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Sample records for life table parameters

  1. Life Table Parameters of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on Different Varieties of Tomato.

    PubMed

    Gharekhani, G H; Salek-Ebrahimi, H

    2014-10-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), a tomato leaf miner, is one of the destructive pests of tomatoes, which is native to South America, and has been considered as a quarantined pest for Iran since 2010 while it has quickly spread all around the country and is known as a key pest in tomato-cultured regions since 2012. In the current study, the life table parameters of T. absoluta were studied on cut leaves of three greenhouse cultivars of tomato including 'Atabay', 'Cluse', and 'Perenses'. Data were analyzed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table analysis. Results showed differences in the duration of egg, larvae, pupae, and adults. Meanwhile, the life table parameters including intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rate (R0), and gross reproductive rate (GRR) were categorized increasingly based on the feeding on Cluse, Atabay, and Perenses, respectively. The findings of the current study showed that the Cluse could be nominated as an unsuitable host for tomato leaf miner among cultivars because of its negative influences on the pest's biological parameters. Moreover, these results may develop the finding and screening process of relatively resistant cultivars to be used in the management of T. absoluta.

  2. Effect of host plants on developmental time and life table parameters of Amphitetranychus viennensis (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Kafil, Maryam; Allahyari, Hossein; Saboori, Alireza

    2007-01-01

    The effect of host plant species including black cherry (Prunus serotina cv. Irani), cherry (Prunus avium cv. siahe Mashhad) and apple (Malus domestica cv. shafi Abadi) was studied on biological parameters of Amphitetranychus viennensis (Zacher) in the laboratory at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% RH and 16L: 8D photoperiod. Duration of each life stage, longevity, reproduction rate, the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm), net reproductive rate (R0), mean generation time (T), doubling time (DT), and finite rate of increase (lambda) of the hawthorn spider mite on the three host plants were calculated. Differences in fertility life table parameters of the spider mite among host plants were analyzed using pseudo-values, which were produced by jackknife re-sampling. The results indicated that black cherry might be the most suitable plant for hawthorn spider mite due to the shorter developmental period (10.6 days), longer adult longevity (25.5 days), higher reproduction (65.6 eggs), and intrinsic rate of natural increase (0.194 females/female/day). Cherry was the least suitable host plant. To determine the effect of host shifts, the mite was transferred from black cherry onto cherry and apple. In the first generation after shifting to apple, the developmental period, reproduction and life table parameters were negatively influenced. However, population growth parameters in the first generation on cherry were actually better than after three generations on this new host. This underscores the relevance of the mites' recent breeding history for life table studies. PMID:17710558

  3. Development and Life Table Parameters of Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Four Ornamental Plants.

    PubMed

    Tok, B; Kaydan, M B; Mustu, M; Ulusoy, M R

    2016-08-01

    The development, reproduction, and life table parameters of the Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four ornamental plant species, namely Pelargonium zonale (Geraniaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Hibicus syriacus (Malvaceae), and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) were investigated under controlled conditions (25 ± 2°C, 60 ± 10% R.H., and 16 h photophase). Life table data were analyzed by using an age-stage two-sex life table. The shortest total immature developmental time of females and males for P. madeirensis was obtained on C. nocturnum (20.42 and 21.90 days, respectively). The highest fecundities were 233 and 232 eggs on C. nocturnum and H. syriacus, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase (r  = 0.1511 day(-1)) and finite rate of increase (λ  =  1.1631 day(-1)) were the greatest when mealybugs were reared on C. nocturnum. Net reproductive rate (R 0  =  129.5 offspring) was the greatest when reared on H. syriacus, but this value was not statistically different from that on C. nocturnum. The shortest mean generation time (T  =  31.3 days) was calculated on C. nocturnum. These results indicate that C. nocturnum and H. syriacus are more suitable hosts than H. rosa-sinensis and P. zonale for P. madeirensis.

  4. Development and Life Table Parameters of Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Four Ornamental Plants.

    PubMed

    Tok, B; Kaydan, M B; Mustu, M; Ulusoy, M R

    2016-08-01

    The development, reproduction, and life table parameters of the Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four ornamental plant species, namely Pelargonium zonale (Geraniaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Hibicus syriacus (Malvaceae), and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) were investigated under controlled conditions (25 ± 2°C, 60 ± 10% R.H., and 16 h photophase). Life table data were analyzed by using an age-stage two-sex life table. The shortest total immature developmental time of females and males for P. madeirensis was obtained on C. nocturnum (20.42 and 21.90 days, respectively). The highest fecundities were 233 and 232 eggs on C. nocturnum and H. syriacus, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase (r  = 0.1511 day(-1)) and finite rate of increase (λ  =  1.1631 day(-1)) were the greatest when mealybugs were reared on C. nocturnum. Net reproductive rate (R 0  =  129.5 offspring) was the greatest when reared on H. syriacus, but this value was not statistically different from that on C. nocturnum. The shortest mean generation time (T  =  31.3 days) was calculated on C. nocturnum. These results indicate that C. nocturnum and H. syriacus are more suitable hosts than H. rosa-sinensis and P. zonale for P. madeirensis. PMID:26951150

  5. Biology and life table parameters of Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on cauliflower cultivars.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Fatemeh; Abbasipour, Habib; Askarianzadeh, Alireza; Hassanshahi, Golamhossein; Saeedizadeh, Ayatallah

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the biology and fertility life table parameters of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), were studied on cauliflower leaves, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), of the cultivars Smilla, Snow mystique, White cloud, Buris, Galiblanka, Snow crown, SG, and Tokita. This study was conducted under controlled conditions: 25 ± 2°C, 65 ± 5% relative humidity (RH), and 16:8 (L:D) h photoperiods. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the different growth stages and the mean number of laid nymphs. Further, the maximum and minimum growth periods were observed on Galiblanka and Buris cultivars, respectively. The shortest nymphal instar growth period was observed on the Smilla cultivar (6.70 d), and the longest lifespan was seen on the White cloud (8.10 d). The Smilla cultivar (39%), in an adult emergence stage, and the SG (88%) revealed the lowest and highest rates of survival, respectively. Aphids reared on the Smilla cultivar were found to have increased due to the high intrinsic (r(m)) and finite (λ) rate of increase and the low doubling time (DT). The results indicated that the application of cultivars affecting adult reproductive parameters could be a good solution to cabbage aphid control management. PMID:25527591

  6. Biology and life table parameters of Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on cauliflower cultivars.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Fatemeh; Abbasipour, Habib; Askarianzadeh, Alireza; Hassanshahi, Golamhossein; Saeedizadeh, Ayatallah

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the biology and fertility life table parameters of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), were studied on cauliflower leaves, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), of the cultivars Smilla, Snow mystique, White cloud, Buris, Galiblanka, Snow crown, SG, and Tokita. This study was conducted under controlled conditions: 25 ± 2°C, 65 ± 5% relative humidity (RH), and 16:8 (L:D) h photoperiods. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the different growth stages and the mean number of laid nymphs. Further, the maximum and minimum growth periods were observed on Galiblanka and Buris cultivars, respectively. The shortest nymphal instar growth period was observed on the Smilla cultivar (6.70 d), and the longest lifespan was seen on the White cloud (8.10 d). The Smilla cultivar (39%), in an adult emergence stage, and the SG (88%) revealed the lowest and highest rates of survival, respectively. Aphids reared on the Smilla cultivar were found to have increased due to the high intrinsic (r(m)) and finite (λ) rate of increase and the low doubling time (DT). The results indicated that the application of cultivars affecting adult reproductive parameters could be a good solution to cabbage aphid control management.

  7. Life Table Parameters of Three Mirid Bug (Adelphocoris) Species (Hemiptera: Miridae) under Contrasted Relative Humidity Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a group of important insect pests of Bt cotton in China. The three dominant species are A. lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis, and these species have different population dynamics. The causal factors for the differences in population dynamics have not been determined; one hypothesis is that humidity may be important for the growth of Adelphocoris populations. In the laboratory, the demographic parameters of the three Adelphocoris species were compared when the mirid bugs were subjected to various levels of relative humidity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% RH). Middle to high levels of RH (60, 70 and 80%) were associated with higher egg and nymph survival rates and increased adult longevity and female fecundity. Lower humidity levels (40 and 50% RH) had negative effects on the survival of nymphs, adult longevity and fecundity. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm), the net reproductive rate (R0) and the finite rate of increase (λ) for each Adelphocoris species increased with increasing RH. Significant positive relationships were found between RH and the life table parameters, rm, R0 and λ for the three Adelphocoris species. These results will help to better understand the phenology of the three Adelphocoris species, and the information can be used in population growth models to optimize pest forecasting and management strategies for these key pests. PMID:25541705

  8. [Effects of host plants on the life table parameters of experimental populations of Aphis gossypii].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Xiao-Rong; Pang, Bao-Ping; Chang, Jing

    2013-05-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the life table parameters of Aphis gossypii reared on five host plant species at (25 +/- 1) degrees C in laboratory. There existed significant differences in the durations of various developmental stages, adult longevity, mean offspring number per day, net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, mean generation time, and population doubling time for the A. gossypii populations reared on the host plants. For the aphids on Lagenaria siceraria var. turbinate, they needed the longest time (5.84 days) to complete one generation, but for those on the other four plants, no significant differences were observed, with the time needed ranged from 5.24 to 5.45 days. The adult longevity was the longest (20.04 days) on Cucumis sativus, but had no significant differences on the other four host plants, being from 14.76 to 16.03 days. The populations' survival curves on all test host plants were of Deevey I, i. e., the death mainly occurred during late period. The survival rate on C. sativus was higher than those on the other four host plants. Based on the intrinsic rates of increase of A. gossypii, its host suitability was in the order of Cucumis melo var. saccharinus > Lagenaria siceraria var. turbinate > Cucurbita moschata var. melonaeformis > Cucumis sativus > Cucurbita pepo var. medullosa.

  9. How Different Genetically Manipulated Brassica Genotypes Affect Life Table Parameters of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Nikooei, Mehrnoosh; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Jalali Javaran, Mokhtar; Soufbaf, Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    The fitness of Plutella xylostella L. on different genetically manipulated Brassica plants, including canola's progenitor (Brassica rapa L.), two cultivated canola cultivars (Opera and RGS003), one hybrid (Hyula401), one gamma-ray mutant-RGS003, and one transgenic (PF) genotype was compared using two-sex and female-based life table parameters. All experiments were conducted in a growth chamber at 25±1°C, 65±5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. There were significant differences in duration of different life stages of P. xylostella on different plant genotypes. The shortest (13.92 d) and longest (24.61 d) total developmental time were on Opera and PF, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase of P. xylostella ranged between 0.236 (Opera) and 0.071 day(-1) (PF). The highest (60.79 offspring) and lowest (7.88 offspring) net reproductive rates were observed on Opera and PF, respectively. Comparison of intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rates, finite rate of increase, mean generation time, fecundity, and survivorship of P. xylostella on the plant genotypes suggested that this pest performed well on cultivars (RGS003 and Opera) and performed poorly on the other manipulated genotypes especially on mutant-RGS003 and PF. Glucosinolate levels were significantly higher in damaged plants than undamaged ones and the lowest and highest concentrations of glucosinolates were found in transgenic genotype and canola's progenitor, respectively. Interestingly, our results showed that performance and fitness of this pest was better on canola's progenitor and cultivated plants, which had high levels of glucosinolate.

  10. How Different Genetically Manipulated Brassica Genotypes Affect Life Table Parameters of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Nikooei, Mehrnoosh; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Jalali Javaran, Mokhtar; Soufbaf, Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    The fitness of Plutella xylostella L. on different genetically manipulated Brassica plants, including canola's progenitor (Brassica rapa L.), two cultivated canola cultivars (Opera and RGS003), one hybrid (Hyula401), one gamma-ray mutant-RGS003, and one transgenic (PF) genotype was compared using two-sex and female-based life table parameters. All experiments were conducted in a growth chamber at 25±1°C, 65±5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. There were significant differences in duration of different life stages of P. xylostella on different plant genotypes. The shortest (13.92 d) and longest (24.61 d) total developmental time were on Opera and PF, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase of P. xylostella ranged between 0.236 (Opera) and 0.071 day(-1) (PF). The highest (60.79 offspring) and lowest (7.88 offspring) net reproductive rates were observed on Opera and PF, respectively. Comparison of intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rates, finite rate of increase, mean generation time, fecundity, and survivorship of P. xylostella on the plant genotypes suggested that this pest performed well on cultivars (RGS003 and Opera) and performed poorly on the other manipulated genotypes especially on mutant-RGS003 and PF. Glucosinolate levels were significantly higher in damaged plants than undamaged ones and the lowest and highest concentrations of glucosinolates were found in transgenic genotype and canola's progenitor, respectively. Interestingly, our results showed that performance and fitness of this pest was better on canola's progenitor and cultivated plants, which had high levels of glucosinolate. PMID:26470162

  11. United States Life Tables, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert N.

    1999-01-01

    The life tables in this report are current life tables for the United States based on age-specific death rates in 1997. Beginning with the 1997 tables, U.S. life tables have been constructed with a new methodology that is similar to that used in the decennial life tables. Life expectancy and other tables are shown for the first time for ages 85 to…

  12. Effect of host plants on developmental time and life table parameters of Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xihong; Li, Dingxu; Li, Zheng; Zalom, Frank G; Gao, Lingwang; Shen, Zuorui

    2012-04-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants (apricot, Prunus armeniaca L.; plum, Prunus salicina L.; peach, Prunus persica L.; jujube, Zizyphus jujuba Will.; apple, Malus domestica Mill.; and pear, Pyrus sorotina Will) on the development and life table parameters of the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) under laboratory conditions. Peach fruit moth developed faster (12.48 d) and had the highest preimaginal survival rate (50.54%) on plum compared with the other host plants. Adult longevity was significantly longer on jujube for both female and male moths. Adult females from larvae reared on jujube and peach laid significantly greater numbers of eggs (214.50 and 197.94 eggs per female, respectively) compared with those reared on the other four host plants. Life-table parameters were calculated for each host plant and compared by jackknife procedures. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) was significantly greatest on plum (0.1294 eggs per female per d), followed by jujube and apricot (0.1201 and 0.1128 eggs per female per d), respectively. Implications of the various measures of population performance are discussed.

  13. Sublethal Effects of Cyantraniliprole and Imidacloprid on Feeding Behavior and Life Table Parameters of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianyi; He, Yingqin; Wu, Jiaxing; Tang, Yuanman; Gu, Jitao; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Yongqiang

    2016-08-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an agricultural pest that seriously infests many crops worldwide. This study used electrical penetration graphs (EPGs) and life table parameters to estimate the sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid on the feeding behavior and hormesis of M. persicae The sublethal concentrations (LC30) of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid against adult M. persicae were 4.933 and 0.541 mg L(-1), respectively. The feeding data obtained from EPG analysis indicated that the count probes and number of short probes (<3 min) were significantly increased when aphids were exposed to LC30 of imidacloprid-treated plants. In addition, the phloem-feeding behavior of M persicae was significantly impaired on fed tobacco plants treated with cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid at LC30 Analysis of life table parameters indicated that the growth and reproduction of F1 generation aphids were significantly affected when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid. The nymphal period, female longevity, total preoviposition period, and mean generation time were significantly prolonged when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of imidacloprid. By comparison, these parameters were prolonged but not significantly in the cyantraniliprole treatment. The fecundity and gross reproductive rate were significantly increased in the treated groups. Similarly, the net reproductive rate was greater in the treated group than the control group. Our results indicate that treatment with LC30 of imidacloprid and cyantraniliprole would lead to a hormetic response of M. persicae, with higher likelihood of occurrence when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of cyantraniliprole.

  14. Sublethal Effects of Cyantraniliprole and Imidacloprid on Feeding Behavior and Life Table Parameters of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianyi; He, Yingqin; Wu, Jiaxing; Tang, Yuanman; Gu, Jitao; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Yongqiang

    2016-08-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an agricultural pest that seriously infests many crops worldwide. This study used electrical penetration graphs (EPGs) and life table parameters to estimate the sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid on the feeding behavior and hormesis of M. persicae The sublethal concentrations (LC30) of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid against adult M. persicae were 4.933 and 0.541 mg L(-1), respectively. The feeding data obtained from EPG analysis indicated that the count probes and number of short probes (<3 min) were significantly increased when aphids were exposed to LC30 of imidacloprid-treated plants. In addition, the phloem-feeding behavior of M persicae was significantly impaired on fed tobacco plants treated with cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid at LC30 Analysis of life table parameters indicated that the growth and reproduction of F1 generation aphids were significantly affected when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid. The nymphal period, female longevity, total preoviposition period, and mean generation time were significantly prolonged when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of imidacloprid. By comparison, these parameters were prolonged but not significantly in the cyantraniliprole treatment. The fecundity and gross reproductive rate were significantly increased in the treated groups. Similarly, the net reproductive rate was greater in the treated group than the control group. Our results indicate that treatment with LC30 of imidacloprid and cyantraniliprole would lead to a hormetic response of M. persicae, with higher likelihood of occurrence when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of cyantraniliprole. PMID:27247299

  15. Reproductive performance of the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939) on citrus and coffee, using life table parameters.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, A V; Reis, P R

    2006-08-01

    The flat-mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is considered important in citrus (Citrus spp.) and coffee plants (Coffea spp.) in Brazil, and is known as the leprosis and coffee ring spot mite, as being a vector of the Citrus Leprosis Rhabdovirus - CitLV and Coffee Ring Spot Virus - CoRSV. The objective of this work is to find out about the reproductive success of B. phoenicis on citric fruits and coffee leaves by fertility life table parameters and its biology. The experiments were carried out in laboratory conditions at 25 +/- 2 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% of relative humidity and 14 h of photophase. The lengths of embryonic and post-embryonic periods were different due to the host where the mite was reared. B. phoenicis showed better development and higher survival and fecundity in citric fruits than coffee leaves. The intrinsic rate of the population increase (r(m)) was 0.128 and 0.090 - females/female/day on citric fruits and coffee leaves, respectively. The citric fruits were more appropriate for the development of B. phoenicis than coffee leaves. PMID:17119838

  16. Biological and life table parameters of Typhlodromus laurentii and Iphiseius degenerans (Acari, Phytoseiidae) fed on Panonychus citri and pollen of Oxalis pes-caprae under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Tsolakis, Haralabos; Principato, Dennj; Jordà Palomero, Raoul; Lombardo, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Typhlodromus laurentii and Iphiseius degenerans are two generalist phytoseiid mites, broadly spread in the Mediterranean area, especially in citrus orchards. In the present work we report results on various biological and life table parameters of the two phytoseiids, fed on pollen of Oxalis pes-caprae and various stages of the tetranychid Panonychus citri. Iphiseius degenerans had the shortest post embryonic development (6.53 days), the highest oviposition rate (1.83 eggs/female/day) and the shortest mean time between eggs laid (0.55 day) on Oxalis pollen, whereas the two food types did not influence these parameters in T. laurentii. However, Oxalis pollen showed a positive effect on the survivorship of the latter phytoseiid, with a median life time (LT50) of 44.51 days, which was two times longer than that registered on prey with the same phytoseiid, and on both food types with I. degenerans. This latter species had a better performance on the pollen (rm = 0.243, λ = 1.275, Ro = 22.88, DT = 2.85) than on prey (rm = 0.182, λ = 1.199, Ro = 17.43, DT = 3.81). On the other hand, the pollen influenced the net reproductive rate (25.43 females/female) of T. laurentii positively but showed the same effect as the prey on the other demographic parameters. Our results improve knowledge on the feeding behaviour of the above mentioned phytoseiids on two food sources that could represent the main possibility to maintain a consistent population of these predators during winter. Moreover, both phytoseiids were shown to be good biocontrol candidates of P. citri populations.

  17. Biological and life table parameters of Typhlodromus laurentii and Iphiseius degenerans (Acari, Phytoseiidae) fed on Panonychus citri and pollen of Oxalis pes-caprae under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Tsolakis, Haralabos; Principato, Dennj; Jordà Palomero, Raoul; Lombardo, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Typhlodromus laurentii and Iphiseius degenerans are two generalist phytoseiid mites, broadly spread in the Mediterranean area, especially in citrus orchards. In the present work we report results on various biological and life table parameters of the two phytoseiids, fed on pollen of Oxalis pes-caprae and various stages of the tetranychid Panonychus citri. Iphiseius degenerans had the shortest post embryonic development (6.53 days), the highest oviposition rate (1.83 eggs/female/day) and the shortest mean time between eggs laid (0.55 day) on Oxalis pollen, whereas the two food types did not influence these parameters in T. laurentii. However, Oxalis pollen showed a positive effect on the survivorship of the latter phytoseiid, with a median life time (LT50) of 44.51 days, which was two times longer than that registered on prey with the same phytoseiid, and on both food types with I. degenerans. This latter species had a better performance on the pollen (rm = 0.243, λ = 1.275, Ro = 22.88, DT = 2.85) than on prey (rm = 0.182, λ = 1.199, Ro = 17.43, DT = 3.81). On the other hand, the pollen influenced the net reproductive rate (25.43 females/female) of T. laurentii positively but showed the same effect as the prey on the other demographic parameters. Our results improve knowledge on the feeding behaviour of the above mentioned phytoseiids on two food sources that could represent the main possibility to maintain a consistent population of these predators during winter. Moreover, both phytoseiids were shown to be good biocontrol candidates of P. citri populations. PMID:27497592

  18. Two-spotted spider mite reared on resistant eggplant affects consumption rate and life table parameters of its predator, Typhlodromus bagdasarjani (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Khanamani, Mostafa; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Sedaratian, Amin

    2014-06-01

    The study of interactions between host plant cultivars and biological control agents is important in integrated pest management programs. In this study, the life table parameters and predation rate of Typhlodromus bagdasarjani Wainstein & Arutunjan were determined on two-spotted spider mites reared on a susceptible (Isfahan) or a resistant (Neishabour) eggplant cultivar. All experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions, at 25 ± 1 °C, 60 ± 5 % RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. A significant difference was observed between mean developmental time of immature stages of T. bagdasarjani on the two eggplant cultivars: 6.6 versus 7.5 days, on the susceptible and resistant cultivar, respectively. Net reproductive rate (R 0) of T. bagdasarjani did not differ between the cultivars. Doubling time on the susceptible and resistant cultivars was 3.48 versus 5.72 days, mean generation time (T) was 10.13 versus 16.08 days, respectively. Total fecundity was higher on susceptible than on resistant eggplants, the intrinsic rate of population increase (r) was 0.188 versus 0.119 day(-1), respectively. Daily and total prey consumption of various life stages of T. bagdasarjani on two-spotted spider mite reared on susceptible versus resistant eggplant differed; total consumption was higher on spider mites reared on the resistant cultivar. However, the lower intrinsic rate of increase and higher mortality of the predator on the resistant eggplant (Neishabour) revealed that more attention should be devoted to integrated control of spider mites using resistant cultivars and phytoseiid mites.

  19. Web life: The Periodic Table of Videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    Eagle-eyed readers may spot a change in this column. Previously known as Blog life, it highlighted top picks from the physics blogosphere, and was itself an outgrowth of an earlier column on physics books, Shelf life. The new Web life column will continue to feature the best of physics blogging, but it will also include other types of Web content of interest to Physics World readers. First up is a periodic table of videos from Nottingham University in the UK.

  20. Decennial Life Tables for the White Population of the United States, 1790-1900.

    PubMed

    Hacker, J David

    2010-04-01

    This article constructs new life tables for the white population of the United States in each decade between 1790 and 1900. Drawing from several recent studies, it suggests best estimates of life expectancy at age 20 for each decade. These estimates are fitted to new standards derived from the 1900-02 rural and 1900-02 overall DRA life tables using a two-parameter logit model with fixed slope. The resulting decennial life tables more accurately represent sex-and age-specific mortality rates while capturing known mortality trends.

