VSSM). The detailed results for LCI can be found under Appendix II. The Life Cycle Impact Assessment was performed based on Eco-indicator 99 method. The analysis results indicated that the major contributor to the environmental impact as it accounts for over 60% overall SLCA output. In which, 60% of the emission resulted from the logistic required for the maintenance activities. This was measured by conducting the hotspot analysis. After performing sensitivity analysis, it is evidenced that changing fuel type results in significant decrease environmental footprint. The environmental benefit can also be seen from the negative output values of the recycling activities. By conducting Life Cycle Assessment analysis, the potential environmental impact of the electrical grinder was investigated.

  13. Life cycle management of analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Parr, Maria Kristina; Schmidt, Alexander H

    2017-06-17

    In modern process management, the life cycle concept gains more and more importance. It focusses on the total costs of the process from invest to operation and finally retirement. Also for analytical procedures an increasing interest for this concept exists in the recent years. The life cycle of an analytical method consists of design, development, validation (including instrumental qualification, continuous method performance verification and method transfer) and finally retirement of the method. It appears, that also regulatory bodies have increased their awareness on life cycle management for analytical methods. Thus, the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH), as well as the United States Pharmacopeial Forum discuss the enrollment of new guidelines that include life cycle management of analytical methods. The US Pharmacopeia (USP) Validation and Verification expert panel already proposed a new General Chapter 〈1220〉 "The Analytical Procedure Lifecycle" for integration into USP. Furthermore, also in the non-regulated environment a growing interest on life cycle management is seen. Quality-by-design based method development results in increased method robustness. Thereby a decreased effort is needed for method performance verification, and post-approval changes as well as minimized risk of method related out-of-specification results. This strongly contributes to reduced costs of the method during its life cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Connections: Life Cycle Kinesthetic Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Office, Grand Junction, CO.

    An understanding of the environment and peoples' role in its preservation and destruction must be acquired in order to circumvent the current threat of environmental deterioration. This document provides lessons developed to help students and others reconnect with the natural systems which sustain life. The following activities are provided for…

  15. The Professional Life Cycle of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberman, Michael

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses trends in the literature related to phases or stages in the professional life of teachers. It then presents the results of a study involving 160 secondary teachers in Switzerland. Findings suggest that four modal sequences are applicable to the professional life cycle of teachers. (IAH)

  16. LIFE Materials: Fuel Cycle and Repository Volume 11

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, H; Blink, J A

    2008-12-12

    The fusion-fission LIFE engine concept provides a path to a sustainable energy future based on safe, carbon-free nuclear power with minimal nuclear waste. The LIFE design ultimately offers many advantages over current and proposed nuclear energy technologies, and could well lead to a true worldwide nuclear energy renaissance. When compared with existing and other proposed future nuclear reactor designs, the LIFE engine exceeds alternatives in the most important measures of proliferation resistance and waste minimization. The engine needs no refueling during its lifetime. It requires no removal of fuel or fissile material generated in the LIFE engine. It leaves no weapons-attractive material at the end of life. Although there is certainly a need for additional work, all indications are that the 'back end' of the fuel cycle does not to raise any 'showstopper' issues for LIFE. Indeed, the LIFE concept has numerous benefits: (1) Per unit of electricity generated, LIFE engines would generate 20-30 times less waste (in terms of mass of heavy metal) requiring disposal in a HLW repository than does the current once-through fuel cycle. (2) Although there may be advanced fuel cycles that can compete with LIFE's low mass flow of heavy metal, all such systems require reprocessing, with attendant proliferation concerns; LIFE engines can do this without enrichment or reprocessing. Moreover, none of the advanced fuel cycles can match the low transuranic content of LIFE waste. (3) The specific thermal power of LIFE waste is initially higher than that of spent LWR fuel. Nevertheless, this higher thermal load can be managed using appropriate engineering features during an interim storage period, and could be accommodated in a Yucca-Mountain-like repository by appropriate 'staging' of the emplacement of waste packages during the operational period of the repository. The planned ventilation rates for Yucca Mountain would be sufficient for LIFE waste to meet the thermal constraints of

  17. The Life Cycle of Engineered Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    González-Gálvez, David; Janer, Gemma; Vilar, Gemma; Vílchez, Alejandro; Vázquez-Campos, Socorro

    2017-01-01

    The first years in the twenty-first century have meant the inclusion of nanotechnology in most industrial sectors, from very specific sensors to construction materials. The increasing use of nanomaterials in consumer products has raised concerns about their potential risks for workers, consumers and the environment. In a comprehensive risk assessment or life cycle assessment, a life cycle schema is the starting point necessary to build up the exposure scenarios and study the processes and mechanisms driving to safety concerns. This book chapter describes the processes that usually occur at all the stages of the life cycle of the nano-enabled product, from the nanomaterial synthesis to the end-of-life of the products. Furthermore, release studies reported in literature related to these processes are briefly discussed.

  18. The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Zone-Oriented Drawings For Life Cycle Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    types in order to best meet the needs of the life cycle management process. The report also identifies the need for System Diagrams to be main- tained...September 1988 NSRP Report 0286 THE NATIONAL SHIPBUILDING RESEARCH PROGRAM Zone-Oriented Drawings For Life Cycle Management U.S. DEPARTMENT OF...TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Zone-Oriented Drawings For Life Cycle Management 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  19. Life cycle assessment of a rock crusher

    SciTech Connect

    Landfield, A.H.; Karra, V.

    1999-07-01

    Nordberg, Inc., a capital equipment manufacturer, performed a Life Cycle Assessment study on its rock crusher to aid in making decisions on product design and energy improvements. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a relatively new cutting edge environmental tool recently standardized by ISO that provides quantitative environmental and energy data on products or processes. This paper commences with a brief introduction to LCA and presents the system boundaries, modeling and assumptions for the rock crusher study. System boundaries include all life major cycle stages except manufacturing and assembly of the crusher. Results of the LCA show that over 99% of most of the flows into and out of the system may be attributed to the use phase of the rock crusher. Within the use phase itself, over 95% of each environmental inflow and outflow (with some exceptions) are attributed to electricity consumption, and not the replacement of spares/wears or lubricating oil over the lifetime of the crusher. Results tables and charts present selected environmental flows, including CO{sub 2} NOx, SOx, particulate matter, and energy consumption, for each of the rock crusher life cycle stages and the use phase. This paper aims to demonstrate the benefits of adopting a rigorous scientific approach to assess energy and environmental impacts over the life cycle of capital equipment. Nordberg has used these results to enhance its engineering efforts toward developing an even more energy efficient machine to further progress its vision of providing economic solutions to its customers by reducing the crusher operating (mainly electricity) costs.

  20. [Life cycle assessment on oxygen biofuels].

    PubMed

    Yi, Hong-hong; Zhu, Yong-qing; Wang, Jian-xin; Hao, Ji-ming

    2005-11-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used to compare energy consumption and pollutant emissions of two oxygen biofuels, ethanol and methyl ester, which were mixed with gasoline and diesel oil at levels of 10% and 30% of the biofuel. The future of oxygen-containing biofuels was analyzed and forecasted. The results show that the mixture of biofuels and petroleum products can reduce crude oil consumption, but only methyl ester alternative fuel can reduce fossil fuel consumption. Use of methyl ester mixtures would reduce NOx by 50% compared to gasoline or diesel on a life cycle basis; however, NOx would increase using ethanol. Each alternative fuel mixture reduced PM10 emissions from the vehicle and methyl ester decreased VOCs. The SO2 emissions from the fuel production processes, which account for about 80% of SO2 life cycle emissions, must be strictly controlled.

  1. Evolution in the Cycles of Life.

    PubMed

    Bowman, John L; Sakakibara, Keiko; Furumizu, Chihiro; Dierschke, Tom

    2016-11-23

    The life cycles of eukaryotes alternate between haploid and diploid phases, which are initiated by meiosis and gamete fusion, respectively. In both ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi and chlorophyte algae, the haploid-to-diploid transition is regulated by a pair of paralogous homeodomain protein encoding genes. That a common genetic program controls the haploid-to-diploid transition in phylogenetically disparate eukaryotic lineages suggests this may be the ancestral function for homeodomain proteins. Multicellularity has evolved independently in many eukaryotic lineages in either one or both phases of the life cycle. Organisms, such as land plants, exhibiting a life cycle whereby multicellular bodies develop in both the haploid and diploid phases are often referred to as possessing an alternation of generations. We review recent progress on understanding the genetic basis for the land plant alternation of generations and highlight the roles that homeodomain-encoding genes may have played in the evolution of complex multicellularity in this lineage.

  2. Trusted Computing Exemplar: Life Cycle Management Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-12

    Waterfall ” and “Spiral”. TCX: Life Cycle Management Plan NPS-CAG-14-002 5 Spiral Model works well within an academic environment where students may...appear to be harshly serial, such that an activity cannot be started before the previous one is completed, which sounds like the traditional Waterfall ...model. The difference between the Spiral Model and the Waterfall Model is that the former allows the cycle to be completed without a deliverable

  3. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energyand carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage) centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability

  4. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energyand carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage) centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability

  5. Meet the Editor: Global Biogeochemical Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    Meinrat Andreae was named the editor of the AGU's journal Global Biogeochemical Cycles last year.Andreae, director of the biogeochemistry department at the Max Plank Institute for Chemistry (MPIC), located in Mainz, Germany said that he plans to maintain the journal as a resource that highlights the broad spectrum of interdisciplinary themes that showcase the interactions between the biosphere and the geosphere. “Our special niche is in the field of larger-scale, more integrative studies that have global scope,” he explained.

  6. Altair Lander Life Support: Requirements Analysis Cycles 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Curley, Su; Rotter, Henry; Yagoda, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Life support systems are a critical part of human exploration beyond low earth orbit. NASA's Altair Lunar Lander has unique missions to perform and will need a unique life support system to complete them. Initial work demonstrated a feasible minimally -functional Lander design. This work was completed in Design Analysis Cycles (DAC) 1, 2, and 3 were reported in a previous paper'. On October 21, 2008, the Altair project completed the Mission Concept Review (MCR), moving the project into Phase A. In Phase A activities, the project is preparing for the System Requirements Review (SRR). Altair has conducted two Requirements Analysis Cycles (RACs) to begin this work. During this time, the life support team must examine the Altair mission concepts, Constellation Program level requirements, and interfaces with other vehicles and spacesuits to derive the right set of requirements for the new vehicle. The minimum functionality design meets some of these requirements already and can be easily adapted to meet others. But Altair must identify which will be more costly in mass, power, or other resources to meet. These especially costly requirements must be analyzed carefully to be sure they are truly necessary, and are the best way of explaining and meeting the true need. If they are necessary and clear, they become important mass threats to track at the vehicle level. If they are not clear or do not seem necessary to all stakeholders, Altair must work to redefine them or push back on the requirements writers. Additionally, the life support team is evaluating new technologies to see if they are more effective than the existing baseline design at performing necessary functions in Altair's life support system.

  7. 10 CFR 436.12 - Life cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life cycle cost methodology. 436.12 Section 436.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.12 Life cycle cost methodology. The life cycle cost...

  8. 10 CFR 436.12 - Life cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life cycle cost methodology. 436.12 Section 436.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.12 Life cycle cost methodology. The life cycle cost...

  9. 10 CFR 436.12 - Life cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life cycle cost methodology. 436.12 Section 436.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.12 Life cycle cost methodology. The life cycle cost...

  10. 10 CFR 436.12 - Life cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life cycle cost methodology. 436.12 Section 436.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.12 Life cycle cost methodology. The life cycle cost...

  11. 10 CFR 436.12 - Life cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life cycle cost methodology. 436.12 Section 436.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.12 Life cycle cost methodology. The life cycle cost...

  12. 10 CFR 436.19 - Life cycle costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life cycle costs. 436.19 Section 436.19 Energy DEPARTMENT... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.19 Life cycle costs. Life cycle costs are the sum of the... (d) Energy and/or water costs....

  13. 10 CFR 436.19 - Life cycle costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life cycle costs. 436.19 Section 436.19 Energy DEPARTMENT... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.19 Life cycle costs. Life cycle costs are the sum of the... (d) Energy and/or water costs....

  14. 10 CFR 436.19 - Life cycle costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life cycle costs. 436.19 Section 436.19 Energy DEPARTMENT... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.19 Life cycle costs. Life cycle costs are the sum of the... (d) Energy and/or water costs....

  15. 10 CFR 436.19 - Life cycle costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life cycle costs. 436.19 Section 436.19 Energy DEPARTMENT... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.19 Life cycle costs. Life cycle costs are the sum of the... (d) Energy and/or water costs....

  16. 10 CFR 436.19 - Life cycle costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life cycle costs. 436.19 Section 436.19 Energy DEPARTMENT... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.19 Life cycle costs. Life cycle costs are the sum of the... (d) Energy and/or water costs....

  17. Designing for the ISD Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Guy W.; Hybert, Peter R.; Smith, Kelly R.; Blecke, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the recent criticisms of traditional ISD (Instructional Systems Design) and discusses the implications that impact the life cycle costs of T&D (Training and Development) projects and their ROI (Return On Investment) potential. Describes a modified approach to ISD which mimics the modular approach of systems engineering design.…

  18. Planning Evaluation through the Program Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheirer, Mary Ann; Mark, Melvin M.; Brooks, Ariana; Grob, George F.; Chapel, Thomas J.; Geisz, Mary; McKaughan, Molly; Leviton, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Linking evaluation methods to the several phases of a program's life cycle can provide evaluation planners and funders with guidance about what types of evaluation are most appropriate over the trajectory of social and educational programs and other interventions. If methods are matched to the needs of program phases, evaluation can and should…

  19. MAKING LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY DATA AVAILABLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Making Life Cycle Inventory Data Available

    Mary Ann Curran
    US EPA, National Risk Management Research Laboratory
    Address: 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive (MS-466)
    Cincinnati, OH 45268 USA
    Phone: 513-569-7782
    Fax: 513-569-7111
    E-Mail: curran.maryann@...

  20. Farinon microwave end of life cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, R.C.

    1996-06-24

    This engineering report evaluates alternatives for the replacement of the Farinon microwave radio system. The system is beyond its expected life cycle and has decreasing maintainability. Principal applications supported by the Farinon system are two electrical utility monitor and control systems, the Integrated Transfer Trip System (ITTS), and the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system.

  1. BROAD-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollution prevention through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a departure from evaluating waste management options that look mainly at single issues such as recyclability or reduced toxicity. An LCA is a snapshot in time of inputs and outputs. It can be used as an objective technic...

  2. A Life Cycle Model for Career Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffy, Betty E.; Wolfe, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    As teachers progress through their careers, they must grow and transform to remain effective. The Life Cycle of the Career Teacher model, which is an application of Mezirow's transformation theory, provides the framework to ensure that all students have competent, caring, and qualified teachers, addressing six stages and transitions teachers face…

  3. Life cycle cost report of VHLW cask

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This document, the Life Cycle Cost Report (LCCR) for the VHLW Cask, presents the life cycle costs for acquiring, using, and disposing of the VHLW casks. The VHLW cask consists of a ductile iron cask body, called the shielding insert, which is used for storage and transportation, and ultimately for disposal of Defense High Level Waste which has been vitrified and placed into VHLW canisters. Each ductile iron VHLW shielding insert holds one VHLW canister. For transportation, the shielding insert is placed into a containment overpack. The VHLW cask as configured for transportation is a legal weight truck cask which will be licensed by NRC. The purpose of this LCCR is to present the development of the life cycle costs for using the VHLW cask to transport VHLW canisters from the generating sites to a disposal site. Life cycle costs include the cost of acquiring, operating, maintaining, and ultimately dispositioning the VHLW cask and its associated hardware. This report summarizes costs associated with transportation of the VHLW casks. Costs are developed on the basis of expected usage, anticipated source and destination locations, and expected quantities of VHLW which must be transported. DOE overhead costs, such as the costs associated with source and destination facility handling of the VHLW, are not included. Also not included are costs exclusive to storage or disposal of the VHLW waste.

  4. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: INVENTORY GUIDELINES AND PRINCIPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is describing the process, the underlying data, and the Inherent assumptions Involved in conducting the Inventory component of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) In order to facilitate understanding by potential users. This Inventory...

  5. SCREENING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's ORD is conducting a screening of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of selected automotive fuel (i.e., gasoline) systems. Although no specific guidelines exist on how to conduct such a streamlined approach, the basic idea is to use a mix of qualitative and quantitative generi...

  6. Planning Evaluation through the Program Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheirer, Mary Ann; Mark, Melvin M.; Brooks, Ariana; Grob, George F.; Chapel, Thomas J.; Geisz, Mary; McKaughan, Molly; Leviton, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Linking evaluation methods to the several phases of a program's life cycle can provide evaluation planners and funders with guidance about what types of evaluation are most appropriate over the trajectory of social and educational programs and other interventions. If methods are matched to the needs of program phases, evaluation can and should…

  7. Emerald ash borer life cycle: a reassessment

    Treesearch

    David Cappaert; Deborah McCullough; Therese Poland

    2005-01-01

    To establish the life cycle of EAB was one of the first objectives of EAB research. Our expectation was that Agrilus planipennis phenology would coincide roughly with that of well-characterized Agrilus species such as A. anxius and A. bilineatus: 1) mid-summer adult flight and oviposition; 2)...

  8. LIFE CYCLE INITIATIVES IN US EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing awareness that a single-issue approach to an environmental problem may not lead to an efective long-term strategy. Instead, governments and industries around the world are seeing the value and need to look at the entire life cycle of products and processes from...

  9. The Life Cycle of the Japanese Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumagai, Fumie

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes the existing Japanese population data, focusing on changes in the timing of events in a family life cycle of Japanese women. Analysis revealed that the overall pattern of the family career of Japanese women today closely resembles that of their American and Canadian counterparts. (LLL)

  10. BROAD-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollution prevention through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a departure from evaluating waste management options that look mainly at single issues such as recyclability or reduced toxicity. An LCA is a snapshot in time of inputs and outputs. It can be used as an objective technic...

  11. Life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Bellamy, S.; Shuler, J.; Decision and Information Sciences; SRL; DOE

    2007-01-01

    The objective of life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging is to ensure the safety functions (i.e. containment of radioactivity, protection against radiation, and criticality safety for fissile contents) during the entire life cycle of the packaging in storage, transportation and disposal. A framework has been developed for life cycle management regarding type B radioactive and fissile materials packaging, drawing upon current US Department of Energy (DOE) storage standards and examples from interim storage of Pu bearing materials in model 9975 transportation packagings. Key issues highlighted during long term storage of Pu bearing materials included gas generation and stability of PuO{sub 2+x}; other operation safety issues highlighted for interim storage of model 9975 transportation packagings included the need to consider a facility design basis fire event and the long term behaviour of packaging components such as Celotex and elastomeric O-ring seals. The principles of aging management are described, and the key attributes and examples of effective aging management programmes are provided based on the guidance documents for license renewal of nuclear power plants. The Packaging Certification Program of DOE Environmental Management, Office of Safety Management and Operations, plans to expand its mission into packaging certification for storage and aging management, as well as application of advanced technology, such as radiofrequency identification, for life cycle management of radioactive materials packagings.

  12. MAKING LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY DATA AVAILABLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Making Life Cycle Inventory Data Available

    Mary Ann Curran
    US EPA, National Risk Management Research Laboratory
    Address: 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive (MS-466)
    Cincinnati, OH 45268 USA
    Phone: 513-569-7782
    Fax: 513-569-7111
    E-Mail: curran.maryann@...

  13. A model for life cycle records management

    SciTech Connect

    Tayfun, A.C.; Gibson, S.

    1996-10-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to update an old Records Management concept; the management of records according to the records life cycle. Accordingly, the authors are presenting a new version of the Records Management life cycle model and its associated elements. The basic concept is that every record progresses through three phases; a record is created, is used and maintained, and dispositioned. In this presentation, the authors update the very old straight line model and the more current circular model with a new model that essentially combines the two. The model portrays Records Management as having a distinct straight-line beginning, a circular use and maintenance phase, and a distinct straight-line end. The presentation maps Records Management Program elements and activities against the phases depicted in the model. The authors believe that this new records life cycle model is an enhanced physical representation of the process. This presentation is designed to help put all of the specialized Records Management topics that participants have heard about during the conference in the perspective of the records life cycle.

  14. Life cycle planning: An evolving concept

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.J.R.; Gorman, I.G.

    1994-12-31

    Life-cycle planning is an evolving concept in the management of oil and gas projects. BHP Petroleum now interprets this idea to include all development planning from discovery and field appraisal to final abandonment and includes safety, environmental, technical, plant, regulatory, and staffing issues. This article describes in the context of the Timor Sea, how despite initial successes and continuing facilities upgrades, BHPP came to perceive that current operations could be the victim of early development successes, particularly in the areas of corrosion and maintenance. The search for analogies elsewhere lead to the UK North Sea, including the experiences of Britoil and BP, both of which performed detailed Life of Field studies in the later eighties. These materials have been used to construct a format and content for total Life-cycle plans in general and the social changes required to ensure their successful application in Timor Sea operations and deployment throughout Australia.

  15. Optimization of life cycle management costs

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, A.K.

    1994-12-31

    As can be seen from the case studies, a LCM program needs to address and integrate, in the decision process, technical, political, licensing, remaining plant life, component replacement cycles, and financial issues. As part of the LCM evaluations, existing plant programs, ongoing replacement projects, short and long-term operation and maintenance issues, and life extension strategies must be considered. The development of the LCM evaluations and the cost benefit analysis identifies critical technical and life cycle cost parameters. These {open_quotes}discoveries{close_quotes} result from the detailed and effective use of a consistent, quantifiable, and well documented methodology. The systematic development and implementation of a plant-wide LCM program provides for an integrated and structured process that leads to the most practical and effective recommendations. Through the implementation of these recommendations and cost effective decisions, the overall power production costs can be controlled and ultimately lowered.

  16. Uncertainty in Life Cycle Assessment of Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seager, T. P.; Linkov, I.

    Despite concerns regarding environmental fate and toxicology, engineered nanostructured material manufacturing is expanding at an increasingly rapid pace. In particular, the unique properties of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) have made them attractive in many areas, including high-tech power applications such as experimental batteries, fuel cells or electrical wiring. The intensity of research interest in SWCNT has raised questions regarding the life cycle environmental impact of nanotechnologies, including assessment of: worker and consumer safety, greenhouse gas emissions, toxicological risks associated with production or product emissions and the disposition of nanoproducts at end of life. However, development of appropriate nanotechnology assessment tools has lagged progress in the nanotechnologies themselves. In particular, current approaches to life cycle assessment (LCA) — originally developed for application in mature manufacturing industries such as automobiles and chemicals — suffer from several shortcomings that make applicability to nanotechnologies problematic. Among these are uncertainties related to the variability of material properties, toxicity and risk, technology performance in the use phase, nanomaterial degradation and change during the product life cycle and the impact assessment stage of LCA. This chapter expounds upon the unique challenges presented by nanomaterials in general, specifies sources of uncertainty and variability in LCA of SWCNT for use in electric and hybrid vehicle batteries and makes recommendations for modeling and decision-making using LCA in a multi-criteria decision analysis framework under conditions of high uncertainty.1

  17. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Jinglan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Yutao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiangzhi

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of electronic waste recycling is quantified. • Key factors for reducing the overall environmental impact are indentified. • End-life disposal processes provide significant environmental benefits. • Efficiently reduce the improper disposal amount of e-waste is highly needed. • E-waste incineration can generate significant environmental burden. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers)

  18. Life cycle assessment of mobile phone housing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-xin; Wang, Ru-song; Fu, Hao; Liu, Jing-ru

    2004-01-01

    The life cycle assessment of the mobile phone housing in Motorola(China) Electronics Ltd. was carried out, in which materials flows and environmental emissions based on a basic production scheme were analyzed and assessed. In the manufacturing stage, such primary processes as polycarbonate molding and surface painting are included, whereas different surface finishing technologies like normal painting, electroplate, IMD and VDM etc. were assessed. The results showed that housing decoration plays a significant role within the housing life cycle. The most significant environmental impact from housing production is the photochemical ozone formation potential. Environmental impacts of different decoration techniques varied widely, for example, the electroplating technique is more environmentally friendly than VDM. VDM consumes much more energy and raw material. In addition, the results of two alternative scenarios of dematerialization showed that material flow analysis and assessment is very important and valuable in selecting an environmentally friendly process.

  19. Hepatitis C virus: virology and life cycle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang Wook; Chang, Kyong-Mi

    2013-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus in the Flaviviridae family. It causes acute hepatitis with a high propensity for chronic infection. Chronic HCV infection can progress to severe liver disease including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the last decade, our basic understanding of HCV virology and life cycle has advanced greatly with the development of HCV cell culture and replication systems. Our ability to treat HCV infection has also been improved with the combined use of interferon, ribavirin and small molecule inhibitors of the virally encoded NS3/4A protease, although better therapeutic options are needed with greater antiviral efficacy and less toxicity. In this article, we review various aspects of HCV life cycle including viral attachment, entry, fusion, viral RNA translation, posttranslational processing, HCV replication, viral assembly and release. Each of these steps provides potential targets for novel antiviral therapeutics to cure HCV infection and prevent the adverse consequences of progressive liver disease.

  20. Life-Cycle Data Management at NOAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2014-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operates over a hundred observing systems which span the environment from the bottom of the ocean to the surface of the Sun. The resulting data are essential for immediate priorities such as weather forecasting, and the data also constitute an irreplaceable resource collected at great cost. It is therefore necessary to carefully preserve this information for ongoing scientific use, for new research and applications, and to ensure reproducibility of scientific conclusions. The NOAA data life-cycle includes activities in three major phases: planning and production, management of the resulting data, and usage activities. This paper will describe current work by the NOAA Environmental Data Management Committee (EDMC), Data Management Integration Team (DMIT), and the NOAA National Data Centers in areas including DM planning, documentation, cataloging, data access, and preservation and stewardship to improve and standardize policies and practices for life-cycle data management.

  1. Low seasonal temperatures promote life cycle synchronization.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, J L; Powell, J A; Logan, J A; Bentz, B J

    2001-05-01

    In this paper we discuss how seasonal temperature variation and life-stage specific developmental thresholds that cause quiescence can synchronize the seasonal development of exothermic organisms. Using a simple aging model it is shown that minimal seasonal temperature variation and periods of quiescence during extreme temperature conditions are sufficient to establish stable, univoltine ovipositional cycles. Quiescence induced by life-stage specific developmental thresholds, in fact, promotes synchronous oviposition and emergence. The mountain pine beetle, an important insect living in extreme temperature conditions and showing no evidence of diapause, invites direct application of this model. Simulations using mountain pine beetle parameters are used to determine temperature regimes for which stable ovipositional cycles exist.

  2. Seasonal temperature alone can synchronize life cycles.

    PubMed

    Powell, J A; Jenkins, J L; Logan, J A; Bentz, B J

    2000-09-01

    In this paper we discuss the effects of yearly temperature variation on the development and seasonal occurrence of poikiliothermic organisms with multiple life stages. The study of voltinism in the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), an important forest insect living in extreme temperature environments and exhibiting no diapause, provides a motivational example. Using a minimal model for the rates of aging it is shown that seasonal temperature variation and minimal stage-specific differences in rates of aging are sufficient to create stable uni- and multi-voltine oviposition cycles. In fact, these cycles are attracting and therefore provide an exogenous mechanism for synchronizing whole populations of organisms. Structural stability arguments are used to extend the results to more general life systems.

  3. Maritime vessel obsolescence, life cycle cost and design service life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, O.; Ilie, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    Maritime vessels have long service life and great costs of building, manning, operating, maintaining and repairing throughout their life. Major actions are needed to repair, renovate, sometime built or even replace those scrapped when technology or demand changes determine obsolescence. It is regarded as a concern throughout vessel's entire life cycle and reflects changes in expectation regarding performances in functioning, safety and environmental effects. While service live may differ from physical lives, expectations about physical lives is the main factors that determines design service life. Performance and failure are illustrated conceptually and represented in a simplified form considering the evolution of vessels parameters during its service life. In the proposed methodology an accumulated vessel lifecycle cost is analyzed and obsolescence is characterized from ship's design, performances, maintenance and management parameters point of view. Romanian ports feeding Black Sea are investigated in order to provide comprehensive information on: number and types of vessels, transport capacity and life cycle length. Recommendations are to be made in order to insure a best practice in lifecycle management in order to reduce costs.

  4. Long cycle life rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasquariello, D. M.; Willstaedt, E. B.; Abraham, K. M.

    1992-01-01

    Cycle life and safety of delta-LiAl/TiS2 cells were evaluated using laboratory and AA-size cells. Analysis of the alloys (which contained 60, 70, 80, or 85 wt-pct. lithium and are designated 60 LiAl etc.) showed them to contain a mixture of elemental Li and Al4Li9. Cycling efficiencies correlated with the amount of free lithium in the anode. Using an electrolyte with the composition 48 v/o THF:48 v/o 2-MeTHF:4 v/o 2-MeF/LiAsF6(1.5M), a 70 LiAl/TiS2 laboratory cell yielded a cycling efficiency of 96.4 pct. when cycled at a 100 pct. discharge depth which compares well with Li anode cycling efficiencies of 96 to 97.5 pct. obtained previously in this electrolyte. The highest cycling efficiency of any delta-LiAl/TiS2 laboratory cell was 96.7 pct. when the 60 LiAl alloy was used with the 35 v/o PC:35 v/o EC:30 v/o triglyme/LiAsF6(1.0M) electrolyte. The 70 LiAl alloy was selected for further testing in AA cells since it was malleable for the fabrication of spirally wound electrodes, and its overall cycling performance was sufficiently good. AA-size 70 LiAl/TiS2 cells appear to have capacity/rate properties similar to those for identical Li/TiS2 cells. The use of the delta-LiAl alloy anodes does not appear to offer any safety advantage when cycled cells are shorted or heated.

  5. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life... short life cycle merchandise which has been the subject of two or more affirmative...

  6. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life... short life cycle merchandise which has been the subject of two or more affirmative dumping...

  7. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life... short life cycle merchandise which has been the subject of two or more affirmative dumping...

  8. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life... short life cycle merchandise which has been the subject of two or more affirmative dumping...

  9. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life... short life cycle merchandise which has been the subject of two or more affirmative dumping...

  10. Conceptual Framework To Extend Life Cycle Assessment ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a decision-making tool that accounts for multiple impacts across the life cycle of a product or service. This paper presents a conceptual framework to integrate human health impact assessment with risk screening approaches to extend LCA to include near-field chemical sources (e.g., those originating from consumer products and building materials) that have traditionally been excluded from LCA. A new generation of rapid human exposure modeling and high-throughput toxicity testing is transforming chemical risk prioritization and provides an opportunity for integration of screening-level risk assessment (RA) with LCA. The combined LCA and RA approach considers environmental impacts of products alongside risks to human health, which is consistent with regulatory frameworks addressing RA within a sustainability mindset. A case study is presented to juxtapose LCA and risk screening approaches for a chemical used in a consumer product. The case study demonstrates how these new risk screening tools can be used to inform toxicity impact estimates in LCA and highlights needs for future research. The framework provides a basis for developing tools and methods to support decision making on the use of chemicals in products. This paper presents a conceptual framework for including near-field exposures into Life Cycle Assessment using advanced human exposure modeling and high-throughput tools

  11. A geospatial data life cycle services framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jörg; Ehbrecht, Carsten; Kindermann, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    We present an OGC standards based framework enabling the stepwise development and integration of data life cycle management services. We concentrate on data life cycle steps after the data generation: data identification, replication, publication and distribution. The framework exposes various data transport, data checking and metadata generation functionalities as individual services. These services can be chained to support users in cross institutional data management activities. The framework is currently being deployed as part of a distributed climate and environmental data life cycle lab initially supporting the following data management activities: - data transport and replication between home institute and a data center - data quality control at a remote compute site or remote data center - assignment of persistent identifiers to data entities - publication of quality results as well as data at a data portal A concrete application scenario is shown, where climate model data is transported to a data center and checked and published as part of a worldwide data federation. From a technology perspective the following basic services are integrated in the application scenario: - iRods middleware based data transport - Handle based persistent identifier assignment - domain specific quality control software - data publication services provided by the worldwide earth system grid data federation (ESGF). All these basic services are wrapped as OGC web processing services and integrated in the presented framework. Next steps include the integration of data services provided by the European EUDAT data infrastructure as well as supporting specific observational data application scenarios.

  12. Minimizing life cycle cost for subsonic commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Vicki S.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology is presented which facilitates the identification of that aircraft design concept which will incur the lowest life-cycle costs (LCCs) while meeting mission requirements. The methodology consists of an LCC module whose constituent elements calculate the costs associated with R&D, testing, evaluation, and production, as well as direct and indirect operating costs, in conjunction with the 'Flight Optimization System' conceptual design/analysis code. Provision is made in the methodology for sensitivities to advanced technologies for the subsonic commercial aircraft in question, which are optimized with respect to minimum gross weight, fuel consumption, acquisition cost, and direct operating cost.

  13. An ideal sealed source life-cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, Joseph Andrew

    2009-01-01

    we have today. This regulation created a new regulatory framework seen as promising at the time. However, now they recognize that, despite the good intentions, the NIJWP/85 has not solved any source disposition problems. The answer to these sealed source disposition problems is to adopt a philosophy to correct these regulatory issues, determine an interim solution, execute that solution until there is a minimal backlog of sources to deal with, and then let the mechanisms they have created solve this problem into the foreseeable future. The primary philosophical tenet of the ideal sealed source life cycle follows. You do not allow the creation (or importation) of any source whose use cannot be justified, which cannot be affordably shipped, or that does not have a well-delinated and affordable disposition pathway. The path forward dictates that we fix the problem by embracing the Ideal Source Life cycle. In figure 1, we can see some of the elements of the ideal source life cycle. The life cycle is broken down into four portions, manufacture, use, consolidation, and disposition. These four arbitrary elements allow them to focus on the ideal life cycle phases that every source should go through between manufacture and final disposition. As we examine the various phases of the sealed source life cycle, they pick specific examples and explore the adoption of the ideal life cycle model.

  14. [Life-cycles, psychopathology and suicidal behaviour].

