Science.gov

Sample records for life qol-dn identifies

  1. German-translated Norfolk quality of life (QOL-DN) identifies the same factors as the English version of the tool and discriminates different levels of neuropathy severity.

    PubMed

    Vinik, Etta J; Paulson, James F; Ford-Molvik, Stephanie L; Vinik, Aaron I

    2008-11-01

    The development and validation of Norfolk QOL-DN, a fiber-specific, quality-of-life tool for diabetic neuropathy, was published previously (Part 1). This study (Part 2) defines the psychometric properties of the German-translated Norfolk QOL-DN in a large multicenter (96 sites) population with neuropathy ranging from minimal to severe, comparing them with those in the original English/American version in a 30-center European/North American population with mild neuropathy; determines the power of the German-translated version in a five-staged diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) German population to discriminate different levels of neuropathy severity; and establishes factors having the greatest impact on QOL. One hundred eighty-six German patients were assessed: asymptomatic of DPN (n = 40), symptomatic (n = 46), DN with foot-ulcer history (n = 32), DN with amputations (n = 22), and DN amputation history (n = 46). German-translated Norfolk QOL-DN was administered to 177 patients with staged DN complications. German-translated Norfolk QOL-DN data were compared with QOL-DN data from the European/American study of 379 mild neuropathy patients. Exploratory factor analysis assessed factor structure consistency in the translated instrument. Ordinal regression analysis (polytomous universal model) was used to evaluate the association between factor scores and complication stages. The German translation identified the same five factors in more advanced neuropathy as in the English mild neuropathy population. Total QOL scores differed among each of the five neuropathy severity groups [analysis of variance p < 0.001, Tukey-Kramer post hoc, alpha = 0.05]. Two factors emerged as predictors of impaired QOL and disease severity: physical function/large fiber (Wald chi(2) = 6.188, p = 0.013) and activities of daily living (ADL)(Wald chi(2) = 9.098, p = 0.003). Norfolk QOL-DN discriminates levels of neuropathy within and between populations. Physical functioning and ADL are the

  2. Norfolk QOL-DN: validation of a patient reported outcome measure in transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vinik, Etta J; Vinik, Aaron I; Paulson, James F; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Packman, Jeff; Grogan, Donna R; Coelho, Teresa

    2014-06-01

    The Norfolk Quality of Life-Diabetic Neuropathy (QOL-DN) questionnaire is an instrument to assess QOL in diabetic polyneuropathy. The objective of this observational, cross-sectional study in 61 patients with V30M transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) and 16 healthy volunteers was to validate the Norfolk QOL-DN for assessment of QOL in TTR-FAP. Comparisons were conducted to identify the best items to discriminate disease stages and assess which individual Norfolk domains (symptoms, large fiber, small fiber, autonomic, and activities of daily living) would be most affected by disease stage. Analysis of individual items revealed a significant pattern of discrimination among disease stages (p < 0.001). Total QOL scores increased (indicating worsening) with duration of symptoms, with a steeper increase observed earlier in the course of disease. Significant correlations were observed between each Norfolk domain and other measures of neurological function. Limitations include cross-sectional study design, low patient numbers in this rare disease, and the ordinal-based character of the metric used; future areas to explore include item response theory approaches such as Rasch analysis. These results suggest the Norfolk QOL-DN is a reliable indicator of the impact of disease severity on QOL in patients with TTR-FAP. © 2014 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  3. The development and validation of the Norfolk QOL-DN, a new measure of patients' perception of the effects of diabetes and diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vinik, Etta J; Hayes, Risa P; Oglesby, Alan; Bastyr, Edward; Barlow, Patricia; Ford-Molvik, Stephanie L; Vinik, Aaron I

    2005-06-01

    This study was designed to develop and validate a patient-reported outcomes measure, sensitive to the different features of diabetic neuropathy (DN)-small fiber, large fiber, and autonomic nerve function. The review of 1,000 structured patient interviews guided the development of 28 items pertaining specifically to the symptoms and impact of large fiber, small fiber, and autonomic nerve function. These items, in addition to 14 generic health status items and five general information items formed the 47-item Norfolk Quality of Life Questionnaire-Diabetic Neuropathy (QOL-DN). Items were grouped according to small fiber, large fiber, and autonomic nerve function, symptoms, and activities of daily living (ADL). Scores in individual domains were aggregated to provide a total score. Item groupings were tested for their ability to distinguish between the effects of specific nerve fiber deficits in 262 subjects-81 healthy controls (C), 86 controls with diabetes (DC), and 95 patients with DN-using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Internal consistency was estimated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Test-retest reliability over a 4-6-week period was estimated by intra-class correlation coefficients and ANOVA on data of a subset of patients and controls. Differences between DN subjects and both DC and C subjects were significant (P < 0.05) for all item groupings. Total quality of life (QOL) scores correlated with total neuropathy scores. The ADL, total QOL, and autonomic scores were greater in DC than C subjects (P < 0.05). Intra-class correlation coefficients were > 0.9 for most domains. Internal consistency of the fiberspecific domains using Cronbach's alpha was > 0.6 and up to 0.8. The fiber-specific domains of the QOL-DN demonstrated acceptable reliability and ability to discriminate between subjects with and without neuropathy. Not surprisingly, the DN group scored significantly (P < 0.05) higher than either of the two control groups (i.e., greater impairment). The

  4. Measuring health-related quality of life in diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Smith, S C; Lamping, D L; Maclaine, G D H

    2012-06-01

    We undertook a systematic review of disease-specific measures of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) to appraise the scientific (psychometric) evidence and make recommendations about the best instrument(s) to use. DPN is a common complication of diabetes mellitus. A need to consider the broad impact of DPN, rather than just pain and the increasingly recognised need to assess patient-reported outcomes such as HRQL in evaluating healthcare has led to a demand for rigorous outcome measures. To identify appropriate disease-specific measures, we searched four databases: PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL Plus. Data were extracted from each article using a standard data extraction form and the psychometric properties of each HRQL measure were reviewed. We identified three DPN-specific measures of HRQL: PN-QOL-97, Norfolk QOL-DN, NeuroQoL. All three measures satisfy at least one criterion for both reliability and validity, though all also have some disadvantages. Where there is no requirement for multi-language versions, the PN-QOL-97 is a useful instrument. Studies that involve multiple languages would need to use the shorter QOL-DN but would also need to incorporate complementary instruments to address the psychological and emotional impact of DPN.

  5. Quality of life and objective measures of diabetic neuropathy in a prospective placebo-controlled trial of ruboxistaurin and topiramate.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Amanda; Casselini, Carolina; Vinik, Etta; Vinik, Aaron

    2011-05-01

    The Norfolk Quality of Life Questionnaire-Diabetic Neuropathy (Norfolk QOL-DN) is a validated comprehensive questionnaire designed to capture the entire spectrum of DN related to large fiber, small fiber, and autonomic neuropathy not captured in existing instruments. We aimed to determine if the Norfolk QOL-DN could be used to capture changes in QOL that correlate with nerve fiber-specific objective measures in a placebo-controlled trial of two agents that affect different nerve fibers. Sixty patients with DN were allocated to treatment on ruboxistaurin (RBX) (n = 18), topiramate (TPX) (n = 18), or placebo (n = 18). QOL-DN was administered and objective measures of nerve function were performed at entry and end of the study period. Total QOL scores improved significantly in the active treatment groups (RBX -9.56 ± 4.13; TPX -12.22 ± 2.76) but not in placebo (-5.56 ± 3.49). There were differences in nerve function improvement between treatments. Neurological symptom scores (NSS) improved with TPX from 5.5 (2.3) to 4.3 (0.65) (p = .007), sensory scores improved with TPX from 15.5 (1.79) to 8.3 (1.19) (p < .001), motor scores did not change, and sensory and motor impairment scores improved with TPX from 18.8 (2.15) to 12.1 (1.71) (p = .003). Total neuropathy scores (TNS) improved with TPX from 24.35 (2.61) to 16.35 (2.02) (p = .001). Neuropathy total symptom score-6 (NTSS-6) changes were significant for both treatments: RBX 4.38 (0.75) to 1.49 (0.38) (p < .001) and TPX 7.57 (1.3) to 4.26 (0.95) (p = .036). Changes in QOL-DN large fiber subscores correlated (Spearman's rank) significantly with changes in NTSS-6 (r = 0.55; p < .0001), NSS (r = 0.31; p < .04), neuropathy impairment score (NIS) (r = 0.35; p < .02), and TNS (r = 0.48; p < .0006). Changes in QOL-DN small fiber subscores correlated significantly with changes in NTSS-6 total scores (r = 0.40; p < .005) and intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) (r = -0.29; p < .05). Ruboxistaurin produced significant

  6. Quality of Life and Objective Measures of Diabetic Neuropathy in a Prospective Placebo-Controlled Trial of Ruboxistaurin and Topiramate

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Amanda; Casselini, Carolina; Vinik, Etta; Vinik, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Norfolk Quality of Life Questionnaire-Diabetic Neuropathy (Norfolk QOL-DN) is a validated comprehensive questionnaire designed to capture the entire spectrum of DN related to large fiber, small fiber, and autonomic neuropathy not captured in existing instruments. We aimed to determine if the Norfolk QOL-DN could be used to capture changes in QOL that correlate with nerve fiber-specific objective measures in a placebo-controlled trial of two agents that affect different nerve fibers. Methods: Sixty patients with DN were allocated to treatment on ruboxistaurin (RBX) (n = 18), topiramate (TPX) (n = 18), or placebo (n = 18). QOL-DN was administered and objective measures of nerve function were performed at entry and end of the study period. Results: Total QOL scores improved significantly in the active treatment groups (RBX -9.56 ± 4.13; TPX -12.22 ± 2.76) but not in placebo (-5.56 ± 3.49). There were differences in nerve function improvement between treatments. Neurological symptom scores (NSS) improved with TPX from 5.5 (2.3) to 4.3 (0.65) (p = .007), sensory scores improved with TPX from 15.5 (1.79) to 8.3 (1.19) (p < .001), motor scores did not change, and sensory and motor impairment scores improved with TPX from 18.8 (2.15) to 12.1 (1.71) (p = .003). Total neuropathy scores (TNS) improved with TPX from 24.35 (2.61) to 16.35 (2.02) (p = .001). Neuropathy total symptom score-6 (NTSS-6) changes were significant for both treatments: RBX 4.38 (0.75) to 1.49 (0.38) (p < .001) and TPX 7.57 (1.3) to 4.26 (0.95) (p = .036). Changes in QOL-DN large fiber subscores correlated (Spearman's rank) significantly with changes in NTSS-6 (r = 0.55; p < .0001), NSS (r = 0.31; p < .04), neuropathy impairment score (NIS) (r = 0.35; p < .02), and TNS (r = 0.48; p < .0006). Changes in QOL-DN small fiber subscores correlated significantly with changes in NTSS-6 total scores (r = 0.40; p < .005) and intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) (r = -0.29; p < .05

  7. Identifying and relating biological concepts in the Catalogue of Life

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In this paper we describe our experience of adding globally unique identifiers to the Species 2000 and ITIS Catalogue of Life, an on-line index of organisms which is intended, ultimately, to cover all the world's known species. The scientific species names held in the Catalogue are names that already play an extensive role as terms in the organisation of information about living organisms in bioinformatics and other domains, but the effectiveness of their use is hindered by variation in individuals' opinions and understanding of these terms; indeed, in some cases more than one name will have been used to refer to the same organism. This means that it is desirable to be able to give unique labels to each of these differing concepts within the catalogue and to be able to determine which concepts are being used in other systems, in order that they can be associated with the concepts in the catalogue. Not only is this needed, but it is also necessary to know the relationships between alternative concepts that scientists might have employed, as these determine what can be inferred when data associated with related concepts is being processed. A further complication is that the catalogue itself is evolving as scientific opinion changes due to an increasing understanding of life. Results We describe how we are using Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs) as globally unique identifiers in the Catalogue of Life, explaining how the mapping to species concepts is performed, how concepts are associated with specific editions of the catalogue, and how the Taxon Concept Schema has been adopted in order to express information about concepts and their relationships. We explore the implications of using globally unique identifiers in order to refer to abstract concepts such as species, which incorporate at least a measure of subjectivity in their definition, in contrast with the more traditional use of such identifiers to refer to more tangible entities, events, documents

  8. Schema driven assignment and implementation of life science identifiers (LSIDs).

    PubMed

    Bafna, Sapna; Humphries, Julian; Miranker, Daniel P

    2008-10-01

    Life science identifier (LSID) is a global unique identifier standard intended to help rationalize the unique archival requirements of biological data. We describe LSID implementation architecture such that data managed by a relational database management system may be integrated with the LSID protocol as an add-on layer. The approach requires a database administrator (DBA) to specify an export schema detailing the content and structure of the archived data, and a mapping of the existing database to that schema. This specification can be expressed using SQL view syntax. In effect, we define a SQL-like language for implementing LSIDs. We describe the mapping of the view definition to an implementation as a set of databases triggers and a fixed runtime library. Thus a compiler for a domain-specific language could be written that would reduce the implementation of LSIDs to the task of writing SQL view-like definitions.

  9. Identifying improvement potentials in cement production with life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Boesch, Michael Elias; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2010-12-01

    Cement production is an environmentally relevant process responsible for 5% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and 7% of industrial fuel use. In this study, life cycle assessment is used to evaluate improvement potentials in the cement production process in Europe and the USA. With a current fuel substitution rate of 18% in Europe and 11% in the USA, both regions have a substantial potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save virgin resources by further increasing the coprocessing of waste fuels. Upgrading production technology would be particularly effective in the USA where many kiln systems with very low energy efficiency are still in operation. Using best available technology and a thermal substitution rate of 50% for fuels, greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by 9% for Europe and 18% for the USA per tonne of cement. Since clinker production is the dominant pollution producing step in cement production, the substitution of clinker with mineral components such as ground granulated blast furnace slag or fly ash is an efficient measure to reduce the environmental impact. Blended cements exhibit substantially lower environmental footprints than Portland cement, even if the substitutes feature lower grindability and require additional drying and large transport distances. The highest savings in CO(2) emissions and resource consumption are achieved with a combination of measures in clinker production and cement blending.

  10. An Exploratory Study to Identify Competencies for Entry-Level Residence Life Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggerty, Brian Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the competencies important for success in entry-level residence life positions. The literature suggests that student affairs professionals must ascertain which skills require further development in order to identify professional development activities that will increase proficiency and improve overall…

  11. An Exploratory Study to Identify Competencies for Entry-Level Residence Life Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggerty, Brian Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the competencies important for success in entry-level residence life positions. The literature suggests that student affairs professionals must ascertain which skills require further development in order to identify professional development activities that will increase proficiency and improve overall…

  12. Can we identify patients at risk of life-threatening allergic reactions to food?

    PubMed

    Turner, P J; Baumert, J L; Beyer, K; Boyle, R J; Chan, C-H; Clark, A T; Crevel, R W R; DunnGalvin, A; Fernández-Rivas, M; Gowland, M H; Grabenhenrich, L; Hardy, S; Houben, G F; O'B Hourihane, J; Muraro, A; Poulsen, L K; Pyrz, K; Remington, B C; Schnadt, S; van Ree, R; Venter, C; Worm, M; Mills, E N C; Roberts, G; Ballmer-Weber, B K

    2016-09-01

    Anaphylaxis has been defined as a 'severe, life-threatening generalized or systemic hypersensitivity reaction'. However, data indicate that the vast majority of food-triggered anaphylactic reactions are not life-threatening. Nonetheless, severe life-threatening reactions do occur and are unpredictable. We discuss the concepts surrounding perceptions of severe, life-threatening allergic reactions to food by different stakeholders, with particular reference to the inclusion of clinical severity as a factor in allergy and allergen risk management. We review the evidence regarding factors that might be used to identify those at most risk of severe allergic reactions to food, and the consequences of misinformation in this regard. For example, a significant proportion of food-allergic children also have asthma, yet almost none will experience a fatal food-allergic reaction; asthma is not, in itself, a strong predictor for fatal anaphylaxis. The relationship between dose of allergen exposure and symptom severity is unclear. While dose appears to be a risk factor in at least a subgroup of patients, studies report that individuals with prior anaphylaxis do not have a lower eliciting dose than those reporting previous mild reactions. It is therefore important to consider severity and sensitivity as separate factors, as a highly sensitive individual will not necessarily experience severe symptoms during an allergic reaction. We identify the knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to improve our ability to better identify those most at risk of severe food-induced allergic reactions.

  13. Identifying illness perception schemata and their association with depression and quality of life in cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Le Grande, Michael R; Elliott, Peter C; Worcester, Marian U C; Murphy, Barbara M; Goble, Alan J; Kugathasan, Vanessa; Sinha, Karan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify groups of cardiac patients who share similar perceptions about their illness and to examine the relationships between these schemata and psychosocial outcomes such as quality of life and depression. A total of 190 cardiac patients with diagnoses of myocardial infarction, stable angina pectoris or chronic heart failure, completed a battery of psychosocial questionnaires within four weeks of their admission to hospital. These included the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire (BIPQ), Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI II) and The MacNew Health-related Quality of Life instrument (MacNew). BIPQ items were subjected to latent class analysis (LCA) and the resulting groups were compared according to their BDI II and MacNew scores. LCA identified a five-class model of illness perception which comprised the following: (1) Consequence focused and mild emotional impact, n = 55, 29%; (2) Low illness perceptions and low emotional impact, n = 45, 24%; (3) Control focused and mild emotional impact, n = 10, 5%; (4) Consequence focused and high emotional impact, n = 60, 32%; and (5) Consequence focused and severe emotional impact, n = 20, 10%. Gender and diagnosis did not appear to reflect class membership except that class 2 had a significantly higher proportion of AMI patients than did class 5. There were numerous significant differences between classes in regards to depression and health-related quality of life. Notably, classes 4 and 5 are distinguished by relatively high BDI II scores and low MacNew scores. Identifying classes of cardiac patients based on their illness perception schemata, in hospital or shortly afterwards, may identify those at risk of developing depressive symptoms and poor quality of life.

  14. Identifying and Classifying Quality of Life Tools for Assessing Spasticity After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hitzig, Sander L.; Flett, Heather; Noreau, Luc; Craven, B. Catharine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify and classify tools for assessing the influence of spasticity on quality of life (QOL) after spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed CINAHL and PsycInfo) were searched for studies published between 1975 and 2012. Dijkers’s theoretical framework on QOL was used to classify tools as either objective or subjective measures of QOL. Results: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Identified objective measures that were used to assess the influence of spasticity on QOL included the Short Form-36 (SF-36) the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) and the Health Utilities Index-III (HUI-III). Subjective measures included the Quality of Life Index–SCI Version III (QLI-SCI) Life Situation Questionnaire–Revised (LSQ-R) Reciprocal Support Scale (RSS) Profile of Mood States (POMS) Spinal Cord Injury Spasticity Evaluation Tool (SCI-SET) and the Patient Reported Impact of Spasticity Measure (PRISM). A number of tools proved either to be insensitive to the presence of spasticity (QLI-SCI) or yielded mixed (SF-36) or weak (RSS LSQ-R) results. Tools that were sensitive to spasticity had limited psychometric data for use in the SCI population (HUI-III SIP POMS) although 2 were developed specifically for assessing spasticity on daily life post SCI (SCI-SET PRISM). Conclusions: Two condition-specific subjective measures the SCI-SET and PRISM emerged as the most promising tools for the assessment of spasticity impact on QOL after SCI. Further research should focus on establishing the psychometric properties of these measures for use in the SCI population.Key words: outcome measurement quality of life spasticity spinal cord injury PMID:25484567

  15. Dissecting molecular stress networks: identifying nodes of divergence between life-history phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Tonia S; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2013-02-01

    The complex molecular network that underlies physiological stress response is comprised of nodes (proteins, metabolites, mRNAs, etc.) whose connections span cells, tissues and organs. Variable nodes are points in the network upon which natural selection may act. Thus, identifying variable nodes will reveal how this molecular stress network may evolve among populations in different habitats and how it might impact life-history evolution. Here, we use physiological and genetic assays to test whether laboratory-born juveniles from natural populations of garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans), which have diverged in their life-history phenotypes, vary concomitantly at candidate nodes of the stress response network, (i) under unstressed conditions and (ii) in response to an induced stress. We found that two common measures of stress (plasma corticosterone and liver gene expression of heat shock proteins) increased under stress in both life-history phenotypes. In contrast, the phenotypes diverged at four nodes both under unstressed conditions and in response to stress: circulating levels of reactive oxygen species (superoxide, H(2)O(2)); liver gene expression of GPX1 and erythrocyte DNA damage. Additionally, allele frequencies for SOD2 diverge from neutral markers, suggesting diversifying selection on SOD2 alleles. This study supports the hypothesis that these life-history phenotypes have diverged at the molecular level in how they respond to stress, particularly in nodes regulating oxidative stress. Furthermore, the differences between the life-history phenotypes were more pronounced in females. We discuss the responses to stress in the context of the associated life-history phenotype and the evolutionary pressures thought to be responsible for divergence between the phenotypes.

  16. Meta-analysis of global metabolomic data identifies metabolites associated with life-span extension.

    PubMed

    Patti, Gary J; Tautenhahn, Ralf; Johannsen, Darcy; Kalisiak, Ewa; Ravussin, Eric; Brüning, Jens C; Dillin, Andrew; Siuzdak, Gary

    2014-08-01

    The manipulation of distinct signaling pathways and transcription factors has been shown to influence life span in a cell-non-autonomous manner in multicellular model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans. These data suggest that coordination of whole-organism aging involves endocrine signaling, however, the molecular identities of such signals have not yet been determined and their potential relevance in humans is unknown. Here we describe a novel metabolomic approach to identify molecules directly associated with extended life span in C. elegans that represent candidate compounds for age-related endocrine signals. To identify metabolic perturbations directly linked to longevity, we developed metabolomic software for meta-analysis that enabled intelligent comparisons of multiple different mutants. Simple pairwise comparisons of long-lived glp-1, daf-2, and isp-1 mutants to their respective controls resulted in more than 11,000 dysregulated metabolite features of statistical significance. By using meta-analysis, we were able to reduce this number to six compounds most likely to be associated with life-span extension. Mass spectrometry-based imaging studies suggested that these metabolites might be localized to C. elegans muscle. We extended the metabolomic analysis to humans by comparing quadricep muscle tissue from young and old individuals and found that two of the same compounds associated with longevity in worms were also altered in human muscle with age. These findings provide candidate compounds that may serve as age-related endocrine signals and implicate muscle as a potential tissue regulating their levels in humans.

  17. Identifying and classifying quality-of-life tools for assessing pressure ulcers after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Hitzig, Sander L.; Balioussis, Christina; Nussbaum, Ethne; McGillivray, Colleen F.; Catharine Craven, B.; Noreau, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Context Although pressure ulcers may negatively influence quality of life (QoL) post-spinal cord injury (SCI), our understanding of how to assess their impact is confounded by conceptual and measurement issues. To ensure that descriptions of pressure ulcer impact are appropriately characterized, measures should be selected according to the domains that they evaluate and the population and pathologies for which they are designed. Objective To conduct a systematic literature review to identify and classify outcome measures used to assess the impact of pressure ulcers on QoL after SCI. Methods Electronic databases (Medline/PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycInfo) were searched for studies published between 1975 and 2011. Identified outcome measures were classified as being either subjective or objective using a QoL model. Results Fourteen studies were identified. The majority of tools identified in these studies did not have psychometric evidence supporting their use in the SCI population with the exception of two objective measures, the Short-Form 36 and the Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique, and two subjective measures, the Life Situation Questionnaire-Revised and the Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index SCI-Version. Conclusion Many QoL outcome tools showed promise in being sensitive to the presence of pressure ulcers, but few of them have been validated for use with SCI. Prospective studies should employ more rigorous methods for collecting data on pressure ulcer severity and location to improve the quality of findings with regard to their impact on QoL. The Cardiff Wound Impact Schedule is a potential tool for assessing impact of pressure ulcers-post SCI. PMID:24090238

  18. The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS

    SciTech Connect

    Sathre, Roger; Masanet, Eric; Cain, Jennifer; Chester, Mikhail

    2011-04-20

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) should be used to assist carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) planners to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and avoid unintended environmental trade-offs. LCA is an analytical framework for determining environmental impacts resulting from processes, products, and services. All life cycle stages are evaluated including raw material sourcing, processing, operation, maintenance, and component end-of-life, as well as intermediate stages such as transportation. In recent years a growing number of LCA studies have analyzed CCS systems. We reviewed 50+ LCA studies, and selected 11 studies that compared the environmental performance of 23 electric power plants with and without CCS. Here we summarize and interpret the findings of these studies. Regarding overall climatemitigation effectiveness of CCS, we distinguish between the capture percentage of carbon in the fuels, the net carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction, and the net GHG emission reduction. We also identify trade-offs between the climate benefits and the potential increased non-climate impacts of CCS. Emissions of non-CO2 flue gases such as NOx may increase due to the greater throughput of fuel, and toxicity issues may arise due to the use of monoethanolamine (MEA) capture solvent, resulting in ecological and human health impacts. We discuss areas where improvements in LCA data or methods are needed. The decision to implement CCS should be based on knowledge of the overall environmental impacts of the technologies, not just their carbon capture effectiveness. LCA will be an important tool in providing that knowledge.

  19. A newly identified apothecary in Boswell's Life of Johnson: Edward Ferrand (1691-1769).

    PubMed

    Caudle, James J; Bundock, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Ever since the publication of James Boswell's Life of Samuel Johnson (1791), it has been known that Johnson's young servant, the former slave Francis Barber 'ran away' at one point and worked for a London apothecary. But the apothecary was not named by Boswell and has not been identified by any of Johnson's numerous biographers nor in recent studies of Francis Barber. Research in surviving Boswell manuscripts, 18th-century London guides and the archives of the Society of Apothecaries prove the apothecary to have been Edward Ferrand. This article sets out the circumstances in which the reference to the anonymous apothecary came to appear in the Life of Johnson and reconstructs Ferrand's life and career. Examining Ferrand's origins, his social circumstances and his career, a case study is presented of a successful practitioner of the profession of apothecary in early Georgian Britain and a suggestion made as to why the distinguished apothecary came to provide a place of refuge for a teenaged runaway servant who had been a slave until he was about nine years old.

  20. Learning impairments identified early in life are predictive of future impairments associated with aging

    PubMed Central

    Hullinger, Rikki; Burger, Corinna

    2016-01-01

    The Morris water maze (MWM) behavioral paradigm is commonly used to measure spatial learning and memory in rodents. It is widely accepted that performance in the MWM declines with age. However, young rats ubiquitously perform very well on established versions of the water maze, suggesting that more challenging tasks may be required to reveal subtle differences in young animals. Therefore, we have used a one-day water maze and novel object recognition to test whether more sensitive paradigms of memory in young animals could identify subtle cognitive impairments early in life that might become accentuated later with senescence. We have found that these two tasks reliably separate young rats into inferior and superior learners, are highly correlated, and that performance on these tasks early in life is predictive of performance at 12 months of age. Furthermore, we have found that repeated training in this task selectively improves the performance of inferior learners, suggesting that behavioral training from an early age may provide a buffer against age-related cognitive decline. PMID:26283528

  1. Identifying changes in the support networks of end-of-life carers using social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Rosemary; Horsfall, Debbie; Noonan, Kerrie

    2015-06-01

    End-of-life caring is often associated with reduced social networks for both the dying person and for the carer. However, those adopting a community participation and development approach, see the potential for the expansion and strengthening of networks. This paper uses Knox, Savage and Harvey's definitions of three generations social network analysis to analyse the caring networks of people with a terminal illness who are being cared for at home and identifies changes in these caring networks that occurred over the period of caring. Participatory network mapping of initial and current networks was used in nine focus groups. The analysis used key concepts from social network analysis (size, density, transitivity, betweenness and local clustering) together with qualitative analyses of the group's reflections on the maps. The results showed an increase in the size of the networks and that ties between the original members of the network strengthened. The qualitative data revealed the importance between core and peripheral network members and the diverse contributions of the network members. The research supports the value of third generation social network analysis and the potential for end-of-life caring to build social capital. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Identifying content for the glaucoma-specific item bank to measure quality-of-life parameters.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Jyoti; McAlinden, Colm; Craig, Jamie E; Fenwick, Eva K; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) have become essential clinical trial end points. However, a comprehensive, multidimensional, patient-relevant, and precise glaucoma-specific PRO instrument is not available. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify content for a new, glaucoma-specific, quality-of-life (QOL) item bank. Content identification was undertaken in 5 phases: (1) identification of extant items in glaucoma-specific instruments and the qualitative literature; (2) focus groups and interviews with glaucoma patients; (3) item classification and selection; (4) expert review and revision of items; and (5) cognitive interviews with patients. A total of 737 unique items (extant items from PRO instruments, 247; qualitative articles, 14 items; focus groups and semistructured interviews, 476 items) were identified. These items were classified into 10 QOL domains. Four criteria (item redundancy, item inconsistent with domain definition, item content too narrow to have wider applicability, and item clarity) were used to remove and refine the items. After the cognitive interviews, the final minimally representative item set had a total of 342 unique items belonging to 10 domains: activity limitation (88), mobility (20), visual symptoms (19), ocular surface symptoms (22), general symptoms (15), convenience (39), health concerns (45), emotional well-being (49), social issues (23), and economic issues (22). The systematic content identification process identified 10 QOL domains, which were important to patients with glaucoma. The majority of the items were identified from the patient-specific focus groups and semistructured interviews suggesting that the existing PRO instruments do not adequately address QOL issues relevant to individuals with glaucoma.

  3. A Study to Identify the Training Needs of Life Insurance Sales Representatives in Taiwan Using the Delphi Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Chiang Ku; Cheng, Chen-Liang

    2006-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted to identify the needs for continuing professional development for life insurance sales representatives and to examine the competencies needed by those sales representatives. A modified Delphi technique was used. Most life insurance companies in the USA implement an education and training plan advocated by the…

  4. A Study to Identify the Training Needs of Life Insurance Sales Representatives in Taiwan Using the Delphi Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Chiang Ku; Cheng, Chen-Liang

    2006-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted to identify the needs for continuing professional development for life insurance sales representatives and to examine the competencies needed by those sales representatives. A modified Delphi technique was used. Most life insurance companies in the USA implement an education and training plan advocated by the…

  5. Longitudinal phenotypes for alcoholism: Heterogeneity of course, early identifiers, and life course correlates.

    PubMed

    Jester, Jennifer M; Buu, Anne; Zucker, Robert A

    2016-11-01

    Alcoholism is a heterogeneous disorder; however, characterization of life-course variations in symptomatology is almost nonexistent, and developmentally early predictors of variations are very poorly characterized. In this study, the course of alcoholic symptomatology over 32 years is differentiated, and predictors and covariates of trajectory class membership are identified. A community sample of alcoholic and neighborhood matched control families, 332 men and 336 women, was recruited based on alcoholism in the men. Symptoms were assessed retrospectively at baseline (mean age = 32) back to age 15 and prospectively from baseline every 3 years for 15 years. Trajectory classes were established using growth mixture modeling. Men and women had very similarly shaped trajectory classes: developmentally limited (men: 29%, women: 42%), developmentally cumulative (men: 26%, women: 38%), young adult onset (men: 31%, women: 21%), and early onset severe (men: 13%). Three factors at age 15 predicted class membership: family history of alcoholism, age 15 symptoms, and level of childhood antisocial behavior. Numerous measures of drinking and other psychopathology were also associated with class membership. The findings suggest that clinical assessments can be crafted where the profile of current and historical information can predict not only severity of prognosis but also future moderation of symptoms and/or remission over intervals as long as decades.

  6. Identifying Life Challenges of Women at a Branch Campus through Life Course Interviews: Implications for Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn-Johnson, Tancy Clarissa

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of women are returning to school as nontraditional students to complete their bachelor's degrees. These women may have specific needs related to life transitions and re-entry into postsecondary education that traditional students do not. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of women who are…

  7. Identifying Life Challenges of Women at a Branch Campus through Life Course Interviews: Implications for Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn-Johnson, Tancy Clarissa

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of women are returning to school as nontraditional students to complete their bachelor's degrees. These women may have specific needs related to life transitions and re-entry into postsecondary education that traditional students do not. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of women who are…

  8. [Survey of patients with chronic hepatitis B to identify factors that influence quality of life].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jing; Chen, Ping; Li, Xiao-bin; Zhuang, Xun; Lu, Qing-yun; Gao, Yue-xia

    2012-09-01

    To survey patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) to determine their perceptions of CHB-related quality of life (QOF) and to determine the factors influencing this measure. A total of 268 patients with CHB (disease group) and 205 healthy individuals (control group) completed the World Health Organization (WHO)QOL-BREF life assessment survey and a self-designed questionnaire of health and QOL. The groups' responses were comparatively analyzed by the cluster sampling method and the independent samples t-test. The strength of influence of each factor on the patients' perceptions of QOL was determined by multiple stepwise regression and one-way ANOVA. The disease group had significantly lower scores than the control group for overall QOL (62.88 ± 8.22 vs. 67.31 ± 5.82), the physiological area (PHYS: 64.71 ± 15.05 vs. 73.21 ± 11.26), the psychological area (PSYCH: 64.35 ± 14.71 vs. 68.94 ± 10.13), the social relations area (SOCIL: 67.20 ± 12.98 vs. 69.83 ± 8.65), the environmental area (ENVIR: 59.58 ± 13.23 vs. 63.97 ± 10.24), the QOL self-assessment (60.75 ± 21.54 vs. 66.90 ± 17.57) and the health self-assessment (58.13 ± 19.15 vs. 76.26+/-14.27) (all, P less than 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analysis identified the following parameters as risk factors of PHYS: depression (P less than 0.001), perception of being seriously ill (P less than 0.001), self-payment for treatment (P = 0.003), CHB significant impact on income (P = 0.002), poor appetite (P = 0.002), langur (P less than 0.001), and fear of infecting others (P = 0.022). Confidence of treatment was a protective factor of PHYS (P = 0.001). The risk factors of PSYCH were depression (P less than 0.001) and recurrence (P less than 0.001), and the protective factors were confidence of treatment (P = 0.003) and male sex (P = 0.014). The risk factors of SOCIL were depression (P less than 0.001, dissatisfaction with the attitude of the people around (P = 0.001), recurrence (P = 0.008), and advanced age

  9. Identifying Areas of the Visual Field Important for Quality of Life in Patients with Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Hiroshi; Hirasawa, Hiroyo; Aoyama, Yuka; Sugisaki, Kenji; Araie, Makoto; Mayama, Chihiro; Aihara, Makoto; Asaoka, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to create a vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) prediction system to identify visual field (VF) test points associated with decreased VRQoL in patients with glaucoma. Method VRQoL score was surveyed in 164 patients with glaucoma using the ‘Sumi questionnaire’. A binocular VF was created from monocular VFs by using the integrated VF (IVF) method. VRQoL score was predicted using the ‘Random Forest’ method, based on visual acuity (VA) of better and worse eyes (better-eye and worse-eye VA) and total deviation (TD) values from the IVF. For comparison, VRQoL scores were regressed (linear regression) against: (i) mean of TD (IVF MD); (ii) better-eye VA; (iii) worse-eye VA; and (iv) IVF MD and better- and worse-eye VAs. The rank of importance of IVF test points was identified using the Random Forest method. Results The root mean of squared prediction error associated with the Random Forest method (0.30 to 1.97) was significantly smaller than those with linear regression models (0.34 to 3.38, p<0.05, ten-fold cross validation test). Worse-eye VA was the most important variable in all VRQoL tasks. In general, important VF test points were concentrated along the horizontal meridian. Particular areas of the IVF were important for different tasks: peripheral superior and inferior areas in the left hemifield for the ‘letters and sentences’ task, peripheral, mid-peripheral and para-central inferior regions for the ‘walking’ task, the peripheral superior region for the ‘going out’ task, and a broad scattered area across the IVF for the ‘dining’ task. Conclusion The VRQoL prediction model with the Random Forest method enables clinicians to better understand patients’ VRQoL based on standard clinical measurements of VA and VF. PMID:23520528

  10. Identifying Identity: Using Second Life in the Teaching of Sociolinguistics for the Rasing of Gender Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutschmann, Mats; Steinvall, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents further innovative use of virtual worlds under the pilot stages of ASSIS (A Second Step in Second Life), a project funded by Umea University. One of the aims of the project is to make use of the affordances offered by Second Life in order to raise sociolinguistic language awareness among teacher trainees and other students…

  11. Identifiers for the 21st century: How to design, provision, and reuse persistent identifiers to maximize utility and impact of life science data

    PubMed Central

    Juty, Nick; Blomberg, Niklas; Burdett, Tony; Conlin, Tom; Conte, Nathalie; Courtot, Mélanie; Deck, John; Dumontier, Michel; Fellows, Donal K.; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Gormanns, Philipp; Grethe, Jeffrey; Hastings, Janna; Hériché, Jean-Karim; Hermjakob, Henning; Ison, Jon C.; Jimenez, Rafael C.; Jupp, Simon; Kunze, John; Laibe, Camille; Le Novère, Nicolas; Malone, James; Martin, Maria Jesus; McEntyre, Johanna R.; Morris, Chris; Muilu, Juha; Müller, Wolfgang; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Sariyar, Murat; Snoep, Jacky L.; Soiland-Reyes, Stian; Stanford, Natalie J.; Swainston, Neil; Washington, Nicole; Williams, Alan R.; Wimalaratne, Sarala M.; Winfree, Lilly M.; Wolstencroft, Katherine; Goble, Carole; Mungall, Christopher J.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Parkinson, Helen

    2017-01-01

    In many disciplines, data are highly decentralized across thousands of online databases (repositories, registries, and knowledgebases). Wringing value from such databases depends on the discipline of data science and on the humble bricks and mortar that make integration possible; identifiers are a core component of this integration infrastructure. Drawing on our experience and on work by other groups, we outline 10 lessons we have learned about the identifier qualities and best practices that facilitate large-scale data integration. Specifically, we propose actions that identifier practitioners (database providers) should take in the design, provision and reuse of identifiers. We also outline the important considerations for those referencing identifiers in various circumstances, including by authors and data generators. While the importance and relevance of each lesson will vary by context, there is a need for increased awareness about how to avoid and manage common identifier problems, especially those related to persistence and web-accessibility/resolvability. We focus strongly on web-based identifiers in the life sciences; however, the principles are broadly relevant to other disciplines. PMID:28662064

  12. Identifiers for the 21st century: How to design, provision, and reuse persistent identifiers to maximize utility and impact of life science data.

    PubMed

    McMurry, Julie A; Juty, Nick; Blomberg, Niklas; Burdett, Tony; Conlin, Tom; Conte, Nathalie; Courtot, Mélanie; Deck, John; Dumontier, Michel; Fellows, Donal K; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Gormanns, Philipp; Grethe, Jeffrey; Hastings, Janna; Hériché, Jean-Karim; Hermjakob, Henning; Ison, Jon C; Jimenez, Rafael C; Jupp, Simon; Kunze, John; Laibe, Camille; Le Novère, Nicolas; Malone, James; Martin, Maria Jesus; McEntyre, Johanna R; Morris, Chris; Muilu, Juha; Müller, Wolfgang; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Sariyar, Murat; Snoep, Jacky L; Soiland-Reyes, Stian; Stanford, Natalie J; Swainston, Neil; Washington, Nicole; Williams, Alan R; Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Winfree, Lilly M; Wolstencroft, Katherine; Goble, Carole; Mungall, Christopher J; Haendel, Melissa A; Parkinson, Helen

    2017-06-01

    In many disciplines, data are highly decentralized across thousands of online databases (repositories, registries, and knowledgebases). Wringing value from such databases depends on the discipline of data science and on the humble bricks and mortar that make integration possible; identifiers are a core component of this integration infrastructure. Drawing on our experience and on work by other groups, we outline 10 lessons we have learned about the identifier qualities and best practices that facilitate large-scale data integration. Specifically, we propose actions that identifier practitioners (database providers) should take in the design, provision and reuse of identifiers. We also outline the important considerations for those referencing identifiers in various circumstances, including by authors and data generators. While the importance and relevance of each lesson will vary by context, there is a need for increased awareness about how to avoid and manage common identifier problems, especially those related to persistence and web-accessibility/resolvability. We focus strongly on web-based identifiers in the life sciences; however, the principles are broadly relevant to other disciplines.

  13. Epidemiology of Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Amputations in Romania: Results of a Cross-Sectional Quality of Life Questionnaire Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bondor, Cosmina I.; Veresiu, Ioan A.; Florea, Bogdan; Vinik, Etta J.; Vinik, Aaron I.; Gavan, Norina A.

    2016-01-01

    This is a post hoc analysis of quality of life in diabetic neuropathy patients in a cross-sectional survey performed in 2012 in Romania, using the Norfolk QOL-DN in which 21,756 patients with self-reported diabetes were enrolled. This current analysis aims to expand research on the diabetic foot and to provide an update on the number of foot ulcers found in Romania. Of the 21,174 patients included in this analysis, 14.85% reported a history of foot ulcers and 3.60% reported an amputation. The percentage of neuropathy patients with foot ulcers increased with age; the lowest percentage was observed in the 20–29-year age group (6.62%) and the highest in the 80–89-year age group (17.68%). The highest number of amputations was reported in the 70–79-year age group (largest group). Compared to patients without foot ulcers, those with foot ulcers had significantly higher scores for total DN and all its subdomains translating to worse QOL (p < 0.001). This analysis showed a high rate of foot ulcers and amputations in Romanian diabetic patients. It underscores the need for implementation of effective screening and educational programs. PMID:27019852

  14. Epidemiology of Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Amputations in Romania: Results of a Cross-Sectional Quality of Life Questionnaire Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Bondor, Cosmina I; Veresiu, Ioan A; Florea, Bogdan; Vinik, Etta J; Vinik, Aaron I; Gavan, Norina A

    2016-01-01

    This is a post hoc analysis of quality of life in diabetic neuropathy patients in a cross-sectional survey performed in 2012 in Romania, using the Norfolk QOL-DN in which 21,756 patients with self-reported diabetes were enrolled. This current analysis aims to expand research on the diabetic foot and to provide an update on the number of foot ulcers found in Romania. Of the 21,174 patients included in this analysis, 14.85% reported a history of foot ulcers and 3.60% reported an amputation. The percentage of neuropathy patients with foot ulcers increased with age; the lowest percentage was observed in the 20-29-year age group (6.62%) and the highest in the 80-89-year age group (17.68%). The highest number of amputations was reported in the 70-79-year age group (largest group). Compared to patients without foot ulcers, those with foot ulcers had significantly higher scores for total DN and all its subdomains translating to worse QOL (p < 0.001). This analysis showed a high rate of foot ulcers and amputations in Romanian diabetic patients. It underscores the need for implementation of effective screening and educational programs.

  15. Identifying Inviolable Behavioral Norms of Campus Housing and Residence Life Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschy, Amy S.; Wilson, Maureen E.; Braxton, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Housing and residence life (HRL) administrators who lack knowledge about accepted professional behaviors risk violating normative boundaries, likely jeopardizing themselves or their clients (e.g., students, parents, colleagues). The purpose of this survey study was to understand if a normative structure exists for the administrative role…

  16. Identifying Inviolable Behavioral Norms of Campus Housing and Residence Life Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschy, Amy S.; Wilson, Maureen E.; Braxton, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Housing and residence life (HRL) administrators who lack knowledge about accepted professional behaviors risk violating normative boundaries, likely jeopardizing themselves or their clients (e.g., students, parents, colleagues). The purpose of this survey study was to understand if a normative structure exists for the administrative role…

  17. Severe or life-threatening asthma exacerbation: patient heterogeneity identified by cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, K; Nakatani, E; Fukutomi, Y; Kaneda, H; Iikura, M; Yoshida, M; Takahashi, K; Tomii, K; Nishikawa, M; Kaneko, N; Sugino, Y; Shinkai, M; Ueda, T; Tanikawa, Y; Shirai, T; Hirabayashi, M; Aoki, T; Kato, T; Iizuka, K; Homma, S; Taniguchi, M; Tanaka, H

    2016-08-01

    Severe or life-threatening asthma exacerbation is one of the worst outcomes of asthma because of the risk of death. To date, few studies have explored the potential heterogeneity of this condition. To examine the clinical characteristics and heterogeneity of patients with severe or life-threatening asthma exacerbation. This was a multicentre, prospective study of patients with severe or life-threatening asthma exacerbation and pulse oxygen saturation < 90% who were admitted to 17 institutions across Japan. Cluster analysis was performed using variables from patient- and physician-orientated structured questionnaires. Analysis of data from 175 patients with severe or life-threatening asthma exacerbation revealed five distinct clusters. Cluster 1 (n = 27) was younger-onset asthma with severe symptoms at baseline, including limitation of activities, a higher frequency of treatment with oral corticosteroids and short-acting beta-agonists, and a higher frequency of asthma hospitalizations in the past year. Cluster 2 (n = 35) was predominantly composed of elderly females, with the highest frequency of comorbid, chronic hyperplastic rhinosinusitis/nasal polyposis, and a long disease duration. Cluster 3 (n = 40) was allergic asthma without inhaled corticosteroid use at baseline. Patients in this cluster had a higher frequency of atopy, including allergic rhinitis and furred pet hypersensitivity, and a better prognosis during hospitalization compared with the other clusters. Cluster 4 (n = 34) was characterized by elderly males with concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although cluster 5 (n = 39) had very mild symptoms at baseline according to the patient questionnaires, 41% had previously been hospitalized for asthma. This study demonstrated that significant heterogeneity exists among patients with severe or life-threatening asthma exacerbation. Differences were observed in the severity of asthma symptoms and use of inhaled corticosteroids at baseline

  18. Cumulative experiences with life adversity: Identifying critical levels for targeting prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Tynes, Brendesha; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Williams, David

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims to assess the role of individual types and cumulative life adversity for understanding depressive symptomatology and aggressive behavior. Data were collected in 2011 as part of the Teen Life Online and in Schools Study from 916 ethnically-diverse students from 12 middle, K-8, 6-12 and high schools in the Midwest United States. Youth reported an average of 4.1 non-victimization adversities and chronic stressors in their lifetimes. There was a linear relationship between number of adversities and depression and aggression scores. Youth reporting the highest number of adversities (7 or more) had significantly higher depression and aggression scores than youth reporting any other number of adversities suggesting exposure at this level is a critical tipping point for mental health concerns. Findings underscore an urgent need to support youth as they attempt to negotiate, manage, and cope with adversity in their social worlds.

  19. Cumulative experiences with life adversity: Identifying critical levels for targeting prevention efforts

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Tynes, Brendesha; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Williams, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the role of individual types and cumulative life adversity for understanding depressive symptomatology and aggressive behavior. Data were collected in 2011 as part of the Teen Life Online and in Schools Study from 916 ethnically-diverse students from 12 middle, K-8, 6-12 and high schools in the Midwest United States. Youth reported an average of 4.1 non-victimization adversities and chronic stressors in their lifetimes. There was a linear relationship between number of adversities and depression and aggression scores. Youth reporting the highest number of adversities (7 or more) had significantly higher depression and aggression scores than youth reporting any other number of adversities suggesting exposure at this level is a critical tipping point for mental health concerns. Findings underscore an urgent need to support youth as they attempt to negotiate, manage, and cope with adversity in their social worlds. PMID:26057876

  20. Identifying care actions to conserve dignity in end-of-life care.

    PubMed

    Brown, Hilary; Johnston, Bridget; Ostlund, Ulrika

    2011-05-01

    Community nurses have a central role in the provision of palliative and end-of-life care; helping people to die with dignity is an important component of this care. To conserve dignity, care should comprise a broad range of actions addressing the distress that might impact on the patient's sense of dignity. These care actions need to be defined. This study aims to suggest care actions that conserve dignity at the end of life based on evidence from local experience and community nursing practice. Data were collected by focus group interviews and analysed by framework analysis using the Chochinov model of dignity as a predefined framework. Suggestions on care actions were given in relation to all themes. As part of a multi-phase project developing and testing a dignity care pathway, this study might help community nurses to conserve dying patients' dignity.