  1. Decennial Life Tables for the White Population of the United States, 1790–19001

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, J. David

    2010-01-01

    This article constructs new life tables for the white population of the United States in each decade between 1790 and 1900. Drawing from several recent studies, it suggests best estimates of life expectancy at age 20 for each decade. These estimates are fitted to new standards derived from the 1900–02 rural and 1900–02 overall DRA life tables using a two-parameter logit model with fixed slope. The resulting decennial life tables more accurately represent sex-and age-specific mortality rates while capturing known mortality trends. PMID:20563225

  2. Parameter estimation of an air-bearing suspended test table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhenxian; Lin, Yurong; Liu, Yang; Chen, Xinglin; Chen, Fang

    2015-02-01

    A parameter estimation approach is proposed for parameter determination of a 3-axis air-bearing suspended test table. The table is to provide a balanced and frictionless environment for spacecraft ground test. To balance the suspension, the mechanical parameters of the table, including its angular inertias and centroid deviation from its rotating center, have to be determined first. Then sliding masses on the table can be adjusted by stepper motors to relocate the centroid of the table to its rotating center. Using the angular momentum theorem and the coriolis theorem, dynamic equations are derived describing the rotation of the table under the influence of gravity imbalance torque and activating torques. To generate the actuating torques, use of momentum wheels is proposed, whose virtue is that no active control is required to the momentum wheels, which merely have to spin at constant rates, thus avoiding the singularity problem and the difficulty of precisely adjusting the output torques, issues associated with control moment gyros. The gyroscopic torques generated by the momentum wheels, as they are forced by the table to precess, are sufficient to activate the table for parameter estimation. Then least-square estimation is be employed to calculate the desired parameters. The effectiveness of the method is validated by simulation.

  3. Effects of Temperature on the Life Table Parameters of Trichogramma zahiri (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), an Egg Parasitoid of Dicladispa armigera (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Bari, M N; Jahan, M; Islam, K S

    2015-04-01

    The influence of different temperatures on biological parameters of native strains of Trichogramma zahiri Polaszek (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of rice hispa, Dicladispa armigera (Olivier) (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera), was evaluated in the laboratory on its host. The key biological parameters of the parasitoid T. zahiri in relation to temperature were investigated to find out its candidature as a potential biological control agent of rice hispa. The highest number of eggs parasitized by T. zahiri was 15.7 eggs per female at 26 °C, which differed significantly from those at 18, 22, 30, and 34 °C (P < 0.05). Development duration and longevity of T. zahiri decreased as temperature increased. Fecundity differed significantly at all constant temperatures. Emergence rates decreased at both high (34 °C) and low ( < 26 °C) temperatures. Female-biased sex ratio ranged from 54 to 70% at all constant temperatures. The lower temperature threshold for T. zahiri was 6.2 °C for males and 6.95 °C for females. The upper threshold temperatures were 35.82 and 35.87 °C for males and females, respectively. Net reproductive rate (R0) was highest at 26 °C compared with other temperatures. Mean cohort generation time (tG) and population doubling time (tD) decreased as temperature increased from 18 to 30 °C. The daily intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and finite rate of increase (λ) were positively correlated with temperatures ranging from 18 to 30 °C and then decreased at 34 °C. The relevance of our results is discussed in the context of climatic adaptation and biological control.

  4. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(9)-9 - Life expectancy and distribution period tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Life expectancy and distribution period tables.... § 1.401(a)(9)-9 Life expectancy and distribution period tables. Q-1. What is the life expectancy for... The following table, referred to as the Single Life Table, is used for determining the life...

  5. Effect of temperature on the phenology of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera, Crambidae); simulation and visualization of the potential future distribution of C. partellus in Africa under warmer temperatures through the development of life-table parameters.

    PubMed

    Khadioli, N; Tonnang, Z E H; Muchugu, E; Ong'amo, G; Achia, T; Kipchirchir, I; Kroschel, J; Le Ru, B

    2014-12-01

    Maize (Zea mays) is a major staple food in Africa. However, maize production is severely reduced by damage caused by feeding lepidopteran pests. In East and Southern Africa, Chilo partellus is one of the most damaging cereal stem borers mainly found in the warmer lowland areas. In this study, it was hypothesized that the future distribution and abundance of C. partellus may be affected greatly by the current global warming. The temperature-dependent population growth potential of C. partellus was studied on artificial diet under laboratory conditions at six constant temperatures (15, 18, 20, 25, 28, 30, 32 and 35 °C), relative humidity of 75±5% and a photoperiod of L12:L12 h. Several non-linear models were fitted to the data to model development time, mortality and reproduction of the insect species. Cohort updating algorithm and rate summation approach were stochastically used for simulating age and stage structure populations and generate life-table parameters. For spatial analysis of the pest risk, three generic risk indices (index of establishment, generation number and activity index) were visualized in the geographical information system component of the advanced Insect Life Cycle modeling (ILCYM) software. To predict the future distribution of C. partellus we used the climate change scenario A1B obtained from WorldClim and CCAFS databases. The maps were compared with available data on the current distribution of C. partellus in Kenya. The results show that the development times of the different stages decreased with increasing temperatures ranging from 18 to 35 °C; at the extreme temperatures, 15 and 38 °C, no egg could hatch and no larvae completed development. The study concludes that C. partellus may potentially expands its range into higher altitude areas, highland tropics and moist transitional regions, with the highest maize potential where the species has not been recorded yet. This has serious implication in terms of food security since these

  6. Effect of temperature on the phenology of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera, Crambidae); simulation and visualization of the potential future distribution of C. partellus in Africa under warmer temperatures through the development of life-table parameters.

    PubMed

    Khadioli, N; Tonnang, Z E H; Muchugu, E; Ong'amo, G; Achia, T; Kipchirchir, I; Kroschel, J; Le Ru, B

    2014-12-01

    Maize (Zea mays) is a major staple food in Africa. However, maize production is severely reduced by damage caused by feeding lepidopteran pests. In East and Southern Africa, Chilo partellus is one of the most damaging cereal stem borers mainly found in the warmer lowland areas. In this study, it was hypothesized that the future distribution and abundance of C. partellus may be affected greatly by the current global warming. The temperature-dependent population growth potential of C. partellus was studied on artificial diet under laboratory conditions at six constant temperatures (15, 18, 20, 25, 28, 30, 32 and 35 °C), relative humidity of 75±5% and a photoperiod of L12:L12 h. Several non-linear models were fitted to the data to model development time, mortality and reproduction of the insect species. Cohort updating algorithm and rate summation approach were stochastically used for simulating age and stage structure populations and generate life-table parameters. For spatial analysis of the pest risk, three generic risk indices (index of establishment, generation number and activity index) were visualized in the geographical information system component of the advanced Insect Life Cycle modeling (ILCYM) software. To predict the future distribution of C. partellus we used the climate change scenario A1B obtained from WorldClim and CCAFS databases. The maps were compared with available data on the current distribution of C. partellus in Kenya. The results show that the development times of the different stages decreased with increasing temperatures ranging from 18 to 35 °C; at the extreme temperatures, 15 and 38 °C, no egg could hatch and no larvae completed development. The study concludes that C. partellus may potentially expands its range into higher altitude areas, highland tropics and moist transitional regions, with the highest maize potential where the species has not been recorded yet. This has serious implication in terms of food security since these

  7. Comparison of Life Tables of Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Under Laboratory and Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Li, Shu; Gao, Xi-Wu; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Su

    2015-08-01

    The ladybird Cheilomenes sexmaculata (F.) is an important aphidophagous predator in Asia. In order to mass rear predators for biological control, it is valuable to identify the features of populations that are affected by variations in field conditions. Life tables can provide comprehensive descriptions of the development, survival, and fecundity of a population. However, there are few life table studies of C. sexmaculata. Studies of life history have been carried out in many arthropods using the traditional female age-specific life table, which takes only female individuals into consideration, while the variations in developmental rates amongst individuals are ignored. In this paper, we constructed life tables for C. sexmaculata fed on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) both at constant temperature in the laboratory and fluctuating temperature in the greenhouse, and analyzed the data using the age-stage, two-sex life table. The bootstrap technique was used to estimate the standard errors of the population parameters. The results showed that preadult C. sexmaculata developed more slowly and had lower survival and reproductive rates under greenhouse conditions, as indicated by the curves of age-stage survival rate (s(xj)), age-stage-specific fecundity (f(x j)) of the female stage, age-specific fecundity (m(x)), and age-specific maternity (l(x)m(x)). Our results also showed that the intrinsic rate of increase (r), net reproductive rate (R(0)), and finite rate of increase (λ) under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were 0.1668 d(-1) and 0.1027 d(-1), 192.1 and 53.0, and 1.1815 d(-1) and 1.1082 d(-1), respectively. Our results revealed significantly different life table parameters for C. sexmaculata under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. This information will be useful for developing a successful mass-rearing program for C. sexmaculata for use in biological control. PMID:26470311

  8. Construction of the new United Nations model life table system.

    PubMed

    1982-01-01

    Previous systems of model life tables were based on empirical data from the now developed countries (the Coale and Demeny models) or, when patterns from less developed countries were included (the original UN set and the Lederman set), included data of poor or unknown quality. However, with the advent of new demographic techniques of data evaluation and of improved survey, census, and vital registration systems, it has become possible to construct a new model life table system based on reliable data from less developed countries and hence more applicable to demographic analysis within that milieu. The new UN model life tables are based on carefully evaluated age-sex specific mortality data found in developing countries. Analysis of these data indicated 4 major age patterns of mortality. These patterns have been labelled the Latin American pattern, the Chilean pattern, the South Asian pattern, and the Far Eastern pattern, according to the geographical region predominant in each pattern. An overall average pattern, labelled the general pattern, has also been constructed. Along with the model life tables themselves, the UN is also producing models of sex differences in life expectancy, single-year mortality, and stable populations. A manual of computer programs to facilitate use of these models is also being prepared.

  9. Life table of Paederus fuscipes (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Bong, Lee-Jin; Neoh, Kok-Boon; Jaal, Zairi; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2012-05-01

    The life history characteristics of the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes Curtis were studied under laboratory conditions using three field strains from Malaysia: Desa Wawasan (DW), Sri Pinang (SP), and Ampang Jajar (AJ). The total development time of immature stages differed significantly among the three strains, especially between DW (17.43 +/- 0.16 d), SP (18.60 +/- 0.19 d), and AJ (18.68 +/- 0.22 d). Adult females and males from DW also exhibited a shorter life span, although the difference among strains was not significant. In terms of fecundity, the numbers of eggs laid per female for DW, SP, and AJ were 121.28 +/- 15.98, 127.30 +/- 18.01, and 147.45 +/- 17.12, respectively. Additionally, because of the shorter life span in DW strain, two apparent peaks in age-stage specific fecundity were detected. The beetles compensated for their shorter life span by increasing their reproductive activity to sustain the progeny in the population. The intrinsic rates of increase (r) of P. fuscipes from DW, SP, and AJ were 0.0773 +/- 0.0046 d(-1), 0.0788 +/- 0.0051 d(-1), and 0.0873 +/- 0.0054 d(-1), respectively; and the net reproduction rates (R0) were 40.09 +/- 7.39 offspring, 45.29 +/- 8.74 offspring, and 42.34 +/- 8.25 offspring, respectively. The mean generation time of P. fuscipes from AJ was 43.08 +/- 1.07 d, which was significantly higher than that from DW (47.95 +/- 1.36 d) and SP (48.57 +/- 1.43 d). The total immature development time of P. fuscipes in this study was shorter than values reported in previous studies.

  10. Life table of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabre, Refaat M.; Adham, Fatma K.; Chi, Hsin

    2005-05-01

    The life history of the oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), was studied at 26 °C in the laboratory. The raw data were analyzed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table, in order to take both sexes and the variable developmental rate among individuals and between sexes into consideration. The intrinsic rate of increase ( r), the finite rate of increase ( λ), the net reproduction rate ( R0) and the mean generation time ( T) of C. megacephala were 0.2182, 1.2438 d -1, 91.7 offspring/individual and 20.7 days, respectively. The life expectancy of a newborn egg is 32 days. The maximum reproductive value of females is on the 19th day, which coincides with the total pre-oviposition period counted from birth. The two-sex life table analysis gives a comprehensive description of the stage differentiation of C. megacephala.

  11. DFTB Parameters for the Periodic Table: Part 1, Electronic Structure.

    PubMed

    Wahiduzzaman, Mohammad; Oliveira, Augusto F; Philipsen, Pier; Zhechkov, Lyuben; van Lenthe, Erik; Witek, Henryk A; Heine, Thomas

    2013-09-10

    A parametrization scheme for the electronic part of the density-functional based tight-binding (DFTB) method that covers the periodic table is presented. A semiautomatic parametrization scheme has been developed that uses Kohn-Sham energies and band structure curvatures of real and fictitious homoatomic crystal structures as reference data. A confinement potential is used to tighten the Kohn-Sham orbitals, which includes two free parameters that are used to optimize the performance of the method. The method is tested on more than 100 systems and shows excellent overall performance.

  12. The entropy of the life table: A reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Oscar E; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram

    2015-09-01

    The life table entropy provides useful information for understanding improvements in mortality and survival in a population. In this paper we take a closer look at the life table entropy and use advanced mathematical methods to provide additional insights for understanding how it relates to changes in mortality and survival. By studying the entropy (H) as a functional, we show that changes in the entropy depend on both the relative change in life expectancy lost due to death (e(†)) and in life expectancy at birth (e0). We also show that changes in the entropy can be further linked to improvements in premature and older deaths. We illustrate our methods with empirical data from Latin American countries, which suggests that at high mortality levels declines in H (which are associated with survival increases) linked with larger improvements in e0, whereas at low mortality levels e(†) made larger contributions to H. We additionally show that among countries with low mortality level, contributions of e(†) to changes in the life table entropy resulted from averting early deaths. These findings indicate that future increases in overall survival in low mortality countries will likely result from improvements in e(†).

  13. Influence of salinity on the life table demography of a rare Cladocera Latonopsis australis.

    PubMed

    Haridevan, G; Jyothibabu, R; Arunpandi, N; Jagadeesan, L; Biju, A

    2015-10-01

    Latonopsis australis is a rare Cladocera inhabiting the entire stretch of the Cochin backwaters, the largest monsoonal estuary along the West Coast of India, during the summer monsoon, but restricted to the upper reaches during the non-monsoon periods. Here, we present the results of an experimental study, which assessed the influence of salinity on the life table demography of the species at different salinity levels. The life table demographic parameters such as net reproduction rate, generation time, intrinsic growth rate, gross reproductive rate, and survivorship of the species were measured in different salinities ranging from freshwater to mesohaline levels (salinity 14). The study showed that higher salinity had a significant negative effect on all life table demography parameters of the species, whereas freshwater to low saline conditions (salinity up to 8) favored the survivorship, life expectancy, net production, and growth rate. It was also noticed that salinity above 8 caused a significant decrease in the survivorship, life expectancy, and reproduction rate of the species, which clearly explained the seasonal distribution pattern of the species in the Cochin backwaters. The present study suggests salinity 2 to 6 as the optimum range for the large-scale production of L. australis for purposes like live feed in aquaculture.

  14. Table of periodic properties of fullerenes based on structural parameters.

    PubMed

    Torrens, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    The periodic table (PT) of the elements suggests that hydrogen could be the origin of everything else. The construction principle is an evolutionary process that is formally similar to those of Darwin and Oparin. The Kekulé structure count and permanence of the adjacency matrix of fullerenes are related to structural parameters involving the presence of contiguous pentagons p, q and r. Let p be the number of edges common to two pentagons, q the number of vertices common to three pentagons, and r the number of pairs of nonadjacent pentagon edges shared between two other pentagons. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the structural parameters and cluster analysis (CA) of the fullerenes permit classifying them and agree. A PT of the fullerenes is built based on the structural parameters, PCA and CA. The periodic law does not have the rank of the laws of physics. (1) The properties of the fullerenes are not repeated; only, and perhaps, their chemical character. (2) The order relationships are repeated, although with exceptions. The proposed statement is the following: The relationships that any fullerene p has with its neighbor p + 1 are approximately repeated for each period.

  15. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Hhhhhhh... - Calibration and Accuracy Requirements for Continuous Parameter Monitoring Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for Continuous Parameter Monitoring Systems 7 Table 7 to Subpart HHHHHHH of Part 63 Protection of... Parameter Monitoring Systems If you monitor this parameter . . . Then your accuracy requirements are . . . And your inspection/calibration frequencyrequirements are . . . 1. Temperature...

  16. Exploring Thailand's mortality transition with the aid of life tables.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Gordon A

    2011-01-01

    The project Thai Health-Risk Transition: A National Cohort Study seeks to better understand the health implications of modernisation and globalisation forces impacting on Thailand. As part of its "look-back" component this paper seeks, using available life tables, to document the country's post-war mortality transition. The onset of transition through mass campaigns of the late 1940s and 1950s is first discussed before attention turns to the life tables. They are predictably far from flawless, but careful analysis does permit trends that have seen around 30 years added to life expectancy to be traced, and age patterns of improved survivorship and their relation to initiatives to improve health to be examined. The broad benefits generated by mass campaigns, ongoing improvements in infant and early childhood mortality, and a phased impact of the expansion of primary health care in rural areas on adult survival prospects after the mid-1970s are demonstrated. The paper also investigates the consequences for mortality of a motorcycle-focused rapid increase in road fatalities in the late 1980s and early 1990s and the HIV/AIDS epidemic that developed after 1984. PMID:21847831

  17. Exploring Thailand's mortality transition with the aid of life tables

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Gordon A

    2011-01-01

    The project Thai Health-Risk Transition: A National Cohort Study seeks to better understand the health implications of modernisation and globalisation forces impacting on Thailand. As part of its ‘look-back’ component this paper seeks, using available life tables, to document the country's post-war mortality transition. The onset of transition through mass campaigns of the late 1940s and 1950s is first discussed before attention turns to the life tables. They are predictably far from flawless, but careful analysis does permit trends that have seen around 30 years added to life expectancy to be traced, and age patterns of improved survivorship and their relation to initiatives to improve health to be examined. The broad benefits generated by mass campaigns, ongoing improvements in infant and early childhood mortality, and a phased impact of the expansion of primary health care in rural areas on adult survival prospects after the mid-1970s are demonstrated. The paper also investigates the consequences for mortality of a motorcycle-focused rapid increase in road fatalities in the late 1980s and early 1990s and the HIV/AIDS epidemic that developed after 1984. PMID:21847831

  18. Exploring Thailand's mortality transition with the aid of life tables.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Gordon A

    2011-01-01

    The project Thai Health-Risk Transition: A National Cohort Study seeks to better understand the health implications of modernisation and globalisation forces impacting on Thailand. As part of its "look-back" component this paper seeks, using available life tables, to document the country's post-war mortality transition. The onset of transition through mass campaigns of the late 1940s and 1950s is first discussed before attention turns to the life tables. They are predictably far from flawless, but careful analysis does permit trends that have seen around 30 years added to life expectancy to be traced, and age patterns of improved survivorship and their relation to initiatives to improve health to be examined. The broad benefits generated by mass campaigns, ongoing improvements in infant and early childhood mortality, and a phased impact of the expansion of primary health care in rural areas on adult survival prospects after the mid-1970s are demonstrated. The paper also investigates the consequences for mortality of a motorcycle-focused rapid increase in road fatalities in the late 1980s and early 1990s and the HIV/AIDS epidemic that developed after 1984.

  19. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(9)-9 - Life expectancy and distribution period tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Life expectancy and distribution period tables. 1... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(9)-9 Life expectancy and distribution period tables. Q-1. What is the life... expectancy of an individual: Single Life Table Age Lifeexpectancy 0 82.4 1 81.6 2 80.6 3 79.7 4 78.7 5 77.7...

  20. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(9)-9 - Life expectancy and distribution period tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Life expectancy and distribution period tables... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(9)-9 Life expectancy and distribution period tables. Q-1. What is the life... expectancy of an individual: Single Life Table Age Lifeexpectancy 0 82.4 1 81.6 2 80.6 3 79.7 4 78.7 5 77.7...

  1. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(9)-9 - Life expectancy and distribution period tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Life expectancy and distribution period tables... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(9)-9 Life expectancy and distribution period tables. Q-1. What is the life... expectancy of an individual: Single Life Table Age Lifeexpectancy 0 82.4 1 81.6 2 80.6 3 79.7 4 78.7 5 77.7...

  2. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(9)-9 - Life expectancy and distribution period tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Life expectancy and distribution period tables... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(9)-9 Life expectancy and distribution period tables. Q-1. What is the life... expectancy of an individual: Single Life Table Age Lifeexpectancy 0 82.4 1 81.6 2 80.6 3 79.7 4 78.7 5 77.7...

  3. Demography and Population Projection of Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae): with Additional Comments on Life Table Research Criteria.

    PubMed

    Akca, Izzet; Ayvaz, Tamer; Yazici, Eda; Smith, Cecil L; Chi, Hsin

    2015-08-01

    We collected developmental, survival, and reproduction data for Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae) reared on faba bean, Vicia faba L. 'Sevilla' at four constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, and 30°C), 70% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. The highest intrinsic rate of increase (r = 0.4347 d(-1)) and finite rate (λ = 1.5445 d(-1)) were observed at 25°C. The population projection based on the age-stage, two-sex life table quantitatively revealed the growth potential and stage structure of the aphid. We have included the following suggestions to aid researchers in life table studies: 1) The bootstrap method should be used to estimate the variance and SEs of developmental time, survival rate, fecundity, and population parameters. 2) The required number of bootstraps is dependent on the life table data--the higher the variation among individuals, the higher the number of bootstraps should be. In most cases, we suggest that 100,000 bootstraps should be used to obtain a stable estimate of variance and SEs. 3) Computer projection based on the age-stage, two-sex life table should be used to reveal the stage structure during population growth. 4) We used a simple equation based on the total fecundity, survival rate to adult stage, and first reproductive age to detect possible errors in life table parameters. 5) To assist readers in comprehending results, life table studies should include the cohort size, preadult survival rate, number of emerged female adults, mean fecundity, survival and fecundity curves, and population parameters.

  4. Demography and Population Projection of Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae): with Additional Comments on Life Table Research Criteria.

    PubMed

    Akca, Izzet; Ayvaz, Tamer; Yazici, Eda; Smith, Cecil L; Chi, Hsin

    2015-08-01

    We collected developmental, survival, and reproduction data for Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae) reared on faba bean, Vicia faba L. 'Sevilla' at four constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, and 30°C), 70% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. The highest intrinsic rate of increase (r = 0.4347 d(-1)) and finite rate (λ = 1.5445 d(-1)) were observed at 25°C. The population projection based on the age-stage, two-sex life table quantitatively revealed the growth potential and stage structure of the aphid. We have included the following suggestions to aid researchers in life table studies: 1) The bootstrap method should be used to estimate the variance and SEs of developmental time, survival rate, fecundity, and population parameters. 2) The required number of bootstraps is dependent on the life table data--the higher the variation among individuals, the higher the number of bootstraps should be. In most cases, we suggest that 100,000 bootstraps should be used to obtain a stable estimate of variance and SEs. 3) Computer projection based on the age-stage, two-sex life table should be used to reveal the stage structure during population growth. 4) We used a simple equation based on the total fecundity, survival rate to adult stage, and first reproductive age to detect possible errors in life table parameters. 5) To assist readers in comprehending results, life table studies should include the cohort size, preadult survival rate, number of emerged female adults, mean fecundity, survival and fecundity curves, and population parameters. PMID:26470285

  5. Working life tables for females in Canada, 1971.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, P; Penning, M; Kurian, L

    1981-01-01

    This paper attempts to construct some working life tables (WLTs) for females in Canada, 1971. Attention is directed to methodological problems in female WLT construction, a suggested methodology, and loss due to mortality. The working life expectancy (WLE), which refers to the average number of years that a person is likely to spend in the labor force during his/her lifetime, reveals the extent of his/her contribution to the national economy. Although working life tables have been prepared for Canadian males, no attempt has been made previously to develop a WLT for the Canadian females. In some countries, such as Canada, the long census questionnaire collects additional pieces of information on labor force participation (LFP), even though the coverage is only on a part (but sizable) of the population. It is suggested that the information on "weeks worked" (Canadian Census wording) can be used to smooth out the bimodality problem in the female LFP. If a working woman works for an entire year, i.e., 52 weeks inclusive of paid holidays and vacation, she is said to contribute 1 woman year of working (or economically active) life to the economy. On the basis of this concept of a woman year of working life, all females who are working full time, part time, and not working can be considered in regard to their respective contributions of working lives to the national economy. An age limit is not indicated in the definition. The number of hours worked per day cumulated for the year and scaled down to the base of 1 woman year of working life would make the analysis more realistic. If the census data on weeks worked are tabulated by single years of age, or age groups for the female population, the average number of weeks worked specific for the various age categories can be computed. Those who are unemployed are taken as contributing zero weeks worked in the computation of the mean. Then the age specific participation rate is obtained as the percent of the average number of

  6. Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species

    PubMed Central

    Bronikowski, Anne M.; Cords, Marina; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K.; Fedigan, Linda M.; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara; Strier, Karen B.; Morris, William F.