    PubMed

    Osváth, Péter

    2012-12-01

    According to modern psychological theories the human life implies continuous development, the efficient solution of age-specific problems is necessary to the successful transition of age-periods. The phases of transition are very vulnerable against the accidental stressors and negative life-events. Thus the problem-solving capacity may run out, which impairs chance of the successful coping with stressful events. It may result in some negative consequences, such as different psychopathological symptoms (depression, anxiety, psychosis) or even suicidal behaviour. For that reason we have to pay special attention to the symptoms of psychological crisis and the presuicidal syndrome. In certain life-cycle transitions (such as adolescent, middle or elderly age) the personality has special vulnerability to the development of psychological and psychopathological problems. In this article the most important features of life-cycles and psychopathological symptoms are reviewed. The developmental and age-specific characteristics have special importance in understanding the background of the actual psychological crisis and improving the efficacy of the treatment. Using the complex bio-psycho-socio-spiritual approach not only the actual psychopatological problems, but the individual psychological features can be recognised. Thus the effective treatment relieves not only the actual symptoms, but will increase the chance for solving further crises.

  15. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinglan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Yutao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiangzhi

    2015-04-01

    Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers).

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of Completely Recyclable Concrete

    PubMed Central

    De Schepper, Mieke; Van den Heede, Philip; Van Driessche, Isabel; De Belie, Nele

    2014-01-01

    Since the construction sector uses 50% of the Earth’s raw materials and produces 50% of its waste, the development of more durable and sustainable building materials is crucial. Today, Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) is mainly used in low level applications, namely as unbound material for foundations, e.g., in road construction. Mineral demolition waste can be recycled as crushed aggregates for concrete, but these reduce the compressive strength and affect the workability due to higher values of water absorption. To advance the use of concrete rubble, Completely Recyclable Concrete (CRC) is designed for reincarnation within the cement production, following the Cradle-to-Cradle (C2C) principle. By the design, CRC becomes a resource for cement production because the chemical composition of CRC will be similar to that of cement raw materials. If CRC is used on a regular basis, a closed concrete-cement-concrete material cycle will arise, which is completely different from the current life cycle of traditional concrete. Within the research towards this CRC it is important to quantify the benefit for the environment and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) needs to be performed, of which the results are presented in a this paper. It was observed that CRC could significantly reduce the global warming potential of concrete. PMID:28788174

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Completely Recyclable Concrete.

    PubMed

    De Schepper, Mieke; Van den Heede, Philip; Van Driessche, Isabel; De Belie, Nele

    2014-08-21

    Since the construction sector uses 50% of the Earth's raw materials and produces 50% of its waste, the development of more durable and sustainable building materials is crucial. Today, Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) is mainly used in low level applications, namely as unbound material for foundations, e.g., in road construction. Mineral demolition waste can be recycled as crushed aggregates for concrete, but these reduce the compressive strength and affect the workability due to higher values of water absorption. To advance the use of concrete rubble, Completely Recyclable Concrete (CRC) is designed for reincarnation within the cement production, following the Cradle-to-Cradle (C2C) principle. By the design, CRC becomes a resource for cement production because the chemical composition of CRC will be similar to that of cement raw materials. If CRC is used on a regular basis, a closed concrete-cement-concrete material cycle will arise, which is completely different from the current life cycle of traditional concrete. Within the research towards this CRC it is important to quantify the benefit for the environment and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) needs to be performed, of which the results are presented in a this paper. It was observed that CRC could significantly reduce the global warming potential of concrete.

  18. U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.

    2009-08-01

    Life cycle inventory data are the primary inputs for conducting life cycle assessment studies. Studies based on high-quality data that are consistent, accurate, and relevant allow for robust, defensible, and meaningful results.

  19. Life Cycle Impact Assessment Research Developments and Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) developments are explained along with key publications which record discussions which comprised ISO 14042 and SETAC document development, UNEP SETAC Life Cycle Initiative research, and research from public and private research institutions. It ...

  20. U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-08-01

    Life cycle inventory data are the primary inputs for conducting life cycle assessment studies. Studies based on high-quality data that are consistent, accurate, and relevant allow for robust, defensible, and meaningful results.

  1. Life Cycle Impact Assessment Research Developments and Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) developments are explained along with key publications which record discussions which comprised ISO 14042 and SETAC document development, UNEP SETAC Life Cycle Initiative research, and research from public and private research institutions. It ...

  2. Cycle life test of secondary spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the life cycling program on rechargeable calls are reported. Information on required data, the use of which the data will be put, application details, including orbital description, charge control methods, load rquirements, etc., are given. Cycle tests were performed on 660 sealed, nickel cadmium cells. The cells consisted of seven sample classifications ranging form 3.0 to 20 amp. hours. Nickel cadmium, silver cadmium, and silver zinc sealed cells, excluding synchronous orbit and accelerated test packs were added. The capacities of the nickel cadmium cells, the silver cadmium and the silver zinc cells differed in range of amp hrs. The cells were cylced under different load, charge control, and temperature conditions. All cell packs are recharged by use of a pack voltage limit. All charging is constant current until the voltage limit is reached.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of Wall Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Sriranjani

    Natural resource depletion and environmental degradation are the stark realities of the times we live in. As awareness about these issues increases globally, industries and businesses are becoming interested in understanding and minimizing the ecological footprints of their activities. Evaluating the environmental impacts of products and processes has become a key issue, and the first step towards addressing and eventually curbing climate change. Additionally, companies are finding it beneficial and are interested in going beyond compliance using pollution prevention strategies and environmental management systems to improve their environmental performance. Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) is an evaluative method to assess the environmental impacts associated with a products' life-cycle from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from raw material extraction through to material processing, manufacturing, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and finally, disposal or recycling). This study focuses on evaluating building envelopes on the basis of their life-cycle analysis. In order to facilitate this analysis, a small-scale office building, the University Services Building (USB), with a built-up area of 148,101 ft2 situated on ASU campus in Tempe, Arizona was studied. The building's exterior envelope is the highlight of this study. The current exterior envelope is made of tilt-up concrete construction, a type of construction in which the concrete elements are constructed horizontally and tilted up, after they are cured, using cranes and are braced until other structural elements are secured. This building envelope is compared to five other building envelope systems (i.e. concrete block, insulated concrete form, cast-in-place concrete, steel studs and curtain wall constructions) evaluating them on the basis of least environmental impact. The research methodology involved developing energy models, simulating them and generating changes in energy consumption due to the above mentioned

  4. HSV-1 biology and life cycle.

    PubMed

    Everett, Roger D

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a common and important human pathogen that has been studied in a wide variety of contexts for several decades. This book presents chapters on protocols on many strands of HSV-1 research that are currently in use in leading laboratories. This chapter gives a brief overview of HSV-1 biology and life cycle, covering basic aspects of the virus and its replication in cultured cells, the diseases caused by the virus, viral latency, antiviral defenses, and the mechanisms that the virus uses to counteract these defenses.

  5. Software Development Life Cycle Security Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Daljit; Kaur, Parminder

    2011-12-01

    Security is now-a-days one of the major problems because of many reasons. Security is now-a-days one of the major problems because of many reasons. The main cause is that software can't withstand security attacks because of vulnerabilities in it which are caused by defective specifications design and implementation. We have conducted a survey asking software developers, project managers and other people in software development about their security awareness and implementation in Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). The survey was open to participation for three weeks and this paper explains the survey results.

  6. Regulatory aspects of total product life cycle.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Ethan D; Altaie, Sousan S

    2004-12-01

    Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC) is a conceptual framework for assessing any product or service (medical or otherwise). This article will address how the Center for Devices and Radiological Health of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration utilizes TPLC in a regulatory paradigm. TPLC will help guide the regulation of market-driven evolution of medical devices and radiation-emitting products from conception, through pre-market development, to widespread market use, and finally to obsolescence and replacement by subsequent generations of products.

  7. Geothermal life cycle assessment - part 3

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J. L.; Frank, E. D.; Han, J.; Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.

    2013-11-01

    A set of key issues pertaining to the environmental performance of geothermal electric power have been addressed. They include: 1) greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from geothermal facilities, 2) the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as a geofluid for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), 3) quantifying the impact of well field exploration on the life cycle of geothermal power, and finally 4) criteria pollutant emissions for geothermal and other electric power generation. A GHG emission rate (g/kWh) distribution as function of cumulative running capacity for California has been developed based on California and U. S. government data. The distribution is similar to a global distribution for compared geothermal technologies. A model has been developed to estimate life cycle energy of and CO2 emissions from a coupled pair of coal and EGS plants, the latter of which is powered by scCO2 captured from coal plant side. Depending on the CO2 capture rate on the coal side and the CO2 consumption rate on the EGS side, significant reductions in GHG emissions were computed when the combined system is compared to its conventional coal counterpart. In effect, EGS CO2 consumption acts as a sequestration mechanism for the coal plant. The effects CO2 emissions from the coupled system, prompt on the coal side and reservoir leakage on the EGS side, were considered as well as the subsequent decline of these emissions after entering the atmosphere over a time frame of 100 years. A model was also developed to provide better estimates of the impact of well field exploration on the life cycle performance of geothermal power production. The new estimates increase the overall life cycle metrics for the geothermal systems over those previously estimated. Finally, the GREET model has been updated to include the most recent criteria pollutant emissions for a range of renewable (including geothermal) and other power

  8. Oxidation and low cycle fatigue life prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oshida, Y.; Liu, H. W.

    1984-01-01

    When a metallic material is exposed to a high temperature in an ambient atmosphere, oxidation takes place on the metallic surface. The formed oxides (both surface and grain boundary oxides) are mechanically brittle so that if the stress is high enough the oxides will be cracked. The grain boundary oxide formation in TAZ-8A nickel-base superalloy was studied. The effect of oxide crack nucleus on low cycle fatigue life will be analyzed. The TAZ-8A was subjected to high temperature oxidation tests in air under the stress-free condition. The oxidation temperatures were 600, 800, and 1000 C. The oxidation time varies from 10 to 1000 hours.

  9. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life-cycle cost methodology. 455.64 Section 455.64 Energy..., Hospitals, Units of Local Government, and Public Care Institutions § 455.64 Life-cycle cost methodology. (a) The life-cycle cost methodology under § 455.63(b) of this part is a systematic comparison of...

  10. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that helps to clarify inconsistent and conflicting life cycle GHG emission estimates in the published literature and provide more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from PV systems.

  11. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life-cycle cost methodology. 455.64 Section 455.64 Energy..., Hospitals, Units of Local Government, and Public Care Institutions § 455.64 Life-cycle cost methodology. (a) The life-cycle cost methodology under § 455.63(b) of this part is a systematic comparison of...

  12. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life-cycle cost methodology. 455.64 Section 455.64 Energy..., Hospitals, Units of Local Government, and Public Care Institutions § 455.64 Life-cycle cost methodology. (a) The life-cycle cost methodology under § 455.63(b) of this part is a systematic comparison of...

  13. Evolution of Life Cycles in Early Amphibians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoch, Rainer R.

    2009-05-01

    Many modern amphibians have biphasic life cycles with aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults. The central questions are how and when this complicated ontogeny was established, and what is known about the lives of amphibians in the Paleozoic. Fossil evidence has accumulated that sheds light on the life histories of early amphibians, the origin of metamorphosis, and the transition to a fully terrestrial existence. The majority of early amphibians were aquatic or amphibious and underwent only gradual ontogenetic changes. Developmental plasticity played a major role in some taxa but was restricted to minor modification of ontogeny. In the Permo-Carboniferous dissorophoids, a condensation of crucial ontogenetic steps into a short phase (metamorphosis) is observed. It is likely that the origin of both metamorphosis and neoteny falls within these taxa. Fossil evidence also reveals the sequence of evolutionary changes: apparently, the ontogenetic change in feeding, not the transition to a terrestrial existence per se, made a drastic metamorphosis necessary.

  14. Life cycle analysis sets new priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Fouhy, K.

    1993-07-01

    Industries pressured by government regulations and negative public opinion are increasingly turning to life cycle assessment (LCA) as a life-giving elixir. Once dismissed as a public relations ploy by environmentalists, LCA has become scientifically rigorous, providing a way to defuse environmental debates by answering emotionalism with data. Also called ecobalances or cradle-to-grave analyses, LCAs quantify the environmental impact of a product, from raw material procurement, through manufacturing, distribution and consumption, to disposal. Impacts are presented in terms of emissions or consumption per functional unit--for example, per m.t. of product produced or liter of milk delivered. The paper discusses the analysis method and how it is being used in the chemical process industries.

  15. The Life Cycle of Stratospheric Aerosol Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Jensen, Eric J.; Russell, P. B.; Bauman, Jill J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the life cycle of the background (nonvolcanic) stratospheric sulfate aerosol. The authors assume the particles are formed by homogeneous nucleation near the tropical tropopause and are carried aloft into the stratosphere. The particles remain in the Tropics for most of their life, and during this period of time a size distribution is developed by a combination of coagulation, growth by heteromolecular condensation, and mixing with air parcels containing preexisting sulfate particles. The aerosol eventually migrates to higher latitudes and descends across isentropic surfaces to the lower stratosphere. The aerosol is removed from the stratosphere primarily at mid- and high latitudes through various processes, mainly by isentropic transport across the tropopause from the stratosphere into the troposphere.

  16. Life and Biomedical Sciences and Applications Advisory Subcommittee Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the August 1995 meeting of the Life and Biomedical Sciences and Applications Advisory Subcommittee (LBSAAS) are summarized. The following topics were addressed by the Subcommittee members: the activities and status of the LBSA Division; program activities of the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications (OLMSA); the medical Countermeasures Program; and the Fettman Report on animal research activities at ARC. Also presented were a history and overview of the activities of the Space Station Utilization Advisory Committee and the Advanced Life Support Program (ALSP). The meeting agenda and a list of the Subcommittee members and meeting attendees are included as appendices.

  17. Life and Biomedical Sciences and Applications Advisory Subcommittee Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the August 1995 meeting of the Life and Biomedical Sciences and Applications Advisory Subcommittee (LBSAAS) are summarized. The following topics were addressed by the Subcommittee members: the activities and status of the LBSA Division; program activities of the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications (OLMSA); the medical Countermeasures Program; and the Fettman Report on animal research activities at ARC. Also presented were a history and overview of the activities of the Space Station Utilization Advisory Committee and the Advanced Life Support Program (ALSP). The meeting agenda and a list of the Subcommittee members and meeting attendees are included as appendices.

  18. A Life-Cycle Comparison of Alternative Automobile Fuels.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Heather L; Lave, Lester B; Lankey, Rebecca; Joshi, Satish

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  19. A life-cycle comparison of alternative automobile fuels.

    PubMed

    MacLean, H L; Lave, L B; Lankey, R; Joshi, S

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  20. A data management life-cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferderer, David A.

    2001-01-01

    Documented, reliable, and accessible data and information are essential building blocks supporting scientific research and applications that enhance society's knowledge base (fig. 1). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a leading provider of science data, information, and knowledge, is uniquely positioned to integrate science and natural resource information to address societal needs. The USGS Central Energy Resources Team (USGS-CERT) provides critical information and knowledge on the quantity, quality, and distribution of the Nation's and the world's oil, gas, and coal resources. By using a life-cycle model, the USGS-CERT Data Management Project is developing an integrated data management system to (1) promote access to energy data and information, (2) increase data documentation, and (3) streamline product delivery to the public, scientists, and decision makers. The project incorporates web-based technology, data cataloging systems, data processing routines, and metadata documentation tools to improve data access, enhance data consistency, and increase office efficiency

  1. Life cycle implications of urban green infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Spatari, Sabrina; Yu, Ziwen; Montalto, Franco A

    2011-01-01

    Low Impact Development (LID) is part of a new paradigm in urban water management that aims to decentralize water storage and movement functions within urban watersheds. LID strategies can restore ecosystem functions and reduce runoff loadings to municipal water pollution control facilities (WPCF). This research examines the avoided energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of select LID strategies using life cycle assessment (LCA) and a stochastic urban watershed model. We estimate annual energy savings and avoided GHG emissions of 7.3 GJ and 0.4 metric tons, respectively, for a LID strategy implemented in a neighborhood in New York City. Annual savings are small compared to the energy and GHG intensity of the LID materials, resulting in slow environmental payback times. This preliminary analysis suggests that if implemented throughout an urban watershed, LID strategies may have important energy cost savings to WPCF, and can make progress towards reducing their carbon footprint. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CPL Materials Life Cycle Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchko, Matthew T.

    1992-01-01

    The Capillary Pumped Loop (CPL) Materials Life Cycle Test Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) will identify the operational parameters controlling the performance of a CPL over an extended period of time. The primary purpose of the facility is to investigate the long-term chemical compatibility between the anhydrous ammonia working fluid and the CPL materials of construction. Chemical reactions occurring within the system may produce non-condensable gases or particulate debris that can lead to a degradation in system performance. Small liquid samples will be drawn from the system at specific time intervals and analyzed to check for the presence of non-condensable gases. Periodic maximum and minimum heat load tests will be performed on the CPL to monitor trends in the overall system performance.

  3. STUDIES ON THE LIFE CYCLE OF SPIROCHETES

    PubMed Central

    DeLamater, Edward D.; Wiggall, Richter H.; Haanes, Merle

    1950-01-01

    A series of observations with the phase contrast microscope on the occurrence of a complex life cycle in the pathogenic Treponema pallidum as it occurs in the syphilitic rabbit testis has been presented and it seems likely from these observations that there are two means of vegetative reproduction, consisting of (1) transverse division (the most important under usual conditions); and (2) the production of gemmae or buds which eventuate into unispirochetal cysts comparable to those described for saprophytic forms, within each of which single spirochetes develop and differentiate, and from which they subsequently emerge. In addition preliminary evidence is presented which suggests that a more complex process is involved in which multispirochetal cysts develop following aggregation of two or more organisms. Within each of these larger cysts numerous organisms develop and subsequently emerge as tangled ropes. Following emergence, they subsequently undergo transverse division and gemmae formation, and so reproduce vegetatively. Subsequent papers will elaborate upon these processes. PMID:15436933

  4. Life cycle test of the NOXSO process

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, W.T.; Haslbeck, J.L.; Neal, L.G.

    1990-05-01

    This paper summarizes the data generated by the NOXSO Life Cycle Test Unit (LCTU). The NOXSO process is a dry flue gas treatment system that employs a reusable sorbent. The sorbent consists of sodium carbonate impregnated on a high-surface-area gamma alumina. A fluidized bed of sorbent simultaneously removes SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas at a temperature of 250{degrees}F. The spent sorbent is regenerated for reuse by treatment at high temperature with a reducing gas. This regeneration reduces sorbed sulfur compounds to SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and elemental sulfur. The SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S are then converted to elemental sulfur in a Claus-type reactor. The sulfur produced is a marketable by-product of the process. Absorbed nitrogen oxides are decomposed and evolved on heating the sorbent to regeneration temperature.

  5. Life cycle costing with a discount rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    This article studies life cycle costing for a capability needed for the indefinite future, and specifically investigates the dependence of optimal policies on the discount rate chosen. The two costs considered are reprocurement cost and maintenance and operations (M and O) cost. The procurement price is assumed known, and the M and O costs are assumed to be a known function, in fact, a non-decreasing function, of the time since last reprocurement. The problem is to choose the optimum reprocurement time so as to minimize the quotient of the total cost over a reprocurement period divided by the period. Or one could assume a discount rate and try to minimize the total discounted costs into the indefinite future. It is shown that the optimum policy in the presence of a small discount rate hardly depends on the discount rate at all, and leads to essentially the same policy as in the case in which discounting is not considered.

  6. CPL Materials Life Cycle Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchko, Matthew T.

    1992-07-01

    The Capillary Pumped Loop (CPL) Materials Life Cycle Test Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) will identify the operational parameters controlling the performance of a CPL over an extended period of time. The primary purpose of the facility is to investigate the long-term chemical compatibility between the anhydrous ammonia working fluid and the CPL materials of construction. Chemical reactions occurring within the system may produce non-condensable gases or particulate debris that can lead to a degradation in system performance. Small liquid samples will be drawn from the system at specific time intervals and analyzed to check for the presence of non-condensable gases. Periodic maximum and minimum heat load tests will be performed on the CPL to monitor trends in the overall system performance.

  7. The NCI Thesaurus quality assurance life cycle.

    PubMed

    de Coronado, Sherri; Wright, Lawrence W; Fragoso, Gilberto; Haber, Margaret W; Hahn-Dantona, Elizabeth A; Hartel, Francis W; Quan, Sharon L; Safran, Tracy; Thomas, Nicole; Whiteman, Lori

    2009-06-01

    The National Cancer Institute Enterprise Vocabulary Services (NCI EVS) uses a wide range of quality assurance (QA) techniques to maintain and extend NCI Thesaurus (NCIt). NCIt is a reference terminology and biomedical ontology used in a growing number of NCI and other systems that extend from translational and basic research through clinical care to public information and administrative activities. Both automated and manual QA techniques are employed throughout the editing and publication cycle, which includes inserting and editing NCIt in NCI Metathesaurus. NCI EVS conducts its own additional periodic and ongoing content QA. External reviews, and extensive evaluation by and interaction with EVS partners and other users, have also played an important part in the QA process. There have always been tensions and compromises between meeting the needs of dependent systems and providing consistent and well-structured content; external QA and feedback have been important in identifying and addressing such issues. Currently, NCI EVS is exploring new approaches to broaden external participation in the terminology development and QA process.

  8. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR PC BLEND 2 AIRCRAFT RADOME DEPAINTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the life cycle assessment on a potential replacement solvent blend for aircraft radome depainting at the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center at Tinker Air Force Base. The life cycle assessment is composed of three separate but interrelated components: life cy...

  9. 10 CFR 433.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 433.8 Section 433.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.8 Life-cycle costing. Each Federal agency shall determine life...

  10. 10 CFR 433.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 433.8 Section 433.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.8 Life-cycle costing. Each Federal agency shall determine life...

  11. 10 CFR 433.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 433.8 Section 433.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.8 Life-cycle costing. Each Federal agency shall determine life...

  12. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR PC BLEND 2 AIRCRAFT RADOME DEPAINTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the life cycle assessment on a potential replacement solvent blend for aircraft radome depainting at the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center at Tinker Air Force Base. The life cycle assessment is composed of three separate but interrelated components: life cy...

  13. Life cycle assessment of lithium sulfur battery for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yelin; Li, Jianyang; Li, Tonghui; Gao, Xianfeng; Yuan, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is widely recognized as the most promising battery technology for future electric vehicles (EV). To understand the environmental sustainability performance of Li-S battery on future EVs, here a novel life cycle assessment (LCA) model is developed for comprehensive environmental impact assessment of a Li-S battery pack using a graphene sulfur composite cathode and a lithium metal anode protected by a lithium-ion conductive layer, for actual EV applications. The Li-S battery pack is configured with a 61.3 kWh capacity to power a mid-size EV for 320 km range. The life cycle inventory model is developed with a hybrid approach, based on our lab-scale synthesis of the graphene sulfur composite, our lab fabrication of Li-S battery cell, and our industrial partner's battery production processes. The impacts of the Li-S battery are assessed using the ReCiPe method and benchmarked with those of a conventional Nickle-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM)-Graphite battery pack under the same driving distance per charge. The environmental impact assessment results illustrate that Li-S battery is more environmentally friendly than conventional NCM-Graphite battery, with 9%-90% lower impact. Finally, the improvement pathways for the Li-S battery to meet the USABC (U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium) targets are presented with the corresponding environmental impact changes.

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production

    SciTech Connect

    Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.; Kerr, D. R.

    1999-09-01

    Coal has the largest share of utility power generation in the US, accounting for approximately 56% of all utility-produced electricity (US DOE, 1998). Therefore, understanding the environmental implications of producing electricity from coal is an important component of any plan to reduce total emissions and resource consumption. A life cycle assessment (LCA) on the production of electricity from coal was performed in order to examine the environmental aspects of current and future pulverized coal boiler systems. Three systems were examined: (1) a plant that represents the average emissions and efficiency of currently operating coal-fired power plants in the US (this tells us about the status quo), (2) a new coal-fired power plant that meets the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and (3) a highly advanced coal-fired power plant utilizing a low emission boiler system (LEBS).

  15. Life cycle analysis of energy systems: Methods and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    Fuel-cycle analysis if not the same as life-cycle analysis, although the focus on defining a comprehensive system for analysis leads toward the same path. This approach was the basis of the Brookhaven Reference Energy System. It provided a framework for summing total effects over an explicitly defined fuel cycle. This concept was computerized and coupled with an extensive data base in ESNS -- the Energy Systems Network Simulator. As an example, ESNS was the analytical basis for a comparison of health and environmental effects of several coal conversion technologies. With advances in computer systems and methods, however, ESNS has not been maintained at Brookhaven. The RES approach was one of the bases of the OECD COMPASS Project and the UNEP comparative assessment of environmental impacts of energy sources. An RES model alone has limitations in analyzing complex energy systems, e.g., it is difficult to handle feedback in the network. The most recent version of a series of optimization models is MARKAL, a dynamic linear programming model now used to assess strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the energy system. MARKAL creates an optimal set of reference energy systems over multiple time periods, automatically incorporating dynamic feedback and allowing fuel switching and end-use conservation to meet useful energy demands.

  16. Life cycle analysis of energy systems: Methods and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.

    1992-08-01

    Fuel-cycle analysis if not the same as life-cycle analysis, although the focus on defining a comprehensive system for analysis leads toward the same path. This approach was the basis of the Brookhaven Reference Energy System. It provided a framework for summing total effects over an explicitly defined fuel cycle. This concept was computerized and coupled with an extensive data base in ESNS -- the Energy Systems Network Simulator. As an example, ESNS was the analytical basis for a comparison of health and environmental effects of several coal conversion technologies. With advances in computer systems and methods, however, ESNS has not been maintained at Brookhaven. The RES approach was one of the bases of the OECD COMPASS Project and the UNEP comparative assessment of environmental impacts of energy sources. An RES model alone has limitations in analyzing complex energy systems, e.g., it is difficult to handle feedback in the network. The most recent version of a series of optimization models is MARKAL, a dynamic linear programming model now used to assess strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the energy system. MARKAL creates an optimal set of reference energy systems over multiple time periods, automatically incorporating dynamic feedback and allowing fuel switching and end-use conservation to meet useful energy demands.

  17. MED-SUV Data Life Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangianantoni, Agata; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spampinato, Letizia; Tulino, Sabrina

    2015-04-01

    The MED-SUV project aims to implement a digital e-infrastructure for data access in order to promote the monitoring and study of key volcanic regions prone to volcanic hazards, and thus improve hazard assessment, according to the rationale of Supersite GEO initiative to Vesuvius- Campi Flegrei and Mt Etna, currently identified as Permanent Supersites. The present study focuses on the life cycle of MED-SUV data generated in the first period of the project and highlights the managing approach, as well as the crucial steps to be implemented for ensuring that data will be properly and ethically managed and can be used and accessed from both MED-SUV and the external community. The process is conceived outlining how research data being handled as the project progresses, describing what data are collected, processed or generated and how these data are going to be shared and made available through Open Access. Data cycle begins with their generation and ends with the deposit in the digital infrastructure, its key series of stages through which MED-SUV data passes are Collection, Data citation, Categorization of data, Approval procedure, Registration of datasets, Application of licensing models, and PID assignment. This involves a combination of procedures and practices taking into account the scientific core mission and the priorities of the project as well as the potential legal issues related to the management and protection of the Intellectual Property. We believe that the implementation of this process constitutes a significant encouragement in MED-SUV data sharing and as a consequence a better understanding on the volcanic processes, hazard assessment and a better integration with other Supersites projects.

  18. Life Cycle Cost/System Effectiveness Evaluation and Criteria,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This document contains results of an independent research and development task on life cycle cost performed by Boeing Aerospace Company. This seven...month study is Phase I of a planned continued effort and includes discussion on life cycle cost current state-of-the-art, a planned approach and...relevant to life cycle cost, and an evaluation of 14 computer programs which provided the data base from which cost consideration elements and new criteria were developed. (Author)

  19. Calibration Variability of 15 High Use Life Fitness Cycle Ergometers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-02

    regression of Calories on Watts for the Life Fitness cycle ergometers , the regression equation (Calories = 0.7204 * Watts + 13.04) can be used to compute...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Calibration Variability of 15 High Use Life Fitness Cycle Ergometers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Classic and the Life Fitness 95C Version 4 cycle ergometers as a cardio testing alternative to the 1.5 mile run. The cardio alternative test involves

  20. a Step Towards LIGHT—LIFE Cycle Global Hypertext

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunn, Julian; Palazzi, Paolo; Rousseau, Bertrand; Smith, Matthiew

    Life Cycle Global HyperText offers easier information access to all members of a software development project, with all documents resulting from the software life cycle being available through WWW hypertext. These documents are connected, via hypertext links, to the documents produced in other stages of the life cycle. To experiment with this concept we have developed converters that transform several kind of documents into the WWW format. Up to now we have focused on source code, but we are now concentrating on documents produced in earlier stages of the software life cycle, such as requirements specification, analysis and design.

  1. The Life Cycle of Dust in the Universe: Observations, Theory, and Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, Ciska; Andersen, Anja; Baes, Maarten; Gomez, Haley; Watson, Darach

    This meeting addresses the life cycle of dust in the Universe, which covers the formation, evolution and destruction of dust in a range of environments, ranging from the smallest to the largest scales. Bringing together observational and theoretical astrophysicists as well as meteoriticists and experimentalists allows for a cross-disciplinary dialogue. The meeting follows a successful tradition of astrophysical dust meetings, starting in Albany in 1972, with the latest edition "Cosmic Dust: Near and Far" organized by Th. Henning taking place in Heidelberg in 2008. Since that meeting, the field of dust astrophysics has made major leaps forward with the host of data arriving from such missions as the infrared space telescopes Spitzer and Herschel, and the sample return mission, Stardust, which took dust samples from comet Wild-2. The largest telescope on Earth, ALMA, has also recently come online, allowing for investigations into the origin of dust in the Universe, making this is excellent time to review the status of the field of dust astrophysics. The meeting aims to create an environment in which all aspects of the life cycle of dust are discussed, from an astrophysical, chemical and mineralogical perspective, and its effect on a range of environments. Observational insights, theoretical models and experimental approaches all contribute to our view of the life cycle of dust, and the meeting addresses new developments and future projects in all these areas.

  2. Life cycle costs for disposal and assured isolation of low-level radioactive waste in Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, B.; Sutherland, A.A.; Baird, R.D.

    1998-03-01

    This document presents life cycle costs for a low-level radioactive disposal facility and a comparable assured isolation facility. Cost projections were based on general plans and assumptions, including volume projections and operating life, provided by the Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service, for a facility designed to meet the State`s needs. Life cycle costs include the costs of pre-construction activities, construction, operations, closure, and post-closure institutional control. In order to provide a better basis for understanding the relative magnitude of near-term costs and future costs, the results of present value analysis of ut-year costs are provided.

  3. The principles of life-cycle analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Curlee, T.R.

    1996-05-01

    Decisionmakers representing government agencies must balance competing objectives when deciding on the purchase and sale of assets. The goal in all cases should be to make prudent or financially {open_quotes}cost-effective{close_quotes} decisions. That is, the revenues from the purchase or sale of assets should exceed any out-of-pocket costs to obtain the revenues. However, effects external to these financial considerations such as promoting environmental quality, creating or maintaining jobs, and abiding by existing regulations should also be considered in the decisionmaking process. In this paper, we outline the principles of life-cycle analysis (LCA), a framework that allows decisionmakers to make informed, balanced choices over the period of time affected by the decision, taking into account important external effects. Specifically, LCA contains three levels of analysis for any option: (1) direct financial benefits (revenues) and out-of-pocket costs for a course of action; (2) environmental and health consequences of a decision; and (3) other economic and socio-institutional effects. Because some of the components of LCA are difficult to value in monetary terms, the outcome of the LCA process is not generally a yes-no answer. However, the framework allows the decisionmaker to at least qualitatively consider all relevant factors in analyzing options, promoting sound decisionmaking in the process.

  4. Automation life-cycle cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gathmann, Thomas P.; Reeves, Arlinda J.; Cline, Rick; Henrion, Max; Ruokangas, Corinne

    1992-01-01

    The problem domain being addressed by this contractual effort can be summarized by the following list: Automation and Robotics (A&R) technologies appear to be viable alternatives to current, manual operations; Life-cycle cost models are typically judged with suspicion due to implicit assumptions and little associated documentation; and Uncertainty is a reality for increasingly complex problems and few models explicitly account for its affect on the solution space. The objectives for this effort range from the near-term (1-2 years) to far-term (3-5 years). In the near-term, the envisioned capabilities of the modeling tool are annotated. In addition, a framework is defined and developed in the Decision Modelling System (DEMOS) environment. Our approach is summarized as follows: Assess desirable capabilities (structure into near- and far-term); Identify useful existing models/data; Identify parameters for utility analysis; Define tool framework; Encode scenario thread for model validation; and Provide transition path for tool development. This report contains all relevant, technical progress made on this contractual effort.

  5. Developmental Milestones Across the Programmatic Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Glover-Kudon, Rebecca; DeGroff, Amy; Rohan, Elizabeth A.; Preissle, Judith; Boehm, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2005 through 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded 5 sites to implement a colorectal cancer screening program for uninsured, low-income populations. These 5 sites composed a demonstration project intended to explore the feasibility of establishing a national colorectal cancer screening program through various service delivery models. METHODS A longitudinal, multiple case study was conducted to understand and document program implementation processes. Using metaphor as a qualitative analytic technique, evaluators identified stages of maturation across the programmatic life cycle. RESULTS Analysis rendered a working theory of program development during screening implementation. In early stages, program staff built relationships with CDC and local partners around screening readiness, faced real-world challenges putting program policies into practice, revised initial program designs, and developed new professional skills. Midterm implementation was defined by establishing program cohesiveness and expanding programmatic reach. In later stages of implementation, staff focused on sustainability and formal program closeout, which prompted reflection about personal and programmatic accomplishments. CONCLUSIONS Demonstration sites evolved through common developmental stages during screening implementation. Findings elucidate ways to target technical assistance to more efficiently move programs along their maturation trajectory. In practical terms, the time and cost associated with guiding a program to maturity may be potentially shortened to maximize return on investment for both organizations and clients receiving service benefits. PMID:23868487

  6. The Life-cycle of Operons

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2007-03-15

    Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, buthow and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidatethe life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichiacoli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed anddestroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operonsform, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our findingssuggest that operon evolution may be driven by selection on geneexpression patterns. First, both operon creation and operon destructionlead to large changes in gene expression patterns. For example, theremoval of lysA and ruvA from ancestral operons that contained essentialgenes allowed their expression to respond to lysine levels and DNAdamage, respectively. Second, some operons have undergone acceleratedevolution, with multiple new genes being added during a brief period.Third, although genes within operons are usually closely spaced becauseof a neutral bias toward deletion and because of selection against largeoverlaps, genes in highly expressed operons tend to be widely spacedbecause of regulatory fine-tuning by intervening sequences. Althoughoperon evolution may be adaptive, it need not be optimal: new operonsoften comprise functionally unrelated genes that were already inproximity before the operon formed.