  1. Newly identified and diverse plastid-bearing branch on the eukaryotic tree of life

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunsoo; Harrison, James W.; Sudek, Sebastian; Jones, Meredith D. M.; Wilcox, Heather M.; Richards, Thomas A.; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Archibald, John M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of molecular methods is altering our understanding of the microbial biosphere and the complexity of the tree of life. Here, we report a newly discovered uncultured plastid-bearing eukaryotic lineage named the rappemonads. Phylogenies using near-complete plastid ribosomal DNA (rDNA) operons demonstrate that this group represents an evolutionarily distinct lineage branching with haptophyte and cryptophyte algae. Environmental DNA sequencing revealed extensive diversity at North Atlantic, North Pacific, and European freshwater sites, suggesting a broad ecophysiology and wide habitat distribution. Quantitative PCR analyses demonstrate that the rappemonads are often rare but can form transient blooms in the Sargasso Sea, where high 16S rRNA gene copies mL−1 were detected in late winter. This pattern is consistent with these microbes being a member of the rare biosphere, whose constituents have been proposed to play important roles under ecosystem change. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that cells from this unique lineage were 6.6 ± 1.2 × 5.7 ± 1.0 μm, larger than numerically dominant open-ocean phytoplankton, and appear to contain two to four plastids. The rappemonads are unique, widespread, putatively photosynthetic algae that are absent from present-day ecosystem models and current versions of the tree of life. PMID:21205890

  2. Prognostic variables and scores identifying the last year of life in COPD: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ifrah; Stone, Patrick; Smeeth, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction People living with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) suffer from significant morbidity, reduced quality of life and high mortality, and are likely to benefit from many aspects of a palliative care approach. Prognostic estimates are a meaningful part of decision-making and better evidence for such estimates would facilitate advance care planning. We aim to provide quality evidence on known prognostic variables and scores which predict a prognosis in COPD of <12 months for use in the community. Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic review of randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials, prospective and retrospective longitudinal cohort and case–control studies on prognostic variables, multivariate scores or models for COPD. The search will cover the period up to April 2016. Study selection will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, with data extraction using fields from the Critical Appraisal and Data Extraction for Systematic Reviews of Prediction Modelling Studies (CHARMS) checklist for multivariate models, and study quality will be assessed using a modified version of the Quality In Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool. Ethics and dissemination The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and national and international conference presentations. Systematic review registration number CRD42016033866. PMID:27633634

  3. Life begins at 60: Identifying the social support needs of African American women aging with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    HIV chronicity has resulted in increased life expectancy for many African American women who acquired the disease during the epidemic’s peak years. As these women live longer and age, their social support needs may increase. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington, DC with 23 HIV-positive African American women aged 52–65 to explore women’s perceptions about how aging and HIV chronicity affects their social support needs. Participants were recruited from the longitudinal Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) participant pool. A constant comparison approach was applied during data analysis. Participants reported needing increased social support, especially emotional support from health care providers, family, and HIV-positive peers. The importance of providers and HIV-positive peers was discussed most frequently relative to meeting these needs. Health care providers in particular may need to increase their provision of emotional support when devising treatment plans to meet the social support needs of older HIV-positive African American women. PMID:28239009

  4. Identifying energy and carbon footprint optimization potentials of a sludge treatment line with Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Remy, C; Lesjean, B; Waschnewski, J

    2013-01-01

    This study exemplifies the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a tool to quantify the environmental impacts of processes for wastewater treatment. In a case study, the sludge treatment line of a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is analysed in terms of cumulative energy demand and the emission of greenhouse gases (carbon footprint). Sludge treatment consists of anaerobic digestion, dewatering, drying, and disposal of stabilized sludge in mono- or co-incineration in power plants or cement kilns. All relevant forms of energy demand (electricity, heat, chemicals, fossil fuels, transport) and greenhouse gas emissions (fossil CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O) are accounted in the assessment, including the treatment of return liquor from dewatering in the WWTP. Results show that the existing process is positive in energy balance (-162 MJ/PE(COD) * a) and carbon footprint (-11.6 kg CO(2)-eq/PE(COD) * a) by supplying secondary products such as electricity from biogas production or mono-incineration and substituting fossil fuels in co-incineration. However, disposal routes for stabilized sludge differ considerably in their energy and greenhouse gas profiles. In total, LCA proves to be a suitable tool to support future investment decisions with information of environmental relevance on the impact of wastewater treatment, but also urban water systems in general.

  5. A National Survey to Systematically Identify Factors Associated With Oncologists’ Attitudes Toward End-of-Life Discussions: What Determines Timing of End-of-Life Discussions?

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Masanori; Shimizu, Chikako; Okusaka, Takuji; Yoshida, Saran; Morita, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Background. End-of-life discussions (EOLds) occur infrequently until cancer patients become terminally ill. Methods. To identify factors associated with the timing of EOLds, we conducted a nationwide survey of 864 medical oncologists. We surveyed the timing of EOLds held with advanced cancer patients regarding prognosis, hospice, site of death, and do-not-resuscitate (DNR) status; and we surveyed physicians’ experience of EOLds, perceptions of a good death, and beliefs regarding these issues. Multivariate analyses identified determinants of early discussions. Results. Among 490 physicians (response rate: 57%), 165 (34%), 65 (14%), 47 (9.8%), and 20 (4.2%) would discuss prognosis, hospice, site of death, and DNR status, respectively, “now” (i.e., at diagnosis) with a hypothetical patient with newly diagnosed metastatic cancer. In multivariate analyses, determinants of discussing prognosis “now” included the physician perceiving greater importance of autonomy in experiencing a good death (odds ratio [OR]: 1.34; p = .014), less perceived difficulty estimating the prognosis (OR: 0.77; p = .012), and being a hematologist (OR: 1.68; p = .016). Determinants of discussing hospice “now” included the physician perceiving greater importance of life completion in experiencing a good death (OR: 1.58; p = .018), less discomfort talking about death (OR: 0.67; p = .002), and no responsibility as treating physician at end of life (OR: 1.94; p = .031). Determinants of discussing site of death “now” included the physician perceiving greater importance of life completion in experiencing a good death (OR: 1.83; p = .008) and less discomfort talking about death (OR: 0.74; p = .034). The determinant of discussing DNR status “now” was less discomfort talking about death (OR: 0.49; p = .003). Conclusion. Reflection by oncologists on their own values regarding a good death, knowledge about validated prognostic measures, and learning skills to manage discomfort talking

  6. Mackinawite and greigite in ancient alkaline hydrothermal chimneys: Identifying potential key catalysts for emergent life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Lauren M.; Bhartia, Rohit; Stucky, Galen D.; Kanik, Isik; Russell, Michael J.

    2015-11-01

    One model for the emergence of life posits that ancient, low temperature, submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents, partly composed of iron-sulfides, were capable of catalyzing the synthesis of prebiotic organic molecules from CO2, H2 and CH4. Specifically, hydrothermal mackinawite (FeIIS) and greigite (FeIIFeIII2S4) have been highlighted in previous studies as analogs of the active centers of hydrogenase, ferredoxin, acetyl coenzyme-A synthase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase featured in the biochemistry of certain autotrophic prokaryotes that occupy the base of the evolutionary tree. Despite the proposed importance of iron sulfide minerals and clusters in the synthesis of abiotic organic molecules, the mechanisms for the formation of these sulfides from solution and their preservation under the anoxic and low temperature (below 100 °C) conditions expected in off-axis submarine alkaline vent systems is not well understood (Bourdoiseau et al., 2011; Rickard and Luther, 2007). To rectify this, single hydrothermal chimneys were precipitated using a unique apparatus to simulate growth at hydrothermal vents of moderate temperature under supposed Hadean ocean-bottom conditions. Iron sulfide phases were observed through Raman spectroscopy at growth temperatures ranging from 40° to 80 °C. Fe(III)-containing mackinawite is confirmed to be present with mackinawite and greigite, supporting an FeIII-mackinawite intermediate mechanism for the transformation of mackinawite to greigite below 100 °C. Raman spectroscopy of the chimneys revealed a maximum yield of greigite at 75 °C. These results suggest abiotic production of catalytically active mackinawite and greigite are possible under early Earth hydrothermal conditions as well as on other wet, rocky worlds geochemically similar to the Earth.

  7. Identifying and classifying quality of life tools for neurogenic bladder function after spinal cord injury: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Best, Krista L; Ethans, Karen; Craven, B Catharine; Noreau, Luc; Hitzig, Sander L

    2017-09-01

    To identify and classify quality of life (QoL) tools for assessing the influence of neurogenic bladder after spinal cord injury/disease (SCI). Systematic Review Methods: Medline/Pubmed, CINAHL, and PsycInfo were searched using terms related to SCI, neurogenic bladder and QoL. Studies that assessed the influence neurogenic bladder on QoL (or related construct) in samples consisting of ≥50% individuals with SCI were included. Two independent reviewers screened titles and abstracts of 368 identified references; 118 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, and 42 studies were included. Two reviewers independently classified outcomes as objective (societal viewpoint) or subjective (patient perspective) using a QoL framework. Ten objective QoL measures were identified, with the Medical Outcomes Short Form (SF-36/SF-12) used most frequently. Fourteen subjective QoL measures were identified; 8 were specific to neurogenic bladder. Psychometric evidence for SCI-specific neurogenic bladder QoL tools was reported for the Quality of Life Index (QLI), Qualiveen, Bladder Complications Scale, Spinal Cord Injury-Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Bladder Management Difficulties, and the SCI-QOL Bladder Management Difficulties-Short Form. The QLI and Qualiveen showed sensitivity to neurogenic bladder in experimental designs. Several objective and subjective tools exist to assess the influence of neurogenic bladder on QoL in SCI. The QLI and Qualiveen, both subjective tools, were the only validated SCI-specific tools that showed sensitivity to neurogenic bladder. Further validation of existing subjective SCI-specific outcomes is needed. Research to validate objective measures of QoL would be useful for informing practice and policy related to resource allocation for bladder care post-SCI.

  8. Towards more efficient burn care: Identifying factors associated with good quality of life post-burn.

    PubMed

    Finlay, V; Phillips, M; Allison, G T; Wood, F M; Ching, D; Wicaksono, D; Plowman, S; Hendrie, D; Edgar, D W

    2015-11-01

    As minor burn patients constitute the vast majority of a developed nation case-mix, streamlining care for this group can promote efficiency from a service-wide perspective. This study tested the hypothesis that a predictive nomogram model that estimates likelihood of good long-term quality of life (QoL) post-burn is a valid way to optimise patient selection and risk management when applying a streamlined model of care. A sample of 224 burn patients managed by the Burn Service of Western Australia who provided both short and long-term outcomes was used to estimate the probability of achieving a good QoL defined as 150 out of a possible 160 points on the Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B) at least six months from injury. A multivariate logistic regression analysis produced a predictive model provisioned as a nomogram for clinical application. A second, independent cohort of consecutive patients (n=106) was used to validate the predictive merit of the nomogram. Male gender (p=0.02), conservative management (p=0.03), upper limb burn (p=0.04) and high BSHS-B score within one month of burn (p<0.001) were significant predictors of good outcome at six months and beyond. A Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis demonstrated excellent (90%) accuracy overall. At 80% probability of good outcome, the false positive risk was 14%. The nomogram was validated by running a second ROC analysis of the model in an independent cohort. The analysis confirmed high (86%) overall accuracy of the model, the risk of false positive was reduced to 10% at a lower (70%) probability. This affirms the stability of the nomogram model in different patient groups over time. An investigation of the effect of missing data on sample selection determined that a greater proportion of younger patients with smaller TBSA burns were excluded due to loss to follow up. For clinicians managing comparable burn populations, the BSWA burns nomogram is an effective tool to assist the selection of patients to

  9. [A study on technology to identify human beings or animals in life-detector based on radar].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianqi; Zheng, Chongxun; Lu, Guohua; Jing, Xijing

    2005-12-01

    To determine whether a living object is human being or animal by detecting the respiration signal using the life-detector based on radar to penetrate the building or debris. To fully utilize the nonstationary character of the respiration signal, short time Fourier transform (STFT) is employed to get the signal's time-frequency representation. Singular value decomposition (SVD) is then used in the spectrogram to extract feature vector for pattern identification. Human beings and animals can be identified from the respiration sensed by the life-detector based on radar. Experimental results show that the method based on STFT and SVD is stable and efficient to differ from the human being and animal.

  10. Back to the sea twice: identifying candidate plant genes for molecular evolution to marine life

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Seagrasses are a polyphyletic group of monocotyledonous angiosperms that have adapted to a completely submerged lifestyle in marine waters. Here, we exploit two collections of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of two wide-spread and ecologically important seagrass species, the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile and the eelgrass Zostera marina L., which have independently evolved from aquatic ancestors. This replicated, yet independent evolutionary history facilitates the identification of traits that may have evolved in parallel and are possible instrumental candidates for adaptation to a marine habitat. Results In our study, we provide the first quantitative perspective on molecular adaptations in two seagrass species. By constructing orthologous gene clusters shared between two seagrasses (Z. marina and P. oceanica) and eight distantly related terrestrial angiosperm species, 51 genes could be identified with detection of positive selection along the seagrass branches of the phylogenetic tree. Characterization of these positively selected genes using KEGG pathways and the Gene Ontology uncovered that these genes are mostly involved in translation, metabolism, and photosynthesis. Conclusions These results provide first insights into which seagrass genes have diverged from their terrestrial counterparts via an initial aquatic stage characteristic of the order and to the derived fully-marine stage characteristic of seagrasses. We discuss how adaptive changes in these processes may have contributed to the evolution towards an aquatic and marine existence. PMID:21226908

  11. Identifying biologically meaningful hot-weather events using threshold temperatures that affect life-history.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Susan J; Kruger, Andries C; Nxumalo, Mthobisi P; Hockey, Philip A R

    2013-01-01

    Increases in the frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves are frequently evoked in climate change predictions. However, there is no universal definition of a heat wave. Recent, intense hot weather events have caused mass mortalities of birds, bats and even humans, making the definition and prediction of heat wave events that have the potential to impact populations of different species an urgent priority. One possible technique for defining biologically meaningful heat waves is to use threshold temperatures (T(thresh)) above which known fitness costs are incurred by species of interest. We set out to test the utility of this technique using T(thresh) values that, when exceeded, affect aspects of the fitness of two focal southern African bird species: the southern pied babbler Turdiodes bicolor (T(thresh) = 35.5 °C) and the common fiscal Lanius collaris (T(thresh) = 33 °C). We used these T(thresh) values to analyse trends in the frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves of magnitude relevant to the focal species, as well as the annual number of hot days (maximum air temperature > T(thresh)), in north-western South Africa between 1961 and 2010. Using this technique, we were able to show that, while all heat wave indices increased during the study period, most rapid increases for both species were in the annual number of hot days and in the maximum intensity (and therefore intensity variance) of biologically meaningful heat waves. Importantly, we also showed that warming trends were not uniform across the study area and that geographical patterns in warming allowed both areas of high risk and potential climate refugia to be identified. We discuss the implications of the trends we found for our focal species, and the utility of the T(thresh) technique as a conservation tool.

  12. Identifying Biologically Meaningful Hot-Weather Events Using Threshold Temperatures That Affect Life-History

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Susan J.; Kruger, Andries C.; Nxumalo, Mthobisi P.

    2013-01-01

    Increases in the frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves are frequently evoked in climate change predictions. However, there is no universal definition of a heat wave. Recent, intense hot weather events have caused mass mortalities of birds, bats and even humans, making the definition and prediction of heat wave events that have the potential to impact populations of different species an urgent priority. One possible technique for defining biologically meaningful heat waves is to use threshold temperatures (Tthresh) above which known fitness costs are incurred by species of interest. We set out to test the utility of this technique using Tthresh values that, when exceeded, affect aspects of the fitness of two focal southern African bird species: the southern pied babbler Turdiodes bicolor (Tthresh = 35.5°C) and the common fiscal Lanius collaris (Tthresh = 33°C). We used these Tthresh values to analyse trends in the frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves of magnitude relevant to the focal species, as well as the annual number of hot days (maximum air temperature > Tthresh), in north-western South Africa between 1961 and 2010. Using this technique, we were able to show that, while all heat wave indices increased during the study period, most rapid increases for both species were in the annual number of hot days and in the maximum intensity (and therefore intensity variance) of biologically meaningful heat waves. Importantly, we also showed that warming trends were not uniform across the study area and that geographical patterns in warming allowed both areas of high risk and potential climate refugia to be identified. We discuss the implications of the trends we found for our focal species, and the utility of the Tthresh technique as a conservation tool. PMID:24349296

  13. High-Throughput Chemical Screening Identifies Compounds that Inhibit Different Stages of the Phytophthora agathidicida and Phytophthora cinnamomi Life Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Scott A.; Armstrong, Charlotte B.; Patrick, Wayne M.; Gerth, Monica L.

    2017-01-01

    Oomycetes in the genus Phytophthora are among the most damaging plant pathogens worldwide. Two important species are Phytophthora cinnamomi, which causes root rot in thousands of native and agricultural plants, and Phytophthora agathidicida, which causes kauri dieback disease in New Zealand. As is the case for other Phytophthora species, management options for these two pathogens are limited. Here, we have screened over 100 compounds for their anti-oomycete activity, as a potential first step toward identifying new control strategies. Our screening identified eight compounds that showed activity against both Phytophthora species. These included five antibiotics, two copper compounds and a quaternary ammonium cation. These compounds were tested for their inhibitory action against three stages of the Phytophthora life cycle: mycelial growth, zoospore germination, and zoospore motility. The inhibitory effects of the compounds were broadly similar between the two Phytophthora species, but their effectiveness varied widely among life cycle stages. Mycelial growth was most successfully inhibited by the antibiotics chlortetracycline and paromomycin, and the quaternary ammonium salt benzethonium chloride. Copper chloride and copper sulfate were most effective at inhibiting zoospore germination and motility, whereas the five antibiotics showed relatively poor zoospore inhibition. Benzethonium chloride was identified as a promising antimicrobial, as it is effective across all three life cycle stages. While further testing is required to determine their efficacy and potential phytotoxicity in planta, we have provided new data on those agents that are, and those that are not, effective against P. agathidicida and P. cinnamomi. Additionally, we present here the first published protocol for producing zoospores from P. agathidicida, which will aid in the further study of this emerging pathogen. PMID:28769905

  14. High-Throughput Chemical Screening Identifies Compounds that Inhibit Different Stages of the Phytophthora agathidicida and Phytophthora cinnamomi Life Cycles.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Scott A; Armstrong, Charlotte B; Patrick, Wayne M; Gerth, Monica L

    2017-01-01

    Oomycetes in the genus Phytophthora are among the most damaging plant pathogens worldwide. Two important species are Phytophthora cinnamomi, which causes root rot in thousands of native and agricultural plants, and Phytophthora agathidicida, which causes kauri dieback disease in New Zealand. As is the case for other Phytophthora species, management options for these two pathogens are limited. Here, we have screened over 100 compounds for their anti-oomycete activity, as a potential first step toward identifying new control strategies. Our screening identified eight compounds that showed activity against both Phytophthora species. These included five antibiotics, two copper compounds and a quaternary ammonium cation. These compounds were tested for their inhibitory action against three stages of the Phytophthora life cycle: mycelial growth, zoospore germination, and zoospore motility. The inhibitory effects of the compounds were broadly similar between the two Phytophthora species, but their effectiveness varied widely among life cycle stages. Mycelial growth was most successfully inhibited by the antibiotics chlortetracycline and paromomycin, and the quaternary ammonium salt benzethonium chloride. Copper chloride and copper sulfate were most effective at inhibiting zoospore germination and motility, whereas the five antibiotics showed relatively poor zoospore inhibition. Benzethonium chloride was identified as a promising antimicrobial, as it is effective across all three life cycle stages. While further testing is required to determine their efficacy and potential phytotoxicity in planta, we have provided new data on those agents that are, and those that are not, effective against P. agathidicida and P. cinnamomi. Additionally, we present here the first published protocol for producing zoospores from P. agathidicida, which will aid in the further study of this emerging pathogen.

  15. Identifying and Managing Undue Influence From Family Members in End-of-Life Decisions for Patients With Advanced Cancer.

    PubMed

    Baker, Francis X; Gallagher, Colleen M

    2017-10-01

    Undue influence from family members of patients with advanced cancer remains a serious ethical problem in end-of-life decision making. Despite the wealth of articles discussing the problem of undue influence, little has been written by way of practical guidance to help clinicians identify and effectively manage situations of undue influence. This article briefly lays out how to identify and manage situations of undue influence sensitively and effectively. We explain how undue influence may present itself in the clinic and distinguish it from ethically permissible expressions of relational autonomy. In addition, we lay out a process by which any clinician suspecting undue influence may gather additional information and, if necessary, conduct a family meeting to address the undue influence. It is our hope that by providing clinicians at all levels of patient care with such guidance, they will feel empowered to respond to cases of undue influence when they arise.

  16. Elucidation of the first definitively identified life cycle for a marine turtle blood fluke (Trematoda: Spirorchiidae) enables informed control.

    PubMed

    Cribb, Thomas H; Crespo-Picazo, Jose L; Cutmore, Scott C; Stacy, Brian A; Chapman, Phoebe A; García-Párraga, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Blood flukes of the family Spirorchiidae are significant pathogens of both free-ranging and captive marine turtles. Despite a significant proportion of marine turtle mortality being attributable to spirorchiid infections, details of their life cycles remain almost entirely unknown. Here we report on the molecular elucidation of the complete life cycle of a marine spirorchiid, identified as Amphiorchis sp., infecting vermetid gastropods and captive hatched neonate Caretta caretta in the Oceanogràfic Aquarium, in Valencia, Spain. Specimens of a vermetid gastropod, Thylaeodus cf. rugulosus (Monterosato, 1878), collected from the aquarium filtration system housing diseased C. caretta, were infected with sporocysts and cercariae consistent with the family Spirorchiidae. We generated rDNA sequence data [internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and partial 28S rDNA] from infections from the vermetid which were identical to sequences generated from eggs from the serosa of the intestine of neonate C. caretta, and an adult spirorchiid from the liver of a C. caretta from Florida, USA. Given the reliability of these markers in the delineation of trematode species, we consider all three stages to represent the same species and tentatively identify it as a species of Amphiorchis Price, 1934. The source of infection at the Oceanogràfic Foundation Rehabilitation Centre, Valencia, Spain, is inferred to be an adult C. caretta from the western Mediterranean being rehabilitated in the same facility. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this Amphiorchis sp. is closely related to other spirorchiids of marine turtles (species of Carettacola Manter & Larson, 1950, Hapalotrema Looss, 1899 and Learedius Price, 1934). We discuss implications of the present findings for the control of spirorchiidiasis in captivity, for the better understanding of epidemiology in wild individuals, and the elucidation of further life cycles. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by

  17. Data mining approach identifies research priorities and data requirements for resolving the red algal tree of life

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The assembly of the tree of life has seen significant progress in recent years but algae and protists have been largely overlooked in this effort. Many groups of algae and protists have ancient roots and it is unclear how much data will be required to resolve their phylogenetic relationships for incorporation in the tree of life. The red algae, a group of primary photosynthetic eukaryotes of more than a billion years old, provide the earliest fossil evidence for eukaryotic multicellularity and sexual reproduction. Despite this evolutionary significance, their phylogenetic relationships are understudied. This study aims to infer a comprehensive red algal tree of life at the family level from a supermatrix containing data mined from GenBank. We aim to locate remaining regions of low support in the topology, evaluate their causes and estimate the amount of data required to resolve them. Results Phylogenetic analysis of a supermatrix of 14 loci and 98 red algal families yielded the most complete red algal tree of life to date. Visualization of statistical support showed the presence of five poorly supported regions. Causes for low support were identified with statistics about the age of the region, data availability and node density, showing that poor support has different origins in different parts of the tree. Parametric simulation experiments yielded optimistic estimates of how much data will be needed to resolve the poorly supported regions (ca. 103 to ca. 104 nucleotides for the different regions). Nonparametric simulations gave a markedly more pessimistic image, some regions requiring more than 2.8 105 nucleotides or not achieving the desired level of support at all. The discrepancies between parametric and nonparametric simulations are discussed in light of our dataset and known attributes of both approaches. Conclusions Our study takes the red algae one step closer to meaningful inclusion in the tree of life. In addition to the recovery of stable

  18. In silico repositioning-chemogenomics strategy identifies new drugs with potential activity against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Neves, Bruno J; Braga, Rodolpho C; Bezerra, José C B; Cravo, Pedro V L; Andrade, Carolina H

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality caused by schistosomiasis are serious public health problems in developing countries. Because praziquantel is the only drug in therapeutic use, the risk of drug resistance is a concern. In the search for new schistosomicidal drugs, we performed a target-based chemogenomics screen of a dataset of 2,114 proteins to identify drugs that are approved for clinical use in humans that may be active against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target, and its amino acid sequence was used to interrogate three databases: Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), DrugBank and STITCH. Predicted drug-target interactions were refined using a combination of approaches, including pairwise alignment, conservation state of functional regions and chemical space analysis. To validate our strategy, several drugs previously shown to be active against Schistosoma species were correctly predicted, such as clonazepam, auranofin, nifedipine, and artesunate. We were also able to identify 115 drugs that have not yet been experimentally tested against schistosomes and that require further assessment. Some examples are aprindine, gentamicin, clotrimazole, tetrabenazine, griseofulvin, and cinnarizine. In conclusion, we have developed a systematic and focused computer-aided approach to propose approved drugs that may warrant testing and/or serve as lead compounds for the design of new drugs against schistosomes.

  19. In Silico Repositioning-Chemogenomics Strategy Identifies New Drugs with Potential Activity against Multiple Life Stages of Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Bruno J.; Braga, Rodolpho C.; Bezerra, José C. B.; Cravo, Pedro V. L.; Andrade, Carolina H.

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality caused by schistosomiasis are serious public health problems in developing countries. Because praziquantel is the only drug in therapeutic use, the risk of drug resistance is a concern. In the search for new schistosomicidal drugs, we performed a target-based chemogenomics screen of a dataset of 2,114 proteins to identify drugs that are approved for clinical use in humans that may be active against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target, and its amino acid sequence was used to interrogate three databases: Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), DrugBank and STITCH. Predicted drug-target interactions were refined using a combination of approaches, including pairwise alignment, conservation state of functional regions and chemical space analysis. To validate our strategy, several drugs previously shown to be active against Schistosoma species were correctly predicted, such as clonazepam, auranofin, nifedipine, and artesunate. We were also able to identify 115 drugs that have not yet been experimentally tested against schistosomes and that require further assessment. Some examples are aprindine, gentamicin, clotrimazole, tetrabenazine, griseofulvin, and cinnarizine. In conclusion, we have developed a systematic and focused computer-aided approach to propose approved drugs that may warrant testing and/or serve as lead compounds for the design of new drugs against schistosomes. PMID:25569258

  20. Health-related quality of life among veterans in addictions treatment: identifying behavioral targets for future intervention

    PubMed Central

    Oppezzo, Marily A.; Michalek, Anne K.; Delucchi, Kevin; Baiocchi, Michael T. M.; Barnett, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background US veterans report lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) relative to the general population. Identifying behavioral factors related to HRQoL that are malleable to change may inform interventions to improve well-being in this vulnerable group. Purpose The current study sought to characterize HRQoL in a largely male sample of veterans in addictions treatment, both in relation to US norms and in association with five recommended health behavior practices: regularly exercising, managing stress, having good sleep hygiene, consuming fruits and vegetables, and being tobacco free. Methods We assessed HRQoL with 250 veterans in addictions treatment (96 % male, mean age 53, range 24–77) using scales from four validated measures. Data reduction methods identified two principal components reflecting physical and mental HRQoL. Model testing of HRQoL associations with health behaviors adjusted for relevant demographic and treatment-related covariates. Results Compared to US norms, the sample had lower HRQoL scores. Better psychological HRQoL was associated with higher subjective social standing, absence of pain or trauma, lower alcohol severity, and monotonically with the sum of health behaviors (all p < 0.05). Specifically, psychological HRQoL was associated with regular exercise, stress management, and sleep hygiene. Regular exercise also related to better physical HRQoL. The models explained >40 % of the variance in HRQoL. Conclusions Exercise, sleep hygiene, and stress management are strongly associated with HRQoL among veterans in addictions treatment. Future research is needed to test the effect of interventions for improving well-being in this high-risk group. PMID:26886926

  1. Capturing children and young people's perspectives to identify the content for a novel vision-related quality of life instrument.

    PubMed

    Rahi, Jugnoo S; Tadić, Valerie; Keeley, Sarah; Lewando-Hundt, Gillian

    2011-05-01

    To describe a child-centered approach to identifying content for a novel self-report questionnaire for assessing vision-related quality of life (QoL) of visually impaired (VI) or blind (BL) children and young people. Questionnaire development. A stratified random patient sample of children and young people who are VI/BL (visual acuity in the better eye Snellen <6/18; logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution <0.51) as the result of any visual disorder, but in the absence of any other significant impairment, aged 10 to 15 years (N=49); and a convenience school-based sample of children and young people who are VI/BL and aged 10 to 17 years (N=29). Individual interviews were conducted with a stratified random sample of 32 children and young people, aged 10 to 15 years, who were VI/BL. The interviews followed a topic guide based on vision-related issues identified from a focus group of affected children and young people, combined with a literature review and consultations with professionals. Collaborative qualitative thematic analysis was undertaken and used to derive draft items of the instrument, using the children's own language wherever possible. Items were reduced, rephrased, and refined through individual consultation, as well as an expert reference group of children and young people who were VI/BL, and supplemented by the research team's consensus. A draft 47-item instrument. A total of 874 potential questionnaire items were initially generated spanning the following domains: social relations, acceptance, and participation; independence and autonomy; psychological and emotional well-being; future-aspirations and fears; functioning-home, school, and leisure; and treatment of eye condition. This was eventually reduced to a 47-item instrument with each item presented as a vignette describing a QoL issue from an "illustrative" child's perspective. Thus, the responding child reports on how much he/she is presently like and how much he/she wishes to be like that

  2. Systems-based analysis of the Sarcocystis neurona genome identifies pathways that contribute to a heteroxenous life cycle.

    PubMed

    Blazejewski, Tomasz; Nursimulu, Nirvana; Pszenny, Viviana; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Namasivayam, Sivaranjani; Chiasson, Melissa A; Chessman, Kyle; Tonkin, Michelle; Swapna, Lakshmipuram S; Hung, Stacy S; Bridgers, Joshua; Ricklefs, Stacy M; Boulanger, Martin J; Dubey, Jitender P; Porcella, Stephen F; Kissinger, Jessica C; Howe, Daniel K; Grigg, Michael E; Parkinson, John

    2015-02-10

    Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the coccidia, a clade of single-celled parasites of medical and veterinary importance including Eimeria, Sarcocystis, Neospora, and Toxoplasma. Unlike Eimeria, a single-host enteric pathogen, Sarcocystis, Neospora, and Toxoplasma are two-host parasites that infect and produce infectious tissue cysts in a wide range of intermediate hosts. As a genus, Sarcocystis is one of the most successful protozoan parasites; all vertebrates, including birds, reptiles, fish, and mammals are hosts to at least one Sarcocystis species. Here we sequenced Sarcocystis neurona, the causal agent of fatal equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. The S. neurona genome is 127 Mbp, more than twice the size of other sequenced coccidian genomes. Comparative analyses identified conservation of the invasion machinery among the coccidia. However, many dense-granule and rhoptry kinase genes, responsible for altering host effector pathways in Toxoplasma and Neospora, are absent from S. neurona. Further, S. neurona has a divergent repertoire of SRS proteins, previously implicated in tissue cyst formation in Toxoplasma. Systems-based analyses identified a series of metabolic innovations, including the ability to exploit alternative sources of energy. Finally, we present an S. neurona model detailing conserved molecular innovations that promote the transition from a purely enteric lifestyle (Eimeria) to a heteroxenous parasite capable of infecting a wide range of intermediate hosts. Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the coccidia, a clade of single-celled apicomplexan parasites responsible for major economic and health care burdens worldwide. A cousin of Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium, Theileria, and Eimeria, Sarcocystis is one of the most successful parasite genera; it is capable of infecting all vertebrates (fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals-including humans). The past decade has witnessed an increasing number of human outbreaks of clinical significance associated with

  3. Exploration of very high spatial resolution data for vegetation mapping using cartographic ontologies: Identifying life forms to mapping formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Gallegos, Hugo Benigno

    Vegetation mapping is often considered the process of identifying landscape patterns of individuals or clusters of species or life forms (LF). At the landscape scale, the larger pattern represented by individuals or clusters represents the conceptualization of "vegetation mapping" and can be used as a building block to describe an ecosystem. To represent these building blocks or LF a "common entity (CE)" concept is introduced to represent the components of Formations as described by the National Vegetation Classification (NVC) system. The NVC has established protocols to consistently represent plant communities and promote coordinated management, particularly across jurisdictional boundaries. However, it is not a universal standard and the methods of producing detailed maps of vegetation CE from very high spatial resolution (VHR) remote sensing data are important research questions. This research addressed how best to understand and represent plant cover in arid regions, the most effective methods of mapping vegetation cover using high spatial resolution data, how to assess the accuracy of these maps, and their value in establishing more standardized mapping protocols across ecosystems. Utilizing VHR products from the IKONOS and QuickBird sensors the study focused on the Coronado National Memorial and Chiricahua National Monument in Arizona and Los Ajos and Pinacate - Grand Desierto Biosphere Reserves in Mexico. Individual CE were semi-automatically mapped incorporating spectral, textural and geostatistical variables. The results were evaluated across sensors, study sites, and input variables. In addition, multiple methods of acquiring field data for accuracy assessment were evaluated and then an evaluation was made of a semi-automatic determination of Formation based on CE. The results of the study suggest consistency across study sites using the IKONOS data. A comparison between VHR products from the same place is feasible but sensor spectral differences may

  4. The use of data-mining to identify indicators of health-related quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Penny, Kay I; Smith, Graeme D

    2012-10-01

    To examine the health-related quality of life in a cohort of individuals with irritable bowel syndrome and to explore the use of several data-mining methods to identify which socio-demographic and irritable bowel syndrome symptoms are most highly associated with impaired health-related quality of life. Health-related quality of life can be adversely affected by irritable bowel syndrome. Little is presently known about the predictive factors that may influence the quality of life in these patients. Cross-sectional survey design involving the general population of the UK. Methods.  Individuals with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome were recruited to a longitudinal cohort survey via a UK-wide newspaper advert. Health-related quality of life was measured using a battery of validated questionnaires. Several data-mining models to determine which factors are associated with impaired health-related quality of life are considered in this study and include logistic regression, a classification tree and artificial neural networks. As well as irritable bowel syndrome symptom severity, results indicate that psychological morbidity and socio-demographic factors such as marital status and employment status also have a major influence on health-related quality of life in irritable bowel syndrome. Health-related quality of life is impaired in community-based individuals in the UK with irritable bowel syndrome. Although not always as easily interpreted as logistic regression, data-mining techniques indicate subsets of factors that are highly associated with impaired quality of life. These models tend to include subsets of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms and psychosocial factors. Identification of the role of psychological and socio-demographic factors on health-related quality of life may provide more insight into the nature of irritable bowel syndrome. Greater understanding of these factors will facilitate more flexible and efficient nursing assessment and management of this

  5. Early-life risk factors identified for owner-reported feline overweight and obesity at around two years of age.

    PubMed

    Rowe, E C; Browne, W J; Casey, R A; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Murray, J K

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is considered the second most common health problem in pet cats in developed countries. This study used prospective data from a longitudinal study of pet cats ('C.L.A.W.S.', www.bristol.ac.uk/vetscience/claws) to identify early-life risk factors for feline overweight/obesity occurring at around two years of age. Data were collected via five owner-completed questionnaires (for cats aged two-six months, six months, 12 months, 18 months and two years respectively) completed between May 2011 and April 2015. Owner-reported body condition scores (BCS) of cats at age two years, assessed using images from the 9-point BCS system (Laflamme, 1997), were categorised into a dichotomous variable: overweight/obese (BCS 6-9) and not overweight (BCS 1-5) and used as the dependent variable. Of the 375 cats with owner-reported BCS, 25.3% were overweight or obese at two years of age. Multivariable logistic regression models were built using stepwise forward-selection. To account for potential hierarchical clustering due to multi-cat households two-level random intercept models were considered but clustering had no impact on the analysis. Models were compared using Wald tests. Six factors were significantly associated with overweight/obesity at two years of age: being overweight or obese at one year of age (OR=10.6, 95%CI 4.4-25.3); owner belief that BCS 7 was the ideal weight (OR=33.2, 95%CI 8.5-129.4), or that BCS represented overweight cats but they would not be concerned if their cat were classified in this category (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.2-6.2), at questionnaire five completion; vets advising owners that the cat should lose weight, or making no comment on their weight, between one and two years of age (OR=12.1, 95%CI 3.2-44.9 and OR=3.9, 95%CI 1.5-10.3 respectively); owners giving their cat treats when they "felt happy" with them at 18 months of age (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.0 - 7.3); feeding ≥250g wet food daily between two and six months of age (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.2-5.9), and feeding

  6. A phylogenomic census of molecular functions identifies modern thermophilic archaea as the most ancient form of cellular life.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Kyung Mo; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    The origins of diversified life remain mysterious despite considerable efforts devoted to untangling the roots of the universal tree of life. Here we reconstructed phylogenies that described the evolution of molecular functions and the evolution of species directly from a genomic census of gene ontology (GO) definitions. We sampled 249 free-living genomes spanning organisms in the three superkingdoms of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, and used the abundance of GO terms as molecular characters to produce rooted phylogenetic trees. Results revealed an early thermophilic origin of Archaea that was followed by genome reduction events in microbial superkingdoms. Eukaryal genomes displayed extraordinary functional diversity and were enriched with hundreds of novel molecular activities not detected in the akaryotic microbial cells. Remarkably, the majority of these novel functions appeared quite late in evolution, synchronized with the diversification of the eukaryal superkingdom. The distribution of GO terms in superkingdoms confirms that Archaea appears to be the simplest and most ancient form of cellular life, while Eukarya is the most diverse and recent.

  7. Identifying types of physical activity with a single accelerometer: evaluating laboratory-trained algorithms in daily life.

    PubMed

    Gyllensten, Illapha Cuba; Bonomi, Alberto G

    2011-09-01

    Accurate identification of physical activity types has been achieved in laboratory conditions using single-site accelerometers and classification algorithms. This methodology is then applied to free-living subjects to determine activity behavior. This study is aimed at analyzing the reproducibility of the accuracy of laboratory-trained classification algorithms in free-living subjects during daily life. A support vector machine (SVM), a feed-forward neural network (NN), and a decision tree (DT) were trained with data collected by a waist-mounted accelerometer during a laboratory trial. The reproducibility of the classification performance was tested on data collected in daily life using a multiple-site accelerometer augmented with an activity diary for 20 healthy subjects (age: 30 ± 9; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)). Leave-one-subject-out cross validation of the training data showed accuracies of 95.1 ± 4.3%, 91.4 ± 6.7%, and 92.2 ± 6.6% for the SVM, NN, and DT, respectively. All algorithms showed a significantly decreased accuracy in daily life as compared to the reference truth represented by the IDEEA and diary classifications (75.6 ± 10.4%, 74.8 ± 9.7%, and 72.2 ± 10.3%; p < 0.05). In conclusion, cross validation of training data overestimates the accuracy of the classification algorithms in daily life.

  8. Sulphur isotopes and the search for life: strategies for identifying sulphur metabolisms in the rock record and beyond.

    PubMed

    Johnston, D T; Farquhar, J; Habicht, K S; Canfield, D E

    2008-12-01

    The search for life can only be as successful as our understanding of the tools we use to search for it. Here we present new sulphur isotope data (32S, 33S, 34S, 36S) from a variety of modern marine environments and use these observations, along with previously published work, to contribute to this search. Specifically, we use these new data to gain a sense of life's influences on the sulphur isotope record and to distinguish these biologically influenced signatures from their non-biological counterparts. This treatment extends sulphur isotope analyses beyond traditional (34S/32S) measures and employs trace isotope relationships (33S/32S, 36S/32S), as the inclusion of these isotopes provides unique information about biology and its role in the sulphur cycle through time. In the current study we compare and contrast isotope effects produced by sulphur-utilizing microorganisms (experimental), modern and ancient sedimentary records (observational) and non-biological reactions (theoretical). With our collective search for life now extending to neighbouring planets, we present this study as a first step towards more fully understanding the capability of the sulphur isotope system as a viable tool for life detection, both on Earth and beyond.

  9. Identifying profiles of service users in housing services and exploring their quality of life and care needs.

    PubMed

    Bitter, Neis A; Roeg, Diana P K; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs; van Weeghel, Jaap

    2016-11-23

    Housing services aim to support people with mental illness in their daily life and recovery. As the level of recovery differs between service users, the quality of life and care needs also might vary. However, the type and amount of care and support that service users receive do not always match their recovery. In order to improve the quality of care, this study aims to explore whether subgroups of service users exist based on three dimensions of recovery and to examine and compare the quality of life and care needs of the persons in these subgroups. Latent class analysis was performed with data from 263 service users of housing services in the Netherlands. Classes were based on three variables: personal recovery (Mental Health Recovery Measure), social recovery (Social Functioning Scale), and clinical recovery (Brief Symptom Inventory). Subsequently, the quality of life (MANSA) and care needs (CANSAS) of the different classes were analysed by the use of descriptive and inferential statistics. Three classes could be distinguished. Class 1 (45%) comprised of people who score the highest of the three classes in terms of personal and social recovery and who experience the least number of symptoms. People in class 2 (44%) and class 3 (11%) score significantly lower on personal and social recovery, and they experience significantly more symptoms compared to class 1. The distinction between class 2 and 3 can be made on the significantly higher number of symptoms in class 3. All three classes differ significantly on quality of life and unmet needs. The quality of life of service users of housing services needs improvement, as even persons in the best-recovered subgroup have a lower quality of life than the average population. Workers of housing services need to be aware of the recovery of a client and what his or her individual needs and goals are. Furthermore, better care (allocation) concerning mental and physical health and rehabilitation is needed. Care should be

  10. Potential Gains in Life Expectancy from Reductions in Leading Causes of Death, Los Angeles County: a Quantitative Approach to Identify Candidate Diseases for Prevention and Burden Disparities Elimination.

    PubMed

    Ho, Alex; Hameed, Heena; Lee, Alice W; Shih, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    Despite overall gains in life expectancy at birth among Los Angeles County residents, significant disparities persist across population subgroups. The purpose of this study was to quantify the potential sex- and race/ethnicity-specific gains in life expectancy had we been able to fully or partially eliminate the leading causes of death in Los Angeles County. Complete annual life tables for local residents were generated by applying the same method used for the National Center of Health Statistics US life tables published in 1999. Based on 2010 Los Angeles County mortality records, sex- and race/ethnicity-specific potential gains in life expectancy were calculated using scenarios of 10, 20, 50, and 100 % elimination of 12 major causes of death. Coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death, was found to be most impactful on life expectancy. Its hypothetical full elimination would result in life expectancy gains ranging from 2.2 years among white females to 3.7 years among black males. Gains from complete elimination of lung cancer and stroke ranked second, with almost an additional year of life for each gender. However, marked disparities across racial/ethnic groups were noted from the elimination of several other causes of death, such as homicide, from which the gain among black males exceeded 13 times more than their white counterparts. By differentially targeting specific causes of death in disease prevention, not only can findings of this study aid in efficiently narrowing racial/ethnic disparities, they can also provide a quantitative means to identify and rank priorities in local health policymaking.

  11. Identifying Life-Threatening Admissions for Drug Dependence or Abuse (ILIADDA): Derivation and Validation of a Model.

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tri-Long; Boudemaghe, Thierry; Leguelinel-Blache, Géraldine; Eiden, Céline; Kinowski, Jean-Marie; Le Manach, Yannick; Peyrière, Hélène; Landais, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Given that drug abuse and dependence are common reasons for hospitalization, we aimed to derive and validate a model allowing early identification of life-threatening hospital admissions for drug dependence or abuse. Using the French National Hospital Discharge Data Base, we extracted 66,101 acute inpatient stays for substance abuse, dependence, mental disorders or poisoning associated with medicines or illicit drugs intake, recorded between January 1st, 2009 and December 31st, 2014. We split our study cohort at the center level to create a derivation cohort and a validation cohort. We developed a multivariate logistic model including patient’s age, sex, entrance mode and diagnosis as predictors of a composite primary outcome of in-hospital death or ICU admission. A total of 2,747 (4.2%) patients died or were admitted to ICU. The risk of death or ICU admission was mainly associated with the consumption of opioids, followed by cocaine and other narcotics. Particularly, methadone poisoning was associated with a substantial risk (OR: 35.70, 95% CI [26.94–47.32], P < 0.001). In the validation cohort, our model achieved good predictive properties in terms of calibration and discrimination (c-statistic: 0.847). This allows an accurate identification of life-threatening admissions in drug users to support an early and appropriate management. PMID:28290530

  12. The PREVENT study: a prospective cohort study to identify mid-life biomarkers of late-onset Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Craig W; Ritchie, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological studies indicate that significant decreases in the incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be obtained by targeting multiple middle-age risk factors. However, as dementia is unlikely to be diagnosed for decades, short-term outcome measures are required. AD biomarker changes precede clinical symptoms by many years, but their sensitivity to mid-life change remains unknown. Methods and analysis PREVENT is a prospective cohort study examining biomarker status at mid-life in at least 150 individuals genetically at high, medium or low risk of late-onset AD. Participants are children of individuals with or without a diagnosed AD allocated to high, medium and low-risk groups according to parental clinical status and ApoE genotype. The biomarkers examined over 2 years are plasma and CSF Aβ42 amyloid, Tau and pTau, proinflammatory cytokines, acute-phase proteins, medial temporal-lobe atrophy, white matter lesion volume, cognitive performance related to transentorhinal and hippocampal functioning and hypothalamic−pituitary−adrenal and sympathetic axes regulation. Ethics and dissemination Detected pathologies are communicated to the participant's general practitioner with their permission. Risk status by genotype would not be revealed. The results of the study would be published in peer-reviewed journals and validated biomarkers used to construct a randomised controlled intervention study. PMID:23166135

  13. Using peel fluorescence in black light rooms to identify navel oranges with shorter storage life and poor rind quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this project is to minimize postharvest decay losses of fresh citrus fruits. Among the approaches recently examined was peel fluorescence under ultraviolet light. In addition to its usual application to identify fruit with developing decay lesions (“blister” or “clear” rot) in black...

  14. Identifying structural elements needed for development of a predictive life-history model for pallid and shovelnose sturgeons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; DeLonay, A.J.; Papoulias, D.M.; Galat, D.L.; Jacobson, R.B.; Simpkins, D.G.; Braaten, P.J.; Korschgen, C.E.; Mac, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Intensive management of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers has resulted in dramatic changes to the river systems and their biota. These changes have been implicated in the decline of the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), which has been listed as a United States federal endangered species. The sympatric shovelnose sturgeon (S. platorynchus) is more common and widespread but has also been in decline. The decline of pallid sturgeon is considered symptomatic of poor reproductive success and low or no recruitment. In order to organize information about these species and provide a basis for future development of a predictive model to help guide recovery efforts, we present an expert-vetted, conceptual life-history framework that incorporates the factors that affect reproduction, growth, and survival of shovelnose and pallid sturgeons.

  15. Identifying body residues of HCBP associated with 10-d mortality and partial life cycle effects in the midge, Chironomus riparius.

    PubMed

    Hwang, H; Fisher, S W; Landrum, P F

    2001-05-01

    The relationship between the body residue of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP) and its effects, including 10-d mortality and chronic sublethal effects on the midge, Chironomus riparius, are examined in a partial life cycle assessment. The alga, Chlorella vulgaris, was loaded with 14C-labeled HCBP and fed to midges as the method for delivery of the toxicant. In a 10-d bioassay, median lethal body residue (LR50) was 0.57 (95% CI: 0.49-0.66) mmol/kg. In the partial life cycle test, midges were fed a mixture of 12C- and 14C-HCBP-laden algae and exposed in four separate tests to assess the different developmental stages representing 2nd to 3rd instar, 2nd to 4th, 2nd to pupa, and 2nd to adult stages. A variety of sublethal endpoints were monitored, including developmental time within a stadium, body concentration at the end of each stadium, body weight, and fecundity (the number of ova) for the female pupae and adults. Overall, midge body concentrations of HCBP increased with increasing exposure concentration. Body weight was not significantly affected by HCBP except during the 4th instar. Body residue also increased with each successive stadium. Developmental time increased significantly with increasing body concentration in 2nd to 4th, 2nd to pupa, and 2nd to adult tests, while there was no statistical significance in developmental time for the 2nd to 3rd instar test. The number of ova decreased significantly in adults with increasing body concentration of HCBP, with an average of 345 ova in controls, 289 ova at 0.028 mmol/kg of HCBP, and 258 ova at 0.250 mmol/kg. These data, which relate chronic endpoints to body residues, suggest that sublethal endpoints in invertebrates are useful for defining sublethal hazards of PCBs. These data also suggest that ecological consequences may result from relatively low body burdens of PCBs.

  16. Systems-Based Analysis of the Sarcocystis neurona Genome Identifies Pathways That Contribute to a Heteroxenous Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Blazejewski, Tomasz; Nursimulu, Nirvana; Pszenny, Viviana; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Namasivayam, Sivaranjani; Chiasson, Melissa A.; Chessman, Kyle; Tonkin, Michelle; Swapna, Lakshmipuram S.; Hung, Stacy S.; Bridgers, Joshua; Ricklefs, Stacy M.; Boulanger, Martin J.; Dubey, Jitender P.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Kissinger, Jessica C.; Howe, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the coccidia, a clade of single-celled parasites of medical and veterinary importance including Eimeria, Sarcocystis, Neospora, and Toxoplasma. Unlike Eimeria, a single-host enteric pathogen, Sarcocystis, Neospora, and Toxoplasma are two-host parasites that infect and produce infectious tissue cysts in a wide range of intermediate hosts. As a genus, Sarcocystis is one of the most successful protozoan parasites; all vertebrates, including birds, reptiles, fish, and mammals are hosts to at least one Sarcocystis species. Here we sequenced Sarcocystis neurona, the causal agent of fatal equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. The S. neurona genome is 127 Mbp, more than twice the size of other sequenced coccidian genomes. Comparative analyses identified conservation of the invasion machinery among the coccidia. However, many dense-granule and rhoptry kinase genes, responsible for altering host effector pathways in Toxoplasma and Neospora, are absent from S. neurona. Further, S. neurona has a divergent repertoire of SRS proteins, previously implicated in tissue cyst formation in Toxoplasma. Systems-based analyses identified a series of metabolic innovations, including the ability to exploit alternative sources of energy. Finally, we present an S. neurona model detailing conserved molecular innovations that promote the transition from a purely enteric lifestyle (Eimeria) to a heteroxenous parasite capable of infecting a wide range of intermediate hosts. PMID:25670772

  17. Household impacts of AIDS: using a life course approach to identify effective, poverty-reducing interventions for prevention, treatment and care.