    2016-01-01

    We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point estimates of age-specific survival for both sexes. In all species, our survival estimates for the dispersing sex are affected by heavy censoring. We also calculated reproductive value, life expectancy, and mortality hazards for females. We used bootstrapping to place confidence intervals on life-table summary metrics (R0, the net reproductive rate; λ, the population growth rate; and G, the generation time). These data have high potential for reuse; they derive from continuous population monitoring of long-lived organisms and will be invaluable for addressing questions about comparative demography, primate conservation and human evolution. PMID:26928014

  7. Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species.

    PubMed

    Bronikowski, Anne M; Cords, Marina; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K; Fedigan, Linda M; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara; Strier, Karen B; Morris, William F

    2016-01-01

    We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point estimates of age-specific survival for both sexes. In all species, our survival estimates for the dispersing sex are affected by heavy censoring. We also calculated reproductive value, life expectancy, and mortality hazards for females. We used bootstrapping to place confidence intervals on life-table summary metrics (R0, the net reproductive rate; λ, the population growth rate; and G, the generation time). These data have high potential for reuse; they derive from continuous population monitoring of long-lived organisms and will be invaluable for addressing questions about comparative demography, primate conservation and human evolution. PMID:26928014

  8. Life Table and Consumption Capacity of Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa armigera, Fed Asparagus, Asparagus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Ratna Kumar; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The life table and consumption rate of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) were studied under laboratory conditions to assess their interaction. Development, survival, fecundity, and consumption data were analyzed by the age-stage, two-sex life table. This study indicated that asparagus is a natural host of H. armigera. However, the poor nutritional content in asparagus foliage and the poor fitness of H. armigera that fed on asparagus indicated that asparagus is a suboptimal host in comparison to hybrid sweet corn. The uncertainty associated with life table parameters was estimated by using jackknife and bootstrap techniques, and the results were compared for statistical inference. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were estimated by the jackknife technique to be 0.0780 day-1, 1.0811 day-1, 67.4 offspring, and 54.8 days, respectively, while those estimated by the bootstrap technique were 0.0752 day-1, 1.0781 day-1, 68.0 offspring, and 55.3 days, respectively. The net consumption rate of H. armigera, as estimated by the jackknife and bootstrap technique, was 1183.02 and 1132.9 mg per individual, respectively. The frequency distribution of sample means obtained by the jackknife technique failed the normality test, while the bootstrap results fit the normal distribution well. By contrast, the relationship between the mean fecundity and the net reproductive rate, as estimated by the bootstrap technique, was slightly inconsistent with the relationship found by mathematical proof. The application of the jackknife and bootstrap techniques in estimating population parameters requires further examination. PMID:25373181

  9. Life table and consumption capacity of corn earworm, Helicoverpa armigera, fed asparagus, Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ratna Kumar; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The life table and consumption rate of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) were studied under laboratory conditions to assess their interaction. Development, survival, fecundity, and consumption data were analyzed by the age-stage, twosex life table. This study indicated that asparagus is a natural host of H. armigera. However, the poor nutritional content in asparagus foliage and the poor fitness of H. armigera that fed on asparagus indicated that asparagus is a suboptimal host in comparison to hybrid sweet corn. The uncertainty associated with life table parameters was estimated by using jackknife and bootstrap techniques, and the results were compared for statistical inference. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were estimated by the jackknife technique to be 0.0780 day(-1), 1.0811 day(-1), 67.4 offspring, and 54.8 days, respectively, while those estimated by the bootstrap technique were 0.0752 day(-1), 1.0781 day(-1), 68.0 offspring, and 55.3 days, respectively. The net consumption rate of H. armigera, as estimated by the jackknife and bootstrap technique, was 1183.02 and 1132.9 mg per individual, respectively. The frequency distribution of sample means obtained by the jackknife technique failed the normality test, while the bootstrap results fit the normal distribution well. By contrast, the relationship between the mean fecundity and the net reproductive rate, as estimated by the bootstrap technique, was slightly inconsistent with the relationship found by mathematical proof. The application of the jackknife and bootstrap techniques in estimating population parameters requires further examination. PMID:25373181

  10. Life table and consumption capacity of corn earworm, Helicoverpa armigera, fed asparagus, Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ratna Kumar; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

    2014-03-01

    The life table and consumption rate of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) were studied under laboratory conditions to assess their interaction. Development, survival, fecundity, and consumption data were analyzed by the age-stage, twosex life table. This study indicated that asparagus is a natural host of H. armigera. However, the poor nutritional content in asparagus foliage and the poor fitness of H. armigera that fed on asparagus indicated that asparagus is a suboptimal host in comparison to hybrid sweet corn. The uncertainty associated with life table parameters was estimated by using jackknife and bootstrap techniques, and the results were compared for statistical inference. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were estimated by the jackknife technique to be 0.0780 day(-1), 1.0811 day(-1), 67.4 offspring, and 54.8 days, respectively, while those estimated by the bootstrap technique were 0.0752 day(-1), 1.0781 day(-1), 68.0 offspring, and 55.3 days, respectively. The net consumption rate of H. armigera, as estimated by the jackknife and bootstrap technique, was 1183.02 and 1132.9 mg per individual, respectively. The frequency distribution of sample means obtained by the jackknife technique failed the normality test, while the bootstrap results fit the normal distribution well. By contrast, the relationship between the mean fecundity and the net reproductive rate, as estimated by the bootstrap technique, was slightly inconsistent with the relationship found by mathematical proof. The application of the jackknife and bootstrap techniques in estimating population parameters requires further examination.

  11. Tables of astronomical constants and libration-point parameters for selected solar system objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Values for the masses, radii, and certain mean orbital elements for most of the planets and many of the satellites of the solar system are presented. These values were used to produce computer-generated tables of libration point parameters.

  12. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Ooo of... - Operating Parameter Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Operating Parameter Levels 4 Table 4 to Subpart OOO of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Established operating parameter(s) Scrubber pH of scrubber effluent; and scrubber liquid and gas flow...

  13. Cohort Life Tables By Smoking Status Removing Lung Cancer as a Cause of Death

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Marjorie A.; Feuer, Eric J.; Yu, Binbing; Sun, Jiafeng; Henley, S. Jane; Shanks, Thomas G.; Anderson, Christy M.; McMahon, Pam M.; Thun, Michael J.; Burns, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop life tables by smoking status removing lung cancer as a cause of death. These life tables are inputs to studies that compare the effectiveness of lung cancer treatments or interventions, and provide a way to quantify time until death from causes other than lung cancer. The study combined actuarial and statistical smoothing methods, as well as data from multiple sources, to develop separate life tables by smoking status, birth cohort, by single year of age, and by sex. For current smokers, separate life tables by smoking quintiles were developed based on the average number of cigarettes smoked per day by birth cohort. The end product is the creation of six non-lung cancer life tables for males and six tables for females: five current smoker quintiles and one for never smokers. Tables for former smokers are linear combinations of the appropriate table based on the current smoker quintile prior to quitting smoking and the never smoker probabilities, plus added covariates for the smoking quit age and time since quitting. PMID:22882890

  14. 40 CFR Table S-1 to Subpart S of... - Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. S, Table S-1 Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98—Basic Parameters for the...

  15. 40 CFR Table S-1 to Subpart S of... - Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. S, Table S-1 Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98—Basic Parameters for the...

  16. 40 CFR Table S-1 to Subpart S of... - Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. S, Table S-1 Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98—Basic Parameters for the...

  17. 40 CFR Table S-1 to Subpart S of... - Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. S, Table S-1 Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98—Basic Parameters for the...

  18. Life table parameters for tarnished plant bug models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot De Beauvois) is a highly polyphagous insect that feeds on numerous wild and cultivated host plants. Previous papers have reported the survival and developmental times of immature stages of TPB and the fecundity and longevity of adults on various ho...

  19. Quantifying the Dynamics of Chinese Labor Force: A Life Table Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Dejian

    2007-01-01

    Based on the recent three population censuses of China, in this article, we used life table technique to compute the expected years of working life for the Chinese labor force in the primary, secondary and tertiary industries in 1982, 1990 and 2000. We found, after two decades of economic reform, the expected years of working life in the primary…

  20. Life Detection System DTIVA for Monitoring Parameter in Fossilization Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; Garcia-Descalzo, L.; Cockell, C. S.; Schwendner, P.; Rettberg, P.; Beblo-Vranesevic, K.; Bohmeier, M.; Rabbow, E.; Westall, F.; Gaboyer, F.; Walter, N.; Moissl-Eichinger, M.; Perras, A.; Amils, R.; Malki, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Monaghan, E.; Marteinsson, V.; Vannier, P.

    2016-05-01

    Using Life Detection System LDS we followed the physicochemical parameter in a growth culture under fossilization/mineralization-induced process with the objectives of biomarkers detection. Biomarkers study is crucial for the search for life on Mars.

  1. Relationship between anaerobic parameters provided from MAOD and critical power model in specific table tennis test.

    PubMed

    Zagatto, A M; Gobatto, C A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the validity of the curvature constant parameter (W'), calculated from 2-parameter mathematical equations of critical power model, in estimating the anaerobic capacity and anaerobic work capacity from a table tennis-specific test. Specifically, we aimed to i) compare constants estimated from three critical intensity models in a table tennis-specific test (Cf); ii) correlate each estimated W' with the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD); iii) correlate each W' with the total amount of anaerobic work (W ANAER) performed in each exercise bout performed during the Cf test. Nine national-standard male table tennis players participated in the study. MAOD was 63.0(10.8) mL · kg - 1 and W' values were 32.8(6.6) balls for the linear-frequency model, 38.3(6.9) balls for linear-total balls model, 48.7(8.9) balls for Nonlinear-2 parameter model. Estimated W' from the Nonlinear 2-parameter model was significantly different from W' from the other 2 models (P<0.05). Also, none W' values were significantly correlated with MAOD or W ANAER (r ranged from - 0.58 to 0.51; P>0.13). Thus, W' estimated from the 2-parameter mathematical equations did not correlate with MAOD or W ANAER in table tennis-specific tests, indicating that W' may not provide a strong and valid estimation of anaerobic capacity and anaerobic capacity work. PMID:22562729

  2. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ec of... - Operating Parameters To Be Monitored and Minimum Measurement and Recording Frequencies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Minimum Measurement and Recording Frequencies 3 Table 3 to Subpart Ec of Part 60 Protection of... Which Construction is Commenced After June 20, 1996 Pt. 60, Subpt. Ec, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart Ec of... Operating parameters to be monitored Minimum frequency Data measurement Data recording Control system...

  3. [Effects of mercury concentration on life table demography of Moina macrocopa under different Scenedesmus obliquus densities].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya; Wang, Ling; Mu, Wei-ping; Ren, Tong-tong; Pan, Ling; Xi, Yi-long

    2015-12-01

    In order to compare the chronic toxicity of pollutants to organisms in an aquatic environment under different food densities, the cladoceran Moina macrocopa was used as test animal to investigate the effects of Hg²⁺ concentrations (0, 0.4, 1.1, 1.8, 2.5, 3.2 and 3.9 µg · L⁻¹) on its life table demography under low (0.5 x 10⁶ cells · mL⁻¹), medium (1.0 x 10⁶ cells · mL⁻¹) and high (2.0 x 10⁶ cells · mL⁻¹) densities of Scenedesmus obliquus. The results showed that at low and high food levels, certain concentrations of Hg²⁺ had inhibitory effects on survival, reproduction and population growth of M. macrocopa. However, at the medium food level, the inhibitory effects disappeared. Compared with the control, at the low food level, Hg²⁺ at 0.4-2.5 and 3.9 µg · L⁻¹ significantly decreased the life expectancy at hatching, Hg²⁺ at 0.4, 1.1, 2.5 and 3.9 µg · L⁻¹ decreased the generation time, Hg²⁺ at 1.1, 2.5 and 3.9 µg · L⁻¹ decreased the net reproduction rate, and Hg²⁺ at 3.9 µg · L⁻¹ decreased the gross reproduction rate of M. macrocopa. At the high food level, Hg²⁺ at 1.1 µg · L⁻¹ decreased the intrinsic rate of population increase, and Hg²⁺ at 3.9 µg · L⁻¹ decreased the life expectancy at hatching and the net reproduction rate of M. macrocopa. However, at the medium food level, Hg²⁺ at 3.2 µg · L⁻¹ increased the life expectancy at hatching of M. macrocopa. When S. obliquus density was 0.5 x 10⁶ cells · mL⁻¹, there were significant dose-effect relationships between Hg²⁺ concentration and the life expectancy at hatching, the generation time as well as the cross reproduction rate of M. macrocopa. However, when S. obliquus density was 1.0 x 10⁶ or 2.0 x 10⁶ cells · mL⁻¹, there were no any significant dose-effect relationships between Hg²⁺ concentration and each of the life table demographic parameters of M. macrocopa. PMID:27112029

  4. Life table of Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Van der Wulp) (Diptera: Muscidae) under uncontrolled laboratory environments - a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Aruna Devi, A; Abu Hassan, A; Kumara, T K; Che Salmah, M R

    2011-12-01

    The life history of the male and female of the indoor forensic fly, Synthesiomyia nudiseta was studied under fluctuating temperature of indoor environments and analysed based on the age-stage and two sex life table. The life cycle of S. nudiseta was 14.0±1.0 days from the egg stage to adult emergence. The population parameters calculated were; net reproduction rate (R(o)= 108.6), mean generation time (T(o)= 12.2), intrinsic rate of increase (r(m)= 0.38), and finite rate of increase (λ= 1.46). The pre-oviposition period (APOP) was 6.0± 0.1 days. All population parameters suggested that S. nudiseta exhibits the r-strategist characteristics.

  5. Age-Stage, Two-Sex Life Table Characteristics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes Aegypti in Penang Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Maimusa, Hamisu A; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Kassim, Nur Faeza A; Rahim, Junaid

    2016-03-01

    The life table developmental attributes of laboratory colonies of wild strains of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti were analyzed and compared based on the age-stage, two-sex life table. Findings inclusive in this study are: adult preoviposition periods, total preoviposition period, mean intrinsic rate of increase (r), mean finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rates (R0), and mean generation time (T). The total preadult development time was 9.47 days for Ae. albopictus and 8.76 days for Ae. aegypti. The life expectancy was 19.01 days for Ae. albopictus and 19.94 days for Ae. aegypti. Mortality occurred mostly during the adult stage. The mean development time for each stage insignificantly correlated with temperature for Ae. albopictus (r  =  -0.208, P > 0.05) and (r  =  -0.312, P > 0.05) for Ae. aegypti. The population parameters suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti populations are r-strategists characterized by a high r, a large R0, and short T. This present study provides the first report to compare the life parameters of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti strains from Penang island, Malaysia.

  6. AN APPLICATION OF LIFE TABLE METHOD IN THE STUDY OF LENGTH OF STAY

    PubMed Central

    Kaliaperumal, V.G.; Reddy, M. Venkataswamy; Channabasavanna, S.M.; Rao, Shivaji; Joseph, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Life table method was presented as a method of choice to analyse data arising out of longitudinal studies. The method was employed to study length of stay (LOS) of psychiatric in-patients. The result obtained was compared with LOS calculated by traditional methods. The LOS was 58-60 days computed by traditional methods for the year 1985 for our centre. This was shown by the life table method as the expected LOS at the time of admission. The life table method demonstrated that the rate of discharge increased as the length of stay increased upto 30 days and decreased afterwards. On the other hand, the expected further LOS increased as the length of stay increased upto 3 years. The implications of the findings were discussed. PMID:21927263

  7. Obtaining multistate life table distributions for highly refined subpopulations from cross-sectional data: A Bayesian extension of Sullivan's method.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Scott M; Brown, J Scott

    2010-11-01

    Multistate life table methods are often used to estimate the proportion of remaining life that individuals can expect to spend in various states, such as healthy and unhealthy states. Sullivan's method is commonly used when panels containing data on transitions are unavailable and true multistate tables cannot be generated. Sullivan's method requires only cross-sectional mortality data and cross-sectional data indicating prevalence in states of interest. Such data often come from sample surveys, which are widely available. Although the data requirements for Sullivan's method are minimal, the method is limited in its ability to produce estimates for subpopulations because of limited disaggregation of data in cross-sectional mortality files and small cell sizes in aggregated survey data. In this article, we develop, test, and demonstrate a method that adapts Sullivan's approach to allow the inclusion of covariates in producing interval estimates of state expectancies for any desired subpopulation that can be specified in the cross-sectional prevalence data. The method involves a three-step process: (1) using Gibbs sampling to sample parameters from a bivariate regression model; (2) using ecological inference for producing transition probability matrices from the Gibbs samples; (3) using standard multistate calculations to convert the transition probability matrices into multistate life tables.

  8. 26 CFR 1.101-7 - Mortality table used to determine exclusion for deferred payments of life insurance proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... set forth in § 1.72-7(c)(1), and is shown in Table V of § 1.72-9 (which contains life expectancy... table set forth in § 1.72-7(c)(1), and is shown in Table VI of § 1.72-9 (which contains life expectancy... deferred payments of life insurance proceeds. 1.101-7 Section 1.101-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...

  9. 26 CFR 1.101-7 - Mortality table used to determine exclusion for deferred payments of life insurance proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... set forth in § 1.72-7(c)(1), and is shown in Table V of § 1.72-9 (which contains life expectancy... table set forth in § 1.72-7(c)(1), and is shown in Table VI of § 1.72-9 (which contains life expectancy... deferred payments of life insurance proceeds. 1.101-7 Section 1.101-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...

  10. 26 CFR 1.101-7 - Mortality table used to determine exclusion for deferred payments of life insurance proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... set forth in § 1.72-7(c)(1), and is shown in Table V of § 1.72-9 (which contains life expectancy... table set forth in § 1.72-7(c)(1), and is shown in Table VI of § 1.72-9 (which contains life expectancy... deferred payments of life insurance proceeds. 1.101-7 Section 1.101-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...

  11. 26 CFR 1.101-7 - Mortality table used to determine exclusion for deferred payments of life insurance proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... set forth in § 1.72-7(c)(1), and is shown in Table V of § 1.72-9 (which contains life expectancy... table set forth in § 1.72-7(c)(1), and is shown in Table VI of § 1.72-9 (which contains life expectancy... deferred payments of life insurance proceeds. 1.101-7 Section 1.101-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...

  12. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Jjj of... - Operating Parameters for Which Levels Are Required To Be Established for Continuous and Batch...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 8 Table 8 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY.... 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 8 Table 8 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Operating Parameters for Which Levels...

  13. Release of thiotepa sterilized males into caged populations of Aedes aegypti: life table analysis.

    PubMed

    Gato, René; Companioni, Ariamys; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Menéndez, Zulema; González, Aileen; Rodríguez, Misladys

    2014-04-01

    Successful SIT trials against mosquitoes in the 1960-70s were achieved by sterilizing male mosquitoes using chemosterilants. Their use was discontinued after concerns were raised about the effect of residues on non-target organisms, although scant evidence has been published. Irradiation is an expensive process; chemosterilization could be an affordable option for implementing SIT programs in developing countries. We compare life table parameters of three Aedes aegypti populations comprising different ratios of thiotepa-treated and non-treated males in order to identify the impact on reproductive potential of the presence of sterile males. No difference was observed in the survival of the treated and untreated males. The release of thiotepa sterilized males into caged Ae. aegypti populations had no effect on death or survival probability of the individuals in the cages but the fecundity of females was significantly reduced, as evaluated by hatch rate and stable age structure parameters. The significant decreases in net reproduction rate, finite rate of natural increase and intrinsic rate of natural increase in populations including sterile males are sufficient to indicate that such populations would not be able to proliferate in natural conditions. This suggests that release of Ae. aegypti thiotepa-treated males could be effective in reducing the reproductive capability of the target population and consequently contribute to vector control. PMID:24513037

  14. Combined Effects of Food Level and Temperature on Life Table Demography of Moina macrocopa Straus (Cladocera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Yi-Long; Hagiwara, Atsushi; Sakakura, Yoshitaka

    2005-12-01

    The combined effects of four levels of temperatures (18 °C, 23 °C, 28 °C and 33 °C) and food densities (0.5 × 106, 1.0 × 106, 2.0 × 106 and 4.0 × 106 cells ml-1 of Chlorella vulgaris) on the life-table demographic parameters (age-specific survivorship and fecundity, average lifespan, gross reproductive rate, net reproductive rate, generation time and intrinsic rate of population increase) of a laboratory population of the cladoceran Moina macrocopa were investigated. Both food level and temperature, independently and in interaction, significantly influenced nearly all the parameters. The average lifespan was maximized at 18 °C under 1.0 × 106 cells ml-1 of Chlorella. The reproductive performance was a direct function of the food level, but the magnitude of food-level effect depended on temperature. Among the algal concentrations used here, 0.5 × 106 - 2.0 × 106 cells ml-1 were suitable for the survival and reproduction of M. macrocopa. Regardless of the food-level effect, both the gross reproductive rate and the net reproductive rate at 23 °C was higher, and the generation time generally decreased with the rise of temperature. Within the suitable food-level range, the average value of the intrinsic rate of population increase ascended with the rise of temperature from 0.72 to 2.41 day-1.

  15. The life-table demographic response of freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus to multi-metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Mn) mixture interaction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Ping; Xi, Yi-Long; Huang, Lin; Xiang, Xian-Ling

    2014-08-01

    The effects of multi-metal mixtures on the life-table demography of rotifers are not well known. In this study, the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus was exposed to mixture of Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Mn, and the life-table demographic parameters including net reproductive rate, generation time, life expectancy at hatching, and intrinsic rate of population increase were calculated. The results showed that interactions between a given element concentration, except Mn, and the other four elements mixture concentration affected the intrinsic rate of population increase (p < 0.01). Interactions between Zn concentration, as well as Mn, and the other four elements mixture concentration affected the net reproductive rate and the life expectancy at hatching, respectively (p < 0.05). The variation of parameters with the rise of the other four elements mixture concentrations from 0 to high was mainly attributed to the difference of interaction among the five metals mixture with different ratio of concentrations.