  7. Life cycle benefits of calcium silicate replacements

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrera, J.G.; Woolley, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    The most universal of all binders, produced in huge quantities worldwide, is Portland cement. Following introduction in 1824 by Joseph Aspin, it has quite properly enjoyed popular appeal with craftsmen, architects and engineers for its bonding properties. The manufacture of cement relies largely on primary minerals for feedstock and depends heavily on carboniferous fuels for production. Naturally occurring minerals have similar properties as a binder and have been used in their own right or as partial replacements for cement. Likewise, secondary products recovered from modern manufacturing or energy production processes also have the potential to replace in part a proportion of cement. Life cycle analysis of cement production supports the proposition that large quantities of fossil fuel and primary minerals are being unnecessarily used in situations where alternative replacements are available and frequently placed to waste. This paper considers the implications of cement production on a sustainable environment. It argues that, contrary to some opinions, partial replacement of cement with secondary wastes which have potential cementitious properties can enhance and improve structures which otherwise would include only Portland cement as the binder. Acceptance of this argument would leave massive quantities of primary minerals untouched and reduce the amount of fossil fuels demanded of cement production on the present scale.

  8. The Life-cycle of Operons

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2005-11-18

    Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, but how and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidate the life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichia coli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed and destroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operons form, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our findings suggest that operon evolution is driven by selection on gene expression patterns. First, both operon creation and operon destruction lead to large changes in gene expression patterns. For example, the removal of lysA and ruvA from ancestral operons that contained essential genes allowed their expression to respond to lysine levels and DNA damage, respectively. Second, some operons have undergone accelerated evolution, with multiple new genes being added during a brief period. Third, although most operons are closely spaced because of a neutral bias towards deletion and because of selection against large overlaps, highly expressed operons tend to be widely spaced because of regulatory fine-tuning by intervening sequences. Although operon evolution seems to be adaptive, it need not be optimal: new operons often comprise functionally unrelated genes that were already in proximity before the operon formed.

  9. Phage life cycles behind bacterial biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Olszak, Tomasz; Latka, Agnieszka; Roszniowski, Bartosz; Valvano, Miguel Angel; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna

    2017-04-13

    Bacteriophages (phages or bacterial viruses) are the most abundant biological entities in our planet; their influence reaches far beyond the microorganisms they parasitize. Phages are present in every environment and shape up every bacterial population in both active and passive ways. They participate in the circulation of organic matter and drive the evolution of microorganisms by horizontal gene transfer at unprecedented scales. The mass flow of genetic information in the microbial world influences the biosphere and poses challenges for science and medicine. The genetic flow, however, depends on the fate of the viral DNA injected into the bacterial cell. The archetypal notion of phages only engaging in predator-prey relationships is slowly fading. Because of their varied development cycles, environmental conditions, and the diversity of microorganisms they parasitize, phages form a dense and highly complex web of dependencies, which has important consequences for life on Earth. The sophisticated phage-bacteria interplay includes both aggressive action (bacterial lysis) and "diplomatic negotiations (prophage domestication). Here, we review the most important mechanisms of interactions between phages and bacteria and their evolutionary consequences influencing their biodiversity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. The changing nature of life cycle assessment

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Marcelle C.; Taylor, Caroline M.

    2015-01-01

    LCA has evolved from its origins in energy analysis in the 1960s and 70s into a wide ranging tool used to determine impacts of products or systems over several environmental and resource issues. The approach has become more prevalent in research, industry and policy. Its use continues to expand as it seeks to encompass impacts as diverse as resource accounting and social well being. Carbon policy for bioenergy has driven many of these changes. Enabling assessment of complex issues over a life cycle basis is beneficial, but the process is sometimes difficult. LCA's use in framing is increasingly complex and more uncertain, and in some cases, irreconcilable. The charged environment surrounding biofuels and bioenergy exacerbates all of these. Reaching its full potential to help guide difficult policy discussions and emerging research involves successfully managing LCA's transition from attributional to consequential and from retrospective to prospective. This paper examines LCA's on-going evolution and its use within bioenergy deployment. The management of methodological growth in the context of the unique challenges associated with bioenergy and biofuels is explored. Changes seen in bioenergy LCA will bleed into other LCA arenas, especially where it is important that a sustainable solution is chosen. PMID:26664146

  11. Cycle life testing of 8-cm mercury ion thruster cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, E. G.

    1976-01-01

    Two main cathodes have successfully completed 2800 and 1980 cycles and three neutralizers, 3928, 3050, and 2850 cycles in ongoing cycle life tests of flight-type cathode-isolator-vaporizer and neutralizer-isolator-vaporizer assemblies for the 4.45 mN 8-cm Hg ion thruster system. Each cycle included one hour of cathode operation. Starting and operating conditions simulated those expected in a typical auxiliary propulsion mission duty cycle. This paper presents the cycle life test results and also results of an insert comparison test which led to the selection of a rolled foil insert type for the 8-cm Engineering Model Thruster cathodes.

  12. Cycle life testing of 8-cm mercury ion thruster cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, E. G.

    1976-01-01

    Two main cathodes have successfully completed 2800 and 1980 cycles and three neutralizers, 3928, 3050, and 2850 cycles in ongoing cycle life tests of flight-type cathode-isolator-vaporizer and neutralizer-isolator-vaporizer assemblies for the 4.45 mN 8-cm Hg ion thruster system. Each cycle included one hour of cathode operation. Starting and operating conditions simulated those expected in a typical auxiliary propulsion mission duty cycle. The cycle life test results are presented along with results of an insert comparison test which led to the selection of a rolled foil insert type for the 8-cm Engineering Model Thruster cathodes.

  13. The Systems Development Life Cycle as a Planning Methodology for Library Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, David

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of the systems development life cycle (SDLC) that supports operational and managerial planning of automation projects covers challenges of library automation, evolution and scope of SDLC, lack of dissemination of SDLC literature within library and information science community, and corrective measures to meet library automation demands.…

  14. Effectively Serving the Needs of Today's Business Student: The Product Life Cycle Approach to Class Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Jacqueline K.; Aviles, Maria; Hanna, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We illustrate a class organization process utilizing the concept of the Product Life Cycle to meet the needs of today's millennial student. In the Introduction stage of a business course, professors need to build structure to encourage commitment. In the Growth stage, professors need to promote the structure through multiple, brief activities that…

  15. A life cycle database for parasitic acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes.

    PubMed

    Benesh, Daniel P; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand

    2017-03-01

    Parasitologists have worked out many complex life cycles over the last ~150 yr, yet there have been few efforts to synthesize this information to facilitate comparisons among taxa. Most existing host-parasite databases focus on particular host taxa, do not distinguish final from intermediate hosts, and lack parasite life-history information. We summarized the known life cycles of trophically transmitted parasitic acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes. For 973 parasite species, we gathered information from the literature on the hosts infected at each stage of the parasite life cycle (8,510 host-parasite species associations), what parasite stage is in each host, and whether parasites need to infect certain hosts to complete the life cycle. We also collected life-history data for these parasites at each life cycle stage, including 2,313 development time measurements and 7,660 body size measurements. The result is the most comprehensive data summary available for these parasite taxa. In addition to identifying gaps in our knowledge of parasite life cycles, these data can be used to test hypotheses about life cycle evolution, host specificity, parasite life-history strategies, and the roles of parasites in food webs.

  16. A life cycle database for parasitic acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benesh, Daniel P.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand

    2017-01-01

    Parasitologists have worked out many complex life cycles over the last ~150 years, yet there have been few efforts to synthesize this information to facilitate comparisons among taxa. Most existing host-parasite databases focus on particular host taxa, do not distinguish final from intermediate hosts, and lack parasite life-history information. We summarized the known life cycles of trophically transmitted parasitic acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes. For 973 parasite species, we gathered information from the literature on the hosts infected at each stage of the parasite life cycle (8510 host-parasite species associations), what parasite stage is in each host, and whether parasites need to infect certain hosts to complete the life cycle. We also collected life-history data for these parasites at each life cycle stage, including 2313 development time measurements and 7660 body size measurements. The result is the most comprehensive data summary available for these parasite taxa. In addition to identifying gaps in our knowledge of parasite life cycles, these data can be used to test hypotheses about life cycle evolution, host specificity, parasite life-history strategies, and the roles of parasites in food webs.

  17. Expanded life-cycle analysis to optimize spacecraft life support system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, James F.

    The life-cycle of a human space mission begins with the conceptual design and ends with the return or disposal of the spacecraft. A major component of the spacecraft is the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) that supports the crew. Historically, conceptual designs of ECLSS focused on launch costs; however, current missions with longer timelines have meaningful life cycle costs beyond launch costs. To reduce these costs, the author proposed an expanded life cycle analysis to optimize designs while meeting the somewhat contradictory goals for success and safety. Expanding the life cycle analysis of ECLSS, is particularly important, because space-habitat-maintenance has been anecdotally reported as taking time away from science activities on the International Space Station (ISS). To understand this potential issue, the author examined ISS crew time use and different approaches to ECLSS design. An analysis of ISS crew time use determined that each crew member spent at least 1.8 hours per day performing ISS maintenance tasks. Regardless of the confounding causal mechanisms, crew time spent on habitat maintenance on Skylab and ISS exceeded that estimated by design, thus reducing crew time allotted to perform other tasks, although not necessarily science. Upon further examination, analysis of ECLSS maintenance revealed that operational crew time estimates for the ISS mission design were low by an order of magnitude. A review of the literature indicates this work is the first time that design estimates were compared quantitatively to operational time and shown to be less for ECLSS. Based on these findings, Skylab and ISS missions were oversubscribed due to a mismatch between maintenance and operational time requirements. This mismatch most likely occurred, because only part of operational crew time was considered. Even with the inclusion of operational crew time, the ECLSS design for ISS may not have changed, but the ISS-equivalent case study indicated

  18. Life cycle assessment of biogas upgrading technologies.

    PubMed

    Starr, Katherine; Gabarrell, Xavier; Villalba, Gara; Talens, Laura; Lombardi, Lidia

    2012-05-01

    This article evaluates the life cycle assessment (LCA) of three biogas upgrading technologies. An in-depth study and evaluation was conducted on high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS), as well as alkaline with regeneration (AwR) and bottom ash upgrading (BABIU), which additionally offer carbon storage. AwR and BABIU are two novel technologies that utilize waste from municipal solid waste incinerators - namely bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control residues (APC) - and are able to store CO(2) from biogas through accelerated carbonation processes. These are compared to high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS) which is a widely used technology in Europe. The AwR uses an alkaline solution to remove the CO(2) and then the solution - rich in carbonate and bicarbonate ions - is regenerated through carbonation of APC. The BABIU process directly exposes the gas to the BA to remove and immediately store the CO(2), again by carbonation. It was determined that the AwR process had an 84% higher impact in all LCA categories largely due to the energy intensive production of the alkaline reactants. The BABIU process had the lowest impact in most categories even when compared to five other CO(2) capture technologies on the market. AwR and BABIU have a particularly low impact in the global warming potential category as a result of the immediate storage of the CO(2). For AwR, it was determined that using NaOH instead of KOH improves its environmental performance by 34%. For the BABIU process the use of renewable energies would improve its impact since accounts for 55% of the impact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Break free from the product life cycle.

    PubMed

    Moon, Youngme

    2005-05-01

    Most firms build their marketing strategies around the concept of the product life cycle--the idea that after introduction, products inevitably follow a course of growth, maturity, and decline. It doesn't have to be that way, says HBS marketing professor Youngme Moon. By positioning their products in unexpected ways, companies can change how customers mentally categorize them. In doing so, they can shift products lodged in the maturity phase back--and catapult new products forward--into the growth phase. The author describes three positioning strategies that marketers use to shift consumers' thinking. Reverse positioning strips away"sacred" product attributes while adding new ones (JetBlue, for example, withheld the expected first-class seating and in-flight meals on its planes while offering surprising perks like leather seats and extra legroom). Breakaway positioning associates the product with a radically different category (Swatch chose not to associate itself with fine jewelry and instead entered the fashion accessory category). And stealth positioning acclimates leery consumers to a new offering by cloaking the product's true nature (Sony positioned its less-than-perfect household robot as a quirky pet). Clayton Christensen described how new, simple technologies can upend a market. In an analogous way, these positioning strategies can exploit the vulnerability of established categories to new positioning. A company can use these techniques to go on the offensive and transform a category by demolishing its traditional boundaries. Companies that disrupt a category through positioning create a lucrative place to ply their wares--and can leave category incumbents scrambling.

  20. Life cycle analyses and resource assessments.

    PubMed

    Fredga, Karl; Mäler, Karl-Göran

    2010-01-01

    Prof. Ulgiati stresses that we should always use an ecosystem view when transforming energy from one form to another. Sustainable growth and development of both environmental and human-dominated systems require optimum use of available resources for maximum power output. We have to adapt to the laws of nature because nature has to take care of all the waste products we produce. The presentation addresses a much needed shift away from linear production and consumption pattern, toward reorganization of economies and lifestyle that takes complexity--of resources, of the environment and of the economy--into proper account. The best way to reach maximum yield from the different kinds of biomass is to use biorefineries. Biorefinery is defined as the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products like heat, power, fuels, chemicals, food, feed, and materials. However, biomass from agricultural land must be used for the production of food and not fuel. Prof. Voss focuses on the sustainability of energy supply chains and energy systems. Life cycle analyses (LCA) provides the conceptual framework for a comprehensive comparative evaluation of energy supply options with regard to their resource requirements as well as the health and environmental impact. Full scope LCA considers not only the emissions from plant operation, construction, and decommissioning but also the environmental burdens and resource requirements associated with the entire lifetime of all relevant upstream and downstream processes within the energy chain. This article describes the results of LCA analyses for state-of-the-art heating and electricity systems as well as of advanced future systems. Total costs are used as a measure for the overall resource consumption.

  1. USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TOOLS FOR INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The European Union's new Integrated Product Policy directs governments and companies to consider the entire product life cycle, from cradle to grave, in their environmental decision-making process. A life-cycle based approach is intended to lead toward true environmental improvem...

  2. Bypass control valve seal and bearing life cycle test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundback, A. V.

    1972-01-01

    The operating characteristics of a bypass control valve seal and bearing life cycle tests are reported. Data from the initial assembly, leak, torque, and deflection tests are included along with the cycle life test results and conclusions. The equipment involved was to be used in the nuclear engine for the rocket vehicles program.

  3. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life cycle cost analysis criteria. 434.607 Section 434.607 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle cost...

  4. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life cycle cost analysis criteria. 434.607 Section 434.607 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle cost...

  5. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life cycle cost analysis criteria. 434.607 Section 434.607 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle cost...

  6. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life cycle cost analysis criteria. 434.607 Section 434.607 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle cost...

  7. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life cycle cost analysis criteria. 434.607 Section 434.607 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle cost...

  8. LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE GBU-24

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyro-technic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD...

  9. Life Cycle Thinking, Measurement and Management for Food System Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Nathan

    2015-07-07

    Food systems critically contribute to our collective sustainability outcomes. Improving food system sustainability requires life cycle thinking, measurement and management strategies. This article reviews the status quo and future prospects for bringing life cycle approaches to food system sustainability to the fore.

  10. LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE GBU-24

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyro-technic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD...

  11. Software security checklist for the software life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, D. P.; Wolfe, T. L.; Sherif, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    A formal approach to security in the software life cycle is essential to protect corporate resources. However, little thought has been given to this aspect of software development. Due to its criticality, security should be integrated as a formal approach in the software life cycle.

  12. EVALUATING THE GREENNESS OF IONIC LIQUIDS VIA LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ionic Liquids have been suggested as "greener" replacements to traditional solvents. However, the environmental impacts of the life cycle phases have not been studied. Such a "cradle to gate" Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for comparing the environmental impact of various solvents...

  13. Comparison of Life Cycle Costs for LLRW Management in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, R. D.; Rogers, B. C.; Chau, N.; Kerr, Thomas A

    1999-08-01

    This report documents a comparison of life-cycle costs of an assured isolation facility in Texas versus the life-cycle costs for a traditional belowground low-level radioactive waste disposal facility designed for the proposed site near Sierra Blanca, Texas.

  14. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AMORPHOUS SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The life cycle design framework was applied to photovoltaic module design. The primary objective of this project was to develop and evaluate design metrics for assessing and guiding the Improvement of PV product systems. Two metrics were used to assess life cycle energy perform...

  15. PRODUCT LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT: INVENTORY GUIDELINES AND PRINCIPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) can be used as an objective technical tool to evaluate the environmental consequences of a product, process, or activity holistically, across its entire life cycle. omplete LCA can be viewed as consisting of three complementary components (1) the i...

  16. LCACCESS: A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    LCAccess is an EPA-sponsored website intended to promote the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in business decision-making by faciliatating access to data sources that are useful in developing a life cycle inventory (LCI). While LCAccess does not itself contain data, it is a sea...

  17. Test of US Federal Life Cycle Inventory Data Interoperability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life cycle assessment practitioners must gather data from a variety of sources. For modeling activities in the US, practitioners may wish to use life cycle inventory data from public databases and libraries provided by US government entities. An exercise was conducted to test if ...

  18. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT AN INTRODUCTION AND INTERNATIONAL UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Within the UNEP / SETAC Life Cycle Initiative an effort is underway to provide recommendations about the direction of research and selection of LC...

  19. A Game to Teach the Life Cycles of Fungi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a biological game utilized to teach fungi life cycles to secondary biology students. The game is designed to overcome difficulties of correlating schematic drawings with images seen through the microscope, correlating life cycles of fungi and host, and understanding cyclic development of fungi. (SL)

  20. PRODUCT LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT: INVENTORY GUIDELINES AND PRINCIPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) can be used as an objective technical tool to evaluate the environmental consequences of a product, process, or activity holistically, across its entire life cycle. omplete LCA can be viewed as consisting of three complementary components (1) the i...

  1. 10 CFR 433.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 433.8 Section 433.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.8 Life-cycle costing. Each...

  2. 10 CFR 433.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 433.8 Section 433.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.8 Life-cycle costing. Each...

  3. THE EPA'S EMERGING FOCUS ON LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has been actively engaged in LCA research since 1990 to help advance the methodology and application of life cycle thinking in decision making. Across the Agency consideration of the life cycle concept is increasing in the development of policies and programs. A major force i...

  4. A Generalized Life Cycle Cost Model for Electronic Equipment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The purpose of the study is to develop a generalized life cycle cost model that can be employed by analysts of the Systems/Cost Analysis Office (S...Division. The Life Cycle Cost Handbook included in this document was developed to provide a consistent set of definitions for cost information to be

  5. LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE BGU-24

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyrotechnic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD)...

  6. LCACCESS: A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    LCAccess is an EPA-sponsored website intended to promote the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in business decision-making by faciliatating access to data sources that are useful in developing a life cycle inventory (LCI). While LCAccess does not itself contain data, it is a sea...

  7. EVALUATING THE GREENNESS OF IONIC LIQUIDS VIA LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ionic Liquids have been suggested as "greener" replacements to traditional solvents. However, the environmental impacts of the life cycle phases have not been studied. Such a "cradle to gate" Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for comparing the environmental impact of various solvents...

  8. Addressing software security risk mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) has funded the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with a Center Initiative, 'Reducing Software Security Risk through an Integrated Approach' (RSSR), to address this need. The Initiative is a formal approach to addressing software security in the life cycle through the instantiation of a Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) for the development and maintenance life cycles.

  9. Life cycle impacts of manufacturing redwood decking in Northern California

    Treesearch

    Richard D. Bergman; Elaine Oneil; Ivan L. Eastin; Han-Sup Han

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of the environmental footprint of building construction and use has led to increasing interest in green building. Defining a green building is an evolving process with life cycle inventory and life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) emerging as key tools in that evolution and definition process. This study used LCIA to determine the environmental footprint...

  10. Addressing software security risk mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) has funded the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with a Center Initiative, 'Reducing Software Security Risk through an Integrated Approach' (RSSR), to address this need. The Initiative is a formal approach to addressing software security in the life cycle through the instantiation of a Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) for the development and maintenance life cycles.

  11. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT AN INTRODUCTION AND INTERNATIONAL UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Within the UNEP / SETAC Life Cycle Initiative an effort is underway to provide recommendations about the direction of research and selection of LC...

  12. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AMORPHOUS SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The life cycle design framework was applied to photovoltaic module design. The primary objective of this project was to develop and evaluate design metrics for assessing and guiding the Improvement of PV product systems. Two metrics were used to assess life cycle energy perform...

  13. Dealing with Emergy Algebra in the Life Cycle Assessment Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) represents one of the four steps of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, which is a standardized procedure (ISO 14040:2006) to estimate the environmental impacts generated by the production, use and disposal of goods and services. In this co...

  14. Dealing with Emergy Algebra in the Life Cycle Assessment Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) represents one of the four steps of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, which is a standardized procedure (ISO 14040:2006) to estimate the environmental impacts generated by the production, use and disposal of goods and services. In this co...

  15. LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE BGU-24

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyrotechnic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD)...

  16. The lesbian family life cycle: a contextual approach.

    PubMed

    Slater, S; Mencher, J

    1991-07-01

    A recent broadening of family life cycle theory to include the various family norms deriving from ethnic differences, single parenting, divorce, and remarriage has not extended to the lesbian family experience. The need to articulate a lesbian family life cycle is underscored here with particular attention to the specific challenges and coping mechanisms of this particular family experience.

  17. USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TOOLS FOR INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The European Union's new Integrated Product Policy directs governments and companies to consider the entire product life cycle, from cradle to grave, in their environmental decision-making process. A life-cycle based approach is intended to lead toward true environmental improvem...

  18. THE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON ELECTRICITY DATA FOR LIFE CYCLE INVENTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A three day workshop was held in October 2001 to discuss life cycle inventory data for electricity production. Electricity was selected as the topic for discussion since it features very prominently in the LCA results for most product life cycles, yet there is no consistency in h...

  19. Test of US Federal Life Cycle Inventory Data Interoperability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life cycle assessment practitioners must gather data from a variety of sources. For modeling activities in the US, practitioners may wish to use life cycle inventory data from public databases and libraries provided by US government entities. An exercise was conducted to test if ...

  20. THE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON ELECTRICITY DATA FOR LIFE CYCLE INVENTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A three day workshop was held in October 2001 to discuss life cycle inventory data for electricity production. Electricity was selected as the topic for discussion since it features very prominently in the LCA results for most product life cycles, yet there is no consistency in h...

  1. THE EPA'S EMERGING FOCUS ON LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has been actively engaged in LCA research since 1990 to help advance the methodology and application of life cycle thinking in decision making. Across the Agency consideration of the life cycle concept is increasing in the development of policies and programs. A major force i...

  2. A Game to Teach the Life Cycles of Fungi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a biological game utilized to teach fungi life cycles to secondary biology students. The game is designed to overcome difficulties of correlating schematic drawings with images seen through the microscope, correlating life cycles of fungi and host, and understanding cyclic development of fungi. (SL)

  3. Family Development and the Family Life Cycle: An Empirical Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham; And Others

    The concept of family life cycle has become increasingly prominent in the study of family development--the formation, maintenance, change, and dissolution of marriage and family relations. An evaluation of this concept is accomplished by examining the relationships between three possible stratification schemes: stage of the family life cycle,…

  4. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology applied to energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, P.T.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of the Clean Agile Manufacturing of Propellants, Explosives, and pyrotechnics (CAMPEP) program is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of using modeling, alternate materials and processing technology to reduce PEO life-cycle pollution by up to 90%. Traditional analyses of factory pollution treat the manufacturing facility as the singular pollution source. The life cycle of a product really begins with raw material acquisition and includes all activities through ultimate disposal. The life cycle thus includes other facilities besides the principal manufacturing facility. The pollution generated during the product life cycle is then integrated over the total product lifetime, or represents a ``cradle to grave`` accounting philosophy. This paper addresses a methodology for producing a life-cycle inventory assessment.

  5. Life cycle testing of sodium/sulfur satellite battery cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flake, Richard A.

    Test results on sodium sulfur cells developed presently by the Air Force for NaS rechargeable batteries for baseload power applications are summarized. Cycle life data are presented on fourteen cells, some of which have accumulated more than 1900 days on test and/or more than 6000 cycles. Results demonstrated cycle life times to be sufficient for use on satellites in high-altitude orbits.

  6. Geographic variation in life cycle strategies of a progenetic trematode.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Kristin K; Poulin, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Numerous parasite species have evolved complex life cycles with multiple, subsequent hosts. In trematodes, each transmission event in multi-host life cycles selects for various adaptations, one of which is facultative life cycle abbreviation. This typically occurs through progenesis, i.e., precocious maturity and reproduction via self-fertilization within the second intermediate host. Progenesis eliminates the need for the definitive host and facilitates life cycle completion. Adopting a progenetic cycle may be a conditional strategy in response to environmental cues related to low probability of transmission to the definitive host. Here, the effects of environmental factors on the reproductive strategy of the progenetic trematode Stegodexamene anguillae were investigated using comparisons among populations. In the 3-host life cycle, S. anguillae sexually reproduces within eel definitive hosts, whereas in the progenetic life cycle, S. anguillae reproduces by selfing within the metacercaria cyst in tissues of small fish intermediate hosts. Geographic variation was found in the frequency of progenesis, independent of eel abundance. Progenesis was affected by abundance and length of the second intermediate fish host as well as encystment site within the host. The present study is the first to compare life cycle strategies among parasite populations, providing insight into the often unrecognized plasticity in parasite developmental strategies and transmission.

  7. Fast tidal cycling and the origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathe, Richard

    2004-03-01

    Replicating prebiotic polymers are thought to predate the emergence of true life-forms. The initial mode of replication, a prerequisite for Darwinian selection, is unknown, but demands an explanation based on local physicochemistry. Dual consideration of the conditions of the early terrestrial surface, with the unusual physicochemical properties of nucleic acids like DNA, could explain the emergence of nucleic acids as key biomolecules. The early impact that produced the Moon, and fast terrestrial rotation, subjected coastal areas 3.9 Ga ago to rapid tidal flooding (dilution) and drying (concentration), with a likely periodicity in the range of 2-6 h, and could have provided a driving force for cyclic replication of early biomolecules. Such a mechanism applies only to molecules capable of association/polymerization at high salt concentration, and of dissociation at low salinity. Nucleic acids meet these criteria. It is suggested that tidal cycling, resembling the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) mechanism, could only replicate and amplify DNA-like polymers. This mechanism suggests constraints on the evolution of extra-terrestrial life.

  8. Optimizing product life cycle processes in design phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faneye, Ola. B.; Anderl, Reiner

    2002-02-01

    Life cycle concepts do not only serve as basis in assisting product developers understand the dependencies between products and their life cycles, they also help in identifying potential opportunities for improvement in products. Common traditional concepts focus mainly on energy and material flow across life phases, necessitating the availability of metrics derived from a reference product. Knowledge of life cycle processes won from an existing product is directly reused in its redesign. Depending on sales volume nevertheless, the environmental impact before product optimization can be substantial. With modern information technologies today, computer-aided life cycle methodologies can be applied well before product use. On the basis of a virtual prototype, life cycle processes are analyzed and optimized, using simulation techniques. This preventive approach does not only help in minimizing (or even eliminating) environmental burdens caused by product, costs incurred due to changes in real product can also be avoided. The paper highlights the relationship between product and life cycle and presents a computer-based methodology for optimizing the product life cycle during design, as presented by SFB 392: Design for Environment - Methods and Tools at Technical University, Darmstadt.

  9. Design Considerations and Selection of Equipment for Assured Life Cycle Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Vikas; Sant, S.; Parmar, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    The Indian Navy has been taking giant strides in pursuance of the aim of being a Blue Water Navy. Life cycle support for the ships and submarines, therefore, will have a significant bearing in order to meet the ever increasing operational requirements in the service life of a ship. Technology, processes and the functionality of equipments and on-board systems have undergone considerable development in the recent past. The obsolescence of the ship systems is a constant cause of concern with availability of ever changing technology. Consequently, the availability of ships/submarines for operation gets affected. The maintenance of the ships/submarines thus becomes an ominous task. The focus of the paper is to establish key parameters which consistently would meet the defined goals in support of the ship's life cycle.

  10. Impacts of Vehicle Weight Reduction via Material Substitution on Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Jarod C.; Sullivan, John L.; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-10-20

    This study examines the vehicle-cycle impacts associated with substituting lightweight materials for those currently found in light-duty passenger vehicles. We determine part-based energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission ratios by collecting material substitution data from both the literature and automotive experts and evaluating that alongside known mass-based energy use and GHG emission ratios associated with material pair substitutions. Several vehicle parts, along with full vehicle systems, are examined for lightweighting via material substitution to observe the associated impact on GHG emissions. Results are contextualized by additionally examining fuel-cycle GHG reductions associated with mass reductions relative to the baseline vehicle during the use phase and also determining material pair breakeven driving distances for GHG emissions. The findings show that, while material substitution is useful in reducing vehicle weight, it often increases vehicle-cycle GHGs depending upon the material substitution pair. However, for a vehicle’s total life cycle, fuel economy benefits are greater than the increased burdens associated with the vehicle manufacturing cycle, resulting in a net total life-cycle GHG benefit. The vehicle cycle will become increasingly important in total vehicle life-cycle GHGs, since fuel-cycle GHGs will be gradually reduced as automakers ramp up vehicle efficiency to meet fuel economy standards.

  11. Psychoeducation in the Life Space: Meeting Growth Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Long, Nicholas J.

    2005-01-01

    Effective prevention and intervention requires a variety of complementary methods. But arbitrary mixing of methods can lead to confusion and inconsistency. Life Space Crisis Intervention uses strategies drawn from several theories of re-education that meet the twin standards of scientific validity and positive values. LSCI offers a roadmap for…

  12. Life Cycle Impact Assessment for Land Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to the Millennium Assessment: “Over the past 50 years, humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history, largely to meet rapidly growing demands for food, fresh water, timber, fiber, and fuel. This has ...

  13. Life Cycle Impact Assessment for Land Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to the Millennium Assessment: “Over the past 50 years, humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history, largely to meet rapidly growing demands for food, fresh water, timber, fiber, and fuel. This has ...

  14. ACHIEVING SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH LIFE CYCLE STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is, of course, not a recent concept. But our understanding of what it means and what we need to do to meet the challenge it presents continues to grow. Throughout the ages, nations have had to address the issue of harmony between the environment, society and the e...

  15. ACHIEVING SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH LIFE CYCLE STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is, of course, not a recent concept. But our understanding of what it means and what we need to do to meet the challenge it presents continues to grow. Throughout the ages, nations have had to address the issue of harmony between the environment, society and the e...

  16. The Physician's Life Cycle: Picketing the Outposts

    PubMed Central

    McSherry, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The changes which occur in a physician's life relate to stages of personal and professional development. The balance between the demands of practice and the needs of self and family is critical. Early establishment of personal goals and priorities makes it easy to avoid specific hazards which would otherwise compromise enjoyment of a full life and a productive career. A lifelong personal program of medical education nourishes the professional interest which sustains a busy practitioner throughout a demanding career.

  17. Life Cycles of Ad Hoc Task Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    internal group dynamics, and external influence on the group . Time pressure . Members’ first comments about time pressure appeared at transition meetings...organizational supports and management behavior can influence team effectiveness. Yet it is unclear how such factors may affect the group "_.3...on members’ ability to work together, yet little is known about how the gradual creation of work products influences groups ’ social development. The

  18. The Adult Life Cycle: Exploration and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baile, Susan

    Most of the frameworks that have been constructed to mark off the changes in the cycle of adulthood are characterized by a particular focus such as developmental ages, the role of age and timing, or ego development. The theory of Erik Erikson, based upon his clinical observations, represents these crucial turning points in human development: ages…

  19. The Adult Life Cycle: Exploration and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baile, Susan

    Most of the frameworks that have been constructed to mark off the changes in the cycle of adulthood are characterized by a particular focus such as developmental ages, the role of age and timing, or ego development. The theory of Erik Erikson, based upon his clinical observations, represents these crucial turning points in human development: ages…

  20. A new data architecture for advancing life cycle assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    IntroductionLife cycle assessment (LCA) has a technical architecture that limits data interoperability, transparency, and automated integration of external data. More advanced information technologies offer promise for increasing the ease with which information can be synthesized...

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of Domestic and Agricultural Rainwater Harvesting Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    To further understanding of the environmental implications of rainwater harvesting and its water savings potential relative to conventional U.S. water delivery infrastructure, we present a method to perform life cycle assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) and agricul...

  2. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE, II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Methodologies are currently available to address specific locations within North America, Europe, and Asia. Internationally, researchers are work...

  3. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE, II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Methodologies are currently available to address specific locations within North America, Europe, and Asia. Internationally, researchers are work...

  4. Information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

    1989-01-01

    The Software Management and Assurance Program (SMAP) Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards Document describes the Version 4 standard information system life-cycle in terms of processes, products, and reviews. The description of the products includes detailed documentation standards. The standards in this document set can be applied to the life-cycle, i.e., to each phase in the system's development, and to the documentation of all NASA information systems. This provides consistency across the agency as well as visibility into the completeness of the information recorded. An information system is software-intensive, but consists of any combination of software, hardware, and operational procedures required to process, store, or transmit data. This document defines a standard life-cycle model and content for associated documentation.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Domestic and Agricultural Rainwater Harvesting Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    To further understanding of the environmental implications of rainwater harvesting and its water savings potential relative to conventional U.S. water delivery infrastructure, we present a method to perform life cycle assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) and agricul...

  6. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  7. Esterase activity during the life cycle of Blastocladiella emersonii.

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, C L; Camargo, E P

    1975-01-01

    Total esterase activity was measured in extracts on Blastocladiella throughout its life cycle by the degradation of alpha-naphthyl acetate. A fivefold incease in activity, apparently due to the synthesis of new enzymes, was found during sporulation. PMID:1194246

  8. Life Cycle Costs in Education: Operations & Maintenance Considered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussatche, Helena; Languell-Urquhart, Jennifer; Woodson, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Discusses life cycle cost analysis when deciding on flooring finishes and examines operations and maintenance cost effectiveness relative to hard, resilient, and soft flooring. A chart of evaluated flooring materials' characteristics, appropriate maintenance procedures, and recommended frequency is included. (GR)

  9. A new data architecture for advancing life cycle assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    IntroductionLife cycle assessment (LCA) has a technical architecture that limits data interoperability, transparency, and automated integration of external data. More advanced information technologies offer promise for increasing the ease with which information can be synthesized...