    PubMed

    Loewenson, Rene; Hadingham, Jacqui; Whiteside, Alan

    2009-08-01

    A life course approach was used to assess household level impacts and inform interventions around HIV risk and AIDS vulnerability across seven major age-related stages of life. Our focus was sub-Saharan Africa. We provided a qualitative review of evidence from published literature, particularly multicountry reviews on impacts of AIDS, on determinants of risk and vulnerability, and reports of large surveys. Areas of potential stress from birth to old age in households affected by AIDS, and interventions for dealing with these specific stresses were identified. While specific interventions for HIV are important at different stages, achieving survival and development outcomes demands a wider set of health, social security and development interventions. One way to determine the priorities amongst these actions is to give weighting to interventions that address factors that have latent impacts later in life, which interrupt accumulating risk, or that change pathways to reduce the risk of both immediate and later stress. This qualitative review suggested that interventions, important for life cycle transitions in generalised epidemics where HIV risk and AIDS vulnerability is high, lie within and outside the health sector, and suggested examples of such interventions.

  18. Advanced life support provider course in Italy: A 5-year nationwide study to identify the determinants of course success.

    PubMed

    Semeraro, Federico; Scapigliati, Andrea; Tammaro, Gaetano; Olcese, Umberto; Cerchiari, Erga L; Ristagno, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    The advanced life support (ALS) provider course is the gold standard for teaching and assessing competence in advanced resuscitation. Outcomes over a 5-year period of European Resuscitation (ERC)/IRC ALS provider courses in Italy were investigated, and the factors associated with course success are described. In 2008, the Italian Resuscitation Council (IRC) created a database in which every ERC/IRC ALS course was recorded. Data from courses organized from 2008 to 2012 were analysed. The data included: candidate's age and degree (medical doctor (MD) or nurse), medical specialty of MD candidates, course outcomes, duration and reference guidelines, number of instructors and course director. Relationships between the course outcomes and the courses and candidates' characteristics were analysed using logistic regression. A total of 13,624 candidates were evaluated from 871 courses. Among the candidates, 55% were MDs and 45% were nurses. Ninety-seven percent of candidates passed the final evaluation, while 3% failed. Candidates who passed were younger (37 [31-44] vs. 43 [37-50] years, p<0.0001) and had a greater pre-course resuscitation knowledge (multiple choice quiz (MCQ) score: 88 [83-93] vs. 80 [73-87], p<0.0001) compared to those who failed. The course pass rate was higher for MDs compared to nurses (98% vs. 95%, p<0.0001) and participants in emergency disciplines were most significantly associated with course success (χ(2) 71, p<0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, an older age (OR 0.926, 95%CI [0.915-0.937]) was independently associated with course failure, while being a MD (OR 3.021, 95%CI [2.212-4.132]), having a higher pre-course MCQ score (OR 1.033, 95%CI [1.026-1.040]) together with a higher candidate/instructor ratio (OR 1.314, 95%CI [1.067-1.618]), and having a longer course duration (OR 1.717, 95%CI [1.090-2.703]), were independently associated with success. Younger age, professional background, and pre-course resuscitation knowledge are the most

  19. Dartmouth Atlas Area-Level Estimates of End-of-Life Expenditures: How Well Do They Reflect Expenditures for Prospectively Identified Advanced Lung Cancer Patients?

    PubMed

    Keating, Nancy L; Landrum, Mary Beth; Huskamp, Haiden A; Kouri, Elena M; Prigerson, Holly G; Schrag, Deborah; Maciejewski, Paul K; Hornbrook, Mark C; Haggstrom, David A

    2016-08-01

    Assess validity of the retrospective Dartmouth hospital referral region (HRR) end-of-life spending measures by comparing with health care expenditures from diagnosis to death for prospectively identified advanced lung cancer patients. We calculated health care spending from diagnosis (2003-2005) to death or through 2011 for 885 patients aged ≥65 years with advanced lung cancer using Medicare claims. We assessed the association between Dartmouth HRR-level spending in the last 2 years of life and patient-level spending using linear regression with random HRR effects, adjusting for patient characteristics. For each $1 increase in the Dartmouth metric, spending for our cohort increased by $0.74 (p < .001). The Dartmouth spending variable explained 93.4 percent of the HRR-level variance in observed spending. HRR-level spending estimates for deceased patient cohorts reflect area-level care intensity for prospectively identified advanced lung cancer patients. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  20. Fine mapping and conditional analysis identify a new mutation in the autoimmunity susceptibility gene BLK that leads to reduced half-life of the BLK protein

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Vega, Angélica M; Dozmorov, Mikhail G; Quirós, Manuel Bernal; Wu, Ying-Yu; Martínez-García, Belén; Kozyrev, Sergey V; Frostegård, Johan; Truedsson, Lennart; de Ramón, Enrique; González-Escribano, María F; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Sebastiani, Gian Domenico; Witte, Torsten; Lauwerys, Bernard R; Endreffy, Emoke; Kovács, László; Vasconcelos, Carlos; da Silva, Berta Martins; Wren, Jonathan D; Martin, Javier; Castillejo-López, Casimiro; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To perform fine mapping of the autoimmunity susceptibility gene BLK and identify functional variants involved in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Genotyping of 1163 European SLE patients and 1482 controls and imputation were performed covering the BLK gene with 158 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Logistic regression analysis was done using PLINK and conditional analyses using GENABEL's test score. Transfections of BLK constructs on HEK293 cells containing the novel mutation or the wild type form were analysed for their effect on protein half-life using a protein stability assay, cycloheximide and western blot. CHiP-qPCR for detection of nuclear factor κ B (NFkB) binding. Results Fine mapping of BLK identified two independent genetic effects with functional consequences: one represented by two tightly linked associated haplotype blocks significantly enriched for NFκB-binding sites and numerous putative regulatory variants whose risk alleles correlated with low BLK mRNA levels. Binding of NFkBp50 and p65 to an associated 1.2 Kb haplotype segment was confirmed. A second independent genetic effect was represented by an Ala71Thr, low-frequency missense substitution with an OR=2.31 (95% CI 1.38 to 3.86). The 71Thr decreased BLK protein half-life. Conclusions These results show that rare and common regulatory variants in BLK are involved in disease susceptibility and both, albeit independently, lead to reduced levels of BLK protein. PMID:22696686

  1. Using Nurse Ratings of Physician Communication in the ICU To Identify Potential Targets for Interventions To Improve End-of-Life Care

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Lois; Nielsen, Elizabeth L.; Treece, Patsy D.; Shannon, Sarah E.; Curtis, J. Randall; Engelberg, Ruth A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Communication among doctors, nurses, and families contributes to high-quality end-of-life care, but is difficult to improve. Objective: Our objective was to identify aspects of communication appropriate for interventions to improve quality of dying in the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: This observational study used data from a cluster-randomized trial of an interdisciplinary intervention to improve end-of-life care at 15 Seattle/Tacoma area hospitals (2003–2008). Nurses completed surveys for patients dying in the ICU. We examined associations between nurse-assessed predictors (physician-nurse communication, physician-family communication) and nurse ratings of patients' quality of dying (nurse-QODD-1). Results: Based on 1173 nurse surveys, four of six physician-nurse communication topics were positively associated with nurse-QODD-1: family questions, family dynamics, spiritual/religious issues, and cultural issues. Discussions between nurses and physicians about nurses' concerns for patients or families were negatively associated. All physician-family communication ratings, as assessed by nurses, were positively associated with nurse-QODD-1: answering family's questions, listening to family, asking about treatments patient would want, helping family decide patient's treatment wishes, and overall communication. Path analysis suggested overall physician-family communication and helping family incorporate patient's wishes were directly associated with nurse-QODD-1. Conclusions: Several topics of physician-nurse communication, as rated by nurses, were associated with higher nurse-rated quality of dying, whereas one topic, nurses' concerns for patient or family, was associated with poorer ratings. Higher nurse ratings of physician-family communication were uniformly associated with higher quality of dying, highlighting the importance of this communication. Physician support of family decision making was particularly important, suggesting a

  2. Using Nurse Ratings of Physician Communication in the ICU To Identify Potential Targets for Interventions To Improve End-of-Life Care.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Kathleen J; Downey, Lois; Nielsen, Elizabeth L; Treece, Patsy D; Shannon, Sarah E; Curtis, J Randall; Engelberg, Ruth A

    2016-03-01

    Communication among doctors, nurses, and families contributes to high-quality end-of-life care, but is difficult to improve. Our objective was to identify aspects of communication appropriate for interventions to improve quality of dying in the intensive care unit (ICU). This observational study used data from a cluster-randomized trial of an interdisciplinary intervention to improve end-of-life care at 15 Seattle/Tacoma area hospitals (2003-2008). Nurses completed surveys for patients dying in the ICU. We examined associations between nurse-assessed predictors (physician-nurse communication, physician-family communication) and nurse ratings of patients' quality of dying (nurse-QODD-1). Based on 1173 nurse surveys, four of six physician-nurse communication topics were positively associated with nurse-QODD-1: family questions, family dynamics, spiritual/religious issues, and cultural issues. Discussions between nurses and physicians about nurses' concerns for patients or families were negatively associated. All physician-family communication ratings, as assessed by nurses, were positively associated with nurse-QODD-1: answering family's questions, listening to family, asking about treatments patient would want, helping family decide patient's treatment wishes, and overall communication. Path analysis suggested overall physician-family communication and helping family incorporate patient's wishes were directly associated with nurse-QODD-1. Several topics of physician-nurse communication, as rated by nurses, were associated with higher nurse-rated quality of dying, whereas one topic, nurses' concerns for patient or family, was associated with poorer ratings. Higher nurse ratings of physician-family communication were uniformly associated with higher quality of dying, highlighting the importance of this communication. Physician support of family decision making was particularly important, suggesting a potential target for interventions to improve end-of-life care.

  3. The need for a life-cycle based aging paradigm for nanomaterials: importance of real-world test systems to identify realistic particle transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrano, Denise M.; Nowack, Bernd

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the risks of manufactured nanomaterials (MNM) has been almost exclusively focused on the pristine, as-produced materials with far fewer studies delving into more complex, real world scenarios. However, when considering a life-cycle perspective, it is clear that MNM released from commercial products during manufacturing, use and disposal are far more relevant both in terms of more realistic environmental fate and transport as well as environmental risk. The quantity in which the particles are released and their (altered) physical and chemical form should be identified and it is these metrics that should be used to assess the exposure and hazard the materials pose. The goal of this review is to (1) provide a rationale for using a life-cycle based approach when dealing with MNM transformations, (2) to elucidate the different chemical and physical forces which age and transform MNM and (3) assess the pros and cons of current analytical techniques as they pertain to the measurement of aged and transformed MNM in these complex release scenarios. Specifically, we will describe the possible transformations common MNM may undergo during the use or disposal of nano-products based on how these products will be used by the consumer by taking stock of the current nano-enabled products on the market. Understanding the impact of these transformations may help forecast the benefits and/or risks associated with the use of products containing MNM.

  4. The need for a life-cycle based aging paradigm for nanomaterials: importance of real-world test systems to identify realistic particle transformations.

    PubMed

    Mitrano, Denise M; Nowack, Bernd

    2017-02-17

    Assessing the risks of manufactured nanomaterials (MNM) has been almost exclusively focused on the pristine, as-produced materials with far fewer studies delving into more complex, real world scenarios. However, when considering a life-cycle perspective, it is clear that MNM released from commercial products during manufacturing, use and disposal are far more relevant both in terms of more realistic environmental fate and transport as well as environmental risk. The quantity in which the particles are released and their (altered) physical and chemical form should be identified and it is these metrics that should be used to assess the exposure and hazard the materials pose. The goal of this review is to (1) provide a rationale for using a life-cycle based approach when dealing with MNM transformations, (2) to elucidate the different chemical and physical forces which age and transform MNM and (3) assess the pros and cons of current analytical techniques as they pertain to the measurement of aged and transformed MNM in these complex release scenarios. Specifically, we will describe the possible transformations common MNM may undergo during the use or disposal of nano-products based on how these products will be used by the consumer by taking stock of the current nano-enabled products on the market. Understanding the impact of these transformations may help forecast the benefits and/or risks associated with the use of products containing MNM.

  5. Feasibility of applying the life history calendar in a population of chronic opioid users to identify patterns of drug use and addiction treatment.

    PubMed

    Fikowski, Jill; Marchand, Kirsten; Palis, Heather; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Uncovering patterns of drug use and treatment access is essential to improving treatment for opioid dependence. The life history calendar (LHC) could be a valuable instrument for capturing time-sensitive data on lifetime patterns of drug use and addiction treatment. This study describes the methodology applied when collecting data using the LHC in a sample of individuals with long-term opioid dependence and aims to identify specific factors that impact the feasibility of administering the LHC interview. In this study, the LHC allowed important events such as births, intimate relationships, housing, or incarcerations to become reference points for recalling details surrounding drug use and treatment access. The paper concludes that the administration of the LHC was a resource-intensive process and required special attention to interviewer training and experience with the study population. These factors should be considered and integrated into study plans by researchers using the LHC in addiction research.

  6. Identifying patients with advanced chronic conditions for a progressive palliative care approach: a cross-sectional study of prognostic indicators related to end-of-life trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Amblàs-Novellas, J; Murray, S A; Espaulella, J; Martinez-Muñoz, M; Blay, C; Gómez-Batiste, X

    2016-01-01

    Objectives 2 innovative concepts have lately been developed to radically improve the care of patients with advanced chronic conditions (PACC): early identification of palliative care (PC) needs and the 3 end-of-life trajectories in chronic illnesses (acute, intermittent and gradual dwindling). It is not clear (1) what indicators work best for this early identification and (2) if specific clinical indicators exist for each of these trajectories. The objectives of this study are to explore these 2 issues. Setting 3 primary care services, an acute care hospital, an intermediate care centre and 4 nursing homes in a mixed urban–rural district in Barcelona, Spain. Participants 782 patients (61.5% women) with a positive NECPAL CCOMS-ICO test, indicating they might benefit from a PC approach. Outcome measures The characteristics and distribution of the indicators of the NECPAL CCOMS-ICO tool are analysed with respect to the 3 trajectories and have been arranged by domain (functional, nutritional and cognitive status, emotional problems, geriatric syndromes, social vulnerability and others) and according to their static (severity) and dynamic (progression) properties. Results The common indicators associated with early end-of-life identification are functional (44.3%) and nutritional (30.7%) progression, emotional distress (21.9%) and geriatric syndromes (15.7% delirium, 11.2% falls). The rest of the indicators showed differences in the associations per illness trajectories (p<0.05). 48.2% of the total cohort was identified as advanced frailty patients with no advanced disease criteria. Conclusions Dynamic indicators are present in the 3 trajectories and are especially useful to identify PACC for a progressive PC approach purpose. Most of the other indicators are typically associated with a specific trajectory. These findings can help clinicians improve the identification of patients for a palliative approach. PMID:27645556

  7. Identifying health-related quality of life (HRQL) domains for multiple chronic conditions (diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia): patient and provider perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bounthavong, Mark; Law, Anandi V

    2008-12-01

    To examine patient and provider perspectives about the impact of having diabetes, hypertension and/or dyslipidemia (DHD) on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in order to identify domains for an HRQL instrument focusing on specific chronic diseases (DHD). Exploratory qualitative design was used to elicit patient and provider responses. Patient survey contained 11 demographic and nine content questions inquiring how the disease(s) affected patient HRQL. Provider survey examined how the disease(s) affected their patient's HRQL and crucial factors for improvement. Patients were included if they had DHD and spoke English. Providers working with DHD patients were identified among university faculty and community practitioners. Thirty-eight patients (24.7%) completed the interviews. Three judges content analysed patient responses and proposed seven categories (patients ranked physical functioning first followed by diet, emotional well-being (E), general well-being, social functioning (S), 'no change in HRQL' and medications). One question about medications had four categories (medication inconvenience, medication side effects, forgetfulness and general well-being). Index for reliability was greater than 80% for all categories. Providers ranked lifestyle modification (LM), first followed by complications, medication, self-care, E, education, S, physical activity and resources (ability to pay) as components that impact HRQL. Patient and provider perspectives were similar in four areas (E, S, medication and diet); however, the differences were in how these impacted HRQL - patients focused on activities relevant to daily life that were affected, while providers based it on processes of therapy management and self-care (education and implementation of LM).

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life of Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Central Nervous System Tumors: Identifying Domains From a Survivor Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kuhlthau, Karen; Luff, Donna; Delahaye, Jennifer; Wong, Alicia; Yock, Torunn; Huang, Mary; Park, Elyse R

    2015-01-01

    This article uses qualitative methods to describe the domains of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) that adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of central nervous system (CNS) tumors identify as important. Survivors clearly attributed aspects of their current HRQoL to their disease or its treatment. We identified 7 key domains of AYA CNS tumor survivorship: physical health, social well-being, mental health, cognitive functioning, health behaviors, sexual and reproductive health, and support systems. Although most aspects of HRQoL that survivors discussed represented new challenges, there were several areas where survivors pointed out positive outcomes. There is a need for a HRQoL tool designed for this population of survivors, given their unique treatment and survivorship experience. Aspects of HRQoL related to cognition, sexual and reproductive health, health behaviors, and support systems are not typically included in generic HRQoL tools but should be assessed for this population. Developing HRQoL measurement instruments that capture the most significant aspects of HRQoL will improve the ability to track HRQoL in AYA CNS tumor survivors and in the long-term management of common sequelae from CNS tumors and their treatments. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  9. Combining moderators to identify clinical profiles of patients who will, and will not, benefit from aripiprazole augmentation for treatment resistant late-life major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Smagula, Stephen F; Wallace, Meredith L; Anderson, Stewart J; Karp, Jordan F; Lenze, Eric J; Mulsant, Benoit H; Butters, Meryl A; Blumberger, Daniel M; Diniz, Breno S; Lotrich, Francis E; Dew, Mary Amanda; Reynolds, Charles F

    2016-10-01

    Personalizing treatment for late-life depression requires identifying and integrating information from multiple factors that influence treatment efficacy (moderators). We performed exploratory moderator analyses using data from a multi-site, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of aripiprazole augmentation. Patients (n = 159) aged ≥60 years had major depressive disorder that failed to remit with venlafaxine monotherapy. We examined effect sizes of 39 potential moderators of aripiprazole (vs. placebo) augmentation efficacy using the outcome of percentage reduction in depressive symptom after 12 weeks. We then incorporated information from the individually relevant variables in combined moderators. A larger aripiprazole treatment effect was related to: white race, better physical function, better performance on Trail-Making, attention, immediate, and delayed memory tests, greater psychomotor agitation and suicidality symptoms, and a history of adequate antidepressant pharmacotherapy. A smaller aripiprazole treatment effect was observed in patients with: more pain and more work/activity impairment and libido symptoms. Combining information from race and Trail-Making test performance (base combined moderator (Mb*)) produced a larger effect size (Spearman effect size = 0.29 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15, 0.42)) than any individual moderator. Adding other individually relevant moderators in the full combined moderator (Mf*) further improved effect size (Spearman effect size = 0.39 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.52)) and identified a sub-group benefiting more from placebo plus continuation venlafaxine monotherapy than adjunctive aripiprazole. Combining moderators can help clinicians personalize depression treatment. We found the majority of our patients benefited from adjunctive aripiprazole, but a smaller subgroup that is identifiable using clinical measures appeared to benefit more from continuation venlafaxine plus placebo.

  10. Response shift recalibration and reprioritization in health-related quality of life was identified prospectively in older men with and without stroke.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Ruth; Tate, Robert B

    2014-05-01

    To prospectively consider evidence for response shift (RS) in health-related quality of life (HRQL) in older men who experienced stroke or remained stroke free. RS is a change in the meaning of self-evaluation; this includes recalibration, reprioritization, and reconceptualization. A cohort of 3,983 male World War II Royal Canadian Air Force recruits has been followed since 1948. There were three prospectively determined groups: stroke survivors (n = 168; mean age, 80.1 years); older stroke-free group (n = 254; mean age, 82.8 years); and younger stroke-free group (n = 323; mean age, 74.7 years). The Short Form-36 (SF-36) was used to evaluate HRQL. Longitudinal structural equation models were developed using SF-36 subscales and three latent variables. Measurement invariance over two time points for each of the three groups was evaluated to identify RS. All RS models had reasonable fit: stroke [root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), 0.069; 90% confidence interval (CI): 0.052, 0.086], older (RMSEA, 0.055; 90% CI: 0.041, 0.068), and younger (RMSEA, 0.062; 90% CI: 0.051, 0.074). Recalibration of physical function occurred in all three groups. Reprioritization of role limitations due to physical health happened in both stroke-free groups. This study is unique in our ability to prospectively identify RS recalibration and reprioritization in HRQL in aging men with stroke and remaining free of stroke. Changes in the meaning of self-evaluation of HRQL occur not only with stroke but also in men who remain free of stroke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. GWAS-identified risk variants for major depressive disorder: Preliminary support for an association with late-life depressive symptoms and brain structural alterations.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joanne; Artero, Sylvaine; Carrière, Isabelle; Maller, Jerome J; Meslin, Chantal; Ritchie, Karen; Ancelin, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    A number of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have investigated risk factors for major depressive disorder (MDD), however there has been little attempt to replicate these findings in population-based studies of depressive symptoms. Variants within three genes, BICC1, PCLO and GRM7 were selected for replication in our study based on the following criteria: they were identified in a prior MDD GWAS study; a subsequent study found evidence that they influenced depression risk; and there is a solid biological basis for a role in depression. We firstly investigated whether these variants were associated with depressive symptoms in our population-based cohort of 929 elderly (238 with clinical depressive symptoms and 691 controls), and secondly to investigate associations with structural brain alterations. A number of nominally significant associations were identified, but none reached Bonferroni-corrected significance levels. Common SNPs in BICC1 and PCLO were associated with a 50% and 30% decreased risk of depression, respectively. PCLO rs2522833 was also associated with the volume of grey matter (p=1.6×10(-3)), and to a lesser extent with hippocampal volume and white matter lesions. Among depressed individuals rs9870680 (GRM7) was associated with the volume of grey and white matter (p=10(-4) and 8.3×10(-3), respectively). Our results provide some support for the involvement of BICC1 and PCLO in late-life depressive disorders and preliminary evidence that these genetic variants may also influence brain structural volumes. However effect sizes remain modest and associations did not reach corrected significance levels. Further large imaging studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  12. Identifying type and determinants of missing items in quality of life questionnaires: Application to the SF-36 French version of the 2003 Decennial Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Missing items are common in quality of life (QoL) questionnaires and present a challenge for research in this field. The development of sound strategies of replacement and prevention requires accurate knowledge of their type and determinants. Methods We used the 2003 French Decennial Health Survey of a representative sample of the general population -- including 22,620 adult subjects who completed the SF-36 questionnaire-- to test various socio-demographic, health status and QoL variables as potential predictors of missingness. We constructed logistic regression models for each SF-36 item to identify independent predictors and classify them according to Little and Rubin ("missing completely at random", "missing at random" and "missing not at random"). Results The type of missingness was missing at random for half of the items of the SF-36 and missing not at random for the others. None of the items were missing completely at random. Independent predictors of missingness were age, female sex, low scores on the SF-36 subscales and in some cases low educational level, occupation, nationality and poor health status. Conclusion This study of the SF-36 shows that imputation of missing items is necessary and emphasizes several factors for missingness that should be considered in prevention strategies of missing data. Similar methodologies could be applied to item missingness in other QoL questionnaires. PMID:20128899

  13. A deliberative framework to identify the need for real-life evidence building of new cancer drugs after interim funding decision.

    PubMed

    Leung, Leanne; de Lemos, Mário L; Kovacic, Laurel

    2017-01-01

    Background With the rising cost of new oncology treatments, it is no longer sustainable to base initial drug funding decisions primarily on prospective clinical trials as their performance in real-life populations are often difficult to determine. In British Columbia, an approach in evidence building is to retrospectively analyse patient outcomes using observational research on an ad hoc basis. Methods The deliberative framework was constructed in three stages: framework design, framework validation and treatment programme characterization, and key informant interview. Framework design was informed through a literature review and analyses of provincial and national decision-making processes. Treatment programmes funded between 2010 and 2013 were used for framework validation. A selection concordance rate of 80% amongst three reviewers was considered to be a validation of the framework. Key informant interviews were conducted to determine the utility of this deliberative framework. Results A multi-domain deliberative framework with 15 assessment parameters was developed. A selection concordance rate of 84.2% was achieved for content validation of the framework. Nine treatment programmes from five different tumour groups were selected for retrospective outcomes analysis. Five contributory factors to funding uncertainties were identified. Key informants agreed that the framework is a comprehensive tool that targets the key areas involved in the funding decision-making process. Conclusions The oncology-based deliberative framework can be routinely used to assess treatment programmes from the major tumour sites for retrospective outcomes analysis. Key informants indicate this is a value-added tool and will provide insight to the current prospective funding model.

  14. Identifying components of self-management interventions that improve health-related quality of life in chronically ill patients: Systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, Nini H; Schuurmans, Marieke J; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Hoes, Arno W; Trappenburg, Jaap C A

    2016-07-01

    To quantify diversity in components of self-management interventions and explore which components are associated with improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Systematic literature search was conducted from January 1985 through June 2013. Included studies were randomised trials in patients with CHF, COPD, or T2DM, comparing self-management interventions with usual care, and reporting data on disease-specific HRQoL. Data were analysed with weighted random effects linear regression models. 47 trials were included, representing 10,596 patients. Self-management interventions showed great diversity in mode, content, intensity, and duration. Although self-management interventions overall improved HRQoL at 6 and 12 months, meta-regression showed counterintuitive negative effects of standardised training of interventionists (SMD=-0.16, 95% CI: -0.31 to -0.01) and peer interaction (SMD=-0.23, 95% CI: -0.39 to 0.06) on HRQoL at 6 months. Self-management interventions improve HRQoL at 6 and 12 months, but interventions evaluated are highly heterogeneous. No components were identified that favourably affected HRQoL. Standardised training and peer interaction negatively influenced HRQoL, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Future research should address process evaluations and study response to self-management on the level of individual patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Supporting family caregivers to identify their own needs in end-of-life care: Qualitative findings from a stepped wedge cluster trial.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Samar; Deas, Kathleen; Toye, Chris; Ewing, Gail; Grande, Gunn; Stajduhar, Kelli

    2015-06-01

    The Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool encompasses the physical, psychological, social, practical, financial, and spiritual support needs that government policies in many countries emphasize should be assessed and addressed for family caregivers during end-of-life care. To describe the experience of family caregivers of terminally ill people of the Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool intervention in home-based palliative care. This study was conducted during 2012-2014 in Silver Chain Hospice Care Service in Western Australia. This article reports on one part of a three-part evaluation of a stepped wedge cluster trial. All 233 family caregivers receiving the Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool intervention provided feedback on their experiences via brief end-of-trial semi-structured telephone interviews. Data were subjected to a thematic analysis. The overwhelming majority reported finding the Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool assessment process straightforward and easy. Four key themes were identified: (1) the practicality and usefulness of the systematic assessment; (2) emotional responses to caregiver reflection; (3) validation, reassurance, and empowerment; and (4) accessing support and how this was experienced. Family caregivers appreciated the value of the Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool intervention in engaging them in conversations about their needs, priorities, and solutions. The Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool presented a simple, yet potentially effective intervention to help palliative care providers systematically assess and address family caregivers' needs. The Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool provided a formal structure to facilitate discussions with family caregivers to enable needs to be addressed. Such discussions can also inform an evidence base for the ongoing development of services for family caregivers, ensuring that new or improved services are designed to meet the explicit needs of family caregivers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Dying in the hospital setting: A meta-synthesis identifying the elements of end-of-life care that patients and their families describe as being important.

    PubMed

    Virdun, Claudia; Luckett, Tim; Lorenz, Karl; Davidson, Patricia M; Phillips, Jane

    2017-07-01

    Despite most expected deaths occurring in hospital, optimal end-of-life care is not available for all in this setting. To gain a richer and deeper understanding of elements of end-of-life care that consumers consider most important within the hospital setting. A meta-synthesis. A systematic search of Academic Search Complete, AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Google, Google Scholar and CareSearch for qualitative studies published between 1990 and April 2015 reporting statements by consumers regarding important elements of end-of-life hospital care. Study quality was appraised by two independent researchers using an established checklist. A three-stage synthesis approach focusing on consumer quotes, rather than primary author themes, was adopted for this review. Of 1922 articles, 16 met the inclusion criteria providing patient and family data for analysis. Synthesis yielded 7 patient and 10 family themes including 6 common themes: (1) expert care, (2) effective communication and shared decision-making, (3) respectful and compassionate care, (4) adequate environment for care, (5) family involvement and (6) financial affairs. Maintenance of sense of self was the additional patient theme, while the four additional family themes were as follows: (1) maintenance of patient safety, (2) preparation for death, (3) care extending to the family after patient death and (4) enabling patient choice at the end of life. Consumer narratives help to provide a clearer direction as to what is important for hospital end-of-life care. Systems are needed to enable optimal end-of-life care, in accordance with consumer priorities, and embedded into routine hospital care.

  17. The End-of-Life Experience in Long-Term Care: Five Themes Identified from Focus Groups with Residents, Family Members, and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn, Jean C.; Dobbs, Debra; Meier, Andrea; Williams, Christianna S.; Biola, Holly; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We designed this study to examine the end-of-life (EOL) experience in long-term care (LTC) based on input from key stakeholders. Design and Methods: The study consisted of 10 homogeneous focus groups drawn from a purposive sample of LTC residents (2 groups; total n = 11), family caregivers (2 groups; total n = 19), paraprofessional staff…

  18. The End-of-Life Experience in Long-Term Care: Five Themes Identified from Focus Groups with Residents, Family Members, and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn, Jean C.; Dobbs, Debra; Meier, Andrea; Williams, Christianna S.; Biola, Holly; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We designed this study to examine the end-of-life (EOL) experience in long-term care (LTC) based on input from key stakeholders. Design and Methods: The study consisted of 10 homogeneous focus groups drawn from a purposive sample of LTC residents (2 groups; total n = 11), family caregivers (2 groups; total n = 19), paraprofessional staff…

  19. Identifying important life stages for monitoring and assessing risks from exposures to environmental contaminants: results of a World Health Organization review.

    PubMed

    Cohen Hubal, Elaine A; de Wet, Thea; Du Toit, Lilo; Firestone, Michael P; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; van Engelen, Jacqueline; Vickers, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we summarize exposure-related issues to consider in determining the most appropriate age ranges and life stages for risk assessment. We then propose a harmonized set of age bins for monitoring and assessing risks from exposures to chemicals for global use. The focus is on preconception through adolescence, though the approach should be applicable to additional life stages. A two-tiered set of early life age groups is recommended. The first tier involves the adoption of guidance similar to the childhood age groups recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, whereas the second tier consolidates some of those age groups to reduce the burden of developing age-specific exposure factors for different regions. While there is no single "correct" means of choosing a common set of age groups to use internationally in assessing early life exposure and risk, use of a set of defined age groups is recommended to facilitate comparisons of potential exposures and risks around the globe, the collection of data and analyses of aggregate exposure and cumulative risk. Application of these age groups for robust assessment of exposure and risk for specific populations will require region-specific exposure factors as well as local environmental monitoring data.

  20. Potential relevance of pre-operative quality of life questionnaires to identify candidates for surgical treatment of genital prolapse: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate prolapse-related symptoms, quality of life and sexuality of patients with validated questionnaires before and after surgery for genital prolapse and assess relevance of such an evaluation to select women for surgery. Methods From November 2009 to April 2010, 16 patients operated on for genital prolapse of grade greater than or equal to 2 (POP-Q classification) were evaluated prospectively by three questionnaires of quality of life Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI-20), Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ-7) and Pelvic Organ Prolaps/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-12). Data were collected the day before surgery and 6 weeks postoperatively. Results Eleven patients had laparoscopic surgery and five vaginal surgery. There was a significant decrease in pelvic heaviness, vaginal discomfort and urinary symptoms after surgery. The score of symptoms of prolapse, the PFDI-20 score was 98.5 preoperatively and 31.8 postoperatively (p < 0.0001). The score for quality of life, the PFIQ-7 score was 54.5 preoperatively and 7.4 postoperatively (p = 0.001). The score of sexuality, the PISQ-12 score was 35.3 preoperatively and 37.5 postoperatively (p = 0.1). Two of the 3 patients with a PFIQ 7 under or equal to 20 were not improved while all the women with a preoperative PFIQ-7 over 20 were improved after surgery. Conclusions This study suggests that surgery improves quality of life of patients with genital prolapse. Quality of life questionnaires could help select good candidates for surgery. Further studies are required to determine threshold to standardize indications of surgery. PMID:22452922

  1. Genome-wide association mapping in a wild avian population identifies a link between genetic and phenotypic variation in a life-history trait.

    PubMed

    Husby, Arild; Kawakami, Takeshi; Rönnegård, Lars; Smeds, Linnéa; Ellegren, Hans; Qvarnström, Anna

    2015-05-07

    Understanding the genetic basis of traits involved in adaptation is a major challenge in evolutionary biology but remains poorly understood. Here, we use genome-wide association mapping using a custom 50 k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array in a natural population of collared flycatchers to examine the genetic basis of clutch size, an important life-history trait in many animal species. We found evidence for an association on chromosome 18 where one SNP significant at the genome-wide level explained 3.9% of the phenotypic variance. We also detected two suggestive quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosomes 9 and 26. Fitness differences among genotypes were generally weak and not significant, although there was some indication of a sex-by-genotype interaction for lifetime reproductive success at the suggestive QTL on chromosome 26. This implies that sexual antagonism may play a role in maintaining genetic variation at this QTL. Our findings provide candidate regions for a classic avian life-history trait that will be useful for future studies examining the molecular and cellular function of, as well as evolutionary mechanisms operating at, these loci.

  2. Dying in the hospital setting: A systematic review of quantitative studies identifying the elements of end-of-life care that patients and their families rank as being most important

    PubMed Central

    Virdun, Claudia; Luckett, Tim; Davidson, Patricia M; Phillips, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background: The majority of expected deaths occur in hospitals where optimal end-of-life care is not yet fully realised, as evidenced by recent reviews outlining experience of care. Better understanding what patients and their families consider to be the most important elements of inpatient end-of-life care is crucial to addressing this gap. Aim and design: This systematic review aimed to ascertain the five most important elements of inpatient end-of-life care as identified by patients with palliative care needs and their families. Data sources: Nine electronic databases from 1990 to 2014 were searched along with key internet search engines and handsearching of included article reference lists. Quality of included studies was appraised by two researchers. Results: Of 1859 articles, 8 met the inclusion criteria generating data from 1141 patients and 3117 families. Synthesis of the top five elements identified four common end-of-life care domains considered important to both patients and their families, namely, (1) effective communication and shared decision making, (2) expert care, (3) respectful and compassionate care and (4) trust and confidence in clinicians. The final domains differed with financial affairs being important to families, while an adequate environment for care and minimising burden both being important to patients. Conclusion: This review adds to what has been known for over two decades in relation to patient and family priorities for end-of-life care within the hospital setting. The challenge for health care services is to act on this evidence, reconfigure care systems accordingly and ensure universal access to optimal end-of-life care within hospitals. PMID:25921707

  3. Patient survey to identify reasons for non-adherence and elicitation of quality of life concepts associated with immunosuppressant therapy in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Muduma, Gorden; Shupo, Francis C; Dam, Sophie; Hawken, Natalia A; Aballéa, Samuel; Odeyemi, Isaac; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Renal transplantation (RT) is considered the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease compared to dialysis, offering better health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and higher survival rates. However, immunosuppressants are essential for the long-term survival of kidney grafts and patients' non-adherence to their medication leads to poor outcomes. Immunosuppressants can also significantly alter patients' HRQoL because of their side effects and the complex chronic medication regimen they represent. To elicit key concepts related to adherence to immunosuppressant therapy (IT) and reasons for non-adherence in terms of patient reported outcomes, side effects, and the impact of the medication on HRQoL in RT population, including patient preference of once daily over twice-daily immunosuppressive regimen. Results were used to develop an IT-specific conceptual framework and provide suggestions for improving patients' adherence to IT. Interviews were conducted with three clinical experts to determine key concepts related to RT and immunosuppressants. Thirty-seven participants in four focus groups were asked to cite important concepts related to adherence and impact of IT on HRQoL and to rate them. Qualitative analysis was conducted to code participants' responses. Non-adherence among participants where admitted was unintentional. The reason for this included forgetfulness, interference with lifestyle, being asleep at the time the medication should be taken, change in routine, and impact of side effects. Overall, participants reported that the evening dose was more problematic to remember and that the exclusion of this dose could make them more adherent. Participants also reported that IT impacted on their HRQoL in a number of ways including: placing restrictions on their lifestyle, causing anxiety, or impairing their ability to work. This study provides qualitative evidence about the barriers to IT adherence and the components of HRQoL that are important from the

  4. Patient survey to identify reasons for non-adherence and elicitation of quality of life concepts associated with immunosuppressant therapy in kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Muduma, Gorden; Shupo, Francis C; Dam, Sophie; Hawken, Natalia A; Aballéa, Samuel; Odeyemi, Isaac; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Background Renal transplantation (RT) is considered the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease compared to dialysis, offering better health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and higher survival rates. However, immunosuppressants are essential for the long-term survival of kidney grafts and patients’ non-adherence to their medication leads to poor outcomes. Immunosuppressants can also significantly alter patients’ HRQoL because of their side effects and the complex chronic medication regimen they represent. Purpose To elicit key concepts related to adherence to immunosuppressant therapy (IT) and reasons for non-adherence in terms of patient reported outcomes, side effects, and the impact of the medication on HRQoL in RT population, including patient preference of once daily over twice-daily immunosuppressive regimen. Results were used to develop an IT-specific conceptual framework and provide suggestions for improving patients’ adherence to IT. Materials and methods Interviews were conducted with three clinical experts to determine key concepts related to RT and immunosuppressants. Thirty-seven participants in four focus groups were asked to cite important concepts related to adherence and impact of IT on HRQoL and to rate them. Qualitative analysis was conducted to code participants’ responses. Results Non-adherence among participants where admitted was unintentional. The reason for this included forgetfulness, interference with lifestyle, being asleep at the time the medication should be taken, change in routine, and impact of side effects. Overall, participants reported that the evening dose was more problematic to remember and that the exclusion of this dose could make them more adherent. Participants also reported that IT impacted on their HRQoL in a number of ways including: placing restrictions on their lifestyle, causing anxiety, or impairing their ability to work. Conclusion This study provides qualitative evidence about the barriers to IT

  5. The End of Life Experience in Long-Term Care: Five Themes Identified by Focus Groups with Residents, Family Members and Staff

    PubMed Central

    Munn, J.C.; Dobbs, D.; Meier, A.; Williams, C.S.; Biola, H.; Zimmerman, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to examine the end-of-life (EOL) experience in long-term care (LTC) based on input from key stakeholders. Design and Methods The study consisted of ten homogeneous focus groups drawn from a purposive sample of LTC residents (2 groups; total n = 11); family caregivers (2 groups; total n = 19); paraprofessional staff (3 groups; total n = 20); and licensed/registered staff (3 groups; total n = 15) from five nursing homes (NHs) and eight residential care/assisted living (RC/AL) communities in North Carolina. Data were analyzed using grounded theory techniques to elicit manifest and latent themes. Results Five overarching themes emerged: (1) components of a good death in LTC; (2) normalcy of dying in LTC; (3) the role of relationships in the provision and receipt of care; (4) Hospice contributions to care at the EOL in LTC; and (5) stakeholder recommendations for enhancing EOL care in these settings. Underlying these themes is one central category, “closeness,” based on physical proximity and frequency of contact. Implications Findings suggest that promoting collaborative relationships among the four stakeholder groups, increasing social worker involvement, and removing barriers to Hospice may enhance the EOL experience in LTC. PMID:18728298

  6. Breast cancer survivors` recollection of their quality of life: Identifying determinants of recall bias in a longitudinal population-based trial.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Patricia; Netter, Petra; Koller, Michael; Steinger, Brunhilde; Klinkhammer-Schalke, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The recollections of survivors of breast cancer are an important source of information about the disease for their family, friends, and newly diagnosed patients. So far, little is known about these memories. This study investigated how accurately survivors of breast cancer remember their past quality of life (QoL) during the disease and if this memory is modified by women`s present QoL and negative affect. The longitudinal population-based study included 133 survivors of breast cancer (response rate 80%). Participants were asked for their present QoL and to recall their baseline QoL (EORTC QLQ-C30, QLQ-BR23) that had been assessed about seven years ago before discharge from hospital. The dependent variable was recall bias in ten QoL dimensions. Present QoL and negative affect (PANAS) were investigated as predictor variables. Overall, baseline QoL was retrospectively underrated on seven out of ten scales whereas no significant overestimation was found. In multiple linear regression analyses, controlling for confounders, a stronger underrating of QoL was significantly predicted by a lower present QoL on nine out of ten scales and by higher negative affect on six scales. Survivors of breast cancer tend to underestimate their past QoL during the disease when asked about seven years later. Lower present QoL and higher negative affect contribute to this recall bias. This needs to be considered when interpreting retrospectively reported QoL data. Results are discussed in relation to theory of change or stability and mood congruency theory.

  7. Quality of life in indigenous and non-indigenous older adults: assessing the CASP-12 factor structure and identifying a brief CASP-3.

    PubMed

    Towers, Andy; Yeung, Polly; Stevenson, Brendan; Stephens, Christine; Alpass, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    We assessed whether the original three-factor structure of the older adult CASP-12 Quality of Life (QOL) scale was stable for both indigenous and non-indigenous older adult populations in the same non-European country (i.e. New Zealand). A total of 3076 New Zealanders aged 50-84 (Māori = 1,130; non-Māori sample = 1,946) completed a postal survey for the first data collection wave of the New Zealand Longitudinal Study of Ageing in 2010. The survey included the CASP-12, a chronic health conditions checklist, CES-D-10, de Jong Gierveld loneliness scale, and the WHOQOL single-item QOL indicator. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that the CASP-12 responses resulted in a revised two-factor structure for both Māori and non-Māori we called the NZCASP-11, which included a new three-item global indicator of QOL (CASP-3) that consistently cross-loaded on both factors. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the NZCASP-11 factor structure over the original CASP-12 model, and further assessment validated both the utility of the NZCASP-11 as an indicator of QOL in New Zealand and illustrated the utility of the CASP-3 as a brief screen for global QOL. While CASP items coalesce to provide a robust QOL indicator of indigenous and non-indigenous QOL in a single-country setting, the actual factor structure underpinning this CASP indicator (i.e. the NZCASP-11) is not entirely reflective of that found in the United Kingdom. Furthermore, we revealed that three CASP items (i.e. the CASP-3) may reflect a stable brief indicator of QOL applicable for assessing QOL across cultures within a single setting.

  8. Breast cancer survivors` recollection of their quality of life: Identifying determinants of recall bias in a longitudinal population-based trial

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Patricia; Netter, Petra; Koller, Michael; Steinger, Brunhilde; Klinkhammer-Schalke, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Background The recollections of survivors of breast cancer are an important source of information about the disease for their family, friends, and newly diagnosed patients. So far, little is known about these memories. This study investigated how accurately survivors of breast cancer remember their past quality of life (QoL) during the disease and if this memory is modified by women`s present QoL and negative affect. Material and methods The longitudinal population-based study included 133 survivors of breast cancer (response rate 80%). Participants were asked for their present QoL and to recall their baseline QoL (EORTC QLQ-C30, QLQ-BR23) that had been assessed about seven years ago before discharge from hospital. The dependent variable was recall bias in ten QoL dimensions. Present QoL and negative affect (PANAS) were investigated as predictor variables. Results Overall, baseline QoL was retrospectively underrated on seven out of ten scales whereas no significant overestimation was found. In multiple linear regression analyses, controlling for confounders, a stronger underrating of QoL was significantly predicted by a lower present QoL on nine out of ten scales and by higher negative affect on six scales. Conclusions Survivors of breast cancer tend to underestimate their past QoL during the disease when asked about seven years later. Lower present QoL and higher negative affect contribute to this recall bias. This needs to be considered when interpreting retrospectively reported QoL data. Results are discussed in relation to theory of change or stability and mood congruency theory. PMID:28152108

  9. Music Therapy and Spiritual Care in End-of-Life: A Qualitative Inquiry into Ethics and Training Issues Identified by Chaplains and Music Therapists.

    PubMed

    Masko, Meganne K

    2016-01-01

    Music therapists are increasingly employed by hospices. As such, they are often called upon to provide additional spiritual care to patients receiving end-of-life care. However, researchers have not yet examined the appropriateness of music therapists providing spiritual care as part of the hospice team, or ethics and training issues related to music therapist-led spiritual care. The purpose of this study was to explore the thoughts and attitudes of hospice chaplains and music therapists (MTs) about ethics and training issues related to music therapists providing spiritual care as part of the hospice interdisciplinary team. The study used semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of music therapists and chaplains specializing in hospice care as part of a larger exploratory mixed methods study. Each interview was recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using a two-step process including both a modified phenomenological inductive approach and thematic analysis. Participants discussed ethics and training issues related to the provision of music therapist-led spiritual care as part of the hospice team. These issues included scope of practice, cultural competence and maintaining personal boundaries, and spiritual care training topics such as educational content and educational methods. While it was clear that both chaplains and music therapists felt it was appropriate for music therapists to provide spiritual care as part of the hospice team, there is a need for formal and informal spiritual care training for music therapists doing this type of work. Training should potentially include information about comparative religions, cultural competence, scope of practice, and maintaining personal boundaries. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Chemical genetic screen identifies lithocholic acid as an anti-aging compound that extends yeast chronological life span in a TOR-independent manner, by modulating housekeeping longevity assurance processes

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Alexander A.; Richard, Vincent R.; Kyryakov, Pavlo; Bourque, Simon D.; Beach, Adam; Burstein, Michelle T.; Glebov, Anastasia; Koupaki, Olivia; Boukh-Viner, Tatiana; Gregg, Christopher; Juneau, Mylène; English, Ann M.; Thomas, David Y.; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2010-01-01

    In chronologically aging yeast, longevity can be extended by administering a caloric restriction (CR) diet or some small molecules. These life-extending interventions target the adaptable target of rapamycin (TOR) and cAMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) signaling pathways that are under the stringent control of calorie availability. We designed a chemical genetic screen for small molecules that increase the chronological life span of yeast under CR by targeting lipid metabolism and modulating housekeeping longevity pathways that regulate longevity irrespective of the number of available calories. Our screen identifies lithocholic acid (LCA) as one of such molecules. We reveal two mechanisms underlying the life-extending effect of LCA in chronologically aging yeast. One mechanism operates in a calorie availability-independent fashion and involves the LCA-governed modulation of housekeeping longevity assurance pathways that do not overlap with the adaptable TOR and cAMP/PKA pathways. The other mechanism extends yeast longevity under non-CR conditions and consists in LCA-driven unmasking of the previously unknown anti-aging potential of PKA. We provide evidence that LCA modulates housekeeping longevity assurance pathways by suppressing lipid-induced necrosis, attenuating mitochondrial fragmentation, altering oxidation-reduction processes in mitochondria, enhancing resistance to oxidative and thermal stresses, suppressing mitochondria-controlled apoptosis, and enhancing stability of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. PMID:20622262

  11. Chemical genetic screen identifies lithocholic acid as an anti-aging compound that extends yeast chronological life span in a TOR-independent manner, by modulating housekeeping longevity assurance processes.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Alexander A; Richard, Vincent R; Kyryakov, Pavlo; Bourque, Simon D; Beach, Adam; Burstein, Michelle T; Glebov, Anastasia; Koupaki, Olivia; Boukh-Viner, Tatiana; Gregg, Christopher; Juneau, Mylène; English, Ann M; Thomas, David Y; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2010-07-01

    In chronologically aging yeast, longevity can be extended by administering a caloric restriction (CR) diet or some small molecules. These life-extending interventions target the adaptable target of rapamycin (TOR) and cAMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) signaling pathways that are under the stringent control of calorie availability. We designed a chemical genetic screen for small molecules that increase the chronological life span of yeast under CR by targeting lipid metabolism and modulating housekeeping longevity pathways that regulate longevity irrespective of the number of available calories. Our screen identifies lithocholic acid (LCA) as one of such molecules. We reveal two mechanisms underlying the life-extending effect of LCA in chronologically aging yeast. One mechanism operates in a calorie availability-independent fashion and involves the LCA-governed modulation of housekeeping longevity assurance pathways that do not overlap with the adaptable TOR and cAMP/PKA pathways. The other mechanism extends yeast longevity under non-CR conditions and consists in LCA-driven unmasking of the previously unknown anti-aging potential of PKA. We provide evidence that LCA modulates housekeeping longevity assurance pathways by suppressing lipid-induced necrosis, attenuating mitochondrial fragmentation, altering oxidation-reduction processes in mitochondria, enhancing resistance to oxidative and thermal stresses, suppressing mitochondria-controlled apoptosis, and enhancing stability of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

  12. Identifying Hazards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The federal government has established a system of labeling hazardous materials to help identify the type of material and threat posed. Summaries of information on over 300 chemicals are maintained in the Envirofacts Master Chemical Integrator.

  13. Life Cycle Costing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCraley, Thomas L.

    1985-01-01

    Life cycle costing establishes a realistic comparison of the cost of owning and operating products. The formula of initial cost plus maintenance plus operation divided by useful life identifies the best price over the lifetime of the product purchased. (MLF)

  14. Multi-institutional Prospective Evaluation of Bowel Quality of Life After Prostate External Beam Radiation Therapy Identifies Patient and Treatment Factors Associated With Patient-Reported Outcomes: The PROSTQA Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hamstra, Daniel A.; Conlon, Anna S.C.; Daignault, Stephanie; Dunn, Rodney L.; Sandler, Howard M.; Hembroff, A. Larry; Zietman, Anthony L.; Kaplan, Irving; Ciezki, Jay; Kuban, Deborah A.; Wei, John T.; Sanda, Martin G.; Michalski, Jeff M.