  16. The application of model life table systems in China: assessment of system bias and error.

    PubMed

    Hu, Songbo; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-12-01

    and projection. Although China is the world's most populous country with approximately a fifth of the world's population, none of the empirical tables from mainland China were used in calibrating the existing models. In this paper, we applied recent three model life table systems with different inputs to China mortality data to investigate whether or not these systems truly reflect Chinese mortality epidemiological patterns and whether or not system biases exist. The resulting residuals show that, in most cases, the male infant mortality rate (1q0), adult mortality rate (45q15) and old age mortality rate (20q60) have a strong bias towards being overestimated and the life expectancy at birth (e0) bias is underestimated. We also give the detailed results for each case. Furthermore, we found that the average relative errors (AREs) for females are more than those for males for e0, 45q15 and 20q60, but for 1q0, males have larger AREs in the Wilmoth and Murray systems. We also found that the urban population has more errors than the rural population in almost all cases. Finally, by comparing the AREs with 10 other countries, we found the errors for China are more than those for other countries in most cases. It is concluded that these existing model life table systems cannot accurately reflect Chinese mortality epidemiological situations and trajectories. Therefore, model life tables should be used with caution when applied to China on the basis of 5q0.

  17. Tyrannosaur life tables: an example of nonavian dinosaur population biology.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Gregory M; Currie, Philip J; Inouye, Brian D; Winn, Alice A

    2006-07-14

    The size and age structures for four assemblages of North American tyrannosaurs-Albertosaurus, Tyrannosaurus, Gorgosaurus, and Daspletosaurus-reveal a pronounced, bootstrap-supported pattern of age-specific mortality characterized by relatively high juvenile survivorship and increased mortality at midlife and near the maximum life span. Such patterns are common today in wild populations of long-lived birds and mammals. Factors such as predation and entrance into the breeding population may have influenced tyrannosaur survivorship. This survivorship pattern can explain the rarity of juvenile specimens in museum collections.

  18. Temperature-Dependent Fecundity and Life Table of the Fennel Aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Francisco S; Malaquias, José B; Lira, Aline C S; Oliveira, Flávia Q; Zanuncio, José C; Fernandes, Francisco S

    2015-01-01

    Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a cosmopolitan species and the main pest of fennel in northeastern Brazil. Understanding the relationship between temperature variations and the population growth rates of H. foeniculi is essential to predict the population dynamics of this aphid in the fennel crop. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of constant temperature on the adult prereproductive period and the life table fertility parameters (infinitesimal increase ratio (rm), gross reproduction rate (GRR), net reproduction rate (R0), finite increase ratio (λ), generation time (GT), the time required for the population to double in the number of individuals (DT), and the reproduction value (RVx)) of the fennel pest H. foeniculi. The values of lx (survival of nymphs at age x) increased as the temperature rose from 15 to 28°C and fell at 30°C, whereas mx (number of nymphs produced by each nymph of age x) increased from 15 to 25°C and fell at 28 and 30°C. The net reproduction rates (R0) of populations of H. foeniculi increased with temperature and ranged from 1.9 at 15°C to 12.23 at 28°C for each generation. The highest population increase occurred with the apterous aphids at 28°C. The rate of population increase per unit time (rm) (day) ranged from 0.0033 (15°C) to 0.1995 (28°C). The highest values of rm were recorded at temperatures of 28°C and 30°C. The rm values were a good fit to the models tested, with R2 > 0.91 and R2adj > 0.88. The models tested (Davidson, Sharpe and DeMichele modified by Schoolfield et al., Logan et al., Lamb, and Briere et al.) were very good fits for the rm values observed, with R2 > 0.91 and R2adj > 0.88. The only exception was the Davidson model. Of the parameters studied, the reproductive capacity was higher in the apterous aphids, with the unique exception of daily fecundity at 28°C, which was higher in the alate aphids of H. foeniculi. Parameters relating to the age-specific fertility table for H

  19. Temperature-Dependent Fecundity and Life Table of the Fennel Aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Francisco S; Malaquias, José B; Lira, Aline C S; Oliveira, Flávia Q; Zanuncio, José C; Fernandes, Francisco S

    2015-01-01

    Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a cosmopolitan species and the main pest of fennel in northeastern Brazil. Understanding the relationship between temperature variations and the population growth rates of H. foeniculi is essential to predict the population dynamics of this aphid in the fennel crop. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of constant temperature on the adult prereproductive period and the life table fertility parameters (infinitesimal increase ratio (rm), gross reproduction rate (GRR), net reproduction rate (R0), finite increase ratio (λ), generation time (GT), the time required for the population to double in the number of individuals (DT), and the reproduction value (RVx)) of the fennel pest H. foeniculi. The values of lx (survival of nymphs at age x) increased as the temperature rose from 15 to 28°C and fell at 30°C, whereas mx (number of nymphs produced by each nymph of age x) increased from 15 to 25°C and fell at 28 and 30°C. The net reproduction rates (R0) of populations of H. foeniculi increased with temperature and ranged from 1.9 at 15°C to 12.23 at 28°C for each generation. The highest population increase occurred with the apterous aphids at 28°C. The rate of population increase per unit time (rm) (day) ranged from 0.0033 (15°C) to 0.1995 (28°C). The highest values of rm were recorded at temperatures of 28°C and 30°C. The rm values were a good fit to the models tested, with R2 > 0.91 and R2adj > 0.88. The models tested (Davidson, Sharpe and DeMichele modified by Schoolfield et al., Logan et al., Lamb, and Briere et al.) were very good fits for the rm values observed, with R2 > 0.91 and R2adj > 0.88. The only exception was the Davidson model. Of the parameters studied, the reproductive capacity was higher in the apterous aphids, with the unique exception of daily fecundity at 28°C, which was higher in the alate aphids of H. foeniculi. Parameters relating to the age-specific fertility table for H

  20. Prey Preference and Life Table of Amblyseius orientalis on Bemisia tabaci and Tetranychus cinnabarinus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Lv, Jiale; Hu, Yue; Wang, Boming; Chen, Xi; Xu, Xuenong; Wang, Endong

    2015-01-01

    Amblyseius orientalis (Ehara) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a native predatory mite species in China. It used to be considered as a specialist predator of spider mites. However, recent studies show it also preys on other small arthropod pests, such as Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Experiments were conducted to investigate (1) prey preference of A. orientalis between Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and B. tabaci, and (2) development, consumption and life table parameters of A. orientalis when reared on T. cinnabarinus, B. tabaci or a mix of both prey species. When preying on different stages of T. cinnabarinus, A. orientalis preferred protonymphs, whereas when preying on different stages of B. tabaci, A. orientalis preferred eggs. When these two most preferred stages were provided together (T. cinnabarinus protonymphs and B. tabaci eggs), A. orientalis randomly selected its prey. Amblyseius orientalis was able to complete its life cycle on B. tabaci eggs, T. cinnabarinus protonymphs, or a mix of both prey. However, its developmental duration was 53.9% and 30.0% longer when reared on B. tabaci eggs than on T. cinnabarinus and a mix of both prey, respectively. In addition, it produced only a few eggs and its intrinsic rate of increase was negative when reared on B. tabaci eggs, which indicates that B. tabaci is not sufficient to maintain A. orientalis population. The intrinsic rates of increase were 0.16 and 0.23 when A. orientalis was fed on the prey mix and T. cinnabarinus, respectively. These results suggest that although B. tabaci is a poor food resource for A. orientalis in comparison to T. cinnabarinus, A. orientalis is able to sustain its population on a mix of both prey. This predatory mite may thus be a potential biological control agent of B. tabaci when this pest co-occurs with the alternative minor pest T. cinnabarinus. PMID:26436422

  1. Prey Preference and Life Table of Amblyseius orientalis on Bemisia tabaci and Tetranychus cinnabarinus

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yue; Wang, Boming; Chen, Xi; Xu, Xuenong; Wang, Endong

    2015-01-01

    Amblyseius orientalis (Ehara) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a native predatory mite species in China. It used to be considered as a specialist predator of spider mites. However, recent studies show it also preys on other small arthropod pests, such as Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Experiments were conducted to investigate (1) prey preference of A. orientalis between Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and B. tabaci, and (2) development, consumption and life table parameters of A. orientalis when reared on T. cinnabarinus, B. tabaci or a mix of both prey species. When preying on different stages of T. cinnabarinus, A. orientalis preferred protonymphs, whereas when preying on different stages of B. tabaci, A. orientalis preferred eggs. When these two most preferred stages were provided together (T. cinnabarinus protonymphs and B. tabaci eggs), A. orientalis randomly selected its prey. Amblyseius orientalis was able to complete its life cycle on B. tabaci eggs, T. cinnabarinus protonymphs, or a mix of both prey. However, its developmental duration was 53.9% and 30.0% longer when reared on B. tabaci eggs than on T. cinnabarinus and a mix of both prey, respectively. In addition, it produced only a few eggs and its intrinsic rate of increase was negative when reared on B. tabaci eggs, which indicates that B. tabaci is not sufficient to maintain A. orientalis population. The intrinsic rates of increase were 0.16 and 0.23 when A. orientalis was fed on the prey mix and T. cinnabarinus, respectively. These results suggest that although B. tabaci is a poor food resource for A. orientalis in comparison to T. cinnabarinus, A. orientalis is able to sustain its population on a mix of both prey. This predatory mite may thus be a potential biological control agent of B. tabaci when this pest co-occurs with the alternative minor pest T. cinnabarinus. PMID:26436422

  2. Life history and life tables of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on potato under laboratory and field conditions in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Bing; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Hua, Lei; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2010-10-01

    Effective management of potato 'Zebra Chip' (ZC) disease caused by Cadidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (syn. solanacearum) depends on the management of its insect vector insect, potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). To elucidate the age-specific population dynamics of B. cockerelli, the life-table parameters were determined on potato, Solanum tuberosum L., under both laboratory and field conditions in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas. Generally, survival, fecundity, and longevity of B. cockerelli were significantly greater under laboratory than under field conditions. The mortality under laboratory conditions was mainly due to natural intrinsic mortality. However, under field conditions, most (83.2%) B. cockerelli were missing, and of those that were not, they developed slower, and had shorter preoviposition period, shorter oviposition period, shorter longevity, lower fecundity, and higher mortality than those under laboratory conditions. As a result, most of the life-table parameters of B. cockerelli, including the intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, and net reproductive rate, were significantly lower in the field under the environmental conditions of the LRGV of Texas than in the laboratory. The information could help increase our understanding of the epidemiology of the ZC diseases associated with the pathogens transmitted by this insect pest.

  3. [Acute toxicity of DDT and its effects on life table demography of Moina macrocopa].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Bo; Xi, Yi-Long; Wang, Jin-Xia; Hu, Ke

    2008-06-01

    The 48 h LC50 of DDT to Moina macrocopa was determined by acute toxicity test, and the effects of different concentrations (1, 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 microg x L(-1)) of DDT on the life table demography of M. macrocopa was studied by life table demography. The results showed that the 48 h LC50 of DDT to M. macrocopa was 324 microg x L(-1). 1-40 microg x L(-1) of DDT had no significant effects on the life expectancy at birth, generation time, net reproductive rate, and gross productive rate of M. macrocopa (P > 0.05), but significantly affected the intrinsic rate of population increase (rm) (P < 0.05). The rm of M. macrocopa increased markedly at 8, 16 and 40 microg x L(-1) of DDT, compared with the blank control, indicating that when the life table demography of M. macrocopa was used to monitor the ecological effects of sublethal concentrations of DDT, rm could be a sensitive indicator. PMID:18808030

  4. Quantifying the future impact of disease on society: life table-based measures of potential life lost.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Quantifying health status in human populations by means of an index such as "years of potential life lost" has recently received attention. However, such an index, being cross-sectional in nature, only measures the current burden to society resulting from a specific cause of death. METHODS: The author proposes new indices of potential life lost to quantify future impacts on society of particular causes of death. These indices also properly reflect the effects of competing risks. The computation is simple, requiring no more than a standard life-table calculation. Real-world as well as hypothetical data are used to illustrate the method. RESULTS: The new indices convey valuable health status information about a population that is not revealed by traditional indices. CONCLUSIONS: The new indices are promising alternatives as measures of future potential life lost. PMID:9314796

  5. Life tables of Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitizing Anagasta kuehniella and Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): effect of host density.

    PubMed

    Eliopoulos, P A; Stathas, G J

    2008-06-01

    The reproductive performance of the parasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) against the moths Anagasta kuehniella Zeller and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied in the laboratory. The analysis was based on the comparison of parasitoid's life table parameters related to those of its hosts at various conditions of host density (daily supply of 1, 5, 15, and 30 full-grown host larvae). The estimated parameters were the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm), the net reproductive rate (R0), the mean generation time (G), the finite capacity of increase (lambda), the gross reproductive rate (GRR), the doubling time (DT), the reproductive value (Vx), and the life expectancy (ex). The rm of H. hebetor proved to be significantly higher than those of its hosts at all host densities. When only one host per day was supplied, the wasp had the lowest reproductive potential, whereas it was maximized when 15 hosts per day were exposed. Maximum values of R0 and GRR were obtained at densities > or =15 host larvae per day. Any increase in host supply above this threshold did not cause significant changes in life table parameters. Variation of rm as a function of host density can be described by the linear regression. Sex ratio of wasp progeny (females/total) ranged from 0.36 to 0.42, irrespective of host density or species. Newly emerged adults recorded maximum ex and Vx. The results of this study can be used to improve mass rearing programs and inoculative release applications of H. hebetor against moth pests of stored products.

  6. Life history and life tables of Bactericera cockerelli (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on eggplant and bell pepper.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Bing; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2009-12-01

    The development, survivorship, and fecundity of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), fed on eggplant (Solanum melongena L., variety Special Hibush) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L., variety Capsitrano) were studied in the laboratory at 26.7 +/- 2 degrees C, 70 +/- 5% RH, and at a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Immature B. cockerelli developed faster (24.1 d) when fed on eggplant than on bell pepper (26.2 d). Survival rates of immature stages from egg to adult emergence were higher on eggplant (50.2%) than on bell pepper (34.6%). The longevity of B. cockerelli female adults fed on bell pepper was similar to that of females fed on eggplant (62.2 versus 55.0 d), but the male adults fed on eggplant lived shorter lives (39.4 d) than those fed on bell pepper (53.9 d). However, the preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, and sex ratio of B. cockerelli fed on eggplant were not different from those fed on bell pepper. The r(m ) value and the finite rate of increase (lambda) of B. cockerelli were higher on eggplant (0.1099 and 1.116, respectively) than on bell pepper (0.0884 and 1.0924, respectively). Mean generation time and doubling time of B. cockerelli were shorter on eggplant (40.4 and 6.3 d, respectively) than on bell pepper (46.1 and 7.8 d, respectively). In contrast, lifetime fecundity of B. cockerelli was greater on bell pepper (227.3 offspring) than on eggplant (186.5 offspring). Based on these life history parameters, we concluded that B. cockerelli performed better on eggplant than on bell pepper.

  7. 26 CFR 1.101-7 - Mortality table used to determine exclusion for deferred payments of life insurance proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... deferred payments of life insurance proceeds. 1.101-7 Section 1.101-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... payments of life insurance proceeds. (a) Mortality table. Notwithstanding any provision of § 1.101-4 that... principles of this section may be illustrated by the following examples: Example 1. A life insurance...

  8. Accuracy of Life Tables in Predicting Overall Survival in Candidates for Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Walz, Jochen; Gallina, Andrea; Hutterer, Georg; Perrotte, Paul; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Graefen, Markus; McCormack, Michael; Benard, Francois; Valiquette, Luc; Saad, Fred; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To test the accuracy of life tables (LTs) in predicting survival in men treated with radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We selected the records of 3,176 patients treated with radiotherapy and who had no clinical evidence of disease relapse. Life table-derived life expectancy (LE) was defined for every individual using a population-specific LT. Age, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), and LT-derived LE were then used as predictors of overall mortality in Cox regression models. Predictive accuracy (PA) was estimated with the Harrell's concordance index and was internally validated with 200 bootstrap resamples. Results: The actuarial median survival was 4.7 years (mean, 6.4 years). At radiotherapy, median age was 70.6 years, median CCI was 2, and median LT-derived LE was 12 years. All variables were statistically significant predictors of overall mortality (all p values <0.001). Age (PA, 60.2%), CCI (PA, 60.1%), and LT-derived LE (PA, 60.2%) were equally accurate. Finally, when age and CCI were combined (PA, 63.2%), both variables provided more accurate mortality predictions than either variable alone (all p values = 0.01). Conclusions: Life tables have a limited ability to predict LE in patients treated with radiotherapy for prostate cancer. We, therefore, recommend the use of multivariate prognostic models that integrate several variables, such as at least age and comorbidities, to estimate LE. This might help to improve LE estimation during prostate cancer treatment decision making.

  9. Design of Life Extending Controls Using Nonlinear Parameter Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Holmes, Michael S.; Ray, Asok

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the conceptual development of a life extending control system where the objective is to achieve high performance and structural durability of the plant. A life extending controller is designed for a reusable rocket engine via damage mitigation in both the fuel and oxidizer turbines while achieving high performance for transient responses of the combustion chamber pressure and the O2/H2 mixture ratio. This design approach makes use of a combination of linear and nonlinear controller synthesis techniques and also allows adaptation of the life extending controller module to augment a conventional performance controller of a rocket engine. The nonlinear aspect of the design is achieved using nonlinear parameter optimization of a prescribed control structure.

  10. Generation-based life table analysis reveals manifold effects of inbreeding on the population fitness in Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lu; Zou, Mingmin; Ren, Nana; Xie, Miao; Vasseur, Liette; Yang, Yifan; He, Weiyi; Yang, Guang; Gurr, Geoff M.; Hou, Youming; You, Shijun; You, Minsheng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how inbreeding affects fitness is biologically important for conservation and pest management. Despite being a worldwide pest of many economically important cruciferous crops, the influence of inbreeding on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), populations is currently unknown. Using age-stage-specific life tables, we quantified the inbreeding effects on fitness-related traits and demographic parameters of P. xylostella. Egg hatching rate, survival and fecundity of the inbred line significantly declined compared to those of the outbred line over time. The inbred P. xylostella line showed significantly lower intrinsic rate of increase (r), net reproduction rate (R0), and finite increase rate (λ), and increasing generation time (T). Inbreeding effects vary with developmental stages and the fitness-related traits can be profoundly affected by the duration of inbreeding. Our work provides a foundation for further studies on molecular and genetic bases of the inbreeding depression for P. xylostella. PMID:26227337

  11. Use of life tables and LC50 tests to evaluate chronic and acute toxicity effects of copper on the marine copepod Tisbe furcata (Baird)

    SciTech Connect

    Bechmann, R.K. . Dept. of Marine Zoology and Marine Chemistry)

    1994-09-01

    Cohorts of the epiphytic marine copepod Tisbe furcata were chronically exposed to copper in life-table experiments to test whether ecologically relevant impacts can occur at sublethal concentrations. Data on fecundity, longevity, and rate of development were used to calculate r[sub m]--the intrinsic rate of natural increase. Acute toxicity tests were done to compare the concentrations of copper affecting individual lethality and population biology. The LC50 value for Tisbe furcata nauplii was 2.8 [mu]M copper. The results from the life-table experiments show that 0.9 [mu]M copper can cause significant negative effects on demographic parameters (total production of nauplii, life span, and reproductive period for fertile females) and reduce the percentage of fertile females leading to a 61% reduction of r[sub m]. However, r[sub m] was still positive at 0.9 [mu]M copper, and the net reproductive rate (R[sub 0]) indicated a fivefold increase in population size from one generation to the next. Although there were no significant effects of copper at 0.5 [mu]M, there was a negative trend in almost all the demographic parameters, indicating that the observed 10% reduction of r[sub m] at this concentration was an effect of copper. For the substances tested so far with both acute LC50 tests and life-table experiments, r[sub m] was not reduced at concentrations below LC50/10. When life-table experiments are used as part of environmental hazard assessments, concentrations below LC50/10 should be tested to detect substances that are potentially harmful to the environment at sublethal concentrations, rather than testing concentrations close to LC50.

  12. Detecting Life and Biology-Related Parameters on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Gilbet V.; Miller, Joseph D.; Straat, Patricia A.; Lodder, Robert; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    An integrated, miniaturized, low-power instrument capable of the detection and early characterization of microbial life in the soil of Mars is proposed. Based on the detection apd monitoring of on-going metabolism as being the surest evidence for extant life, the experiments will probe for chirality in metabolism, for circadian rhythm, and for photosynthesis. However, the instrument package will also be able to detect biosignatures and a variety of other physical and chemical parameters of the Martian surface that have significance for life. These include the presence and the physical state of water, the existence of an oxidant, the pH and the penetrability of the soil. Using the legacy of the 1976 Viking Labeled Release (LR) life detection experiment in conjunction with state-of-the-art laser diode spectral analysis, the instrument can be flown stand-alone, with or without a rover, or as part of an MSL-type mission. Sterility for experiment integrity and for planetary protection is provided.

  13. Age-stage, two-sex life table of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae) feeding on four palm plant varieties.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Lin, Yu-Ying; Jin, Qi-An; Wen, Hai-Bo; Peng, Zheng-Qiang

    2012-10-01

    The life history of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae), reared under laboratory conditions on leaves of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), royal palm [Roystonea regia (Kunth) O.F.Cook], bottle palm [Hyophorbe lagenicaulis (L. Bailey) H.E.Moore], and fishtail palm (Caryota ochlandra Hance) was analyzed using age-stage, two-sex life table. Means and standard errors of population growth parameters were calculated using the jackknife method. Moreover, survival rate and fecundity data were applied to project the population for revealing the different stage structure. The mean intrinsic rates of population growth when reared on each respective leaf type were 0.032, 0.031, 0.019, and 0.044. Individuals reared on C. nucifera achieved the highest net reproduction rate at 114.5 offspring per female. The mean generation times of B. longissima ranged from 93.2 d (reared on C. ochlandrai) to 161.5 d (reared on H. lagenicaulis). Projections from survival rate and fecundity data indicated that B. longissima populations can row considerably faster on C. ochlandra than on the other three host plants. The results validate the two-stage life history approach taken, providing an essential tool for developing and testing future control strategies. PMID:23068179

  14. Mortality table construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutawanir

    2015-12-01

    Mortality tables play important role in actuarial studies such as life annuities, premium determination, premium reserve, valuation pension plan, pension funding. Some known mortality tables are CSO mortality table, Indonesian Mortality Table, Bowers mortality table, Japan Mortality table. For actuary applications some tables are constructed with different environment such as single decrement, double decrement, and multiple decrement. There exist two approaches in mortality table construction : mathematics approach and statistical approach. Distribution model and estimation theory are the statistical concepts that are used in mortality table construction. This article aims to discuss the statistical approach in mortality table construction. The distributional assumptions are uniform death distribution (UDD) and constant force (exponential). Moment estimation and maximum likelihood are used to estimate the mortality parameter. Moment estimation methods are easier to manipulate compared to maximum likelihood estimation (mle). However, the complete mortality data are not used in moment estimation method. Maximum likelihood exploited all available information in mortality estimation. Some mle equations are complicated and solved using numerical methods. The article focus on single decrement estimation using moment and maximum likelihood estimation. Some extension to double decrement will introduced. Simple dataset will be used to illustrated the mortality estimation, and mortality table.