  10. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contributions of three major gasoline blending components (reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline) to potential environmental impacts are assessed. This study estimates losses of the gasoline blending components due to evaporation and leaks through their life cycle, from pe...

  12. Electrically assisted cycling: a new mode for meeting physical activity guidelines?

    PubMed

    Simons, Monique; Van Es, Eline; Hendriksen, Ingrid

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of the electrically assisted bicycle (EAB) as a novel tool for meeting the physical activity guidelines in terms of intensity. Twelve habitually active adult subjects were requested to cycle a track of 4.3 km at an intensity they would normally choose for commuter cycling, using three different support settings: no support (NO), eco support (ECO), and power support (POW). For estimating the intensity, the oxygen consumption was measured by using a portable gas-analyzing system, and HR was simultaneously measured. The bicycle was equipped with the SRM Training System to measure subjects' power output, pedaling rate, and the cycle velocity. Mean intensity was 6.1 MET for NO, 5.7 MET for ECO, and 5.2 MET for POW. Intensity was significantly lower in POW compared with that in NO. No differences were found between NO and ECO and between ECO and POW. Mean HR was significantly higher in NO compared with that in ECO and POW. The cycling speed with electrical support settings was significantly higher than cycling in the NO condition. Mean power output during cycling was significantly different among all three conditions. Most power outputs were supplied in the NO condition, and the lowest power output was supplied in the POW condition. Intensity during cycling on an EAB, in all three measured conditions, is sufficiently high to contribute to the physical activity guidelines for moderate-intensity health-enhancing physical activity for adults (cutoff, 3 MET). Further study is needed to conclude whether these results still hold when using the EAB in regular daily life and in subjects with other fitness level.

  13. An Examination of Operational Availability in Life Cycle Cost Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    necessary and identify by block number) Life Cycle Cost Management Reliability Life Cycle Cost Model Maintainability Availability Supportability...availability and the relative cost for those levels. 2 The analytical models must go beyond individual parameters of reliability and maintainability (R&M...availability is a function of reliability and maintainability (R&M) (3:20). The two terms that comprise the function are defined here. Reliability : The

  14. Life Cycle Cost Guide for Major Weapon Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    organizing, directing, coordinating, controlling , and approval actions designed to accomplish overall program objectives during the investment phase ...factors controlled by 2 dimensioning scalars simultaneously. There are 7 matricies in the model. They are as follows: 147 (I) The 2 matricies subscripted...ten cost categories and three life cycle phases . Within each cost category as identified by life cycle phase is given: cost-percent of total category

  15. Data Stewardship throughout the Ocean Research Data Life Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Allison, Molly; Wiebe, Peter; Glover, David

    2013-04-01

    identifiers to unambiguously identify resources of interest curated by and available from BCO-DMO have significantly enabled progress toward interoperability with partner systems. Several important components have emerged from early collaborative relationships: (1) identifying a trusted authoritative source of complementary content and the appropriate contact; (2) determining the globally unique, persistent identifier for resources of interest and (3) negotiating the requisite syntactic and semantic exchange systems. An added benefit is the ability to use globally unique, persistent resource identifiers to identify and compare related content in other repositories, thus enabling us to improve the accuracy of content in the BCO-DMO data collection. Results from a recent community discussion at the January 2013 Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) meeting will be presented. Mindful of the NSF EarthCube initiative in the United States, the ESIP discussion was an effort to identify commonalities and differences in the way different communities meet the challenges of data stewardship throughout the full data life cycle and to determine any gaps that currently exist. BCO-DMO: http://bco-dmo.org ESIP: http://esipfed.org/

  16. High Cycle-life Shape Memory Polymer at High Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Deyan; Xiao, Xinli

    2016-01-01

    High cycle-life is important for shape memory materials exposed to numerous cycles, and here we report shape memory polyimide that maintained both high shape fixity (Rf) and shape recovery (Rr) during the more than 1000 bending cycles tested. Its critical stress is 2.78 MPa at 250 °C, and the shape recovery process can produce stored energy of 0.218 J g−1 at the efficiency of 31.3%. Its high Rf is determined by the large difference in storage modulus at rubbery and glassy states, while the high Rr mainly originates from its permanent phase composed of strong π-π interactions and massive chain entanglements. Both difference in storage modulus and overall permanent phase were preserved during the bending deformation cycles, and thus high Rf and Rr were observed in every cycle and the high cycle-life will expand application areas of SMPs enormously. PMID:27641148

  17. High Cycle-life Shape Memory Polymer at High Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Deyan; Xiao, Xinli

    2016-09-01

    High cycle-life is important for shape memory materials exposed to numerous cycles, and here we report shape memory polyimide that maintained both high shape fixity (Rf) and shape recovery (Rr) during the more than 1000 bending cycles tested. Its critical stress is 2.78 MPa at 250 °C, and the shape recovery process can produce stored energy of 0.218 J g‑1 at the efficiency of 31.3%. Its high Rf is determined by the large difference in storage modulus at rubbery and glassy states, while the high Rr mainly originates from its permanent phase composed of strong π-π interactions and massive chain entanglements. Both difference in storage modulus and overall permanent phase were preserved during the bending deformation cycles, and thus high Rf and Rr were observed in every cycle and the high cycle-life will expand application areas of SMPs enormously.

  18. Life cycle costs for chemical process pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Urwin, B.; Blong, R.; Jamieson, C.; Erickson, B.

    1998-01-01

    Though construction and startup costs are always a concern, proper investment in equipment and installation will save money down the line. This is particularly important for heavily used items, such as centrifugal pumps, one of the workhouses of the chemical process industries (CPI). By properly sizing and installing a centrifugal pump, the life and efficiency of the pump can be increased. At the same time, maintenance costs can be reduced. When considering a new pump, there are several areas that require attention. The first is the baseplate design. The impeller is another area of concern. The seal chamber, the third area of importance, must be designed for proper heat dissipation and lubrication of seal faces. Lastly, the power end must be considered. Optimum bearing life, effective oil cooling and minimum shaft deflection are all vital. The paper discusses installation costs, operating cost, maintenance cost, seal environment, and extended bearing life.

  19. Life cycle cost evaluation of the digital opacity compliance system.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Palmer, Glenn R; Olivas, Arthur C

    2010-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established EPA Reference Method 9 (Method 9) as the preferred enforcement approach for verifying compliance with federal visible opacity standards. While Method 9 has an extensive history of successful employment, reliance on human observers to quantify visible emissions is inherently subjective, a characteristic that exposes Method 9 results to claims of inaccuracy, bias and, in some cases, outright fraud. The Digital Opacity Compliance System (DOCS), which employs commercial-off-the-shelf digital photography coupled with simple computer processing, is a new approach for quantifying visible opacity. The DOCS technology has been previously demonstrated to meet and, in many cases, surpass the Method 9 accuracy and reliability standards (McFarland et al., 2006). Beyond its performance relative to Method 9, DOCS provides a permanent visual record of opacity, a vital feature in legal compliance challenges. In recent DOCS field testing, the opacity analysis of two hundred and forty one (241) regulated air emissions from the following industrial processes: 1) industrial scrubbers, 2) emergency generators, 3) asphalt paving, 4) steel production and 5) incineration indicated that Method 9 and DOCS were statistically equivalent at the 99% confidence level. However, a life cycle cost analysis demonstrated that implementation of DOCS could potentially save a facility $15,732 per trained opacity observer compared to utilization of Method 9. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a large, complex project in which a number of different research activities are taking place concurrently to collect data, develop cost and LCI methodologies, construct a database and decision support tool, and conduct case studies with communities to support the life cyc...

  1. LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a large, complex project in which a number of different research activities are taking place concurrently to collect data, develop cost and LCI methodologies, construct a database and decision support tool, and conduct case studies with communities to support the life cyc...

  2. Life cycle GHG emissions from microalgal biodiesel--a CA-GREET model.

    PubMed

    Woertz, Ian C; Benemann, John R; Du, Niu; Unnasch, Stefan; Mendola, Dominick; Mitchell, B Greg; Lundquist, Tryg J

    2014-06-03

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) focused on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the production of microalgal biodiesel was carried out based on a detailed engineering and economic analysis. This LCA applies the methodology of the California Low Carbon Fuel Standard (CA LCFS) and uses life cycle inventory (LCI) data for process inputs, based on the California-Modified Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (CA GREET) model. Based on detailed mass and energy balances, calculated GHG emissions from this algal biodiesel system are 70% lower than those of conventional diesel fuel, meeting the minimum 50% GHG reduction requirements under the EPA RFS2 and 60% for the European Union Renewable Energy Directive. This LCA study provides a guide to the research and development objectives that must be achieved to meet both economic and environmental goals for microalgae biodiesel production.

  3. 10 CFR 435.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 435.8 Section 435.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.8 Life...

  4. 10 CFR 435.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 435.8 Section 435.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.8 Life...

  5. 10 CFR 435.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 435.8 Section 435.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.8 Life...

  6. 10 CFR 435.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 435.8 Section 435.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.8 Life...

  7. 10 CFR 435.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 435.8 Section 435.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.8 Life...

  8. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF A FUEL TANK SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This life cycle design (LCD) project was a collaborative effort between the National Pollution Prevention Center at the University of Michigan, General Motors (GM), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary objective of this project was to apply life cyc...

  9. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF A FUEL TANK SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This life cycle design (LCD) project was a collaborative effort between the National Pollution Prevention Center at the University of Michigan, General Motors (GM), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary objective of this project was to apply life cyc...

  10. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Cycle life test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The service life and storage stability for several storage batteries were determined. The batteries included silver-zinc batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, and silver-cadmium batteries. The cell performance characteristics and limitations are to be used by spacecraft power systems planners and designers. A statistical analysis of the life cycle prediction and cause of failure versus test conditions is presented.

  11. Models of life: epigenetics, diversity and cycles.

    PubMed

    Sneppen, Kim

    2017-04-01

    This review emphasizes aspects of biology that can be understood through repeated applications of simple causal rules. The selected topics include perspectives on gene regulation, phage lambda development, epigenetics, microbial ecology, as well as model approaches to diversity and to punctuated equilibrium in evolution. Two outstanding features are repeatedly described. One is the minimal number of rules to sustain specific states of complex systems for a long time. The other is the collapse of such states and the subsequent dynamical cycle of situations that restitute the system to a potentially new metastable state.

  12. Models of life: epigenetics, diversity and cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneppen, Kim

    2017-04-01

    This review emphasizes aspects of biology that can be understood through repeated applications of simple causal rules. The selected topics include perspectives on gene regulation, phage lambda development, epigenetics, microbial ecology, as well as model approaches to diversity and to punctuated equilibrium in evolution. Two outstanding features are repeatedly described. One is the minimal number of rules to sustain specific states of complex systems for a long time. The other is the collapse of such states and the subsequent dynamical cycle of situations that restitute the system to a potentially new metastable state.

  13. Cycle life characteristics of Li-TiS2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deligiannis, Frank; Shen, D.; Huang, C. K.; Surampudi, S.

    1991-01-01

    The development of lithium ambient temperature rechargeable cells is discussed. During the development process, we hope to gain a greater understanding of the materials and the properties of the Li-TiS2 cell and its components. The design will meet the requirements of 100 Wh/Kg and 1000 cycles, at 50 percent depth-of-discharge, by 1995.

  14. Cycle life characteristics of Li-TiS2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deligiannis, Frank; Shen, D.; Huang, C. K.; Surampudi, S.

    1991-01-01

    The development of lithium ambient temperature rechargeable cells is discussed. During the development process, we hope to gain a greater understanding of the materials and the properties of the Li-TiS2 cell and its components. The design will meet the requirements of 100 Wh/Kg and 1000 cycles, at 50 percent depth-of-discharge, by 1995.

  15. Developmental plasticity and the evolution of animal complex life cycles

    PubMed Central

    Minelli, Alessandro; Fusco, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Metazoan life cycles can be complex in different ways. A number of diverse phenotypes and reproductive events can sequentially occur along the cycle, and at certain stages a variety of developmental and reproductive options can be available to the animal, the choice among which depends on a combination of organismal and environmental conditions. We hypothesize that a diversity of phenotypes arranged in developmental sequence throughout an animal's life cycle may have evolved by genetic assimilation of alternative phenotypes originally triggered by environmental cues. This is supported by similarities between the developmental mechanisms mediating phenotype change and alternative phenotype determination during ontogeny and the common ecological condition that favour both forms of phenotypic variation. The comparison of transcription profiles from different developmental stages throughout a complex life cycle with those from alternative phenotypes in closely related polyphenic animals is expected to offer critical evidence upon which to evaluate our hypothesis. PMID:20083638

  16. Life cycle risk assessment of bottom ash reuse.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsiu-ching; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2011-06-15

    The life cycle thinking was integrated with risk assessment to develop the life cycle risk assessment (LCRA) methodology in this study. Because LCRA assessed risks from a life cycle perspective of the concerned policies, it was helpful to identify important sources, contaminants, receptors and exposure pathways along the life cycle of reuse activities. The case study showed that different reuse scenarios resulted in risk shift between different life stages and receptors, and using duration of pavement was an essential factor for risk management. When ash reuse strategies were made based on a focus on the stage of reuse, the rank of strategies were shown to be different from the one based on the total population risks over the entire life cycle. This demonstrated the importance of decision criteria used in selecting reuse strategies. The results also showed that when bottom ash was reused, the health risk was shifted to the laborers; the individual risks of laborers were higher than residents through exposure to Cr and Cd via inhalation and dermal contact. Although the population risk at the treatment stage was the highest, the smaller size of exposed population would make it quite effective to reduce the risk of the laborers.

  17. Life Cycle Reversal in Aurelia sp.1 (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    He, Jinru; Zheng, Lianming; Zhang, Wenjing; Lin, Yuanshao

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aurelia is one of the major contributors to jellyfish blooms in coastal waters, possibly due in part to hydroclimatic and anthropogenic causes, as well as their highly adaptive reproductive traits. Despite the wide plasticity of cnidarian life cycles, especially those recognized in certain Hydroza species, the known modifications of Aurelia life history were mostly restricted to its polyp stage. In this study, we document the formation of polyps directly from the ectoderm of degenerating juvenile medusae, cell masses from medusa tissue fragments, and subumbrella of living medusae. This is the first evidence for back-transformation of sexually mature medusae into polyps in Aurelia sp.1. The resulting reconstruction of the schematic life cycle of Aurelia reveals the underestimated potential of life cycle reversal in scyphozoan medusae, with possible implications for biological and ecological studies.

  18. Life Cycle Reversal in Aurelia sp.1 (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinru; Zheng, Lianming; Zhang, Wenjing; Lin, Yuanshao

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aurelia is one of the major contributors to jellyfish blooms in coastal waters, possibly due in part to hydroclimatic and anthropogenic causes, as well as their highly adaptive reproductive traits. Despite the wide plasticity of cnidarian life cycles, especially those recognized in certain Hydroza species, the known modifications of Aurelia life history were mostly restricted to its polyp stage. In this study, we document the formation of polyps directly from the ectoderm of degenerating juvenile medusae, cell masses from medusa tissue fragments, and subumbrella of living medusae. This is the first evidence for back-transformation of sexually mature medusae into polyps in Aurelia sp.1. The resulting reconstruction of the schematic life cycle of Aurelia reveals the underestimated potential of life cycle reversal in scyphozoan medusae, with possible implications for biological and ecological studies. PMID:26690755

  19. Transpiration during life cycle in controlled wheat growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler; Rummel, John D.

    1989-01-01

    A previously-developed model of wheat growth, designed for convenient incorporation into system-level models of advanced space life support systems is described. The model is applied to data from an experiment that grew wheat under controlled conditions and measured fresh biomass and cumulated transpiration as a function of time. The adequacy of modeling the transpiration as proportional to the inedible biomass, and an age factor which varies during the life cycle, are examined. Results indicate that during the main phase of vegetative growth in the first half of the life cycle, the rate of transpiration per unit mass of inedible biomass is more than double the rate during the phase of grain development and maturation during latter half of the life cycle.

  20. Role of nondestructive evaluation in life cycle management

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.

    1997-12-18

    This paper provides an overview of some common NDE methods and several examples for the use of different NDE techniques throughout the life cycle of a product. NDE techniques are being used to help determine material properties, design new implants, extend the service life of aircraft, and help dispose of radioactive waste in a safe manner. It is the opinion of this author and others that the NDE community needs to work more closely with end users in the life cycle of a product to better incorporate NDE techniques. The NDE community needs to highlight the importance of NDE in the entire life-cycle process of a product by showing real costs savings to the manufacturing community.

  1. Life Cycle and Suicidal Behavior among Women

    PubMed Central

    Mendez-Bustos, Pablo; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Baca-García, Enrique; Ceverino, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    It is nowadays accepted that, independently of methodological issues, women commit fewer suicides than men but make more frequent attempts. Yet, female suicidal risk varies greatly along the lifetime and is linked to the most significant moments in it. A wide analysis of the existing literature was performed to provide a narrative description on the evolution of female suicidal rates from childhood to old age, considering the milestones in their life history. A detailed analysis of gender differences in suicidal behavior is key to establish preventive measures and priorities. More specific studies are needed to adapt future interventions on female suicide. PMID:23533350

  2. High cycle life secondary lithium battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Carter, Boyd J. (Inventor); Shen, David H. (Inventor); Somoano, Robert B. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A secondary battery (10) of high energy density and long cycle is achieved by coating the separator (18) with a film (21) of cationic polymer such as polyvinyl-imidazoline. The binder of the positive electrode (14) such as an ethylene-propylene elastomer binder (26) containing particles (28) of TiS.sub.2 chalcogenide can also be modified to contain sulfone functional groups by incorporating liquid or solid sulfone materials such as 0.1 to 5 percent by weight of sulfolane into the binder. The negative lithium electrode (14), separator (18) and positive electrode (16) are preferably spirally wound and disposed within a sealed casing (17) containing terminals (32, 34). The modified separator and positive electrode are more wettable by the electrolytes in which a salt is dissolved in a polar solvent such as sulfolane.

  3. Long life nickel electrodes for a nickel-hydrogen cell: Cycle life tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    In order to develop a long life nickel electrode for a Ni/H2 cell, the cycle life of nickel electrodes was tested in Ni/H2 boiler plate cells. A 19 test cell matrix was made of various nickel electrode designs including three levels each of plaque mechanical strength, median pore size of the plaque, and active material loading. Test cells were cycled to the end of their life (0.5v) in a 45 minute low Earth orbit cycle regime at 80% depth-of-discharge. It is shown that the active material loading level affects the cycle life the most with the optimum loading at 1.6 g/cc void. Mechanical strength does not affect the cycle life noticeably in the bend strength range of 400 to 700 psi. It is found that the best plaque is made of INCO nickel powder type 287 and has median pore size of 13 micron.

  4. Electric-bus life-cycle cost study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    A detailed study of the Santa Barbara Metropolitan Transit District (MTD) electric-bus program was conducted and resulted in a comprehensive set of cost data. These costs are compared with the life cycle costs of diesel buses. Direct comparisons of the life cycle costs of battery-electric buses and of diesel-fueled buses were not found to be meaningful without considering the environmental costs and benefits associated with both vehicle types; some of these factors are discussed in the study. The duty cycles most appropriate to the two bus types are not generally comparable. Electric shuttle-bus life cycle costs with flooded-cell lead-acid battery are 108% of the costs attributable to a diesel shuttle. Costs with the maintenance-free lead-acid and flooded-cell nickel-cadmium batteries are 113% and 117% relative to diesel, respectively. The monetary value attributed to emissions avoided by the use of electric buses depends on the local air quality situation. Labor costs are the major component of electric-bus life cycle costs, incremental advances in the enabling technologies will bring electric-bus costs close to those of diesel-fueled buses. Advances in battery technology will widen the range of duty cycles appropriate to electric buses.

  5. Hair through the female life cycle.

    PubMed

    Messenger, A G

    2011-12-01

    At a population level female scalp hair growth shows features of regression with chronological ageing, although there is wide interindividual variation in timing and degree. The subjective assessment of hair loss is classically determined by hair density but it is apparent that other factors contribute to the clinical picture. Changes can occur in hair cycling, hair density, hair diameter and pigmentation, and possibly in structural qualities of the hair fibre. These changes are most pronounced in female pattern hair loss. Although conventionally considered as the female counterpart of male androgenetic alopecia the evidence that female pattern hair loss is androgen dependent is less clear cut than in men and it probably has a multifactorial basis. The emerging evidence implicating environmental factors is of particular interest as, unlike genes, such factors may be amenable to intervention. The clinical signs in women complaining of hair loss may be variable. In evaluating the patient complaining of hair loss, while true pathology must always be considered, the clinician needs to be aware of how age affects hair growth. These changes form the focus of this article. © 2011 The Author. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Life cycle water footprints of nonfood biomass fuels in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Xie, Xiaomin; Huang, Zhen

    2014-04-01

    This study presented life cycle water footprints (WFs) of biofuels from biomass in China based on the resource distribution, climate conditions, soil conditions and crop growing characteristics. Life cycle WFs including blue, green and gray water were evaluated for the selected fuel pathways. Geographical differences of water requirements were revealed to be different by locations. The results indicated that water irrigation requirements were significantly different from crop to crop, ranging from 2-293, 78-137, and 17-621 m(3)/ha, for sweet sorghum, cassava, and Jatropha curcas L., respectively. Four biofuel pathways were selected on this basis to analyze the life cycle WF: cassava based bioethanol in Guangxi, sweet sorghum based bioethanol in Northeast China, Jatropha curcal L. based biodiesel in Yunnan and microalgae based biodiesel in Hainan. The life cycle WFs of bioethanol from cassava and sweet sorghum were 3708, and 17 156 m(3) per ton of bioethanol, respectively, whereas for biodiesel produced from Jatropha curcas L. and microalgae, they were 5787, and 31 361 m(3) per ton of biodiesel, respectively. The crop growing stage was the main contributor to the whole life cycle of each pathway. Compared to blue and green water, gray water was significant due to the use of fertilizer during the growing of biomass. From the perspective of the WF, cassava based bioethanol in Guangxi and Jatropha based biodiesel in Yunnan were suitable for promotion, whereas the promotion for microalage based biodiesel in Hainan required improvement on technology.

  7. Life cycle assessment part 2: current impact assessment practice.

    PubMed

    Pennington, D W; Potting, J; Finnveden, G; Lindeijer, E; Jolliet, O; Rydberg, T; Rebitzer, G

    2004-07-01

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling, through to ultimate disposal. These all contribute to impacts such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, photooxidant formation (smog), eutrophication, acidification, toxicological stress on human health and ecosystems, the depletion of resources and noise-among others. The need exists to address these product-related contributions more holistically and in an integrated manner, providing complimentary insights to those of regulatory/process-oriented methodologies. A previous article (Part 1, Rebitzer et al., 2004) outlined how to define and model a product's life cycle in current practice, as well as the methods and tools that are available for compiling the associated waste, emissions and resource consumption data into a life cycle inventory. This article highlights how practitioners and researchers from many domains have come together to provide indicators for the different impacts attributable to products in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of life cycle assessment (LCA).

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit

    2011-01-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites is gaining momentum with the pressure to lightweight vehicles, however energy-intensity and cost remain some of the major barriers before this material could be used in large-scale automotive applications. A representative automotive part, i.e., a 30.8 kg steel floor pan having a 17% weight reduction potential with stringent cash performance requirements has been considered for the life cycle energy and emissions analysis based on the latest developments occurring in the precursor type (conventional textile-based PAN vs. renewable-based lignin), part manufacturing (conventional SMC vs. P4) and fiber recycling technologies. Carbon fiber production is estimated to be about 14 times more energy-intensive than conventional steel production, however life cycle primary energy use is estimated to be quite similar to the conventional part, i.e., 18,500 MJ/part, especially when considering the uncertainty in LCI data that exists from using numerous sources in the literature. Lignin P4 technology offers the most life cycle energy and CO2 emissions benefits compared to a conventional stamped steel technology. With a 20% reduction in energy use in the lignin conversion to carbon fiber and free availability of lignin as a by-product of ethanol and wood production, a 30% reduction in life cycle energy use could be obtained. A similar level of life cycle energy savings could also be obtained with a higher part weight reduction potential of 43%.

  9. Merging the managed care cycle and revenue cycle to meet strategic goals.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Paul; Messinger, Stephen

    2003-03-01

    By integrating the functions of the managed care cycle and the revenue cycle, providers can more readily obtain appropriate payment. The managed care cycle emphasizes strategy, while the revenue cycle emphasizes day-to-day business functions. The four phases of the managed care cycle are interlinked. Management requires information obtained from the revenue cycle to decide upon action needed in the managed care cycle.

  10. Geothermal activity helps life survive glacial cycles.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Ceridwen I; Terauds, Aleks; Smellie, John; Convey, Peter; Chown, Steven L

    2014-04-15

    Climate change has played a critical role in the evolution and structure of Earth's biodiversity. Geothermal activity, which can maintain ice-free terrain in glaciated regions, provides a tantalizing solution to the question of how diverse life can survive glaciations. No comprehensive assessment of this "geothermal glacial refugia" hypothesis has yet been undertaken, but Antarctica provides a unique setting for doing so. The continent has experienced repeated glaciations that most models indicate blanketed the continent in ice, yet many Antarctic species appear to have evolved in almost total isolation for millions of years, and hence must have persisted in situ throughout. How could terrestrial species have survived extreme glaciation events on the continent? Under a hypothesis of geothermal glacial refugia and subsequent recolonization of nongeothermal regions, we would expect to find greater contemporary diversity close to geothermal sites than in nongeothermal regions, and significant nestedness by distance of this diversity. We used spatial modeling approaches and the most comprehensive, validated terrestrial biodiversity dataset yet created for Antarctica to assess spatial patterns of diversity on the continent. Models clearly support our hypothesis, indicating that geothermally active regions have played a key role in structuring biodiversity patterns in Antarctica. These results provide critical insights into the evolutionary importance of geothermal refugia and the history of Antarctic species.

  11. The life cycle of Drosophila orphan genes.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Nicola; Kosiol, Carolin; Schlötterer, Christian

    2014-02-19

    Orphans are genes restricted to a single phylogenetic lineage and emerge at high rates. While this predicts an accumulation of genes, the gene number has remained remarkably constant through evolution. This paradox has not yet been resolved. Because orphan genes have been mainly analyzed over long evolutionary time scales, orphan loss has remained unexplored. Here we study the patterns of orphan turnover among close relatives in the Drosophila obscura group. We show that orphans are not only emerging at a high rate, but that they are also rapidly lost. Interestingly, recently emerged orphans are more likely to be lost than older ones. Furthermore, highly expressed orphans with a strong male-bias are more likely to be retained. Since both lost and retained orphans show similar evolutionary signatures of functional conservation, we propose that orphan loss is not driven by high rates of sequence evolution, but reflects lineage-specific functional requirements. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01311.001.

  12. Geothermal activity helps life survive glacial cycles

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Ceridwen I.; Terauds, Aleks; Smellie, John; Convey, Peter; Chown, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has played a critical role in the evolution and structure of Earth’s biodiversity. Geothermal activity, which can maintain ice-free terrain in glaciated regions, provides a tantalizing solution to the question of how diverse life can survive glaciations. No comprehensive assessment of this “geothermal glacial refugia” hypothesis has yet been undertaken, but Antarctica provides a unique setting for doing so. The continent has experienced repeated glaciations that most models indicate blanketed the continent in ice, yet many Antarctic species appear to have evolved in almost total isolation for millions of years, and hence must have persisted in situ throughout. How could terrestrial species have survived extreme glaciation events on the continent? Under a hypothesis of geothermal glacial refugia and subsequent recolonization of nongeothermal regions, we would expect to find greater contemporary diversity close to geothermal sites than in nongeothermal regions, and significant nestedness by distance of this diversity. We used spatial modeling approaches and the most comprehensive, validated terrestrial biodiversity dataset yet created for Antarctica to assess spatial patterns of diversity on the continent. Models clearly support our hypothesis, indicating that geothermally active regions have played a key role in structuring biodiversity patterns in Antarctica. These results provide critical insights into the evolutionary importance of geothermal refugia and the history of Antarctic species. PMID:24616489

  13. Mission Cycle Life Prediction for C/SiC Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Stanley R.

    2004-01-01

    The residual strength and life of C/SiC is dominated by carbon interface and fiber oxidation if thermal and mechanical stresses combine with thermal expansion mismatch in a manner such that seal coat and matrix cracks are open to allow oxygen ingress. Under these circumstances life can be predicted by simple oxidation based models based on reaction controlled kinetics at low temperature and gas phase diffusion controlled kinetics at high temperature. Key life governing variables in these models include temperature, applied stress, initial strength, oxygen partial pressure and total pressure. In this paper these models are described and extended to mission cycle life prediction.

  14. Early-Life Origins of Life-Cycle Well-Being: Research and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population…

  15. Animal Life Cycles. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. The stages of life that animals pass through--birth, growth, maturation, reproduction, and death--make up the life cycle. Students learn…

  16. Animal Life Cycles. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. The stages of life that animals pass through--birth, growth, maturation, reproduction, and death--make up the life cycle. Students learn…

  17. Early-Life Origins of Life-Cycle Well-Being: Research and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population…

  18. Life cycle assessment and life cycle costs for pre-disaster waste management systems.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Yohei; Peii, Tsai; Tabata, Tomohiro; Saeki, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    This study develops a method of environmental and economic evaluation of an integrated disaster waste management system that considers the spatial scale of removal, transport, and treatment of disaster waste. A case study was conducted on combustibles, which is a type of disaster waste derived from dwellings, in Mie Prefecture, Japan. First, we calculated the quantity and the spatial distribution of disaster waste derived from dwellings and tsunami debris produced as a result of a large-scale earthquake. The quantity of disaster waste was estimated as 7,178,000t with functioning flood-preventing facilities and 11,956,000t without functioning flood prevention facilities. Ensuring resilience in the face of earthquakes and tsunamis by renovating flood-preventing facilities is extremely important in decreasing the production of wastes, especially in coastal regions. Next, the transportation network for transporting combustibles in disaster waste to temporary storage sites, incineration plants, and landfill was constructed using an optimization model. The results showed that if flood-preventing facilities do not function properly, the installation of temporary incineration facilities becomes essential. Life-cycle emissions of CO2, SOx, NOx, and PM and the costs of removal, storage, and treatment of combustibles were calculated as 258,000t, 618t, 1705t, 7.9t, and 246millionUSD, respectively, in the case of functioning flood-preventing facilities. If flood-preventing facilities do not function, the quantity of environmentally unfriendly emissions and the costs increase. This result suggested the significance of renovation in order to maintain the conditions of flood-preventing facilities to decrease the environmental burden and costs as well as keep the production of disaster waste at a minimum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. DWPF Air Lift Pump Life Cycle Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    IMRICH, KENNETH

    2004-03-15

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) air lift pump was successfully tested at Clemson for 72 days of operation. It provided sufficient flow to pump molten glass without excessive foaming. Slurry feeding also did not reveal any problems with cold cap stability. Metallurgically the Inconel 690 (690) portions of the pump were in excellent condition with no visual evidence of degradation even in high flow regions, i.e., air/melt interface and glass discharge regions. Spinel deposits, which completely covered the air passage on one side, were found at the inlet of each platinum/rhodium (Pt/Rh) nozzle. Although the deposits were extensive, they were porous and did not have an adverse effect on the operation of the pump. The technique used to secure the platinum/rhodium nozzles to the 690 housing appeared to be adequate with only minor oxidation of the 690 threads and glass in-leakage. Galvanic attack was observed where the nozzle formed a seal with the 690. Significant pitting of the 690 was observed around the entire seal. Intergranular cracking of the Pt/Rh alloy was extensive but the cause could not be determined. Testing would be required to evaluate the degradation. Data from the performance test and the metallurgical evaluation are being used to modify the design of the first DWPF production air lift pump. It will be fabricated entirely from 690 and use argon as the purge gas. It is intended to have a service life of 6 months. Recommendations for insertion, operation, and inspection of the pump are also included in this report. Performance data collected from the operation of the production pump will be used to further optimize the design. Laboratory exposure tests should also be performed to evaluate the galvanic effect between platinum/rhodium and 690.

  20. Security Risks: Management and Mitigation in the Software Life Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David P.

    2004-01-01

    A formal approach to managing and mitigating security risks in the software life cycle is requisite to developing software that has a higher degree of assurance that it is free of security defects which pose risk to the computing environment and the organization. Due to its criticality, security should be integrated as a formal approach in the software life cycle. Both a software security checklist and assessment tools should be incorporated into this life cycle process and integrated with a security risk assessment and mitigation tool. The current research at JPL addresses these areas through the development of a Sotfware Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) and integrating it with a Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP) risk management tool.

  1. Security Risks: Management and Mitigation in the Software Life Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David P.

    2004-01-01

    A formal approach to managing and mitigating security risks in the software life cycle is requisite to developing software that has a higher degree of assurance that it is free of security defects which pose risk to the computing environment and the organization. Due to its criticality, security should be integrated as a formal approach in the software life cycle. Both a software security checklist and assessment tools should be incorporated into this life cycle process and integrated with a security risk assessment and mitigation tool. The current research at JPL addresses these areas through the development of a Sotfware Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) and integrating it with a Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP) risk management tool.

  2. Quantifying Cost Risk Early in the Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    B. Mar

    2004-11-04

    A new method for analyzing life cycle cost risk on large programs is presented that responds to an increased emphasis on improving sustainability for long-term programs. This method provides better long-term risk assessment and risk management techniques. It combines standard Monte Carlo analysis of risk drivers and a new data-driven method developed by the BMDO. The approach permits quantification of risks throughout the entire life cycle without resorting to difficult to support subjective methods. The BMDO methodology is shown to be relatively straightforward to apply to a specific component or process within a project using standard technical risk assessment methods. The total impact on system is obtained using the program WBS, which allows for the capture of correlated risks shared by multiple WBS items. Once the correlations and individual component risks are captured, a Monte Carlo simulation can be run using a modeling tool such as ANALYTICA to produce the overall life cycle cost risk.

  3. [Carbon balance analysis of corn fuel ethanol life cycle].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-shan; Yuan, Xi-gang

    2006-04-01

    The quantity of greenhouse gas emissions (net carbon emissions) of corn-based fuel ethanol, which is known as an alternative for fossil fuel is an important criteria for evaluating its sustainability. The methodology of carbon balance analysis for fuel ethanol from corn was developed based on principles of life cycle analysis. For the production state of fuel ethanol from summer corn in China, carbon budgets in overall life cycle of the ethanol were evaluated and its main influence factors were identified. It presents that corn-based fuel ethanol has no obvious reduction of carbon emissions than gasoline, and potential improvement in carbon emission of the life cycle of corn ethanol could be achieved by reducing the nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation electricity used in the corn farming and energy consumption in the ethanol conversion process.