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate patients treated with external beam radiation therapy as part of the multicenter Prostate Cancer Outcomes and Satisfaction with Treatment Quality Assessment (PROSTQA), to identify factors associated with posttreatment patient-reported bowel health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods and Materials: Pretreatment characteristics and treatment details among 292 men were evaluated using a general linear mixed model for their association with measured HRQOL by the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite instrument through 2 years after enrollment. Results: Bowel HRQOL had a median score of 100 (interquartile range 91.7-100) pretreatment and 95.8 (interquartile range 83.3-100) at 2 years, representing new moderate/big problems in 11% for urgency, 7% for frequency, 4% for bloody stools, and 8% for an overall bowel problems. Baseline bowel score was the strongest predictor for all 2-year endpoints. In multivariable models, a volume of rectum ≥25% treated to 70 Gy (V70) yielded a clinically significant 9.3-point lower bowel score (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.8-1.7, P=.015) and predicted increased risks for moderate to big fecal incontinence (P=.0008). No other radiation therapy treatment-related variables influenced moderate to big changes in rectal HRQOL. However, on multivariate analyses V70 ≥25% was associated with increases in small, moderate, or big problems with the following: incontinence (3.9-fold; 95% CI 1.1-13.4, P=.03), rectal bleeding (3.6-fold; 95% CI 1.3-10.2, P=.018), and bowel urgency (2.9-fold; 95% CI 1.1-7.6, P=.026). Aspirin use correlated with a clinically significant 4.7-point lower bowel summary score (95% CI 9.0-0.4, P=.03) and an increase in small, moderate, or big problems with bloody stools (2.8-fold; 95% CI 1.2-6.4, P=.018). Intensity modulated radiation therapy was associated with higher radiation therapy doses to the prostate and lower doses to the rectum but did not independently correlate with bowel HRQOL

  15. Life Chances Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Margaret A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a life chances exercise that helps students identify the life chances that they and society value. Explains that students learn that the attainment of important life chances is related to the family into which one is born. Discusses John Rawls' social theory. Suggests that participants may need to consider alternative systems of economic…

  16. Identifying Fossil Bacteria in Martian Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westall, F.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Within the next decade, robotic missions are going to Mars with the search for evidence for extant and extinct life as at least one of the mission objectives. Moreover, the first Martian samples will be returned to Earth in 2008. It is therefore imperative that we can be certain that we can identify life in Martian rocks. In this paper we will not be discussing extant life but will concentrate on fossil life.

  17. Identifying Fossil Bacteria in Martian Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westall, F.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Within the next decade, robotic missions are going to Mars with the search for evidence for extant and extinct life as at least one of the mission objectives. Moreover, the first Martian samples will be returned to Earth in 2008. It is therefore imperative that we can be certain that we can identify life in Martian rocks. In this paper we will not be discussing extant life but will concentrate on fossil life.

  18. Life's Still Lifes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Harold V.

    The de Bruijn diagram describing those decompositions of the neighborhoods of a one dimensional cellular automaton which conform to predetermined requirements of periodicity and translational symmetry shows how to construct extended configurations satisfying the same requirements. Similar diagrams, formed by stages, describe higher dimensional automata, although they become more laborious to compute with increasing neighborhood size. The procedure is illustrated by computing some still lifes for Conway's game of Life, a widely known two dimensional cellular automaton. This paper is written in September 10, 1988.

  19. Limited life item management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaglen, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    Plans are available for age-sensitive hardware management. Control plan identifies shelf life or age control requirements for materials considered age sensitive, use sensitive, or time service or shelf life controlled items, and describes methods of arriving at age controls through adherence to detailed specifications.

  20. "So that's How I Found out I Was a Young Carer and that I Actually Had Been a Carer Most of My Life". Identifying and Supporting Hidden Young Carers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Ciara; Blaxland, Megan; Cass, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    A common theme in the literature on care-giving is the issue of "hidden" carers, that is, people who undertake caring roles and responsibilities, yet do not identify themselves as carers. One reason people do not recognise themselves as carers relates to the nature of the caring relationship. When providing care for a family member,…

  1. News and Views: Life on Mars? Astronomical model is world's biggest; Prizes for identifying dark matter; NAM 2013: call for sessions; Paintballing to save the planet; Happy Birthday ESO; Dark sky park grows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-12-01

    The University of Edinburgh, crowdsourcing website Kaggle and Winton Capital Management have joined forces to launch a competition to identify dark matter haloes. The Scientific Organizing Committee of the RAS National Astronomy Meeting 2013, the UK Solar Physics and Magnetosphere, Ionosphere and Solar-Terrestrial meetings, are seeking nominations for parallel discussion session themes. A winner of the 2012 Move an Asteroid Technical Paper Competition suggests painting asteroids white in order to boost their albedo and take advantage of solar radiation pressure to alter their orbits.

  2. Identifying ELIXIR Core Data Resources

    PubMed Central

    Durinx, Christine; McEntyre, Jo; Appel, Ron; Apweiler, Rolf; Barlow, Mary; Blomberg, Niklas; Cook, Chuck; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Lopez, Rodrigo; Redaschi, Nicole; Stockinger, Heinz; Teixeira, Daniel; Valencia, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    The core mission of ELIXIR is to build a stable and sustainable infrastructure for biological information across Europe. At the heart of this are the data resources, tools and services that ELIXIR offers to the life-sciences community, providing stable and sustainable access to biological data. ELIXIR aims to ensure that these resources are available long-term and that the life-cycles of these resources are managed such that they support the scientific needs of the life-sciences, including biological research. ELIXIR Core Data Resources are defined as a set of European data resources that are of fundamental importance to the wider life-science community and the long-term preservation of biological data. They are complete collections of generic value to life-science, are considered an authority in their field with respect to one or more characteristics, and show high levels of scientific quality and service. Thus, ELIXIR Core Data Resources are of wide applicability and usage. This paper describes the structures, governance and processes that support the identification and evaluation of ELIXIR Core Data Resources. It identifies key indicators which reflect the essence of the definition of an ELIXIR Core Data Resource and support the promotion of excellence in resource development and operation. It describes the specific indicators in more detail and explains their application within ELIXIR’s sustainability strategy and science policy actions, and in capacity building, life-cycle management and technical actions. The identification process is currently being implemented and tested for the first time. The findings and outcome will be evaluated by the ELIXIR Scientific Advisory Board in March 2017. Establishing the portfolio of ELIXIR Core Data Resources and ELIXIR Services is a key priority for ELIXIR and publicly marks the transition towards a cohesive infrastructure. PMID:27803796

  3. Identifying ELIXIR Core Data Resources.

    PubMed

    Durinx, Christine; McEntyre, Jo; Appel, Ron; Apweiler, Rolf; Barlow, Mary; Blomberg, Niklas; Cook, Chuck; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Lopez, Rodrigo; Redaschi, Nicole; Stockinger, Heinz; Teixeira, Daniel; Valencia, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The core mission of ELIXIR is to build a stable and sustainable infrastructure for biological information across Europe. At the heart of this are the data resources, tools and services that ELIXIR offers to the life-sciences community, providing stable and sustainable access to biological data. ELIXIR aims to ensure that these resources are available long-term and that the life-cycles of these resources are managed such that they support the scientific needs of the life-sciences, including biological research. ELIXIR Core Data Resources are defined as a set of European data resources that are of fundamental importance to the wider life-science community and the long-term preservation of biological data. They are complete collections of generic value to life-science, are considered an authority in their field with respect to one or more characteristics, and show high levels of scientific quality and service. Thus, ELIXIR Core Data Resources are of wide applicability and usage. This paper describes the structures, governance and processes that support the identification and evaluation of ELIXIR Core Data Resources. It identifies key indicators which reflect the essence of the definition of an ELIXIR Core Data Resource and support the promotion of excellence in resource development and operation. It describes the specific indicators in more detail and explains their application within ELIXIR's sustainability strategy and science policy actions, and in capacity building, life-cycle management and technical actions. The identification process is currently being implemented and tested for the first time. The findings and outcome will be evaluated by the ELIXIR Scientific Advisory Board in March 2017. Establishing the portfolio of ELIXIR Core Data Resources and ELIXIR Services is a key priority for ELIXIR and publicly marks the transition towards a cohesive infrastructure.

  4. Linked Patient-Reported Outcomes Data From Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Recruited on an Open Internet Platform to Health Care Claims Databases Identifies a Representative Population for Real-Life Data Analysis in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ghodge, Bhaskar; Bonzani, Ian C; Korn, Jonathan R; Medin, Jennie; Saraykar, Tanmay; Sengupta, Souvik; Saini, Deepanshu; Olson, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    Background An enormous amount of information relevant to public health is being generated directly by online communities. Objective To explore the feasibility of creating a dataset that links patient-reported outcomes data, from a Web-based survey of US patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) recruited on open Internet platforms, to health care utilization information from health care claims databases. The dataset was generated by linkage analysis to a broader MS population in the United States using both pharmacy and medical claims data sources. Methods US Facebook users with an interest in MS were alerted to a patient-reported survey by targeted advertisements. Eligibility criteria were diagnosis of MS by a specialist (primary progressive, relapsing-remitting, or secondary progressive), ≥12-month history of disease, age 18-65 years, and commercial health insurance. Participants completed a questionnaire including data on demographic and disease characteristics, current and earlier therapies, relapses, disability, health-related quality of life, and employment status and productivity. A unique anonymous profile was generated for each survey respondent. Each anonymous profile was linked to a number of medical and pharmacy claims datasets in the United States. Linkage rates were assessed and survey respondents’ representativeness was evaluated based on differences in the distribution of characteristics between the linked survey population and the general MS population in the claims databases. Results The advertisement was placed on 1,063,973 Facebook users’ pages generating 68,674 clicks, 3719 survey attempts, and 651 successfully completed surveys, of which 440 could be linked to any of the claims databases for 2014 or 2015 (67.6% linkage rate). Overall, no significant differences were found between patients who were linked and not linked for educational status, ethnicity, current or prior disease-modifying therapy (DMT) treatment, or presence of a relapse in

  5. Linked Patient-Reported Outcomes Data From Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Recruited on an Open Internet Platform to Health Care Claims Databases Identifies a Representative Population for Real-Life Data Analysis in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Risson, Valery; Ghodge, Bhaskar; Bonzani, Ian C; Korn, Jonathan R; Medin, Jennie; Saraykar, Tanmay; Sengupta, Souvik; Saini, Deepanshu; Olson, Melvin

    2016-09-22

    An enormous amount of information relevant to public health is being generated directly by online communities. To explore the feasibility of creating a dataset that links patient-reported outcomes data, from a Web-based survey of US patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) recruited on open Internet platforms, to health care utilization information from health care claims databases. The dataset was generated by linkage analysis to a broader MS population in the United States using both pharmacy and medical claims data sources. US Facebook users with an interest in MS were alerted to a patient-reported survey by targeted advertisements. Eligibility criteria were diagnosis of MS by a specialist (primary progressive, relapsing-remitting, or secondary progressive), ≥12-month history of disease, age 18-65 years, and commercial health insurance. Participants completed a questionnaire including data on demographic and disease characteristics, current and earlier therapies, relapses, disability, health-related quality of life, and employment status and productivity. A unique anonymous profile was generated for each survey respondent. Each anonymous profile was linked to a number of medical and pharmacy claims datasets in the United States. Linkage rates were assessed and survey respondents' representativeness was evaluated based on differences in the distribution of characteristics between the linked survey population and the general MS population in the claims databases. The advertisement was placed on 1,063,973 Facebook users' pages generating 68,674 clicks, 3719 survey attempts, and 651 successfully completed surveys, of which 440 could be linked to any of the claims databases for 2014 or 2015 (67.6% linkage rate). Overall, no significant differences were found between patients who were linked and not linked for educational status, ethnicity, current or prior disease-modifying therapy (DMT) treatment, or presence of a relapse in the last 12 months. The frequencies of the

  6. Life's crucible.

    PubMed

    Radetsky, P

    1998-02-01

    Research by German chemists Gunter Wachtershauser and Claudia Huber about the origins of life is reviewed. Other theories about the beginning of life on Earth are examined with comments by noted researchers.

  7. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

  8. Life sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  9. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

  10. Embryonic life and human life.

    PubMed

    Shea, M C

    1985-12-01

    A new human life comes into being not when there is mere cellular life in a human embryo, but when the newly developing body organs and systems begin to function as a whole, the author argues. This is symmetrical with the dealth of an existing human life, which occurs when its organs and systems have permanently ceased to function as a whole. Thus a new human life cannot begin until the development of a functioning brain which has begun to co-ordinate and organise the activities of the body as a whole.

  11. Defining life.

    PubMed

    Benner, Steven A

    2010-12-01

    Any definition is intricately connected to a theory that gives it meaning. Accordingly, this article discusses various definitions of life held in the astrobiology community by considering their connected "theories of life." These include certain "list" definitions and a popular definition that holds that life is a "self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution." We then act as "anthropologists," studying what scientists do to determine which definition-theories of life they constructively hold as they design missions to seek non-terran life. We also look at how constructive beliefs about biosignatures change as observational data accumulate. And we consider how a definition centered on Darwinian evolution might itself be forced to change as supra-Darwinian species emerge, including in our descendents, and consider the chances of our encountering supra-Darwinian species in our exploration of the Cosmos. Last, we ask what chemical structures might support Darwinian evolution universally; these structures might be universal biosignatures.

  12. Identifying Development Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, R. J.; Turner, T. S.

    1976-01-01

    To identify management development needs some organizations have adopted the assessment center method, using simulations of work situations performed before and evaluated by specially trained observers (assessors). (MF)

  13. Gang Identifiers and Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Mary Lynn

    1992-01-01

    Provides lists of gang identifiers and terminology. Suggests that, to find out names and associated identifiers of local gangs, readers should talk to their local police. Included in listing are descriptions of gang-related symbols, physical signals, graffiti, slogans, right-left rules, colors, clothing, jewelry, hair styles, and fingernails. Also…

  14. Predicting service life margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, G. F.

    1971-01-01

    Margins are developed for equipment susceptible to malfunction due to excessive time or operation cycles, and for identifying limited life equipment so monitoring and replacing is accomplished before hardware failure. Method applies to hardware where design service is established and where reasonable expected usage prediction is made.

  15. Family Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family and Friends Talking About Cancer Family Life Parenting While Living With Cancer How A Child Understands ... Learn more about how to get support for parenting while living with cancer . The importance of communication ...

  16. Extraterrestrial Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Extraterrestrial Intelligence is intelligent life that developed somewhere other than the earth. Such life has not yet been discovered. However, scientific research, including astronomy, biology, planetary science and studies of fossils here on earth have led many scientists to conclude that such life may exist on planets orbiting at least some of the hundreds of billions of stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. Today, some researchers are trying to find evidence for extraterrestrial intelligence. This effort is often called SETI, which stands for Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. SETI researchers decided that looking for evidence of their technology might be the best way to discover other intelligent life in the Galaxy. They decided to use large radio telescopes to search the sky over a wide range of radio frequencies...

  17. Defining Life

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Any definition is intricately connected to a theory that gives it meaning. Accordingly, this article discusses various definitions of life held in the astrobiology community by considering their connected “theories of life.” These include certain “list” definitions and a popular definition that holds that life is a “self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution.” We then act as “anthropologists,” studying what scientists do to determine which definition-theories of life they constructively hold as they design missions to seek non-terran life. We also look at how constructive beliefs about biosignatures change as observational data accumulate. And we consider how a definition centered on Darwinian evolution might itself be forced to change as supra-Darwinian species emerge, including in our descendents, and consider the chances of our encountering supra-Darwinian species in our exploration of the Cosmos. Last, we ask what chemical structures might support Darwinian evolution universally; these structures might be universal biosignatures. Key Words: Evolution—Life—Life detection—Biosignatures. Astrobiology 10, 1021–1030. PMID:21162682

  18. Improving turbine blade fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buddenbohm, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    Turbine airfoil design, materials, and cooling system management are variables which, when optimized, can contribute to longer turbine component lives. These advancements have been identified as redesign techniques to improve the turbine fatigue life of the SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbopump. This paper discusses the general program approach toward improving turbine fatigue life.

  19. Ideas Identified and Distributed through Project IDEA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This document contains ideas on a variety of subjects directed at the physical educator. The work was compiled by Project IDEA (Identify, Distribute, Exchange for Action). Topics include the following: (a) scheduling, (b) curriculum, (c) games, (d) specific courses, (e) life sports, (f) fitness, (g) adaptive Physical education, (h) course methods,…

  20. Metal alloy identifier

    DOEpatents

    Riley, William D.; Brown, Jr., Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  1. Identifying learning styles.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Grace

    2016-12-14

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The article explored different learning styles and outlined some of the models that can be used to identify them. It discussed the limitations of these models, indicating that although they can be helpful in identifying a student's preferred learning style, this is not 'fixed' and might change over time. Learning is also influenced by other factors, such as culture and age.

  2. Identifying Technical Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Teresa Mihwa; Nation, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This study compared four different approaches to identifying technical words in an anatomy text. The first approach used a four step rating scale, and was used as the comparison for evaluating the other three approaches. It had a high degree of reliability. The least successful approach was that using clues provided by the writer such as labels in…

  3. Identifying Early School Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Millicent E.

    1978-01-01

    Using a matched sample of students who stay in school and those who drop out, or leave early, an attempt was made, via multiple discriminant analysis, to identify the significant characteristics which distinguish "drop outs" from their peers who remain at school. Results indicated that both types of students have similar value orientations and…

  4. Understanding and identifying variability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Variability is the quality of being uneven or lacking uniformity. Understanding the causes, magnitude, and strategies to manage variability within crop production settings can be used to directly improve agricultural production systems. Identifying when the magnitude of variability is high enough to...

  5. Identifying Nursing's Future Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunning, Carolyn S.; Hawken, Patty L.

    1990-01-01

    A study determined that encouraging and supporting students in professional activities while they were still in school would lead those students to participate in professional nursing organizations after they graduated. Organized nursing needs to identify the factors that influence nurses to join organizations and concentrate on these factors to…

  6. Advanced life support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Summary reports on each of the eight tasks undertaken by this contract are given. Discussed here is an evaluation of a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), including modeling and analysis of Physical/Chemical Closed Loop Life Support (P/C CLLS); the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) evolution - Intermodule Ventilation study; advanced technologies interface requirements relative to ECLSS; an ECLSS resupply analysis; the ECLSS module addition relocation systems engineering analysis; an ECLSS cost/benefit analysis to identify rack-level interface requirements of the alternate technologies evaluated in the ventilation study, with a comparison of these with the rack level interface requirements for the baseline technologies; advanced instrumentation - technology database enhancement; and a clean room survey and assessment of various ECLSS evaluation options for different growth scenarios.

  7. Lake Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4)…

  8. Life sciences.

    PubMed

    Martin-Brennan, Cindy; Joshi, Jitendra

    2003-12-01

    Space life sciences research activities are reviewed for 2003. Many life sciences experiments were lost with the tragic loss of STS-107. Life sciences experiments continue to fly as small payloads to the International Space Station (ISS) via the Russian Progress vehicle. Health-related studies continue with the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE) aboard the Odyssey spacecraft, collecting data on the radiation environment in Mars orbit. NASA Ames increased nanotechnology research in all areas, including fundamental biology, bioastronautics, life support systems, and homeland security. Plant research efforts continued at NASA Kennedy, testing candidate crops for ISS. Research included plant growth studies at different light intensities, varying carbon dioxide concentrations, and different growth media. Education and outreach efforts included development of a NASA/USDA program called Space Agriculture in the Classroom. Canada sponsored a project called Tomatosphere, with classrooms across North America exposing seeds to simulated Mars environment for growth studies. NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research released an updated strategic research plan.

  9. Identifying Marine Phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargraves, Paul E.

    Until recently, anyone who needed to accurately identify marine phytoplankton had one of four choices: use the outdated Englishlanguage volumes by E. E. Cupp and N. I. Hendey plus the more recent book by J. Dodge, acquire a working knowledge of German and use the old volumes by Schiller and Hustedt, spend huge amounts of time in an exceedingly well-equipped marine science library trying in vain to keep up with the rapidly evolving field of phytoplankton systematics and taxonomy, or track down one of the rarest of endangered species—a phytoplankton taxonomist—and beg for help.To these unfortunate choices is added one considerably more hopeful: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. This volume, which has seven contributing authors, contains most of the taxonomic groups that make up the planktonic autotrophs and some heterotrophs of the seas, coasts, and estuaries of the world (missing are cyanobacteria and some of the picoplankton groups).

  10. Oil Shale Identifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, J.; Santacruz, J.; Randall, S.; McRae Alvarado, B.

    2016-12-01

    The main objective of our project was to identify which type of rock and where certain resources were positioned based on their properties, from well log data. During our research, we created best estimates of ranges for selected sedimentary rocks, by researching the properties of every rock. Although there are over a 1,000 different types of rocks and materials, each one has its own classifications, unique to it. When unearthing for resources, it is important to have knowledge of what type it is you are going for. These classifications are determined from logging tools, and are stored in charts called "Well Log Data". These Well Log Data charts are used to identify and determine what rock is underground in the reservoirs. Knowing what kind of rock is underneath would make the process of oil drilling both time and cost efficient. This project is a plug-in created in Petrel and Ocean to be able to identify the type of rock or mineral, specifically oil shale, based on its qualifications.

  11. Life sciences payloads for Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Life Sciences Program for utilization of the Shuttle in the 1980's is presented. Requirements for life sciences research experiments in space flight are discussed along with study results of designs to meet these requirements. The span of life sciences interests in biomedicine, biology, man system integration, bioinstrumentation and life support/protective systems is described with a listing of the research areas encompassed in these descriptions. This is followed by a description of the approach used to derive from the life sciences disciplines, the research functions and instrumentation required for an orbital research program. Space Shuttle design options for life sciences experiments are identified and described. Details are presented for Spacelab laboratories for dedicated missions, mini-labs with carry on characteristics and carry on experiments for shared payload missions and free flying satellites to be deployed and retrieved by the Shuttle.

  12. On identified predictive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1993-01-01

    Self-tuning control algorithms are potential successors to manually tuned PID controllers traditionally used in process control applications. A very attractive design method for self-tuning controllers, which has been developed over recent years, is the long-range predictive control (LRPC). The success of LRPC is due to its effectiveness with plants of unknown order and dead-time which may be simultaneously nonminimum phase and unstable or have multiple lightly damped poles (as in the case of flexible structures or flexible robot arms). LRPC is a receding horizon strategy and can be, in general terms, summarized as follows. Using assumed long-range (or multi-step) cost function the optimal control law is found in terms of unknown parameters of the predictor model of the process, current input-output sequence, and future reference signal sequence. The common approach is to assume that the input-output process model is known or separately identified and then to find the parameters of the predictor model. Once these are known, the optimal control law determines control signal at the current time t which is applied at the process input and the whole procedure is repeated at the next time instant. Most of the recent research in this field is apparently centered around the LRPC formulation developed by Clarke et al., known as generalized predictive control (GPC). GPC uses ARIMAX/CARIMA model of the process in its input-output formulation. In this paper, the GPC formulation is used but the process predictor model is derived from the state space formulation of the ARIMAX model and is directly identified over the receding horizon, i.e., using current input-output sequence. The underlying technique in the design of identified predictive control (IPC) algorithm is the identification algorithm of observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters developed by Juang et al. at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully applied to identification of flexible structures.

  13. Sex and life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Seifarth, Joshua E; McGowan, Cheri L; Milne, Kevin J

    2012-12-01

    A sexual dimorphism in human life expectancy has existed in almost every country for as long as records have been kept. Although human life expectancy has increased each year, females still live longer, on average, than males. Undoubtedly, the reasons for the sex gap in life expectancy are multifaceted, and it has been discussed from both sociological and biological perspectives. However, even if biological factors make up only a small percentage of the determinants of the sex difference in this phenomenon, parity in average life expectancy should not be anticipated. The aim of this review is to highlight biological mechanisms that may underlie the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy. Using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar, as well as cited and citing reference histories of articles through August 2012, English-language articles were identified, read, and synthesized into categories that could account for biological sex differences in human life expectancy. The examination of biological mechanisms accounting for the female-based advantage in human life expectancy has been an active area of inquiry; however, it is still difficult to prove the relative importance of any 1 factor. Nonetheless, biological differences between the sexes do exist and include differences in genetic and physiological factors such as progressive skewing of X chromosome inactivation, telomere attrition, mitochondrial inheritance, hormonal and cellular responses to stress, immune function, and metabolic substrate handling among others. These factors may account for at least a part of the female advantage in human life expectancy. Despite noted gaps in sex equality, higher body fat percentages and lower physical activity levels globally at all ages, a sex-based gap in life expectancy exists in nearly every country for which data exist. There are several biological mechanisms that may contribute to explaining why females live longer than men on average, but the complexity of the

  14. Identifying Distant AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouille, Laura; Barger, Amy; Tremonti, Christy

    2014-07-01

    The Baldwin, Phillips, and Terlevich emission-line ratio diagnostic ([OIII]/Hβ versus [NII]/Hα, hereafter BPT diagram) efficiently separates galaxies whose signal is dominated by star formation (BPT-SF) from those dominated by AGN activity (BPT-AGN). Yet the BPT diagram is limited to z<0.5, the redshift at which [NII]λ6584 leaves the optical spectral window. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we construct a new diagnostic, or TBT diagram, that is based on rest-frame g-z color, [NeIII]λ3869, and [OII]λλ3726+3729 and can be used for galaxies out to z<1.4. The TBT diagram identifies 98.7% of the SDSS BPT-AGN as TBT-AGN and 97% of the SDSS BPT-SF as TBT-SF. Furthermore, it identifies 97% of the OPTX Chandra X-ray selected AGNs as TBT-AGN. This is in contrast to the BPT diagram, which misidentifies 20% of X-ray selected AGNs as BPT-SF.

  15. Composing life

    PubMed Central

    Segré, Daniel; Lancet, Doron

    2000-01-01

    Textbooks often assert that life began with specialized complex molecules, such as RNA, that are capable of making their own copies. This scenario has serious difficulties, but an alternative has remained elusive. Recent research and computer simulations have suggested that the first steps toward life may not have involved biopolymers. Rather, non-covalent protocellular assemblies, generated by catalyzed recruitment of diverse amphiphilic and hydrophobic compounds, could have constituted the first systems capable of information storage, inheritance and selection. A complex chain of evolutionary events, yet to be deciphered, could then have led to the common ancestors of today’s free-living cells, and to the appearance of DNA, RNA and protein enzymes. PMID:11256602

  16. Cosmic life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, H.

    1980-01-01

    The existence and detection of extraterrestrial life are discussed. The evolution of life on earth is not considered possible if earth were 5% closer (runaway greenhouse effect) or 1% farther (runaway glaciation) from the sun, or if the sun were slightly more or less massive or hot. The Space Telescope and a possible interferometer search at infrared wavelengths, which offers a 100,000 times advantage over the visible in the ratio of planetary to stellar power, are proposed to help detect planetary systems about stars such as Barnard's star. The proposed NASA-Ames Project Cyclops, consisting of a 10 km phased array of 1026 dishes (perhaps on the back side of the moon), as well as a Soviet proposal to assemble 2 similar telescopes at the orbit of Saturn, would search in the radio frequency range for planets 100 light years or more distant.

  17. Extraterrestrial Life: Processes, Implications, and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molyson, Joseph T.

    Provided are background materials relating the study of extraterrestrial life to common biological principles. A history of the creation of the sun and earth is included, as well as a summary of one current theory regarding the origin of life on earth. Relationships are identified regarding possible origins of life on other planets. Factors…

  18. Extraterrestrial Life: Processes, Implications, and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molyson, Joseph T.

    Provided are background materials relating the study of extraterrestrial life to common biological principles. A history of the creation of the sun and earth is included, as well as a summary of one current theory regarding the origin of life on earth. Relationships are identified regarding possible origins of life on other planets. Factors…

  19. Work, Love, and Learning in Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B.; Clark, M. Carolyn

    To understand how work, love, and learning are interrelated in adults' lives, data were collected in two ways: through a life-history type instrument and through in-depth interviews with 19 men and women. A life event framework was chosen to illustrate the broad constructs of work and love. Respondents identified in two columns major life events…

  20. Encrypting personal identifiers.

    PubMed Central

    Meux, E

    1994-01-01

    STUDY SETTING. A statewide patient discharge database contained only one unique identifier: the social security number (SSN). A method was developed to transform (encrypt) the SSN so that it could be made publicly available, for purposes of linking discharge records, without revealing the SSN itself. The method of encrypting the SSN into a Record Linkage Number (RLN) is described. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. The same RLN will always result from the same SSN; it is highly improbable that the same RLN would be produced by two different SSNs; the SSN cannot be derived from the RLN, even given access to the encryption program; the encryption method cannot be determined through knowledge of a number of SSN/RLN combinations; and the method can be described, evaluated, and adapted for use by other researchers without compromising confidentiality of the RLNs resulting from the method. PMID:8005792

  1. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  2. Identifying potential academic leaders

    PubMed Central

    White, David; Krueger, Paul; Meaney, Christopher; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence; Kwong, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles among academic family medicine faculty. Design Web-based survey. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles. Setting Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario. Participants A total of 687 faculty members. Main outcome measures Variables related to respondents’ willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Results Of all 1029 faculty members invited to participate in the survey, 687 (66.8%) members responded. Of the respondents, 596 (86.8%) indicated their level of willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Multivariable analysis revealed that the predictors associated with willingness to take on leadership roles were as follows: pursuit of professional development opportunities (odds ratio [OR] 3.79, 95% CI 2.29 to 6.27); currently holding at least 1 leadership role (OR 5.37, 95% CI 3.38 to 8.53); a history of leadership training (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.78); the perception that mentorship is important for one’s current role (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.60); and younger age (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99). Conclusion Willingness to undertake new or additional leadership roles was associated with 2 variables related to leadership experiences, 2 variables related to perceptions of mentorship and professional development, and 1 demographic variable (younger age). Interventions that support opportunities in these areas might expand the pool and strengthen the academic leadership potential of faculty members. PMID:27331226

  3. Identifying and Inactivating Bacterial Spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcombe, David; Dekas, Anne; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2009-01-01

    Problems associated with, and new strategies for, inactivating resistant organisms like Bacillus canaveralius (found at Kennedy Space Center during a survey of three NASA cleanrooms) have been defined. Identifying the particular component of the spore that allows its heightened resistance can guide the development of sterilization procedures that are targeted to the specific molecules responsible for resistance, while avoiding using unduly harsh methods that jeopardize equipment. The key element of spore resistance is a multilayered protein shell that encases the spore called the spore coat. The coat of the best-studied spore-forming microbe, B. subtilis, consists of at least 45 proteins, most of which are poorly characterized. Several protective roles for the coat are well characterized including resistance to desiccation, large toxic molecules, ortho-phthalaldehyde, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. One important long-term specific goal is an improved sterilization procedure that will enable NASA to meet planetary protection requirements without a terminal heat sterilization step. This would support the implementation of planetary protection policies for life-detection missions. Typically, hospitals and government agencies use biological indicators to ensure the quality control of sterilization processes. The spores of B. canaveralius that are more resistant to osmotic stress would serve as a better biological indicator for potential survival than those in use currently.

  4. Identifying Phronotypes in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, F. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Refinements in the methods of diagnosis for psychiatric disorders are critically needed. These new methods should be based on objectively measured brain characteristics that provide clinically useful information. Studying the brain with respect to psychiatric disorders, however, faces numerous challenges. Utilizing techniques learned in other areas of medicine to deal with symptoms that lead to complex disorders can provide insight into improving diagnostic models in psychiatry. Specifically, many areas of medicine use objective measures of an organ's function or characteristic to guide clinical management of particular subjective complaints. In psychiatry, an objectively measured brain characteristic that provides clinically useful information is proposed to be that person's “phronotype.” Important requirements to developing phronotypes are discussed. Identifying phronotypes in psychiatry will require a specific investigative approach that must be grounded in rigorous scientific methodology. Successfully developing such markers will have a profound impact on clinical care, clinical research, basic science research, and most importantly the lives of those suffering from these illnesses. PMID:21423450

  5. Life lessons

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Reminiscing about his younger self: “I mean I can’t very well just 86 [in American slang, to “86” is to eject, remove, or discard someone or something, J.R.N.] this guy from my life. On the other hand, if through some as yet undeveloped technology I were to run into him today, how comfortable would I feel about lending him money, or for that matter even stepping down the street to have a beer and talk over old times?” ― Thomas Pynchon, Slow Learner PMID:26734084

  6. Extraterrestrial Life: Life on Mars - Then and Now

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, Gustaf; Mojzsis, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    The recent claim to have identified possible signs of ancient life on Mars has been widely publicized and discussed. The authors conceded that none of the half-dozen pieces of evidence adduced in their paper individually provided strong support for extraterrestrial life, though they argued that the pieces added up to a case worth considering. Most - perhaps all - of the observed phenomena have counterparts in the inorganic world, so even the combination does not make a compelling case that there was ever life on Mars. Nevertheless, the importance of the problem has justified bringing the results to general attention. The paper has focussed interest on the origin and possible ubiquity of life, and on how we can design techniques capable of giving a more definitive answer to the question of whether there is, or has ever been, life elsewhere in the Universe.

  7. On the decomposition of life expectancy and limits to life.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Les; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Life expectancy is a measure of how long people are expected to live and is widely used as a measure of human development. Variations in the measure reflect not only the process of ageing but also the impacts of such events as epidemics, wars, and economic recessions. Since 1950, the influence of these events in the most developed countries has waned and life expectancy continues to lengthen unabated. As a result, it has become more difficult to forecast long-run trends accurately, or identify possible upper limits. We present new methods for comparing past improvements in life expectancy and also future prospects, using data from five developed, low-mortality countries. We consider life expectancy in 10-year age intervals rather than over the remaining lifetime, and show how natural limits to life expectancy can be used to extrapolate trends. We discuss the implications and compare our approach with other commonly used methods.

  8. Identifying Adolescent Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Gill, Jason; Camfferman, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined. Method 308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey. Results The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; χ2 = 17.46, p<.001). Parental report of their adolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, p<.001). Adolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times. Conclusion While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents. PMID:24086501

  9. Life sciences.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Gregory K

    2002-12-01

    Space life sciences research activities are reviewed for the year. Highlights of animal studies were the first long-term flight of an animal enclosure module and an avian development facility on STS-108. Plant research efforts focused on a biomass production system for eventual use on the International Space Station (ISS), the PESTO experiment on ISS, and screening of several salad crop varieties for potential use in space. Health-related studies included the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE) on the Mars Odyssey mission, presentation of results from NASA's Biomolecular Physics and Chemistry Program, and research related to human liver cell function in space through an agreement with StelSys. In industry and academia, a memorandum of understanding was signed between NASA and the biotechnology industry to enhance communication between NASA and the industry, expand commercial biotechnology space research and development, and expand formal and informal education of industry and the public regarding biotechnology and space research. NASA selected Purdue University to lead an NSCORT for advanced life support research to develop technologies to enable long-duration planetary mission and sustain human space colonies.

  10. Flourishing in later life.

    PubMed

    Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Haron, Sharifah Azizah; Bagat, Mohamad Fazdillah

    2016-01-01

    Flourishing is a relatively new concept in positive psychology that considers hedonic and eudaimonic aspects of well-being. The current study aims to identify the prevalence and socio-demographic and health factors associated with flourishing among older Malaysians. The sample for this study consisting of 2202 community-dwelling older Malaysians was obtained from a national survey entitled "Identifying Psychosocial and Identifying Economic Risk Factor of Cognitive Impairment among Elderly", conducted from May 2013 to April 2014. Data analyses were conducted using the IBM SPSS Version 22.0 and AMOS Version 22.0. The average age of the respondents was 69.05 (SD=6.24) years. Descriptive results showed that 50.1% of the respondents were flourishing in life, 36.3% were languishing, 8.4% were struggling, and 5.2% were floundering in life. The results of Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that gender, employment status, level of education, having living children, and chronic medical conditions are significantly associated with flourishing. However, age, marital status, living alone, and economic status did not have much impact on flourishing. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is one of the first studies that conceptualizes and assesses flourishing among older adults in Malaysia. The findings from the present study make important contributions to the existing literature on well-being. It is suggested that health and social care professionals working with older adults adopt a comprehensive approach to identify and propel non-flourishing people toward flourishing in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The quality of life and satisfaction with life of women who are childless by choice.

    PubMed

    Bień, Agnieszka; Rzońca, Ewa; Iwanowicz-Palus, Grażyna; Lecyk, Urszula; Bojar, Iwona

    2017-05-11

    Objective. The study attempts to identify and analyze factors affecting the quality of life and satisfaction with life of women who are childless by choice. Materials and method. The research instruments used were: the WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and author's own questionnaire. Results. A better overall quality of life, perception of own health and quality of life in all the specific domains analyzed was found among childless women living in cities, college/university-educated, and with a good or very good financial standing. Conclusions. A positive correlation was found between satisfaction with life and overall quality of life, general perceived health, and all quality of life domains. Higher satisfaction with life scores in childless women are correlated with a higher quality of life scores and better perceived health.

  12. EZID: Long term identifiers made easy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, J.

    2013-12-01

    Scholarly research is producing ever increasing amounts of digital research data, and this data should be managed throughout the research life cycle both as part of good scientific practice, but also to comply with funder mandates, such as the 2013 OSTP Public Access Memo (http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/ostp_public_access_memo_2013.pdf). By assigning unique and persistent identifiers to data objects, data managers can gain control and flexibility over what can be a daunting task. This is due to the fact that the objects can be moved to new locations without disruption to links, as long as the identifier target is maintained. EZID is a tool that makes assigning and maintaining unique, persistent identifiers easy. It was designed and built by California Digital Library (CDL) and has both a user interface and a RESTful API. EZID currently offers services for two globally unique, persistent identifier schemes: Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and Archival Resource Keys (ARKs). DOIs are identifiers originating from the publishing world and are in widespread use for journal articles. CDL is able to offer DOIs because of being a founding member of DataCite (http://www.datacite.org/), an international consortium established to provide easier access to scientific research data on the Internet. ARKs are identifiers originating from the library, archive and museum community. Like DOIs, they become persistent when the objects and identifier forwarding information is maintained. DOIs and ARKs have a key role in data management and, therefore, in data management plans. DOIs are the recommended identifier for use in data citation, and ARKs provide the maximum flexibility needed for data documentation and management throughout the early phases of a project. The two identifier schemes are able to be used together, and EZID is made to work with both. EZID clients, coming from education, research, government, and the private sector, are utilizing the

  13. Life prediction of aging aircraft wiring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenski, George

    1995-01-01

    The program goal is to develop a computerized life prediction model capable of identifying present aging progress and predicting end of life for aircraft wiring. A summary is given in viewgraph format of progress made on phase 1 objectives, which were to identify critical aircraft wiring problems; relate most common failures identified to the wire mechanism causing the failure; assess wiring requirments, materials, and stress environment for fighter aircraft; and demonstrate the feasibility of a time-temperature-environment model.

  14. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2004-11-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  15. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2003-09-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  16. Environmental life-cycle assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchain, Randolph E., Jr.; Gregory, Jeremy R.; Olivetti, Elsa A.

    2017-07-01

    Concerns about the planet's health call for a careful evaluation of the environmental impact of materials choices. Life-cycle assessment is a tool that can help identify sustainable materials pathways by considering the burdens of materials both during production and as a product.

  17. Is the Good Life the Easy Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scollon, Christie Napa; King, Laura A.

    2004-01-01

    Three studies examined folk concepts of the good life. Participants rated the desirability and moral goodness of a life as a function of the happiness, meaning, and effort experienced. Happiness and meaning were solid predictors of the good life, replicating King and Napa (1998). Study 1 (N = 381) included wealth as an additional factor. Results…

  18. Nuclear power plant life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.D.; Bustard, L.D.; Harrison, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear plant life extension represents an opportunity to achieve additional productive years of operation from existing nuclear power facilities. This is particularly important since operating licenses for over 50 GW of nuclear capacity will expire by the year 2010. By the year 2015, 85% of the total planned nuclear electric capacity will face retirement due to license expirations. Achieving additional productive years of operation from the nation's existing light water reactors is the goal of ongoing utility, vendor, US Department of Energy, and Electric Power Research Institute programs. Identifying potential technical issues associated with extending plant life and scoping realistic solutions represent first steps toward the development of a coordinated national plant life extension strategy. This is a substantial effort that must consider the breadth of issues associated with nuclear power plant design, operation, and licensing, and the numerous potential plant life extension strategies that may be appropriate to different utilities. Such an effort must enlist the expertise of the full spectrum of organizations in the nuclear industry including utilities, vendors, consultants, national laboratories, and professional organizations. A primary focus of these efforts is to identify operational changes and improvements in record-keeping, which, if implemented now, could enhance and preserve the life extension option.

  19. Career Exploration in the Life Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The purpose of the teacher's guide is to acquaint junior high school students with occupations in the life sciences. By identifying life science and exploring the areas of biology (ecology and zoology) and medicine, students may become aware of the functions of the people involved in these areas and the value of their work. The material in the…

  20. Migration and Life of Hispanics in Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallenstein, Nancy L.

    This paper presents a historical and cultural overview of the migration and life of Hispanics in Utah and identifies three themes: search for a better life, need for and acquisition of a sense of belonging, and substance of the Hispanic people. Over the past 4 centuries, Hispanics have migrated to Utah from New Mexico, Mexico, and Central and…

  1. Skills for Life. Teacher's Resource Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains research-based resource materials designed to help teachers teach life skills to students in grades 7-12. It contains eight units that cover life skill categories identified through research. Each unit consists of several self-contained modules that can be taught in any sequence and incorporated into a variety of courses.…

  2. Life Events, Sibling Warmth, and Youths' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Evelyn B.; Shanahan, Lilly; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Sibling warmth has been identified as a protective factor from life events, but stressor-support match-mismatch and social domains perspectives suggest that sibling warmth may not efficiently protect youths from all types of life events. We tested whether sibling warmth moderated the association between each of family-wide, youths' personal, and…

  3. Accelerated life testing of spacecraft subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiksten, D.; Swanson, J.

    1972-01-01

    The rationale and requirements for conducting accelerated life tests on electronic subsystems of spacecraft are presented. A method for applying data on the reliability and temperature sensitivity of the parts contained in a sybsystem to the selection of accelerated life test parameters is described. Additional considerations affecting the formulation of test requirements are identified, and practical limitations of accelerated aging are described.

  4. Life Events, Sibling Warmth, and Youths' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Evelyn B.; Shanahan, Lilly; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Sibling warmth has been identified as a protective factor from life events, but stressor-support match-mismatch and social domains perspectives suggest that sibling warmth may not efficiently protect youths from all types of life events. We tested whether sibling warmth moderated the association between each of family-wide, youths' personal, and…

  5. Career Exploration in the Life Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The purpose of the teacher's guide is to acquaint junior high school students with occupations in the life sciences. By identifying life science and exploring the areas of biology (ecology and zoology) and medicine, students may become aware of the functions of the people involved in these areas and the value of their work. The material in the…

  6. Life Course Impacts of Mild Intellectual Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Floyd, Frank; Greenberg, Jan; Lounds, Julie; Lindstrom, Mary; Hong, Jinkuk

    2005-01-01

    We identified 201 individuals who obtained IQs of 85 or below in high school and participated in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (a prospective longitudinal study that followed sample members from age 18 through age 53). Their life course development was contrasted with their siblings who obtained IQs above 100. Life course outcomes were assessed…

  7. Skills for Life. Teacher's Resource Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains research-based resource materials designed to help teachers teach life skills to students in grades 7-12. It contains eight units that cover life skill categories identified through research. Each unit consists of several self-contained modules that can be taught in any sequence and incorporated into a variety of courses.…

  8. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: AN INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying relevant inputs and outputs of the defined system and evaluating their potential impacts. This article outlines the four components ...

  9. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: AN INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying relevant inputs and outputs of the defined system and evaluating their potential impacts. This article outlines the four components ...

  10. Concepts of Life in the Contexts of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    The search for habitable environments and life requires a working concept of life's fundamental attributes. This concept helps to identify the "services" that an environment must provide to sustain life. We must consider the possibility that extraterrestrial life might differ fundamentally from our own, but it is still worthwhile to begin by hypothesizing attributes of life that might be universal versus ones that reflect local solutions to survival on Earth.

  11. 41 CFR 101-27.205 - Shelf-life codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Shelf-life codes. 101-27...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.205 Shelf-life codes. Shelf-life items shall be identified by use of a one-digit code to provide for uniform coding of shelf-life materials by all agencies. (a) The...

  12. Stochastic control system parameter identifiability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. H.; Herget, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    The parameter identification problem of general discrete time, nonlinear, multiple input/multiple output dynamic systems with Gaussian white distributed measurement errors is considered. The knowledge of the system parameterization was assumed to be known. Concepts of local parameter identifiability and local constrained maximum likelihood parameter identifiability were established. A set of sufficient conditions for the existence of a region of parameter identifiability was derived. A computation procedure employing interval arithmetic was provided for finding the regions of parameter identifiability. If the vector of the true parameters is locally constrained maximum likelihood (CML) identifiable, then with probability one, the vector of true parameters is a unique maximal point of the maximum likelihood function in the region of parameter identifiability and the constrained maximum likelihood estimation sequence will converge to the vector of true parameters.

  13. Life is pretty meaningful.

    PubMed

    Heintzelman, Samantha J; King, Laura A

    2014-09-01

    The human experience of meaning in life is widely viewed as a cornerstone of well-being and a central human motivation. Self-reports of meaning in life relate to a host of important functional outcomes. Psychologists have portrayed meaning in life as simultaneously chronically lacking in human life as well as playing an important role in survival. Examining the growing literature on meaning in life, we address the question "How meaningful is life, in general?" We review possible answers from various psychological sources, some of which anticipate that meaning in life should be low and others that it should be high. Summaries of epidemiological data and research using two self-report measures of meaning in life suggest that life is pretty meaningful. Diverse samples rate themselves significantly above the midpoint on self-reports of meaning in life. We suggest that if meaning in life plays a role in adaptation, it must be commonplace, as our analysis suggests.

  14. Actinides and Life's Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Zachary

    2007-12-01

    There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uranium- and thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3rd by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus

  15. Actinides and Life's Origins.

    PubMed

    Adam, Zachary

    2007-12-01

    There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uraniumand thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3(rd) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus

  16. Quarrelsomeness in daily life.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, D S

    2010-02-01

    It is common in studies of interpersonal characteristics to examine personality variables as static predictors. Yet in recent years it has also become possible to examine personality and related interpersonal processes as they unfold over time in association with event specific cues. The present article reviews research that (1) identifies behaviors that reflect the occurrence of hostile-irritable-quarrelsome traits in daily life, (2) demonstrates both the stability and within-person variability of these behaviors over time, (3) documents event-level interpersonal cues that are systematically associated with within-person variation in quarrelsome behavior, and (4) describes how dispositional level agreeableness and irritability moderate the associations of event-level cues with quarrelsome behavior. The influence of the neurotransmitter serotonin on quarrelsome behavior is also considered. The studies indicate that quarrelsome individuals have reduced affective reactivity to engaging in quarrelsome behavior, increased behavioral reactivity to perceptions of quarrelsomeness in others, and greater responsiveness to change in serotonin levels.

  17. Life after stoma creation.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Anne Kjærgaard

    2013-10-01

    Stoma creation is a surgical operation where the surgeon makes an artificial opening on the abdomen from where the bowel is taken out. It is a radical treatment with permanent physical signs of bodily change. In general, it leads to loss of a central and personal physical function, as well as an alteration in the bodily design. Research in the field may provide additional information about central elements when adapting to life with a stoma. There are currently no studies that adequately focus on the relationship between health-related quality of life and stoma construction in a Danish context, neither for temporary or permanent construction, nor in relation to the importance of stoma handling. The overall objective of the study was to investigate health-related quality of life related to stoma creation and patient education. Methodologically, the project was implemented as a mixed methods study in which qualitative interview studies and two systematic literature reviews identified interventions, which were subsequently tested in a clinical case/control study. Finally the case/control study was made subject to an economic analysis. The project is based on 6 papers reporting the results. ARTICLE 1: Impact of a temporary stoma on patients everyday-lives: feelings of uncertainty while waiting for closure of the stoma. The study included 7 participants who were interviewed in focus groups. The results indicated that patients experienced a high degree of uncertainty in connection with the stoma being temporary. At the same time, participants had a strong need to control both their physical appearance and their changed bodily functions. Participants opted for education programs involving teachers with a stoma. ARTICLE 2: Learning to live with a Permanent Intestinal Ostomy: Impact on everyday life and Educational Needs. The study included 15 participants who were interviewed in groups related to whether they were treated for cancer or non-cancer. The results showed that

  18. Identifying the Emergency Management Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesa, Adele M.

    1987-01-01

    In building an emergency management library collection within a training institution, technical data become secondary to identifying common goals, methods, and systems found at the federal, state, and local levels for responding to and planning for disasters and crises. These goals help identify emergency management skills public officials should…

  19. Search for life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Brack, A; Clancy, P; Fitton, B; Hoffmann, B; Horneck, G; Kurat, G; Maxwell, J; Ori, G; Pillinger, C; Raulin, F; Thomas, N; Westall, F

    1998-06-01

    A multi-user integrated suite of instruments designed to optimize the search for evidence of life on Mars is described. The package includes: -Surface inspection and surface environment analysis to identify the potential Mars landing sites, to inspect the surface geology and mineralogy, to search for visible surficial microbial macrofossils, to study the surface radiation budget and surface oxidation processes, to search for niches for extant life. -Subsurface sample acquisition by core drilling -Analysis of surface and subsurface minerals and organics to characterize the surface mineralogy, to analyse the surface and subsurface oxidants, to analyse the mineralogy of subsurface aliquots, to analyse the organics present in the subsurface aliquots (elemental and molecular composition, isotopes, chirality). -Macroscopic and microscopic inspection of subsurface aliquots to search for life's indicators (paleontological, biological, mineralogical) and to characterize the mineralogy of the subsurface aliquots. The study is led by ESA Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity Directorate.