  15. A comparison of artificial diet and hybrid sweet corn for the rearing of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) based on life table characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ratna K; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li- Cheng

    2012-02-01

    The demographic characteristics of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) reared on hybrid sweet corn (Zea mays L. variety saccharata) (hybrid super sweet corn KY bright jean) and on an artificial diet were compared by using the age-stage, two-sex life table. Because the hatch rate of eggs varies with maternal age, age-specific fecundity was calculated based on the numbers of hatched eggs to reveal the biological characteristics of H. armigera accurately. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate (λ) and mean generation time (T) of H. armigera were 0.0853 d(-1), 1.0890 d(-1), and 46.6 d, respectively, on Z. mays and 0.1015 d(-1), 1.1068 d(-1), and 46.3 d, respectively, on the artificial diet. There were significant differences in the intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate between two treatments. The age-stage life expectancy and reproductive value also were calculated. The relationships among the net reproductive rate, the mean female fecundity, the number of emerged females, and the total number of individuals used in the life table study are consistent with theoretical expectations. We recommend the age-stage, two-sex life table for use in insect demographic studies to incorporate both sexes and the variation in developmental rate among individuals and to obtain accurate population parameters. The artificial diet is more suitable for the mass rearing of H. armigera. PMID:22525057

  16. Life table methods applied to use of medical care and of prescription drugs in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, F; Smedby, B

    1989-06-01

    Life table methods were applied to analyses of longitudinal data on the use of medical care during the first 5 years of life among all 1701 children born in a Swedish semirural municipality. Cumulative proportions of the children who had used particular types of medical care or prescription drugs at least once by certain ages were estimated. By the fifth birthday, 98% had made at least one visit to any physician and 82% at least one visit to a paediatrician. By the fifth birthday at least one prescription for antibiotics had been purchased at a pharmacy by 82%; and 33% had been admitted to inpatient hospital care at least once (excluding immediate postnatal care). Acute conditions and more chronic diseases were also studied using these methods. At least one visit to a physician at a primary health care centre had been made for acute otitis media in 65% of 5 year olds and for atopic dermatitis in 8%.

  17. 40 CFR Table F-2 to Subpart F of... - Default Data Sources for Parameters Used for CO2 Emissions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Data Sources for Parameters Used for CO2 Emissions F Table F-2 to Subpart F of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Aluminum...

  18. 40 CFR Table F-2 to Subpart F of... - Default Data Sources for Parameters Used for CO2 Emissions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default Data Sources for Parameters Used for CO2 Emissions F Table F-2 to Subpart F of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Aluminum...

  19. 40 CFR Table F-2 to Subpart F of... - Default Data Sources for Parameters Used for CO2 Emissions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Data Sources for Parameters Used for CO2 Emissions F Table F-2 to Subpart F of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Aluminum...

  20. 40 CFR Table F-2 to Subpart F of... - Default Data Sources for Parameters Used for CO2 Emissions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Default Data Sources for Parameters Used for CO2 Emissions F Table F-2 to Subpart F of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Aluminum...

  1. The quest for better quality-of-life - learning from large-scale shaking table tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, M.; Sato, E.; Nagae, T.; Kunio, F.; Takahito, I.

    2010-12-01

    Earthquake engineering has its origins in the practice of “learning from actual earthquakes and earthquake damages.” That is, we recognize serious problems by witnessing the actual damage to our structures, and then we develop and apply engineering solutions to solve these problems. This tradition in earthquake engineering, i.e., “learning from actual damage,” was an obvious engineering response to earthquakes and arose naturally as a practice in a civil and building engineering discipline that traditionally places more emphasis on experience than do other engineering disciplines. But with the rapid progress of urbanization, as society becomes denser, and as the many components that form our society interact with increasing complexity, the potential damage with which earthquakes threaten the society also increases. In such an era, the approach of ”learning from actual earthquake damages” becomes unacceptably dangerous and expensive. Among the practical alternatives to the old practice is to “learn from quasi-actual earthquake damages.” One tool for experiencing earthquake damages without attendant catastrophe is the large shaking table. E-Defense, the largest one we have, was developed in Japan after the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu (Kobe) earthquake. Since its inauguration in 2005, E-Defense has conducted over forty full-scale or large-scale shaking table tests, applied to a variety of structural systems. The tests supply detailed data on actual behavior and collapse of the tested structures, offering the earthquake engineering community opportunities to experience and assess the actual seismic performance of the structures, and to help society prepare for earthquakes. Notably, the data were obtained without having to wait for the aftermaths of actual earthquakes. Earthquake engineering has always been about life safety, but in recent years maintaining the quality of life has also become a critical issue. Quality-of-life concerns include nonstructural

  2. Life table evaluation of the effects of cadmium exposure on the freshwater cladoceran, Moina macrocopa

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.K.; Wong, P.K. )

    1990-01-01

    Of many organisms in freshwater environments, crustacean zooplankton appears to be the most sensitive to cadmium. In spite of the importance of zooplankton in freshwater communities and the sensitivity of zooplankters to cadmium toxicity, little information on the effects of cadmium on zooplankton species other than Daphnia is available. The freshwater cladoceran Moina macrocopa Straus is widely distributed. In Hong Kong it is common in small ponds and rice paddies and is mass cultured by local fish farmers as a fish food. Its small size and high reproductive rate in the laboratory make it an ideal test organism for aquatic toxicologists. The purpose of this paper is to use the life table method to study the effect of cadmium on the survival and reproductive capacity of this commercially important zooplankter.

  3. [Life table and spectral analysis of endangered plant Taxus chinensis var. mairei population].

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei; Wang, Xingong; Wu, Chengzhen; He, Dongjin; Liao, Chengzhang; Cheng, Yu; Feng, Lei

    2004-06-01

    Based on the investigation in Longxi Mountain National Nature Reserve and the theory of survival analysis, a static life table of Taxus chinensis var. mairei population was worked out, the curves of its survival rate, mortality rate and killing power were drawn, and the population dynamics was analyzed by spectral analysis. The results showed that the survival curve of the population appeared to be a type of Deevey-III, and the high mortality of seeding was one of the important reasons which caused Taxus chinensis var. mairei to be endangered. The spectral analysis of the population showed that there was a marked periodic regularity in the process of natural regeneration of Taxus chinensis var. mairei.

  4. Comparative life tables of the potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella, on leaves and tubers of different potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Golizadeh, Ali; Esmaeili, Nader; Razmjou, Jabraeil; Rafiee-Dastjerdi, Hooshang

    2014-01-01

    The potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a serious pest of the potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in both fields and stores in tropical and subtropical regions. In the present study, the susceptibility of different potato cultivars to P. operculella was evaluated by measuring life table parameters. Tests were undertaken with leaves and tubers of 10 potato cultivars in the laboratory: Agria, Agata, Almera, Arinda, Baneba, Fiana, Marfona, Ramus, Satina, and Volvox. All parameters showed significant differences among tested cultivars. The longest mean generation times were observed on Marfona and Satina cultivars in the experiments on potato leaves and tubers, respectively. The lowest reproductive rate was observed on leaves and tubers of Marfona cultivar. Correspondingly, the lowest values of intrinsic rate of increase and the lowest finite rate of increase were also obtained on Marfona cultivar in tests on potato leaves and tubers. The highest intrinsic rate of incrase values were observed on Arinda and Baneba in the tests on leaves and tubers, respectively. The intrinsic rates of increase were significantly higher on potato leaves than on potato tubers. The lower performance of P. operculella on Marfona cultivar indicated that this cultivar is relatively less susceptible this pest and could be used in integrated pest management programs of P. operculella. PMID:25373189

  5. Comparative Life Tables of the Potato Tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella, on Leaves and Tubers of Different Potato Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Golizadeh, Ali; Esmaeili, Nader; Razmjou, Jabraeil; Rafiee-Dastjerdi, Hooshang

    2014-01-01

    The potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a serious pest of the potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in both fields and stores in tropical and subtropical regions. In the present study, the susceptibility of different potato cultivars to P. operculella was evaluated by measuring life table parameters. Tests were undertaken with leaves and tubers of 10 potato cultivars in the laboratory: Agria, Agata, Almera, Arinda, Baneba, Fiana, Marfona, Ramus, Satina, and Volvox. All parameters showed significant differences among tested cultivars. The longest mean generation times were observed on Marfona and Satina cultivars in the experiments on potato leaves and tubers, respectively. The lowest reproductive rate was observed on leaves and tubers of Marfona cultivar. Correspondingly, the lowest values of intrinsic rate of increase and the lowest finite rate of increase were also obtained on Marfona cultivar in tests on potato leaves and tubers. The highest intrinsic rate of incrase values were observed on Arinda and Baneba in the tests on leaves and tubers, respectively. The intrinsic rates of increase were significantly higher on potato leaves than on potato tubers. The lower performance of P. operculella on Marfona cultivar indicated that this cultivar is relatively less susceptible this pest and could be used in integrated pest management programs of P. operculella. PMID:25373189

  6. Life table of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Torres, Mariuxi Lorena; Nava, Dori Edson; Parra, José Roberto Postali

    2012-04-01

    Tamarixia radiata (Waterston, 1922) is the main parasitoid of Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama, 1907), and has been used in classical biological control programs in several countries. The current study investigated the biology and determined the fertility life table of T. radiata in different temperatures, to obtain information to support the establishment of a biological control program for D. citri in Brazil. Fifth-instar nymphs of D. citri were offered to females of T. radiata for parasitism, for 24 h. Then, the parasitoid was removed and the nymphs were placed in incubators at 15, 20, 25, 30, or 35 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% RH, and a 14-h photophase. The percentages of parasitism and emergence, the sex ratio, and the preimaginal period of T. radiata were determined. The fertility life table was developed from the biological data. The highest parasitism rate (77.24%) was obtained at a temperature of 26.3 degrees C, and the lowest parasitism rates occurred at 15 and 35 degrees C (23.1 and 40.2%, respectively). The highest percentages of emergence of the parasitoid occurred at 25, 30, and 35 degrees C (86.7, 88.3, and 78.8%, respectively), with the calculated peak at 30.8 degrees C (89.90%). The duration of the preimaginal developmental period for both females and males of T. radiata was inversely proportional to temperature in the thermal range of 15-35 degrees C. The development of T. radiata occurred at all temperatures studied, and the highest viability of the preimaginal period occurred at 25 degrees C. The highest values of net reproductive rate and finite growth ratio (lambda) were observed at 25 degrees C, so that in each generation the population of T. radiata increased 126.79 times, higher than the values obtained at the other temperatures.

  7. Life tables for sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae) in northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Iranipour, S; Pakdel, A Kharrazi; Radjabi, G; Michaud, J P

    2011-02-01

    Life table studies of sunn pest were carried out in Varamin, Iran, from 1998-2001 in order to determine stage-specific mortalities and the impact of specific natural enemies on population dynamics. Populations were sampled 2-3 times weekly in agricultural fields during the growing season and monthly during the period of dormancy at resting sites in nearby mountains some 30 km away from cereal fields. Adults spend a period of 9-10 months in diapause and suffered overcompensatory, density-dependent mortality during this period. Variation in adult overwintering survival was inferred to be largely a function of the physiological condition of bugs that is reduced in a density-dependent manner by intraspecific competition for food among newly molted adults prior to migration to resting sites. Adult mortality emerged as the primary factor in key factor analysis, contributing 73% of the total variance in mortality. Other important factors were egg parasitism by Trissolcus vassilievi Mayr and adult parasitism by several species of Tachinidae. Although T. vassilievi made only a minor contribution to overall variance in total mortality, it had a significant effect on the number of newly molted adults, the life stage that is most damaging to cereal crops. The equilibrium level of the pest population in wheat fields was inferred to be ca. 72.6 adults m(-2), a number that substantially exceeds the economic threshold that ranges from 3-5 adults m(-2).

  8. Effects of chitosan-glucose complex coating on postharvest quality and shelf life of table grapes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Pisheng; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Ping

    2013-06-01

    Surface coatings and films are prospective alternatives for extending the postharvest life of fresh fruits and vegetables. In this study, freshly harvested grapes were treated with chitosan, glucose, chitosan-glucose complex (CGC), or water (control) for up to 60 days at 0 °C in 95% relative humidity followed by 3 days in the air at 20 °C. The results showed that coated samples were effective in terms of senescence inhibition and postharvest diseases prevention. Chitosan-glucose complex showed better effects on delaying the declines of total soluble solids, ascorbic acid and titratable acidity, decreasing decay and weight loss, suppressing respiration rate, inducing POD and SOD activities, in comparison with pure chitosan or glucose. In addition, CGC coating treatment ensured better berry texture and higher sensory scores, compared with those treated with chitosan or glucose alone. The results indicated that CGC may be a promising strategy for improving the postharvest quality and extending the shelf life of table grapes. PMID:23618282

  9. Life table characteristics of Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae) from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Sowilem, Mohamed M; Kamal, Hany A; Khater, Emad I

    2013-06-01

    Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) mosquito is a world vector of important arboviral diseases like dengue and Rift Valley fever. Despite its wide distribution in the western and southern regions of Saudi Arabia, where dengue outbreaks have occurred, its ecology is largely unknown. In this study we report on the main life table developmental attributes of a laboratory colony of Ae. aegypti reared from field-collected larvae from Madinah Province, west of Saudi Arabia. Females were maintained on daily blood meal and sugar. The female fecundity was ~62 eggs/female at an overall rate of 72% hatchability. The mean time needed for eggs to hatch into larvae was 4.5 d. The mean pupation time (P50) was 11.53 days (d). The proportion of immature survivorships were 0.69 for 1(st) larva to pupa (P/I), 0.98 for pupa to adult (A/P) and an overall 0.67 for 1(st) larva to adult (A/I). Males emerged faster than females with mean emergence time (E50) of 12.83 and 15.31 d, respectively. The average developmental velocity (V) showed that males (V= 0.081) developed faster than females (V= 0.068). The male/female sex ratio at adult emergence was 0.48, and insignificantly different from the 1:1 ratio. The adult mean life expectancy at emergence (eo) was 17.14 d for females compared to 9.59 d for males. The net reproductive rate (Ro) was 101.04 and the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.15 with a mean generation time (G) of 30.7 d. The instantaneous mean of birth (B) and death rate (D) were 0.30 and 0.15, respectively, with rm/B of 0.529 and B/D of 2.281. Compared to other Ae. aegypti strains from different geographic and ecological settings, the Saudi strain had a relatively low colonization potential. This is the first report on life table characteristics for Ae. aegypti from the Arabian Peninsula, and provides base-line information for wider studies on its natural populations. This is particularly important for understanding its population dynamics in relation to dengue

  10. Analysis on the characteristics of parameters in groundwater table fluctuation model for predicting groundwater levels in Hancheon watershed, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Nam Won; Kim, Youn Jung; Chung, Il-Moon; Lee, Jeongwoo

    2014-05-01

    A novel application of groundwater table fluctuation method is suggested to predict groundwater level by means of groundwater table variation due to recharge and discharge under unsteady condition. This model analyzes transient groundwater characteristics by using reaction factor related with groundwater flow and specific yield related with recharge. The groundwater level varies according to the characteristics and composite materials of aquifer. In this study, specific yield and reaction factor which are the major two hydrogeological parameters in the WTF(Water Table Fluctuation) method were estimated and analyzed their spatial characteristics. 8 groundwater level stations which have enough measuring period and high correlation with rainfall in the Hancheon watershed were used. The results showed that specific yield was randomly distributed and reaction factor showed inverse trend with altitude. If the enough data were collected, reaction factor according to altitude in ungauged points could be estimated by using these parameter characteristics. keywords: Key words : Groundwater level, parameters, reaction factor, specific yield Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Regional Innovative Technology Project 2B from KICTTEP.

  11. Body Mass Transitions Through Childhood and Early Adolescence: A Multistate Life Table Approach.

    PubMed

    Tran, Melanie K; Krueger, Patrick M; McCormick, Emily; Davidson, Arthur; Main, Deborah S

    2016-04-01

    The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is well documented, but prevalence estimates offer little insight into rates of transition to higher or lower body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) categories. We estimated the expected numbers of years children would live as normal weight, overweight, and obese by race/ethnicity and sex, given rates of transition across BMI status levels. We used multistate life table methods and transition rates estimated from prospective cohort data (2007-2013) for Denver, Colorado, public schoolchildren aged 3-15 years. At age 3 years, normal-weight children could expect to live 11.1 of the following 13 years with normal weight status, and obese children could expect to live 9.8 years with obese status. At age 3 years, overweight children could expect to live 4.5 of the following 13 years with normal weight status, 5.1 years with overweight status, and 3.4 years with obese status. Whites and Asians lived more years at lower BMI status levels than did blacks or Hispanics; sex differences varied by race/ethnicity. Children who were normal weight or obese at age 3 years were relatively unlikely to move into a different BMI category by age 15 years. Overweight children are relatively likely to transition to normal weight or obese status.

  12. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis.

    PubMed

    Goldhaber, M K; Staub, S L; Tokuhata, G K

    1983-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss. PMID:6859357

  13. Body Mass Transitions Through Childhood and Early Adolescence: A Multistate Life Table Approach.

    PubMed

    Tran, Melanie K; Krueger, Patrick M; McCormick, Emily; Davidson, Arthur; Main, Deborah S

    2016-04-01

    The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is well documented, but prevalence estimates offer little insight into rates of transition to higher or lower body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) categories. We estimated the expected numbers of years children would live as normal weight, overweight, and obese by race/ethnicity and sex, given rates of transition across BMI status levels. We used multistate life table methods and transition rates estimated from prospective cohort data (2007-2013) for Denver, Colorado, public schoolchildren aged 3-15 years. At age 3 years, normal-weight children could expect to live 11.1 of the following 13 years with normal weight status, and obese children could expect to live 9.8 years with obese status. At age 3 years, overweight children could expect to live 4.5 of the following 13 years with normal weight status, 5.1 years with overweight status, and 3.4 years with obese status. Whites and Asians lived more years at lower BMI status levels than did blacks or Hispanics; sex differences varied by race/ethnicity. Children who were normal weight or obese at age 3 years were relatively unlikely to move into a different BMI category by age 15 years. Overweight children are relatively likely to transition to normal weight or obese status. PMID:26984962

  14. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, M.K.; Staub, S.L.; Tokuhata, G.K.

    1983-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss.

  15. Diaphragm pacing in infants and children. A life-table analysis of implanted components.

    PubMed

    Weese-Mayer, D E; Morrow, A S; Brouillette, R T; Ilbawi, M N; Hunt, C E

    1989-04-01

    Since 1976, we have implanted bilateral phrenic nerve electrodes for diaphragm pacing in 33 infants and children. This population includes 23 patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CHS), two with late onset CHS and hypothalamic dysfunction, three with hypoventilation associated with Chiari II malformation and myelomeningocele, and five with quadriplegia. Our experience, totalling 192 system-years and 96 patient-years of pacing, has enabled us to document the nature and frequency of problems related to the implanted components of the Avery Laboratories (S-232-1) pacemaker system when used in a pediatric population. By life table analysis, the mean time to need for replacement of any implanted component was 56.3 months. A total of 26 failures requiring component replacement occurred and were classified into four types: (1) receiver failure (15 cases), (2) electrode wire or wire insulation breakage (six cases), (3) infection requiring diaphragm pacer system removal (three cases), and (4) mechanical nerve injury (two cases). We conclude that the present diaphragm pacing system is effective but not without risk of biomedical component failure. The present system might be substantially improved by (1) a modified receiver design with a hermetic seal to prevent fluid penetration, (2) stronger, better insulated electrode wires, and (3) modifications of surgical technique and electrode type to prevent phrenic nerve damage. PMID:2784647

  16. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldhaber, M K; Staub, S L; Tokuhata, G K

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss. PMID:6859357

  17. Life table assay of field-caught Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, reveals age bias

    PubMed Central

    Kouloussis, Nikos A.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Müller, Hans-Georg; Wang, Jane-Ling; Mao, Meng; Katsoyannos, Byron I.; Duyck, Pierre-François; Carey, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Though traps are used widely to sample phytophagous insects for research or management purposes, and recently in aging research, possible bias stemming from differential response of individuals of various ages to traps has never been examined. In this paper, we tested the response of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) males and females of four ages (spanning from 1 to 40 days) to McPhail-type traps baited with a synthetic food attractant in field cages and found that the probability of trapping was significantly influenced by age. The type of food on which flies were maintained before testing (sugar or protein) also had a strong effect and interacted with age. In another experiment, we collected wild C. capitata adults of unknown age using 1–3 methods and then reared them in the laboratory until death. The survival schedules of these flies were subsequently used in a life table assay to infer their age at the time of capture. Results showed that on a single sampling date, males captured in traps baited with a food attractant were younger compared with males aspirated from fruiting host trees, or males captured in traps baited with a sex attractant. Likewise, females captured in food-baited traps were younger compared with aspirated females. In addition to providing the first evidence of age-dependent sampling bias for a phytophagous insect species, this paper also provides a novel approach to estimate the differences in the age composition of samples collected with different techniques. These findings are of utmost importance for several categories of insects, medically important groups notwithstanding. PMID:22844133

  18. Cohort life tables for a population of the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria L., in the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimova, Alexandra V.; Maximovich, Nikolay V.; Filippova, Nadezhda A.

    2015-06-01

    The Mya arenaria generation in the White Sea was observed for almost the whole life cycle (around 25 years). Using the data on this generation dynamics, the cohort life table was built. The main purpose of the research is analysis of age-specific mortality in this soft-shell clam population. The mortality rate was found to change more than tenfold throughout the study period. No regular changes in its value were observed. Periods of low mortality alternated with periods of much higher mortality. Several reasons for the increase in M. arenaria mortality rate during its life cycle are proposed: (a) living in the surface sediment layer at early stages of life cycle (unstable environment, high mortality of non-viable clams, predator impact); (b) intense intraspecific relationships in dense aggregations of young clams; (c) increased intraspecific competition during periods of the rapid individual growth; (d) ageing (clam mortality increases with older age—achievement of an average and a maximum lifespan).

  19. Approximations for Estimating Change in Life Expectancy Attributable to Air Pollution in Relation to Multiple Causes of Death Using a Cause Modified Life Table.

    PubMed

    Stieb, David M; Judek, Stan; Brand, Kevin; Burnett, Richard T; Shin, Hwashin H

    2015-08-01

    There is considerable debate as to the most appropriate metric for characterizing the mortality impacts of air pollution. Life expectancy has been advocated as an informative measure. Although the life-table calculus is relatively straightforward, it becomes increasingly cumbersome when repeated over large numbers of geographic areas and for multiple causes of death. Two simplifying assumptions were evaluated: linearity of the relation between excess rate ratio and change in life expectancy, and additivity of cause-specific life-table calculations. We employed excess rate ratios linking PM2.5 and mortality from cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease, and lung cancer derived from a meta-analysis of worldwide cohort studies. As a sensitivity analysis, we employed an integrated exposure response function based on the observed risk of PM2.5 over a wide range of concentrations from ambient exposure, indoor exposure, second-hand smoke, and personal smoking. Impacts were estimated in relation to a change in PM2.5 from 19.5 μg/m(3) estimated for Toronto to an estimated natural background concentration of 1.8 μg/m(3) . Estimated changes in life expectancy varied linearly with excess rate ratios, but at higher values the relationship was more accurately represented as a nonlinear function. Changes in life expectancy attributed to specific causes of death were additive with maximum error of 10%. Results were sensitive to assumptions about the air pollution concentration below which effects on mortality were not quantified. We have demonstrated valid approximations comprising expression of change in life expectancy as a function of excess mortality and summation across multiple causes of death.

  20. DFTB Parameters for the Periodic Table, Part 2: Energies and Energy Gradients from Hydrogen to Calcium.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Augusto F; Philipsen, Pier; Heine, Thomas

    2015-11-10

    In the first part of this series, we presented a parametrization strategy to obtain high-quality electronic band structures on the basis of density-functional-based tight-binding (DFTB) calculations and published a parameter set called QUASINANO2013.1. Here, we extend our parametrization effort to include the remaining terms that are needed to compute the total energy and its gradient, commonly referred to as repulsive potential. Instead of parametrizing these terms as a two-body potential, we calculate them explicitly from the DFTB analogues of the Kohn-Sham total energy expression. This strategy requires only two further numerical parameters per element. Thus, the atomic configuration and four real numbers per element are sufficient to define the DFTB model at this level of parametrization. The QUASINANO2015 parameter set allows the calculation of energy, structure, and electronic structure of all systems composed of elements ranging from H to Ca. Extensive benchmarks show that the overall accuracy of QUASINANO2015 is comparable to that of well-established methods, including PM7 and hand-tuned DFTB parameter sets, while coverage of a much larger range of chemical systems is available. PMID:26574316

  1. DFTB Parameters for the Periodic Table, Part 2: Energies and Energy Gradients from Hydrogen to Calcium.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Augusto F; Philipsen, Pier; Heine, Thomas

    2015-11-10

    In the first part of this series, we presented a parametrization strategy to obtain high-quality electronic band structures on the basis of density-functional-based tight-binding (DFTB) calculations and published a parameter set called QUASINANO2013.1. Here, we extend our parametrization effort to include the remaining terms that are needed to compute the total energy and its gradient, commonly referred to as repulsive potential. Instead of parametrizing these terms as a two-body potential, we calculate them explicitly from the DFTB analogues of the Kohn-Sham total energy expression. This strategy requires only two further numerical parameters per element. Thus, the atomic configuration and four real numbers per element are sufficient to define the DFTB model at this level of parametrization. The QUASINANO2015 parameter set allows the calculation of energy, structure, and electronic structure of all systems composed of elements ranging from H to Ca. Extensive benchmarks show that the overall accuracy of QUASINANO2015 is comparable to that of well-established methods, including PM7 and hand-tuned DFTB parameter sets, while coverage of a much larger range of chemical systems is available.