  4. Early Life Cycle Cost Trade Study By Parametric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehm, Roy; Patrakis, Stan

    1982-06-01

    Unit production cost and life cycle cost tradestudy considerations are basic to the affordability of a new product. A major portion of the life cycle cost of a product, including production cost, are found to result from decisions made early in the planning phases of a program. Computerized parametric cost modeling generates cost estimates using the information that is available before the developing of engineering detail. The RCA PRICE program, available to all potential users, is used to illustrate the input requirements and steps necessary for parametric estimating of costs for development, production and support in the life cycle of a product. A laser rangefinder equipment is used as a product example to show the utility of this analysis.

  5. Life cycle Analysis of Aluminum Foil Packaging Material.

    PubMed

    El Sebaie, Olfat; Ahmed, Manal; Hussein, Ahmed; El Sharkawy, Fahmay; Samy, Manal

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental tent of life cycle analysis (LCA) is that every material product must become a waste. To choose the greener products, it is necessary to take into account their environmental impacts from cradle to grave. LCA is the tool used to measure environmental improvements. Aluminum (Al) is the third most common element found in the earth's crust, after oxygen and silicon. Al packaging foil was chosen as the material for the study with its life cycle perspective at Alexandria. The Al packaging produced from virgin and recycled Al was investigated through life cycle stages in these two production processes; primary and secondary. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental impact of aluminum packaging process by using life cycle analysis of its product from two different starting raw materials (virgin and recycled aluminum). The input and output materials, energy, water, natural gas consumptions, and solid waste uses in the foil industry had been analyzed in order to identify those with significant contribution to the total environmental impacts. From the survey done on the two life cycles, it was found that in environmental terms, the most important emissions from the primary process are the emission of CO(2) and perfluorocarbon (PFC) gases, which produce the greenhouse effect, and SO(2) as well as the emission of fluorides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compounds), which are toxic to humans and the environment. On over all material balance, it was found that the ingot shares by 45% of the feed to the casthouse furnaces at Egyptian Copper Work (ECW), net production of the casthouse is 43.76% and the yield of rotary dross furnace (RDF) is 28.8%. The net production of the foil unit represents 35% of the total input to the unit. By comparing the two life cycles, it is obvious that, for water consumption, 93.5% is used in the primary cycle, while 6.5% is used in the secondary cycle. For electricity consumption, 99.3% is used in the primary cycle

  6. Life cycle assessment for dredged sediment placement strategies.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew E; Fox-Lent, Cate; Seymour, Linda; Wender, Ben A; Linkov, Igor

    2015-04-01

    Dredging to maintain navigable waterways is important for supporting trade and economic sustainability. Dredged sediments are removed from the waterways and then must be managed in a way that meets regulatory standards and properly balances management costs and risks. Selection of a best management alternative often results in stakeholder conflict regarding tradeoffs between local environmental impacts associated with less expensive alternatives (e.g., open water placement), more expensive measures that require sediment disposal in constructed facilities far away (e.g., landfills), or beneficial uses that may be perceived as risky (e.g., beach nourishment or island creation). Current sediment-placement decisions often focus on local and immediate environmental effects from the sediment itself, ignoring a variety of distributed and long-term effects from transportation and placement activities. These extended effects have implications for climate change, resource consumption, and environmental and human health, which may be meaningful topics for many stakeholders not currently considered. Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) provides a systematic and quantitative method for accounting for this wider range of impacts and benefits across all sediment management project stages and time horizons. This paper applies a cradle-to-use LCA to dredged-sediment placement through a comparative analysis of potential upland, open water, and containment-island placement alternatives in the Long Island Sound region of NY/CT. Results suggest that, in cases dealing with uncontaminated sediments, upland placement may be the most environmentally burdensome alternative, per ton-kilometer of placed material, due to the emissions associated with diesel fuel combustion and electricity production and consumption required for the extra handling and transportation. These results can be traded-off with the ecosystem impacts of the sediments themselves in a decision-making framework. Published by

  7. Essential Partnerships in the Data Management Life Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkade, D.; Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Copley, N. J.; Gegg, S. R.; Groman, R. C.; Rauch, S.

    2015-12-01

    An obvious product of the scientific research process is data. Today's geoscience research efforts can rapidly produce an unprecedented volume of multidisciplinary data that can pose management challenges for the facility charged with curating that information. How do these facilities achieve efficient data management in a high volume, heterogeneous data world? Partnerships are critical, especially for small to mid-sized data management offices, such as those dedicated to academic research communities. The idea of partnerships can encompass a wide range of collaborative relationships aimed at helping these facilities meet the evolving needs of their communities. However, one basic and often overlooked partnership in the data management process is that of the information manager and the Principal Investigator (PI) or data originator. Such relationships are critical in discerning the best possible management strategy, and in obtaining the most robust metadata necessary for reuse of multidisciplinary datasets. Partnerships established early in the data life cycle enable efficient management and dissemination of data in high volumes and heterogeneous formats. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created to fulfill the data management needs of PIs funded by the NSF Ocean Sciences Biological and Chemical Sections, and Division of Polar Programs. Since its inception, the Office has relied upon the close relationships it cultivates between its data managers and PIs in order to provide effective data management for a wide variety of ecological and biogeochemical oceanographic data. This presentation will highlight some of the successful partnerships BCO-DMO has made with individual and collaborative investigators, as well as those with other data managers representing specific research communities.

  8. The Force of Selection on the Human Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Jones, James Holland

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I present evidence for a robust and quite general force of selection on the human life cycle. The force of selection acts in remarkably invariant ways on human life histories, despite a great abundance of demographic diversity. Human life histories are highly structured, with mortality and fertility changing substantially through the life cycle. This structure necessitates the use of structured population models to understand human life history evolution. Using such structured models, I find that the vital rates to which fitness is most sensitive are pre-reproductive survival probabilities, particularly the survival of children ages 0–4. The fact that the preponderance of selection falls on transitions related to recruitment combined with the late age at first reproduction characteristic of the human life cycle, creates a fitness bottleneck out of recruitment. Because of this, antagonistic pleiotropy with any trait that detracts from the constituent transitions to recruitment is expected. I explore the predictors of variation in the force of selection on early survival. High fertility increases the selective premium placed on early survivorship, while high life expectancy at birth decreases it. PMID:22003281

  9. Transport of Passive Tracers in Baroclinic Wave Life Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Elizabeth M.; Randel, William J.; Stanford, John L.

    1999-01-01

    The transport of passive tracers in idealized baroclinic wave life cycles is studied using output from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM2). Two life cycles, LCn and LCs, are simulated, starting with baroclinically unstable initial conditions similar to those used by Thorncroft et al. in their study of two life cycle paradigms. The two life cycles LCn and LCs have different initial horizontal wind shear structures that result in distinctive nonlinear development. In terms of potential vorticity-potential temperature (PV-theta) diagnostics, the LCn case is characterized by thinning troughs that are advected anti-cyclonically and equatorward, while the LCs case has broadening troughs that wrap up cyclonically and poleward. Four idealized passive tracers are included in the model to be advected by the semi-Lagrangian transport scheme of the CCM2, and their evolutions are investigated throughout the life cycles. Tracer budgets are analyzed in terms of the transformed Eulerian mean constituent transport formalism in pressure coordinates and also in isentropic coordinates. Results for both LCn and LCs show transport that is downgradient with respect to the background structure of the tracer field, but with a characteristic spatial structure that maximizes in the middle to high latitudes. For the idealized tropospheric tracers in this study, this represents a net upward and poleward transport that enhances concentrations at high latitudes. These results vary little with the initial distribution of the constituent field. The time tendency of the tracer is influenced most strongly by the eddy flux term. with the largest transport occurring during the nonlinear growth stage of the life cycle. The authors also study the transport of a lower-stratospheric tracer, to examine stratosphere-troposphere exchange for baroclinic waves.

  10. Transport of Passive Tracers in Baroclinic Wave Life Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Elizabeth M.; Randel, William J.; Stanford, John L.

    1999-01-01

    The transport of passive tracers in idealized baroclinic wave life cycles is studied using output from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM2). Two life cycles, LCn and LCs, are simulated, starting with baroclinically unstable initial conditions similar to those used by Thorncroft et al. in their study of two life cycle paradigms. The two life cycles LCn and LCs have different initial horizontal wind shear structures that result in distinctive nonlinear development. In terms of potential vorticity-potential temperature (PV-theta) diagnostics, the LCn case is characterized by thinning troughs that are advected anti-cyclonically and equatorward, while the LCs case has broadening troughs that wrap up cyclonically and poleward. Four idealized passive tracers are included in the model to be advected by the semi-Lagrangian transport scheme of the CCM2, and their evolutions are investigated throughout the life cycles. Tracer budgets are analyzed in terms of the transformed Eulerian mean constituent transport formalism in pressure coordinates and also in isentropic coordinates. Results for both LCn and LCs show transport that is downgradient with respect to the background structure of the tracer field, but with a characteristic spatial structure that maximizes in the middle to high latitudes. For the idealized tropospheric tracers in this study, this represents a net upward and poleward transport that enhances concentrations at high latitudes. These results vary little with the initial distribution of the constituent field. The time tendency of the tracer is influenced most strongly by the eddy flux term. with the largest transport occurring during the nonlinear growth stage of the life cycle. The authors also study the transport of a lower-stratospheric tracer, to examine stratosphere-troposphere exchange for baroclinic waves.

  11. Ecology and Life Cycle Patterns of Echinococcus Species.

    PubMed

    Romig, T; Deplazes, P; Jenkins, D; Giraudoux, P; Massolo, A; Craig, P S; Wassermann, M; Takahashi, K; de la Rue, M

    2017-01-01

    The genus Echinococcus is composed of eight generally recognized species and one genotypic cluster (Echinococcus canadensis cluster) that may in future be resolved into one to three species. For each species, we review existing information on transmission routes and life cycles in different geographical contexts and - where available - include basic biological information of parasites and hosts (e.g., susceptibility of host species). While some Echinococcus spp. are transmitted in life cycles that involve predominantly domestic animals (e.g., dog - livestock cycles), others are wildlife parasites that do or do not interact with domestic transmission. In many cases, life cycle patterns of the same parasite species differ according to geography. Simple life cycles contrast with transmission patterns that are highly complex, involving multihost systems that may include both domestic and wild mammals. Wildlife transmission may be primary or secondary, i.e., resulting from spillovers from domestic animals. For most of the species and regions, existing information does not yet permit a conclusive description of transmission systems. Such data, however, would be highly relevant, e.g., for anticipation of geographical changes of the presence and frequency of these parasites in a warming world, or for initiating evidence-based control strategies.

  12. Improving Life-Cycle Cost Management of Spacecraft Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will explore the results of a recent NASA Life-Cycle Cost study and how project managers can use the findings and recommendations to improve planning and coordination early in the formulation cycle and avoid common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns. The typical NASA space science mission will exceed both the initial estimated and the confirmed life-cycle costs by the end of the mission. In a fixed-budget environment, these overruns translate to delays in starting or launching future missions, or in the worst case can lead to cancelled missions. Some of these overruns are due to issues outside the control of the project; others are due to the unpredictable problems (unknown unknowns) that can affect any development project. However, a recent study of life-cycle cost growth by the Discovery and New Frontiers Program Office identified a number of areas that are within the scope of project management to address. The study also found that the majority of the underlying causes for cost overruns are embedded in the project approach during the formulation and early design phases, but the actual impacts typically are not experienced until late in the project life cycle. Thus, project management focus in key areas such as integrated schedule development, management structure and contractor communications processes, heritage and technology assumptions, and operations planning, can be used to validate initial cost assumptions and set in place management processes to avoid the common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns.

  13. Improving Life-Cycle Cost Management of Spacecraft Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will explore the results of a recent NASA Life-Cycle Cost study and how project managers can use the findings and recommendations to improve planning and coordination early in the formulation cycle and avoid common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns. The typical NASA space science mission will exceed both the initial estimated and the confirmed life-cycle costs by the end of the mission. In a fixed-budget environment, these overruns translate to delays in starting or launching future missions, or in the worst case can lead to cancelled missions. Some of these overruns are due to issues outside the control of the project; others are due to the unpredictable problems (unknown unknowns) that can affect any development project. However, a recent study of life-cycle cost growth by the Discovery and New Frontiers Program Office identified a number of areas that are within the scope of project management to address. The study also found that the majority of the underlying causes for cost overruns are embedded in the project approach during the formulation and early design phases, but the actual impacts typically are not experienced until late in the project life cycle. Thus, project management focus in key areas such as integrated schedule development, management structure and contractor communications processes, heritage and technology assumptions, and operations planning, can be used to validate initial cost assumptions and set in place management processes to avoid the common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns.

  14. Addressing software security and mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, security is viewed as an organizational and Information Technology (IT) systems function comprising of firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), system security settings and patches to the operating system (OS) and applications running on it. Until recently, little thought has been given to the importance of security as a formal approach in the software life cycle. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has approached the problem through the development of an integrated formal Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) with six foci for the software life cycle.

  15. Addressing software security and mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, security is viewed as an organizational and Information Technology (IIJ systems function comprising of Firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), system security settings and patches to the operating system (OS) and applications running on it. Until recently, little thought has been given to the importance of security as a formal approach in the software life cycle. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has approached the problem through the development of an integrated formal Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) with six foci for the software life cycle.

  16. Research requirements to reduce civil helicopter life cycle cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blewitt, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of the high cost of helicopter development, production, operation, and maintenance is defined and the cost drivers are identified. Helicopter life cycle costs would decrease by about 17 percent if currently available technology were applied. With advanced technology, a reduction of about 30 percent in helicopter life cycle costs is projected. Technological and managerial deficiencies which contribute to high costs are examined, basic research and development projects which can reduce costs include methods for reduced fuel consumption; improved turbine engines; airframe and engine production methods; safety; rotor systems; and advanced transmission systems.

  17. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2013-01-01

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  18. Research on conceptual/innovative design for the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagan, Jonathan; Agogino, Alice M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this research is developing and integrating qualitative and quantitative methods for life cycle design. The definition of the problem includes formal computer-based methods limited to final detailing stages of design; CAD data bases do not capture design intent or design history; and life cycle issues were ignored during early stages of design. Viewgraphs outline research in conceptual design; the SYMON (SYmbolic MONotonicity analyzer) algorithm; multistart vector quantization optimization algorithm; intelligent manufacturing: IDES - Influence Diagram Architecture; and 1st PRINCE (FIRST PRINciple Computational Evaluator).

  19. An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Life Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, John; Camobreco, Vince; Duffield, James; Graboski, Michael; Shapouri, Housein

    1998-05-01

    This overview is extracted from a detailed, comprehensive report entitled Life Cycle Inventories of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus. This report presents the findings from a study of the life cycle inventories (LCIs) for petroleum diesel and biodiesel. An LCI comprehensively quantifies all the energy and environmental flows associated with a product from “cradle to grave.” It provides information on raw materials extracted from the environment; energy resources consumed; and air, water, and solid waste emissions generated.

  20. Research on large equipment maintenance system in life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaowei; Wang, Hongxia; Liu, Zhenxing; Zhang, Nan

    2017-06-01

    In order to change the current disadvantages of traditional large equipment maintenance concept, this article plans to apply the technical method of prognostics and health management to optimize equipment maintenance strategy and develop large equipment maintenance system. Combined with the maintenance procedures of various phases in life cycle, it concluded the formulation methods of maintenance program and implement plans of maintenance work. In the meantime, it takes account into the example of the dredger power system of the Waterway Bureau to establish the auxiliary platform of ship maintenance system in life cycle.

  1. [Rodents trichomonads: morphology, life cycle and several ecologic features (Polymastigina)].

    PubMed

    Seliukaĭte, Z

    1977-01-01

    Some morphological and cytochemical methods were applied to the study of the life cycle of Trichomonas parasitizing the intestine of various rodents. The comparative study of trophonts morphology showed that the only species of the genus Trichomonas--T. muris inhabits the intestine of mice, rats, field-voles, hamsters and susliks. The life cycle of T. muris includes three morphologically different stages: trophonts, pseudocysts and cysts. The pseudocysts and cysts are the infectious stages of T. muris. All rodents ingest them together with their food. The cysts of T. muris can survive for a long time (6 months and more) in the environment under the conditions of various temperature and humidity.

  2. The TMIS life-cycle process document, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Technical and Management Information System (TMIS) Life-Cycle Process Document describes the processes that shall be followed in the definition, design, development, test, deployment, and operation of all TMIS products and data base applications. This document is a roll out of TMIS Standards Document (SSP 30546). The purpose of this document is to define the life cycle methodology that the developers of all products and data base applications and any subsequent modifications shall follow. Included in this methodology are descriptions of the tasks, deliverables, reviews, and approvals that are required before a product or data base application is accepted in the TMIS environment.

  3. Structural considerations for a software life cycle dynamic simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.; Mckenzie, M.; Lin, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary study into the prospects for simulating the software implementation and maintenance life cycle process, with the aim of producing a computerized tool for use by management and software engineering personnel in project planning, tradeoff studies involving product, environmental, situational, and technological factors, and training. The approach taken is the modular application of a 'flow of resource' concept to the systems dynamics simulation modeling technique. The software life cycle process is represented as a number of stochastic, time-varying, interacting work tasks that each achieves one of the project milestones. Each task is characterized by the item produced, the personnel applied, and the budgetary profile.

  4. Structural considerations for a software life cycle dynamic simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.; Mckenzie, M.; Lin, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary study into the prospects for simulating the software implementation and maintenance life cycle process, with the aim of producing a computerized tool for use by management and software engineering personnel in project planning, tradeoff studies involving product, environmental, situational, and technological factors, and training. The approach taken is the modular application of a 'flow of resource' concept to the systems dynamics simulation modeling technique. The software life cycle process is represented as a number of stochastic, time-varying, interacting work tasks that each achieves one of the project milestones. Each task is characterized by the item produced, the personnel applied, and the budgetary profile.

  5. The life cycle cost of integrated logistic support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florio, U. G.

    Scheduling of preventive maintenance within the general context of the life cycle cost of integrated logistic support is discussed. The principal categories of support cost are considered and a procedure of optimizing the total cost for the evaluation of a fundamental logistic parameters is developed using Markov models. The Markov approach allows the examination of the functional relationships between system reliability, maintenance policies and the costs of integrated logistic support. The life cycle cost of the logistic support is optimized, and the results permit a correct cost/efficiency scaling of the support.

  6. Long Cycle Life Secondary Lithium Cells Utilizing Tetrahydrofuran.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    11D-Ri49 762 LONG CYCLE LIFE SECONDARY LITHIUM CELLS UTILIZING 1/1 TETRRHYDROFURAN(U) EIC LABS INC NORWOOD MR K M ABRAHAM ET AL. APR 84 TR-12 N80914...Contract No. N00014-77-C-0155 TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12 I LONG CYCLE LIFE SECONDARY LITHIUM CELLS UTILIZING TETRAHYDROFURAN By K. M. Abraham J. S. Foos...CONTRACT OF GRANT NUMBER(s) K. 14. Abraham , j. S. Foos and J. L. Goldman N00014-77-C-0155 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10PRAM ELEORMNT

  7. Addressing software security and mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, security is viewed as an organizational and Information Technology (IT) systems function comprising of firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), system security settings and patches to the operating system (OS) and applications running on it. Until recently, little thought has been given to the importance of security as a formal approach in the software life cycle. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has approached the problem through the development of an integrated formal Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) with six foci for the software life cycle.

  8. Addressing software security and mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, security is viewed as an organizational and Information Technology (IIJ systems function comprising of Firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), system security settings and patches to the operating system (OS) and applications running on it. Until recently, little thought has been given to the importance of security as a formal approach in the software life cycle. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has approached the problem through the development of an integrated formal Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) with six foci for the software life cycle.

  9. Research on conceptual/innovative design for the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagan, Jonathan; Agogino, Alice M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this research is developing and integrating qualitative and quantitative methods for life cycle design. The definition of the problem includes formal computer-based methods limited to final detailing stages of design; CAD data bases do not capture design intent or design history; and life cycle issues were ignored during early stages of design. Viewgraphs outline research in conceptual design; the SYMON (SYmbolic MONotonicity analyzer) algorithm; multistart vector quantization optimization algorithm; intelligent manufacturing: IDES - Influence Diagram Architecture; and 1st PRINCE (FIRST PRINciple Computational Evaluator).

  10. Improving greenhouse gas reduction calculations for bioenergy systems: Incremental life cycle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, Richard A.

    There are many scales that can be employed to calculate net greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy systems, ranging from single point source (stack gas) measurement, to full, multi-layered life cycle analyses considering all of the inputs and outputs throughout the economy. At an appropriate scale within these extremes, a method can be selected to support verification activities related to project-based trading of greenhouse gas emissions. The boundaries of the analysis must be carefully selected in order to meet the twin goals of the verification activity: (1) to meet scientific standards for emission balance quantification; and (2) to meet cost-effectiveness criteria of the emission trading community. The Incremental Life Cycle Analysis (ILCA) methodology is proposed and implemented for the quantification of greenhouse gas emission reductions arising from substitution of switchgrass for coal in electricity generation. The method utilizes an incremental progression through the fuel life cycle, evaluating each level of the life cycle for the quality the emission estimate produced. The method also reviews the scientific uncertainty underlying emission estimation procedures so that areas of relative weakness can be targeted and improved. The ILCA methodology is applied to the Chariton Valley Biomass Project (CVBP) for case study and evaluation. The CVBP is seeking to replace coal combustion in an existing 650-MW generation facility with switchgrass, cofired at a rate of 5 percent switchgrass to 95 percent coal. When the project reaches full capacity, the ILCA estimates that 239 pounds of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions will be reduced and/or removed from the atmosphere for every million Btu of switchgrass utilized, generating annual greenhouse gas reductions of 305,000 tons CO2-eq, leading to revenue for the project totaling over $1.5 million annually through trading of greenhouse gas emission reduction credits.

  11. Environmental life cycle assessment of nanosilver-enabled bandages.

    PubMed

    Pourzahedi, Leila; Eckelman, Matthew J

    2015-01-06

    Over 400 tons of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are produced annually, 30% of which are used in medical applications due to their antibacterial properties. The widespread use of AgNPs has implications over the entire life cycle of medical products, from production to disposal, including but not limited to environmental releases of nanomaterials themselves. Here a cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment from nanoparticle synthesis to end-of-life incineration was performed for a commercially available nanosilver-enabled medical bandage. Emissions were linked to multiple categories of environmental impacts, making primary use of the TRACI 2.1 impact assessment method, with specific consideration of nanosilver releases relative to all other (non-nanosilver) emissions. Modeling results suggest that (1) environmental impacts of AgNP synthesis are dominated by upstream electricity production, with the exception of life cycle ecotoxicity where the largest contributor is mining wastes, (2) AgNPs are the largest contributor to impacts of the bandage for all impact categories considered despite low AgNP loading, and (3) impacts of bandage production are several times those bandage incineration, including nanosilver releases to the environment. These results can be used to prioritize research and policy measures in order to improve the overall ecotoxicity burdens of nanoenabled products under a life cycle framework.

  12. Carbon nanofiber polymer composites: evaluation of life cycle energy use.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Vikas; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2009-03-15

    Holistic evaluation of emerging nanotechnologies using systems analysis is pivotal for guiding their safe and sustainable development. While toxicity studies of engineered nanomaterials are essential, understanding of the potential large scale impacts of nanotechnology is also critical for developing sustainable nanoproducts. This work evaluates the life cycle energetic impact associated with the production and use of carbon nanofiber (CNF) reinforced polymer nanocomposites (PNC). Specifically, both simple CNF and carbon nanofiber-glass fiber (CNF-GF) hybrid PNCs are evaluated and compared with steel for equal stiffness design. Life cycle inventory is developed based on published literature and best available engineering information. A cradle-to-gate comparison suggests that for equal stiffness design, CNF reinforced PNCs are 1.6-12 times more energy intensive than steel. It is anticipated that the product use phase may strongly influence whether any net savings in life cycle energy consumption can be realized. A case study involving the use of CNF and CNF-GF reinforced PNCs in the body panels of automobiles highlights that the use of PNCs with lower CNF loading ratios has the potential for net life cycle energy savings relative to steel owing to improved fuel economy benefits. Other factors such as cost, toxicity impact of CNF, and end-of-life issues specific to CNFs need to be considered to evaluate the final economic and environmental performance of CNF reinforced PNC materials.

  13. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Utility-Scale Wind Power: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, S. L.; Heath, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale wind power systems was performed to determine the causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening of approximately 240 LCAs of onshore and offshore systems yielded 72 references meeting minimum thresholds for quality, transparency, and relevance. Of those, 49 references provided 126 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. Published estimates ranged from 1.7 to 81 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), with median and interquartile range (IQR) both at 12 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh. After adjusting the published estimates to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the total range was reduced by 47% to 3.0 to 45 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh and the IQR was reduced by 14% to 10 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, while the median remained relatively constant (11 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh). Harmonization of capacity factor resulted in the largest reduction in variability in life cycle GHG emission estimates. This study concludes that the large number of previously published life cycle GHG emission estimates of wind power systems and their tight distribution suggest that new process-based LCAs of similar wind turbine technologies are unlikely to differ greatly. However, additional consequential LCAs would enhance the understanding of true life cycle GHG emissions of wind power (e.g., changes to other generators operations when wind electricity is added to the grid), although even those are unlikely to fundamentally change the comparison of wind to other electricity generation sources.

  14. Transpiration during life cycle in controlled wheat growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler; Rummel, John D.

    1990-01-01

    A previously developed model of wheat growth, designed for convenient incorporation into system level models of advanced space life support systems is described. The model is applied to data from an experiment that grew wheat under controlled conditions and measured fresh biomass and cumulated transpiration as a function of time. The adequacy of modeling the transpiration as proportional to the inedible biomass and an age factor that varies during the life cycle are discussed.

  15. Life cycle assessment of representative swiss road pavements for national roads with an accompanying life cycle cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Gschösser, Florian; Wallbaum, Holger

    2013-08-06

    The subject of this paper is an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) of processes needed to construct and maintain representative Swiss asphalt, concrete, and composite pavements (including subbase layers) applicable for the Swiss national road network over a period of 75 years. The environmental indicators analyzed are the global warming potential indicator, the nonrenewable cumulative energy demand, and the Swiss ecological scarcity indicator. Processes of the use phase of the road (fuel consumption, noise, etc.) have been evaluated qualitatively based on intensive research. The study shows that the global warming potential of concrete and asphalt pavements equilibrates over the analysis period and that concrete pavements compared to asphalt and composite pavements offer advantages in regards to the nonrenewable cumulative energy demand, the ecological scarcity indicator, and life cycle costs. The qualitative evaluation of the processes of the use phase shows for example the positive qualities of concrete pavements regarding fuel consumption and permanent noise properties.

  16. The Life Cycle and Life Span of Namibian Fairy Circles

    PubMed Central

    Tschinkel, Walter R.

    2012-01-01

    In Namibia of southwestern Africa, the sparse grasslands that develop on deep sandy soils under rainfall between 50 and 100 mm per annum are punctuated by thousands of quasi-circular bare spots, usually surrounded by a ring of taller grass. The causes of these so-called “fairy circles” are unknown, although a number of hypotheses have been proposed. This paper provides a more complete description of the variation in size, density and attributes of fairy circles in a range of soil types and situations. Circles are not permanent; their vegetative and physical attributes allow them to be arranged into a life history sequence in which circles appear (birth), develop (mature) and become revegetated (die). Occasionally, they also enlarge. The appearance and disappearance of circles was confirmed from satellite images taken 4 years apart (2004, 2008). The frequency of births and deaths as a fraction of the total population of circles allowed the calculation of an approximate turnover rate, and from this, an estimate of circle lifespan. Lifespan appeared to vary with circle size, with small circles averaging about 24 years, and larger ones 43–75 years. Overall lifespan averaged about 41 yr. A second, independent estimate of lifespan was made by revisiting circles 2 to 9 years after their clear status had been confirmed. This resulted in a lifespan estimate of about 60 years. Any causal explanation of fairy circles must include their birth, development and death, their mean lifespan and the variation of their features under different conditions. PMID:22761663

  17. A Robust Hybrid Zn-Battery with Ultralong Cycle Life.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Quan, Junye; Loh, Adeline; Chai, Jianwei; Chen, Ye; Tan, Chaoliang; Ge, Xiaoming; Hor, T S Andy; Liu, Zhaolin; Zhang, Hua; Zong, Yun

    2017-01-11

    Advanced batteries with long cycle life and capable of harnessing more energies from multiple electrochemical reactions are both fundamentally interesting and practically attractive. Herein, we report a robust hybrid zinc-battery that makes use of transition-metal-based redox reaction (M-O-OH → M-O, M = Ni and Co) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to deliver more electrochemical energies of comparably higher voltage with much longer cycle life. The hybrid battery was constructed using an integrated electrode of NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays grown on carbon-coated nickel foam, coupled with a zinc plate anode in alkaline electrolyte. Benefitted from the M-O/M-O-OH redox reactions and rich ORR active sites in NiCo2O4, the battery has concurrently exhibited high working voltage (by M-O-OH → M-O) and high energy density (by ORR). The good oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity of the electrode and the reversible M-O ↔ M-O-OH reactions also enabled smooth recharging of the batteries, leading to excellent cycling stabilities. Impressively, the hybrid batteries maintained highly stable charge-discharge voltage profile under various testing conditions, for example, almost no change was observed over 5000 cycles at a current density of 5 mA cm(-2) after some initial stabilization. With merits of higher working voltage, high energy density, and ultralong cycle life, such hybrid batteries promise high potential for practical applications.

  18. A Systems Development Life Cycle Project for the AIS Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting J.; Saemann, Georgia; Du, Hui

    2007-01-01

    The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) project was designed for use by an accounting information systems (AIS) class. Along the tasks in the SDLC, this project integrates students' knowledge of transaction and business processes, systems documentation techniques, relational database concepts, and hands-on skills in relational database use.…

  19. The Family Life Cycle and Spouses' Time in Housework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rexroat, Cynthia; Shehan, Constance

    1987-01-01

    Analyzed the housework time of 1,618 White couples. Found that the salience of work and family roles in the family life cycle affected the respective amounts of time that spouses allocated to household labor. Women spent less time in housework before and after childbearing stages, and husbands spent more time in domestic labor during periods of…

  20. Life Cycle Assessment as an Environmental Management Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    Listed by Time Magazine as the method behind calculating “Ecological Intelligence,” one of “10 Ideas Changing the World Right Now” (March 23, 2009), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the tool that is used to understand the environmental impacts of the products we make and sell. Jo...

  1. A comparison of major petroleum life cycle models | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many organizations have attempted to develop an accurate well-to-pump life cycle model of petroleum products in order to inform decision makers of the consequences of its use. Our paper studies five of these models, demonstrating the differences in their predictions and attempting to evaluate their data quality. Carbon dioxide well-to-pump emissions for gasoline showed a variation of 35 %, and other pollutants such as ammonia and particulate matter varied up to 100 %. Differences in allocation do not appear to explain differences in predictions. Effects of these deviations on well-to-wheels passenger vehicle and truck transportation life cycle models may be minimal for effects such as global warming potential (6 % spread), but for respiratory effects of criteria pollutants (41 % spread) and other impact categories, they can be significant. A data quality assessment of the models’ documentation revealed real differences between models in temporal and geographic representativeness, completeness, as well as transparency. Stakeholders may need to consider carefully the tradeoffs inherent when selecting a model to conduct life cycle assessments for systems that make heavy use of petroleum products. This is a qualitative and quantitative comparison of petroleum LCA models intended for an expert audience interested in better understanding the data quality of existing petroleum life cycle models and the quantitative differences between these models.

  2. A Review of "Life Cycle: How We Grow and Change"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digioia, Melissa Keyes

    2010-01-01

    Sexuality education curricula designed for youths with special needs are sparse. "Life Cycle: How We Grow and Change" (Vavricheck & Tolle, 2008) is a new curriculum by clinical social workers Sherrie Mansfield Vavricheck and R. Kay Tolle. Each chapter addresses a particular developmental stage between birth and death. Lessons within each chapter…

  3. Future of lignite resources: a life cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingsong; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Xueliang; Zheng, Xiaoning; Zuo, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Lignite is a low-quality energy source which accounts for 13 % of China's coal reserves. It is imperative to improve the quality of lignite for large-scale utilization. To further explore and analyze the influence of various key processes on the environment and economic costs, a lignite drying and compression technology is evaluated using an integrated approach of life cycle assessment and life cycle costs. Results showed that lignite mining, direct air emissions, and electricity consumption have most significant impacts on the environment. An integrated evaluation of life cycle assessment and life cycle costs showed that the most significant contributor to the environmental impacts and economic costs was the lignite mining process. The impact of transportation and wastewater treatment process on the environment and economic costs was small enough to be ignored. Critical factors were identified for reducing the environmental and economic impacts of lignite drying and compression technology. These findings provide useful inputs for both industrial practice and policy making for exploitation, processing, and utilization of lignite resources.

  4. Revisiting the life cycle of dung fungi, Including Sordaria fimicola

    Treesearch

    George Newcombe; Jason Campbell; David Griffith; Melissa Baynes; Karen Launchbaugh; Rosemary Pendleton

    2016-01-01

    Dung fungi, such as Sordaria fimicola, generally reproduce sexually with ascospores discharged from mammalian dung after passage through herbivores. Their life cycle is thought to be obligate to dung, and thus their ascospores in Quaternary sediments have been interpreted as evidence of past mammalian herbivore activity. Reports of dung fungi as endophytes would seem...

  5. Life Cycle Assessment Software for Product and Process Sustainability Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervaeke, Marina

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, life cycle assessment (LCA), a methodology for assessment of environmental impacts of products and services, has become increasingly important. This methodology is applied by decision makers in industry and policy, product developers, environmental managers, and other non-LCA specialists working on environmental issues in a wide…

  6. A comparison of major petroleum life cycle models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many organizations have attempted to develop an accurate well-to-pump life cycle model of petroleum products in order to inform decision makers of the consequences of its use. Our paper studies five of these models, demonstrating the differences in their predictions and attemptin...