  20. Trajectories of life satisfaction after TBI: Influence of life roles, age, cognitive disability, and depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Juengst, Shannon B.; Adams, Leah M.; Bogner, Jennifer A.; Arenth, Patricia M.; O’Neil-Pirozzi, Therese M.; Dreer, Laura E.; Hart, Tessa; Bergquist, Thomas F.; Bombardier, Charles H.; Dijkers, Marcel P.; Wagner, Amy K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives 1) Identify life satisfaction trajectories after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), 2) establish a predictive model for these trajectories across the first 5 years post-injury, and 3) describe differences in these life satisfaction trajectory groups, focusing on age, depressive symptoms, disability, and participation in specific life roles,. Research Method Analysis of the longitudinal TBI Model Systems National Database was performed on data collected prospectively at 1, 2, and 5 years post-TBI. Participants (n=3,012) had a moderate to severe TBI and were 16 years old and older. Results Four life satisfaction trajectories were identified across the first 5 years post-injury, including: Stable Satisfaction, Initial Satisfaction Declining, Initial Dissatisfaction Improving, and Stable Dissatisfaction. Age, depressive symptoms, cognitive disability, and life role participation as a worker, leisure participant, and/ or religious participant at one year post-injury significantly predicted trajectory group membership. Life role participation and depressive symptoms were strong predictors of life satisfaction trajectories across the first 5 years post TBI. Conclusions The previously documented loss of life roles and prevalence of depression after a moderate to severe TBI make this a vulnerable population for whom low or declining life satisfaction is a particularly high risk. Examining individual life role participation may help to identify relevant foci for community-based rehabilitation interventions or supports. PMID:26618215

  1. Life extension research at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.; DuCharme, A.R. Jr.; DeBey, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) plant life extension (PLEX) effort, the DOE Technology Management Center at Sandia is actively participating in life extension research efforts. In the areas of reliability and surveillance, systems modelling techniques are being explored to identify those components which, if their reliability changes, could most impact safety. Results of an application of these techniques to the Surry nuclear plant were compared to an industry life extension categorization also performed at Surry. For selected types of components identified during this study, the degradation and failure mechanisms are being explored and state-of-the-art monitoring techniques are being evaluated. Initial results are presented. In the area of cable life extension, a definition study is under way to define utility-specific as well as collective industry actions that would facilitate extending cable life. Some recommendations of this study are also provided.

  2. [Life style: instrument in health promotion programs].

    PubMed

    Jiménez, D

    1993-05-01

    Non communicable diseases are increasing in third world countries, including Chile. Life style is one of the principal factors influencing this increase. Therefore programs and health strategies to modify the population life styles are needed. The programs developed to change life styles depend on the medical sociocultural scenery and the concept becomes outstanding when disease prevention is replaced by health promotion. The requirements for the application of the concept of life style in health promotion plans and fostering of healthy life styles are: 1) Training in behavioral epidemiology. 2) Election of a biopsychosocial concept of life style. 3) Identify the predominant scenery and target population. 4) Choose the appropriate educational methodologies to change behaviors. 5) Formalize strategies according to the boundaries where the program is applied. 6) Specify the qualifying requisites of the change agents, health promoters and program operators.

  3. Identifying Context Variables in Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Carolyn L.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies context variables in written composition from theoretical perspectives in cognitive psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Considers how multiple views of context from across the disciplines can build toward a broader definition of writing. (JD)

  4. Identifying Occupationally Specific Affective Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from two groups of cosmetology instructors (n=15) and two groups of machinist instructors (n=17) validated the Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis instrument as capable of identifying affective behaviors viewed as important to success in a given occupation. (SK)

  5. Identifying Context Variables in Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Carolyn L.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies context variables in written composition from theoretical perspectives in cognitive psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Considers how multiple views of context from across the disciplines can build toward a broader definition of writing. (JD)

  6. Methods for identifying translational researchers.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mary K; Johnson, Timothy; Welch, Eric W

    2014-03-01

    There is currently no generally accepted method for identifying the community of translational researchers when evaluating Clinical and Translational Science Centers. We use data from the multiyear evaluation of the University of Illinois at Chicago Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS) to investigate the complexities of reliably identifying translational researchers. We use three methods to identify translational researchers: (1) participating in CCTS services and programs; (2) self-identifying as a translational researcher; and (3) engaging in activities that are characteristic of translational science. We find little overlap of these differently defined research groups. We conclude with a discussion of how the findings suggest challenges for evaluating translational science programs and the need for better definition, communication, and demonstration of translational science for scientists and evaluators.

  7. Identifying Occupationally Specific Affective Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from two groups of cosmetology instructors (n=15) and two groups of machinist instructors (n=17) validated the Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis instrument as capable of identifying affective behaviors viewed as important to success in a given occupation. (SK)

  8. Identifying Clients Predisposed To Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    Studies are reviewed that report the prediction of rehabilitation failure from personality measures. Related research is discussed that suggest the dynamics underlying a key concept, the "hypochondriacally organized personality" which is identifiable from the Rorschach anatomy response percentage. (Author)

  9. The algorithmic origins of life.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sara Imari; Davies, Paul C W

    2013-02-01

    Although it has been notoriously difficult to pin down precisely what is it that makes life so distinctive and remarkable, there is general agreement that its informational aspect is one key property, perhaps the key property. The unique informational narrative of living systems suggests that life may be characterized by context-dependent causal influences, and, in particular, that top-down (or downward) causation-where higher levels influence and constrain the dynamics of lower levels in organizational hierarchies-may be a major contributor to the hierarchal structure of living systems. Here, we propose that the emergence of life may correspond to a physical transition associated with a shift in the causal structure, where information gains direct and context-dependent causal efficacy over the matter in which it is instantiated. Such a transition may be akin to more traditional physical transitions (e.g. thermodynamic phase transitions), with the crucial distinction that determining which phase (non-life or life) a given system is in requires dynamical information and therefore can only be inferred by identifying causal architecture. We discuss some novel research directions based on this hypothesis, including potential measures of such a transition that may be amenable to laboratory study, and how the proposed mechanism corresponds to the onset of the unique mode of (algorithmic) information processing characteristic of living systems.

  10. Identifying discharge practice training needs.

    PubMed

    Lees, L; Emmerson, K

    A training needs analysis tool was developed to identify nurses' discharge training needs and to improve discharge practice. The tool includes 49 elements of discharge practice subdivided into four areas: corporate, operational, clinical and nurse-led discharge. The tool was disseminated to 15 wards on two hospital sites with assistance from the practice development team. Analysis of discharge training is important to assess discharge training needs and to identify staff who may assist with training.

  11. Individual Identifiability Predicts Population Identifiability in Forensic Microsatellite Markers.

    PubMed

    Algee-Hewitt, Bridget F B; Edge, Michael D; Kim, Jaehee; Li, Jun Z; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2016-04-04

    Highly polymorphic genetic markers with significant potential for distinguishing individual identity are used as a standard tool in forensic testing [1, 2]. At the same time, population-genetic studies have suggested that genetically diverse markers with high individual identifiability also confer information about genetic ancestry [3-6]. The dual influence of polymorphism levels on ancestry inference and forensic desirability suggests that forensically useful marker sets with high levels of individual identifiability might also possess substantial ancestry information. We study a standard forensic marker set-the 13 CODIS loci used in the United States and elsewhere [2, 7-9]-together with 779 additional microsatellites [10], using direct population structure inference to test whether markers with substantial individual identifiability also produce considerable information about ancestry. Despite having been selected for individual identification and not for ancestry inference [11], the CODIS markers generate nontrivial model-based clustering patterns similar to those of other sets of 13 tetranucleotide microsatellites. Although the CODIS markers have relatively low values of the F(ST) divergence statistic, their high heterozygosities produce greater ancestry inference potential than is possessed by less heterozygous marker sets. More generally, we observe that marker sets with greater individual identifiability also tend toward greater population identifiability. We conclude that population identifiability regularly follows as a byproduct of the use of highly polymorphic forensic markers. Our findings have implications for the design of new forensic marker sets and for evaluations of the extent to which individual characteristics beyond identification might be predicted from current and future forensic data.

  12. Defending definitions of life.

    PubMed

    Mix, Lucas John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, it has become unpopular to talk about definitions of life, under the assumption that attempts at a precise definition are counterproductive. Recent attempts have failed to meet strict philosophical criteria for definitions and have failed to reach consensus. I argue that provisional definitions are necessary for clear communications. Our current knowledge of biology justifies a number of universal claims about the category of life. Whether or not "life" represents a natural category, it maps to a number of important, observable processes. Given the importance of those processes and the extent of our knowledge, plural explicit definitions of life (and related categories) will be necessary for progress in astrobiology and origin-of-life studies as well as biology in general. I propose concrete categories related to, but not necessarily coextensive with, life for clear communication and hypothesis formation: Woese life, Darwin life, Haldane life.

  13. Planetary life: why and how?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Andy; Kerr, William

    2012-07-01

    Understanding life in an astrobiological context requires that we understand why and how life emerged on earth. We report on the elaboration and preliminary testing of our recent model for the origin of life (Pratt, 2011). This model identifies key components, including availability of chemicals and geochemical energy sources, required for the emergence of planetary life. The model is based on the theory (Russell and Kanik, 2010) that life emerged as a mechanism for the dissipation of the intrinsic geochemical energy gradient of the planet. It proposes that life is founded on an ongoing chemical energy flux that can be harnessed more efficiently by autocatalytic networks of reactions than by direct chemical processes. Feedback and selection mechanisms are required to foster the apparently irreducible complexity found in cells. We posit that selective solubilisation in a hydrothermal flow system was a key mechanism that underpinned the emergence of life. Amongst other things, earthly cells are dependent on a combination of organic molecules, iron (for electron-transfer and catalysis) and phosphate (e.g. for digital information). Soluble aqueous systems that include all these components are constrained by precipitation chemistry (de Zwart et al., 2004). We propose that in situ abiological carbon fixation produced organic molecules that, in turn, led to more active carbon fixation catalysts and hence more efficient reduction of carbon oxides. By encapsulating free iron ions, these organic molecules also facilitated the solubilisation of phosphate species which thereby became integrated within this expanding autocatalytic network. We have evaluated the competitive solubility of phosphate species in the presence of iron and organic moieties to test this theory and provide evidence that this could act as positive feedback loop for a form of prebiological evolution that underpinned the emergence of complex cells. References, Pratt, A. J. (2011) Prebiological Evolution and

  14. [Living, life and quality of life].

    PubMed

    Ferrer Santos, Urbano

    2008-01-01

    Human life and quality of life are approached unitarily from their common root in living person, since only the person can claim them as rights and observe them as duties. The passage from the natural inclination to live towards the moral order is fulfilled from the ethical-ontological bridge-concept of human dignity. The absolute character of dignity means that life appears in the ethical realm as a duty prior to a right, both with regard to its care by the subject itself and its respect by others. This right-duty extends from life to the quality of life, since the living person always has a margin between personal living and the vital achievements it is capable of: this margin must be respected and promoted.

  15. Multiple origins of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

  16. Identifying Obstacles to Incorporating Ocean Content into California Secondary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The ocean is the dominant feature on this planet that makes all life on Earth possible. Marine educators and scientists across the country have identified essential principles and concepts that define what an "ocean literate" person should know, but there is a lack of comprehensive ocean content coverage in secondary classrooms across…

  17. Teaching Elementary School Students To Identify Story Themes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joanna P.; Lauer, Kristen D.; Hall, Kendra M.; Lord, Kathleen M.; Gugga, Sonia; Bak, Sung-Jee; Jacobs, Pamela R.; deCani, John S.

    2002-01-01

    An instructional program focused on story theme was administered to 2nd and 3rd graders in a high-poverty school. Compared with traditional instruction, the program improved theme comprehension and identification of instructed themes in new stories. However, the program did not help students apply a theme to real-life situations or identify and…

  18. Identifying the Determinants of Chronic Absenteeism: A Bioecological Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.; Gee, Kevin A.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: Chronic school absenteeism is a pervasive problem across the US; in early education, it is most rampant in kindergarten and its consequences are particularly detrimental, often leading to poorer academic, behavioral and developmental outcomes later in life. Though prior empirical research has identified a broad range of…

  19. Which functional unit to identify sustainable foods?

    PubMed

    Masset, Gabriel; Vieux, Florent; Darmon, Nicole

    2015-09-01

    In life-cycle assessment, the functional unit defines the unit for calculation of environmental indicators. The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of two functional units, 100 g and 100 kcal (420 kJ), on the associations between three dimensions for identifying sustainable foods, namely environmental impact (via greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE)), nutritional quality (using two distinct nutrient profiling systems) and price. GHGE and price data were collected for individual foods, and were each expressed per 100 g and per 100 kcal. Two nutrient profiling models, SAIN,LIM and UK Ofcom, were used to assess foods' nutritional quality. Spearman correlations were used to assess associations between variables. Sustainable foods were identified as those having more favourable values for all three dimensions. The French Individual and National Dietary Survey (INCA2), 2006-2007. Three hundred and seventy-three foods highly consumed in INCA2, covering 65 % of total energy intake of adult participants. When GHGE and price were expressed per 100 g, low-GHGE foods had a lower price and higher SAIN,LIM and Ofcom scores (r=0·59, -0·34 and -0·43, respectively), suggesting a compatibility between the three dimensions; 101 and 100 sustainable foods were identified with SAIN,LIM and Ofcom, respectively. When GHGE and price were expressed per 100 kcal, low-GHGE foods had a lower price but also lower SAIN,LIM and Ofcom scores (r=0·67, 0·51 and 0·47, respectively), suggesting that more environment-friendly foods were less expensive but also less healthy; thirty-four sustainable foods were identified with both SAIN,LIM and Ofcom. The choice of functional unit strongly influenced the compatibility between the sustainability dimensions and the identification of sustainable foods.

  20. The impact of hyperhidrosis on patients' daily life and quality of life: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Kamudoni, P; Mueller, B; Halford, J; Schouveller, A; Stacey, B; Salek, M S

    2017-06-08

    An understanding of the daily life impacts of hyperhidrosis and how patients deal with them, based on qualitative research, is lacking. This study investigated the impact of hyperhidrosis on the daily life of patients using a mix of qualitative research methods. Participants were recruited through hyperhidrosis patient support groups such as the Hyperhidrosis Support Group UK. Data were collected using focus groups, interviews and online surveys. A grounded theory approach was used in the analysis of data transcripts. Data were collected from 71 participants, out of an initial 100 individuals recruited. Seventeen major themes capturing the impacts of hyperhidrosis were identified; these covered all areas of life including daily life, psychological well-being, social life, professional /school life, dealing with hyperhidrosis, unmet health care needs and physical impact. Psychosocial impacts are central to the overall impacts of hyperhidrosis, cutting across and underlying the limitations experienced in other areas of life.

  1. Life course influences on quality of life in early old age.

    PubMed

    Blane, D; Higgs, P; Hyde, M; Wiggins, R D

    2004-06-01

    A growing literature demonstrates life course influences on health in early old age. The present paper is the first to examine whether similar processes also influence quality of life in early old age. The question is theorised in terms of structured dependency and third age, and the life course pathways by which people arrive at these destinations in later life. The issues are investigated in a unique data set that contains health and life course information on some 300 individuals mostly aged 65-75 years, enhanced in 2000 by postal survey data on quality of life. Several types of life course effect are identified at conventional levels of statistical significance. Long-term influences on quality of life, however, are less marked than those on health. Quality of life in early old age appears to be influenced primarily by current contextual factors such as material circumstances and serious health problems, with the influence of the life course limited mostly to its shaping of an individual's circumstances in later life. The implication for policy is that disadvantage during childhood and adulthood does not preclude good quality of life in early old age.

  2. Quality of Life of Students with Disabilites Attending Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zboon, Eman; Ahmad, Jamal Fathi; Theeb, Raied Sheikh

    2014-01-01

    In spite of increasing number of students with disabilities in universities, there is limited research on quality of life of these students. This study aimed to identify the quality of life level of undergraduate students with disabilities at Jordanian universities. The sample consisted of (147) students. A quality of life scale was constructed,…

  3. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base.

  4. Persistent Identifiers Implementation in EOSDIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K. " Rama"

    2016-01-01

    This presentation provides the motivation for and status of implementation of persistent identifiers in NASA's Earth Observation System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). The motivation is provided from the point of view of long-term preservation of datasets such that a number of questions raised by current and future users can be answered easily and precisely. A number of artifacts need to be preserved along with datasets to make this possible, especially when the authors of datasets are no longer available to address users questions. The artifacts and datasets need to be uniquely and persistently identified and linked with each other for full traceability, understandability and scientific reproducibility. Current work in the Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project and the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) in assigning Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) is discussed as well as challenges that remain to be addressed in the future.

  5. [Advances in recently identified coronaviruses].

    PubMed

    Geng, He-Yuan; Tan, Wen-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses which include viruses that cause the common cold and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in humans and other diseases in animals. There are considerable genetic diversities within coronaviruses due to their wide rang hosts and their special gene replication and transcription mechanisms. During this process, gene recombinations often occur, resulting in novel subtype or coronavirus emerge constantly. Of note are SARS-like-CoVs and novel HCoV-EMC identified in 2012. This minireview summarized major advances of recently identified coronaviruses, focusing on the genome structures and interspecies jumping mechanism of coronavirus.

  6. Deciphering life history transcriptomes in different environments

    PubMed Central

    Etges, William J.; Trotter, Meredith V.; de Oliveira, Cássia C.; Rajpurohit, Subhash; Gibbs, Allen G.; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2014-01-01

    We compared whole transcriptome variation in six preadult stages and seven adult female ages in two populations of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis reared on two host plants in order to understand how differences in gene expression influence standing life history variation. We used Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to identify dominant trajectories of life cycle gene expression variation, performed pair-wise comparisons of stage and age differences in gene expression across the life cycle, identified when genes exhibited maximum levels of life cycle gene expression, and assessed population and host cactus effects on gene expression. Life cycle SVD analysis returned four significant components of transcriptional variation, revealing functional enrichment of genes responsible for growth, metabolic function, sensory perception, neural function, translation and aging. Host cactus effects on female gene expression revealed population and stage specific differences, including significant host plant effects on larval metabolism and development, as well as adult neurotransmitter binding and courtship behavior gene expression levels. In 3 - 6 day old virgin females, significant up-regulation of genes associated with meiosis and oogenesis was accompanied by down-regulation of genes associated with somatic maintenance, evidence for a life history tradeoff. The transcriptome of D. mojavensis reared in natural environments throughout its life cycle revealed core developmental transitions and genome wide influences on life history variation in natural populations. PMID:25442828

  7. Deciphering life history transcriptomes in different environments.

    PubMed

    Etges, William J; Trotter, Meredith V; de Oliveira, Cássia C; Rajpurohit, Subhash; Gibbs, Allen G; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2015-01-01

    We compared whole transcriptome variation in six pre-adult stages and seven adult female ages in two populations of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis reared on two host plants to understand how differences in gene expression influence standing life history variation. We used singular value decomposition (SVD) to identify dominant trajectories of life cycle gene expression variation, performed pairwise comparisons of stage and age differences in gene expression across the life cycle, identified when genes exhibited maximum levels of life cycle gene expression, and assessed population and host cactus effects on gene expression. Life cycle SVD analysis returned four significant components of transcriptional variation, revealing functional enrichment of genes responsible for growth, metabolic function, sensory perception, neural function, translation and ageing. Host cactus effects on female gene expression revealed population- and stage-specific differences, including significant host plant effects on larval metabolism and development, as well as adult neurotransmitter binding and courtship behaviour gene expression levels. In 3- to 6-day-old virgin females, significant upregulation of genes associated with meiosis and oogenesis was accompanied by downregulation of genes associated with somatic maintenance, evidence for a life history trade-off. The transcriptome of D. mojavensis reared in natural environments throughout its life cycle revealed core developmental transitions and genome-wide influences on life history variation in natural populations.

  8. Better Diet, Longer Life?

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_167146.html Better Diet, Longer Life? A large study suggests you're never too ... show that sustained diet changes -- even later in life -- might extend people's lives, the researchers said. "A ...

  9. Testing times: identifying puberty in an identified skeletal sample.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Charlotte Y; Padez, Cristina

    2017-06-01

    Identifying the onset of puberty in skeletal remains can provide evidence of social changes associated with the onset of adulthood. This paper presents the first test of a skeletal method for identifying stages of development associated with the onset of puberty in a skeletal sample of known age and cause of death. Skeletal methods for assessing skeletal development associated with changes associated with puberty were recorded in the identified skeletal collection in Coimbra, Portugal. Historical data on the onset of menarche in this country are used to test the method. As expected, females mature faster than their male counterparts. There is some side asymmetry in development. Menarche was found to have been achieved by an average age of 15. Asymmetry must be taken into account when dealing with partially preserved skeletons. Age of menarche is consistent, although marginally higher, than the age expected based on historical data for this time and location. Skeletal development in males could not be tested against historical data, due to the lack of counterpart historical data. The ill health known to be present in this prematurely deceased population may have delayed skeletal development and the onset of puberty.

  10. Identifying Pilots with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Clem, Peter A; Navathe, Pooshan D; Drane, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    In 2012 the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare produced a report titled 'Dementia in Australia.'(2) The report noted that the number of people with dementia in Australia would reach almost 400,000 by 2020. Australia is a jurisdiction which does not impose a mandatory retirement age for pilots. With an aging population it was hypothesized that conditions such as Parkinson's disease (PD) were likely to be seen more commonly by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA). It was decided that this was an appropriate time to retrospectively study the data held by CASA. An interrogation of CASA databases was undertaken. Data was produced comparing percentage of Class 1 certificate holders over 60 yr of age against time. A cohort of pilots and controllers with PD was identified. The history of the cases was reviewed. The study confirms that the pilot population is aging in line with population trends. Over a period from 1992 to 2012, 22 cases of pilots and controllers with PD were identified. The study confirmed that PD will be of increased relevance over the next decade. Gaps between policy and practice managing past cases were identified. Updated guidelines have been published aiming to address the deficiencies identified in the study. Historically pilots and controllers have been able to maintain certification for an average of 3.75 yr. This information should be of benefit to clinicians, pilots, and controllers when considering occupation and treatment options.

  11. "Geriatricizing" Hospitalists: Identifying Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Susan M.; Gillespie, Suzanne M.; Medina-Walpole, Annette M.; Caprio, Thomas V.; Karuza, Jurgis; McCann, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify differences between geriatricians and hospitalists in caring for hospitalized older adults, so as to inform faculty development programs that have the goal of improving older patient care. Eleven hospitalists and 13 geriatricians were surveyed regarding knowledge, confidence, and practice patterns in…

  12. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DATA USED FOR IDENTIFYING ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Due to unique social and demographic characteristics, various segments of the population may experience exposures different from those of the general population, which, in many cases, may be greater. When risk assessments do not characterize subsets of the general population, the populations that may experience the greatest risk remain unidentified. When such populations are not identified, the social and demographic data relevant to these populations is not considered when preparing exposure estimates, which can underestimate exposure and risk estimates for at-risk populations. Thus, it is necessary for risk or exposure assessors characterizing a diverse population, to first identify and then enumerate certain groups within the general population who are at risk for greater contaminant exposures. The document entitled Sociodemographic Data Used for Identifying Potentially Highly Exposed Populations (also referred to as the Highly Exposed Populations document), assists assessors in identifying and enumerating potentially highly exposed populations. This document presents data relating to factors which potentially impact an individual or group's exposure to environmental contaminants based on activity patterns (how time is spent), microenvironments (locations where time is spent), and other socio-demographic data such as age, gender, race and economic status. Populations potentially more exposed to various chemicals of concern, relative to the general population

  13. "Geriatricizing" Hospitalists: Identifying Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Susan M.; Gillespie, Suzanne M.; Medina-Walpole, Annette M.; Caprio, Thomas V.; Karuza, Jurgis; McCann, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify differences between geriatricians and hospitalists in caring for hospitalized older adults, so as to inform faculty development programs that have the goal of improving older patient care. Eleven hospitalists and 13 geriatricians were surveyed regarding knowledge, confidence, and practice patterns in…

  14. Identifying the Gifted Child Humorist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fern, Tami L.

    1991-01-01

    This study attempted to identify gifted child humorists among 1,204 children in grades 3-6. Final identification of 13 gifted child humorists was determined through application of such criteria as funniness, originality, and exemplary performance or product. The influence of intelligence, development, social factors, sex differences, family…

  15. Identifying Innovative Agricultural Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayfield, John; Murphy, Tim; Briers, Gary; Lewis, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Researchers identified innovative agricultural education programs across the United States. A Delphi study was conducted with the teachers in innovative programs. According to the teachers, innovative programs in 2020 will use hands-on activities and will be run by highly motivated teachers. The purpose of innovative programs in the future will be…

  16. Identifiability, exchangeability and confounding revisited

    PubMed Central

    Greenland, Sander; Robins, James M

    2009-01-01

    In 1986 the International Journal of Epidemiology published "Identifiability, Exchangeability and Epidemiological Confounding". We review the article from the perspective of a quarter century after it was first drafted and relate it to subsequent developments on confounding, ignorability, and collapsibility. PMID:19732410

  17. Methods of Identifying Marketing Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lucy C.; Ertel, Kenneth A.

    1970-01-01

    The competency pattern and the task analysis are two approaches used to identify content that affects the distributive education curriculum. These and other research tools provide essential information about capabilities required for entrance into and persistence in careers at prescribed levels of distributive jobs. (Author)

  18. Identifying predictors of treatment response.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Paul; Compton, Don

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a rationale for considering predictors of growth in a treatment group as inadequate to identifying predictors of treatment response. When we interpret predictors of growth in a treatment group as synonymous with predictors of treatment response, we implicitly attribute all of the treated children's growth to the treatment, an untenable assumption under most conditions. We also contend that the use of standard scores in predictors of growth studies does not allow us to differentiate growth from treatment, from growth from other factors. We present two research methodologies that are appropriate methods of identifying predictors of treatment response: (a) single-subject experimental logic utilized to identify the specific participants in which treatment responses (not just growth) were found, combined with follow-up group comparison logic to identify the characteristics on which responders and nonresponders differ, and (b) statistical interactions among child/family/context characteristics and randomly assigned group membership. Principles for selecting potential predictors of treatment response are provided.

  19. Identified Sins in Teaching Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    This paper cites as selected taboos in teaching reading (identified by educators very frequently) the following: (1) homogeneous grouping; (2) round robin reading; (3) use of textbooks and workbooks in the curriculum; (4) individual endeavors in school work; (5) memorization of content; and (6) the controlled vocabulary in reading. The paper…

  20. Strategies to identify natural antisense transcripts.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yulong; Li, Dijie; Zhang, Ru; Peng, Shang; Zhang, Ge; Yang, Tuanmin; Qian, Airong

    2017-01-01

    Natural antisense transcripts, originally considered as transcriptional noises arising from so-called "junk DNA″, are recently recognized as important modulators for gene regulation. They are prevalent in nearly all realms of life and have been found to modulate gene expression positively or negatively. By affecting almost all stages of gene expression range from pre-transcriptional, transcriptional and post-transcriptional to translation, NATs are fundamentally involved in various biological processes. However, compared to increasing huge data from transcriptional analysis especially high-throughput sequencing technologies (such as RNA-seq), limited functional NATs (around 70) are so far reported, which hinder our advanced comprehensive understanding for this field. Hence, efficient strategies for identifying NATs are urgently desired. In this review, we discussed the current strategies for identifying NATs, with a focus on the advantages, disadvantages, and applications of methods isolating functional NATs. Moreover, publicly available databases for NATs were also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  1. DNA Barcoding Identifies Illegal Parrot Trade.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Priscila F M; Oliveira-Marques, Adriana R; Matsumoto, Tania E; Miyaki, Cristina Y

    2015-01-01

    Illegal trade threatens the survival of many wild species, and molecular forensics can shed light on various questions raised during the investigation of cases of illegal trade. Among these questions is the identity of the species involved. Here we report a case of a man who was caught in a Brazilian airport trying to travel with 58 avian eggs. He claimed they were quail eggs, but authorities suspected they were from parrots. The embryos never hatched and it was not possible to identify them based on morphology. As 29% of parrot species are endangered, the identity of the species involved was important to establish a stronger criminal case. Thus, we identified the embryos' species based on the analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene [COI] and 16S ribosomal DNA). Embryonic COI sequences were compared with those deposited in BOLD (The Barcode of Life Data System) while their 16S sequences were compared with GenBank sequences. Clustering analysis based on neighbor-joining was also performed using parrot COI and 16S sequences deposited in BOLD and GenBank. The results, based on both genes, indicated that 57 embryos were parrots (Alipiopsitta xanthops, Ara ararauna, and the [Amazona aestiva/A. ochrocephala] complex), and 1 was an owl. This kind of data can help criminal investigations and to design species-specific anti-poaching strategies, and demonstrate how DNA sequence analysis in the identification of bird species is a powerful conservation tool.

  2. HIV Life Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 9/8/2016) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  3. Education and Life's Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinkel, Anders; De Ruyter, Doret J.; Aviram, Aharon

    2016-01-01

    There are deep connections between education and the question of life's meaning, which derive, ultimately, from the fact that, for human beings, how to live--and therefore, how to raise one's children--is not a given but a question. One might see the meaning of life as constitutive of the meaning of education, and answers to the question of life's…

  4. Life Skills Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Jan P.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, Bates, the Inmate Programs Manager of the Hillsborough County Sheriff's Office in Tampa, Florida, describes her office's Life Skills Project, a comprehensive program that has significantly enhanced three existing programs by adding extensive life skills components. The added life skills modules reinforce the importance of…

  5. Education and Life's Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinkel, Anders; De Ruyter, Doret J.; Aviram, Aharon

    2016-01-01

    There are deep connections between education and the question of life's meaning, which derive, ultimately, from the fact that, for human beings, how to live--and therefore, how to raise one's children--is not a given but a question. One might see the meaning of life as constitutive of the meaning of education, and answers to the question of life's…

  6. Life Among the Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Explores possibility of extra-terrestrial life, reviewing current hypotheses regarding where in space life would most likely occur. Discusses astrometry and spectroscopy as methods for determining stellar motions. Describes United States and Soviet projects for receiving stellar communications. Relates origin of life on earth to observed high…

  7. Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

  8. Life Among the Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Explores possibility of extra-terrestrial life, reviewing current hypotheses regarding where in space life would most likely occur. Discusses astrometry and spectroscopy as methods for determining stellar motions. Describes United States and Soviet projects for receiving stellar communications. Relates origin of life on earth to observed high…

  9. Life without Carbon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, Manfred; Williams, Peter E.

    2006-05-01

    Carbon is the centerpiece of all life on Earth and one of the most abundant elements in the Solar System and Sun-like stars. Yet alien biochemistries and one's choice of a definition of life offer possibility for other forms of life.

  10. Engaging with Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheatley, Margaret J.

    1997-01-01

    Explores an ancient world view rediscovered through modern science: the world is essentially cooperative and systems-seeking; relationships are a requirement for existence; life is a great experimenter; the processes of life are redundant and messy but ultimately self-organizing; and life supports uniqueness and is unpredictable. Relates these…

  11. Metadata, Identifiers, and Physical Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arctur, D. K.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Hills, D. J.; Jenkyns, R.; Stroker, K. J.; Todd, N. S.; Dassie, E. P.; Bowring, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Physical samples are integral to much of the research conducted by geoscientists. The samples used in this research are often obtained at significant cost and represent an important investment for future research. However, making information about samples - whether considered data or metadata - available for researchers to enable discovery is difficult: a number of key elements related to samples are difficult to characterize in common ways, such as classification, location, sample type, sampling method, repository information, subsample distribution, and instrumentation, because these differ from one domain to the next. Unifying these elements or developing metadata crosswalks is needed. The iSamples (Internet of Samples) NSF-funded Research Coordination Network (RCN) is investigating ways to develop these types of interoperability and crosswalks. Within the iSamples RCN, one of its working groups, WG1, has focused on the metadata related to physical samples. This includes identifying existing metadata standards and systems, and how they might interoperate with the International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) schema (schema.igsn.org) in order to help inform leading practices for metadata. For example, we are examining lifecycle metadata beyond the IGSN `birth certificate.' As a first step, this working group is developing a list of relevant standards and comparing their various attributes. In addition, the working group is looking toward technical solutions to facilitate developing a linked set of registries to build the web of samples. Finally, the group is also developing a comparison of sample identifiers and locators. This paper will provide an overview and comparison of the standards identified thus far, as well as an update on the technical solutions examined for integration. We will discuss how various sample identifiers might work in complementary fashion with the IGSN to more completely describe samples, facilitate retrieval of contextual information, and

  12. Family Life Education Needs of Mentally Disabled Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Jerelyn B.; Adams, Donna U.

    1987-01-01

    Administered 50 needs statements to 134 minimally and mildly mentally disabled adolescent students to identify their family life education needs as a basis for curriculum development. Identified six clusters or groups of family life education needs: Basic Nutrition, Teenage Pregnancy, Sex Education, Developmental Tasks of Adolescents, Marriage and…

  13. Family Life Education Needs of Mentally Disabled Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Jerelyn B.; Adams, Donna U.

    1987-01-01

    Administered 50 needs statements to 134 minimally and mildly mentally disabled adolescent students to identify their family life education needs as a basis for curriculum development. Identified six clusters or groups of family life education needs: Basic Nutrition, Teenage Pregnancy, Sex Education, Developmental Tasks of Adolescents, Marriage and…

  14. A life with prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Fine, David Roger

    2012-01-01

    The author gives an anecdotal account of his life with developmental prosopagnosia (DP). He was not formally diagnosed until the age of 53 and has evolved a complicated strategy for recognizing people based on non-facial physical features and context. He describes his experiences through infancy, school, university life and courtship, work and family life. He believes that he has lived a full and successful life despite DP but that some aspects of his social and work life were impaired by face-blindness. In his experience people react positively and helpfully if the consequences of DP are explained to them, and this improves social interactions and communications.

  15. Identifying the potential rural optometrist.

    PubMed

    Kegel-Flom, P

    1976-09-01

    Rural optometrists were found to differ from urban optometrists in background, environmental attitude, and interest patterns. Attitude toward the urban environment and place of origin were the best predictors of an optometrist's practice location. When "urbanism" and "origin" were scaled and placed in a multiple regression equation to predict practice location, identification of an optometrist's location as rural or urban was highly accurate. Most importantly, scores on the equation were predictive of optometry students' future practice locations. A single cut-off point on the equation correctly identified 79% of students who entered rural or isolated small city practice and 81% of those who entered urban practice. The findings suggest that optometry students most likely to enter rural (or indeed urban) practice can be objectively identified early in, or even prior to, training. Such identification may assist educators in selecting and training optometrists who will deliver vision care to people in areas of greatest need.

  16. Identifying and managing problem drinkers.

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, M.

    1996-01-01

    Problem drinking is far more common than severe alcohol dependence and is associated with considerable morbidity and health care costs. Whereas patients with alcohol dependence respond best to intensive treatment, one or more brief sessions of physician advice and counseling reduces alcohol consumption among problem drinkers. The two most useful tools to identify problem drinkers are the CAGE and the drinking problem question. PMID:8653034

  17. Identifying Targets from Filtering Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-24

    Introduction Considering a radar (or sonar) target as more than a simple point scatterer brings up the possibility of identifying the target based on the...2000. [8] M. Vespe, C. J. Baker, and H. D. Griffiths , "Automatic target regognition using multi-diversity radar," Radar, Sonar \\& Navigation, IET, vol...A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics : The Finite Difference Time Domain Method. Norwood, MA: Artech House, 2005.

  18. Definition of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirk, Schulze-Makuch; Irwin, Louis N.

    The definition of life is a long-standing debate with no general scientific consensus to be expected any time soon. The underlying problem is that living systems use compounds that are abundant in the surrounding environment and processes that are not intrinsically different from reactions that occur abiologically. There does not appear to exist a single characteristic property that is both intrinsic and unique to life. Rather we have to argue that life meets certain standards, or that it qualifies by the collective presence of a certain set of characteristics. The threshold for meeting this standard sounds arbitrary, and may well be arbitrary in the sense that life presumably arose through a long sequence of "emergent events", each at a greater level of molecular complexity and order (Hazen 2002). If that notion is correct, any rigid distinction between life and non-life is a matter of subjective judgment. While our everyday experience with life on Earth makes the distinction between the living and non-living for the most part unambiguous, a consideration of life on other worlds, where conditions may be different, and/or where life may have evolved from its inorganic precedents to a lesser degree, requires us to formulate a more formal and objective definition for life. Before doing so, we will first address the limitations of commonplace assumptions about what constitutes life.

  19. Quality of life in shift work syndrome.

    PubMed

    Puca, F M; Perrucci, S; Prudenzano, M P; Savarese, M; Misceo, S; Perilli, S; Palumbo, M; Libro, G; Genco, S

    1996-01-01

    Air Force radar controllers represent an excellent example of night shift workers, as they are obliged to demonstrate perfect alertness during working hours. We set out: a) to assess the quality of life in these shift workers; b) to identify those with shift work syndrome and c) to evaluate the possible effects of triazolam both on their quality of life and sleep. The results reveal an impairment of the quality of life in shift workers, independently of the presence of a circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Quality of life was more severely impaired in subjects with circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Hypnotic therapy brought about an improvement both in the sleep disorder and in the quality of life of subjects affected by shift work syndrome. Selective alertness tests failed to demonstrate any "sedative carry-over" in the treated patients.

  20. Model systems for life processes on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitz, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    In the evolution of life forms nonphotosynthetic mechanisms are developed. The question remains whether a total life system could evolve which is not dependent upon photosynthesis. In trying to visualize life on other planets, the photosynthetic process has problems. On Mars, the high intensity of light at the surface is a concern and alternative mechanisms need to be defined and analyzed. In the UV search for alternate mechanisms, several different areas may be identified. These involve activated inorganic compounds in the atmosphere, such as the products of photodissociation of carbon dioxide and the organic material which may be created by natural phenomena. In addition, a life system based on the pressure of the atmospheric constituents, such as carbon dioxide, is a possibility. These considerations may be important for the understanding of evolutionary processes of life on another planet. Model systems which depend on these alternative mechanisms are defined and related to presently planned and future planetary missions.

  1. Nutrition throughout life: folate.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Helene; Pentieva, Kristina; Hoey, Leane; Strain, Jj; Ward, Mary

    2012-10-01

    Scientific evidence supports a number of roles for folate in maintaining health from early life to old age. Folate is required for one-carbon metabolism, including the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine; thus elevated plasma homocysteine reflects functional folate deficiency. Optimal folate status has an established role in preventing NTD and there is strong evidence indicating that it also has a role in the primary prevention of stroke. The most important genetic determinant of homocysteine in the general population is the common 677C → T variant in the gene encoding the folate-metabolising enzyme, MTHFR; homozygous individuals (TT genotype) have reduced enzyme activity and elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations. Meta-analyses indicate that the TT genotype carries a 14 to 21 % increased risk of CVD, but there is considerable geographic variation in the extent of excess CVD risk. A novel interaction between this folate polymorphism and riboflavin (a co-factor for MTHFR) has recently been identified. Intervention with supplemental riboflavin targeted specifically at individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype was shown to result in significant lowering of blood pressure in hypertensive people and in patients with CVD. This review considers the established and emerging roles for folate throughout the lifecycle, and some public health issues related to optimising folate status.

  2. Photonics for life.

    PubMed

    Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Bassi, Andrea; Comelli, Daniela; Cova, Sergio; Farina, Andrea; Ghioni, Massimo; Rech, Ivan; Pifferi, Antonio; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Taroni, Paola; Torricelli, Alessandro; Tosi, Alberto; Valentini, Gianluca; Zappa, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Light is strictly connected with life, and its presence is fundamental for any living environment. Thus, many biological mechanisms are related to light interaction or can be evaluated through processes involving energy exchange with photons. Optics has always been a precious tool to evaluate molecular and cellular mechanisms, but the discovery of lasers opened new pathways of interactions of light with biological matter, pushing an impressive development for both therapeutic and diagnostic applications in biomedicine. The use of light in different fields has become so widespread that the word photonics has been utilized to identify all the applications related to processes where the light is involved. The photonics area covers a wide range of wavelengths spanning from soft X-rays to mid-infrared and includes all devices related to photons as light sources, optical fibers and light guides, detectors, and all the related electronic equipment. The recent use of photons in the field of telecommunications has pushed the technology toward low-cost, compact, and efficient devices, making them available for many other applications, including those related to biology and medicine where these requirements are of particular relevance. Moreover, basic sciences such as physics, chemistry, mathematics, and electronics have recognized the interdisciplinary need of biomedical science and are translating the most advanced researches into these fields. The Politecnico school has pioneered many of them,and this article reviews the state of the art of biomedical research at the Politecnico in the field internationally known as biophotonics.

  3. Life Course Trajectories of Later-Life Cognitive Functions: Does Social Engagement in Old Age Matter?

    PubMed

    Park, Sojung; Kwon, Eunsun; Lee, Hyunjoo

    2017-04-07

    This study identified differential patterns of later-life cognitive function trajectories and examined to what extent life course factors and social engagement are associated with group trajectories. Data came from seven waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS 1998-2010; n = 7374; Observations = 41,051). Latent class growth analysis identified cognitive function trajectory groups, and multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the factors associated with group trajectories. Five heterogeneous trajectories were identified: stable high, stable moderate, stable low, high-to-moderate, and moderate-to-low. Findings suggest that, after adjusting for life course factors, individuals who became volunteers were more likely to belong to one of the two least vulnerable trajectories, stable high or high-to-moderate. Our findings suggest that, despite the cumulative life course factors evident in cognitive decline, social engagement in old age may serve as a potential protective resource.

  4. Identifying Network Perturbation in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Logsdon, Benjamin A.; Gentles, Andrew J.; Lee, Su-In

    2016-01-01

    We present a computational framework, called DISCERN (DIfferential SparsE Regulatory Network), to identify informative topological changes in gene-regulator dependence networks inferred on the basis of mRNA expression datasets within distinct biological states. DISCERN takes two expression datasets as input: an expression dataset of diseased tissues from patients with a disease of interest and another expression dataset from matching normal tissues. DISCERN estimates the extent to which each gene is perturbed—having distinct regulator connectivity in the inferred gene-regulator dependencies between the disease and normal conditions. This approach has distinct advantages over existing methods. First, DISCERN infers conditional dependencies between candidate regulators and genes, where conditional dependence relationships discriminate the evidence for direct interactions from indirect interactions more precisely than pairwise correlation. Second, DISCERN uses a new likelihood-based scoring function to alleviate concerns about accuracy of the specific edges inferred in a particular network. DISCERN identifies perturbed genes more accurately in synthetic data than existing methods to identify perturbed genes between distinct states. In expression datasets from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), breast cancer and lung cancer, genes with high DISCERN scores in each cancer are enriched for known tumor drivers, genes associated with the biological processes known to be important in the disease, and genes associated with patient prognosis, in the respective cancer. Finally, we show that DISCERN can uncover potential mechanisms underlying network perturbation by explaining observed epigenomic activity patterns in cancer and normal tissue types more accurately than alternative methods, based on the available epigenomic data from the ENCODE project. PMID:27145341

  5. Identifying crash patterns on roundabouts.

    PubMed

    Polders, Evelien; Daniels, Stijn; Casters, Winfried; Brijs, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Roundabouts are a type of circular intersection control generally associated with a favorable influence on traffic safety. International studies of intersections converted to roundabouts indicate a strong reduction in injury crashes, particularly for crashes with fatal or serious injuries. Nevertheless, some crashes still occur at roundabouts. The present study aims to improve the understanding of roundabout safety by identifying crash types, locations, and factors that are associated with roundabout crashes. An analysis of 399 crashes on 28 roundabouts in Flanders, Belgium, was carried out based on detailed crash descriptions; that is, crash data and collision diagrams. The crashes are sampled from police-reported crashes at roundabouts in the region of Flanders, Belgium. Collision diagrams of the registered crashes were used to distinguish 8 different crash types. The roundabout itself is divided into 11 detailed and different typical segments, according to previously established knowledge on the occurrence of crashes at roundabouts. The 8 roundabout crash types are examined by injury severity, crash location within the roundabout, type of roundabout, type of cycle facility, and type of involved road user. Four dominant crash types are identified: rear-end crashes, collisions with vulnerable road users, entering-circulating crashes, and single-vehicle collisions with the central island. Crashes with vulnerable road users and collisions with the central island are characterized by significantly higher proportions of injury crashes. About 80% of the crashes occurred on the entry lanes and the circulatory road (segments 1-4). Road users who are the most at risk to be involved in serious injury crashes at roundabouts are cyclists and moped riders. The main goal of this study was to identify and analyze dominant crash types at roundabouts by taking into account detailed information on the crash location. Some connections between certain roundabout crash types, their

  6. Identifying the health conscious consumer.

    PubMed

    Kraft, F B; Goodell, P W

    1993-01-01

    Individuals who lead a "wellness-oriented" lifestyle are concerned with nutrition, fitness, stress, and their environment. They accept responsibility for their health and are excellent customers for health-related products and services. Those who lack a wellness orientation are identified as higher health risks and become candidates for health promotion program intervention. The authors report a new scale by which to measure the wellness-oriented lifestyle. Scale development procedures are detailed, followed by information from five studies that support its validity. The authors suggest ways health care marketers may use the Wellness Scale to segment and target potential customers and position their products and services.

  7. Persistent Identifiers for Dutch cultural heritage institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ras, Marcel; Kruithof, Gijsbert

    2016-04-01

    Over the past years, more and more collections belonging to archives, libraries, media, museums, and knowledge institutes are being digitised and made available online. These are exciting times for ALM institutions. They are realising that, in the information society, their collections are goldmines. Unfortunately most heritage institutions in the Netherlands do not yet meet the basic preconditions for long-term availability of their collections. The digital objects often have no long lasting fixed reference yet. URL's and web addresses change. Some digital objects that were referenced in Europeana and other portals can no longer be found. References in scientific articles have a very short life span, which is damaging for scholarly research. In 2015, the Dutch Digital Heritage Network (NDE) has started a two-year work program to co-ordinate existing initiatives in order to improve the (long-term) accessibility of the Dutch digital heritage for a wide range of users, anytime, anyplace. The Digital Heritage Network is a partnership established on the initiative of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. The members of the NDE are large, national institutions that strive to professionally preserve and manage digital data, e.g. the National Library, The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, the Netherlands Cultural Heritage Agency, the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Archive of the Netherlands and the DEN Foundation, and a growing number of associations and individuals both within and outside the heritage sector. By means of three work programmes the goals of the Network should be accomplished and improve the visibility, the usability and the sustainability of digital heritage. Each programme contains of a set of projects. Within the sustainability program a project on creating a model for persistent identifiers is taking place. The main goals of the project are (1) raise awareness among cultural heritage institutions on the

  8. Quality of life: perception of lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, A; Milroy, R; Gillis, C R; McEwen, J

    1996-12-01

    An investigation was carried out to examine what quality of life means to lung cancer patients. 200 patients with either lung cancer (108) or chronic respiratory disease (92) were interviewed using a short open-ended questionnaire. They were asked to define quality of life in general, identify what they considered to be a good quality of life for themselves and to rank the relative importance attached to each nominated item. A content analysis was carried out and patients' responses were categorised into eight items. These were: ability to do what one wants to do/work, enjoyment of life, family life, financial security, happiness, health, living longer and social life/leisure activities. Of these, health (42%), enjoyment of life (25%) and family life (24%) were the three most nominated items as definition of quality of life in general. Patients perceived a good quality of life for themselves differently. Family life (58%), health (51%) and social life (43%) were found to be the most nominated components of a good quality of life for the patients. Overall, patients ranked family life and health as the first or second most important factors. There were no significant differences between cases and controls. The study results are challenging and serve to remind us that the term quality of life is misused in many studies. Most existing measures do not encompass the wider aspects of quality of life identified here, but rather concentrate on the "health-related" aspects of quality of life. To achieve this, the research into the best ways of measuring and assessing quality of life must continue to seek individual values and preferences and how these can be applied in a simple way in clinical studies.

  9. Featured Image: Identifying Weird Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    Hoags Object, an example of a ring galaxy. [NASA/Hubble Heritage Team/Ray A. Lucas (STScI/AURA)]The above image (click for the full view) shows PanSTARRSobservationsof some of the 185 galaxies identified in a recent study as ring galaxies bizarre and rare irregular galaxies that exhibit stars and gas in a ring around a central nucleus. Ring galaxies could be formed in a number of ways; one theory is that some might form in a galaxy collision when a smaller galaxy punches through the center of a larger one, triggering star formation around the center. In a recent study, Ian Timmis and Lior Shamir of Lawrence Technological University in Michigan explore ways that we may be able to identify ring galaxies in the overwhelming number of images expected from large upcoming surveys. They develop a computer analysis method that automatically finds ring galaxy candidates based on their visual appearance, and they test their approach on the 3 million galaxy images from the first PanSTARRS data release. To see more of the remarkable galaxies the authors found and to learn more about their identification method, check out the paper below.CitationIan Timmis and Lior Shamir 2017 ApJS 231 2. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aa78a3

  10. Detecting and identifying offset gaze.

    PubMed

    Balsdon, Tarryn; Clifford, Colin W G

    2017-06-14

    A number of experiments have demonstrated that observers can accurately identify stimuli that they fail to detect (Rollman and Nachmias, 1972; Harris and Fahle, 1995; Allik et al. 1982, 2014). Using a 2x2AFC double judgements procedure, we demonstrated an analogous pattern of performance in making judgements about the direction of eye gaze. Participants were shown two faces in succession: one with direct gaze and one with gaze offset to the left or right. We found that they could identify the direction of gaze offset (left/right) better than they could detect which face contained the offset gaze. A simple Thurstonian model, under which the detection judgement is shown to be more computationally complex, was found to explain the empirical data. A further experiment incorporated metacognitive ratings into the double judgements procedure to measure observers' metacognitive awareness (Meta-d') across the two judgements and to assess whether observers were aware of the evidence for offset gaze when detection performance was at and below threshold. Results suggest that metacognitive awareness is tied to performance, with approximately equal Meta-d' across the two judgements, when sensitivity is taken into account. These results show that both performance and metacognitive awareness rely not only on the strength of sensory evidence but also on the computational complexity of the decision, which determines the relative distance of that evidence from the decision axes.