  2. Use of natural gamma-ray geophysical logs for SWAT water table parameter estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preliminary soil and sub-soil hydraulic parameter estimates needed for SWAT simulations to determine sub-surface water movement were collected using downhole geophysical measurements. Gamma-ray logs are useful for distingishing sandstone from shales by measuring natural-gamma radiation emitted from ...

  3. The use of three-parameter rating table lookup programs, RDRAT and PARM3, in hydraulic flow models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanders, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Subroutines RDRAT and PARM3 enable computer programs such as the BRANCH open-channel unsteady-flow model to route flows through or over combinations of critical-flow sections, culverts, bridges, road- overflow sections, fixed spillways, and(or) dams. The subroutines also obstruct upstream flow to simulate operation of flapper-type tide gates. A multiplier can be applied by date and time to simulate varying numbers of tide gates being open or alternative construction scenarios for multiple culverts. The subroutines use three-parameter (headwater, tailwater, and discharge) rating table lookup methods. These tables may be manually prepared using other programs that do step-backwater computations or compute flow through bridges and culverts or over dams. The subroutine, therefore, precludes the necessity of incorporating considerable hydraulic computational code into the client program, and provides complete flexibility for users of the model for routing flow through almost any affixed structure or combination of structures. The subroutines are written in Fortran 77 language, and have minimal exchange of information with the BRANCH model or other possible client programs. The report documents the interpolation methodology, data input requirements, and software.

  4. Environmental parameters of shuttle support for life sciences experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The environments provided by the Orbiter vehicle and by the Spacelab will differ substantially from the environment provided by prior spacecraft. The specific design limits for each environmental parameter and expected operating characteristics are presented for both the Orbiter and the Spacelab. The environments are compared with those of earlier spacecraft and with the normal earth laboratory. Differences between the spacecraft environments and the normal laboratory environment and the impact of these differences on experiments and equipment design are discussed.

  5. Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-cycle, reproductive and population parameters using different diets under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Yudi T; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Bello, Felio J

    2013-12-10

    Sarconesiopsis magellanica is a forensically relevant necrophagous blowfly that can aid in determining the post-mortem interval (PMI) as it is the first to colonise decomposing corpses. The blowfly has been reported in several South-American countries including Colombia, in high-altitude regions ranging from 1200 to 3100 m above sea level. The present study reports this blowfly's life cycle and an analysis of its reproductive and population parameters under laboratory conditions for the first time. Six successive generations of flies were produced with an average of 65.38% adults emerging with respect to the total number of puparia. The shortest life cycle from egg to adult emergence was found in individuals fed on a lyophilised liver (LL) diet, while the longest one was found in individuals fed with an egg-powdered milk (E-PM) diet; intermediate values were found when the pig liver (PL) diet was tested. The greatest adult longevity was achieved when the PL diet was used, the LL diet giving the shortest. The population parameters based on the horizontal life table were: net reproductive rate (Ro)=447.752±9.9, mean generational time (Tc)=18.18±0.38, natural population increase rate (r(m))=0.145 and finite population increase rate (λ)=1.398. This blowfly colony represents a valuable asset for both basic and applied studies. Members of the S. magellanica colony so established were used for analysing the life-cycle, reproductive and population parameters, and further medical and forensic application studies are currently underway.

  6. Comparison of Peak Cardiopulmonary Performance Parameters on a Robotics-Assisted Tilt Table, a Cycle and a Treadmill

    PubMed Central

    Saengsuwan, Jittima; Nef, Tobias; Laubacher, Marco; Hunt, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Robotics-assisted tilt table (RATT) technology provides body support, cyclical stepping movement and physiological loading. This technology can potentially be used to facilitate the estimation of peak cardiopulmonary performance parameters in patients who have neurological or other problems that may preclude testing on a treadmill or cycle ergometer. The aim of the study was to compare the magnitude of peak cardiopulmonary performance parameters including peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and peak heart rate (HRpeak) obtained from a robotics-assisted tilt table (RATT), a cycle ergometer and a treadmill. The strength of correlations between the three devices, test-retest reliability and repeatability were also assessed. Eighteen healthy subjects performed six maximal exercise tests, with two tests on each of the three exercise modalities. Data from the second tests were used for the comparative and correlation analyses. For nine subjects, test-retest reliability and repeatability of VO2peak and HRpeak were assessed. Absolute VO2peak from the RATT, the cycle ergometer and the treadmill was (mean (SD)) 2.2 (0.56), 2.8 (0.80) and 3.2 (0.87) L/min, respectively (p < 0.001). HRpeak from the RATT, the cycle ergometer and the treadmill was 168 (9.5), 179 (7.9) and 184 (6.9) beats/min, respectively (p < 0.001). VO2peak and HRpeak from the RATT vs the cycle ergometer and the RATT vs the treadmill showed strong correlations. Test-retest reliability and repeatability were high for VO2peak and HRpeak for all devices. The results demonstrate that the RATT is a valid and reliable device for exercise testing. There is potential for the RATT to be used in severely impaired subjects who cannot use the standard modalities. PMID:25860019

  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Hhh of... - Operating Parameters To Be Monitored and Minimum Measurement and Recording Frequencies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Constructed on or Before June 20, 1996 Pt. 62, Subpt. HHH, Table 3 Table 3...

  8. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Hhh of... - Operating Parameters To Be Monitored and Minimum Measurement and Recording Frequencies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Constructed on or Before June 20, 1996 Pt. 62, Subpt. HHH, Table 3 Table 3...

  9. Parameter Study of the LIFE Engine Nuclear Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, K J; Meier, W R; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P

    2009-07-10

    LLNL is developing the nuclear fusion based Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) power plant concept. The baseline design uses a depleted uranium (DU) fission fuel blanket with a flowing molten salt coolant (flibe) that also breeds the tritium needed to sustain the fusion energy source. Indirect drive targets, similar to those that will be demonstrated on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), are ignited at {approx}13 Hz providing a 500 MW fusion source. The DU is in the form of a uranium oxycarbide kernel in modified TRISO-like fuel particles distributed in a carbon matrix forming 2-cm-diameter pebbles. The thermal power is held at 2000 MW by continuously varying the 6Li enrichment in the coolants. There are many options to be considered in the engine design including target yield, U-to-C ratio in the fuel, fission blanket thickness, etc. Here we report results of design variations and compare them in terms of various figures of merit such as time to reach a desired burnup, full-power years of operation, time and maximum burnup at power ramp down and the overall balance of plant utilization.

  10. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Hhh of... - Operating Parameters To Be Monitored and Minimum Measurement and Recording Frequencies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Minimum Measurement and Recording Frequencies 3 Table 3 to Subpart HHH of Part 62 Protection of.../Infectious Waste Incinerators Constructed On Or Before December 1, 2008 Pt. 62, Subpt. HHH, Table 3 Table 3... Frequencies Operatingparameters to be monitored Minimum frequency Data measurement Data recording HMIWI...

  11. Probabilistic Fatigue Life Prediction of Turbine Disc Considering Model Parameter Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Liping; Yu, Le; Zhu, Shun-Peng; Ding, Liangliang; Huang, Hong-Zhong

    2016-06-01

    Aiming to improve the predictive ability of Walker model for fatigue life prediction and taking the turbine disc alloy GH4133 as the application example, this paper investigates a new approach for probabilistic fatigue life prediction when considering parameter uncertainty inherent in the life prediction model. Firstly, experimental data are used to update the model parameters using Bayes' theorem, so as to obtain the posterior probability distribution functions of two parameters of the Walker model, as well to achieve the probabilistic life prediction model for turbine disc. During the updating process, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique is used to generate samples of the given distribution and estimating the parameters distinctly. After that, the turbine disc life is predicted using the probabilistic Walker model based on Monte Carlo simulation technique. The experimental results indicate that: (1) after using the small sample test data obtained from turbine disc, parameter uncertainty of the Walker model can be quantified and the corresponding probabilistic model for fatigue life prediction can be established using Bayes' theorem; (2) there exists obvious dispersion of life data for turbine disc when predicting fatigue life in practical engineering application.

  12. [Quantity and quality of the aged population in Japan: the use of life tables for the assessment of group vitality].

    PubMed

    Soda, T

    1980-01-01

    Due to the gradual increase in standard of living and the development of health and welfare services, man has succeeded in decreasing the death rate for all age groups with the consequent prolongation of the lifespan as a whole. On the other hand, however, the quantitative accumulation of the elderly is causing serious anxiety among all groups of people. Thus, concern about care for the aged is very high. The author is not quite so pessimistic but it is expected that there will be a qualitative improvement in the productive activities of the elderly along with an increased lifespan. Though there is not yet sufficient data to confirm improvement in the physical and mental activities of this segment of Japanese population, there are life table functions related to life expectancy, increase of mortality rate, etc. as qualitative indicators of survival or productive ability for the aged. In Japan prior to World War 2, people between 15-60 were usually regarded as the productive age population. Life expectancy of males at age 60 was 12.6 years in the 6th life tables compiled for 1935-6. The same phenomenon of prolongation of the productive age period was also recognized in connection with other values. If the borderline age dividing productive and nonproductive elderly populations will move toward a higher age in the future, the proportion of nonproductive elderly as a percentage of the total as well as of the productive population will decrease markedly as compared to when the elderly borderline is fixed at the same age. It is advised that new ways be found to allocate the expanded labor force found among this group for providing some necessary services and functions. (author's modified)

  13. Unhealthy and uninsured: exploring racial differences in health and health insurance coverage using a life table approach.

    PubMed

    Kirby, James B; Kaneda, Toshiko

    2010-11-01

    Millions of people in the United States do not have health insurance, and wide racial and ethnic disparities exist in coverage. Current research provides a limited description of this problem, focusing on the number or proportion of individuals without insurance at a single time point or for a short period. Moreover, the literature provides no sense of the joint risk of being uninsured and in need of medical care. In this article, we use a life table approach to calculate health- and insurance-specific life expectancies for whites and blacks, thereby providing estimates of the duration of exposure to different insurance and health states over a typical lifetime. We find that, on average, Americans can expect to spend well over a decade without health insurance during a typical lifetime and that 40% of these years are spent in less-healthy categories. Findings also reveal a significant racial gap: despite their shorter overall life expectancy, blacks have a longer uninsured life expectancy than whites, and this racial gap consists entirely of less-healthy years. Racial disparities in insurance coverage are thus likely more severe than indicated by previous research.

  14. Unhealthy and Uninsured: Exploring Racial Differences in Health and Health Insurance Coverage Using a Life Table Approach

    PubMed Central

    KIRBY, JAMES B.; KANEDA, TOSHIKO

    2010-01-01

    Millions of people in the United States do not have health insurance, and wide racial and ethnic disparities exist in coverage. Current research provides a limited description of this problem, focusing on the number or proportion of individuals without insurance at a single time point or for a short period. Moreover, the literature provides no sense of the joint risk of being uninsured and in need of medical care. In this article, we use a life table approach to calculate health- and insurance-specific life expectancies for whites and blacks, thereby providing estimates of the duration of exposure to different insurance and health states over a typical lifetime. We find that, on average, Americans can expect to spend well over a decade without health insurance during a typical lifetime and that 40% of these years are spent in less-healthy categories. Findings also reveal a significant racial gap: despite their shorter overall life expectancy, blacks have a longer uninsured life expectancy than whites, and this racial gap consists entirely of less-healthy years. Racial disparities in insurance coverage are thus likely more severe than indicated by previous research. PMID:21308569

  15. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Ppp of... - Operating Parameters for Which Monitoring Levels Are Required To Be Established for Process Vent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Monitoring Levels Are Required To Be Established for Process Vent Streams 7 Table 7 to Subpart PPP of Part 63... Established for Process Vent Streams Control technique Parameters to be monitored Established operating... regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during carbon bed regeneration cycle; and temperature of the...

  16. Lucilia sericata strain from Colombia: Experimental colonization, life tables and evaluation of two artificial diets of the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Bogotá, Colombia strain.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Luis C; Ortega, Luis G; Segura, Nidya A; Acero, Víctor M; Bello, Felio

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to establish, under experimental laboratory conditions, a colony of Lucilia sericata, Bogotá-Colombia strain, to build life tables and evaluate two artificial diets. This blowfly is frequently used in postmortem interval studies and in injury treatment. The parental adult insects collected in Bogotá were maintained in cages at 22°C±1 average temperature, 60%±5 relative humidity and 12 h photoperiodicity. The blowflies were fed on two artificial diets that were evaluated over seven continuous generations. Reproductive and population parameters were assessed. The life cycle of the species was expressed in the number of days of the different stages: egg = 0.8±0.1, larvae I = 1.1±0.02, larvae II = 1.94±0.16, larvae III = 3.5±0.54, pupae = 6.55±0.47, male adult = 28.7±0.83 and female adult = 33.5±1.0. Total survival from egg stage to adult stage was 91.2% for diet 1, while for diet 2 this parameter was 40.5%. The lifetime reproductive output was 184.51±11.2 eggs per female. The population parameters, as well as the reproductive output of the blowflies that were assessed, showed relatively high values, giving evidence of the continuous increase of the strain over the different generations and making possible its maintenance as a stable colony that has lasted for more than two years.

  17. A current life table and causes of death for insured dogs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mai; Hasegawa, A; Hosoi, Y; Sugiura, K

    2015-06-15

    The life expectancies and causes of death were evaluated in 299,555 dogs insured in Japan between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2011, of which 4169 dogs died during this period. The overall life expectancy of dogs was 13.7 years. The probability of death was high in the first year of life, lowest in the second and third years, and increased exponentially after 3 years of age. The life expectancy was 13.8 years in the <5 kg body weight group, 14.2 years in the 5-10 kg body weight group, 13.6 years in the 10-20 kg body weight group, 12.5 years in the 20-40 kg body weight group and 10.6 years in the ≥40 kg body weight group. As body weight increases, life expectancy tended to decrease except in the <5 kg body weight group. The probability of death increased as dogs got older for most potential causes of death. Neoplasia resulted in the highest probability of death, especially in the large and giant breed groups. Cardiovascular system disorders were the second major cause of death and the toy group had a probability of death significantly higher than the other breed groups at age 12+.

  18. Effect of butyl benzyl phthalate on life table-demography of two successive generations of cladoceran Moina macrocopa Straus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Xia; Xi, Yi-Long; Hu, Ke; Liu, Xiao-Bo

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the acute toxicity of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) to freshwater cladoceran Moina macrocopa was tested, and its chronic effects on survival and reproduction of two successive generations of the cladoceran were studied using life-table demographic method. The results showed that the 48-hr LC50 of BBP for M. macrocopa was 3.69 mg l(-1). Compared to the blank controls, BBP at 125, 500, 1000 and 2000 microg l(-1) significantly shortened the life expectancy at birth, BBP at 125-2000 microg l(-1) decreased the net reproductive rate, and BBP at 500 and 1000 microg I(-1) shortened the generation time but increased the intrinsic rate of population increase of the parental M. macrocopa. BBP at 62.5,125, 500,1000 and 2000 microg l(-1) increased the intrinsic rate of population increase of the F1 generation. A significant dose-effect relationship existed between BBP concentration and life expectancy at birth, net reproductive rate as well as intrinsic rate of population increase of the parental M. macrocopa. The parental M. macrocopa were more sensitive in survival, development and reproduction to BBP than the F1 generation, but the reverse was also true in the population growth. Extending chronic toxicity tests to the second generation of M. macrocopa increased the cost-effectiveness of the assays. PMID:21888226

  19. Life tables study of immature Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera : Culicidae) during the wet and dry seasons in Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Nur Aida; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Tahir, Nurita Abu; Basari, Norsamah

    2008-01-01

    Life tables were constructed for twelve cohorts of immature stages of the dengue vector Ae. albopictus in a wooded area of Penang, Malaysia. The development time of Ae. albopictus ranged from 6 to 10 days depending on the mean environmental temperature (r = - 0.639, p < 0.05). Total cohort mortality was correlated with total development time (r = 0.713, p < 0.05) but not temperature (r = -0.477, p > 0.05). Rainfall was correlated with neither development time (r = 0.554, p > 0.05) nor mortality (r = 0.322, p > 0.05). There was a significant difference among the total mortality that occurred in the twelve cohorts (H = 119.783, df = 11, p < 0.05). There was also a significant difference in mortality among the different stages (H = 274.00, df = 4, p < 0.05).

  20. Biology and fertility life table of Eriopis connexa, Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Zazycki, L C F; Semedo, R E S; Silva, A; Bisognin, A Z; Bernardi, O; Garcia, M S; Nava, D E

    2015-11-01

    The coccinellids Eriopis connexa (Germar), Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) are important natural biological control agents. The purpose of this paper was to study the biology and create a fertility life table of these three coccinellid species. For the biology study, 50 insects/species were used and kept in groups of 10 in glass vials (2300 cm3). For the three species studied, the viability of the total cycle varied from 45 to 50%. O. v-nigrum was the species which presented the longest oviposition period. However, H. axiridis demonstrated the best reproductive performance and ability of population growth in each generation. In conclusion, the use of commercially obtained pollen and A. kuenhiella eggs enables the development of coccinellids E. connexa, H. axyridis and O. v-nigrum under laboratory conditions, since the insects completed their biological cycle and originated adults with good reproductive performance. PMID:26675915

  1. Effects of Blood Coagulate Removal Method on Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Life Table Characteristics and Vector Competence for Dengue Virus.

    PubMed

    van Dodewaard, Caitlin A M; Richards, Stephanie L; Harris, Jonathan W

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available blood can be used as an alternative to live animals to maintain mosquito colonies and deliver infectious bloodmeals during research studies. We analyzed the extent to which two methods for blood coagulate removal (defibrination or addition of sodium citrate) affected life table characteristics (i.e., fecundity, fertility, hatch rate, and adult survival) and vector competence (infection, dissemination, and transmission) of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) for dengue virus (DENV). Two types of bovine blood were tested at two extrinsic incubation temperatures (27 or 30°C) for DENV-infected and uninfected mosquitoes. Fully engorged mosquitoes were transferred to individual cages containing an oviposition cup and a substrate. Eggs (fecundity) and hatched larvae (fertility) were counted. At 14 and 21 d post feeding on a DENV-infected bloodmeal, 15 mosquitoes were sampled from each group, and vector competence was analyzed (bodies [infection], legs [dissemination], and saliva [transmission]). Differences in life table characteristics and vector competence were analyzed for mosquitoes fed blood processed using different methods for removal of coagulates. The method for removal of coagulates significantly impacted fecundity, fertility, and hatch time in the uninfected group, but not DENV-infected group. Infected mosquitoes showed significantly higher fecundity and faster hatch time than uninfected mosquitoes. We show no significant differences in infection or dissemination rates between groups; however, horizontal transmission rate was significantly higher in mosquitoes fed DENV-infected citrated compared with defibrinated blood. We expect the findings of this study to inform research using artificial blood delivery methods to assess vector competence.

  2. Use of the recursion formula of the Gompertz survival function to evaluate life-table data.

    PubMed

    Bassukas, I D

    1996-08-29

    The recursion formula of the Gompertz function is an established method for the analysis of growth processes. In the present study the recursion formula of the Gompertz survival function 1n S(t + s) = a + b x ln S(t) is introduced for the analysis of survival data, where S(t) is the survival fraction at age 1, s is the constant age increment between two consecutive measurements of the survival fraction and a and b are parameters. With the help of this method--and provided stroboscopial measurements of rates of survival are available--the Gompertz survival function, instead of the corresponding mortality function, can be determined directly using linear regression analysis. The application of the present algorithm is demonstrated by analysing two sets of data taken from the literature (survival of Drosophila imagoes and of female centenarians) using linear regression analysis to fit survival or mortality rates to the corresponding models. In both cases the quality of fit was superior by using the algorithm presently introduced. Moreover, survival functions calculated from the fits to the mortality law only poorly predict the survival data. On the contrary, the results of the present method not only fit to the measurements, but, for both sets of data the mortality parameters calculated by the present method are essentially identical to those obtained by a corresponding application of a non-linear Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm to fit the same sets of data to the explicit form of the Gompertz survival function. Taking into consideration the advantages of using a linear fit (goodness-of-fit test and efficient statistical comparison of survival patterns) the method of the recursion formula of the Gompertz survival function is the most preferable method to fit survival data to the Gompertz function.

  3. Treatment by glyphosate-based herbicide alters life history parameters of the rose-grain aphid Metopolophium dirhodum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saska, Pavel; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Lukáš, Jan; Chi, Hsin; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Honěk, Alois

    2016-06-01

    Glyphosate is the number one herbicide in the world. We investigated the sub-lethal effects of this herbicide on the aphid Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker), using an age-stage, two-sex life table approach. Three concentrations of the herbicide (low - 33.5, medium - 66.9 and high - 133.8 mmol dm‑3 of active ingredient) and distilled water as the control were used. The LC50 of the IPA salt of glyphosate on M. dirhodum was equivalent to 174.9 mmol dm‑3 of the active ingredient (CI95: 153.0, 199.0). The population parameters were significantly negatively affected by herbicide application, and this negative effect was progressive with the increasing concentration of the herbicide. A difference of two orders of magnitude existed in the predicted population development of M. dirhodum between the high concentration of the herbicide and the control. This is the first study that comprehensively documents such a negative effect on the population of an herbivorous insect.

  4. Treatment by glyphosate-based herbicide alters life history parameters of the rose-grain aphid Metopolophium dirhodum.

    PubMed

    Saska, Pavel; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Lukáš, Jan; Chi, Hsin; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Honěk, Alois

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is the number one herbicide in the world. We investigated the sub-lethal effects of this herbicide on the aphid Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker), using an age-stage, two-sex life table approach. Three concentrations of the herbicide (low - 33.5, medium - 66.9 and high - 133.8 mmol dm(-3) of active ingredient) and distilled water as the control were used. The LC50 of the IPA salt of glyphosate on M. dirhodum was equivalent to 174.9 mmol dm(-3) of the active ingredient (CI95: 153.0, 199.0). The population parameters were significantly negatively affected by herbicide application, and this negative effect was progressive with the increasing concentration of the herbicide. A difference of two orders of magnitude existed in the predicted population development of M. dirhodum between the high concentration of the herbicide and the control. This is the first study that comprehensively documents such a negative effect on the population of an herbivorous insect. PMID:27302015

  5. Treatment by glyphosate-based herbicide alters life history parameters of the rose-grain aphid Metopolophium dirhodum

    PubMed Central

    Saska, Pavel; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Lukáš, Jan; Chi, Hsin; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Honěk, Alois

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is the number one herbicide in the world. We investigated the sub-lethal effects of this herbicide on the aphid Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker), using an age-stage, two-sex life table approach. Three concentrations of the herbicide (low - 33.5, medium - 66.9 and high - 133.8 mmol dm−3 of active ingredient) and distilled water as the control were used. The LC50 of the IPA salt of glyphosate on M. dirhodum was equivalent to 174.9 mmol dm−3 of the active ingredient (CI95: 153.0, 199.0). The population parameters were significantly negatively affected by herbicide application, and this negative effect was progressive with the increasing concentration of the herbicide. A difference of two orders of magnitude existed in the predicted population development of M. dirhodum between the high concentration of the herbicide and the control. This is the first study that comprehensively documents such a negative effect on the population of an herbivorous insect. PMID:27302015

  6. 40 CFR Table 41 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Continuous Parameter Monitoring Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), you shall meet each requirement in the following table that applies to you. If you use . . . You shall . . . 1. pH strips Use pH strips with an accuracy of ±10 percent. 2. Colormetric tube sampling system Use a colormetric tube sampling system with a printed numerical scale in ppmv, a standard...