  7. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR INCREASING INDUSTRIAL SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) can be a very useful decision support tool for assisting in environmental decision making to allow the pursuit of increasing sustainability. Increasing sustainability will be defined and presented as a more concrete and quantifiable goal when c...

  8. DDP - a tool for life-cycle risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornford, S. L.; Feather, M. S.; Hicks, K. A.

    2001-01-01

    At JPL we have developed, and implemented, a process for achieving life-cycle risk management. This process has been embodied in a software tool and is called Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP). The DDP process can be succinctly stated as: determine where we want to be, what could get in the way and how we will get there.

  9. [Genome organization and life cycle of the hepatitis c virus].

    PubMed

    Kalinina, O V; Dmitriev, A V

    2015-01-01

    The review summarizes the current data about the hepatitis C viral genome and polyprotein organization. The functional role of the structural and non-structural viral proteins including their interaction with cellular regulatory proteins and cell structural elements is discussed. Specific peculiarities of the life cycle of the hepatitis C virus important for the understanding of the viral hepatitis C pathogenesis are summarized.

  10. Life Cycle Assessment Framework for Indoor Emissions of Synthetic Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a well-established method to evaluate impacts of chemicals on the environment and human health along the lifespan of products. However, the increasingly produced and applied nanomaterials (defined as one dimension <100 nm) show particular characteri...

  11. Life-Cycle Inventory Analysis of Manufacturing Redwood Decking

    Treesearch

    Richard D. Bergman; Han-Sup Han; Elaine Oneil; Ivan L. Eastin

    2012-01-01

    Green building has become increasingly important. Therefore, consumers and builders often take into account the environmental attributes of a building material. This study determined the environmental attributes associated with manufacturing 38-mm × 138-mm (nominal 2 × 6) redwood decking in northern California using the life-cycle inventory method. Primary data...

  12. A comparison of major petroleum life cycle models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many organizations have attempted to develop an accurate well-to-pump life cycle model of petroleum products in order to inform decision makers of the consequences of its use. Our paper studies five of these models, demonstrating the differences in their predictions and attemptin...

  13. Biological catalysis of the hydrological cycle: life's thermodynamic function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelian, K.

    2011-01-01

    Darwinian theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living component of the biosphere on the surface of the Earth of greatest biomass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of a vast amount of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that distinguishes Earth from its apparently life barren neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The dissipation of sunlight into heat by organic molecules in the biosphere and its coupling to the water cycle (as well as other abiotic processes), is by far the greatest entropy producing process occurring on Earth. Life, from this perspective, can be viewed as performing an important thermodynamic function; acting as a dynamic catalyst by aiding irreversible abiotic process such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents to produce entropy. The role of animals in this view is that of unwitting but dedicated servants of the plants and cyanobacteria, helping them to grow and to spread into initially inhospitable areas.

  14. Life cycle impacts of North American wood panel Manufacturing

    Treesearch

    Richard Bergman; D. Kaestner; A. M. Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Manufacturing building products such as wood panels impacts the environment, including contributing to climate change. This study is a compilation of four studies quantifying these impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) method on five wood-based panel products made in North America during 2012. LCA is an internationally accepted and standardized method for...

  15. USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TOOLS FOR INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing awareness that a single issue approach to an environmental problem may not lead to an effective long-term strategy. Instead, governments and industries around the world are seeing the value and need to look at the entire life cycle of products and processes fro...

  16. Life Cycle Assessment Framework for Indoor Emissions of Synthetic Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a well-established method to evaluate impacts of chemicals on the environment and human health along the lifespan of products. However, the increasingly produced and applied nanomaterials (defined as one dimension <100 nm) show particular characteri...

  17. Incorporating exposure science into life-cycle assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is used to estimate the potential for environmental damage that may be caused by a product or process, ideally before the product or process begins. LCA includes all of the steps from extracting natural resources through manufacturing through product u...

  18. Incorporating exposure science into life-cycle assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is used to estimate the potential for environmental damage that may be caused by a product or process, ideally before the product or process begins. LCA includes all of the steps from extracting natural resources through manufacturing through product u...

  19. Information System Life-Cycle And Documentation Standards (SMAP DIDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Although not computer program, SMAP DIDS written to provide systematic, NASA-wide structure for documenting information system development projects. Each DID (data item description) outlines document required for top-quality software development. When combined with management, assurance, and life cycle standards, Standards protect all parties who participate in design and operation of new information system.

  20. ANALYZING SHORT CUT METHODS FOR LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT INVENTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Work in progress at the U.S. EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory is developing methods for quickly, easily, and inexpensively developing Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) inventories. An LCA inventory represents the inputs and outputs from processes, including fuel and ...

  1. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF IN-MOLD SURFACING FILM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1990, the NRMRL has been at the forefront in the development of Life Cycle Assessment as a methodology for environmental assessment. In 1994, NRMRL established an LCA Team to organize individual efforts into a comprehensive research program. The LCA Team coordinates work in...

  2. Rapid Life-Cycle Impact Screening Using Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Song, Runsheng; Keller, Arturo A; Suh, Sangwon

    2017-08-30

    The number of chemicals in the market is rapidly increasing, while our understanding of the life-cycle impacts of these chemicals lags considerably. To address this, we developed deep artificial neural network (ANN) models to estimate life-cycle impacts of chemicals. Using molecular structure information, we trained multilayer ANNs for life-cycle impacts of chemicals using six impact categories, including cumulative energy demand, global warming (IPCC 2007), acidification (TRACI), human health (Impact2000+), ecosystem quality (Impact2000+), and eco-indicator 99 (I,I, total). The application domain (AD) of the model was estimated for each impact category within which the model exhibits higher reliability. We also tested three approaches for selecting molecular descriptors and identified the principal component analysis (PCA) as the best approach. The predictions for acidification, human health, and the eco-indicator 99 model showed relatively higher performance with R(2) values of 0.73, 0.71, and 0.87, respectively, while the global warming model had a lower R(2) of 0.48. This study indicates that ANN models can serve as an initial screening tool for estimating life-cycle impacts of chemicals for certain impact categories in the absence of more reliable information. Our analysis also highlights the importance of understanding ADs for interpreting the ANN results.

  3. A Review of "Life Cycle: How We Grow and Change"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digioia, Melissa Keyes

    2010-01-01

    Sexuality education curricula designed for youths with special needs are sparse. "Life Cycle: How We Grow and Change" (Vavricheck & Tolle, 2008) is a new curriculum by clinical social workers Sherrie Mansfield Vavricheck and R. Kay Tolle. Each chapter addresses a particular developmental stage between birth and death. Lessons within each chapter…

  4. The Role of Companion Animals throughout the Family Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Wendy G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the roles that companion animals play in the lives of American families, and discusses how those roles change as families progress through the stages of the family life cycle. It highlights the importance of pets in the lives of children and the benefits they receive from such relationships. It also presents information…

  5. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR INCREASING INDUSTRIAL SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) can be a very useful decision support tool for assisting in environmental decision making to allow the pursuit of increasing sustainability. Increasing sustainability will be defined and presented as a more concrete and quantifiable goal when c...

  6. Optimizing conceptual aircraft designs for minimum life cycle cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Vicki S.

    1989-01-01

    A life cycle cost (LCC) module has been added to the FLight Optimization System (FLOPS), allowing the additional optimization variables of life cycle cost, direct operating cost, and acquisition cost. Extensive use of the methodology on short-, medium-, and medium-to-long range aircraft has demonstrated that the system works well. Results from the study show that optimization parameter has a definite effect on the aircraft, and that optimizing an aircraft for minimum LCC results in a different airplane than when optimizing for minimum take-off gross weight (TOGW), fuel burned, direct operation cost (DOC), or acquisition cost. Additionally, the economic assumptions can have a strong impact on the configurations optimized for minimum LCC or DOC. Also, results show that advanced technology can be worthwhile, even if it results in higher manufacturing and operating costs. Examining the number of engines a configuration should have demonstrated a real payoff of including life cycle cost in the conceptual design process: the minimum TOGW of fuel aircraft did not always have the lowest life cycle cost when considering the number of engines.

  7. Title IV Cash Management Life Cycle Training. Participant's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This participant's guide includes: "Introduction: Welcome to Cash Management Life Cycle Training"; "Module 1: Review of Cash Management Principles" (cash management overview and activity); "Module 2: Common Origination and Disbursement (COD) System Overview" (e.g., full participants and phase-in participants, COD…

  8. AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    On November 29-30,1998 in Brussels, an international workshop was held to discuss Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Sophistication. Approximately 50 LCA experts attended the workshop from North America, Europe, and Asia. Prominant practicioners and researchers were invited to ...

  9. Progress in Multi-Disciplinary Data Life Cycle Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, C.; Gasthuber, M.; Giesler, A.; Hardt, M.; Meyer, J.; Prabhune, A.; Rigoll, F.; Schwarz, K.; Streit, A.

    2015-12-01

    Modern science is most often driven by data. Improvements in state-of-the-art technologies and methods in many scientific disciplines lead not only to increasing data rates, but also to the need to improve or even completely overhaul their data life cycle management. Communities usually face two kinds of challenges: generic ones like federated authorization and authentication infrastructures and data preservation, and ones that are specific to their community and their respective data life cycle. In practice, the specific requirements often hinder the use of generic tools and methods. The German Helmholtz Association project ’’Large-Scale Data Management and Analysis” (LSDMA) addresses both challenges: its five Data Life Cycle Labs (DLCLs) closely collaborate with communities in joint research and development to optimize the communities data life cycle management, while its Data Services Integration Team (DSIT) provides generic data tools and services. We present most recent developments and results from the DLCLs covering communities ranging from heavy ion physics and photon science to high-throughput microscopy, and from DSIT.

  10. Life Cycle Assessment Software for Product and Process Sustainability Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervaeke, Marina

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, life cycle assessment (LCA), a methodology for assessment of environmental impacts of products and services, has become increasingly important. This methodology is applied by decision makers in industry and policy, product developers, environmental managers, and other non-LCA specialists working on environmental issues in a wide…

  11. The genetic covariance between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, J David; Blows, Mark W; Marshall, Dustin J

    2014-08-07

    Metamorphosis is common in animals, yet the genetic associations between life cycle stages are poorly understood. Given the radical changes that occur at metamorphosis, selection may differ before and after metamorphosis, and the extent that genetic associations between pre- and post-metamorphic traits constrain evolutionary change is a subject of considerable interest. In some instances, metamorphosis may allow the genetic decoupling of life cycle stages, whereas in others, metamorphosis could allow complementary responses to selection across the life cycle. Using a diallel breeding design, we measured viability at four ontogenetic stages (embryo, larval, juvenile and adult viability), in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and examined the orientation of additive genetic variation with respect to the metamorphic boundary. We found support for one eigenvector of G: (gobsmax ), which contrasted larval viability against embryo viability and juvenile viability. Target matrix rotation confirmed that while gobsmax shows genetic associations can extend beyond metamorphosis, there is still considerable scope for decoupled phenotypic evolution. Therefore, although genetic associations across metamorphosis could limit that range of phenotypes that are attainable, traits on either side of the metamorphic boundary are capable of some independent evolutionary change in response to the divergent conditions encountered during each life cycle stage. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. The genetic covariance between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, J. David; Blows, Mark W.; Marshall, Dustin J.

    2014-01-01

    Metamorphosis is common in animals, yet the genetic associations between life cycle stages are poorly understood. Given the radical changes that occur at metamorphosis, selection may differ before and after metamorphosis, and the extent that genetic associations between pre- and post-metamorphic traits constrain evolutionary change is a subject of considerable interest. In some instances, metamorphosis may allow the genetic decoupling of life cycle stages, whereas in others, metamorphosis could allow complementary responses to selection across the life cycle. Using a diallel breeding design, we measured viability at four ontogenetic stages (embryo, larval, juvenile and adult viability), in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and examined the orientation of additive genetic variation with respect to the metamorphic boundary. We found support for one eigenvector of G (gobsmax), which contrasted larval viability against embryo viability and juvenile viability. Target matrix rotation confirmed that while gobsmax shows genetic associations can extend beyond metamorphosis, there is still considerable scope for decoupled phenotypic evolution. Therefore, although genetic associations across metamorphosis could limit that range of phenotypes that are attainable, traits on either side of the metamorphic boundary are capable of some independent evolutionary change in response to the divergent conditions encountered during each life cycle stage. PMID:24966319

  13. Monte Carlo simulation by computer for life-cycle costing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gralow, F. H.; Larson, W. J.

    1969-01-01

    Prediction of behavior and support requirements during the entire life cycle of a system enables accurate cost estimates by using the Monte Carlo simulation by computer. The system reduces the ultimate cost to the procuring agency because it takes into consideration the costs of initial procurement, operation, and maintenance.

  14. USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TOOLS FOR INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing awareness that a single issue approach to an environmental problem may not lead to an effective long-term strategy. Instead, governments and industries around the world are seeing the value and need to look at the entire life cycle of products and processes fro...

  15. U.S. EPA'S RESEARCH ON LIFE-CYCLE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life-cycle analysis (LCA) consists of looking at a product, process or activity from its inception through its completion. or consumer products, this includes the stages of raw material acquisition, manufacturing and fabrication, distribution, consumer use/reuse and final disposa...

  16. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for energy conservation measures to shift demand or to use renewable energy resources, the numerator... respect to energy conservation measures to shift demand or to use renewable energy resources, the... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life-cycle cost methodology. 455.64 Section 455.64...

  17. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for energy conservation measures to shift demand or to use renewable energy resources, the numerator... respect to energy conservation measures to shift demand or to use renewable energy resources, the... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life-cycle cost methodology. 455.64 Section 455.64...

  18. LCACCESS: PROMOTING THE USE OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating environmental impacts holistically from raw material acquisition, through manufacture, to use and disposal using a life cycle perspective is gradually being viewed by environmental managers and decision-makers as an important element in the tools that are used to achie...

  19. The Role of Companion Animals throughout the Family Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Wendy G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the roles that companion animals play in the lives of American families, and discusses how those roles change as families progress through the stages of the family life cycle. It highlights the importance of pets in the lives of children and the benefits they receive from such relationships. It also presents information…

  20. Guidance on Data Quality Assessment for Life Cycle Inventory ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data quality within Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a significant issue for the future support and development of LCA as a decision support tool and its wider adoption within industry. In response to current data quality standards such as the ISO 14000 series, various entities within the LCA community have developed different methodologies to address and communicate the data quality of Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data. Despite advances in this field, the LCA community is still plagued by the lack of reproducible data quality results and documentation. To address these issues, US EPA has created this guidance in order to further support reproducible life cycle inventory data quality results and to inform users of the proper application of the US EPA supported data quality system. The work for this report was begun in December 2014 and completed as of April 2016.The updated data quality system includes a novel approach to the pedigree matrix by addressing data quality at the flow and the process level. Flow level indicators address source reliability, temporal correlation, geographic correlation, technological correlation and data sampling methods. The process level indicators address the level of review the unit process has undergone and its completeness. This guidance is designed to be updatable as part of the LCA Research Center’s continuing commitment to data quality advancements. Life cycle assessment is increasingly being used as a tool to identify areas of

  1. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF IN-MOLD SURFACING FILM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1990, the NRMRL has been at the forefront in the development of Life Cycle Assessment as a methodology for environmental assessment. In 1994, NRMRL established an LCA Team to organize individual efforts into a comprehensive research program. The LCA Team coordinates work in...

  2. Sustainability metrics: life cycle assessment and green design in polymers.

    PubMed

    Tabone, Michaelangelo D; Cregg, James J; Beckman, Eric J; Landis, Amy E

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of green design principles such as the "12 Principles of Green Chemistry," and the "12 Principles of Green Engineering" with respect to environmental impacts found using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. A case study of 12 polymers is presented, seven derived from petroleum, four derived from biological sources, and one derived from both. The environmental impacts of each polymer's production are assessed using LCA methodology standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Each polymer is also assessed for its adherence to green design principles using metrics generated specifically for this paper. Metrics include atom economy, mass from renewable sources, biodegradability, percent recycled, distance of furthest feedstock, price, life cycle health hazards and life cycle energy use. A decision matrix is used to generate single value metrics for each polymer evaluating either adherence to green design principles or life-cycle environmental impacts. Results from this study show a qualified positive correlation between adherence to green design principles and a reduction of the environmental impacts of production. The qualification results from a disparity between biopolymers and petroleum polymers. While biopolymers rank highly in terms of green design, they exhibit relatively large environmental impacts from production. Biopolymers rank 1, 2, 3, and 4 based on green design metrics; however they rank in the middle of the LCA rankings. Polyolefins rank 1, 2, and 3 in the LCA rankings, whereas complex polymers, such as PET, PVC, and PC place at the bottom of both ranking systems.

  3. Information System Life-Cycle And Documentation Standards (SMAP DIDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Although not computer program, SMAP DIDS written to provide systematic, NASA-wide structure for documenting information system development projects. Each DID (data item description) outlines document required for top-quality software development. When combined with management, assurance, and life cycle standards, Standards protect all parties who participate in design and operation of new information system.

  4. Validation of a hybrid life-cycle inventory analysis method.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Robert H

    2008-08-01

    The life-cycle inventory analysis step of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) may currently suffer from several limitations, mainly concerned with the use of incomplete and unreliable data sources and methods of assessment. Many past LCA studies have used traditional inventory analysis methods, namely process analysis and input-output analysis. More recently, hybrid inventory analysis methods have been developed, combining these two traditional methods in an attempt to minimise their limitations. In light of recent improvements, these hybrid methods need to be compared and validated, as these too have been considered to have several limitations. This paper evaluates a recently developed hybrid inventory analysis method which aims to improve the limitations of previous methods. It was found that the truncation associated with process analysis can be up to 87%, reflecting the considerable shortcomings in the quantity of process data currently available. Capital inputs were found to account for up to 22% of the total inputs to a particular product. These findings suggest that current best-practice methods are sufficiently accurate for most typical applications, but this is heavily dependent upon data quality and availability. The use of input-output data assists in improving the system boundary completeness of life-cycle inventories. However, the use of input-output analysis alone does not always provide an accurate model for replacing process data. Further improvements in the quantity of process data currently available are needed to increase the reliability of life-cycle inventories.

  5. Pets, Attachment, and Well-Being across the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Pat

    1995-01-01

    Using an ethological framework, explores the ways in which family pets, in particular dogs and cats, provide certain components of attachment that contribute to emotional and social well-being throughout the life cycle. Implications are identified for social policies that will protect and maintain this bond for particular populations. (RJM)

  6. Title IV Cash Management Life Cycle Training. Participant's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This participant's guide includes: "Introduction: Welcome to Cash Management Life Cycle Training"; "Module 1: Review of Cash Management Principles" (cash management overview and activity); "Module 2: Common Origination and Disbursement (COD) System Overview" (e.g., full participants and phase-in participants, COD…

  7. Guidance on Data Quality Assessment for Life Cycle Inventory Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data quality within Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a significant issue for the future support and development of LCA as a decision support tool and its wider adoption within industry. In response to current data quality standards such as the ISO 14000 series, various entities wit...

  8. A comparison of major petroleum life cycle models | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many organizations have attempted to develop an accurate well-to-pump life cycle model of petroleum products in order to inform decision makers of the consequences of its use. Our paper studies five of these models, demonstrating the differences in their predictions and attempting to evaluate their data quality. Carbon dioxide well-to-pump emissions for gasoline showed a variation of 35 %, and other pollutants such as ammonia and particulate matter varied up to 100 %. Differences in allocation do not appear to explain differences in predictions. Effects of these deviations on well-to-wheels passenger vehicle and truck transportation life cycle models may be minimal for effects such as global warming potential (6 % spread), but for respiratory effects of criteria pollutants (41 % spread) and other impact categories, they can be significant. A data quality assessment of the models’ documentation revealed real differences between models in temporal and geographic representativeness, completeness, as well as transparency. Stakeholders may need to consider carefully the tradeoffs inherent when selecting a model to conduct life cycle assessments for systems that make heavy use of petroleum products. This is a qualitative and quantitative comparison of petroleum LCA models intended for an expert audience interested in better understanding the data quality of existing petroleum life cycle models and the quantitative differences between these models.

  9. Self Concept Development through the Adult Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mervin D.; Lynch, Carol Lee

    1991-01-01

    The developmental model of self-concept proposed by M. Lynch and M. Levy (1982) is extended through the entire adult life cycle. Self-concept is seen as a set of cognitive rules that have affective or cognitive consequences and that operate like the ego functions proposed by Freud. (SLD)

  10. Life Cycle Assessment as an Environmental Management Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    Listed by Time Magazine as the method behind calculating “Ecological Intelligence,” one of “10 Ideas Changing the World Right Now” (March 23, 2009), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the tool that is used to understand the environmental impacts of the products we make and sell. Jo...

  11. AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    On November 29-30,1998 in Brussels, an international workshop was held to discuss Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Sophistication. Approximately 50 LCA experts attended the workshop from North America, Europe, and Asia. Prominant practicioners and researchers were invited to ...

  12. Pets, Attachment, and Well-Being across the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Pat

    1995-01-01

    Using an ethological framework, explores the ways in which family pets, in particular dogs and cats, provide certain components of attachment that contribute to emotional and social well-being throughout the life cycle. Implications are identified for social policies that will protect and maintain this bond for particular populations. (RJM)

  13. DDP - a tool for life-cycle risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornford, S. L.; Feather, M. S.; Hicks, K. A.

    2001-01-01

    At JPL we have developed, and implemented, a process for achieving life-cycle risk management. This process has been embodied in a software tool and is called Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP). The DDP process can be succinctly stated as: determine where we want to be, what could get in the way and how we will get there.

  14. U.S. EPA'S RESEARCH ON LIFE-CYCLE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life-cycle analysis (LCA) consists of looking at a product, process or activity from its inception through its completion. or consumer products, this includes the stages of raw material acquisition, manufacturing and fabrication, distribution, consumer use/reuse and final disposa...

  15. Guidance on Data Quality Assessment for Life Cycle Inventory Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data quality within Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a significant issue for the future support and development of LCA as a decision support tool and its wider adoption within industry. In response to current data quality standards such as the ISO 14000 series, various entities wit...

  16. Accounting for ecosystem services in life cycle assessment, Part I: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Singh, Shweta; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2010-04-01

    If life cycle oriented methods are to encourage sustainable development, they must account for the role of ecosystem goods and services, since these form the basis of planetary activities and human well-being. This article reviews methods that are relevant to accounting for the role of nature and that could be integrated into life cycle oriented approaches. These include methods developed by ecologists for quantifying ecosystem services, by ecological economists for monetary valuation, and life cycle methods such as conventional life cycle assessment, thermodynamic methods for resource accounting such as exergy and emergy analysis, variations of the ecological footprint approach, and human appropriation of net primary productivity. Each approach has its strengths: economic methods are able to quantify the value of cultural services; LCA considers emissions and assesses their impact; emergy accounts for supporting services in terms of cumulative exergy; and ecological footprint is intuitively appealing and considers biocapacity. However, no method is able to consider all the ecosystem services, often due to the desire to aggregate all resources in terms of a single unit. This review shows that comprehensive accounting for ecosystem services in LCA requires greater integration among existing methods, hierarchical schemes for interpreting results via multiple levels of aggregation, and greater understanding of the role of ecosystems in supporting human activities. These present many research opportunities that must be addressed to meet the challenges of sustainability.

  17. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of anesthetic drugs.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Jodi; Le, Cathy; Lamers, Vanessa; Eckelman, Matthew

    2012-05-01

    Anesthesiologists must consider the entire life cycle of drugs in order to include environmental impacts into clinical decisions. In the present study we used life cycle assessment to examine the climate change impacts of 5 anesthetic drugs: sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane, nitrous oxide, and propofol. A full cradle-to-grave approach was used, encompassing resource extraction, drug manufacturing, transport to health care facilities, drug delivery to the patient, and disposal or emission to the environment. At each stage of the life cycle, energy, material inputs, and emissions were considered, as well as use-specific impacts of each drug. The 4 inhalation anesthetics are greenhouse gases (GHGs), and so life cycle GHG emissions include waste anesthetic gases vented to the atmosphere and emissions (largely carbon dioxide) that arise from other life cycle stages. Desflurane accounts for the largest life cycle GHG impact among the anesthetic drugs considered here: 15 times that of isoflurane and 20 times that of sevoflurane on a per MAC-hour basis when administered in an O(2)/air admixture. GHG emissions increase significantly for all drugs when administered in an N(2)O/O(2) admixture. For all of the inhalation anesthetics, GHG impacts are dominated by uncontrolled emissions of waste anesthetic gases. GHG impacts of propofol are comparatively quite small, nearly 4 orders of magnitude lower than those of desflurane or nitrous oxide. Unlike the inhaled drugs, the GHG impacts of propofol primarily stem from the electricity required for the syringe pump and not from drug production or direct release to the environment. Our results reiterate previous published data on the GHG effects of these inhaled drugs, while providing a life cycle context. There are several practical environmental impact mitigation strategies. Desflurane and nitrous oxide should be restricted to cases where they may reduce morbidity and mortality over alternative drugs. Clinicians should avoid

  18. Waste management through life cycle assessment of products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, Yu V.; Aliferova, T. E.; Ncube, A.

    2015-04-01

    The rapid growth of a population in a country can contribute to high production of waste. Municipal waste and industrial waste can bring unhealthy and unpleasant environment or even diseases to human beings if the wastes are not managed properly.With increasing concerns over waste and the need for ‘greener’ products, it is necessary to carry out Life Cycle Assessments of products and this will help manufacturers take the first steps towards greener designs by assessing their product's carbon output. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and wastes released to the environment, and to assess the impact of those energy and material used and released to the environment. The aim of the study was to use a life cycle assessment approach to determine which waste disposal options that will substantially reduce the environmental burdens posed by the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle. Several important observations can be made. 1) Recycling of the PET bottle waste can significantly reduce the energy required across the life cycle because the high energy inputs needed to process the requisite virgin materials greatly exceeds the energy needs of the recycling process steps. 2) Greenhouse gases can be reduced by opting for recycling instead of landfilling and incineration. 3) Quantity of waste emissions released from different disposal options was identified. 4) Recycling is the environmentally preferable disposal method for the PET bottle. Industry can use the tools and data in this study to evaluate the health, environmental, and energy implications of the PET bottle. LCA intends to aid decision-makers in this respect, provided that the scientific underpinning is available. Strategic incentives for product development and life cycle management can then be developed.

  19. Externalities in a life cycle model with endogenous survival☆

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Michael; Wrzaczek, Stefan; Prskawetz, Alexia; Feichtinger, Gustav

    2011-01-01

    We study socially vs individually optimal life cycle allocations of consumption and health, when individual health care curbs own mortality but also has a spillover effect on other persons’ survival. Such spillovers arise, for instance, when health care activity at aggregate level triggers improvements in treatment through learning-by-doing (positive externality) or a deterioration in the quality of care through congestion (negative externality). We combine an age-structured optimal control model at population level with a conventional life cycle model to derive the social and private value of life. We then examine how individual incentives deviate from social incentives and how they can be aligned by way of a transfer scheme. The age-patterns of socially and individually optimal health expenditures and the transfer rate are derived. Numerical analysis illustrates the working of our model. PMID:28298810

  20. Life-Cycle-Cost Evaluation on Degradation Diagnosis for Cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimakage, Toyonari; Wu, Kai; Kato, Takeyoshi; Okamoto, Tatsuki; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    Degradation diagnosis is aimed at preventing unexpected failure and extending the service life of electric power apparatuses. It is, however, necessary to investigate the economic feasibility of degradation diagnosis, because the life-cycle cost of cable maintenance changes with the diagnostic parameters such as diagnosis cost, diagnosis interval and replacement criterion. In this paper, based on the actual data of water-tree degradation, we proposed a method of life-cycle-cost evaluation and evaluated the economic effect of degradation diagnosis. We also discussed the economic feasibility of practical nondestructive diagnosis of 6.6 kV XLPE cable, i. e. DC leakage current measurement and residual charge measurement, and compared the economic effects of these methods. As a result, the residual charge measurement is economically feasible and has higher effectiveness than the DC leakage current measurement.

  1. Evolutionary ecology of Odonata: a complex life cycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Stoks, Robby; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Most insects have a complex life cycle with ecologically different larval and adult stages. We present an ontogenetic perspective to analyze and summarize the complex life cycle of Odonata within an evolutionary ecology framework. Morphological, physiological, and behavioral pathways that generate carry-over effects across the aquatic egg and larval stages and the terrestrial adult stage are identified. We also highlight several mechanisms that can decouple life stages including compensatory mechanisms at the larval and adult stages, stressful and stochastic events during metamorphosis, and stressful environmental conditions at the adult stage that may overrule effects of environmental conditions in the preceding stage. We consider the implications of these findings for the evolution, selection, and fitness of odonates; underline the role of the identified numerical and carry-over effects in shaping population and metapopulation dynamics and the community structure across habitat boundaries; and discuss implications for applied conservation issues.

  2. Signal relay during the life cycle of Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Mahadeo, Dana C; Parent, Carole A

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental property of multicellular organisms is signal relay, the process by which information is transmitted from one cell to another. The integration of external information, such as nutritional status or developmental cues, is critical to the function of organisms. In addition, the spatial organizations of multicellular organisms require intricate signal relay mechanisms. Signal relay is remarkably exhibited during the life cycle of the social amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum, a eukaryote that retains a simple way of life, yet it has greatly contributed to our knowledge of the mechanisms cells use to communicate and integrate information. This chapter focuses on the molecules and mechanisms that Dictyostelium employs during its life cycle to relay temporal and spatial cues that are required for survival.

  3. Life cycle assessment in management, product and process design, and policy decision making: a conference report.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Joyce; Vigon, Bruce; Curran, Mary Ann; Franklin, Bill

    2005-01-01

    On 24 September 2003, life cycle assessment (LCA) practitioners and decision makers gathered at the InLCA/LCM Conference in Seattle, Washington, USA (see http://www.lcacenter.org/InLCA-LCM03/index.html) to discuss the role of LCA in management, product design, process development, and regulatory/policy development decisions and to compare life cycle-based methods and tools with traditional product evaluation methods and tools. This article is a summary of that meeting and was prepared by the organizers as an overview of the many different technical, regulatory policy, and decision-making policy perspectives presented to an international gathering of participants representing academia and the industrial and regulatory communities.

  4. Life cycle inventory for municipal solid waste management. Part 2: MSW management scenarios and modeling.

    PubMed

    Wilson, E J

    2002-02-01

    Evaluating the environmental performance of municipal solid waste management options is a complex task. Part 1 of this study presents the municipal solid waste management program of the Pamplona Region in Spain and explores the operational, economic, and environmental factors of the program. In Part 2, alternative waste management scenarios that include the selective collection of organic material and composting are illustrated. The use of a Life Cycle Inventory model for waste management allows for the comparison of the environmental burdens of the different scenarios. This use of a Life Cycle Inventory model for solid waste management lets program managers and decision makers include energy use, final solid waste, and Greenhouse gas emissions in the decision making process. Additionally, the different management scenarios are evaluated on their ability to fulfil Pamplona regional objectives and meet European Packaging and Landfill Directive targets.

  5. Life cycle benefits of using nanotechnology to stabilize platinum-group metal particles in automotive catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Shannon M; Lave, Lester B; Matthews, H Scott

    2005-03-01

    Due to advances in nanotechnology, the approach to catalytic design is transitioning from trial-and-error to planned design and control. Expected advances should enable the design and construction of catalysts to increase reaction speed, yield, and catalyst durability while also reducing active species loading levels. Nanofabrication techniques enabling precise control over the shape, size, and position of nanoscale platinum-group metal (PGM) particles in automotive catalysts should result in reduced PGM loading levels. These reductions would decrease energy consumption, improve environmental quality, and contribute to sustainable resource usage. We estimate the amount of PGM required to meet U.S. vehicle emissions standards through 2030 based on current catalysttechnology. We then estimate the range of PGM that could be saved from potential nanotechnology advances. Finally, we employ economic input-output and process-based life cycle assessment models to estimate the direct and life cycle benefits from reducing PGM mining and refining.

  6. Cellular networks involved in the influenza virus life cycle

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Watanabe, Shinji; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause epidemics and pandemics. Like all other viruses, influenza viruses rely on the host cellular machinery to support their life cycle. Accordingly, identification of host functions that participate in viral replication steps is of great interest to understand the mechanisms of the virus life cycle as well as to find new targets for the development of antiviral compounds. Multiple laboratories have used various approaches to explore host factors involvement in the influenza virus replication cycle. One of the most powerful approaches is an RNAi-based genome-wide screen, which has thrown new light on the search for host factors involved in virus replication. In this review, we examine the cellular genes identified to date as important for influenza virus replication in genome-wide screens, assess pathways that were repeatedly identified in these studies, and discuss how these pathways might be involved in the individual steps of influenza virus replication, ultimately leading to a comprehensive understanding of the virus life cycle. PMID:20542247

  7. Life Cycle of the pseudocolonial dinoflagellate Polykrikos kofoidii (Gymnodiniales, Dinoflagellata).

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Urban; Hoppenrath, Mona

    2013-04-01

    The athecate, pseudocolonial polykrikoid dinoflag-ellates show a greater morphological complexity than many other dinoflagellate cells and contain not only elaborate extrusomes but sulci, cinguli, flagellar pairs, and nuclei in multiple copies. Among polykrikoids, Polykrikos kofoidii is a common species that plays an important role as a grazer of toxic planktonic algae but whose life cycle is poorly known. In this study, the main life cycle stages of P. kofoidii were examined and documented for the first time. The formation of gametes, 2-zooid-1-nucleus stages very different from vegetative cells, was observed and the process of gamete fusion, isogamy, was recorded. Karyogamy followed shortly after completed plasmogamy. A complex reorganization of furrows (cinguli and sulci) and flagella followed zygote formation, resulting in a 4-zooid zygote with one nucleus. The fate of zygotes under different nutritional conditions was also investigated; well-fed zygotes were able to reenter the vegetative cycle via meiotic divisions as indicated by nuclear cyclosis. However, nuclear cyclosis was preceded by a presumably mitotic division of the primary zygote nucleus which by definition would imply that P. kofoidii has a diplohaplontic life cycle. Nuclear cyclosis in germlings hatched from spiny resting cysts indicate that these cysts are of zygote origin (hypnozygotes). Hypnozygote formation, cyst hatching, the morphology of the germling (a 1-zooid cell), and its development into a normal pseudocolony are documented here for the first time. There is evidence that P. kofoidii has a system of complex heterothallism. © 2013 Phycological Society of America.