  11. Identifying teaching in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Alex; Raihani, Nichola J

    2010-08-01

    After a long period of neglect, the study of teaching in nonhuman animals is beginning to take a more prominent role in research on social learning. Unlike other forms of social learning, teaching requires knowledgeable individuals to play an active role in facilitating learning by the naive. Casting aside anthropocentric requirements for cognitive mechanisms assumed to underpin teaching in our own species, researchers are now beginning to discover evidence for teaching across a wide range of taxa. Nevertheless, unequivocal evidence for teaching remains scarce, with convincing experimental data limited to meerkats, pied babblers, and tandem-running ants. In this review, our aim is to stimulate further research in different species and contexts by providing conceptual and methodological guidelines for identifying teaching, with a focus on natural populations. We begin by highlighting the fact that teaching is a form of cooperative behavior that functions to promote learning in others and show that consideration of these key characteristics is critical in helping to identify suitable targets for future research. We then go on to discuss potential observational, experimental, and statistical techniques that may assist researchers in providing evidence that the criteria that make up the accepted operational definition of teaching have been met. Supplemental materials for this article may be downloaded from http://lb.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  12. Identifying future zoonotic disease threats

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Natalie; Nunn, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: Emerging infectious diseases often originate in wildlife, making it important to identify infectious agents in wild populations. It is widely acknowledged that wild animals are incompletely sampled for infectious agents, especially in developing countries, but it is unclear how much more sampling is needed, and where that effort should focus in terms of host species and geographic locations. Here, we identify these gaps in primate parasites, many of which have already emerged as threats to human health. Methodology: We obtained primate host–parasite records and other variables from existing databases. We then investigated sampling effort within primates relative to their geographic range size, and within countries relative to their primate species richness. We used generalized linear models, controlling for phylogenetic or spatial autocorrelation, to model variation in sampling effort across primates and countries. Finally, we used species richness estimators to extrapolate parasite species richness. Results: We found uneven sampling effort within all primate groups and continents. Sampling effort among primates was influenced by their geographic range size and substrate use, with terrestrial species receiving more sampling. Our parasite species richness estimates suggested that, among the best sampled primates and countries, almost half of primate parasites remain to be sampled; for most primate hosts, the situation is much worse. Conclusions and implications: Sampling effort for primate parasites is uneven and low. The sobering message is that we know little about even the best studied primates, and even less regarding the spatial and temporal distribution of parasitism within species. PMID:24481184

  13. Identifying tandem Ankyrin repeats in protein structures.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Broto; Parekh, Nita

    2014-12-30

    Tandem repetition of structural motifs in proteins is frequently observed across all forms of life. Topology of repeating unit and its frequency of occurrence are associated to a wide range of structural and functional roles in diverse proteins, and defects in repeat proteins have been associated with a number of diseases. It is thus desirable to accurately identify specific repeat type and its copy number. Weak evolutionary constraints on repeat units and insertions/deletions between them make their identification difficult at the sequence level and structure based approaches are desired. The proposed graph spectral approach is based on protein structure represented as a graph for detecting one of the most frequently observed structural repeats, Ankyrin repeat. It has been shown in a large number of studies that 3-dimensional topology of a protein structure is well captured by a graph, making it possible to analyze a complex protein structure as a mathematical entity. In this study we show that eigen spectra profile of a protein structure graph exhibits a unique repetitive profile for contiguous repeating units enabling the detection of the repeat region and the repeat type. The proposed approach uses a non-redundant set of 58 Ankyrin proteins to define rules for the detection of Ankyrin repeat motifs. It is evaluated on a set of 370 proteins comprising 125 known Ankyrin proteins and remaining non-solenoid proteins and the prediction compared with UniProt annotation, sequence-based approach, RADAR, and structure-based approach, ConSole. To show the efficacy of the approach, we analyzed the complete PDB structural database and identified 641 previously unrecognized Ankyrin repeat proteins. We observe a unique eigen spectra profile for different repeat types and show that the method can be easily extended to detect other repeat types. It is implemented as a web server, AnkPred. It is freely available at 'bioinf.iiit.ac.in/AnkPred'. AnkPred provides an elegant and

  14. Life in Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Although the Viking results may indicate that Mars has no life today, there is direct geomorphological evidence that, in the past, Mars had large amounts of liquid water on its surface - possibly due to a thicker atmosphere. From a biological perspective the existence of liquid water, by itself motivates the question of the origin of life on Mars. One of the martian meteorites dates back to this early period and may contain evidence consistent with life. From studies of the Earth's earliest biosphere we know that by 3.5 Gyr. ago, life had originated on Earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. Surface activity and erosion on Earth make it difficult to trace the history of life before the 3.5 Gyr timeframe. Ecosystems in cold, dry locations on Earth - such as the Antarctic - provide examples of how life on Mars might have survived and where to look for fossils.

  15. Olfaction, pheromones and life.

    PubMed

    Hoskison, E E

    2013-12-01

    From an evolutionary standpoint, olfaction is one of the oldest senses, and one that affects all aspects of life. This review discusses the influence of olfaction and pheromones on life. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1966-2012), Embase (1988-2012), The Cochrane Library (1993-2013) and Ovid (1966-2012). Olfaction plays an important role in life, from infancy through to adulthood and declining health in old age. Culture, memories and emotions, which add to life's complexity and overall enjoyment, are also influenced by olfaction. Olfaction has a chronological influence on life, affecting all aspects from the cradle to the grave; it plays a role in the quality of life as a key ingredient of human evolution, survival and enjoyment.

  16. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  17. Life insurance: genomic stratification and risk classification.

    PubMed

    Joly, Yann; Burton, Hilary; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Feze, Ida Ngueng; Dent, Tom; Pashayan, Nora; Chowdhury, Susmita; Foulkes, William; Hall, Alison; Hamet, Pavel; Kirwan, Nick; Macdonald, Angus; Simard, Jacques; Van Hoyweghen, Ine

    2014-05-01

    With the development and increasing accessibility of new genomic tools such as next-generation sequencing, genome-wide association studies, and genomic stratification models, the debate on genetic discrimination in the context of life insurance became even more complex, requiring a review of current practices and the exploration of new scenarios. In this perspective, a multidisciplinary group of international experts representing different interests revisited the genetics and life insurance debate during a 2-day symposium 'Life insurance: breast cancer research and genetic risk prediction seminar' held in Quebec City, Canada on 24 and 25 September 2012. Having reviewed the current legal, social, and ethical issues on the use of genomic information in the context of life insurance, the Expert Group identified four main questions: (1) Have recent developments in genomics and related sciences changed the contours of the genetics and life insurance debate? (2) Are genomic results obtained in a research context relevant for life insurance underwriting? (3) Should predictive risk assessment and risk stratification models based on genomic data also be used for life insurance underwriting? (4) What positive actions could stakeholders in the debate take to alleviate concerns over the use of genomic information by life insurance underwriters? This paper presents a summary of the discussions and the specific action items recommended by the Expert Group.

  18. Life insurance: genomic stratification and risk classification

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Yann; Burton, Hilary; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Feze, Ida Ngueng; Dent, Tom; Pashayan, Nora; Chowdhury, Susmita; Foulkes, William; Hall, Alison; Hamet, Pavel; Kirwan, Nick; Macdonald, Angus; Simard, Jacques; Van Hoyweghen, Ine

    2014-01-01

    With the development and increasing accessibility of new genomic tools such as next-generation sequencing, genome-wide association studies, and genomic stratification models, the debate on genetic discrimination in the context of life insurance became even more complex, requiring a review of current practices and the exploration of new scenarios. In this perspective, a multidisciplinary group of international experts representing different interests revisited the genetics and life insurance debate during a 2-day symposium ‘Life insurance: breast cancer research and genetic risk prediction seminar' held in Quebec City, Canada on 24 and 25 September 2012. Having reviewed the current legal, social, and ethical issues on the use of genomic information in the context of life insurance, the Expert Group identified four main questions: (1) Have recent developments in genomics and related sciences changed the contours of the genetics and life insurance debate? (2) Are genomic results obtained in a research context relevant for life insurance underwriting? (3) Should predictive risk assessment and risk stratification models based on genomic data also be used for life insurance underwriting? (4) What positive actions could stakeholders in the debate take to alleviate concerns over the use of genomic information by life insurance underwriters? This paper presents a summary of the discussions and the specific action items recommended by the Expert Group. PMID:24129434

  19. The quantum life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Paul

    2009-07-01

    To a physicist, life seems little short of miraculous-all those stupid atoms getting together to perform such clever tricks! For centuries, living organisms were regarded as some sort of magic matter. Today, we know that no special "life force" is at work in biology; there is just ordinary matter doing extraordinary things, all the while obeying the familiar laws of physics. What, then, is the secret of life's remarkable properties?

  20. Life-history data.

    PubMed

    Vanhoutte, Bram; Nazroo, James

    2016-07-15

    Life-history data are quantitative, retrospective and autobiographical data collected through event-history calendars. By mimicking the structure of our memories, these instruments can gather reliable information on different dimensions of the lifecourse. Life-history data enable the duration, timing and ordering of events to be brought to the foreground of analysis. Extending the scope of lifecourse research, life-history data make it possible to examine the long-term effects of past policies with more precision and detail.

  1. Artificial life and Piaget.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  2. Identifying infection hotspots early on.

    PubMed

    Shabha, Ghasson

    2012-04-01

    According to many published studies, 'ducting in ventilation and air-conditioning are largely overlooked and ignored, as they are out of sight and out of mind', despite mounting evidence indicating a higher risk in spreading airborne infections'. So says Ghasson Shabha BSc (Arch) MSc, PhD (Arch), MBIFM, Associate CIBSE, PG Cert Ed, of the Faculty of Technology, Engineering and the Environment (TEE), at the Birmingham School of the Built Environment (BSBE) at Birmingham City University, who adds that CIBSE estimates that fewer than 5% of buildings with air-conditioning systems above 12 kW have been inspected so far. Here he argues that incorporating 3D building information modelling software into existing computer-aided facilities management software systems will enable hospitals' 'infection hotspots' to be far more quickly identified, and subsequently monitored, to prevent future problems.

  3. Identifying and mapping community vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Morrow, B H

    1999-03-01

    Disaster vulnerability is socially constructed, i.e., it arises out of the social and economic circumstances of everyday living. Most often discussed from the perspective of developing nations, this article extends the argument using American demographic trends. Examples from recent disasters, Hurricane Andrew in particular, illustrate how certain categories of people, such as the poor, the elderly, women-headed households and recent residents, are at greater risk throughout the disaster response process. Knowledge of where these groups are concentrated within communities and the general nature of their circumstances is an important step towards effective emergency management. Emergency planners, policy-makers and responding organisations are encouraged to identify and locate high-risk sectors on Community Vulnerability Maps, integrating this information into GIS systems where feasible. Effective disaster management calls for aggressively involving these neighbourhoods and groups at all levels of planning and response, as well as mitigation efforts that address the root causes of vulnerability.

  4. Identifying methamphetamine exposure in children

    PubMed Central

    Castaneto, Marisol S.; Barnes, Allan J.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Schaffer, Michael; Rogers, Kristen K.; Stewart, Deborah; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Methamphetamine (MAMP) use, distribution and manufacture remain a serious public health and safety problem in the United States, and children environmentally exposed to MAMP face a myriad of developmental, social and health risks, including severe abuse and neglect necessitating child protection involvement. It is recommended that drug-endangered children receive medical evaluation and care with documentation of overall physical and mental conditions and have urine drug testing.1 The primary aim of this study was to determine the best biological matrix to detect MAMP, amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in environmentally exposed children. Method 91 children, environmentally exposed to household MAMP intake, were medically evaluated at the Child and Adolescent Abuse Resource and Evaluation (CAARE) Diagnostic and Treatment Center at the University of California, Davis (UCD) Children's Hospital. MAMP, AMP, MDMA, MDA and MDEA were quantified in urine and oral fluid (OF) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and in hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Results Overall drug detection rates in OF, urine and hair were 6.9%, 22.1% and 77.8%, respectively. Seventy children (79%) tested positive for 1 or more drugs in 1 or more matrices. MAMP was the primary analyte detected in all 3 biological matrices. All positive OF (n=5) and 18 of 19 positive urine specimens also had a positive hair test. Conclusion Hair analysis offered a more sensitive tool for identifying MAMP, AMP and MDMA environmental exposure in children than urine or OF testing. A negative urine, or hair test does not exclude the possibility of drug exposure, but hair testing provided the greatest sensitivity for identifying drug-exposed children. PMID:24263642

  5. Origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Cleaves, H. J.

    2003-10-01

    Deciphering the origin of life requires some knowledge of the early planetary environment. Unfortunately, we lack definitive evidence of the atmospheric composition, surface temperature, oceanic pH, and other environmental conditions that may have been important for the appearance of the first living systems on Earth. The rock remnants of the early Archean are extremely scarce and most of the record has been lost. The first indications of life from carbon inclusions in rocks and the oldest fossil record are currently under debate but there is a consensus that life started during the first billion years after the Earth formed. Life as we know it is a chemical phenomenon. The chemistry that could have produced self-organizing systems is the central problem in the origin of life. There are several competing theories for how this chemistry may have arisen. In spite of their diversity, proposals for a prebiotic "soup", for the role of submarine hydrothermal vents, or for the extraterrestrial origin of organic compounds have as a common background assumption the idea that abiotic organic compounds were necessary for the emergence of life. It is possible that a combination of these sources - exogenous and endogenous - contributed building blocks for the origin of life on Earth. In this paper we provide a review of the main ideas on the origin of life from the astrobiological perspective and discuss the probability of life on extrasolar planets.

  6. Astrobiology: Identifying Bacteria from Extreme Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Tiffany K.; Dorighi, Kristel M.; Cooksey, Kathy L.

    2010-12-01

    COSMOS is a four-week summer residential academic and enrichment program for high school students interested in science and mathematics, sponsored by the University of California. Since 2001, participants in the Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) Professional Development Program (PDP) have developed and instructed a general astronomy and biology COSMOS course cluster. This cluster provides an optimal venue for piloting newly designed activities, as well as an opportunity for PDP participants to obtain practical teaching experience. In 2007, we designed an astrobiology-based project for five of the 17 students in our cluster. This project aimed to bridge the gap between the astronomy and biology sides of Cluster 7: Stars and Cells. We facilitated the process whereby the students designed and implemented their own experimental plan to identify unknown extremophilic bacteria. Their findings allowed them to extrapolate and discuss what it means to be alive and how these factors would impact life on other planets. Here we provide details of the entire project design and reflect on its success.

  7. WOWBugs: New Life for Life Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Robert W.; And Others

    This book of life science activities introduces a new experimental animal--the WOWBug, "Melittobia digitata"--that is commonly found in nature but has never before been used in the precollege classroom. It includes 20 activities and experiments for grades 5-12, that cover topics from basic orientation to ecological interactions, from physical…

  8. WOWBugs: New Life for Life Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Robert W.; And Others

    This book of life science activities introduces a new experimental animal--the WOWBug, "Melittobia digitata"--that is commonly found in nature but has never before been used in the precollege classroom. It includes 20 activities and experiments for grades 5-12, that cover topics from basic orientation to ecological interactions, from physical…

  9. Life at the end of life: beliefs about individual life after death and "good death" models - a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Toscani, Franco; Borreani, Claudia; Boeri, Paolo; Miccinesi, Guido

    2003-01-01

    Background Different ideas of "good death" may influence the effectiveness of end-of-life care in patients with different ethos. This study aimed to identify the influence of believing in individual life after death on "good death" models. Methods Semi structured-interview to 8 persons, 4 believers and 4 non-believers in individual life after death from the general Italian population. Analysis of the transcribed text according to the method suggested by Mc Cracken. Results The analysis has shown a diverse and coherent conceptualization of death according to whether the subjects believe or not in individual life after death. Believers, for whom death marks the passage to a new dimension, prefer to be unaware of dying, while non-believers, for whom death is the end of the individual, prefer to be conscious until the very end of life. However some important aspects in common have been identified, i.e. having close people nearby, receiving assistance from experts, or the preference for a soft atmosphere around the dying person. Conclusion There are aspects in common and aspects in contrast between believers and non-believers in individual life after death: while sharing many aspects of what a "good death" ought to be, they have opposite stands on being aware of dying. A plurality of models should be foreseen, accepting, in this case, their practical and theoretical implications. PMID:14613557

  10. Hominin life history: reconstruction and evolution.

    PubMed

    Robson, Shannen L; Wood, Bernard

    2008-04-01

    In this review we attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history of hominin life history from extant and fossil evidence. We utilize demographic life history theory and distinguish life history variables, traits such as weaning, age at sexual maturity, and life span, from life history-related variables such as body mass, brain growth, and dental development. The latter are either linked with, or can be used to make inferences about, life history, thus providing an opportunity for estimating life history parameters in fossil taxa. We compare the life history variables of modern great apes and identify traits that are likely to be shared by the last common ancestor of Pan-Homo and those likely to be derived in hominins. All great apes exhibit slow life histories and we infer this to be true of the last common ancestor of Pan-Homo and the stem hominin. Modern human life histories are even slower, exhibiting distinctively long post-menopausal life spans and later ages at maturity, pointing to a reduction in adult mortality since the Pan-Homo split. We suggest that lower adult mortality, distinctively short interbirth intervals, and early weaning characteristic of modern humans are derived features resulting from cooperative breeding. We evaluate the fidelity of three life history-related variables, body mass, brain growth and dental development, with the life history parameters of living great apes. We found that body mass is the best predictor of great ape life history events. Brain growth trajectories and dental development and eruption are weakly related proxies and inferences from them should be made with caution. We evaluate the evidence of life history-related variables available for extinct species and find that prior to the transitional hominins there is no evidence of any hominin taxon possessing a body size, brain size or aspects of dental development much different from what we assume to be the primitive life history pattern for the Pan-Homo clade. Data for

  11. Hominin life history: reconstruction and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Shannen L; Wood, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    In this review we attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history of hominin life history from extant and fossil evidence. We utilize demographic life history theory and distinguish life history variables, traits such as weaning, age at sexual maturity, and life span, from life history-related variables such as body mass, brain growth, and dental development. The latter are either linked with, or can be used to make inferences about, life history, thus providing an opportunity for estimating life history parameters in fossil taxa. We compare the life history variables of modern great apes and identify traits that are likely to be shared by the last common ancestor of Pan-Homo and those likely to be derived in hominins. All great apes exhibit slow life histories and we infer this to be true of the last common ancestor of Pan-Homo and the stem hominin. Modern human life histories are even slower, exhibiting distinctively long post-menopausal life spans and later ages at maturity, pointing to a reduction in adult mortality since the Pan-Homo split. We suggest that lower adult mortality, distinctively short interbirth intervals, and early weaning characteristic of modern humans are derived features resulting from cooperative breeding. We evaluate the fidelity of three life history-related variables, body mass, brain growth and dental development, with the life history parameters of living great apes. We found that body mass is the best predictor of great ape life history events. Brain growth trajectories and dental development and eruption are weakly related proxies and inferences from them should be made with caution. We evaluate the evidence of life history-related variables available for extinct species and find that prior to the transitional hominins there is no evidence of any hominin taxon possessing a body size, brain size or aspects of dental development much different from what we assume to be the primitive life history pattern for the Pan-Homo clade. Data for

  12. Life satisfaction and life values in people with spinal cord injury living in three Asian countries: A multicultural study

    PubMed Central

    Tasiemski, Tomasz; Priebe, Michael M.; Wilski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the differences in life satisfaction and life values among people with spinal cord injury (SCI) living in three economically similar Asian countries: India, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka. Design Cross-sectional and comparative investigation using the unified questionnaire. Setting Indian Spinal Injuries Centre in New Delhi (India), Spinal Cord Rehabilitation Department of the Bach Mai Hospital in Hanoi (Vietnam), and Foundation for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled in Colombo (Sri Lanka). Participants Two hundred and thirty-seven people with SCI using a wheelchair; 79 from India, 92 from Vietnam, and 66 from Sri Lanka. Outcome measures Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, Chinese Value Survey. Results People with SCI in Vietnam had significantly higher general life satisfaction than participants in India and Sri Lanka. Significant differences were identified in several demographic and life situation variables among the three Asian countries. With regard to “Traditional”, “Universal”, and “Personal” life values significant differences among three participating countries were identified in all domains. No significant relationships were identified between life satisfaction and life values for people with SCI in India, Vietnam, or Sri Lanka. Conclusion It could be presumed that particular demographic and life situation variables are more powerful factors of life satisfaction following SCI than the dominant culture of a country expressed by life values. PMID:23809526

  13. Identifying atmospheric monitoring needs for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casserly, Dennis M.

    1989-01-01

    The atmospheric monitoring needs for Space Station Freedom were identified by examining the following from an industrial hygiene perspective: the experiences of past missions; ground based tests of proposed life support systems; the unique experimental and manufacturing facilities; the contaminant load model; metabolic production; and a fire. A target list of compounds to be monitored is presented and information is provided relative to the frequency of analysis, concentration ranges, and locations for monitoring probes.

  14. Novel hantavirus identified in black-bearded tomb bats, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Wu, Jianmin; He, Biao; Qin, Shaomin; Xia, Lele; Qin, Minchao; Li, Nan; Tu, Changchun

    2015-04-01

    Hantaviruses cause life-threatening diseases in human worldwide. Rodents, insectivores and bats are known hantaviral reservoirs, but lack of complete genomic sequences of bat-borne hantaviruses impedes phylogenetic and evolutionary comparison with those of rodents and insectivores. Here, a novel bat-borne hantavirus, Laibin virus (LBV), has been identified in a black-bearded tomb bat in China. The complete genomic sequence shows that LBV is only distantly related to all previously known bat-borne hantaviruses.

  15. Identifying problem and compulsive gamblers.

    PubMed Central

    van Es, R.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a meta-analysis of current research on the prevalence, identification, and treatment of problem and compulsive gamblers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Problem and compulsive gambling was not a socio-scientific concern until the last two decades. Hence research on this topic is limited. The summary and analysis for this paper relied on computer searches of journal and news abstracts in addition to direct contact with organizations addressing the identification and treatment of compulsive gamblers. MAIN MESSAGE: An estimated 5% of those who gamble run into problems. About 1% of those who gamble are predicted to experience serious problems. Successful treatment of problem and compulsive gambling continues to be a challenge. Although cognitive therapy has been the favoured approach, a combination of several therapeutic approaches is advocated. CONCLUSIONS: Problem and compulsive gambling can present a real health threat. As with other addictions, treatment strategies continue to be a baffling social problem. Aware and informed physicians can have a pivotal role in the difficult process of identifying, acknowledging, and remediating problem and compulsive gambling. PMID:10907572

  16. Identifying and Bounding Ethnic Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Spielman, Seth; Xu, Hongwei; Klein, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents three novel approaches to the question of how best to identify ethnic neighborhoods (or more generally, neighborhoods defined any aspect of their population composition) and to define their boundaries. It takes advantage of unusual data on the residential locations of all residents of Newark, NJ, in 1880 to avoid having to accept arbitrary administrative units (like census tracts) as the building blocks of neighborhoods. For theoretical reasons the street segment is chosen as the basic unit of analysis. All three methods use information on the ethnic composition of buildings or street segments and the ethnicity of their neighbors. One approach is a variation of k-functions calculated for each adult resident, which are then subjected to a cluster analysis to detect discrete patterns. The second is an application of an energy minimization algorithm commonly used to enhance digital images. The third is a Bayesian approach previously used to study county-level disability data. Results of all three methods depend on decisions about technical procedures and criteria that are made by the investigator. Resulting maps are roughly similar, but there is no one best solution. We conclude that researchers should continue to seek alternative methods, and that the preferred method depends on how one’s conceptualization of neighborhoods matches the empirical approach. PMID:24039327

  17. RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

    2013-01-01

    Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

  18. Identifying Chemical Groups for Biomonitoring

    PubMed Central

    Krowech, Gail; Hoover, Sara; Plummer, Laurel; Sandy, Martha; Zeise, Lauren; Solomon, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Regulatory agencies face daunting challenges identifying emerging chemical hazards because of the large number of chemicals in commerce and limited data on exposure and toxicology. Evaluating one chemical at a time is inefficient and can lead to replacement with uncharacterized chemicals or chemicals with structural features already linked to toxicity. The Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) has developed a process for constructing and assessing chemical groups for potential biomonitoring in California. We screen for chemicals with significant exposure potential and propose possible chemical groups, based on structure and function. To support formal consideration of these groups by Biomonitoring California’s Scientific Guidance Panel, we conduct a detailed review of exposure and toxicity data and examine the likelihood of detection in biological samples. To date, 12 chemical groups have been constructed and added to the pool of chemicals that can be selected for Biomonitoring California studies, including p,p´-bisphenols, brominated and chlorinated organic compounds used as flame retardants, non-halogenated aromatic phosphates, and synthetic polycyclic musks. Evaluating chemical groups, rather than individual chemicals, is an efficient way to respond to shifts in chemical use and the emergence of new chemicals. This strategy can enable earlier identification of important chemicals for monitoring and intervention. PMID:27905275

  19. Identifying acid salts of magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Plumb, R.; Thivierge, R.F. Jr.; Xu, W.W.

    1987-11-05

    In preliminary work they found that significant quantities of certain nitrogen oxides and of sulfuric acid were absorbed by lower hydrates of magnesium sulfate. It appeared that acid salts were being formed but the known chemistry of group IIA (group 2) sulfates and acid sulfates which was worked out many years ago did not provide an explanation of their observations. They developed a new technique for delineating the solidus boundary of ternary mixtures using friability tests and applied it to the systems of interest. Magnesium acid salt hydrates with compositions on the solidus boundary could be readily identified. X-ray powder patterns confirmed the existence of two previously unknown ternary compounds, Mg/sub 2/(HSO/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ x 4H/sub 2/O and Mg(HSO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ x H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ x 3H/sub 2/O. Mixed acid sulfate-nitrate-hydrates could be detected but fuming at room temperatures interfered with quantitative determinations of the solidus boundary and X-ray measurements.

  20. Priority Planetary Science Missions Identified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. National Research Council's (NRC) planetary science decadal survey report, released on 7 March, lays out a grand vision for priority planetary science missions for 2013-2022 within a tightly constrained fiscal environment. The cost-conscious report, issued by NRC's Committee on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey, identifies high-priority flagship missions, recommends a number of potential midsized missions, and indicates support for some smaller missions. The report states that the highest-priority flagship mission for the decade is the Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C)—the first of three components of a NASA/European Space Agency Mars sample return campaign—provided that the mission scope can be reduced so that MAX-C costs no more than $2.5 billion. The currently estimated mission cost of $3.5 billion “would take up a disproportionate near-term share of the overall budget for NASA's Planetary Science Division,” the report notes.

  1. Charting Ingredients for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Spectrum Charts Light from a Faraway Galaxy

    This graph, or spectrum, charts light from a faraway galaxy located 10 billion light years from Earth. It tracks mid-infrared light from an extremely luminous galaxy when the universe was only 1/4 of its current age.

    Spectra are created when an instrument called a spectrograph spreads light out into its basic parts, like a prism turning sunlight into a rainbow. They reveal the signatures, or 'fingerprints,' of molecules that make up a galaxy and contribute to its light.

    Spitzer's infrared spectrometer identified characteristic fingerprints of complex organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, illustrated in the artist's concept in the inset. These large molecules comprised of carbon and hydrogen, are considered among the building blocks of life.

    Scientists determined it took 10 billion years for photons from this galaxy to reach Spitzer's infrared eyes. These complex carbon and hydrogen molecules are from a young galaxy which is undergoing intense star formation, at the time the universe was only 3.5 billion years old.

    These distant galaxies with enormous amounts of gas being converted into young stars are some of the most luminous objects in the sky. Enshrouded by dust, they are only faint, inconspicuous little dots in optical images. They are as bright as 10 trillion suns put together and 10 times brighter than starburst galaxies seen in our local universe.

    This prompts a fascinating question as to what physical process is driving such enormous energy production in these galaxies when the universe is so young.

    These data were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph in August and September 2004.

  2. Charting Ingredients for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Spectrum Charts Light from a Faraway Galaxy

    This graph, or spectrum, charts light from a faraway galaxy located 10 billion light years from Earth. It tracks mid-infrared light from an extremely luminous galaxy when the universe was only 1/4 of its current age.

    Spectra are created when an instrument called a spectrograph spreads light out into its basic parts, like a prism turning sunlight into a rainbow. They reveal the signatures, or 'fingerprints,' of molecules that make up a galaxy and contribute to its light.

    Spitzer's infrared spectrometer identified characteristic fingerprints of complex organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, illustrated in the artist's concept in the inset. These large molecules comprised of carbon and hydrogen, are considered among the building blocks of life.

    Scientists determined it took 10 billion years for photons from this galaxy to reach Spitzer's infrared eyes. These complex carbon and hydrogen molecules are from a young galaxy which is undergoing intense star formation, at the time the universe was only 3.5 billion years old.

    These distant galaxies with enormous amounts of gas being converted into young stars are some of the most luminous objects in the sky. Enshrouded by dust, they are only faint, inconspicuous little dots in optical images. They are as bright as 10 trillion suns put together and 10 times brighter than starburst galaxies seen in our local universe.

    This prompts a fascinating question as to what physical process is driving such enormous energy production in these galaxies when the universe is so young.

    These data were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph in August and September 2004.

  3. Life in the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The belief that life exists in the universe is an optimism shared by many. With several manned missions expected to be carried out in the future, the possibility of discovering life in outer space will revolutionize the field of astrobiology. In this article, the author presents a summary of recent developments and discoveries made in the search…

  4. Life sciences report 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Highlighted here are the major research efforts of the NASA Life Sciences Division during the past year. Topics covered include remote health care delivery in space, space biomedical research, gravitational biology, biospherics (studying planet Earth), the NASA Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), exobiology, flight programs, international cooperation, and education programs.

  5. The life instinct.

    PubMed

    Abel-Hirsch, Nicola

    2010-10-01

    In psychoanalytic writing an oversimplified interpretation of Freud's concept of the life and death instincts sometimes colours the presentation. Roughly, there is an implication that the life instinct is 'good' and the death instinct 'bad'. Freud however is clear that: "Neither of these instincts is any less essential than the other; the phenomena of life arise from the concurrent or mutually opposing action of both"(1933b, p. 209). In this paper I look in detail at the characteristics of the life instinct as conceptualized by Freud, and draw on Bion's work 'on linking' to elaborate Freud's view that binding is the life instinct's key characteristic. I suggest that there are pathological forms of both the life and death instinct if defused (separated off) from the other, and I explore a pathological variation of the life instinct in which binding is without the negation, rest, limit or end provided by the 'opposing action' of the death instinct. I consider an instance of the kind that any analyst might meet clinically, in which an inhibited patient experiences severe anxiety that life-giving connections threaten to proliferate indiscriminately and to an overwhelming intensity and size. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  6. Life in the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The belief that life exists in the universe is an optimism shared by many. With several manned missions expected to be carried out in the future, the possibility of discovering life in outer space will revolutionize the field of astrobiology. In this article, the author presents a summary of recent developments and discoveries made in the search…

  7. It's a Frog's Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Audrey L.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2003-01-01

    When a preschool teacher unexpectedly found tadpoles in the school's outdoor baby pool, she recognized an unusual opportunity for her students to study pond life up close. By following the tadpoles' development, students learned about frogs, life cycles, habitats. (Contains 1 resource.)

  8. It's a Frog's Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Audrey L.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2003-01-01

    When a preschool teacher unexpectedly found tadpoles in the school's outdoor baby pool, she recognized an unusual opportunity for her students to study pond life up close. By following the tadpoles' development, students learned about frogs, life cycles, habitats. (Contains 1 resource.)

  9. Thrust chamber life prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasper, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The reusable life of the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) is influenced by the cyclic life of the regeneratively liquid cooled main combustion chamber (MCC). During an operational duty cycle the MCC liner is subjected to a large transient thermal gradient that imparts a high thermal cyclic strain to the liner hot gas wall. Life predictions of such chambers have usually been based on low cycle fatigue (LCF) evaluations. Hot-fire testing, however, has shown significant mid-channel wall deformation and thinning during accrued cyclic testing. This phenomenon is termed cyclic creep and appears to be significantly accelerated at elevated temperatures. An analytical method that models the cyclic creep phenomenon and its application to thrust chamber life prediction is presented. The chamber finite element geometry is updated periodically to account for accrued wall thinning and distortion. Failure is based on the tensile instability failure criterion. Cyclic life results for several chamber life enhancing coolant channel designs are compared to the typically used LCF analysis that neglects cyclic creep. The results show that the usable cyclic creep life is approximately 30 to 50% of the commonly used LCF life.

  10. Empowering Students for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the new Occupational & Life Skills (OLS) program at Bellevue Community College in Bellevue, Washington. The OLS-Venture program, as it is now called, grew out of a series of continuing education classes in personal finance, cooking, and related life skills for people with autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder and other…

  11. The Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Kenneth E. F.

    1973-01-01

    The origin of our quality of life problems is explained within a historical and international perspective. Two sample problems are analyzed to illustrate the effects of the causes of quality of life problems and to propose solutions to these problems. (KM)

  12. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  13. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  14. Thermostabilized Shelf Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Catauro, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  15. Thermostable Shelf Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, M. H.; Antonini, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  16. Is Life Unique?

    PubMed Central

    Abel, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

  17. Empowering Students for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the new Occupational & Life Skills (OLS) program at Bellevue Community College in Bellevue, Washington. The OLS-Venture program, as it is now called, grew out of a series of continuing education classes in personal finance, cooking, and related life skills for people with autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder and other…

  18. Planets and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T., III; Baross, John

    2007-09-01

    Foreword; Preface; Contributors; Prologue; Part I. History: 1. History of astrobiological ideas W. T. Sullivan and D. Carney; 2. From exobiology to astrobiology S. J. Dick; Part II. The Physical Stage: 3. Formation of Earth-like habitable planets D. E. Brownlee and M. Kress; 4. Planetary atmospheres and life D. Catling and J. F. Kasting; Part III. The Origin of Life on Earth: 5. Does 'life' have a definition? C.E. Cleland and C. F. Chyba; 6. Origin of life: crucial issues R. Shapiro; 7. Origin of proteins and nucleic acids A. Ricardo and S. A. Benner; 8. The roots of metabolism G.D. Cody and J. H. Scott; 9. Origin of cellular life D. W. Deamer; Part IV. Life on Earth: 10. Evolution: a defining feature of life J. A. Baross; 11. Evolution of metabolism and early microbial communities J. A. Leigh, D. A. Stahl and J. T. Staley; 12. The earliest records of life on Earth R. Buick; 13. The origin and diversification of eukaryotes M. L. Sogin, D. J. Patterson and A. McArthur; 14. Limits of carbon life on Earth and elsewhere J. A. Baross, J. Huber and M. Schrenk; 15. Life in ice J. W. Deming and H. Eicken; 16. The evolution and diversification of life S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; 17. Mass extinctions P. D. Ward; Part V. Potentially Habitable Worlds: 18. Mars B. M. Jakosky, F. Westall and A. Brack; 19. Europa C. F. Chyba and C. B. Phillips; 20. Titan J. I. Lunine and B. Rizk; 21. Extrasolar planets P. Butler; Part VI. Searching for Extraterrestrial Life: 22. How to search for life on other worlds C. P. McKay; 23. Instruments and strategies for detecting extraterrestrial life P. G. Conrad; 24. Societial and ethical concerns M. S. Race; 25. Planetary protection J. D. Rummel; 26. Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence J. C. Tarter; 27. Alien biochemistries P. D. Ward and S. A. Benner; Part VII. Future of the Field: 28. Disciplinary and educational opportunities L. Wells, J. Armstrong and J. Huber; Epilogue C. F. Chyba; Appendixes: A. Units and usages; B. Planetary

  19. Life in Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn; Bram, James A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Each recent report of liquid water existing elsewhere in the solar system has reverberated through the international press and excited the imagination of humankind. Why? Because in the last few decades we have come to realize that where there is liquid water on Earth, virtually no matter what the physical conditions, there is life. What we previously thought of as insurmountable physical and chemical barriers to life, we now see as yet another niche harboring 'extremophiles'. This realization, coupled with new data on the survival of microbes in the space environment and modeling of the potential for transfer of life between celestial bodies, suggests that life could be more common than previously thought. Here we critically examine what it means to be an extremophile, the implications of this for evolution, biotechnology, and especially the search for life in the cosmos.

  20. Life in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.

    1992-01-01

    The scope of space life sciences and current research on the physiology of man in space are reviewed by examining Spacelab SLS-1. Milestones of space life sciences are discussed, with emphasis on the Skylab facility, the Space Shuttle program, and the Soviet Mir space station. Attention is given to the topic of the origins of life as it relates to space life sciences. The discovery of amino acids in meteorites and the question of whether the earth was seeded with life from space are discussed. A brief overview of efforts in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence is presented. Consideration is also given to the effects of gravity on cells, the effects of radiation, plant biology, CELSS, and the effects of gravity on humans.

  1. Life in extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, L J; Mancinelli, R L

    2001-02-22

    Each recent report of liquid water existing elsewhere in the Solar System has reverberated through the international press and excited the imagination of humankind. Why? Because in the past few decades we have come to realize that where there is liquid water on Earth, virtually no matter what the physical conditions, there is life. What we previously thought of as insurmountable physical and chemical barriers to life, we now see as yet another niche harbouring 'extremophiles'. This realization, coupled with new data on the survival of microbes in the space environment and modelling of the potential for transfer of life between celestial bodies, suggests that life could be more common than previously thought. Here we examine critically what it means to be an extremophile, and the implications of this for evolution, biotechnology and especially the search for life in the Universe.

  2. Life in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.

    1992-01-01

    The scope of space life sciences and current research on the physiology of man in space are reviewed by examining Spacelab SLS-1. Milestones of space life sciences are discussed, with emphasis on the Skylab facility, the Space Shuttle program, and the Soviet Mir space station. Attention is given to the topic of the origins of life as it relates to space life sciences. The discovery of amino acids in meteorites and the question of whether the earth was seeded with life from space are discussed. A brief overview of efforts in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence is presented. Consideration is also given to the effects of gravity on cells, the effects of radiation, plant biology, CELSS, and the effects of gravity on humans.

  3. Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Ashwini Kumar

    2008-10-01

    The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the field of astrobiology, microbiology and genetics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle is as mindboggling as the riddle relating to evolution of the universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the earth and elsewhere in the universe, the issue, however, remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life-like abiogenesis, RNA world, iron-sulphur world and panspermia, and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

  4. Life in extreme environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2001-02-01

    Each recent report of liquid water existing elsewhere in the Solar System has reverberated through the international press and excited the imagination of humankind. Why? Because in the past few decades we have come to realize that where there is liquid water on Earth, virtually no matter what the physical conditions, there is life. What we previously thought of as insurmountable physical and chemical barriers to life, we now see as yet another niche harbouring 'extremophiles'. This realization, coupled with new data on the survival of microbes in the space environment and modelling of the potential for transfer of life between celestial bodies, suggests that life could be more common than previously thought. Here we examine critically what it means to be an extremophile, and the implications of this for evolution, biotechnology and especially the search for life in the Universe.

  5. Emergence of Life.

    PubMed

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2011-09-29

    Indeed, even if we know that many individual components are necessary for life to exist, we do not yet know what makes life emerge. One goal of this journal Life is to juxtapose articles with multidisciplinary approaches and perhaps to answer in the near future this question of the emergence of life. Different subjects and themes will be developed, starting of course with the multiple definitions of life and continuing with others such as: life diversity and universality; characteristics of living systems; thermodynamics with energy and entropy; kinetics and catalysis; water in its different physical states; circulation of sap and blood and its origin; the first blood pump and first heart; the first exchange of nutrients between cells, sap and blood; essential molecules of living systems; chirality; molecular asymmetry and its origin; formation of enantiomer excess and amplification; microscopic observations on a micrometer and sub-micrometer scales, at molecular and atomic levels; the first molecules at the origin of genetic information, viroids, circular RNA; regions of space or the area inside membranes and cells capable of initiating and maintaining life; phenomena at the origin of the emergence of life; molecules studied in the traditional field of chemistry and in the recent field of nanoscience governed by new laws; interaction between the individual molecules and components of living systems; interaction between living systems and the environment; transfer of information through generations; continuation of life from one generation to the next; prebiotic chemistry and prebiotic signatures on Earth, on Mars, on other planets; biosignatures of the first forms of life; fossils and pseudofossils dating 3.5 Ga ago and more recent ones; experimental fossilization; pluricellular eukaryotes dating 2.1 Ga ago; sudden increase in oxygen in the atmosphere around 2.0 to 2.5 Ga ago and its relation to geology; shell symmetry; aging with transformation of molecules, of

  6. Life Satisfaction and Frequency of Doctor Visits

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eric S.; Park, Nansook; Sun, Jennifer K.; Smith, Jacqui; Peterson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Objective Identifying positive psychological factors that reduce health care use may lead to innovative efforts that help build a more sustainable and high quality health care system. Prospective studies indicate that life satisfaction is associated with good health behaviors, enhanced health, and longer life, but little information is available about the association between life satisfaction and health care use. We tested whether higher life satisfaction was prospectively associated with fewer doctor visits. We also examined potential interactions between life satisfaction and health behaviors. Methods Participants were 6,379 adults from the Health and Retirement Study, a prospective and nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50. Participants were tracked for four years. We analyzed the data using a generalized linear model with a gamma distribution and log link. Results Higher life satisfaction was associated with fewer doctor visits. On a six-point life satisfaction scale, each unit increase in life satisfaction was associated with an 11% decrease in doctor visits—after adjusting for sociodemographic factors (RR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.86 to 0.93). The most satisfied respondents (N=1,121; 17.58%) made 44% fewer doctor visits than the least satisfied (N=182; 2.85%). The association between higher life satisfaction and reduced doctor visits remained even after adjusting for baseline health and a wide range of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and health-related covariates (RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.93 to 0.99). Conclusions Higher life satisfaction is associated with fewer doctor visits, which may have important implications for reducing health care costs. PMID:24336427

  7. Life satisfaction and frequency of doctor visits.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eric S; Park, Nansook; Sun, Jennifer K; Smith, Jacqui; Peterson, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Identifying positive psychological factors that reduce health care use may lead to innovative efforts that help build a more sustainable and high-quality health care system. Prospective studies indicate that life satisfaction is associated with good health behaviors, enhanced health, and longer life, but little information about the association between life satisfaction and health care use is available. We tested whether higher life satisfaction was prospectively associated with fewer doctor visits. We also examined potential interactions between life satisfaction and health behaviors. Participants were 6379 adults from the Health and Retirement Study, a prospective and nationally representative panel study of American adults older than 50 years. Participants were tracked for 4 years. We analyzed the data using a generalized linear model with a gamma distribution and log link. Higher life satisfaction was associated with fewer doctor visits. On a 6-point life satisfaction scale, each unit increase in life satisfaction was associated with an 11% decrease in doctor visits--after adjusting for sociodemographic factors (relative risk = 0.89, 95% confidence interval = 0.86-0.93). The most satisfied respondents (n = 1121; 17.58%) made 44% fewer doctor visits than did the least satisfied (n = 182; 2.85%). The association between higher life satisfaction and reduced doctor visits remained even after adjusting for baseline health and a wide range of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and health-related covariates (relative risk = 0.96, 95% confidence interval = 0.93-0.99). Higher life satisfaction is associated with fewer doctor visits, which may have important implications for reducing health care costs.

  8. Deciding about treatments that prolong life

    MedlinePlus

    Palliative care - treatments that prolong life; Palliative care - life support; End-of-life-treatments that prolong life; Ventilator - treatments that prolong life; Respirator - treatments that prolong life; Life-support - ...

  9. Use of Second Life in K-12 and Higher Education: A Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Chris; Wright, Vivian H.; Hartman, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    This study reviewed empirical research conducted in Second Life by educators since Second Life's launch in 2003. The study's purpose was to identify how Second Life is being used in both K-12 and higher education. The methodology, findings, and recommendations of 27 research studies were analyzed. Researchers identified potential problems when…

  10. Use of Second Life in K-12 and Higher Education: A Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Chris; Wright, Vivian H.; Hartman, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    This study reviewed empirical research conducted in Second Life by educators since Second Life's launch in 2003. The study's purpose was to identify how Second Life is being used in both K-12 and higher education. The methodology, findings, and recommendations of 27 research studies were analyzed. Researchers identified potential problems when…

  11. Life on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potashko, Oleksandr

    Volcanoes engender life on heavenly bodies; they are pacemakers of life. All planets during their period of formation pass through volcanism hence - all planets and their satellites pass through the life. Tracks of life If we want to find tracks of life - most promising places are places with volcanic activity, current or past. In the case of just-in-time volcanic activity we have 100% probability to find a life. Therefore the most perspective “search for life” are Enceladus, Io and comets, further would be Venus, Jupiter’s satellites, Saturn’s satellites and first of all - Titan. Titan has atmosphere. It might be result of high volcanic activity - from one side, from other side atmosphere is a necessary condition development life from procaryota to eucaryota. Existence of a planet means that all its elements after hydrogen formed just there inside a planet. The forming of the elements leads to the formation of mineral and organic substances and further to the organic life. Development of the life depends upon many factors, e.g. the distance from star/s. The intensity of the processes of the element formation is inversely to the distance from the star. Therefore we may suppose that the intensity of the life in Mercury was very high. Hence we may detect tracks of life in Mercury, particularly near volcanoes. The distance from the star is only one parameter and now Titan looks very active - mainly due to interior reason. Its atmosphere compounds are analogous to comet tail compounds. Their collation may lead to interesting result as progress occurs at one of them. Volcanic activity is as a source of life origin as well a reason for a death of life. It depends upon the thickness of planet crust. In the case of small thickness of a crust the probability is high that volcanoes may destroy a life on a planet - like Noachian deluge. Destroying of the life under volcano influences doesn’t lead to full dead. As result we would have periodic Noachian deluge or

  12. Meaning in life for patients with cancer: validation of the Life Attitude Profile-Revised Scale.

    PubMed

    Erci, Behice

    2008-06-01

    This paper is a report of a study to adapt the Life Attitude Profile-Revised Scale for Turkish patients with cancer and to evaluate its psychometric properties. Cancer is a life-threatening illness that can challenge the experience of meaning in life. Meaning in life is a multidimensional concept involving meaning and purpose in life, as well as the motivation to find meaning and purpose in life. As meaning in life may be influenced by culture, a culture-sensitive tool is needed for its measurement. A convenience sample of 199 patients with cancer at a Turkish university hospital completed a structured questionnaire including demographic characteristics and the Life Attitude Profile-Revised Scale for Patients with Cancer in 2006. Item analysis, principal components analysis, internal consistency reliability and Cronbach's alpha were used to measure the psychometric properties of the items of the scale. In the assessment of construct validity, identified four factors with eigenvalues greater than 1 explained 46.91% of the total variance. Internal reliability coefficients of these four factor-based scales were 0.73 and 0.82 respectively. The present study provides evidence of the Life Attitude Profile-Revised Scale's validity, reliability and acceptability. This scale should be further evaluated with a larger sample, in different regions in Turkey and diverse populations of world. The scale has potential applications for use both in research and as a screening tool in clinical settings.

  13. Defining Life or Bringing Biology to Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa; Peretó, Juli; Moreno, Alvaro

    2010-04-01

    In the present, post-genomic times, systemic or holistic approaches to living phenomena are compulsory to overcome the limits of traditional strategies, such as the methodological reductionism of molecular biology. In this paper, we propose that theoretical and philosophical efforts to define life also contribute to those integrative approaches, providing a global theoretical framework that may help to deal with or interpret the huge amount of data being collected by current high-throughput technologies, in this so-called ‘omics’ revolution. We claim that two fundamental notions can capture the core of the living, (basic) autonomy and open-ended evolution, and that only the complementary combination of these two theoretical constructs offers an adequate solution to the problem of defining the nature of life in specific enough—but also encompassing enough—terms. This tentative solution should also illuminate, in its most elementary version, the leading steps towards living beings on Earth.

  14. Defining life or bringing biology to life.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa; Peretó, Juli; Moreno, Alvaro

    2010-04-01

    In the present, post-genomic times, systemic or holistic approaches to living phenomena are compulsory to overcome the limits of traditional strategies, such as the methodological reductionism of molecular biology. In this paper, we propose that theoretical and philosophical efforts to define life also contribute to those integrative approaches, providing a global theoretical framework that may help to deal with or interpret the huge amount of data being collected by current high-throughput technologies, in this so-called 'omics' revolution. We claim that two fundamental notions can capture the core of the living, (basic) autonomy and open-ended evolution, and that only the complementary combination of these two theoretical constructs offers an adequate solution to the problem of defining the nature of life in specific enough-but also encompassing enough-terms. This tentative solution should also illuminate, in its most elementary version, the leading steps towards living beings on Earth.