  7. 40 CFR Table 41 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Continuous Parameter Monitoring Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in § 63.1572(c)(1), you shall meet each requirement in the following table that applies to you. If you use . . . You shall . . . 1. pH strips Use pH strips with an accuracy of ±10 percent. 2. Colormetric tube sampling system Use a colormetric tube sampling system with a printed numerical scale in...

  8. 40 CFR Table 41 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Continuous Parameter Monitoring Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in § 63.1572(c)(1), you shall meet each requirement in the following table that applies to you. If you use . . . You shall . . . 1. pH strips Use pH strips with an accuracy of ±10 percent. 2. Colormetric tube sampling system Use a colormetric tube sampling system with a printed numerical scale in...

  9. 40 CFR Table 41 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Continuous Parameter Monitoring Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in § 63.1572(c)(1), you shall meet each requirement in the following table that applies to you. If you use . . . You shall . . . 1. pH strips Use pH strips with an accuracy of ±10 percent. 2. Colormetric tube sampling system Use a colormetric tube sampling system with a printed numerical scale in...

  10. 40 CFR Table 41 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Continuous Parameter Monitoring Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), you shall meet each requirement in the following table that applies to you. If you use . . . You shall . . . 1. pH strips Use pH strips with an accuracy of ±10 percent. 2. Colormetric tube sampling system Use a colormetric tube sampling system with a printed numerical scale in ppmv, a standard...

  11. Multi-generation life tables of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) under high-temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-Ying; Cong, Lin; Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2012-12-01

    Much attention has been focused on insects' ability to survive long-term high-temperature stress and on their resulting population distributions under global warming. In this study, life tables of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B, were collected over five consecutive generations at 27, 31, and 35°C and for one generation at 37°C. At 37°C, the intrinsic rate of increase (r) and the net reproductive rate (r(0)) of the whitefly were 0.0383 d(-1) and 2.8 offspring, respectively. These results demonstrate that the lethal high temperature for B. tabaci is >37°C. At 27°C, neither r(0) nor r decreased over the generations studied. However, both of these values decreased over time at 31 and 35°C, and the decrease was more evident at 35°C. Our results on the ability of B. tabaci biotype B to survive long-term high-temperature stress are important for understanding its population distribution under global warming. PMID:23321117

  12. Long-term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with sulphasalazine, gold, or penicillamine: a comparison using life-table methods.

    PubMed Central

    Situnayake, R D; Grindulis, K A; McConkey, B

    1987-01-01

    Life-table analysis was applied to the records of 317 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with sulphasalazine (SAS), 201 treated with sodium aurothiomalate (gold), and 163 with penicillamine. They comprised all those treated in our department with these drugs between January 1973 and July 1984. Risks of treatment termination for all reasons were similar for each drug at five years (gold 92%, penicillamine 83%, SAS 81%). The risk of treatment termination due to inefficacy was less for gold (29.5%) than for penicillamine (38.1%) or sulphasalazine (41.2%). Adverse effects, however, led to withdrawal of gold in 57%, penicillamine in 41.2%, and SAS in 37%; the most effective drugs appeared most toxic. Serious adverse effects were much more common in association with gold (17.4%) and penicillamine (12.3%) than with SAS (1.6%). Sulphasalazine appears as well tolerated over long periods in RA as gold or penicillamine and is associated with fewer serious adverse effects; of these drugs, it might therefore be considered the agent of first choice. PMID:2883939

  13. A Multistate Life Table Analysis of Union Regimes in the United States: Trends and Racial Differentials, 1970–2002

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, S. Philip; Wang, Zhenglian; Gu, Danan; Yang, Chingli

    2013-01-01

    We estimate trends and racial differentials in marriage, cohabitation, union formation and dissolution (union regimes) for the period 1970–2002 in the United States. These estimates are based on an innovative application of multistate life table analysis to pooled survey data. Our analysis demonstrates (1) a dramatic increase in the lifetime proportions of transitions from never-married, divorced or widowed to cohabiting; (2) a substantial decrease in the stability of cohabiting unions; (3) a dramatic increase in mean ages at cohabiting after divorce and widowhood; (4) a substantial decrease in direct transition from never-married to married; (5) a significant decrease in the overall lifetime proportion of ever marrying and re-marrying in the 1970s to 1980s but a relatively stable pattern in the 1990s to 2000–2002; and (6) a substantial decrease in the lifetime proportion of transition from cohabiting to marriage. We also present, for the first time, comparable evidence on differentials in union regimes between four racial groups. PMID:24179311

  14. A Multistate Life Table Analysis of Union Regimes in the United States: Trends and Racial Differentials, 1970-2002.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Morgan, S Philip; Wang, Zhenglian; Gu, Danan; Yang, Chingli

    2012-04-01

    We estimate trends and racial differentials in marriage, cohabitation, union formation and dissolution (union regimes) for the period 1970-2002 in the United States. These estimates are based on an innovative application of multistate life table analysis to pooled survey data. Our analysis demonstrates (1) a dramatic increase in the lifetime proportions of transitions from never-married, divorced or widowed to cohabiting; (2) a substantial decrease in the stability of cohabiting unions; (3) a dramatic increase in mean ages at cohabiting after divorce and widowhood; (4) a substantial decrease in direct transition from never-married to married; (5) a significant decrease in the overall lifetime proportion of ever marrying and re-marrying in the 1970s to 1980s but a relatively stable pattern in the 1990s to 2000-2002; and (6) a substantial decrease in the lifetime proportion of transition from cohabiting to marriage. We also present, for the first time, comparable evidence on differentials in union regimes between four racial groups.

  15. Estimation of body temperature rhythm based on heart activity parameters in daily life.

    PubMed

    Sooyoung Sim; Heenam Yoon; Hosuk Ryou; Kwangsuk Park

    2014-01-01

    Body temperature contains valuable health related information such as circadian rhythm and menstruation cycle. Also, it was discovered from previous studies that body temperature rhythm in daily life is related with sleep disorders and cognitive performances. However, monitoring body temperature with existing devices during daily life is not easy because they are invasive, intrusive, or expensive. Therefore, the technology which can accurately and nonintrusively monitor body temperature is required. In this study, we developed body temperature estimation model based on heart rate and heart rate variability parameters. Although this work was inspired by previous research, we originally identified that the model can be applied to body temperature monitoring in daily life. Also, we could find out that normalized Mean heart rate (nMHR) and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability showed better performance than other parameters. Although we should validate the model with more number of subjects and consider additional algorithms to decrease the accumulated estimation error, we could verify the usefulness of this approach. Through this study, we expect that we would be able to monitor core body temperature and circadian rhythm from simple heart rate monitor. Then, we can obtain various health related information derived from daily body temperature rhythm.

  16. Critical power concept adapted for the specific table tennis test: comparisons between exhaustion criteria, mathematical modeling, and correlation with gas exchange parameters.

    PubMed

    Zagatto, A; Miranda, M F; Gobatto, C A

    2011-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine and to compare the critical power concept adapted for the specific table tennis test (critical frequency - C F ) estimated from 5 mathematical models and using 2 different exhaustion criteria (voluntary and technical exhaustions). Also, it was an aim to assess the relationship between C F estimated from mathematical models and respiratory compensation point (RCP), peak oxygen uptake ( V˙O (2PEAK)) and minimal intensity at which V˙O (2PEAK) ( F V˙O (2PEAK)) appears. 9 male table tennis players [18(1) years; 62.3(4.4) kg] performed the maximal incremental test and 3-4 exhaustive exercise bouts to estimate C F s (balls · min (-1)). The exhaustion time and C F obtained were independent of the exhaustion criteria. The C F from 3-parameter model [45.2(7.0)-voluntary, 43.2(5.6)-technical] was lower than C F estimated by linear 2-parameter models, frequency-time (-1) [53.5(3.6)-voluntary, 53.5(3.5)-technical] and total ball thrown-time [52.2(3.5)-voluntary, 52.2(3.5)-technical] but significantly correlated. C F values from 2 linear models were significantly correlated with RCP [47.4(3.4) balls · min (-1)], and C F values of the linear and nonlinear models were correlated with F V˙O (2PEAK) [56.7(3.4) balls · min (-1)]. However, there were no significant correlations between C F values and V˙O (2PEAK) [49.8(1.1)ml · kg (-1) · min (-1)]. The results were not modified by exhaustion criteria. The 2 linear and non-linear 2-parameter models can be used to estimate aerobic endurance in specific table tennis tests. PMID:21563021

  17. A comparative life-table analysis of Sipha flava (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on two biofuel hosts, Miscanthus x giganteus and Saccharum spp.

    PubMed

    Pallipparambil, G R; Cha, G; Gray, M E

    2014-06-01

    Among the insects reported in biofuel crops, the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes), is a potential pest of giant miscanthus, Miscanthus x giganteus Greef et Deu ex Hodkinson et Renvoize (M x g) and energy cane 'L79-1002', Saccharum spp. L. We studied the biology of S. flava on M x g and energy cane and estimated the development period, fecundity, longevity, intrinsic rate of increase, doubling time, reproductive value, and survivorship curves. To demonstrate the host suitability in a susceptible species, we studied the aphid life table on sorghum 'PL 18200,' Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Life-table information was recorded under greenhouse conditions on the host plants. Our results suggested that both M x g and energy cane are suitable hosts for S. flava. We observed similar aphid development period on both hosts. Life-table estimates including longevity and fecundity suggested that M x g is a more suitable host for the aphid than energy cane. The intrinsic rate of increase for S. flava was lower on energy cane (0.231) than on M x g (0.258). PMID:25026666

  18. Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain

    SciTech Connect

    Radhi, Hassan; Sharples, Stephen

    2013-01-15

    On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO{sub 2} emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO{sub 2} emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco{sub 2}), embodied energy (Eco{sub 2}) and operational energy (OPco{sub 2}). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80-90%). However, embodied CO{sub 2} emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70-90% of the total CO{sub 2} emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco{sub 2} emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO{sub 2} emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle

  19. Optimizing scan parameters for antibody microarray experiments: accelerating robust systems diagnostics for life sciences.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qiang; Sivanandam, Thamil Mani

    2014-06-01

    Microarray experiments are a centerpiece of postgenomics life sciences and the current efforts to develop systems diagnostics for personalized medicine. The majority of antibody microarray experiments are fluorescence-based, which utilizes a scanner to convert target signals into image files for subsequent quantification. Certain scan parameters such as the laser power and photomultiplier tube gain (PMT) can influence the readout of fluorescent intensities and thus may affect data quantitation. To date, however, there is no consensus of how to determine the optimal settings of microarray scanners. Here we show that different settings of the laser power and PMT not only affect the signal intensities but also the accuracy of antibody microarray experiments. More importantly, we demonstrate an experimental approach using two fluorescent dyes to determine optimal settings of scan parameters for microarray experiments. These measures provide added quality control of microarray experiments, and thus help to improve the accuracy of quantitative outcome in microarray experiments in the above contexts.

  20. Preharvest salicylic acid treatments to improve quality and postharvest life of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Flame Seedless.

    PubMed

    Champa, W A Harindra; Gill, M I S; Mahajan, B V C; Arora, N K

    2015-06-01

    Significance of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) treatments on maturity, quality and postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless were studied during two years. The experiment was performed on 12-year old own rooted, grapevines planted at 3 m × 3 m spacing trained on overhead system. Vines were treated with aqueous solutions of SA (0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) at pea stage and at veraison. After harvesting, clusters were divided into two lots in which one was subjected to initial quality evaluation, while the other was stored in cold room (3-4 °C, 90-95 % RH) for evaluation of postharvest quality. SA at the dose of 1.5 and 2.0 mM hastened berry maturity by 3 to 5 days, produced less compact bunches alongside larger berries in contrast to control and the lowest dose. The same doses effectively maintained peel colour, higher firmness, lower pectin methyl esterase activity and electrolyte leakage alongside suppressing degradation of TSS and TA during cold storage. These two doses also exhibited higher efficacy on maintaining anthocyanins, phenols and organoleptic properties while reducing weight loss, rachis browning and decay incidence. Correlation analysis demonstrated that many quality parameters are interdependent. In conclusion, preharvest spray of 1.5 mM SA proved to be an effective means of improving quality and extending postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless.

  1. Effects of snowdrop lectin on Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) life history parameters.

    PubMed

    Sétamou, M; Bernal, J S; Mirkov, T E; Legaspi, J C

    2003-06-01

    The effects of the snowdrop lectin, Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA), delivered through an artificial diet, on growth, development, and life history parameters of the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), were evaluated in the laboratory. Incorporation of GNA at three treatment levels, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of total dietary protein, in the larval diet significantly decreased larval survivorship and percentage of adults emerging relative to a control diet lacking GNA, whereas differences were not observed among the three treatment levels. Both larvae and pupae in the control were 8-25% larger than those in the GNA treatments, but differences were not observed between larvae in the GNA treatments. Furthermore, presence of GNA did not affect larval and pupal developmental periods, longevities, and fecundities compared with the control. Mexican rice borer life history parameters, such as net reproductive rate and intrinsic rate of increase, were substantially reduced by the presence of GNA in the diet, but differences were not evident among the three GNA treatment levels.

  2. Life-table analysis of Anopheles arabiensis in western Kenya highlands: effects of land covers on larval and adult survivorship.

    PubMed

    Afrane, Yaw A; Zhou, Goufa; Lawson, Bernard W; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2007-10-01

    In high-elevation areas in western Kenya, the abundance of Anopheles arabiensis is either very low or absent. The western Kenya highlands (an area with an elevation > 1,500m above sea level) have also been experiencing extensive deforestation, and deforestation has been suggested as one of the important factors that facilitate malaria transmission in the highlands. This study investigated whether climate conditions in the western Kenya highlands (Kakamega, elevation 1,500 m above sea level) were permissive to the development and survival of An. arabiensis and whether deforestation promoted An. arabiensis survivorship of immature and adult stages, using life-table analysis. We found that in larval habitats located in forested areas, only 4-9% of first-instar larvae developed into adults and the development length exceeded 20 days. Mean water temperature of aquatic habitats in the deforested area was 4.8-6.1 degrees C higher than that in the forested area, larval-to-adult survivorship was increased to 65-82%, and larval-to-adult development time was shortened by 8-9 days. The average indoor temperature in houses in the deforested area was 1.7-1.8 degrees C higher than in the forested area, and the relative humidity was 22-25% lower. The median survival time of adult mosquitoes in the deforested area was 49-55% higher than those in the forested area. The net reproductive rate of female mosquitoes in the deforested area was 1.7- to 2.6-fold higher than that in the forested area. Compared with previously published data on An. gambiae, the net reproductive rate of An. arabiensis was only 0.8-1.3% of Anopheles gambiae in the forested area and 2.3-2.6% in the deforested area. Therefore, the current ambient climate condition is less permissive to An. arabiensis than to An. gambiae in western Kenya highlands. However, environmental changes such as deforestation and global warming may facilitate the establishment of An. arabiensis populations in the highlands.

  3. Anthropometric and Quality-of-Life Parameters in Acute Intermittent Porphyria Patients.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Monreal, Antonia M; Murcia, M Antonia; Gómez-Murcia, Victoria; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A; Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena

    2015-07-01

    The porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders. The incidence and prevalence are low because the acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is rare. Our aim was to assess the use of anthropometric and quality-of-life parameters in porphyric patients in order to identify predictor factors that might help in characterizing AIP patients.Sixteen AIP patients from Murcia (Spain) were recruited from local health centers in 2008 and 2009. A control group of 16 healthy people was established. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometric measurements: body weight; height; knee-heel height; waist, hip, upper arm and calf circumferences (CCs); biacromion and biiliac diameters; bicondylar and biepicondylar width; and triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, and calf skinfold thickness. Anthropometric indicators were obtained from anthropometric measurements. A quality-of-life evaluation was carried out using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire and Barthel and Katz indexes. Significant differences in means were tested by unpaired Student t test. Group differences in anthropometric measurements were tested with a 2-way analysis of variance (group × condition: age group, overweight, and adiposity degree). Relative frequencies were obtained for noncontinuous variables. Significant differences in prevalence were calculated by means of χ.AIP patients showed statistically significant differences in terms of knee-heel height, biiliac diameter, CC, triceps skinfold thickness, BIA, ponderal index, endomorphy, and ectomorphy. Only 1 quality-of-life indicator, visual analog scale, in the EQ-5D questionnaire showed significant differences between porphyric and control groups.Some anthropometric parameters and the EQ-5D questionnaire could be used to appreciate the presence or follow the evolution of the disease in AIP patients.

  4. Anthropometric and Quality-of-Life Parameters in Acute Intermittent Porphyria Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Monreal, Antonia M; Murcia, MAntonia; Gómez-Murcia, Victoria; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.; Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders. The incidence and prevalence are low because the acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is rare. Our aim was to assess the use of anthropometric and quality-of-life parameters in porphyric patients in order to identify predictor factors that might help in characterizing AIP patients. Sixteen AIP patients from Murcia (Spain) were recruited from local health centers in 2008 and 2009. A control group of 16 healthy people was established. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometric measurements: body weight; height; knee-heel height; waist, hip, upper arm and calf circumferences (CCs); biacromion and biiliac diameters; bicondylar and biepicondylar width; and triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, and calf skinfold thickness. Anthropometric indicators were obtained from anthropometric measurements. A quality-of-life evaluation was carried out using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire and Barthel and Katz indexes. Significant differences in means were tested by unpaired Student t test. Group differences in anthropometric measurements were tested with a 2-way analysis of variance (group × condition: age group, overweight, and adiposity degree). Relative frequencies were obtained for noncontinuous variables. Significant differences in prevalence were calculated by means of χ2. AIP patients showed statistically significant differences in terms of knee-heel height, biiliac diameter, CC, triceps skinfold thickness, BIA, ponderal index, endomorphy, and ectomorphy. Only 1 quality-of-life indicator, visual analog scale, in the EQ-5D questionnaire showed significant differences between porphyric and control groups. Some anthropometric parameters and the EQ-5D questionnaire could be used to appreciate the presence or follow the evolution of the disease in AIP patients. PMID:26222840

  5. Study on life parameters of the invasive species Octodonta nipae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on different palm species, under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Hou, Youming; Miao, Yunxin; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-08-01

    In southeastern China, the invasion of the nipa palm hispid Octodonta nipae (Maulik) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) results in devastating damage to palms. Host plants play an important role in the population increases and outbreaks of O. nipae. O. nipae could not complete its development on the Majestic palm (Ravenea rivularis Jumelle & Perrier), and females did not lay eggs on Chinese fan palm (Livistona chinensis R. Brown). However, this insect species both completed development and laid eggs on Chinese windmill palm (Trachycarpus fortunei (Hooker) H. Wendland), Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis Chabaud), and pygmy date palm (Phoenix roebelenii O' Brien). The demographic characteristics of O. nipae reared on Chinese windmill palm, Canary Island date palm, and pygmy date palm were compared with an age-stage, two-sex life table. In this study, the developmental periods from egg to adult varied from 42.1 d on Chinese windmill palm to 49.8 d on pygmy date palm. The survivorship from egg to adult on Chinese windmill palm, Canary Island date palm, and pygmy date palm was 77.5, 79.4, and 66.7%, respectively. Although the adult longevity and the mean fecundity for individuals reared on Chinese windmill palm, Canary Island date palm, and pygmy date palm were not significantly different, there were significant differences in the intrinsic rate of increase, the finite rate, and the mean generation time among palm species, and the values of intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate were higher for populations reared on Chinese windmill palm and Canary Island date palm (0.0313 and 1.0318 d(-1) and 0.0278 and 1.0282 d(-1), respectively) and lower for populations reared on pygmy date palm (0.0192 and 1.0194 d(-1)). However, mean generation time was shorter on Chinese windmill palm (124.11 d) and Canary Island date palm (129.62 d) and longer on pygmy date palm (166.03 d). Our study indicated that different hosts affected life parameters of O. nipae, with the most

  6. Study on life parameters of the invasive species Octodonta nipae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on different palm species, under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Hou, Youming; Miao, Yunxin; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-08-01

    In southeastern China, the invasion of the nipa palm hispid Octodonta nipae (Maulik) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) results in devastating damage to palms. Host plants play an important role in the population increases and outbreaks of O. nipae. O. nipae could not complete its development on the Majestic palm (Ravenea rivularis Jumelle & Perrier), and females did not lay eggs on Chinese fan palm (Livistona chinensis R. Brown). However, this insect species both completed development and laid eggs on Chinese windmill palm (Trachycarpus fortunei (Hooker) H. Wendland), Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis Chabaud), and pygmy date palm (Phoenix roebelenii O' Brien). The demographic characteristics of O. nipae reared on Chinese windmill palm, Canary Island date palm, and pygmy date palm were compared with an age-stage, two-sex life table. In this study, the developmental periods from egg to adult varied from 42.1 d on Chinese windmill palm to 49.8 d on pygmy date palm. The survivorship from egg to adult on Chinese windmill palm, Canary Island date palm, and pygmy date palm was 77.5, 79.4, and 66.7%, respectively. Although the adult longevity and the mean fecundity for individuals reared on Chinese windmill palm, Canary Island date palm, and pygmy date palm were not significantly different, there were significant differences in the intrinsic rate of increase, the finite rate, and the mean generation time among palm species, and the values of intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate were higher for populations reared on Chinese windmill palm and Canary Island date palm (0.0313 and 1.0318 d(-1) and 0.0278 and 1.0282 d(-1), respectively) and lower for populations reared on pygmy date palm (0.0192 and 1.0194 d(-1)). However, mean generation time was shorter on Chinese windmill palm (124.11 d) and Canary Island date palm (129.62 d) and longer on pygmy date palm (166.03 d). Our study indicated that different hosts affected life parameters of O. nipae, with the most

  7. Preharvest salicylic acid treatments to improve quality and postharvest life of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Flame Seedless.

    PubMed

    Champa, W A Harindra; Gill, M I S; Mahajan, B V C; Arora, N K

    2015-06-01

    Significance of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) treatments on maturity, quality and postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless were studied during two years. The experiment was performed on 12-year old own rooted, grapevines planted at 3 m × 3 m spacing trained on overhead system. Vines were treated with aqueous solutions of SA (0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) at pea stage and at veraison. After harvesting, clusters were divided into two lots in which one was subjected to initial quality evaluation, while the other was stored in cold room (3-4 °C, 90-95 % RH) for evaluation of postharvest quality. SA at the dose of 1.5 and 2.0 mM hastened berry maturity by 3 to 5 days, produced less compact bunches alongside larger berries in contrast to control and the lowest dose. The same doses effectively maintained peel colour, higher firmness, lower pectin methyl esterase activity and electrolyte leakage alongside suppressing degradation of TSS and TA during cold storage. These two doses also exhibited higher efficacy on maintaining anthocyanins, phenols and organoleptic properties while reducing weight loss, rachis browning and decay incidence. Correlation analysis demonstrated that many quality parameters are interdependent. In conclusion, preharvest spray of 1.5 mM SA proved to be an effective means of improving quality and extending postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless. PMID:26028743

  8. Effects of machining parameters on tool life and its optimization in turning mild steel with brazed carbide cutting tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, S.; Mukherjee, S.