  8. Oncology meets immunology: the cancer-immunity cycle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daniel S; Mellman, Ira

    2013-07-25

    The genetic and cellular alterations that define cancer provide the immune system with the means to generate T cell responses that recognize and eradicate cancer cells. However, elimination of cancer by T cells is only one step in the Cancer-Immunity Cycle, which manages the delicate balance between the recognition of nonself and the prevention of autoimmunity. Identification of cancer cell T cell inhibitory signals, including PD-L1, has prompted the development of a new class of cancer immunotherapy that specifically hinders immune effector inhibition, reinvigorating and potentially expanding preexisting anticancer immune responses. The presence of suppressive factors in the tumor microenvironment may explain the limited activity observed with previous immune-based therapies and why these therapies may be more effective in combination with agents that target other steps of the cycle. Emerging clinical data suggest that cancer immunotherapy is likely to become a key part of the clinical management of cancer.

  9. Estimating soil carbon change and biofuel life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions with economic, ecosystem and life-cycle models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Z.; Dunn, J.; Kwon, H. Y.; Mueller, S.; Wander, M.

    2015-12-01

    Land-use change (LUC) resulting from biofuel feedstock production can alter soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks of lands producing those crops and the crops they displace, possibly resulting in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. LUC GHG emissions included in biofuel life cycle analysis (LCA) have at times been estimated to be so great that biofuels did not offer a greenhouse gas reduction compared to conventional fossil fuels. To improve the accuracy of emissions estimates, SOC changes must be considered at a finer spatial resolution and take into account climate, soil, land use and management factors. This study reports on the incorporation of global LUC as predicted by a computable general equilibrium model (i.e., GTAP) and spatially-explicit modeled SOC estimates (using surrogate CENTURY) for various biofuel feedstock scenarios into a widely-used LCA model (i.e., GREET). Resulting estimates suggest: SOC changes associated with domestic corn production might contribute 2-6% or offset as much as 5% of total corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions. On the other hand, domestic LUC GHG emissions for switchgrass ethanol have the potential offset up to 60% of GHG emissions in the fuel's life cycle. Further, large SOC sequestration is predicted for Miscanthus feedstock production, enabling Miscanthus-based ethanol systems to offset all life-cycle GHG emissions and create a net carbon sink. LUC GHG emissions for ethanol derived from corn stover are small compared to other sources. Total life-cycle GHG emissions (g CO2eq MJ-1, 100cm soil) were estimated to be 59-66 for corn ethanol, 14 for stover ethanol, 18-26 for switchgrass ethanol, and -7 - -0.6 for Miscanthus ethanol.

  10. The new reports on life cycle of Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.

    2016-02-01

    Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada (Raphidophyceae) is a noxious bloom-forming algal species that has damaged many fish farms in coastal waters during recent decades. Consequently, many studies focused on the population dynamics of H. akashiwo, while its life cycle was not well studied. In this study, we investigated veiled life cycle of H. akashiwo through culture based method. We cultured eight H. akashiwostrains originated from Korea, Japan, USA under various conditions (water temp., light intensity, salinity, pH). Morphological diversity of cells were observed via light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. To observe nucleus of living cell, cells were stained with Hoechst and changes of cells in culture were observed through time-lapse. For observation of cysts and their germination process, cysts were isolated from sediment. Different from the previous knowledge, H. akashiwo has only vegetative cell stage and cyst stage, we discovered that H. akashiwo has extra small cell stage and large cell stage. Large cells are much bigger (20-45 µm) than vegetative cells. Large cell formation was resulted from fusion of vegetative cells. Small cells were very small (6.88 ± 0.85 µm), these cell divided from large cell or formed in germination process of cysts rarely. Small cells have lower motility than vegetative cells. These results improved the study of life stages of H. akashiwo and this fundamental investigation provide important new information and improve our understanding of the life cycle of H. akashiwo.

  11. Novel electrolyte additives to enhance zinc electrode cycle life

    SciTech Connect

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-01

    Electrochemical power sources that utilize zinc electrodes possess many advantages. Zinc is abundantly available, benign, inexpensive, stable over a wide operating temperature range, and has a high oxidation potential. In spite of these advantageous characteristics, rechargeable electrochemical systems based on zinc chemistry have not found widespread use. The major disadvantages of zinc electrodes are that they have limited cycle life due to zinc slumping and zinc electrode shape changes in alkaline solutions resulting from the solubility of zincate (Zn(OH){sub 4}{sup 2-}) in these solutions. As a result, premature cell failure often results due to cell shorting caused by dendritic growth as well as zinc slumping. In this paper we describe the chemical and physical characteristics of electrolyte solutions employing additives, particularly for zinc based electrochemical systems. These electrolytes are prepared using the alkali metal salts of 1,3,5-phenyltrisulfonic acid in combination with potassium hydroxide. The alkali metal salts of the acid possess good thermal stability, good ionic conductivity, and have a wide electrochemical voltage window in aqueous systems. With these electrolyte solutions improved cycle life was achieved in Zn/NiOOH and Zn/AgO. Improved cycle life with this additive is attributed to decreased zincate solubility, resulting in reduced zinc slumping and electrode shape changes. In addition, increased shelf-life and reduced self-discharge were also observed in many alkaline power sources.

  12. Live Cell Imaging of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Sexual Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Merlini, Laura; Vjestica, Aleksandar; Dudin, Omaya; Bendezú, Felipe; Martin, Sophie G

    2017-07-21

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is an invaluable model system for studying the principles that drive sexual differentiation and the meiotic cell division cycle. We describe a simple protocol for microscopic observation of the entire sexual life cycle that can be adapted to focus on specific stages of sexual differentiation. After growth to exponential phase in a nitrogen-rich medium, cell cultures are switched to a nitrogen-deprived medium until the population is enriched for the specific stage of the sexual lifecycle to be studied. Cells are then mounted in easily constructed customized agarose pad chambers for imaging. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Whole life cycle of femtosecond ultraviolet filaments in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarnac, Amélie; Tamosauskas, Gintaras; Majus, Donatas; Houard, Aurélien; Mysyrowicz, André; Couairon, Arnaud; Dubietis, Audrius

    2014-03-01

    We present measurements fully characterizing the whole life cycle of femtosecond pulses undergoing filamentation in water at 400 nm. The complete pulse dynamics is monitored by means of a four-dimensional mapping technique for the intensity distribution I (x,y,z,t) during the nonlinear interaction. Measured events (focusing or defocusing cycles, pulse splitting and replenishment, supercontinuum generation, conical emission, nonlinear absorption peaks) are mutually connected.The filament evolution from laser energy deposition in water, which is of paramount importance for a wide range of technological and medical applications, is interpreted in light of simulation results.

  14. Regenerable Microbial Check Valve - Life cycle tests results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James E.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Olivadoti, J. T.; Sauer, Richard L.; Flanagan, David T.

    1992-01-01

    Life cycle regeneration testing of the Microbial Check Valve (MCV) that is used on the Shuttle Orbiter to provide microbial control of potable water is currently in progress. Four beds are being challenged with simulated reclaimed waters and repeatedly regenerated. Preliminary results indicate that contaminant systems exhibit unique regeneration periodicities. Cyclic throughput diminishes with increasing cumulative flow. It is considered to be feasible to design a regenerable MCV system which will function without human intervention and with minimal resupply penalty for the 30 year life of the Space Station.

  15. A model for a knowledge-based system's life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics has initiated a Committee on Standards for Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are the initial efforts of one of the working groups of that committee. The purpose here is to present a candidate model for the development life cycle of Knowledge Based Systems (KBS). The intent is for the model to be used by the Aerospace Community and eventually be evolved into a standard. The model is rooted in the evolutionary model, borrows from the spiral model, and is embedded in the standard Waterfall model for software development. Its intent is to satisfy the development of both stand-alone and embedded KBSs. The phases of the life cycle are detailed as are and the review points that constitute the key milestones throughout the development process. The applicability and strengths of the model are discussed along with areas needing further development and refinement by the aerospace community.

  16. The elusive life cycle of scyphozoan jellyfish--metagenesis revisited.

    PubMed

    Ceh, Janja; Gonzalez, Jorge; Pacheco, Aldo S; Riascos, José M

    2015-07-08

    Massive proliferations of scyphozoan jellyfish considerably affect human industries and irreversibly change food webs. Efforts to understand the role of jellyfish in marine ecosystems are based on a life cycle model described 200 years ago. According to this paradigm the pelagic medusae is considered seasonal and alternates with the benthic polyp stage from which it derives. However, we provide evidence that a) the occurrence of several species of medusae is not restricted to a season in the year, they overwinter, b) polyp- and medusa generations are neither temporally nor spatially separated, and c) "metagenesis" which is defined as the alternation between sexual and asexual generations does not always occur. Hence we recommend additions to the current model and argue that the scyphozoan life cycle should be considered multi-modal, rather than metagenetic. The implications of these findings for jellyfish proliferations, including possible consequences and associated environmental drivers, are discussed.

  17. The elusive life cycle of scyphozoan jellyfish - metagenesis revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceh, Janja; Gonzalez, Jorge; Pacheco, Aldo S.; Riascos, José M.

    2015-07-01

    Massive proliferations of scyphozoan jellyfish considerably affect human industries and irreversibly change food webs. Efforts to understand the role of jellyfish in marine ecosystems are based on a life cycle model described 200 years ago. According to this paradigm the pelagic medusae is considered seasonal and alternates with the benthic polyp stage from which it derives. However, we provide evidence that a) the occurrence of several species of medusae is not restricted to a season in the year, they overwinter, b) polyp- and medusa generations are neither temporally nor spatially separated, and c) “metagenesis” which is defined as the alternation between sexual and asexual generations does not always occur. Hence we recommend additions to the current model and argue that the scyphozoan life cycle should be considered multi-modal, rather than metagenetic. The implications of these findings for jellyfish proliferations, including possible consequences and associated environmental drivers, are discussed.

  18. Full cost accounting for the life cycle of coal.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Paul R; Buonocore, Jonathan J; Eckerle, Kevin; Hendryx, Michael; Stout Iii, Benjamin M; Heinberg, Richard; Clapp, Richard W; May, Beverly; Reinhart, Nancy L; Ahern, Melissa M; Doshi, Samir K; Glustrom, Leslie

    2011-02-01

    Each stage in the life cycle of coal-extraction, transport, processing, and combustion-generates a waste stream and carries multiple hazards for health and the environment. These costs are external to the coal industry and are thus often considered "externalities." We estimate that the life cycle effects of coal and the waste stream generated are costing the U.S. public a third to over one-half of a trillion dollars annually. Many of these so-called externalities are, moreover, cumulative. Accounting for the damages conservatively doubles to triples the price of electricity from coal per kWh generated, making wind, solar, and other forms of nonfossil fuel power generation, along with investments in efficiency and electricity conservation methods, economically competitive. We focus on Appalachia, though coal is mined in other regions of the United States and is burned throughout the world.

  19. "ATLAS" Advanced Technology Life-cycle Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.; Mankins, John C.; ONeil, Daniel A.

    2004-01-01

    Making good decisions concerning research and development portfolios-and concerning the best systems concepts to pursue - as early as possible in the life cycle of advanced technologies is a key goal of R&D management This goal depends upon the effective integration of information from a wide variety of sources as well as focused, high-level analyses intended to inform such decisions Life-cycle Analysis System (ATLAS) methodology and tool kit. ATLAS encompasses a wide range of methods and tools. A key foundation for ATLAS is the NASA-created Technology Readiness. The toolkit is largely spreadsheet based (as of August 2003). This product is being funded by the Human and Robotics The presentation provides a summary of the Advanced Technology Level (TRL) systems Technology Program Office, Office of Exploration Systems, NASA Headquarters, Washington D.C. and is being integrated by Dan O Neil of the Advanced Projects Office, NASA/MSFC, Huntsville, AL

  20. Goals of stability evaluation throughout the vaccine life cycle.

    PubMed

    Krause, Philip R

    2009-11-01

    Stability studies play a critical role in assuring product quality at all points in the vaccine life cycle. At and after licensure, stability studies on quality attributes (including potency) provide a critical link between marketed and clinically evaluated vaccine product, addressing important regulatory concerns by assuring that product quality is maintained throughout the dating period. During development, stability studies are done to assure product quality and to obtain the data needed to support licensure. Stability studies may also be performed after licensure to assure that product continues to perform as it did pre-licensure, as well as to evaluate the effect on product quality of deliberately introduced manufacturing changes. At each phase in the product life cycle, it is important to consider the goals of stability evaluation and to perform appropriate statistical analyses in order to assure and reach appropriate conclusions about product quality.

  1. The elusive life cycle of scyphozoan jellyfish – metagenesis revisited

    PubMed Central

    Ceh, Janja; Gonzalez, Jorge; Pacheco, Aldo S.; Riascos, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Massive proliferations of scyphozoan jellyfish considerably affect human industries and irreversibly change food webs. Efforts to understand the role of jellyfish in marine ecosystems are based on a life cycle model described 200 years ago. According to this paradigm the pelagic medusae is considered seasonal and alternates with the benthic polyp stage from which it derives. However, we provide evidence that a) the occurrence of several species of medusae is not restricted to a season in the year, they overwinter, b) polyp- and medusa generations are neither temporally nor spatially separated, and c) “metagenesis” which is defined as the alternation between sexual and asexual generations does not always occur. Hence we recommend additions to the current model and argue that the scyphozoan life cycle should be considered multi-modal, rather than metagenetic. The implications of these findings for jellyfish proliferations, including possible consequences and associated environmental drivers, are discussed. PMID:26153534

  2. Life cycle assessment analysis of supercritical coal power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Hoinka, Krzysztof; Liszka, Marcin

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis concerning the selected options of supercritical coal power units. The investigation covers a pulverized power unit without a CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) installation, a pulverized unit with a "post-combustion" installation (MEA type) and a pulverized power unit working in the "oxy-combustion" mode. For each variant the net electric power amounts to 600 MW. The energy component of the LCA analysis has been determined. It describes the depletion of non-renewable natural resources. The energy component is determined by the coefficient of cumulative energy consumption in the life cycle. For the calculation of the ecological component of the LCA analysis the cumulative CO2 emission has been applied. At present it is the basic emission factor for the LCA analysis of power plants. The work also presents the sensitivity analysis of calculated energy and ecological factors.

  3. Life cycle benefits, challenges, and the potential of recycled aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Martchek, K.J.

    1997-12-31

    Recently, a number of prominent articles have appeared in the national press questioning the environmental benefits and economic rationale of post consumer materials recycling. This paper reviews the evolution of aluminum recycling and then examines its role in the life cycle of aluminum products based on the most recent industry studies conducted in Europe and North America. The environmental and economic viability of today`s recovery and reuse of aluminum products is explored based on these life cycle assessments and current market conditions. This paper then summarizes technology and issues associated with aluminum recycling including the current state of automotive aluminum dismantling, shredding, recycle and reuse. Afterwards, the paper highlights opportunities for recovering the full environmental and economic potential of aluminum recycling based on emerging technologies, ``producer responsibility`` legislation, voluntary initiatives, and product design considerations.

  4. Transcriptome analyses of the Giardia lamblia life cycle.

    PubMed

    Birkeland, Shanda R; Preheim, Sarah P; Davids, Barbara J; Cipriano, Michael J; Palm, Daniel; Reiner, David S; Svärd, Staffan G; Gillin, Frances D; McArthur, Andrew G

    2010-11-01

    We quantified mRNA abundance from 10 stages in the Giardia lamblia life cycle in vitro using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE). 163 abundant transcripts were expressed constitutively. 71 transcripts were upregulated specifically during excystation and 42 during encystation. Nonetheless, the transcriptomes of cysts and trophozoites showed major differences. SAGE detected co-expressed clusters of 284 transcripts differentially expressed in cysts and excyzoites and 287 transcripts in vegetative trophozoites and encysting cells. All clusters included known genes and pathways as well as proteins unique to Giardia or diplomonads. SAGE analysis of the Giardia life cycle identified a number of kinases, phosphatases, and DNA replication proteins involved in excystation and encystation, which could be important for examining the roles of cell signaling in giardial differentiation. Overall, these data pave the way for directed gene discovery and a better understanding of the biology of G. lamblia.

  5. Uncovering the Global Life Cycles of the Rare Earth Elements

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T. E.

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements. PMID:22355662

  6. Life cycle optimisation for highway best management practices.

    PubMed

    Lee, J G; Heaney, J P; Rapp, D N; Pack, C A

    2006-01-01

    Highway runoff can cause a number of water quantity and quality problems. Stormwater management systems for highways have been developed based on a fast drainage for large storm situations. Non-point source pollution from highway runoff is a growing water quality concern. Stormwater quality control needs to be integrated into highway drainage design and operation to reduce the stormwater impacts on the receiving water. A continuous simulation/optimisation model for analysing integrated highway best management practices (BMPs) is presented. This model can evaluate the life cycle performance of infiltration and/or storage oriented highway BMPs. It can be directly integrated with spreadsheet optimisation tools to find the least cost options for implementing BMPs throughout a specified life cycle.

  7. The velocity of money in a life-cycle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yougui; Qiu, Hanqing

    2005-08-01

    The determinants of the velocity of money have been examined based on life-cycle hypothesis. The velocity of money can be expressed by reciprocal of the average value of holding time that is defined as interval between participating exchanges for one unit of money. This expression indicates that the velocity is governed by behavior patterns of economic agents and opens a way for constructing micro-foundation of it. It is found that time pattern of income and expense for a representative individual can be obtained from a simple version of life-cycle model, and average holding time of money resulted from the individual's optimal choice depends on the expected length of relevant planning periods.

  8. Framework for analyzing transformative technologies in life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shelie A; Keoleian, Gregory A

    2015-03-03

    Emerging products and technologies pose unique challenges for the life cycle assessment (LCA) community, given the lack of data and inherent uncertainties regarding their development. An emerging technology that has the potential to be transformative and effect broad-scale change within society, as well as the underpinning assumptions associated with its life cycle, is particularly difficult to analyze. Despite the associated challenges, LCA methods must be developed for transformative technologies. The greatest improvement potential occurs at the early phases of technology development; therefore, prospective LCA results can be used to anticipate potential unintended consequences and develop design pathways that lead to preferential outcomes. This paper identifies and categorizes ten factors that influence the LCA results of transformative technologies in order to provide a formal structure for determining appropriate factors for inclusion within an LCA. Appropriate factors for an analysis should be selected according to the overall research questions of the study and are applicable to both attributional and consequential approaches to LCA.

  9. Uncovering the global life cycles of the rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T E

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements.

  10. Uncovering the Global Life Cycles of the Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T. E.

    2011-11-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements.

  11. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sai; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate energy, economic, and environmental performances of seven categories of biodiesel feedstocks by using the mixed-unit input-output life cycle assessment method. Various feedstocks have different environmental performances, indicating potential environmental problem-shift. Jatropha seed, castor seed, waste cooking oil, and waste extraction oil are preferred feedstocks for biodiesel production in the short term. Positive net energy yields and positive net economic benefits of biodiesel from these four feedstocks are 2.3-52.0% of their life cycle energy demands and 74.1-448.4% of their economic costs, respectively. Algae are preferred in the long term mainly due to their less arable land demands. Special attention should be paid to potential environmental problems accompanying feedstock choice: freshwater use, ecotoxicity potentials, photochemical oxidation potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Moreover, key processes are identified by sensitivity analysis to direct future technology improvements. Finally, supporting measures are proposed to optimize China's biodiesel development.

  12. Managing Life-Cycle Information of Aircraft Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    starting to implement Product Life Cycle Management ( PLM ), a closed-loop system that encompasses internationally standardized data-exchange technology...aircraft have much to gain from the use of tracking technologies in support of a PLM system. To investigate how efficiencies can be attained in the...missing the card. The problem stems from the lack of reliability of the card-based system. Moving to an automated PLM system would address these

  13. A Monte Carlo Risk Analysis of Life Cycle Cost Prediction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    pre- sented of the prior research which has been conducted in this area by the RAND Corporation and APNC Research Corporation. Chapter 3 discusses in...prior research in this area is presented. The purpose of the discussion is to compare the assumptions of the differ- ent approaches and demonstrate...Uncertainty in Life Cycle Cost The primary source of prior research in this area of study is a working paper by the Rand Corporation (62). The Rand

  14. The influence of catalysts on biofuel life cycle analysis (LCA)

    DOE PAGES

    Benavides, Pahola Thathiana; Cronauer, Donald C.; Adom, Felix K.; ...

    2017-01-21

    Catalysts play an important role in biofuel production but are rarely included in biofuel life cycle analysis (LCA). In this work, we estimate the cradle-to-gate energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of Pt/γ-Al2O3, CoMo/γ-Al2O3, and ZSM-5, catalysts that could be used in processes to convert biomass to biofuels. We also consider the potential impacts of catalyst recovery and recycling. Integrating the energy and environmental impacts of CoMo/γ-Al2O3 and ZSM-5 into an LCA of renewable gasoline produced via in-situ and ex-situ fast pyrolysis of a blended woody feedstock revealed that the ZSM-5, with cradle-to-gate GHG emissions of 7.7 kg CO2e/kg,more » could influence net life-cycle GHG emissions of the renewable gasoline (1.7 gCO2e/MJ for the in-situ process, 1.2 gCO2e/MJ for the ex-situ process) by up to 14% depending on the loading rate. CoMo/γ-Al2O3 had a greater GHG intensity (9.6 kg CO2e/kg) than ZSM-5, however, it contributed approximately only 1% to the life-cycle GHG emissions of the renewable gasoline because of the small amount of this catalyst needed per kg of biofuel produced. As a result, given that catalysts can contribute significantly to biofuel life-cycle GHG emissions depending on the GHG intensity of their production and their consumption rates, biofuel LCAs should consider the potential influence of catalysts on LCA results.« less

  15. Life cycle cost modeling of conceptual space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles

    1993-01-01

    This paper documents progress to date by the University of Dayton on the development of a life cycle cost model for use during the conceptual design of new launch vehicles and spacecraft. This research is being conducted under NASA Research Grant NAG-1-1327. This research effort changes the focus from that of the first two years in which a reliability and maintainability model was developed to the initial development of a life cycle cost model. Cost categories are initially patterned after NASA's three axis work breakdown structure consisting of a configuration axis (vehicle), a function axis, and a cost axis. The focus will be on operations and maintenance costs and other recurring costs. Secondary tasks performed concurrent with the development of the life cycle costing model include continual support and upgrade of the R&M model. The primary result of the completed research will be a methodology and a computer implementation of the methodology to provide for timely cost analysis in support of the conceptual design activities. The major objectives of this research are: to obtain and to develop improved methods for estimating manpower, spares, software and hardware costs, facilities costs, and other cost categories as identified by NASA personnel; to construct a life cycle cost model of a space transportation system for budget exercises and performance-cost trade-off analysis during the conceptual and development stages; to continue to support modifications and enhancements to the R&M model; and to continue to assist in the development of a simulation model to provide an integrated view of the operations and support of the proposed system.

  16. Incorporating Externalities and Uncertainty into Life-Cycle Cost Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    that humanity has a right to a safe and healthy environment and that this right has been surrendered involuntarily due to a lack of oversight of the...also responsible for producing ground- level ozone, which has a number of human health effects, and destroying stratospheric ozone, which protects ...subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT/GEM/ENV/12-M02 INCORPORATING EXTERNALITIES AND UNCERTAINTY INTO LIFE-CYCLE COST

  17. Life-cycle costs of high-performance cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, R.; Burger, D.; Reiter, L.

    1985-01-01

    A life cycle cost analysis of high efficiency cells was presented. Although high efficiency cells produce more power, they also cost more to make and are more susceptible to array hot-spot heating. Three different computer analysis programs were used: SAMICS (solar array manufacturing industry costing standards), PVARRAY (an array failure mode/degradation simulator), and LCP (lifetime cost and performance). The high efficiency cell modules were found to be more economical in this study, but parallel redundancy is recommended.

  18. Life cycle assessment of metals: a scientific synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nuss, Philip; Eckelman, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    We have assembled extensive information on the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of 63 metals in their major use forms, and illustrated the interconnectedness of metal production systems. Related cumulative energy use, global warming potential, human health implications and ecosystem damage are estimated by metal life cycle stage (i.e., mining, purification, and refining). For some elements, these are the first life cycle estimates of environmental impacts reported in the literature. We show that, if compared on a per kilogram basis, the platinum group metals and gold display the highest environmental burdens, while many of the major industrial metals (e.g., iron, manganese, titanium) are found at the lower end of the environmental impacts scale. If compared on the basis of their global annual production in 2008, iron and aluminum display the largest impacts, and thallium and tellurium the lowest. With the exception of a few metals, environmental impacts of the majority of elements are dominated by the purification and refining stages in which metals are transformed from a concentrate into their metallic form. Out of the 63 metals investigated, 42 metals are obtained as co-products in multi output processes. We test the sensitivity of varying allocation rationales, in which the environmental burden are allocated to the various metal and mineral products, on the overall results. Monte-Carlo simulation is applied to further investigate the stability of our results. This analysis is the most comprehensive life cycle comparison of metals to date and allows for the first time a complete bottom-up estimate of life cycle impacts of the metals and mining sector globally. We estimate global direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions in 2008 at 3.4 Gt CO2-eq per year and primary energy use at 49 EJ per year (9.5% of global use), and report the shares for all metals to both impact categories.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of Metals: A Scientific Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, Philip; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    We have assembled extensive information on the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of 63 metals in their major use forms, and illustrated the interconnectedness of metal production systems. Related cumulative energy use, global warming potential, human health implications and ecosystem damage are estimated by metal life cycle stage (i.e., mining, purification, and refining). For some elements, these are the first life cycle estimates of environmental impacts reported in the literature. We show that, if compared on a per kilogram basis, the platinum group metals and gold display the highest environmental burdens, while many of the major industrial metals (e.g., iron, manganese, titanium) are found at the lower end of the environmental impacts scale. If compared on the basis of their global annual production in 2008, iron and aluminum display the largest impacts, and thallium and tellurium the lowest. With the exception of a few metals, environmental impacts of the majority of elements are dominated by the purification and refining stages in which metals are transformed from a concentrate into their metallic form. Out of the 63 metals investigated, 42 metals are obtained as co-products in multi output processes. We test the sensitivity of varying allocation rationales, in which the environmental burden are allocated to the various metal and mineral products, on the overall results. Monte-Carlo simulation is applied to further investigate the stability of our results. This analysis is the most comprehensive life cycle comparison of metals to date and allows for the first time a complete bottom-up estimate of life cycle impacts of the metals and mining sector globally. We estimate global direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions in 2008 at 3.4 Gt CO2-eq per year and primary energy use at 49 EJ per year (9.5% of global use), and report the shares for all metals to both impact categories. PMID:24999810

  20. The influence of catalysts on biofuel life cycle analysis (LCA)

    DOE PAGES

    Benavides, Pahola Thathiana; Cronauer, Donald C.; Adom, Felix K.; ...

    2017-01-21

    Catalysts play an important role in biofuel production but are rarely included in biofuel life cycle analysis (LCA). In this work, we estimate the cradle-to-gate energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of Pt/γ-Al2O3, CoMo/γ-Al2O3, and ZSM-5, catalysts that could be used in processes to convert biomass to biofuels. We also consider the potential impacts of catalyst recovery and recycling. Integrating the energy and environmental impacts of CoMo/γ-Al2O3 and ZSM-5 into an LCA of renewable gasoline produced via in-situ and ex-situ fast pyrolysis of a blended woody feedstock revealed that the ZSM-5, with cradle-to-gate GHG emissions of 7.7 kg CO2e/kg,more » could influence net life-cycle GHG emissions of the renewable gasoline (1.7 gCO2e/MJ for the in-situ process, 1.2 gCO2e/MJ for the ex-situ process) by up to 14% depending on the loading rate. CoMo/γ-Al2O3 had a greater GHG intensity (9.6 kg CO2e/kg) than ZSM-5, however, it contributed approximately only 1% to the life-cycle GHG emissions of the renewable gasoline because of the small amount of this catalyst needed per kg of biofuel produced. As a result, given that catalysts can contribute significantly to biofuel life-cycle GHG emissions depending on the GHG intensity of their production and their consumption rates, biofuel LCAs should consider the potential influence of catalysts on LCA results.« less

  1. Cycle life testing of a 24-V, 15-Ah sealed lead-acid aircraft battery

    SciTech Connect

    Vutetakis, D.G.; Viswanathan, V.V.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents the results of cycle life testing of 24-V, 15-Ah sealed lead-acid batteries intended for use in the B-1B aircraft. Test samples were procured from two different manufacturers and subjected to cycle testing at 33% and 100% depth-of-discharge (DOD). The cycle life at 33% DOD ranged from 500 to 750 cycles. The cycle life at 100% DOD ranged from 160 to 260 cycles.

  2. Long Life Nickel Electrodes for a Nickel-hydrogen Cell: Cycle Life Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    In order to develop a long life nickel electrode for a Ni/H2 cell, cycle life tests of nickel electrodes were carried out in Hi/H2 boiler plate cells. A 19 test cell matrix was made of various nickel electrode designs including three levels each of plaque mechanical strength, median pore size of the plaque, and active material loading. Test cells were cycled to the end of their life (0.5v) in a 45-minute low earth orbit cycle regime at 80% depth-of-discharge. The results show that the active material loading level affects the cycle life the most with the optimum loading at 1.6 g/cc void. Mechanical strength did not affect the cycle life noticeably in the bend strength range of 400 to 700 psi. The best plaque type appears to be one which is made of INCO nickel powder type 287 and has a median pore size of 13 micron.

  3. Contributions to late Archaean sulphur cycling by life on land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüeken, Eva E.; Catling, David C.; Buick, Roger

    2012-10-01

    Evidence in palaeosols suggests that life on land dates back to at least 2.76Gyr ago. However, the biogeochemical effects of Archaean terrestrial life are thought to have been limited, owing to the lack of a protective ozone shield from ultraviolet radiation for terrestrial organisms before the rise of atmospheric oxygen levels several hundred million years later. Records of chromium delivery from the continents suggest that microbial mineral oxidation began at least 2.48Gyr ago but do not indicate when the terrestrial biosphere began to dominate important biogeochemical cycles. Here we combine marine sulphur abundance data with a mass balance model of the sulphur cycle to estimate the effects of the Archaean and early Proterozoic terrestrial biosphere on sulphur cycling. We find that terrestrial oxidation of pyrite by microbes using oxygen has contributed a substantial fraction of the total sulphur weathering flux since at least 2.5Gyr ago, with probable evidence of such activity 2.7-2.8Gyr ago. The late Archaean onset of terrestrial sulphur cycling is supported by marine molybdenum abundance data and coincides with a shift to more sulphidic ocean conditions. We infer that significant microbial land colonization began by 2.7-2.8Gyr ago. Our identification of pyrite oxidation at this time provides further support for the appearance of molecular oxygen several hundred million years before the Great Oxidation Event.

  4. Cycle life status of SAFT VOS nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goualard, Jacques

    1993-01-01

    The SAFT prismatic VOS Ni-Cd cells have been flown in geosynchronous orbit since 1977 and in low earth orbit since 1983. Parallel cycling tests are performed by several space agencies in order to determine the cycle life for a wide range of temperature and depth of discharge (DOD). In low Earth orbit (LEO), the ELAN program is conducted on 24 Ah cells by CNES and ESA at the European Battery Test Center at temperatures ranging from 0 to 27 C and DOD from 10 to 40 percent. Data are presented up to 37,000 cycles. One pack (X-80) has achieved 49,000 cycles at 10 C and 23 percent DOD. The geosynchronous orbit simulation of a high DOD test is conducted by ESA on 3 batteries at 10 C and 70, 90, and 100 percent DOD. Thirty-one eclipse seasons are completed, and no signs of degradation have been found. The Air Force test at CRANE on 24 Ah and 40 Ah cells at 20 C and 80 percent DOD has achieved 19 shadow periods. Life expectancy is discussed. The VOS cell technology could be used for the following: (1) in geosynchronous conditions--15 yrs at 10-15 C and 80 percent DOD; and (2) in low earth orbit--10 yrs at 5-15 C and 25-30 percent DOD.

  5. Resolving the life cycle alters expected impacts of climate change.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ofir; Buckley, Lauren B; Keitt, Timothy H; Smith, Colton D; Boateng, Kwasi O; Kumar, Davina S; Angilletta, Michael J

    2015-08-22

    Recent models predict contrasting impacts of climate change on tropical and temperate species, but these models ignore how environmental stress and organismal tolerance change during the life cycle. For example, geographical ranges and extinction risks have been inferred from thermal constraints on activity during the adult stage. Yet, most animals pass through a sessile embryonic stage before reaching adulthood, making them more susceptible to warming climates than current models would suggest. By projecting microclimates at high spatio-temporal resolution and measuring thermal tolerances of embryos, we developed a life cycle model of population dynamics for North American lizards. Our analyses show that previous models dramatically underestimate the demographic impacts of climate change. A predicted loss of fitness in 2% of the USA by 2100 became 35% when considering embryonic performance in response to hourly fluctuations in soil temperature. Most lethal events would have been overlooked if we had ignored thermal stress during embryonic development or had averaged temperatures over time. Therefore, accurate forecasts require detailed knowledge of environmental conditions and thermal tolerances throughout the life cycle.

  6. Life cycle of Nosomma monstrosum (Acari: Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Bandaranayaka, K O; Apanaskevich, D A; Rajakaruna, R S

    2016-05-01

    Nosomma monstrosum (Nuttall & Warburton) is a hard tick infesting mainly buffalo and cattle in Sri Lanka. Biological data on the life cycle pattern of N. monstrosum were collected using experimental infestation on New Zealand white rabbits under laboratory conditions. The three-host life cycle was completed within 64-102 days. Eggs hatched after 20-29 days of incubation and the larvae hatched out started feeding which lasted for 2-4 days. After a moulting period of 8-11 days nymphs emerge and they actively fed for 2-4 days. Subsequently the nymphs took 15-18 days for moulting before emerging as adults. Freshly moulted females fed for 7-8 days and remained latent for 4-5 days before starting the oviposition. Females laid 3864-12,520 eggs for 11-17 days. The male: female sex ratio was 8:3 in the adults which were moulted under laboratory conditions. Strong positive correlations were found in female weight with number of eggs laid and REI. Females raised from the first generation of eggs had higher oviposition periods, higher REI, laid ten times more eggs, and lower pre-oviposition periods compared to those collected from the wild. When a suitable host is given, N. monstrosum could successfully complete its three-host life cycle under laboratory conditions.

  7. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M.