  15. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    This is the thirteenth issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 39 papers recently published in Russian-language periodicals and bound collections, two papers delivered at an international life sciences symposium, and three new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. Also included is a review of a recent Soviet-French symposium on Space Cytology. Current Soviet Life Sciences titles available in English are cited. The materials included in this issue have been identified as relevant to 31 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology. These areas are: adaptation, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cosmonaut training, cytology, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, gastrointestinal systems, genetics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, space biology, and space medicine.

  16. Life support systems for Mars transit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Kliss, M.; Straight, C.

    1992-01-01

    The structural elements of life-support systems are reviewed in order to assess the suitability of specific features for use during a Mars mission. Life-support requirements are estimated by means of an approximate input/output analysis, and the advantages are listed relating to the use of recycling and regeneration techniques. The technological options for regeneration are presented in categories such as CO2 reduction, organics removal, polishing, food production, and organics oxidation. These data form the basis of proposed mission requirements and constraints as well as the definition of what constitutes an adequate reserve. Regenerative physical/chemical life-support systems are championed based exclusively on the mass savings inherent in the technology. The resiliency and 'soft' failure modes of bioregenerative life-support systems are identified as areas of investigation.

  17. Work, family and life-course fit

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin; Huang, Qinlei

    2008-01-01

    This study moves from “work-family” to a multi-dimensional “life-course fit” construct (employees’ cognitive assessments of resources, resource deficits, and resource demands), using a combined work-family, demands-control and ecology of the life course framing. It examined (1) impacts of job and home ecological systems on fit dimensions, and (2) whether control over work time predicted and mediated life-course fit outcomes. Using cluster analysis of survey data on a sample of 917 white-collar employees from Best Buy headquarters, we identified four job ecologies (corresponding to the job demands-job control model) and five home ecologies (theorizing an analogous home demands-home control model). Job and home ecologies predicted fit dimensions in an additive, not interactive, fashion. Employees’ work-time control predicted every life-course fit dimension and partially mediated effects of job ecologies, organizational tenure, and job category. PMID:19430546

  18. The Origin of Life in Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napier, W. M.; Wickramasinghe, J. T.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    Mechanisms of interstellar panspermia have recently been identified whereby life, wherever it has originated, will disperse throughout the habitable zone of the Galaxy within a few billion years. This re-opens the question of where life originated. The interiors of comets, during their aqueous phase, seem to provide environments no less favourable for the origin of life than that of the early Earth. Their combined mass throughout the Galaxy overwhelms that of suitable terrestrial environments by about 20 powers of ten, while the lifetimes of friendly prebiotic environments within them exceeds that of localised terrestrial regions by another four or five powers of ten. We propose that the totality of comets around G-dwarf Sun-like stars offers an incomparably more probable setting for the origin of life than any that was available on the early Earth.

  19. Breathing fresh life into life science education.

    PubMed

    Martin, Cyrus

    2014-12-15

    In the US, higher education in the life sciences is being overhauled. There is now a move both to change the way we teach biology students, emphasizing more engaging approaches, and to clearly define what it is a student should know. And for advanced degrees, there is a push to prepare students for a range of possible career paths, not just the tenure track. Cyrus Martin reports.

  20. Magnetism, iron minerals, and life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Rochette, P; Gattacceca, J; Chevrier, V; Mathé, P E; Menvielle, M

    2006-06-01

    A short critical review is provided on two questions linking magnetism and possible early life on Mars: (1) Did Mars have an Earth-like internal magnetic field, and, if so, during which period and was it a requisite for life? (2) Is there a connection between iron minerals in the martian regolith and life? We also discuss the possible astrobiological implications of magnetic measurements at the surface of Mars using two proposed instruments. A magnetic remanence device based on magnetic field measurements can be used to identify Noachian age rocks and lightning impacts. A contact magnetic susceptibility probe can be used to investigate weathering rinds on martian rocks and identify meteorites among the small regolith rocks. Both materials are considered possible specific niches for microorganisms and, thus, potential astrobiological targets. Experimental results on analogues are presented to support the suitability of such in situ measurements.

  1. Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

  2. Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

  3. Exploring life's limits: Deep geobiochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    N-dimensional chemical space on Earth and beyond produces diverse habitats for microbial activity. Hydrothermal environments cover a wide range of habitable space up to and including life's known limits and provide a window into deep geological, geochemical, and biological processes. Hydrothermal water compositions, as sampled from and measured in terrestrial hot springs on Earth's surface, vary in chemical constituent speciation and concentrations over orders of magnitude in a plethora of geochemical parameters with biological significance, including hydronium ion, sulfide, iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese, and molybdenum. Proteins provide a link between geochemistry and microbial activity by catalyzing chemical reactions. Proteins extracted and identified by tandem mass spectrometry from 13 hot spring sediments and biofilms - covering pH values from 2-9 and diverse geochemical compositions - function as efflux transporters, permeases, electron transporters, and others, suggesting that these processes were present in the environment and occurring at the time of sampling. Metalloenzymes have been identified, including the iron protein rubrerythrin, thought to be involved in oxidative stress protection in anaerobic bacteria and archaea, as well as proteins involved in macronutrient processing (carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen, and sulfur). The melding of biochemistry with geochemistry shows potential for quantifying microbial activity in deep environments by demonstrating the presence - and as techniques improve, relative abundances - of reaction-catalyzing enzymes. Moreover, using hot spring sources and their outflow channels as chemical and biological models of geologic time helps decipher the origin and co-evolution of life and geochemistry.

  4. Asthma Outcomes: Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sandra R.; Rand, Cynthia S.; Cabana, Michael D.; Foggs, Michael B.; Halterman, Jill S.; Olson, Lynn; Vollmer, William M.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Taggart, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Background “Asthma-related quality of life” refers to the perceived impact that asthma has on the patient’s quality of life. Objective National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies convened an expert group to recommend standardized measures of the impact of asthma on quality of life for use in future asthma clinical research. Methods We reviewed published documentation regarding the development and psychometric evaluation; clinical research use since 2000; and extent to which the content of each existing quality of life instrument provides a unique, reliable, and valid assessment of the intended construct. We classified instruments as core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to the study’s aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop convened in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results Eleven instruments for adults and 6 for children were identified for review. None qualified as core instruments because they predominantly measured indicators of asthma control (symptoms and/or functional status); failed to provide a distinct, reliable score measuring all key dimensions of the intended construct; and/or lacked adequate psychometric data. Conclusions In the absence of existing instruments that meet the stated criteria, currently available instruments are classified as either supplemental or emerging. Research is strongly recommended to develop and evaluate instruments that provide a distinct, reliable measure of the patient’s perception of the impact of asthma on all of the key dimensions of quality of life, an important outcome that is not captured in other outcome measures. PMID:22386511

  5. Towards the bibliography of life.

    PubMed

    King, David; Morse, David R; Willis, Alistair; Dil, Anton

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses how we intend to take forward the vision of a Bibliography of Life in the ViBRANT project. The underlying principle of the Bibliography is to provide taxonomists and others with a freely accessible bibliography covering the whole of life. Such a bibliography has been achieved for specific study areas within taxonomy, but not for "life" as a whole.The creation of such a comprehensive tool has been hindered by various social and technical issues. The social concerns focus on the willingness of users to contribute to the Bibliography. The technical concerns relate to the architecture required to deliver the Bibliography. These issues are discussed in the paper and approaches to addressing them within the ViBRANT project are described, to demonstrate how we can now seriously consider building a Bibliography of Life. We are particularly interested in the potential of the resulting tool to improve the quality of bibliographic references. Through analysing the large number of references in the Bibliography we will be able to add metadata by resolving known issues such as geographical name variations. This should result in a tool that will assist taxonomists in two ways. Firstly, it will be easier for them to discover relevant literature, especially pre-digital literature; and secondly, it will be easier for them to identify the canonical form for a citationThe paper also covers related issues relevant to building the tool in ViBRANT, including implementation and copyright, with suggestions as to how we could address them.

  6. Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Although the Viking results may indicate that Mars has no life today, the possibility exists that Mars may hold the best record of the events that led to the origin of life. There is direct geomorphological evidence that in the past Mars had large amounts of liquid water on its surface. Atmospheric models would suggest that this early period of hydrological activity was due to the presence of a thick atmosphere and the resulting warmer temperatures. From a biological perspective the existence of liquid water, by itself motivates the question of the origin of life on Mars. From studies of the Earth's earliest biosphere we know that by 3.5 Gyr. ago, life had originated on Earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. Surface activity and erosion on Earth make it difficult to trace the history of life before the 3.5 Gyr timeframe. If Mars did maintain a clement environment for longer than it took for life to originate on Earth, then the question of the origin of life on Mars follows naturally.

  7. Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Although the Viking results may indicate that Mars has no life today, the possibility exists that Mars may hold the best record of the events that led to the origin of life. There is direct geomorphological evidence that in the past Mars had large amounts of liquid water on its surface. Atmospheric models would suggest that this early period of hydrological activity was due to the presence of a thick atmosphere and the resulting warmer temperatures. From a biological perspective the existence of liquid water, by itself motivates the question of the origin of life on Mars. From studies of the Earth's earliest biosphere we know that by 3.5 Gyr. ago, life had originated on Earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. Surface activity and erosion on Earth make it difficult to trace the history of life before the 3.5 Gyr timeframe. If Mars did maintain a clement environment for longer than it took for life to originate on Earth, then the question of the origin of life on Mars follows naturally.

  8. Skylab experiments. Volume 4: Life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The life sciences experiments conducted during Skylab missions are discussed. The general categories of the experiments are as follows: (1) mineral and hormonal balance, (2) hematology and immunology, (3) cardiovascular status, (4) energy expenditure, (5) neurophysiology, and (7) biology. Each experiment within the general category is further identified with respect to the scientific objectives, equipment used, performance, and data to be obtained.

  9. Life History Antecedents of Vocational Indecision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iaffaldano, Michelle; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assessed the validity of using systematic life history information to predict three vocational decision-making criteria in 200 college students: vocational decidedness and its two components, vocational identity and vocational maturity. Significant typologies were identified, however, results indicated that the overall construct of vocational…

  10. The Stages in a Scholar's Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V.; Greenblatt, Susan L.

    A major purpose of this study was to identify the five most outstanding black scholars in the social sciences and humanities in the United States and to determine how they achieved eminence. The study focuses on their unfolding careers, the decisive events in their lives, interconnections in their life histories, and social interaction between…

  11. What Sustains a Fulfilling Life in Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Resilience is essential to the good teacher. This paper summarises research on factors that have sustained one life in education and compares them with narratives from nine other long-serving and fulfilled teachers. It identifies some elements that build teacher resilience and discusses how this knowledge might apply to teacher education and the…

  12. Life History Antecedents of Vocational Indecision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iaffaldano, Michelle; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assessed the validity of using systematic life history information to predict three vocational decision-making criteria in 200 college students: vocational decidedness and its two components, vocational identity and vocational maturity. Significant typologies were identified, however, results indicated that the overall construct of vocational…

  13. End of life care.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ruth

    2012-01-26

    The combination of an ageing population and increasing numbers of prisoners means delivering end of life care in prisons is inevitable. To this end the National End of Life Programme has published a practical guide, aimed at health and social care workers, and prison staff. The guide outlines the six steps of the end of life care pathway in detail, from initiating discussions to care after death. It also includes case studies highlighting best practice. To read the guide, visit http://tinyurl.com/ndoflifeinprison.

  14. Potential alternate life biochemistries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konesky, Gregory

    2013-09-01

    While life on Earth continues to be discovered in unlikely environments, the underlying biochemistry is all very similar, based on the element carbon, and requiring liquid water. We consider alternate biochemistries based on elements other than carbon, including other group IVA elements, such as silicon and germanium, and solvents other than water. Terminal electron acceptors other than oxygen are also discussed. A fundamental issue is raised related to the detection of, and even the definition of life, whether it is carbon or non-carbon based. An extreme example of this issue would be in consideration of speculative life based on electrically charged dusty plasmas, which may have no physical body.

  15. Toward a theoretically based measurement model of the good life.

    PubMed

    Cheung, C K

    1997-06-01

    A theoretically based conceptualization of the good life should differentiate 4 dimensions-the hedonist good life, the dialectical good life, the humanist good life, and the formalist good life. These 4 dimensions incorporate previous fragmentary measures, such as life satisfaction, depression, work alienation, and marital satisfaction, to produce an integrative view. In the present study, 276 Hong Kong Chinese husbands and wives responded to a survey of 13 indicators for these 4 good life dimensions. Confirmatory hierarchical factor analysis showed that these indicators identified the 4 dimensions of the good life, which in turn converged to identify a second-order factor of the overall good life. The model demonstrates discriminant validity in that the first-order factors had high loadings on the overall good life factor despite being linked by a social desirability factor. Analysis further showed that the second-order factor model applied equally well to husbands and wives. Thus, the conceptualization appears to be theoretically and empirically adequate in incorporating previous conceptualizations of the good life.

  16. Trajectories of life satisfaction after traumatic brain injury: Influence of life roles, age, cognitive disability, and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Juengst, Shannon B; Adams, Leah M; Bogner, Jennifer A; Arenth, Patricia M; O'Neil-Pirozzi, Therese M; Dreer, Laura E; Hart, Tessa; Bergquist, Thomas F; Bombardier, Charles H; Dijkers, Marcel P; Wagner, Amy K

    2015-11-01

    (a) Identify life satisfaction trajectories after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI); (b) establish a predictive model for these trajectories across the first 5 years postinjury; and (c) describe differences in these life satisfaction trajectory groups, focusing on age, depressive symptoms, disability, and participation in specific life roles. Analysis of the longitudinal TBI Model Systems National Database was performed on data collected prospectively at 1-, 2-, and 5-years post-TBI. Participants (n = 3,012) had a moderate to severe TBI and were 16 years old and older. Four life satisfaction trajectories were identified across the first 5 years postinjury, including: stable satisfaction, initial satisfaction declining, initial dissatisfaction improving, and stable dissatisfaction. Age, depressive symptoms, cognitive disability, and life role participation as a worker, leisure participant, and/ or religious participant at 1-year postinjury significantly predicted trajectory group membership. Life role participation and depressive symptoms were strong predictors of life satisfaction trajectories across the first 5 years post-TBI. The previously documented loss of life roles and prevalence of depression after a moderate to severe TBI make this a vulnerable population for whom low or declining life satisfaction is a particularly high risk. Examining individual life role participation may help to identify relevant foci for community-based rehabilitation interventions or supports. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Health-related quality of life and life satisfaction in colorectal cancer survivors: trajectories of adjustment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This longitudinal study describes the five year trajectories of health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) and life satisfaction in long term colorectal cancer survivors. Patients and methods A population-based sample of 1966 colorectal cancer survivors were surveyed at six time points from five months to five years post-diagnosis. Predictor variables were: socio-demographic variables, optimism; cancer threat appraisal; perceived social support. Quality of life was assessed with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (HR-QOL); and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Growth mixture models were applied to identify trajectory classes and their predictors. Results Distinct adjustment trajectories were identified for HR-QOL and life satisfaction. Lower optimism, poorer social support, a more negative cognitive appraisal, and younger age were associated with poorer life satisfaction, while survivors with less than 8 years of education had higher life satisfaction. This pattern was similar for overall HR-QOL except that educational level was not a significant predictor and later stage disease and female gender emerged as related to poorer outcomes. One in five survivors reported poorer constant HR-QOL (19.2%) and a small group had poor life satisfaction (7.2%); 26.2% reported constant high HR-QOL and 48.8% had high constant life satisfaction. Socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of residence uniquely predicted poorer outcomes in the colorectal cancer specific HR-QOL sub domain. Conclusion Although HR-QOL and subjective cognitive QOL share similar antecedents their trajectory patterns suggested they are distinct adjustment outcomes; with life satisfaction emerging as temporally stable phenomenon. Unique patterns of risk support suggest the need to account for heterogeneity in adjustment in longitudinal QOL studies with cancer survivors. PMID:23497387

  18. Health-related quality of life and life satisfaction in colorectal cancer survivors: trajectories of adjustment.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Jeff; Ng, Shu Kay; Breitbart, William; Aitken, Joanne; Youl, Pip; Baade, Peter D; Chambers, Suzanne K

    2013-03-14

    This longitudinal study describes the five year trajectories of health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) and life satisfaction in long term colorectal cancer survivors. A population-based sample of 1966 colorectal cancer survivors were surveyed at six time points from five months to five years post-diagnosis. Predictor variables were: socio-demographic variables, optimism; cancer threat appraisal; perceived social support. Quality of life was assessed with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (HR-QOL); and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Growth mixture models were applied to identify trajectory classes and their predictors. Distinct adjustment trajectories were identified for HR-QOL and life satisfaction. Lower optimism, poorer social support, a more negative cognitive appraisal, and younger age were associated with poorer life satisfaction, while survivors with less than 8 years of education had higher life satisfaction. This pattern was similar for overall HR-QOL except that educational level was not a significant predictor and later stage disease and female gender emerged as related to poorer outcomes. One in five survivors reported poorer constant HR-QOL (19.2%) and a small group had poor life satisfaction (7.2%); 26.2% reported constant high HR-QOL and 48.8% had high constant life satisfaction. Socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of residence uniquely predicted poorer outcomes in the colorectal cancer specific HR-QOL sub domain. Although HR-QOL and subjective cognitive QOL share similar antecedents their trajectory patterns suggested they are distinct adjustment outcomes; with life satisfaction emerging as temporally stable phenomenon. Unique patterns of risk support suggest the need to account for heterogeneity in adjustment in longitudinal QOL studies with cancer survivors.

  19. Identifying Fishes through DNA Barcodes and Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Kochzius, Marc; Seidel, Christian; Antoniou, Aglaia; Botla, Sandeep Kumar; Campo, Daniel; Cariani, Alessia; Vazquez, Eva Garcia; Hauschild, Janet; Hervet, Caroline; Hjörleifsdottir, Sigridur; Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur; Kappel, Kristina; Landi, Monica; Magoulas, Antonios; Marteinsson, Viggo; Nölte, Manfred; Planes, Serge; Tinti, Fausto; Turan, Cemal; Venugopal, Moleyur N.; Weber, Hannes; Blohm, Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    Background International fish trade reached an import value of 62.8 billion Euro in 2006, of which 44.6% are covered by the European Union. Species identification is a key problem throughout the life cycle of fishes: from eggs and larvae to adults in fisheries research and control, as well as processed fish products in consumer protection. Methodology/Principal Findings This study aims to evaluate the applicability of the three mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA (16S), cytochrome b (cyt b), and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) for the identification of 50 European marine fish species by combining techniques of “DNA barcoding” and microarrays. In a DNA barcoding approach, neighbour Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees of 369 16S, 212 cyt b, and 447 COI sequences indicated that cyt b and COI are suitable for unambiguous identification, whereas 16S failed to discriminate closely related flatfish and gurnard species. In course of probe design for DNA microarray development, each of the markers yielded a high number of potentially species-specific probes in silico, although many of them were rejected based on microarray hybridisation experiments. None of the markers provided probes to discriminate the sibling flatfish and gurnard species. However, since 16S-probes were less negatively influenced by the “position of label” effect and showed the lowest rejection rate and the highest mean signal intensity, 16S is more suitable for DNA microarray probe design than cty b and COI. The large portion of rejected COI-probes after hybridisation experiments (>90%) renders the DNA barcoding marker as rather unsuitable for this high-throughput technology. Conclusions/Significance Based on these data, a DNA microarray containing 64 functional oligonucleotide probes for the identification of 30 out of the 50 fish species investigated was developed. It represents the next step towards an automated and easy-to-handle method to identify fish, ichthyoplankton, and fish products. PMID

  20. Identifying the Subtle Presentation of Decompression Sickness.

    PubMed

    Alea, Kenneth

    2015-12-01

    Decompression sickness is an inherent occupational hazard that has the possibility to leave its victims with significant long-lasting effects that can potentially impact an aircrew's flight status. The relative infrequency of this hazard within the military flying community along with the potentially subtle presentation of decompression sickness (DCS) has the potential to result in delayed diagnosis and treatment, leading to residual deficits that can impact a patient's daily life or even lead to death. The patient presented in this work was diagnosed with a Type II DCS 21 h after a cabin decompression at 35,000 ft (10,668 m). The patient had been asymptomatic with a completely normal physical/neurological exam following his flight. The following day, he presented with excessive fatigue and on re-evaluation was recommended for hyperbaric therapy, during which his symptoms completely resolved. He was re-evaluated 14 d later and cleared to resume flight duties without further incident. The manifestation of this patient's decompression sickness was subtle and followed an evaluation that failed to identify any focal findings. A high index of suspicion with strict follow-up contributed to the identification of DCS in this case, resulting in definitive treatment and resolution of the patient's symptoms. Determination of the need for hyperbaric therapy following oxygen supplementation and a thorough history and physical is imperative. If the diagnosis is in question, consider preemptive hyperbaric therapy as the benefits of treatment in DCS outweigh the risks of treatment. Finally, this work introduces the future potential of neuropsychological testing for both the diagnosis of DCS as well as assessing the effectiveness of hyperbaric therapy in Type II DCS.

  1. Identifying natural flow regimes using fish communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Fi-John; Tsai, Wen-Ping; Wu, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Hung-kwai; Herricks, Edwin E.

    2011-10-01

    SummaryModern water resources management has adopted natural flow regimes as reasonable targets for river restoration and conservation. The characterization of a natural flow regime begins with the development of hydrologic statistics from flow records. However, little guidance exists for defining the period of record needed for regime determination. In Taiwan, the Taiwan Eco-hydrological Indicator System (TEIS), a group of hydrologic statistics selected for fisheries relevance, is being used to evaluate ecological flows. The TEIS consists of a group of hydrologic statistics selected to characterize the relationships between flow and the life history of indigenous species. Using the TEIS and biosurvey data for Taiwan, this paper identifies the length of hydrologic record sufficient for natural flow regime characterization. To define the ecological hydrology of fish communities, this study connected hydrologic statistics to fish communities by using methods to define antecedent conditions that influence existing community composition. A moving average method was applied to TEIS statistics to reflect the effects of antecedent flow condition and a point-biserial correlation method was used to relate fisheries collections with TEIS statistics. The resulting fish species-TEIS (FISH-TEIS) hydrologic statistics matrix takes full advantage of historical flows and fisheries data. The analysis indicates that, in the watersheds analyzed, averaging TEIS statistics for the present year and 3 years prior to the sampling date, termed MA(4), is sufficient to develop a natural flow regime. This result suggests that flow regimes based on hydrologic statistics for the period of record can be replaced by regimes developed for sampled fish communities.

  2. Meaning in Life and Meaning of Life in Mental Health Care: An Integrative Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Glaw, Xanthe; Kable, Ashley; Hazelton, Michael; Inder, Kerry

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this integrative literature review was to identify high quality empirical research and theoretical literature on the sources of meaning in life and people's beliefs regarding the meaning of life. This will inform current mental health clinical practice and research by providing a synthesis of empirical and theoretical literature. Failure to address meaninglessness or the existential crisis can lead to psychopathologies such as depression, anxiety, addiction, aggression, hopelessness, apathy, lower levels of well-being, physical illness, and suicide. Integrative literature reviews incorporate empirical research and theoretical literature. The inclusion criteria were primary research and theoretical papers and books by prominent theorists. Thirty-nine items underwent the critical appraisal process. Thirty-two papers or books were included. Overwhelmingly the results revealed that relationships, particularly relationships with family, are cited as the most important source of meaning in people's lives in all cultures and age groups. There was no consensus identified to answer the meaning of life question. These results and future research will allow mental health clinicians to help patients deepen their understanding of themselves, identify where they find meaning and understand their beliefs about meaning of life, contributing to a reduction in symptomatology and meaninglessness, and an increase in happiness, life satisfaction, positive affect, better coping, psychosocial health and well-being, and more meaningfulness in life.

  3. Life Options Rehabilitation Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... at our CE credit website . Free Life Options Materials Download our free print materials, research-based fact ... sheets are also available in Spanish! Vaccination Education Materials Easy-to-read patient education fact sheets will ...

  4. Aquatic Life Criterion - Selenium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to the 2016 Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Selenium (Freshwater). These documents include what the safe levels of Selenium are in water for the majority of species.

  5. Regenerative Life Support Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiner, G. N.; Thompson, C. D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the development plan and design concept of the Regenerative Life Support Evaluation (RLSE) planned for flight testing in the European Space Agency Spacelab. The development plan encompasses the ongoing advanced life support subsystem and a systems integration effort to evolve concurrently subsystem concepts that perform their function and can be integrated with other subsystems in a flight demonstration of a regenerative life support system. The design concept for RLSE comprises water-electrolysis O2 generation, electrochemically depolarized CO2 removal, and Sabatier CO2 reduction for atmosphere regeneration, urine vapor-compression distillation, and wash-water hyperfiltration for waste-water recovery. The flight demonstration by RLSE is an important step in qualifying the regenerative concepts for life support in space stations.

  6. Aquatic Life Criteria - Atrazine

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to Acute and Chronic Ambient Water Quality Aquatic Life Criteria for Atrazine (Freshwater and Salt Water). This document contains the safe levels of Atrazine in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  7. First Day of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... Feelings Having a baby is a major, life-changing experience. Don't be surprised to find that ...

  8. Suicides in late life.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Kimberly; Conwell, Yeates

    2011-06-01

    Suicide in late life is an enormous public health problem that will likely increase in severity as adults of the baby boom generation age. Data from psychological autopsy studies supplemented with recent studies of suicidal ideation and attempts point to a consistent set of risk factors for the spectrum of suicidal behaviors in late life (suicide ideation, attempts, and deaths). Clinicians should be vigilant for psychiatric illness (especially depression), physical illness, pain, functional impairment, and social disconnectedness. Recent advances in late-life suicide prevention have in common collaborative, multifaceted intervention designs. We suggest that one mechanism shared by all preventive interventions shown to reduce the incidence of late-life suicide is the promotion of connectedness. For the clinician working with older adults, our recommendation is to not only consider risk factors, such as depression, and implement appropriate treatments but to enhance social connectedness as well.

  9. Suicides in Late Life

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Kimberly; Conwell, Yeates

    2011-01-01

    Suicide in late life is an enormous public health problem that will likely increase in severity as adults of the baby boom generation age. Data from psychological autopsy studies supplemented with recent studies of suicidal ideation and attempts point to a consistent set of risk factors for the spectrum of suicidal behaviors in late life (suicide ideation, attempts, and deaths). Clinicians should be vigilant for psychiatric illness (especially depression), physical illness, pain, functional impairment, and social disconnectedness. Recent advances in late-life suicide prevention have in common collaborative, multifaceted intervention designs. We suggest that one mechanism shared by all preventive interventions shown to reduce the incidence of late-life suicide is the promotion of connectedness. For the clinician working with older adults, our recommendation is to not only consider risk factors, such as depression, and implement appropriate treatments but to enhance social connectedness as well. PMID:21369952

  10. Regenerative Life Support Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiner, G. N.; Thompson, C. D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the development plan and design concept of the Regenerative Life Support Evaluation (RLSE) planned for flight testing in the European Space Agency Spacelab. The development plan encompasses the ongoing advanced life support subsystem and a systems integration effort to evolve concurrently subsystem concepts that perform their function and can be integrated with other subsystems in a flight demonstration of a regenerative life support system. The design concept for RLSE comprises water-electrolysis O2 generation, electrochemically depolarized CO2 removal, and Sabatier CO2 reduction for atmosphere regeneration, urine vapor-compression distillation, and wash-water hyperfiltration for waste-water recovery. The flight demonstration by RLSE is an important step in qualifying the regenerative concepts for life support in space stations.

  11. End of Life Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, ... making choices about the following: The goals of care (for example, whether to use certain medicines during ...

  12. Is life supernatural?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Gilbert V.

    2015-09-01

    The big question of the origin of life is examined. The paradox created by Pasteur's resounding edict: Life only comes from life, pitted against the need for spontaneous generation is explored. This seemingly dead-end conundrum contrasts sharply with the great progress we have made in understanding the evolution of the species since Darwin's revolutionary insight. The conditions and sources of energy that might have promoted non-living molecules and compounds to cross the sharp line from inert to living are contemplated. Abiotic synthesis might help explain the origin, but still fails to explain the moment of vitalization. A different approach to discovering when the inert becomes alive is proposed. The need for, and a way to bring forth, a "Bio-Einstein" to solve this penultimate question of life's origin are presented.

  13. Life under alien skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartnell, Lewis

    2012-04-01

    As the number of confirmed extrasolar planets increases, so does the likelihood that some of them will harbour life. Lewis Dartnell describes some preliminary - but increasingly well founded - efforts to predict what alien plants and animals might look like.

  14. Life on moduli space?

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Stephen D. H.

    2009-10-15

    While the number of metastable landscape vacua in string theory is vast, the number of supermoduli vacua which lead to distinct low-energy physics is even larger, perhaps infinitely so. From the anthropic perspective it is therefore important to understand whether complex life is possible on moduli space - i.e., in low-energy effective theories with (1) exact supersymmetry and (2) some massless multiplets (moduli). Unless life is essentially impossible on moduli space as a consequence of these characteristics, anthropic reasoning in string theory suggests that the overwhelming majority of sentient beings would observe 1-2. We investigate whether 1 and 2 are by themselves automatically inimical to life and conclude, tentatively, that they are not. In particular, we describe moduli scenarios in which complex life seems possible.

  15. LIFE Delivery Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T. M.

    2011-04-20

    The LIFE Delivery Plan describes the path from ignition on NIF to achieving the goal of an operational fusion power plant that demonstrates all the functions and performance characteristics required to underwrite the move to a commercial fleet.

  16. Aquatic Life Criteria - Cadmium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to 2016 Acute and Chronic Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Cadmium (Freshwater, Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Cadmium in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  17. Diversity of Life Possible

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Planets are distinguished by two basic properties, their size and their orbit. The size determines if the planet can have a life-sustaining atmosphere. The orbit affects the surface temperature and...

  18. Aquatic Life Criteria - Carbaryl

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to 2012 Final National Recommended Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Carbaryl (Freshwater, Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Carbaryl in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  19. Aquatic Life Criteria - Ammonia

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents related to EPA's final 2013 Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia (Freshwater). These documents pertain to the safe levels of Ammonia in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  20. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  1. Fresh Water Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestler, Carol Susan

    1991-01-01

    Describes methodology for a fresh water life study with elementary through college age students with suggestions for proper equipment, useful guides, and other materials. Proposes an activity for the collection and study of plankton. Includes background information.(MCO)

  2. Fresh Water Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestler, Carol Susan

    1991-01-01

    Describes methodology for a fresh water life study with elementary through college age students with suggestions for proper equipment, useful guides, and other materials. Proposes an activity for the collection and study of plankton. Includes background information.(MCO)

  3. Aquatic Life Criteria - Lead

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    References and documents pertaining to Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Lead. These documents include the safe levels of Lead in water that should protect the majority of species.

  4. Early Life Stages

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  5. Money for your life.

    PubMed

    Larson, P

    1997-01-01

    New HIV treatments are prohibitively expensive, and some patients sell their life insurance policies for financial relief in times of crisis. Viatication is a $400 million industry, and it works by calculating a patient's life expectancy and paying them a percentage of their insurance value, based on actuarial tables. Rates can vary greatly, however, and patients are advised to compare company policies. There are also tax implications for this income, and patients should seek financial advice before selling their policy.

  6. NASA Life Sciences Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This Life Science Program video examines the variety of projects that study both the physiological and psychological impacts on astronauts due to extended space missions. The hazards of space radiation and microgravity effects on the human body are described, along with these effects on plant growth, and the performance of medical procedures in space. One research technique, which is hoped to provide help for future space travel, is the study of aquanauts and their life habits underwater.

  7. Work and the Perceived Quality of Life. A Final Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    satisfaction , happiness , and related indices of subjective well -being. The affective beliefs assessed by such measures may be directed toward 1if0 as a whole...KEY WORDS (Continue on ,re.,. side it necessary and Identify by block m.ber) L".J ’Work. quality of life ,, work-family conflict, Job satisfaction ...quality of work life , job involvement, life satisfaction , unemployment family involvement, job importance. Ids*s" 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on revere side

  8. 41 CFR 101-27.205 - Shelf-life codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Type I item code Type II item code 1 A 2 B 3 C 1 4 D 5 E 6 F 2 9 G 3 12 H 4 15 J 18 K 5 21 L 24 M 6 27....205 Section 101-27.205 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.205 Shelf-life codes. Shelf-life items shall be identified by...

  9. 41 CFR 101-27.205 - Shelf-life codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Type I item code Type II item code 1 A 2 B 3 C 1 4 D 5 E 6 F 2 9 G 3 12 H 4 15 J 18 K 5 21 L 24 M 6 27....205 Section 101-27.205 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.205 Shelf-life codes. Shelf-life items shall be identified by...

  10. 41 CFR 101-27.205 - Shelf-life codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Type I item code Type II item code 1 A 2 B 3 C 1 4 D 5 E 6 F 2 9 G 3 12 H 4 15 J 18 K 5 21 L 24 M 6 27....205 Section 101-27.205 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.205 Shelf-life codes. Shelf-life items shall be identified by...

  11. 41 CFR 101-27.205 - Shelf-life codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Type I item code Type II item code 1 A 2 B 3 C 1 4 D 5 E 6 F 2 9 G 3 12 H 4 15 J 18 K 5 21 L 24 M 6 27....205 Section 101-27.205 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.205 Shelf-life codes. Shelf-life items shall be identified by...

  12. Life cycle of cytosolic prions

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Julia; Vorberg, Ina

    2013-01-01

    Prions are self-templating protein aggregates that were originally identified as the causative agent of prion diseases in mammals, but have since been discovered in other kingdoms. Mammalian prions represent a unique class of infectious agents that are composed of misfolded prion protein. Prion proteins usually exist as soluble proteins but can refold and assemble into highly ordered, self-propagating prion polymers. The prion concept is also applicable to a growing number of non-Mendelian elements of inheritance in lower eukaryotes. While prions identified in mammals are clearly pathogens, prions in lower eukaryotes can be either detrimental or beneficial to the host. Prion phenotypes in fungi are transmitted vertically from mother to daughter cells during cell division and horizontally during mating or abortive mating, but extracellular phases have not been reported. Recent findings now demonstrate that in a mammalian cell environment, protein aggregates derived from yeast prion domains exhibit a prion life cycle similar to mammalian prions propagated ex vivo. This life cycle includes a soluble state of the protein, an induction phase by exogenous prion fibrils, stable replication of prion entities, vertical transmission to progeny and natural horizontal transmission to neighboring cells. Our data reveal that mammalian cells contain all co-factors required for cytosolic prion propagation and dissemination. This has important implications for understanding prion-like properties of disease-related protein aggregates. In light of the growing number of identified functional amyloids, cell-to-cell propagation of cytosolic protein conformers might not only be relevant for the spreading of disease-associated proteins, but might also be of more general relevance under non-disease conditions. PMID:24021964

  13. Life cycle of cytosolic prions.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Julia; Vorberg, Ina

    2013-01-01

    Prions are self-templating protein aggregates that were originally identified as the causative agent of prion diseases in mammals, but have since been discovered in other kingdoms. Mammalian prions represent a unique class of infectious agents that are composed of misfolded prion protein. Prion proteins usually exist as soluble proteins but can refold and assemble into highly ordered, self-propagating prion polymers. The prion concept is also applicable to a growing number of non-Mendelian elements of inheritance in lower eukaryotes. While prions identified in mammals are clearly pathogens, prions in lower eukaryotes can be either detrimental or beneficial to the host. Prion phenotypes in fungi are transmitted vertically from mother to daughter cells during cell division and horizontally during mating or abortive mating, but extracellular phases have not been reported. Recent findings now demonstrate that in a mammalian cell environment, protein aggregates derived from yeast prion domains exhibit a prion life cycle similar to mammalian prions propagated ex vivo. This life cycle includes a soluble state of the protein, an induction phase by exogenous prion fibrils, stable replication of prion entities, vertical transmission to progeny and natural horizontal transmission to neighboring cells. Our data reveal that mammalian cells contain all co-factors required for cytosolic prion propagation and dissemination. This has important implications for understanding prion-like properties of disease-related protein aggregates. In light of the growing number of identified functional amyloids, cell-to-cell propagation of cytosolic protein conformers might not only be relevant for the spreading of disease-associated proteins, but might also be of more general relevance under non-disease conditions.

  14. Identifying, studying and making good use of macromolecular crystals

    PubMed Central

    Calero, Guillermo; Cohen, Aina E.; Luft, Joseph R.; Newman, Janet; Snell, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    Structural biology has contributed tremendous knowledge to the understanding of life on the molecular scale. The Protein Data Bank, a depository of this structural knowledge, currently contains over 100 000 protein structures, with the majority stemming from X-ray crystallography. As the name might suggest, crystallography requires crystals. As detectors become more sensitive and X-ray sources more intense, the notion of a crystal is gradually changing from one large enough to embellish expensive jewellery to objects that have external dimensions of the order of the wavelength of visible light. Identifying these crystals is a prerequisite to their study. This paper discusses developments in identifying these crystals during crystallization screening and distinguishing them from other potential outcomes. The practical aspects of ensuring that once a crystal is identified it can then be positioned in the X-ray beam for data collection are also addressed. PMID:25084371

  15. Seeing the Chemistry around Me--Helping Students Identify the Relevance of Chemistry to Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Tracy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The study attempted to determine whether the use of a series of reading and response assignments decreased students' perceptions of chemistry difficulty and enhanced students' perceptions of the relevance of chemistry in their everyday lives. Informed consent volunteer students enrolled in General Chemistry II at a community college in the…

  16. Family Life Education for Young Inner-City Teens: Identifying Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herz, Elicia J.; Reis, Janet S.

    1987-01-01

    Sexual decision making, perceptions of responsibility for birth control and pregnancy, and knowledge of contraception and the consequences of teenage pregnancy were assessed among 251 high-risk seventh- and eighth-grade Black, inner-city adolescents to determine these young peoples' need for information. (Author/LMO)

  17. The Use of Narratives to Identify Characteristics Leading to a Productive Life following Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraas, Michael R.; Calvert, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the factors leading to successful recovery and productive lifestyles after acquired brain injury (ABI). Method: Qualitative investigation examined semistructured interviews of 31 survivors of ABI. Thematic analysis followed a phenomenological approach and revealed 4 major themes and 28 subthemes in the interviews. Four…

  18. Family life education for young inner-city teens: identifying needs.

    PubMed

    Herz, E J; Reis, J S

    1987-08-01

    Sexual decision making, perceptions of responsibility for birth control and pregnancy, and knowledge of contraception and the consequences of teenage pregnancy were assessed among 251 high-risk 7th and 8th grade black, US inner-city adolescents to determine their need for information. Survey results indicate that these adolescents are aware of contraceptive methods, but lack practical information about requirements for obtaining them or method effectiveness. Many students are uniformed about the circumstances under which pregnancy can occur. Males indicate a willingness to have intercourse regardless of the contraceptives used, if any, and believe responsibility for the use of a birth control method belonges to females. Females believe themselves to be responsible for contraceptive utilization and prefer intercourse with adequate protection. Both genders endorse the notion of mutual responsibility for unplanned pregnancies and related decisions. More systematic research assessing the effectiveness of a variety of curricula for enhancing skills in decision-making and moral reasoning in young teens is needed.

  19. The Use of Narratives to Identify Characteristics Leading to a Productive Life following Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraas, Michael R.; Calvert, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the factors leading to successful recovery and productive lifestyles after acquired brain injury (ABI). Method: Qualitative investigation examined semistructured interviews of 31 survivors of ABI. Thematic analysis followed a phenomenological approach and revealed 4 major themes and 28 subthemes in the interviews. Four…

  20. Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Prognosis: An Uncertainty Propagation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of remaining useful life is significant in the context of prognostics and health monitoring, and the prediction of remaining useful life is essential for online operations and decision-making. However, it is challenging to accurately predict the remaining useful life in practical aerospace applications due to the presence of various uncertainties that affect prognostic calculations, and in turn, render the remaining useful life prediction uncertain. It is challenging to identify and characterize the various sources of uncertainty in prognosis, understand how each of these sources of uncertainty affect the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction, and thereby compute the overall uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. In order to achieve these goals, this paper proposes that the task of estimating the remaining useful life must be approached as an uncertainty propagation problem. In this context, uncertainty propagation methods which are available in the literature are reviewed, and their applicability to prognostics and health monitoring are discussed.

  1. Experimental methods for identifying failure mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental methods for identifying failure mechanisms in fibrous composites are studied. Methods to identify failure in composite materials includes interferometry, holography, fractography and ultrasonics.

  2. Types of Meaningfulness of Life and Values of Future Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salikhova, Nailia R.

    2016-01-01

    The leading role of meaning of life in regulation of human's activity of all types provides the relevance of the research. The goal of the paper is to identify and describe types of meaningfulness of life in future teachers, and to reveal the specificity of values hierarchy indicative of each type. The leading approach applied in the research was…

  3. Work-Life Balance: Beyond the Rhetoric. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodz, J.; Harper, H.; Dench, S.

    The current status of British policy and practice related to work-life balance was examined through case studies of six organizations identified as having well-developed work-life balance and flexible working practices. Interviews were conducted with human resource (HR) managers at all six organizations, and interviews and focus group discussions…

  4. Reflections on the Life Histories of Today's LGBQ Postsecondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olive, James L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative multiple-case study utilized a life history methodology in which written and oral narratives were obtained from six postsecondary students who self-identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or queer (LGBQ). Through the construction of life histories, the researcher endeavored to understand how past experiences and behaviors shaped…

  5. Life Science Payloads Planning Study Integration Facility Survey: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, G. W.; Brown, N. E.

    1976-01-01

    Analyses of proposed life science shuttle era payload operations are discussed. A summary of results from a survey conducted to: (1) examine facility and equipment resources needed for life science payload integration, checkout, test and mission support activities; (2) identify presently available resources; and (3) determine methods by which operational era status may be implemented based on currently available resources, is presented.

  6. Work-Life Balance: Beyond the Rhetoric. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodz, J.; Harper, H.; Dench, S.

    The current status of British policy and practice related to work-life balance was examined through case studies of six organizations identified as having well-developed work-life balance and flexible working practices. Interviews were conducted with human resource (HR) managers at all six organizations, and interviews and focus group discussions…

  7. Self-Determination across the Life Span: Issues and Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Tamar; Schindler, Abigail; Palmer, Susan B.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Parent, Wendy; Jenson, Ronda; Abery, Brian H.; Geringer, Wendy; Bacon, Ansley; O'Hara, David M.

    2011-01-01

    This article synthesizes the literature on self-determination across the lifespan with a focus on identifying gaps that exist between theory, research, and evidence-based practices. Using a life-stages approach, it first examines issues across life phases, and then examines cross-cutting topics (employment, abuse and neglect, and health) that are…

  8. Reflections on the Life Histories of Today's LGBQ Postsecondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olive, James L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative multiple-case study utilized a life history methodology in which written and oral narratives were obtained from six postsecondary students who self-identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or queer (LGBQ). Through the construction of life histories, the researcher endeavored to understand how past experiences and behaviors shaped…

  9. A Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article had four goals. First, the authors identified a set of general challenges and questions that a life-span theory of development should address. Second, they presented a comprehensive account of their Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. They integrated the model of optimization in primary and secondary control and the…

  10. From fatigue test life to structure safe life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiwei

    1991-08-01

    According to Chinese military specifications a suitable fatigue life scatter factor must be used in determining aircraft safe life from fatigue test life. The relationship between the reliability and the life distribution scatter factor has been discussed. The difference between the life distribution scatter factor and the specification life scatter factor has been pointed out. The concept of spectrum variation factor has been emphasized. It is argued that the specification fatigue life scatter factor should be the product of the life distribution scatter factor and the spectrum variation factor. Determination of structure safe life from fatigue test results of used structures has also been considered. Two points are of significance: when converting used time to fatigue test life the time should be reduced instead of being increased, different specification fatigue life scatter factors should be chosen for service time and test time.

  11. Easing Opioid Dose May Improve Pain and Quality of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Easing Opioid Dose May Improve Pain and Quality of Life Slowly lowering the drug amount also ... at Staten Island University Hospital in New York City. He said, "Identifying effective non-opioid approaches to ...

  12. Life without water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, Lois M.; Crowe, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Anhydrobiosis, or life without water is commonly demonstrated by a number of plants and animals. These organisms have the capacity to loose all body water, remain dry for various periods, and then be revived by rehydration. While in the anhydrobiotic state, these organisms become highly resistant to several environmental stresses such as extremely low temperatures, elevated temperatures, ionizing radiation, and high vacuum. Since water is commonly thought to be essential for life, survival of anhydrobiotic organisms with an almost total loss of water is examined. A search of literature reveal that many anhydrobiotic organisms make large quantities of trehalose or other carbohydrates. Laboratory experiments have shown that trehalose is able to stabilize and preserve microsomes of sarcoplasmic reticulum and artificial liposomes. It was demonstrated that trehalose and other disaccharides can interact directly with phosopipid headgroups and maintain membranes in their native configuration by replacing water in the headgroup region. Recent studies show that trehalose is an effective stabilizer of proteins during drying and that it does so by direct interaction with groups on the protein. If life that is able to withstand environmental extremes has ever developed on Mars, it is expected that such life would have developed some protective compounds which can stabilize macromolecular structure in the absence of water and at cold temperatures. On Earth, that role appears to be filled by carbohydrates that can stabilize both membrane and protein stuctures during freezing and drying. By analog with terrestrial systems, such life forms might develop resistance either during some reproductive stage or at any time during adult existence. If the resistant form is a developmental stage, the life cycle of the organism must be completed with a reasonable time period relative to time when environmental conditions are favorable. This would suggest that simple organisms with a short

  13. Life sciences recruitment objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, J. Richard

    1992-01-01

    The goals of the Life Sciences Division of the Office of Space Sciences and Application are to ensure the health, well being and productivity of humans in space and to acquire fundamental scientific knowledge in space life sciences. With these goals in mind Space Station Freedom represents substantial opportunities and significant challenges to the Life Sciences Division. For the first time it will be possible to replicate experimental data from a variety of simultaneously exposed species with appropriate controls and real-time analytical capabilities over extended periods of time. At the same time, a system for monitoring and ameliorating the physiological adaptations that occur in humans subjected to extended space flight must be evolved to provide the continuing operational support to the SSF crew. To meet its goals, and take advantage of the opportunities and overcome the challenges presented by Space Station Freedom, the Life Sciences Division is developing a suite of discipline-focused sequence. The research phase of the Life Sciences Space Station Freedom Program will commence with the utilization flights following the deployment of the U.S. laboratory module and achievement of Man Tended Capability. Investigators that want the Life Sciences Division to sponsor their experiment on SSF can do so in one of three ways: submitting a proposal in response to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA), submitting a proposal in response to an Announcement of Opportunity (AO), or submitting an unsolicited proposal. The scientific merit of all proposals will be evaluated by peer review panels. Proposals will also be evaluated based on relevance to NASA's missions and on the results of an Engineering and Cost Analyses. The Life Sciences Division expects that the majority of its funding opportunities will be announced through NRA's. It is anticipated that the first NRA will be released approximately three years before first element launch (currently scheduled for late 1995

  14. From Matter to Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imari Walker, Sara; Davies, Paul C. W.; Ellis, George F. R.

    2017-02-01

    1. Introduction Sara Imari Walker, Paul C. W. Davies and F. R. Ellis; Part I. Physics and Life: 2. The 'hard problem' of life Sara Imari Walker and Paul C. W. Davies; 3. Beyond initial conditions and laws of motion: constructor theory of information and life Chiara Marletto; Part II. Bio from Bit: 4. (How) did information emerge? Anne-Marie Grisogono; 5. On the emerging codes for chemical evolution Jillian E. Smith-Carpenter, Sha Li, Jay T. Goodwin, Anil K. Mehta and David G. Lynn; 6. Digital and analogue information in organisms Denis Noble; 7. From entropy to information: biased typewriters and the origin of life Christoph Adami and Thomas Labar; Part III. Life's Hidden Information: 8. Cryptographic nature David Krakauer; 9. Noise and function Steven Weinstein and Theodore Pavlic; 10. The many faces of state space compression David Wolpert, Eric Libby, Joshua Grochow and Simon DeDeo; 11. Causality, information and biological computation: an algorithmic software approach to life, disease and the immune system Hector Zenil, Angelika Schmidt and Jesper Tegnér; Part IV. Complexity and Causality: 12. Life's information hierarchy Jessica Flack; 13. Living through downward causation: from molecules to ecosystems Keith D. Farnsworth, George F. R. Ellis and Luc Jaeger; 14. Automata and animats: from dynamics to cause-effect structures Larissa Albantakis and Giulio Tononi; 15. Biological information, causality and specificity - an intimate relationship Karola Stotz and Paul Griffiths; Part V. From Matter to Mind: 16. Major transitions in political order Simon DeDeo; 17. Bits from biology for computational intelligence Michael Wibral, Joseph Lizier and Viola Priesemann; 18. Machine learning and the questions it raises G. Andrew D. Briggs and Dawid Potgieter.