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  8. Sampling and monitoring for the mine life cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLemore, Virginia T.; Smith, Kathleen S.; Russell, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    Sampling and Monitoring for the Mine Life Cycle provides an overview of sampling for environmental purposes and monitoring of environmentally relevant variables at mining sites. It focuses on environmental sampling and monitoring of surface water, and also considers groundwater, process water streams, rock, soil, and other media including air and biological organisms. The handbook includes an appendix of technical summaries written by subject-matter experts that describe field measurements, collection methods, and analytical techniques and procedures relevant to environmental sampling and monitoring.The sixth of a series of handbooks on technologies for management of metal mine and metallurgical process drainage, this handbook supplements and enhances current literature and provides an awareness of the critical components and complexities involved in environmental sampling and monitoring at the mine site. It differs from most information sources by providing an approach to address all types of mining influenced water and other sampling media throughout the mine life cycle.Sampling and Monitoring for the Mine Life Cycle is organized into a main text and six appendices that are an integral part of the handbook. Sidebars and illustrations are included to provide additional detail about important concepts, to present examples and brief case studies, and to suggest resources for further information. Extensive references are included.

  9. Design study of long-life PWR using thorium cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Subkhi, Moh. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul

    2012-06-06

    Design study of long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle has been performed. Thorium cycle in general has higher conversion ratio in the thermal spectrum domain than uranium cycle. Cell calculation, Burn-up and multigroup diffusion calculation was performed by PIJ-CITATION-SRAC code using libraries based on JENDL 3.2. The neutronic analysis result of infinite cell calculation shows that {sup 231}Pa better than {sup 237}Np as burnable poisons in thorium fuel system. Thorium oxide system with 8%{sup 233}U enrichment and 7.6{approx} 8%{sup 231}Pa is the most suitable fuel for small-long life PWR core because it gives reactivity swing less than 1%{Delta}k/k and longer burn up period (more than 20 year). By using this result, small long-life PWR core can be designed for long time operation with reduced excess reactivity as low as 0.53%{Delta}k/k and reduced power peaking during its operation.

  10. Systems Life Cycle and Its Relation with the Triple Helix

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Loebl, Andy

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines the life cycle of complex systems in light of the dynamic interconnections among the university, industry and government sectors. Each sector is motivated in its resource allocation by principles discussed elsewhere in this book and yet remains complementary es-tablishing enduring and fundamental relationships. Industry and Government depend upon an educated workforce; universities depend upon industry to spark the R&D which is needed and to sponsor some basic research and much applied research. Government depends upon industry to address operational needs and provide finished products while universities offer government (along with industry) problem solving and problem solving environments. The life cycle of complex systems in this chapter will be examined in this context, providing historical examples. Current examples will then be examined within this multi-dimensional context with respect to the phases of program and project life cycle management from requirements definition through retirement and closeout of systems. During the explanation of these examples, the advances in research techniques to collect, analyze, and process the data will be examined.

  11. A life-cycle approach to species barriers.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, Kerstin

    2017-07-01

    What maintains reproductive barriers between closely related species is, of course, of fundamental interest to a closer understanding of the mechanisms that generate new biodiversity. One important dichotomy is to separate barriers evolved from divergent selection over environmental gradients (extrinsic barriers) from barriers caused by incompatibilities between different genetic arrangements that may have evolved in isolation (intrinsic barriers). This dichotomy also reflects an important applied consequence. As the extrinsic barriers are associated with specific environmental contexts, they may be partly or completely erased if the environment changes. In contrast, intrinsic barriers are inert to the environmental context and resistant to environmental changes. From a conservation biology perspective, it may thus be important to be able to separate extrinsic and intrinsic species barriers, but this may in many organisms be a complex matter. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Montecinos et al. () found a tractable approach that works for species with life cycles that include two reproductive but ecologically similar generations, one haploid and the other diploid. What they demonstrate is that using a life-cycle approach offers a unique possibility to separate between prezygotic and postzygotic barriers. Indeed, in the case of an isomorphic life cycle, there is even a possibility to suggest whether postzygotic barriers are more likely to be intrinsic or extrinsic. In this way, their approach may be useful both to increase our understanding of the basic mechanisms of speciation and to single out when species barriers will better resist environmental changes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Life cycle assessment-driven selection of industrial ecology strategies.

    PubMed

    Ardente, Fulvio; Cellura, Maurizio; Lo Brano, Valerio; Mistretta, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents an application of the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) to the planning and environmental management of an “eco-industrial cluster.” A feasibility study of industrial symbiosis in southern Italy is carried out, where interlinked companies share subproducts and scraps, services, structures, and plants to reduce the related environmental impact. In particular, the research focuses on new recycling solutions to create open recycling loops in which plastic subproducts and scraps are transferred to external production systems. The main environmental benefits are the reduction of resource depletion, air emissions, and landfilled wastes. The proposed strategies are also economically viable and they suggest cost abatement for the involved companies. This research shows the need for a multidisciplinary approach to data processing and to complexity managing of the investigated systems. In this context, life-cycle thinking is required to be promoted throughout the economy, as well to be as a part of all decisions on products and other criteria such as functionality, health, and safety. The Life-Cycle Assessment approach can be assumed as a methodology for influencing decision makers to make sustainable choices.

  13. Life-Cycle Evaluation of Domestic Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bando, Shigeru; Hihara, Eiji

    Among the growing number of environmental issues, the global warming due to the increasing emission of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide CO2, is the most serious one. In order to reduce CO2 emissions in energy use, it is necessary to reduce primary energy consumption, and to replace energy sources with alternatives that emit less CO2.One option of such ideas is to replace fossil gas for water heating with electricity generated by nuclear power, hydraulic power, and other methods with low CO2 emission. It is also important to use energy efficiently and to reduce waste heat. Co-generation system is one of the applications to be able to use waste heat from a generator as much as possible. The CO2 heat pump water heaters, the polymer electrolyte fuel cells, and the micro gas turbines have high potential for domestic energy systems. In the present study, the life-cycle cost, the life-cycle consumption of primary energy and the life-cycle emission of CO2 of these domestic energy systems are compare. The result shows that the CO2 heat pump water heaters have an ability to reduce CO2 emission by 10%, and the co-generation systems also have another ability to reduce primary energy consumption by 20%.

  14. Effects of complex life cycles on genetic diversity: cyclical parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rouger, R; Reichel, K; Malrieu, F; Masson, J P; Stoeckel, S

    2016-11-01

    Neutral patterns of population genetic diversity in species with complex life cycles are difficult to anticipate. Cyclical parthenogenesis (CP), in which organisms undergo several rounds of clonal reproduction followed by a sexual event, is one such life cycle. Many species, including crop pests (aphids), human parasites (trematodes) or models used in evolutionary science (Daphnia), are cyclical parthenogens. It is therefore crucial to understand the impact of such a life cycle on neutral genetic diversity. In this paper, we describe distributions of genetic diversity under conditions of CP with various clonal phase lengths. Using a Markov chain model of CP for a single locus and individual-based simulations for two loci, our analysis first demonstrates that strong departures from full sexuality are observed after only a few generations of clonality. The convergence towards predictions made under conditions of full clonality during the clonal phase depends on the balance between mutations and genetic drift. Second, the sexual event of CP usually resets the genetic diversity at a single locus towards predictions made under full sexuality. However, this single recombination event is insufficient to reshuffle gametic phases towards full-sexuality predictions. Finally, for similar levels of clonality, CP and acyclic partial clonality (wherein a fixed proportion of individuals are clonally produced within each generation) differentially affect the distribution of genetic diversity. Overall, this work provides solid predictions of neutral genetic diversity that may serve as a null model in detecting the action of common evolutionary or demographic processes in cyclical parthenogens (for example, selection or bottlenecks).

  15. Failure of engineering artifacts: a life cycle approach.

    PubMed

    Del Frate, Luca

    2013-09-01

    Failure is a central notion both in ethics of engineering and in engineering practice. Engineers devote considerable resources to assure their products will not fail and considerable progress has been made in the development of tools and methods for understanding and avoiding failure. Engineering ethics, on the other hand, is concerned with the moral and social aspects related to the causes and consequences of technological failures. But what is meant by failure, and what does it mean that a failure has occurred? The subject of this paper is how engineers use and define this notion. Although a traditional definition of failure can be identified that is shared by a large part of the engineering community, the literature shows that engineers are willing to consider as failures also events and circumstance that are at odds with this traditional definition. These cases violate one or more of three assumptions made by the traditional approach to failure. An alternative approach, inspired by the notion of product life cycle, is proposed which dispenses with these assumptions. Besides being able to address the traditional cases of failure, it can deal successfully with the problematic cases. The adoption of a life cycle perspective allows the introduction of a clearer notion of failure and allows a classification of failure phenomena that takes into account the roles of stakeholders involved in the various stages of a product life cycle.

  16. Life cycle approaches to sustainable consumption: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2005-07-01

    The 2002 World Summit for Sustainable Development in Johannesburg called for a comprehensive set of programs focusing on sustainable consumption and production. According to world leaders, these programs should rely on life cycle assessment (LCA) to promote sustainable patterns of production and consumption. Cleaner production is a well-established activity, and it uses LCA. UNEP, the European Union, and a number of national organizations have now begun to work on sustainable consumption. In developing sustainable consumption policies and activities, the use of LCA presents interesting opportunities that are not yet well understood by policy makers. This paper reviews how life cycle approaches, primarily based on input-output analysis, have been used in the area of sustainable consumption: to inform policy making, select areas of action, identify which lifestyles are more sustainable, advise consumers, and evaluate the effectiveness of sustainable consumption measures. Information on consumption patterns usually comes from consumer expenditure surveys. Different study designs and a better integration with consumer research can provide further interesting insights. Life-cycle approaches still need to be developed and tested. Current research is mostly descriptive; policy makers, however, require more strategic analysis addressing their decision options, including scenario analysis and backcasting.

  17. Cradle-to-gate life cycle inventory of vancomycin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Ponder, Celia; Overcash, Michael

    2010-02-15

    A life cycle analysis on the cradle-to-gate production of vancomycin hydrochloride, which begins at natural resource extraction and spans through factory (gate) production, not only shows all inputs, outputs, and energy usage to manufacture the product and all related supply chain chemicals, but can highlight where process changes would have the greatest impact on raw material and energy consumption and emissions. Vancomycin hydrochloride is produced by a low-yield fermentation process that accounts for 47% of the total cradle-to-gate energy. The fermentation step consumes the most raw materials and energy cradle-to-gate. Over 75% of the total cradle-to-gate energy consumption is due to steam use; sterilization within fermentation is the largest user of steam. Aeration and agitation in the fermentation vessels use 65% of the cradle-to-gate electrical energy. To reduce raw materials, energy consumption, and the associated environmental footprint of producing vancomycin hydrochloride, other sterilization methods, fermentation media, nutrient sources, or synthetic manufacture should be investigated. The reported vancomycin hydrochloride life cycle inventory is a part of a larger life cycle study of the environmental consequences of the introduction of biocide-coated medical textiles for the prevention of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) nosocomial infections.

  18. Space Suit Portable Life Support System Rapid Cycle Amine Repackaging and Sub-Scale Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Rivera, Fatonia L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing technologies to meet requirements for an extravehicular activity (EVA) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for exploration. The PLSS Ventilation Subsystem transports clean, conditioned oxygen to the pressure garment for space suit pressurization and human consumption, and recycles the ventilation gas, removing carbon dioxide, humidity, and trace contaminants. This paper provides an overview of the development efforts conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center to redesign the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) canister and valve assembly into a radial flow, cylindrical package for carbon dioxide and humidity control of the PLSS ventilation loop. Future work is also discussed.

  19. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Seventeenth annual report of cycle life test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Acceptance tests were conducted on nickel cadmium, silver cadmium, and silver zinc cells to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program meet the specifications outlined in the respective purchase contracts. Statistical information is presented on cell performance characteristics and limitations. Weaknesses discovered in cell design are reported and aid in research and development efforts toward improving the reliability of space batteries. Battery weaknesses encountered in satellite programs such as IMP, NIMBUS, OGO, OAO, SAS, and TETR were studied and remedied through special tests.

  20. A Summary and Analysis of Selected Life Cycle Costing Techniques and Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Operational costs continue to recur throughout the life of a weapon system and normally represents the majority of life cycle costs. Presented are an...8217Annotated Bibliography of Selected Life Cycle Costing Literature’ and a ’Taxonomy of Selected Life Cycle Cost Models’. The Annotated Bibliography is...Models; and Case Studies and Technical Reports. The Taxonomy discusses six types of life cycle cost models including accounting, cost estimating

  1. Influencing Factors on Life-Cycle Cost of Mooring Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Wataru; Yokota, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Katsufumi; Furuya, Koichi; Kato, Hirotoshi

    It is required that infrastructure should satisfy performance requirement through their service life based on an appropriate life cycle management strategy. Now adays, to determine the maintenance strategy and to consider the appropriate timing and method of intervention, the life-cycle cost (LCC) has been widely used as one of the decision-making indices. However, many factors influence on the estimation of LCC and they have not been adequately investigated. In this paper, the authors have made analytical investigation to quantify the influence of important factors on the results of LCC estimation. Four kinds of mooring facilities are focused; two of them are open-type wharves and the other two are sheet pile type quay walls having different design water depths. Prediction of deterioration progress and performance degradation is made by using the Markov models. The influences of structural sizes, transition probability in the Markov model, design service life, periodic inspection and methods of intervention on LCC were investigated. The influence of those factors has been discussed based on the calculated results of LCC by creating the maintenance scenarios for model mooring facilities.

  2. Mechanisms of biotic resistance across complex life cycles.

    PubMed

    Rius, Marc; Potter, Elaine E; Aguirre, J David; Stachowicz, John J

    2014-01-01

    Biotic resistance is the ability of communities to inhibit the establishment, spread or impact of novel species. However, the interactions that underlie biotic resistance depend heavily on the contexts in which species interact. Consequently, studies of biotic resistance that consider single processes, patches, species or life-history stages may provide an incomplete picture of the capacity for communities to resist invasion. Many organisms have multiphasic life cycles, where individuals can occupy distinct niches at different stages of the life history. Generally, studies of biotic resistance focus on interactions within a single life-history stage, and interactions at other life-history stages are overlooked. Here, we demonstrate that different mechanisms of biotic resistance occur across the life history and together limit the invasion success of an introduced marine invertebrate (Ciona intestinalis) in Northern California. We tested the role of interactions (competition and predation) with the resident community in limiting the abundance of Ciona through experiments conducted on fertilization, larval survival, settlement, early postsettlement survival, and the survival of juveniles and adults. Under some circumstances, Ciona became abundant in mid-successional stages and showed more rapid growth rates than a morphologically similar native species, Ascidia ceratodes. However, predators reduced Ciona abundance much more than that of Ascidia at several life stages. Furthermore, Ciona appeared to be a weaker competitor at the adult stage. Early life-history interactions with other sessile species at the fertilization, larval and recruit stages had modest to no effects on Ciona abundance. The presence of biotic resistance mechanisms acting at multiple life stages, and potentially under different conditions, suggests that different components of biotic resistance interact to enhance the resident community's resistance to invasion. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of

  3. Cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment for a cradle-to-cradle cycle: biogas-to-bioplastic (and back).

    PubMed

    Rostkowski, Katherine H; Criddle, Craig S; Lepech, Michael D

    2012-09-18

    At present, most synthetic organic materials are produced from fossil carbon feedstock that is regenerated over time scales of millions of years. Biobased alternatives can be rapidly renewed in cradle-to-cradle cycles (1-10 years). Such materials extend landfill life and decrease undesirable impacts due to material persistence. This work develops a LCA for synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from methane with subsequent biodegradation of PHB back to biogas (40-70% methane, 30-60% carbon dioxide). The parameters for this cradle-to-cradle cycle for PHB production are developed and used as the basis for a cradle-to-gate LCA. PHB production from biogas methane is shown to be preferable to its production from cultivated feedstock due to the energy and land required for the feedstock cultivation and fermentation. For the PHB-methane cycle, the major challenges are PHB recovery and demands for energy. Some or all of the energy requirements can be satisfied using renewable energy, such as a portion of the collected biogas methane. Oxidation of 18-26% of the methane in a biogas stream can meet the energy demands for aeration and agitation, and recovery of PHB synthesized from the remaining 74-82%. Effective coupling of waste-to-energy technologies could thus conceivably enable PHB production without imported carbon and energy.

  4. Earth's oxygen cycle and the evolution of animal life.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Christopher T; Planavsky, Noah J; Olson, Stephanie L; Lyons, Timothy W; Erwin, Douglas H

    2016-08-09

    The emergence and expansion of complex eukaryotic life on Earth is linked at a basic level to the secular evolution of surface oxygen levels. However, the role that planetary redox evolution has played in controlling the timing of metazoan (animal) emergence and diversification, if any, has been intensely debated. Discussion has gravitated toward threshold levels of environmental free oxygen (O2) necessary for early evolving animals to survive under controlled conditions. However, defining such thresholds in practice is not straightforward, and environmental O2 levels can potentially constrain animal life in ways distinct from threshold O2 tolerance. Herein, we quantitatively explore one aspect of the evolutionary coupling between animal life and Earth's oxygen cycle-the influence of spatial and temporal variability in surface ocean O2 levels on the ecology of early metazoan organisms. Through the application of a series of quantitative biogeochemical models, we find that large spatiotemporal variations in surface ocean O2 levels and pervasive benthic anoxia are expected in a world with much lower atmospheric pO2 than at present, resulting in severe ecological constraints and a challenging evolutionary landscape for early metazoan life. We argue that these effects, when considered in the light of synergistic interactions with other environmental parameters and variable O2 demand throughout an organism's life history, would have resulted in long-term evolutionary and ecological inhibition of animal life on Earth for much of Middle Proterozoic time (∼1.8-0.8 billion years ago).

  5. Performance improvement: an active life cycle product management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchiella, Federica; Gastaldi, Massimo; Lenny Koh, S. C.

    2010-03-01

    The management of the supply chain has gained importance in many manufacturing firms. Operational flexibility can be considered a crucial weapon to increase competitiveness in a turbulent marketplace. It reflects the ability of a firm to properly and rapidly respond to a variable and dynamic environment. For the firm operating in a fashion sector, the management of the supply chain is even more complex because the product life cycle is shorter than that of the firm operating in a non-fashion sector. The increase of firm flexibility level can be reached through the application of the real option theory inside the firm network. In fact, real option may increase the project value by allowing managers to more efficiently direct the production. The real option application usually analysed in literature does not take into account that the demands of products are well-defined by the product life cycle. Working on a fashion sector, the life cycle pattern is even more relevant because of an expected demand that grows according to a constant rate that does not capture the demand dynamics of the underlying fashion goods. Thus, the primary research objective of this article is to develop a model useful for the management of investments in a supply chain operating in a fashion sector where the system complexity is increased by the low level of unpredictability and stability that is proper of the mood phenomenon. Moreover, unlike the traditional model, a real option framework is presented here that considers fashion product characterised by uncertain stages of the production cycle.

  6. Electrons, life and the evolution of Earth's oxygen cycle.

    PubMed

    Falkowski, Paul G; Godfrey, Linda V

    2008-08-27

    The biogeochemical cycles of H, C, N, O and S are coupled via biologically catalysed electron transfer (redox) reactions. The metabolic processes responsible for maintaining these cycles evolved over the first ca 2.3 Ga of Earth's history in prokaryotes and, through a sequence of events, led to the production of oxygen via the photobiologically catalysed oxidation of water. However, geochemical evidence suggests that there was a delay of several hundred million years before oxygen accumulated in Earth's atmosphere related to changes in the burial efficiency of organic matter and fundamental alterations in the nitrogen cycle. In the latter case, the presence of free molecular oxygen allowed ammonium to be oxidized to nitrate and subsequently denitrified. The interaction between the oxygen and nitrogen cycles in particular led to a negative feedback, in which increased production of oxygen led to decreased fixed inorganic nitrogen in the oceans. This feedback, which is supported by isotopic analyses of fixed nitrogen in sedimentary rocks from the Late Archaean, continues to the present. However, once sufficient oxygen accumulated in Earth's atmosphere to allow nitrification to out-compete denitrification, a new stable electron 'market' emerged in which oxygenic photosynthesis and aerobic respiration ultimately spread via endosymbiotic events and massive lateral gene transfer to eukaryotic host cells, allowing the evolution of complex (i.e. animal) life forms. The resulting network of electron transfers led a gas composition of Earth's atmosphere that is far from thermodynamic equilibrium (i.e. it is an emergent property), yet is relatively stable on geological time scales. The early coevolution of the C, N and O cycles, and the resulting non-equilibrium gaseous by-products can be used as a guide to search for the presence of life on terrestrial planets outside of our Solar System.

  7. Life cycle assessment study of a Chinese desktop personal computer.

    PubMed

    Duan, Huabo; Eugster, Martin; Hischier, Roland; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Li, Jinhui

    2009-02-15

    Associated with the tremendous prosperity in world electronic information and telecommunication industry, there continues to be an increasing awareness of the environmental impacts related to the accelerating mass production, electricity use, and waste management of electronic and electric products (e-products). China's importance as both a consumer and supplier of e-products has grown at an unprecedented pace in recent decade. Hence, this paper aims to describe the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance of Chinese e-products from a global level. A desktop personal computer system has been selected to carry out a detailed and modular LCA which follows the ISO 14040 series. The LCA is constructed by SimaPro software version 7.0 and expressed with the Eco-indicator'99 life cycle impact assessment method. For a sensitivity analysis of the overall LCA results, the so-called CML method is used in order to estimate the influence of the choice of the assessment method on the result. Life cycle inventory information is complied by ecoinvent 1.3 databases, combined with literature and field investigations on the present Chinese situation. The established LCA study shows that that the manufacturing and the use of such devices are of the highest environmental importance. In the manufacturing of such devices, the integrated circuits (ICs) and the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) are those parts contributing most to the impact. As no other aspects are taken into account during the use phase, the impact is due to the way how the electricity is produced. The final process steps--i.e. the end of life phase--lead to a clear environmental benefit if a formal and modern, up-to-date technical system is assumed, like here in this study.

  8. Vpr-host interactions during HIV-1 viral life cycle.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Richard Y; Li, Ge; Bukrinsky, Michael I

    2011-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral protein R (Vpr) is a multifunctional viral protein that plays important role at multiple stages of the HIV-1 viral life cycle. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying these activities are subject of ongoing investigations, overall, these activities have been linked to promotion of viral replication and impairment of anti-HIV immunity. Importantly, functional defects of Vpr have been correlated with slow disease progression of HIV-infected patients. Vpr is required for efficient viral replication in non-dividing cells such as macrophages, and it promotes, to some extent, viral replication in proliferating CD4+ T cells. The specific activities of Vpr include modulation of fidelity of viral reverse transcription, nuclear import of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex, transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR promoter, induction of cell cycle G2 arrest and cell death via apoptosis. In this review, we focus on description of the cellular proteins that specifically interact with Vpr and discuss their significance with regard to the known Vpr activities at each step of the viral life cycle in proliferating and non-proliferating cells.

  9. Universal quinone electrodes for long cycle life aqueous rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yanliang; Jing, Yan; Gheytani, Saman; Lee, Kuan-Yi; Liu, Ping; Facchetti, Antonio; Yao, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Aqueous rechargeable batteries provide the safety, robustness, affordability, and environmental friendliness necessary for grid storage and electric vehicle operations, but their adoption is plagued by poor cycle life due to the structural and chemical instability of the anode materials. Here we report quinones as stable anode materials by exploiting their structurally stable ion-coordination charge storage mechanism and chemical inertness towards aqueous electrolytes. Upon rational selection/design of quinone structures, we demonstrate three systems that coupled with industrially established cathodes and electrolytes exhibit long cycle life (up to 3,000 cycles/3,500 h), fast kinetics (>=20C), high anode specific capacity (up to 200-395 mAh g-1), and several examples of state-of-the-art specific energy/energy density (up to 76-92 Wh kg-1/ 161-208 Wh l-1) for several operational pH values (-1 to 15), charge carrier species (H+, Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+), temperature (-35 to 25 °C), and atmosphere (with/without O2), making them a universal anode approach for any aqueous battery technology.

  10. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  11. Life cycle assessment as part of sustainability assessment for chemicals.

    PubMed

    Klöpffer, Walter

    2005-01-01

    LCA is the only internationally standardized environmental assessment tool (ISO 14040-43) for product systems, including services and processes. The analysis is done 'from cradle-to-grave', i.e. over the whole life cycle. LCA is essentially a comparative method: different systems fulfilling the same function (serving the same purpose) are compared on the basis of a 'functional unit'--a quantitative measure of this function or purpose. It is often believed that LCA can be used for judging the (relative) sustainability of product systems. This is only partly true, however, since LCA is restricted to the environmental part of the triad 'environment/ecology--economy--social aspects (including intergenerational fairness)' which constitutes sustainability. Standardized assessment tools for the second and the third pillar are still lacking, but Life Cycle Costing (LCC) seems to be a promising candidate for the economic part. Social Life Cycle Assessment still has to be developed on the basis of known social indicators. LCA is most frequently used for the comparative assessment or optimization analysis of final products. Materials and chemicals are difficult to analyse from cradle-to-grave, since they are used in many, often innumerable product systems, which all would have to be studied in detail to give a complete LCA of a particular material or substance! This complete analysis of a material or chemical is evidently only possible in such cases where one main application exists. But even if one main application does exist, e.g. in the case of surfactants (chemicals) and detergents (final products), the latter may exist in a great abundance of compositions. Therefore, chemicals and materials are better analysed 'from cradle-to-factory gate', leaving the analysis of the final product(s), the use phase and the 'end-of-life' phases to specific, full LCAs. A comparative assessment of production processes is possible; if the chemicals (the same is true for materials) produced

  12. Climate impacts of bioenergy: Inclusion of carbon cycle and albedo dynamics in life cycle impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, Ryan M. Cherubini, Francesco; Stromman, Anders H.

    2012-11-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be an invaluable tool for the structured environmental impact assessment of bioenergy product systems. However, the methodology's static temporal and spatial scope combined with its restriction to emission-based metrics in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) inhibits its effectiveness at assessing climate change impacts that stem from dynamic land surface-atmosphere interactions inherent to all biomass-based product systems. In this paper, we focus on two dynamic issues related to anthropogenic land use that can significantly influence the climate impacts of bioenergy systems: i) temporary changes to the terrestrial carbon cycle; and ii) temporary changes in land surface albedo-and illustrate how they can be integrated within the LCA framework. In the context of active land use management for bioenergy, we discuss these dynamics and their relevancy and outline the methodological steps that would be required to derive case-specific biogenic CO{sub 2} and albedo change characterization factors for inclusion in LCIA. We demonstrate our concepts and metrics with application to a case study of transportation biofuel sourced from managed boreal forest biomass in northern Europe. We derive GWP indices for three land management cases of varying site productivities to illustrate the importance and need to consider case- or region-specific characterization factors for bioenergy product systems. Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed metrics are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for including temporary surface albedo and carbon cycle changes in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concepts are applied to a single bioenergy case whereby a range of feedstock productivities are shown to influence results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results imply that case- and site-specific characterization factors can be essential for a more informed impact assessment. Black

  13. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN FRAMEWORK AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS - PROFILES OF AT&T AND ALLIED SIGNAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document offers guidance and practical experience for integrating environmental considerations into product system development. Life cycle design seeks to minimize the environmental burden associated with a product's life cycle from raw materials acquisition through manufact...

  14. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN FRAMEWORK AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS - PROFILES OF AT&T AND ALLIED SIGNAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document offers guidance and practical experience for integrating environmental considerations into product system development. Life cycle design seeks to minimize the environmental burden associated with a product's life cycle from raw materials acquisition through manufact...

  15. Early-life origins of life-cycle well-being: research and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population well-being, but also for economic growth and competitiveness in a global economy. In this paper, we first discuss the research on the strength of the link between early-life health and adult outcomes, and then provide an evidence-based review of the effectiveness of existing U.S. policies targeting the early-life environment. We conclude that there is a robust and economically meaningful relationship between early-life conditions and well-being throughout the life cycle, as measured by adult health, educational attainment, labor market attachment, and other indicators of socioeconomic status. However, there is some variation in the degree to which current policies in the United States are effective in improving early-life conditions. Among existing programs, some of the most effective are the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), home visiting with nurse practitioners, and high-quality, center-based early-childhood care and education. In contrast, the evidence on other policies such as prenatal care and family leave is more mixed and limited.

  16. Chromatinization of the KSHV Genome During the KSHV Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Uppal, Timsy; Jha, Hem C.; Verma, Subhash C.; Robertson, Erle S.

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) belongs to the gamma herpesvirus family and is the causative agent of various lymphoproliferative diseases in humans. KSHV, like other herpesviruses, establishes life-long latent infection with the expression of a limited number of viral genes. Expression of these genes is tightly regulated by both the viral and cellular factors. Recent advancements in identifying the expression profiles of viral transcripts, using tilling arrays and next generation sequencing have identified additional coding and non-coding transcripts in the KSHV genome. Determining the functions of these transcripts will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms utilized by KSHV in altering cellular pathways involved in promoting cell growth and tumorigenesis. Replication of the viral genome is critical in maintaining the existing copies of the viral episomes during both latent and lytic phases of the viral life cycle. The replication of the viral episome is facilitated by viral components responsible for recruiting chromatin modifying enzymes and replication factors for altering the chromatin complexity and replication initiation functions, respectively. Importantly, chromatin modification of the viral genome plays a crucial role in determining whether the viral genome will persist as latent episome or undergo lytic reactivation. Additionally, chromatinization of the incoming virion DNA, which lacks chromatin structure, in the target cells during primary infection, helps in establishing latent infection. Here, we discuss the recent advancements on our understating of KSHV genome chromatinization and the consequences of chromatin modifications on viral life cycle. PMID:25594667

  17. Chromatinization of the KSHV Genome During the KSHV Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Timsy; Jha, Hem C; Verma, Subhash C; Robertson, Erle S

    2015-01-14

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) belongs to the gamma herpesvirus family and is the causative agent of various lymphoproliferative diseases in humans. KSHV, like other herpesviruses, establishes life-long latent infection with the expression of a limited number of viral genes. Expression of these genes is tightly regulated by both the viral and cellular factors. Recent advancements in identifying the expression profiles of viral transcripts, using tilling arrays and next generation sequencing have identified additional coding and non-coding transcripts in the KSHV genome. Determining the functions of these transcripts will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms utilized by KSHV in altering cellular pathways involved in promoting cell growth and tumorigenesis. Replication of the viral genome is critical in maintaining the existing copies of the viral episomes during both latent and lytic phases of the viral life cycle. The replication of the viral episome is facilitated by viral components responsible for recruiting chromatin modifying enzymes and replication factors for altering the chromatin complexity and replication initiation functions, respectively. Importantly, chromatin modification of the viral genome plays a crucial role in determining whether the viral genome will persist as latent episome or undergo lytic reactivation. Additionally, chromatinization of the incoming virion DNA, which lacks chromatin structure, in the target cells during primary infection, helps in establishing latent infection. Here, we discuss the recent advancements on our understating of KSHV genome chromatinization and the consequences of chromatin modifications on viral life cycle.

  18. Sensor-embedded computers for better life-cycle management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadde, Srikanth; Kamarthi, Sagar V.; Gupta, Surendra M.; Zeid, Ibrahim

    2004-12-01

    This research investigates the advantages offered by embedded sensors for cost-effective and environmentally benign product life cycle management for desktop computers. During their use by customers as well as at the end of their lives, Sensor Embedded Computers (SECs) by virtue of sensors embedded in them generate data and information pertaining to the conditions and remaining lives of important components such as hard-drive, motherboard, and power supply unit. A computer monitoring framework is proposed to provide more customer comfort, reduce repair costs and increase the effectiveness of current disassembly practices. The framework consists of SECs, remote monitoring center (RMC), repair/service, disassembly, and disposal centers. The RMC collects dynamic data/information generated by sensors during computer usage as well as static data/information from the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). The RMC forwards this data/information to the repair/service, disassembly, and disposal centers on need-basis. The knowledge about the condition and remaining life of computer components can be advantageously used for planning repair/service and disassembly operations as well as for building refurbished computers with known expected lives. Simulation model of the framework is built and is evaluated in terms of the following performance measures: average downtime of a computer, average repair/service cost of a computer, average disassembly cost of a computer, and average life cycle cost of a computer. Test results show that embedding sensors in computers provides a definite advantage over conventional computers in terms of the performance measures.

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Life-Cycle Assessment Tools for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We identified and evaluated five life-cycle assessment tools that community decision makers can use to assess the environmental and economic impacts of end-of-life (EOL) materials management options. The tools evaluated in this report are waste reduction mode (WARM), municipal solid waste-decision support tool (MSW-DST), solid waste optimization life-cycle framework (SWOLF), environmental assessment system for environmental technologies (EASETECH), and waste and resources assessment for the environment (WRATE). WARM, MSW-DST, and SWOLF were developed for US-specific materials management strategies, while WRATE and EASETECH were developed for European-specific conditions. All of the tools (with the exception of WARM) allow specification of a wide variety of parameters (e.g., materials composition and energy mix) to a varying degree, thus allowing users to model specific EOL materials management methods even outside the geographical domain they are originally intended for. The flexibility to accept user-specified input for a large number of parameters increases the level of complexity and the skill set needed for using these tools. The tools were evaluated and compared based on a series of criteria, including general tool features, the scope of the analysis (e.g., materials and processes included), and the impact categories analyzed (e.g., climate change, acidification). A series of scenarios representing materials management problems currently relevant to c

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Life-Cycle Assessment Tools for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We identified and evaluated five life-cycle assessment tools that community decision makers can use to assess the environmental and economic impacts of end-of-life (EOL) materials management options. The tools evaluated in this report are waste reduction mode (WARM), municipal solid waste-decision support tool (MSW-DST), solid waste optimization life-cycle framework (SWOLF), environmental assessment system for environmental technologies (EASETECH), and waste and resources assessment for the environment (WRATE). WARM, MSW-DST, and SWOLF were developed for US-specific materials management strategies, while WRATE and EASETECH were developed for European-specific conditions. All of the tools (with the exception of WARM) allow specification of a wide variety of parameters (e.g., materials composition and energy mix) to a varying degree, thus allowing users to model specific EOL materials management methods even outside the geographical domain they are originally intended for. The flexibility to accept user-specified input for a large number of parameters increases the level of complexity and the skill set needed for using these tools. The tools were evaluated and compared based on a series of criteria, including general tool features, the scope of the analysis (e.g., materials and processes included), and the impact categories analyzed (e.g., climate change, acidification). A series of scenarios representing materials management problems currently relevant to c