  15. A Quantum Origin of Life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Paul C. W.

    The following sections are included: * Chemistry and Information * Q-life * The Problem of Decoherence * Life as the "Solution" of a Quantum Search Algorithm * Quantum Choreography * Acknowledgements * References

  16. Life Satisfaction in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Crom, Deborah B.; Li, Zhenghong; Brinkman, Tara M.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Neglia, Joseph; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Adult survivors of childhood brain tumors experience multiple, significant, life-long deficits as a consequence of their malignancy and therapy. Current survivorship literature documents the substantial impact such impairments have on survivors’ physical health and quality of life. Psychosocial reports detail educational, cognitive, and emotional limitations characterizing survivors as especially fragile, often incompetent, and unreliable in evaluating their circumstances. Anecdotal data suggests some survivors report life experiences similar to those of healthy controls. The aim of our investigation was to determine whether life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors differs from that of healthy controls and to identify potential predictors of life satisfaction in survivors. This cross-sectional study compared 78 brain tumor survivors with population–based matched controls. Chi-square tests, t-tests, and linear regression models were used to investigate patterns of life satisfaction and identify potential correlates. Results indicated life satisfaction of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors was similar to that of healthy controls. Survivors’ general health expectations emerged as the primary correlate of life satisfaction. Understanding life satisfaction as an important variable will optimize the design of strategies to enhance participation in follow-up care, reduce suffering, and optimize quality of life in this vulnerable population. PMID:25027187

  17. Life cycle assessment: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Guinée, Jeroen B; Heijungs, Reinout; Huppes, Gjalt; Zamagni, Alessandra; Masoni, Paolo; Buonamici, Roberto; Ekvall, Tomas; Rydberg, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) has developed fast over the last three decades. Whereas LCA developed from merely energy analysis to a comprehensive environmental burden analysis in the 1970s, full-fledged life cycle impact assessment and life cycle costing models were introduced in the 1980s and 1990 s, and social-LCA and particularly consequential LCA gained ground in the first decade of the 21st century. Many of the more recent developments were initiated to broaden traditional environmental LCA to a more comprehensive Life Cycle Sustainability Analysis (LCSA). Recently, a framework for LCSA was suggested linking life cycle sustainability questions to knowledge needed for addressing them, identifying available knowledge and related models, knowledge gaps, and defining research programs to fill these gaps. LCA is evolving into LCSA, which is a transdisciplinary integration framework of models rather than a model in itself. LCSA works with a plethora of disciplinary models and guides selecting the proper ones, given a specific sustainability question. Structuring, selecting, and making the plethora of disciplinary models practically available in relation to different types of life cycle sustainability questions is the main challenge.

  18. What is life? Prerequisites for a definition.

    PubMed

    Dix, Douglas E

    2002-01-01

    Biologists view life as transient while theologians see it as eternal. An unbiased definition for life would respect both views until one or both were eliminated by evidence. This paper identifies pre-requisites for such a definition. First among these is that all assumptions be made explicit. Currently "life" is surrounded by implicit assumptions, e.g., that it is what organisms lose at death or that it is eternal, that its quality is inversely related to personal distress, that it originated some four billion years ago, and that animate matter can be distinguished from inanimate matter. None of these assumptions are supported by data. It is possible therefore that "life" is as meaningless as phlogiston. If life has meaning, i.e., if it is true, it must be as permanent as buoyancy, gravity, electricity, and the other truths of nature. Any definition for life that would permit such truth to be seen must be free of unwarranted assumptions. For the moment, at least, such a definition would need to be loosely structured and broadly focused. It would need to describe the long and convoluted process by which matter and energy form organisms which then evolve to form conscious organisms which then explore nature and eventually discover truth. Such a definition would include all the reactions and interactions of matter and energy and all the aspects of conscious discovery. It would suffer from superficiality, but, by being free from bias, provide a foundation for dialogue between biologists and theologians.

  19. An Integrated Approach to Life Cycle Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chytka, T. M.; Brown, R. W.; Shih, A. T.; Reeves, J. D.; Dempsey, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is the evaluation of the impacts that design decisions have on a system and provides a framework for identifying and evaluating design benefits and burdens associated with the life cycles of space transportation systems from a "cradle-to-grave" approach. Sometimes called life cycle assessment, life cycle approach, or "cradle to grave analysis", it represents a rapidly emerging family of tools and techniques designed to be a decision support methodology and aid in the development of sustainable systems. The implementation of a Life Cycle Analysis can vary and may take many forms; from global system-level uncertainty-centered analysis to the assessment of individualized discriminatory metrics. This paper will focus on a proven LCA methodology developed by the Systems Analysis and Concepts Directorate (SACD) at NASA Langley Research Center to quantify and assess key LCA discriminatory metrics, in particular affordability, reliability, maintainability, and operability. This paper will address issues inherent in Life Cycle Analysis including direct impacts, such as system development cost and crew safety, as well as indirect impacts, which often take the form of coupled metrics (i.e., the cost of system unreliability). Since LCA deals with the analysis of space vehicle system conceptual designs, it is imperative to stress that the goal of LCA is not to arrive at the answer but, rather, to provide important inputs to a broader strategic planning process, allowing the managers to make risk-informed decisions, and increase the likelihood of meeting mission success criteria.

  20. What is life? Prerequisites for a definition.

    PubMed Central

    Dix, Douglas E.

    2002-01-01

    Biologists view life as transient while theologians see it as eternal. An unbiased definition for life would respect both views until one or both were eliminated by evidence. This paper identifies pre-requisites for such a definition. First among these is that all assumptions be made explicit. Currently "life" is surrounded by implicit assumptions, e.g., that it is what organisms lose at death or that it is eternal, that its quality is inversely related to personal distress, that it originated some four billion years ago, and that animate matter can be distinguished from inanimate matter. None of these assumptions are supported by data. It is possible therefore that "life" is as meaningless as phlogiston. If life has meaning, i.e., if it is true, it must be as permanent as buoyancy, gravity, electricity, and the other truths of nature. Any definition for life that would permit such truth to be seen must be free of unwarranted assumptions. For the moment, at least, such a definition would need to be loosely structured and broadly focused. It would need to describe the long and convoluted process by which matter and energy form organisms which then evolve to form conscious organisms which then explore nature and eventually discover truth. Such a definition would include all the reactions and interactions of matter and energy and all the aspects of conscious discovery. It would suffer from superficiality, but, by being free from bias, provide a foundation for dialogue between biologists and theologians. PMID:14580113

  1. Identifying atmospheric monitoring needs for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casserly, Dennis M.; Russo, Dane M.

    1990-01-01

    The monitoring needs for Space Station Freedom were identified by examining: the experiences of past missions; ground based tests of proposed life support systems; a contaminant load model; metabolic production from an 8-person crew; and a fire scenario. Continuous monitoring is recommended for components critical for life support, and that intermittent analysis be provided for all agents that may exceed one-half the spacecraft maximum allowable concentration. The minimum monitoring effort recommended includes continuous monitoring for: N2, O2, CO2, CO, H2O, H2, CH4, nonmethane hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, refrigerants, and halons. Information on over 70 compounds is presented on the rationale for monitoring the frequency of analysis, and concentration ranges.

  2. The Divergent Meanings of Life Satisfaction: Item Response Modeling of the Satisfaction with Life Scale in Greenland and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitterso, Joar; Biswas-Diener, Robert; Diener, Ed

    2005-01-01

    Cultural differences in response to the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) items is investigated. Data were fit to a mixed Rasch model in order to identify latent classes of participants in a combined sample of Norwegians (N = 461) and Greenlanders (N = 180). Initial analyses showed no mean difference in life satisfaction between the two…

  3. The Divergent Meanings of Life Satisfaction: Item Response Modeling of the Satisfaction with Life Scale in Greenland and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitterso, Joar; Biswas-Diener, Robert; Diener, Ed

    2005-01-01

    Cultural differences in response to the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) items is investigated. Data were fit to a mixed Rasch model in order to identify latent classes of participants in a combined sample of Norwegians (N = 461) and Greenlanders (N = 180). Initial analyses showed no mean difference in life satisfaction between the two…

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Life-Cycle Assessment Tools for End-of-Life Materials Management Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    We identified and evaluated five life-cycle assessment tools that community decision makers can use to assess the environmental and economic impacts of end-of-life (EOL) materials management options. The tools evaluated in this report are waste reduction mode (WARM), municipal s...

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Life-Cycle Assessment Tools for End-of-Life Materials Management Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    We identified and evaluated five life-cycle assessment tools that community decision makers can use to assess the environmental and economic impacts of end-of-life (EOL) materials management options. The tools evaluated in this report are waste reduction mode (WARM), municipal s...

  6. Outlook on Life: How Adolescents and Children View the Life-Style of Parents, Adults and Self.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Sing; Lau, Winnie

    1996-01-01

    An Outlook on Life measure was constructed to identify how adolescents and children see their lives. Three scales were formed: View of Parents, View of Adults, and View of Self. The scales were found to correlate highly with subjects' emotional state. The more positive views subjects had of their parents, adults, and their own life, the less…

  7. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Garshnek, Victoria (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This is the thirty first issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 55 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of 5 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 18 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, biological rhythms, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, endocrinology, enzymology, genetics, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, life support systems, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, psychology, radiobiology, and space biology and medicine.

  8. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 30

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This is the thirtieth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 47 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of three Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 20 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, biospheric research, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, endocrinology, equipment and instrumentation, gastrointestinal system, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, psychology, radiobiology, and space biology and medicine.

  9. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 28

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This is the twenty-eighth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of 3 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 20 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, aviation medicine, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, and space medicine.

  10. Planetary Biology-Paleontological, Geological, and Molecular Histories of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Steven A.; Caraco, M. Daniel; Thomson, J. Michael; Gaucher, Eric A.

    2002-05-01

    The history of life on Earth is chronicled in the geological strata, the fossil record, and the genomes of contemporary organisms. When examined together, these records help identify metabolic and regulatory pathways, annotate protein sequences, and identify animal models to develop new drugs, among other features of scientific and biomedical interest. Together, planetary analysis of genome and proteome databases is providing an enhanced understanding of how life interacts with the biosphere and adapts to global change.

  11. Long Life Elastomeric Aircraft Hydraulic Seals. Part I2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    Continue on reverse side If necessary and Identify by block number) Hydraulic O-Ring Seals Long Life Fluorocarbon Elastomer Dynamic Testing Backup...Rings 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If necessary and Identify by block number) The continued development work of long life elastomeric...amines, azoles and quinoline types are extracted by the service media which limits their effectivity in protecting the polymer against oxidative attack

  12. Planetary biology--paleontological, geological, and molecular histories of life.

    PubMed

    Benner, Steven A; Caraco, M Daniel; Thomson, J Michael; Gaucher, Eric A

    2002-05-03

    The history of life on Earth is chronicled in the geological strata, the fossil record, and the genomes of contemporary organisms. When examined together, these records help identify metabolic and regulatory pathways, annotate protein sequences, and identify animal models to develop new drugs, among other features of scientific and biomedical interest. Together, planetary analysis of genome and proteome databases is providing an enhanced understanding of how life interacts with the biosphere and adapts to global change.

  13. Life events and escape in conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, T R; Aybek, S; Craig, T; Harris, T; Wojcik, W; David, A S; Kanaan, R A

    2016-09-01

    Psychological models of conversion disorder (CD) traditionally assume that psychosocial stressors are identifiable around symptom onset. In the face of limited supportive evidence such models are being challenged. Forty-three motor CD patients, 28 depression patients and 28 healthy controls were assessed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule in the year before symptom onset. A novel 'escape' rating for events was developed to test the Freudian theory that physical symptoms of CD could provide escape from stressors, a form of 'secondary gain'. CD patients had significantly more severe life events and 'escape' events than controls. In the month before symptom onset at least one severe event was identified in 56% of CD patients - significantly more than 21% of depression patients [odds ratio (OR) 4.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56-13.70] and healthy controls (OR 5.81, 95% CI 1.86-18.2). In the same time period 53% of CD patients had at least one 'high escape' event - again significantly higher than 14% in depression patients (OR 6.90, 95% CI 2.05-23.6) and 0% in healthy controls. Previous sexual abuse was more commonly reported in CD than controls, and in one third of female patients was contextually relevant to life events at symptom onset. The majority (88%) of life events of potential aetiological relevance were not identified by routine clinical assessments. Nine per cent of CD patients had no identifiable severe life events. Evidence was found supporting the psychological model of CD, the Freudian notion of escape and the potential aetiological relevance of childhood traumas in some patients. Uncovering stressors of potential aetiological relevance requires thorough psychosocial evaluation.

  14. Intelligent life in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    2003-04-01

    I shall present three arguments for the proposition that intelligent life is very rare in the universe. First, I shall summarize the consensus opinion of the founders of the modern synthesis (Simpson, Dobzhanski and Mayr) that the evolution of intelligent life is exceedingly improbable. Secondly, I shall develop the Fermi paradox: if they existed, they would be here. Thirdly, I shall show that if intelligent life were too common, it would use up all available resources and die out. But I shall show that the quantum mechanical principle of unitarity (actually a form of teleology!) requires intelligent life to survive to the end of time. Finally, I shall argue that, if the universe is indeed accelerating, then survival to the end of time requires that intelligent life, though rare, to have evolved several times in the visible universe. I shall argue that the acceleration is a consequence of the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe. I shall suggest experiments to test these claims.

  15. Comets and life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oro, J.; Berry, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Some of the chemical species which have been detected in comets include H2O, HCN, CH3CN, CO, CO2, NH3, CS, C2 and C3. All of these have also been detected in the interstellar medium, indicating a probable relationship between interstellar dust and gas clouds and comets. Laboratory experiments carried out with different mixtures of these molecules give rise to the formation of the biochemical compounds which are necessary for life, such as amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, monosaccharides, etc. However, in spite of suggestions to the contrary, the presence of life in comets is unlikely. On the other hand, the capture of cometary matter by the primitive earth is considered essential for the development of life on this planet. The amount of cometary carbon-containing matter captured by the earth, as calcualted by different authors, is several times larger than the total amount of organic matter present in the biosphere (10 to the 18th g). The major classes of reactions which were probably involved in the formation of key biochemical compounds are discussed. The tentative conclusions are that: (1) comets played a predominant role in the emergence of life on earth, and (2) they are the cosmic connection with extraterrestrial life.

  16. Biophilosophical basis for identifying the death of a person.

    PubMed

    Baker, Andrew; Shemie, Sam D

    2014-08-01

    The capacity for consciousness and self-awareness is uniquely synonymous with human life and personhood, and its absence is necessary and sufficient to identify that death has occurred. The presence of these functions is uniquely synonymous with human life. Ongoing organ function, response to infection, growth, wound healing, or the ability to sustain an unborn fetus do not alone constitute the unique experience of life and personhood. Death occurs after the loss of the ability to use oxygen by the brain, which occurs because of either raised intracranial pressure preventing any cerebral blood flow or, more commonly, the absence of systemic blood flow following abrupt or hypoxic circulatory cessation. The abrupt cessation of circulation leads to loss of consciousness and brain electrical activity; and when it becomes truly permanent and then irreversible, this becomes an operational definition of death. One must infer and decide that sufficient ischemic hypoxic injury has rendered the potential for reinstating any consciousness and brain stem function irreversibly lost. Progressive hypoxia that is seen in many patients after withdrawal of advanced physiologic support leads to apnea and then circulatory arrest. The outward sign of apnea that is then followed by circulatory arrest is the basis for inferring that irreversible loss of capacity for consciousness and self-awareness has occurred and that death can be identified has having occurred. The capacity for consciousness and self-awareness is the only irreplaceable emergent phenomenon—arising from physiologic function of the brain—that is necessary and sufficient to define the life of a person.

  17. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  18. Practical Life: The Keystone of Life, Culture, and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Uma Ramani's characterization of practical life is philosophical and anthropological, suggesting that "human history is the story of the evolution of our practical life activities." Practical life is a collaborative activity that creates community and culture. One's adaptation to life through the daily work of ordering our environment…

  19. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  20. Life Satisfaction across Four Stages of Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medley, Morris L.

    1980-01-01

    For men life satisfaction was related to age stage in a monotonic increasing fashion. Life satisfaction scores remained relatively constant across the age stages for women. Family life and standard of living were found to be significant determinants of life satisfaction, for both sexes at each stage of adulthood. (Author)

  1. Primary lithium cell life studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capulli, John; Donley, Sam; Deligiannis, Frank; Shen, David

    1990-01-01

    One solution for providing a truly independent power source is to package, within the critical subsystem element, a primary battery that can remain dormant for time periods as long as the mission life, which can be 10-15 years, maximum. When primary power from the spacecraft solar array/battery system is interrupted, the backup battery system, which is connected through a diode to the power input line, would automatically support the load to avoid a power interruption to the critical load for a time period long enough to ensure that ground control could access the satellite and correct the anomaly by sending appropriate commands to the spacecraft. Critical subsystems identified for the application are telemetry and command circuits, volatile computer memory, attitude control circuits, and some critical payloads. Due to volume packaging and weight restrictions that exist on most spacecraft, coupled with the long storage periods required, lithium cell technology was selected for the backup power source. Because of the high energy density (200-400 Wh/kg), long shelf life, and load capability, soluble cathode primary lithium technology was chosen. The most important lithium cell properties that require detail characterization for this application are capacity loss, shelf life, and the voltage delay mechanism. These are functions of storage time and temperature. During storage, a passive film builds up on the lithium electrode. The film protects the lithium electrode from progressive capacity decay but requires time to break down when a load is applied. This phenomenon results in a depressed voltage during the period of film breakdown which can last from fractions of a second to minutes.

  2. Design Rules for Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers some of the common assumptions and engineering rules of thumb used in life support system design. One general design rule is that the longer the mission, the more the life support system should use recycling and regenerable technologies. A more specific rule is that, if the system grows more than half the food, the food plants will supply all the oxygen needed for the crew life support. There are many such design rules that help in planning the analysis of life support systems and in checking results. These rules are typically if-then statements describing the results of steady-state, "back of the envelope," mass flow calculations. They are useful in identifying plausible candidate life support system designs and in rough allocations between resupply and resource recovery. Life support system designers should always review the design rules and make quick steady state calculations before doing detailed design and dynamic simulation. This paper develops the basis for the different assumptions and design rules and discusses how they should be used. We start top-down, with the highest level requirement to sustain human beings in a closed environment off Earth. We consider the crew needs for air, water, and food. We then discuss atmosphere leakage and recycling losses. The needs to support the crew and to make up losses define the fundamental life support system requirements. We consider the trade-offs between resupplying and recycling oxygen, water, and food. The specific choices between resupply and recycling are determined by mission duration, presence of in-situ resources, etc., and are defining parameters of life support system design.

  3. Life Out of Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, Gustaf

    2002-01-01

    Doctinary overlays on the definition of life can effectively be avoided by focusing discussion on microorganisms, their vital processes, and their genetic pedigree. To reach beyond these present and highly advanced forms of life and to inquire about its origin it is necessary to consider the requirements imposed by the environment. These requirements include geophysically and geochemically acceptable conjectures for the generation of source compounds, their concentration from dilute solution, and their selective combination into functional biomolecules. For vital function these macromolecules require programming in the form of specific sequence motifs. This critical programming constitutes the scientifically least understood process in the origin of life. Once this stage has been surpassed the laws of Darwinian evolution can operate in ways that are understood and experimentally demonstrated.

  4. Life in the Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Wainwright, N. R.; Grasby, S. E.; Harvey, R. P.

    2003-01-01

    The current Martian surface environment is extremely hostile to any known form of life. The combination of subfreezing temperature, low atmospheric pressure and high ultraviolet flux, combined with desiccated and possibly oxidizing soil, could destroy even the hardiest microorganisms. The Viking biology experiments are generally interpreted to indicate that the surface of Mars is currently devoid of life and organic molecules at the part-per-billion level. Speculation on the possibility of extant or preserved microbial life on Mars thus centers on refuges in some manner protected from the current surface environment, either in space or time. Terrestrial analogs include hydrothermal systems, lakes, caves and subsurface aquifers as well as more clement conditions in the distant past. We are examining the evidence for microbiology in Earth's glaciated polar regions as analogs to the polar caps of Mars. This research concerns the detection of microorganisms or their preserved remains at the surface and within polar glacial ice.

  5. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  6. Life sciences accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    From its inception, the main charter of Life Sciences has been to define biomedical requirements for the design and development of spacecraft systems and to participate in NASA's scientific exploration of the universe. The role of the Life Sciences Division is to: (1) assure the health, well being and productivity of all individuals who fly in space; (2) study the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the universe; and (3) to utilize the space environment as a tool for research in biology and medicine. The activities, programs, and accomplishments to date in the efforts to achieve these goals are detailed and the future challenges that face the division as it moves forward from the shuttle era to a permanent manned presence in space space station's are examined.

  7. Stress and life history.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Pat; Spencer, Karen A

    2014-05-19

    In his book on behavioural endocrinology, Randy Nelson describes 'stress' as a 'notoriously ethereal concept'. Yet, despite this lack of clarity, studies of the consequences of stress across different time scales, life history stages, taxa and levels of biological enquiry form a large part of modern biology and biomedicine. Organisms need to recognise and respond to environmental challenges. Being able to do so appropriately, and with minimal costs, is an important physiological attribute, with great adaptive value. The costs and benefits of different mechanisms that enable organisms to cope with unpredictable environmental changes can be manifest to different degrees at different life stages. Accordingly, the level of stress experienced in the environment can act as a strong selective pressure that drives the evolution of life histories.

  8. Life in the Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Wainwright, N. R.; Grasby, S. E.; Harvey, R. P.

    2003-01-01

    The current Martian surface environment is extremely hostile to any known form of life. The combination of subfreezing temperature, low atmospheric pressure and high ultraviolet flux, combined with desiccated and possibly oxidizing soil, could destroy even the hardiest microorganisms. The Viking biology experiments are generally interpreted to indicate that the surface of Mars is currently devoid of life and organic molecules at the part-per-billion level. Speculation on the possibility of extant or preserved microbial life on Mars thus centers on refuges in some manner protected from the current surface environment, either in space or time. Terrestrial analogs include hydrothermal systems, lakes, caves and subsurface aquifers as well as more clement conditions in the distant past. We are examining the evidence for microbiology in Earth's glaciated polar regions as analogs to the polar caps of Mars. This research concerns the detection of microorganisms or their preserved remains at the surface and within polar glacial ice.

  9. Life before LUCA.

    PubMed

    Cornish-Bowden, Athel; Cárdenas, María Luz

    2017-12-07

    We see the last universal common ancestor of all living organisms, or LUCA, at the evolutionary separation of the Archaea from the Eubacteria, and before the symbiotic event believed to have led to the Eukarya. LUCA is often implicitly taken to be close to the origin of life, and sometimes this is even stated explicitly. However, LUCA already had the capacity to code for many proteins, and had some of the same bioenergetic capacities as modern organisms. An organism at the origin of life must have been vastly simpler, and this invites the question of how to define a living organism. Even if acceptance of the giant viruses as living organisms forces the definition of LUCA to be revised, it will not alter the essential point that LUCA should be regarded as a recent player in the evolution of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Life Out of Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, Gustaf

    2002-01-01

    Doctinary overlays on the definition of life can effectively be avoided by focusing discussion on microorganisms, their vital processes, and their genetic pedigree. To reach beyond these present and highly advanced forms of life and to inquire about its origin it is necessary to consider the requirements imposed by the environment. These requirements include geophysically and geochemically acceptable conjectures for the generation of source compounds, their concentration from dilute solution, and their selective combination into functional biomolecules. For vital function these macromolecules require programming in the form of specific sequence motifs. This critical programming constitutes the scientifically least understood process in the origin of life. Once this stage has been surpassed the laws of Darwinian evolution can operate in ways that are understood and experimentally demonstrated.

  11. Habitats of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirk, Schulze-Makuch; Irwin, Louis N.

    There are four principal habitats in which life may exist - the surface of a planetary body, its subsurface, its atmosphere and space. From our own experience we know that life does exist on the surface of a planet, in its subsurface, and transiently at least in the atmosphere. Where it is present, it exists in a surprising diversity and in a variety of microhabitats, from deep caverns (Hose et al. 2000, Melim et al. 2001) to hydrothermal fluids and hot springs of various chemistries (Jannasch 1995, Rzonca and Schulze-Makuch 2002), to the frozen deserts of Antarctica (Friedmann 1982, Sun and Friedmann 1999). In this chapter we will elaborate on the principal habitats, the constraints they impose on life, and the possibilities they provide.

  12. Mid-Life Nuances and Negotiations: Narrative Maps and the Social Construction of Mid-Life in Sport and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partington, Elizabeth; Partington, Sarah; Fishwick, Lesley; Allin, Linda

    2005-01-01

    This paper adopts a narrative perspective on the study of mid-life experiences in sport. Different types of stories about sporting mid-life are identified and discussed. Drawing upon the concept of narrative mapping, the potential of these stories to serve as narrative maps for those approaching mid-life is considered. Data from an interview study…

  13. Mid-Life Nuances and Negotiations: Narrative Maps and the Social Construction of Mid-Life in Sport and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partington, Elizabeth; Partington, Sarah; Fishwick, Lesley; Allin, Linda

    2005-01-01

    This paper adopts a narrative perspective on the study of mid-life experiences in sport. Different types of stories about sporting mid-life are identified and discussed. Drawing upon the concept of narrative mapping, the potential of these stories to serve as narrative maps for those approaching mid-life is considered. Data from an interview study…

  14. Only six kingdoms of life.

    PubMed Central

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    There are many more phyla of microbes than of macro-organisms, but microbial biodiversity is poorly understood because most microbes are uncultured. Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequences cloned after PCR amplification of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples is a powerful way of exploring our degree of ignorance of major groups. As there are only five eukaryotic kingdoms, two claims using such methods for numerous novel 'kingdom-level' lineages among anaerobic eukaryotes would be remarkable, if true. By reanalysing those data with 167 known species (not merely 8-37), I identified relatives for all 8-10 'mysterious' lineages. All probably belong to one of five already recognized phyla (Amoebozoa, Cercozoa, Apusozoa, Myzozoa, Loukozoa) within the basal kingdom Protozoa, mostly in known classes, sometimes even in known orders, families or genera. This strengthens the idea that the ancestral eukaryote was a mitochondrial aerobe. Analogous claims of novel bacterial divisions or kingdoms may reflect the weak resolution and grossly non-clock-like evolution of ribosomal rRNA, not genuine phylum-level biological disparity. Critical interpretation of environmental DNA sequences suggests that our overall picture of microbial biodiversity at phylum or division level is already rather good and comprehensive and that there are no uncharacterized kingdoms of life. However, immense lower-level diversity remains to be mapped, as does the root of the tree of life. PMID:15306349

  15. Only six kingdoms of life.

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2004-06-22

    There are many more phyla of microbes than of macro-organisms, but microbial biodiversity is poorly understood because most microbes are uncultured. Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequences cloned after PCR amplification of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples is a powerful way of exploring our degree of ignorance of major groups. As there are only five eukaryotic kingdoms, two claims using such methods for numerous novel 'kingdom-level' lineages among anaerobic eukaryotes would be remarkable, if true. By reanalysing those data with 167 known species (not merely 8-37), I identified relatives for all 8-10 'mysterious' lineages. All probably belong to one of five already recognized phyla (Amoebozoa, Cercozoa, Apusozoa, Myzozoa, Loukozoa) within the basal kingdom Protozoa, mostly in known classes, sometimes even in known orders, families or genera. This strengthens the idea that the ancestral eukaryote was a mitochondrial aerobe. Analogous claims of novel bacterial divisions or kingdoms may reflect the weak resolution and grossly non-clock-like evolution of ribosomal rRNA, not genuine phylum-level biological disparity. Critical interpretation of environmental DNA sequences suggests that our overall picture of microbial biodiversity at phylum or division level is already rather good and comprehensive and that there are no uncharacterized kingdoms of life. However, immense lower-level diversity remains to be mapped, as does the root of the tree of life.

  16. Building the blueprint of life.

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, C. S.; Overbeek, R.; Stevens, R. L.; Fellowship for Interpretation of Genomes

    2010-07-01

    With recent breakthroughs in experimental microbiology making it possible to synthesize and implant an entire genome to create a living cell, the challenge of constructing a working blueprint for the first truly minimal synthetic organism is more important than ever. Here we review the significant progress made in the design and creation of a minimal organism. We discuss how comparative genomes, gene essentiality data, naturally small genomes, and metabolic modeling are all being applied to produce a catalogue of the biological functions essential for life. We compare the minimal gene sets from three published sources with functions identified in 13 existing gene essentiality datasets. We examine how genome-scale metabolic models have been applied to design a minimal metabolism for growth in simple and complex media. Additionally, we survey the progress of efforts to construct a minimal organism, either through implementation of combinatorial deletions in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli or through the synthesis and implantation of synthetic genomes.

  17. The planets and life.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    It is pointed out that planetary exploration is not simply a program designed to detect life on another planet. A planet similar to earth, such as Mars, when studied for evidence as to why life did not arise, may turn out to be scientifically more important than a planet which has already produced a living system. Of particular interest after Mars are Venus and Jupiter. Jupiter has a primitive atmosphere which may well be synthesizing organic molecules today. Speculations have been made concerning the possibility of a bio-zone in the upper atmosphere of Venus.

  18. The planets and life.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    It is pointed out that planetary exploration is not simply a program designed to detect life on another planet. A planet similar to earth, such as Mars, when studied for evidence as to why life did not arise, may turn out to be scientifically more important than a planet which has already produced a living system. Of particular interest after Mars are Venus and Jupiter. Jupiter has a primitive atmosphere which may well be synthesizing organic molecules today. Speculations have been made concerning the possibility of a bio-zone in the upper atmosphere of Venus.

  19. Space Life Sciences Lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-09

    The Space Life Sciences Lab (SLSL), formerly known as the Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory (SERPL), is a state-of-the-art facility built for ISS biotechnology research. Developed as a partnership between NASA-KSC and the State of Florida, NASA’s life sciences contractor is the primary tenant of the facility, leasing space to conduct flight experiment processing and NASA-sponsored research. About 20 percent of the facility will be available for use by Florida’s university researchers through the Florida Space Research Institute.

  20. Earth before life.

    PubMed

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi

    2014-01-09

    A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome includes the age of the Earth are consistent with observed data. The appearance of life after the formation of the Earth is consistent with the data set under examination.

  1. Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Viking biology experiments are examined. It is noted that the Viking missions did not find a terrestrial type of life at either of the two landing sites. This evidence may suggest that Mars is lifeless, but science demands a more rigorous proof; thus, it is still not known whether life exists on Mars. It is suggested that the Martian polar regions must be explored before a conclusive answer is possible; the permanent polar caps of Mars are frozen water and would act as a 'cold finger' of the planet to trap organic molecules.

  2. Life after ANZUS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-25

    Th"s document may not be rasmed for open pubhcUo gad it has been deamed by dhe appropnata mditary servic or 3V’ernment agency. LIFE AFTER ANZUS BY...PROGRAM PROJECT TASK IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Life After ANZUS 12. PERSONAL AUTOR(S...Australia protested vigorously to New Zealand but to no avail. As a result the provisions of the ANZUS Treaty in relation to New Zealand were suspended

  3. Bioregenerative life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Bill

    1990-01-01

    Bioregenerative life support systems utilize plant growth for food, water, and atmosphere revitalization. Simulation studies of a simplified model are presented that suggest survivability in the face of partial plant growth chamber failure. Simulation studies demonstrate the potential for a bioregenerative life support system on an extended mission. In addition to robustness and survivability in terms of the food supply, the plant growth chamber produces exactly the right amount of oxygen for the crew's metabolic needs. The amount of water taken up by the plants during food production is balanced by the crew's metabolic water production.

  4. Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Viking biology experiments are examined. It is noted that the Viking missions did not find a terrestrial type of life at either of the two landing sites. This evidence may suggest that Mars is lifeless, but science demands a more rigorous proof; thus, it is still not known whether life exists on Mars. It is suggested that the Martian polar regions must be explored before a conclusive answer is possible; the permanent polar caps of Mars are frozen water and would act as a 'cold finger' of the planet to trap organic molecules.

  5. Spacelab Life Sciences-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Jahns, Gary; Meylor, John; Hawes, Nikki; Fast, Tom N.; Zarow, Greg

    1995-01-01

    This report provides an historical overview of the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) mission along with the resultant biomaintenance data and investigators' findings. Only the nonhuman elements, developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) researchers, are addressed herein. The STS-40 flight of SLS-1, in June 1991, was the first spacelab flown after 'return to orbit', it was also the first spacelab mission specifically designated as a Life Sciences Spacelab. The experiments performed provided baseline data for both hardware and rodents used in succeeding missions.

  6. Life among the axons.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Clay M

    2007-01-01

    A blink in history's eye has brought us an understanding of electricity, and with it a revolution in human life. From the frog leg twitch experiments of Galvani and the batteries of Volta, we have progressed to telegraphs, motors, telephones, computers, and the Internet. In the same period, the ubiquitous role of electricity in animal and plant life has become clear. A great milestone in this journey was the elucidation of electrical signaling by Hodgkin & Huxley in 1952. This chapter gives a personal account of a small part of this story, the transformation of the rather abstract electrical conductances of Hodgkin & Huxley into the more tangible gated ion channel.

  7. Fatigue life extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matejczyk, D. E.; Lin, J.

    1985-01-01

    Potential fatigue rejuvenation processes were carried out on fatigue-damaged material both with and without observable surface-connected fatigue cracks. The fatigue life of fatigue-damaged MAR-M246(Hf)(DS), a directionally solidified nickel-base superalloy used in turbine airfoils, was extended by reheat treatment. The fatigue life of fatigue-cracked Inconel 718, a wrought nickel-base superalloy used in a wide variety of advanced rocket engine components, was extended by electron-beam welding to close off the surface-connected crack, followed by hot isostatic pressing and reheat treatment.

  8. Extending bearing life

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, D.

    1997-08-01

    Long-term bearing operation cannot be achieved unless proper handling, storage, installation, and maintenance procedures are followed. These factors can shorten--sometimes drastically--expected bearing service life. Failures are generally related to improper lubrication or installation and induced conditions. Most major bearing manufacturers offer technical assistance in inspection, evaluation, and reporting on bearings which have failed in service. Actual percentages associated with each failure category vary, depending on the source, but generally they are 70% from lubrication and installation, 20% from induced factors, and 10% from reaching their fatigue limit or design life. The paper describes lubricant-related failures and procedures for the correct handling, storage, installation, and maintenance.

  9. Life in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-10-01

    Live Webcast from Europe's Leading Research Organisations Summary Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? Are we alone? These questions have always fascinated humanity and for more than 50 years, physicists, biologists, chemists, cosmologists, astronomers and other scientists have worked tirelessly to answer these fundamental questions. And now this November via webcast, all the world will have the opportunity to see and hear the latest news on extraterrestrial life from the most prestigious research centers and how for the past three months, European students have had the chance to jump into the scientists' shoes and explore these questions for themselves. The event is being sponsored by the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , in cooperation with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). "Life in the Universe" is being mounted in collaboration with the Research Directorate-General of the European Commission for the European Week of Science and Technology in November 2001 . "Life in the Universe" competitions are already underway in 23 European countries to find the best projects from school students between 14 and 18. Two winning teams from each country will be invited to a final event at CERN in Geneva on 8-11 November 2001 to present their projects and discuss them with a panel of International Experts at a special three-day event. They will also compete for the "Super Prize" - a free visit to ESA's and ESO's research and technology facilities at Kourou and Paranal in South America. Students participating in the programme are encouraged to present their views on extraterrestrial life creatively. The only requirement is that the views be based upon scientific evidence. Many projects are being submitted just now - among them are scientific essays

  10. A measure of satisfaction with food-related life.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Klaus G; Dean, Moira; Raats, Monique M; Nielsen, Niels Asger; Lumbers, Margaret

    2007-09-01

    A measure of satisfaction with food-related life is developed and tested in three studies in eight European countries. Five items are retained from an original pool of seven; these items exhibit good reliability as measured by Cronbach's alpha, good temporal stability, convergent validity with two related measures, and construct validity as indicated by relationships with other indicators of quality of life, including the Satisfaction With Life and the SF-8 scales. It is concluded that this scale will be useful in studies trying to identify factors contributing to satisfaction with food-related life.

  11. Elders' end-of-life decisions: implications for hospice care.

    PubMed

    Cicirelli, V G

    1997-01-01

    Elders' views on various end-of-life decision options were studied to determine each option's acceptability if they were faced with the need for such decisions. 388 black and white elders aged 60 to 100 responded to 17 decision scenarios depicting situations with a low quality of life, rating acceptability of each of 7 options for each scenario. Based on factor analysis of responses over scenarios, three scores were computed: maintaining life, ending life, and letting others decide. Profile types were identified and related to demographic background and personality variables. Implications for hospice care are drawn.

  12. Reflexive Planning for Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Margaret A.; Kemp, Candace L.; French, Susan; Gafni, Amiram; Joshi, Anju; Rosenthal, Carolyn J.; Davies, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Informed by Giddens' (1991) concept of "reflexive life" planning and the notion of later life as a time of increasing social and financial risk, this research explores the idea of "reflexive planning for later life". We utilize a conceptual model that incorporates three types of planning for later life: public protection, self-insurance, and…

  13. Quantiles Regression Approach to Identifying the Determinant of Breastfeeding Duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdiyah; Norsiah Mohamed, Wan; Ibrahim, Kamarulzaman

    In this study, quantiles regression approach is applied to the data of Malaysian Family Life Survey (MFLS), to identify factors which are significantly related to the different conditional quantiles of the breastfeeding duration. It is known that the classical linear regression methods are based on minimizing residual sum of squared, but quantiles regression use a mechanism which are based on the conditional median function and the full range of other conditional quantile functions. Overall, it is found that the period of breastfeeding is significantly related to place of living, religion and total number of children in the family.

  14. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    This is the eleventh issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 54 papers recently published in Russian language periodicals and bound collections and of four new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated. Additional features include the translation of a paper presented in Russian to the United Nations, a review of a book on space ecology, and report of a conference on evaluating human functional capacities and predicting health. Current Soviet Life Sciences titles available in English are cited. The materials included in this issue have been identified as relevant to 30 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology. These areas are: adaptation, aviation physiology, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cosmonaut training, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, gastrointestinal systems, group dynamics, genetics, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, and radiobiology.

  15. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran; Teeter, Ronald; Radtke, Mike; Rowe, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    This is the fourteenth issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 32 papers recently published in Russian language periodicals and bound collections and of three new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. Also included is a review of a recent Soviet conference on Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine. Current Soviet life sciences titles available in English are cited. The materials included in this issue have been identified as relevant to the following areas of aerospace medicine and space biology: adaptation, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, gastrointestinal systems, habitability and environment effects, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, and space biology and medicine.

  16. Origins of Life Research: a Bibliometric Approach.

    PubMed

    Aydinoglu, Arsev Umur; Taşkın, Zehra

    2017-07-13

    This study explores the collaborative nature and interdisciplinarity of the origin(s) of life (OoL) research community. Although OoL research is one of the oldest topics in philosophy, religion, and science; to date there has been no review of the field utilizing bibliometric measures. A dataset of 5647 publications that are tagged as OoL, astrobiology, exobiology, and prebiotic chemistry is analyzed. The most prolific authors (Raulin, Ehrenfreund, McKay, Cleaves, Cockell, Lazcano, etc.), most cited scholars and their articles (Miller 1953, Gilbert 1986, Chyba & Sagan 1992, Wȁchtershȁuser 1988, etc.), and popular journals (Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres and Astrobiology) for OoL research are identified. Moreover, interdisciplinary research conducted through research networks, institutions (NASA, Caltech, University of Arizona, University of Washington, CNRS, etc.), and keywords & concepts (astrobiology, life, Mars, amino acid, prebiotic chemistry, evolution, RNA) are explored.

  17. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilsner, B. H.; Hillery, R. V.; Mcknight, R. L.; Cook, T. S.; Kim, K. S.; Duderstadt, E. C.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to determine the predominant modes of degradation of a plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating system, and then to develop and verify life prediction models accounting for these degradation modes. The program is divided into two phases, each consisting of several tasks. The work in Phase 1 is aimed at identifying the relative importance of the various failure modes, and developing and verifying life prediction model(s) for the predominant model for a thermal barrier coating system. Two possible predominant failure mechanisms being evaluated are bond coat oxidation and bond coat creep. The work in Phase 2 will develop design-capable, causal, life prediction models for thermomechanical and thermochemical failure modes, and for the exceptional conditions of foreign object damage and erosion.

  18. Optimization of life cycle management costs

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, A.K.

    1994-12-31

    As can be seen from the case studies, a LCM program needs to address and integrate, in the decision process, technical, political, licensing, remaining plant life, component replacement cycles, and financial issues. As part of the LCM evaluations, existing plant programs, ongoing replacement projects, short and long-term operation and maintenance issues, and life extension strategies must be considered. The development of the LCM evaluations and the cost benefit analysis identifies critical technical and life cycle cost parameters. These {open_quotes}discoveries{close_quotes} result from the detailed and effective use of a consistent, quantifiable, and well documented methodology. The systematic development and implementation of a plant-wide LCM program provides for an integrated and structured process that leads to the most practical and effective recommendations. Through the implementation of these recommendations and cost effective decisions, the overall power production costs can be controlled and ultimately lowered.

  19. Origins of Life Research: a Bibliometric Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydinoglu, Arsev Umur; Taşkın, Zehra

    2017-07-01

    This study explores the collaborative nature and interdisciplinarity of the origin(s) of life (OoL) research community. Although OoL research is one of the oldest topics in philosophy, religion, and science; to date there has been no review of the field utilizing bibliometric measures. A dataset of 5647 publications that are tagged as OoL, astrobiology, exobiology, and prebiotic chemistry is analyzed. The most prolific authors (Raulin, Ehrenfreund, McKay, Cleaves, Cockell, Lazcano, etc.), most cited scholars and their articles (Miller 1953, Gilbert 1986, Chyba & Sagan 1992, Wȁchtershȁuser 1988, etc.), and popular journals (Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres and Astrobiology) for OoL research are identified. Moreover, interdisciplinary research conducted through research networks, institutions (NASA, Caltech, University of Arizona, University of Washington, CNRS, etc.), and keywords & concepts (astrobiology, life, Mars, amino acid, prebiotic chemistry, evolution, RNA) are explored.

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life and Quality of Sexual Life in Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Di Lazzaro, Luca; Pinto, Alessandro; Migliaccio, Silvia; Lenzi, Andrea; Donini, Lorenzo M.

    2014-01-01

    The increased prevalence of obesity represents, currently, one of the major public health issues, due to its consequences on physical and psychological health status as well as on the psychosocial functioning. As defined by the World Health Organization, sexual health is “a state of physical, emotional, mental, and social well-being in relation to sexuality.” The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between sexual life in obese subjects and quality of life, psychological status, and disability. Methods. 95 obese subjects were recruited from June 2012 to February 2013 and underwent physical examination and measures for the assessment of quality of life, sexual life, psychological status, and disability. Results. In obese subjects sexual life was related to gender, age, psychological status, disability, and quality of life. Conclusion. As obesity is a multifactorial disease, and is accompanied by multiple comorbidities, it is difficult to identify a single causative factor responsible for the impairment of sexual life in obese subjects; thus, a thorough, multidimensional evaluation including sexual function assessment should be performed in obese people. PMID:24707290

  1. Life satisfaction, distress, and resiliency across the life span of women.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Manfred E; Glaesmer, Heide; Decker, Oliver; Fischbeck, Sabine; Brähler, Elmar

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine (1) the relationship between life satisfaction, mental disorders, and aging in the female community and (2) to identify the impact of vulnerability factors, personal (resilience, self-esteem), and social resources on life satisfaction and distress. A stratified random sample of the German female population (N = 2,540) was investigated using standardized questionnaires of life satisfaction (Questions on Life Satisfaction), depression, anxiety (Patient Health Questionnaire), resilience scale (RS-11), and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). When participants were divided into six age groups (18-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, and >70 y), we found lower life satisfaction, satisfaction with partnership, and sexuality beyond the age of 50 years. Satisfaction with health was decreased already at early adulthood. Although the importance of partnership/sexuality was reduced around midlife, the importance of health increased. Depression was highest in the oldest group, whereas anxiety remained fairly stable across the cohorts. Life satisfaction was strongly associated with resilience, a good household income, the presence of a partnership, absence of anxiety and depression, lack of unemployment, positive self-esteem, religious affiliation, and-least-age. Personal and social resources and the absence of anxiety and depression are of crucial importance for the maintenance of life satisfaction in aging women.

  2. Fingerprints of Life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittman, Cheryl

    Pioneered by NASA-JSC scientists, Marilyn Lindstorm and Jaclyn Allen, the partnering of teachers with scientists has ventured into the realms of the extreme... extreme life, that is. In 1998, two years after the announcement that possible evidence of life had been discovered within a Martian rock, teachers from region served by JSC were brought together with the Mars Meteorite research team. The goal was to familiarize the teachers with research being done in the search for evidence of extra-terrestrial life and Earth analogues. The teachers would then design curriculum to translate the research into a format that could be utilized in the classroom. "Fingerprints of Life", a work-in-progress, is a CD-rom /web-based curriculum derived from that collaboration. Modeling the actual science being done, the CD contains laboratory and classroom activities utilizing Astrobiology as the 'hook' to teach basic science skills of observation, description, communication of ideas and laboratory techniques. In addition, electron microscopy images and video clips give background information for the uninitiated. From "Wold Trap", which is based upon an actual experiment designed for the Mars Viking missions, to "Creature Feature", which deals with observation and communication, the labs and activities are appropriate for multiple grade levels. Designed to be user-friendly and tested in the classroom, "Fingerprints" uses materials that can be purchased inexpensively at the grocery store, or recycled from other sources.

  3. Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

  4. Encaustic Still Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Len

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson used in an advanced high school art class where students used the encaustic painting technique by melting wax and combining various pigments. Explains that the students painted a still-life of flowers in the style of Vincent van Gogh. (CMK)

  5. Life after the Principalship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Sixty-eight percent of people who are approaching retirement age report that they intend to work full time or part time after retirement, mostly because they want to. With today's life span stretching to 80 years and beyond, turning 60 is no longer an end-stage event. Instead, it is the beginning of a new developmental phase. This article…

  6. Learning for Life Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varmecky, Jane Hyde

    2012-01-01

    Many adults return to formal learning situations to pursue lifelong learning goals because their lives are in transition from dealing with real-life problems such as divorce and re-marriage. The purpose of this study was to describe what couples learned that contributed to the success of their subsequent marriages and how they learned it. The…

  7. Life Change Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, William M.; And Others

    The amount of life stress, as measured by the Schedule of Recent Experience (SRE), has been shown to be related to the onset of illness. This instrument was originally developed with a civilian population, and it became apparent that some questions were inappropriate when it was to be applied to a military population. Furthermore, it was believed…

  8. It's a Salmon's Life!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

    1998-01-01

    Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…

  9. Life! Through Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Anne, Nancy

    This speech presents a review of research concerning the nature of play. Some of the formal characteristics of play are: (a) it is distinct from ordinary life in its "temporariness" and its limitless location; (b) there is an element of tension in play that leads to uncertainty concerning the outcome but at the same time provides the opportunity…

  10. Ionizing radiation and life.

    PubMed

    Dartnell, Lewis R

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a ubiquitous feature of the Cosmos, from exogenous cosmic rays (CR) to the intrinsic mineral radioactivity of a habitable world, and its influences on the emergence and persistence of life are wide-ranging and profound. Much attention has already been focused on the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on organisms and the complex molecules of life, but ionizing radiation also performs many crucial functions in the generation of habitable planetary environments and the origins of life. This review surveys the role of CR and mineral radioactivity in star formation, generation of biogenic elements, and the synthesis of organic molecules and driving of prebiotic chemistry. Another major theme is the multiple layers of shielding of planetary surfaces from the flux of cosmic radiation and the various effects on a biosphere of violent but rare astrophysical events such as supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. The influences of CR can also be duplicitous, such as limiting the survival of surface life on Mars while potentially supporting a subsurface biosphere in the ocean of Europa. This review highlights the common thread that ionizing radiation forms between the disparate component disciplines of astrobiology. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  11. LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment, or LCA, is an environmental accounting and mangement approach that consider all the aspects of resource use and environmental releases associated with an industrial system from cradle-to-grave. Specifically, it is a holistic view of environmental interacti...

  12. Aquatic Life Benchmarks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in the Agency's risk assessments developed as part of the decision-making process for pesticide registration.

  13. LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment, or LCA, is an environmental accounting and mangement approach that consider all the aspects of resource use and environmental releases associated with an industrial system from cradle-to-grave. Specifically, it is a holistic view of environmental interacti...

  14. Education for Interpersonal Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Higher education does not address the central challenges of daily interpersonal life--being a parent, spouse, friend, and offspring; dealing with change, loss, sickness, death. But education can instill "tacit knowing"--knowing in the bones, prior to conceptualization or verbalization. This knowing can be imparted by great literature. (MLW)

  15. Lungfish and Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the writings of Homer W. Smith, a physiologist who wrote novels, histories of religion, textbooks, and a book on the kidney for the general reader. Smith's writing skills remind students that biologists are as multidimensional as the rest of the population. Smith shows that all parts of life are interrelated as they enrich and shed light…

  16. The Business of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunski, Jonathan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a learning game called The Business of Life that demonstrates the cellular processes of photosynthesis and respiration as business transactions. Incorporates the ideas that energy flows through ecosystems as well as through cells of individual organisms. Demonstrates the interdependence of living things and that processes at the cellular…

  17. Mosquito Life Cycle

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Knowing the stages of the mosquito's life will help you prevent mosquitoes around your home and help you choose the right pesticides for your needs, if you decide to use them. All mosquito species go through four distinct stages during their live cycle.

  18. How life shaped Earth.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2015-10-05

    Earth is much more complex than all the other solar system objects that we know. Thanks to its rich and diverse geology, our planet can offer habitats to a wide range of living species. Emerging insights suggest that this is not just a happy coincidence, but that life itself has in many ways helped to shape the planet.

  19. Investigations Into Life Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Dean Samuel

    This laboratory manual, containing 44 exercises, is intended to be used as part of an audio-tutorial approach to laboratory work in a life-science course for student nurses. Exercises include basic techniques of miscroscopy, microbiology, electrophysiology, routine biochemical analyses of blood and urine, and microscopic examination of prepared…

  20. Life in the Ocean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Focuses on what life is like in the three major regions of the ocean: (1) the sunlit surface waters; (2) the dim mid-waters; and (3) the dark ocean depths. Five activities and three pages of ocean organisms for copying are included. (Author/RT)