    2016-09-01

    One of the most significant factors in metal cutting is tool life. In this research work, the effects of machining parameters on tool under wet machining environment were studied. Tool life characteristics of brazed carbide cutting tool machined against mild steel and optimization of machining parameters based on Taguchi design of experiments were examined. The experiments were conducted using three factors, spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut each having three levels. Nine experiments were performed on a high speed semi-automatic precision central lathe. ANOVA was used to determine the level of importance of the machining parameters on tool life. The optimum machining parameter combination was obtained by the analysis of S/N ratio. A mathematical model based on multiple regression analysis was developed to predict the tool life. Taguchi's orthogonal array analysis revealed the optimal combination of parameters at lower levels of spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut which are 550 rpm, 0.2 mm/rev and 0.5mm respectively. The Main Effects plot reiterated the same. The variation of tool life with different process parameters has been plotted. Feed rate has the most significant effect on tool life followed by spindle speed and depth of cut.

  9. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ec of... - Operating Parameters To Be Monitored and Minimum Measurement and Recording Frequencies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators for... parameters: Minimum secondary chamber temperature Continuous 1×minute ✔ ✔ ✔ Minimum dioxin/furan sorbent flow rate Hourly 1×hour ✔ ✔ Minimum HCI sorbent flow rate Hourly 1×hour ✔ ✔ Minimum mercury (Hg)...

  10. Life History Traits and Demographic Parameters of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Fed on Human Blood.

    PubMed

    Medone, Paula; Balsalobre, Agustin; Rabinovich, Jorge E; Marti, Gerardo A; Menu, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), the main vector of Chagas disease in South America, feeds primarily on humans, but ethical reasons preclude carrying out demographical studies using people. Thus, most laboratory studies of T. infestans are conducted using bird or mammal live hosts that may result in different demographic parameters from those obtained on human blood. Therefore, it is of interest to determine whether the use of an artificial feeder with human blood would be operational to rear triatomines and estimate population growth rates. We estimated life history traits and demographic parameters using an artificial feeder with human blood and compared them with those obtained on live hens. Both groups of T. infestans were kept under constant conditions [28 ± 1°C, 40 ± 5% relative humidity, a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h] and fed weekly. On the basis of age-specific survival and age-specific fecundity, we calculated the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r), the finite rate of population growth (λ), the net reproductive rate (Ro), and the mean generation time (Tg). Our results show differences in life history traits between blood sources, resulting in smaller population growth rates on human blood than on live hens. Although demographic growth rate was smaller on human blood than on hens, it still remains positive, so the benefit/cost ratio of this feeding method seems relatively attractive. We discuss possibility of using the artificial feeder with human blood for both ecological and behavioral studies. PMID:26373893

  11. Life History Traits and Demographic Parameters of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Fed on Human Blood.

    PubMed

    Medone, Paula; Balsalobre, Agustin; Rabinovich, Jorge E; Marti, Gerardo A; Menu, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), the main vector of Chagas disease in South America, feeds primarily on humans, but ethical reasons preclude carrying out demographical studies using people. Thus, most laboratory studies of T. infestans are conducted using bird or mammal live hosts that may result in different demographic parameters from those obtained on human blood. Therefore, it is of interest to determine whether the use of an artificial feeder with human blood would be operational to rear triatomines and estimate population growth rates. We estimated life history traits and demographic parameters using an artificial feeder with human blood and compared them with those obtained on live hens. Both groups of T. infestans were kept under constant conditions [28 ± 1°C, 40 ± 5% relative humidity, a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h] and fed weekly. On the basis of age-specific survival and age-specific fecundity, we calculated the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r), the finite rate of population growth (λ), the net reproductive rate (Ro), and the mean generation time (Tg). Our results show differences in life history traits between blood sources, resulting in smaller population growth rates on human blood than on live hens. Although demographic growth rate was smaller on human blood than on hens, it still remains positive, so the benefit/cost ratio of this feeding method seems relatively attractive. We discuss possibility of using the artificial feeder with human blood for both ecological and behavioral studies.

  12. In vitro and in vivo application of active compounds with anti-yeast activity to improve the shelf life of ready-to-eat table grape.

    PubMed

    Cristina, Costa; Annalisa, Lucera; Amalia, Conte; Francesco, Contò; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2013-06-01

    The anti-yeast effects of several compounds at different concentrations were screened in vitro against main table grape spoilage yeasts. The compounds showing the most significant anti-yeast activity were applied by dipping to table grape, to evaluate the sensory perception. In a subsequent final step, dipping treatments with potassium sorbate, eugenol, citrus extract and ethanol, were applied to ready-to-eat seedless table grape, packaged in air or under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). The in vitro test highlights good effects of cinnamon bark oil and citrus extract, even at the lowest concentrations used in this work. From a sensory point of view, the preliminary panel test selected potassium sorbate, citrus extract, eugenol and ethanol as most suitable substances. The in vivo application of active compounds showed that dipping in eugenol solution and ethanol (20 and 50 %) in combination with MAP increased shelf life of fruit if compared to the control sample (24.08, 28.47, 35.79 and 14.26 days, respectively).

  13. In vitro and in vivo application of active compounds with anti-yeast activity to improve the shelf life of ready-to-eat table grape.

    PubMed

    Cristina, Costa; Annalisa, Lucera; Amalia, Conte; Francesco, Contò; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2013-06-01

    The anti-yeast effects of several compounds at different concentrations were screened in vitro against main table grape spoilage yeasts. The compounds showing the most significant anti-yeast activity were applied by dipping to table grape, to evaluate the sensory perception. In a subsequent final step, dipping treatments with potassium sorbate, eugenol, citrus extract and ethanol, were applied to ready-to-eat seedless table grape, packaged in air or under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). The in vitro test highlights good effects of cinnamon bark oil and citrus extract, even at the lowest concentrations used in this work. From a sensory point of view, the preliminary panel test selected potassium sorbate, citrus extract, eugenol and ethanol as most suitable substances. The in vivo application of active compounds showed that dipping in eugenol solution and ethanol (20 and 50 %) in combination with MAP increased shelf life of fruit if compared to the control sample (24.08, 28.47, 35.79 and 14.26 days, respectively). PMID:23512208

  14. Life cycle assessment and residue leaching: The importance of parameter, scenario and leaching data selection

    SciTech Connect

    Allegrini, E.; Butera, S.; Kosson, D.S.; Van Zomeren, A.; Van der Sloot, H.A.; Astrup, T.F.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Relevance of metal leaching in waste management system LCAs was assessed. • Toxic impacts from leaching could not be disregarded. • Uncertainty of toxicity, due to background activities, determines LCA outcomes. • Parameters such as pH and L/S affect LCA results. • Data modelling consistency and coverage within an LCA are crucial. - Abstract: Residues from industrial processes and waste management systems (WMSs) have been increasingly reutilised, leading to landfilling rate reductions and the optimisation of mineral resource utilisation in society. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic methodology allowing for the analysis of systems and products and can be applied to waste management systems to identify environmental benefits and critical aspects thereof. From an LCA perspective, residue utilisation provides benefits such as avoiding the production and depletion of primary materials, but it can lead to environmental burdens, due to the potential leaching of toxic substances. In waste LCA studies where residue utilisation is included, leaching has generally been neglected. In this study, municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) was used as a case study into three LCA scenarios having different system boundaries. The importance of data quality and parameter selection in the overall LCA results was evaluated, and an innovative method to assess metal transport into the environment was applied, in order to determine emissions to the soil and water compartments for use in an LCA. It was found that toxic impacts as a result of leaching were dominant in systems including only MSWI BA utilisation, while leaching appeared negligible in larger scenarios including the entire waste system. However, leaching could not be disregarded a priori, due to large uncertainties characterising other activities in the scenario (e.g. electricity production). Based on the analysis of relevant parameters relative to leaching, and on general results

  15. Health, Health Inequality, and Cost Impacts of Annual Increases in Tobacco Tax: Multistate Life Table Modeling in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Tony; Cobiac, Linda J.; Cleghorn, Christine L.; Pearson, Amber L.; van der Deen, Frederieke S.; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Nghiem, Nhung; McLeod, Melissa; Wilson, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Background Countries are increasingly considering how to reduce or even end tobacco consumption, and raising tobacco taxes is a potential strategy to achieve these goals. We estimated the impacts on health, health inequalities, and health system costs of ongoing tobacco tax increases (10% annually from 2011 to 2031, compared to no tax increases from 2011 [“business as usual,” BAU]), in a country (New Zealand) with large ethnic inequalities in smoking-related and noncommunicable disease (NCD) burden. Methods and Findings We modeled 16 tobacco-related diseases in parallel, using rich national data by sex, age, and ethnicity, to estimate undiscounted quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained and net health system costs over the remaining life of the 2011 population (n = 4.4 million). A total of 260,000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 155,000–419,000) QALYs were gained among the 2011 cohort exposed to annual tobacco tax increases, compared to BAU, and cost savings were US$2,550 million (95% UI: US$1,480 to US$4,000). QALY gains and cost savings took 50 y to peak, owing to such factors as the price sensitivity of youth and young adult smokers. The QALY gains per capita were 3.7 times greater for Māori (indigenous population) compared to non-Māori because of higher background smoking prevalence and price sensitivity in Māori. Health inequalities measured by differences in 45+ y-old standardized mortality rates between Māori and non-Māori were projected to be 2.31% (95% UI: 1.49% to 3.41%) less in 2041 with ongoing tax rises, compared to BAU. Percentage reductions in inequalities in 2041 were maximal for 45–64-y-old women (3.01%). As with all such modeling, there were limitations pertaining to the model structure and input parameters. Conclusions Ongoing tobacco tax increases deliver sizeable health gains and health sector cost savings and are likely to reduce health inequalities. However, if policy makers are to achieve more rapid reductions in the NCD

  16. Exploring the Neural Basis of Real-Life Joint Action: Measuring Brain Activation during Joint Table Setting with Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Egetemeir, Johanna; Stenneken, Prisca; Koehler, Saskia; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Herrmann, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Many every-day life situations require two or more individuals to execute actions together. Assessing brain activation during naturalistic tasks to uncover relevant processes underlying such real-life joint action situations has remained a methodological challenge. In the present study, we introduce a novel joint action paradigm that enables the assessment of brain activation during real-life joint action tasks using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We monitored brain activation of participants who coordinated complex actions with a partner sitting opposite them. Participants performed table setting tasks, either alone (solo action) or in cooperation with a partner (joint action), or they observed the partner performing the task (action observation). Comparing joint action and solo action revealed stronger activation (higher [oxy-Hb]-concentration) during joint action in a number of areas. Among these were areas in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) that additionally showed an overlap of activation during action observation and solo action. Areas with such a close link between action observation and action execution have been associated with action simulation processes. The magnitude of activation in these IPL areas also varied according to joint action type and its respective demand on action simulation. The results validate fNIRS as an imaging technique for exploring the functional correlates of interindividual action coordination in real-life settings and suggest that coordinating actions in real-life situations requires simulating the actions of the partner. PMID:21927603

  17. Conflict in the parameters defining life and death in Missouri statutes.

    PubMed

    Schoen, W L

    1990-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, state legislatures have enacted statutes incorporating medically and legally established criteria to be utilized in the determination of death. Similarly consistent criteria for determining the onset of life have yet to be established. As a result, unacceptably conflicting statutory language defining life and the state's interest in that life exists. This conflict can be resolved by a functional approach that consistently applies criteria used to define the end of life to the beginning of life.

  18. Differences in selected medical care parameters in rheumatic disease ward patients of different ages of life

    PubMed Central

    Pobrotyn, Piotr; Susło, Robert; Milczanowski, Piotr; Drobnik, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatic diseases are becoming more and more common in Poland with the ageing of the population. Nearly 18% of the total hospital admissions in Poland result from rheumatic diseases, which was equivalent to 350 thousand cases in the year 2008. These diseases tend to last for many decades, decreasing both the quality of life and income of the patients as well as increasing the medical institutions’ workload and society's financial burden. The aim of the study was to determine whether the medical care parameters in a rheumatic disease hospital ward show any significant differences among different patient age groups – especially such that would support taking them into account as a basis for adjusting the financial coverage level of medical services. Material and methods Data on hospitalizations at the Rheumatic Diseases Ward of Wroclaw University Hospital in Wroclaw in the years 2009–2015 were analyzed, taking into account the age groups, number of hospital admissions, their duration and causes. Relevant statistical data analysis was performed. Discussion The study revealed that the number of old patients hospitalized at the rheumatic diseases ward increased over the last 6 years and that such statistically significant differences do exist: on average the old patients not only tend to stay much longer at the hospital, but also suffer from a different and more diverse spectrum of diseases in comparison to their younger counterparts. Conclusions The detected differences in medical care parameters support the need for more individualized medical care and increased cost of the hospital stay in the case of older patients. Consequently, those factors justify the necessity to increase the value of medical services in the case of old patients, possibly also taking into account the variation between age subgroups. PMID:27407280

  19. The monitoring of eco-hydrological parameters within the LIFE Ljubljanica Connects project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapač, Klaudija; Šraj, Mojca; Zabret, Katarina; Brilly, Mitja; Vidmar, Andrej

    2016-04-01

    The main objectives of the Ljubljanica Connects project arising from the need to improve the living conditions in the Ljubljanica River for endangered fish species. The history of improving the conditions dates back more than 100 years ago with the construction of fish passages at the obstacles on the Ljubljanica River. As part of the project the fish passages were reconstructed and upgraded to improve river connectivity. But for the survival of fish and other aquatic organisms in the river also adequate living conditions are necessary which can be determined by measurements of individual parameters of water quality. Within the LIFE Ljubljanica Connects project we have established continuous eco-hydrological monitoring of water level and temperature at 17 measuring sites and concentration of dissolved oxygen at 3 measuring sites along the Ljubljanica River and its tributaries. Water level data are input data for the hydrological model of Ljubljanica River, while water temperature and concentration of dissolved oxygen are the basic indicators of the quality of the water. The purpose of this paper is to present the measuring equipment of eco-hydrological monitoring, the first feedback on the results of measured water temperature and the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the Ljubljanica River, and the advantages and importance of such monitoring.

  20. Correlation of cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters with quality of life in stable COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Mirdamadi, Mahsa; Safavi, Enayat; Abtahi, Hamidreza; Peiman, Soheil

    2016-01-01

    Background The precise head to head relationships between Cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET) parameters and patients’ daily symptoms/activities and the disease social/emotional impact are less well defined. In this study, the correlation of COPD daily symptoms and quality of life [assessed by St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ)] and COPD severity index (BODE-index) with CPET parameters were investigated. Methods Symptom-limited CPET was performed in 37 consecutive COPD (GOLD I-III) subjects during non-exacerbation phase. The SGRQ was also completed by each patient. Results SGRQ-score correlated negatively with FEV1 (r=−0.49, P<0.01), predicted maximal work-rate (%WR-max) (r=−0.44, P<0.01), V’O2/WR (r=−0.52, P<0.01) and breathing reserve (r=−0.50, P<0.01). However it did not correlate with Peak-V’O2% predicted (r=−0.27, P=0.10). In 20 (54.1%) subjects in which leg fatigue was the main cause for stopping the test, Peak-V’O2, %WR-max, HR-Reserve and Breathing reserve were higher (P=0.04, <0.01, 0.04 and <0.01 respectively) than the others. There was also a significant correlation between BODE-index and ∆VO2/∆WR (r=−0.64, P<0.001) and breathing-reserve (r=−0.38, P=0.018). Conclusions The observed relationships between CPET parameter and daily subjective complaints in COPD were not strong. Those who discontinued the CPET because of leg fatigue were in the earlier stages of COPD. Significant negative correlation between ∆VO2/∆WR and BODE-index suggests that along with COPD progression, regardless of negative past history, other comorbidities such as cardiac/musculoskeletal problems should be sought. PMID:27621870

  1. Correlation of cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters with quality of life in stable COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Mirdamadi, Mahsa; Safavi, Enayat; Abtahi, Hamidreza; Peiman, Soheil

    2016-01-01

    Background The precise head to head relationships between Cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET) parameters and patients’ daily symptoms/activities and the disease social/emotional impact are less well defined. In this study, the correlation of COPD daily symptoms and quality of life [assessed by St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ)] and COPD severity index (BODE-index) with CPET parameters were investigated. Methods Symptom-limited CPET was performed in 37 consecutive COPD (GOLD I-III) subjects during non-exacerbation phase. The SGRQ was also completed by each patient. Results SGRQ-score correlated negatively with FEV1 (r=−0.49, P<0.01), predicted maximal work-rate (%WR-max) (r=−0.44, P<0.01), V’O2/WR (r=−0.52, P<0.01) and breathing reserve (r=−0.50, P<0.01). However it did not correlate with Peak-V’O2% predicted (r=−0.27, P=0.10). In 20 (54.1%) subjects in which leg fatigue was the main cause for stopping the test, Peak-V’O2, %WR-max, HR-Reserve and Breathing reserve were higher (P=0.04, <0.01, 0.04 and <0.01 respectively) than the others. There was also a significant correlation between BODE-index and ∆VO2/∆WR (r=−0.64, P<0.001) and breathing-reserve (r=−0.38, P=0.018). Conclusions The observed relationships between CPET parameter and daily subjective complaints in COPD were not strong. Those who discontinued the CPET because of leg fatigue were in the earlier stages of COPD. Significant negative correlation between ∆VO2/∆WR and BODE-index suggests that along with COPD progression, regardless of negative past history, other comorbidities such as cardiac/musculoskeletal problems should be sought.

  2. Relation between depression, some laboratory parameters, and quality of life in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Ekrem; Erkoc, Reha; Eryonucu, Buket; Sayarlioglu, Hayriye; Agargun, Mehmet Y A

    2005-01-01

    Depression is common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Several investigators have estimated that depression occurs in about 20% to 30% of dialysis patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depression, some laboratory parameters, and quality of life (QOL) in hemodialysis patients. Forty-three hemodialysis patients (mean age 40.5+/-15.2; M=28, F=15) were included in the study. Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), and short form with 36 (SF-36) were used for evaluation. Subsequently, patients were divided into two groups according to HAMD scores: group 1, those who had a low HAMD score (between 0 and 7), and group 2, those who had a high HAMD score (over 7). The two groups were compared in terms of anxiety scores, QOL scores, and some laboratory parameters. The group 2 patients (n=21; M= 13, F=8) had lower levels of hemoglobin than the group 1 patients (9.5+/-1.7 vs. 10.7+/- 1.4 g/dL, respectively; p<0.01). Group 2 patients also had lower SF-36 scores than group 1 patients (91.5+/-21.3 vs. 74.9+/- 13.6, respectively; p=0.03). On the contrary, the patients of group 2 had higher HAMA scores than group 1 patients (16.6+/-6.9 vs. 6.3+/-3.5, respectively; p<0.01) and CRP level (10.7+/-4.6 vs. 4.5+/-3.8, respectively; p<0.001). A significant correlation was found between depression scores and C-reactive protein (CRP) (r= 0.57, p < 0.001) and HAMA scores (r=-0.43, p<0.05). In contrast, a negative correlation was found between HAMD scores and albumin (r=-0.43, p<0.05), hemoglobin (r=-0.38, p=0.015) and SF-36 scores (r=0.39, p=0.032). These findings demonstrate that there is a relationship among high depression score, low levels of hemoglobin and albumin, high CRP level, low SF-36 score, and high anxiety score. Evaluation of psychiatric status should be part of the care provided to hemodialysis patients.

  3. The logic of comparative life history studies for estimating key parameters, with a focus on natural mortality rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoenig, John M; Then, Amy Y.-H.; Babcock, Elizabeth A.; Hall, Norman G.; Hewitt, David A.; Hesp, Sybrand A.

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of key parameters in population dynamics that are difficult to estimate, such as natural mortality rate, intrinsic rate of population growth, and stock-recruitment relationships. Often, these parameters of a stock are, or can be, estimated indirectly on the basis of comparative life history studies. That is, the relationship between a difficult to estimate parameter and life history correlates is examined over a wide variety of species in order to develop predictive equations. The form of these equations may be derived from life history theory or simply be suggested by exploratory data analysis. Similarly, population characteristics such as potential yield can be estimated by making use of a relationship between the population parameter and bio-chemico–physical characteristics of the ecosystem. Surprisingly, little work has been done to evaluate how well these indirect estimators work and, in fact, there is little guidance on how to conduct comparative life history studies and how to evaluate them. We consider five issues arising in such studies: (i) the parameters of interest may be ill-defined idealizations of the real world, (ii) true values of the parameters are not known for any species, (iii) selecting data based on the quality of the estimates can introduce a host of problems, (iv) the estimates that are available for comparison constitute a non-random sample of species from an ill-defined population of species of interest, and (v) the hierarchical nature of the data (e.g. stocks within species within genera within families, etc., with multiple observations at each level) warrants consideration. We discuss how these issues can be handled and how they shape the kinds of questions that can be asked of a database of life history studies.

  4. The Source and Impact of Specific Parameters that Enhance Well-Being in Daily Life.

    PubMed

    Stewart, William C; Reynolds, Kelly E; Jones, Lydia J; Stewart, Jeanette A; Nelson, Lindsay A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to review four parameters (forgiveness, gratitude, hope and empathy) frequently noted when evaluating well-being. We reviewed clinical studies from 1966 to present. We included 63 articles. All four of the parameters were shown to generally improve an individual's well-being. These parameters demonstrated a positive influence within more specific societal issues including improvement in social relationships, delinquent behavior and physical health. These parameters were generally derived from training and religion. This study suggests that these parameters may improve either one of general well-being, pro-social and positive relational behavior and demonstrate positive health effects. PMID:26087913

  5. Quantitative Timed-Up-and-Go Parameters in Relation to Cognitive Parameters and Health-Related Quality of Life in Mild-to-Moderate Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Van Uem, Janet M. T.; Walgaard, Stefan; Ainsworth, Erik; Hasmann, Sandra E.; Heger, Tanja; Nussbaum, Susanne; Hobert, Markus A.; Micó-Amigo, Encarnación M.; Van Lummel, Rob C.; Berg, Daniela; Maetzler, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The instrumented-Timed-Up-and-Go test (iTUG) provides detailed information about the following movement patterns: sit-to-walk (siwa), straight walking, turning and walk-to-sit (wasi). We were interested in the relative contributions of respective iTUG sub-phases to specific clinical deficits most relevant for daily life in Parkinson’s disease (PD). More specifically, we investigated which condition–fast speed (FS) or convenient speed (CS)–differentiates best between mild- to moderate-stage PD patients and controls, which parameters of the iTUG sub-phases are significantly different between PD patients and controls, and how the iTUG parameters associate with cognitive parameters (with particular focus on cognitive flexibility and working memory) and Health-Related-Quality of Life (HRQoL). Methods Twenty-eight PD participants (65.1±7.1 years, H&Y stage 1–3, medication OFF state) and 20 controls (66.1±7.5 years) performed an iTUG (DynaPort®, McRoberts BV, The Netherlands) under CS and FS conditions. The PD Questionnaire 39 (PDQ-39) was employed to assess HRQoL. General cognitive and executive functions were assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Trail Making Test. Results The total iTUG duration and sub-phases durations under FS condition differentiated PD patients slightly better from controls, compared to the CS condition. The following sub-phases were responsible for the observed longer total duration PD patients needed to perform the iTUG: siwa, turn and wasi. None of the iTUG parameters correlated relevantly with general cognitive function. Turning duration and wasi maximum flexion velocity correlated strongest with executive function. Walking back duration correlated strongest with HRQoL. Discussion This study confirms that mild- to moderate-stage PD patients need more time to perform the iTUG than controls, and adds the following aspects to current literature: FS may be more powerful than CS to delineate subtle movement

  6. The association between clinical parameters and glaucoma-specific quality of life in Chinese primary open-angle glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jacky W Y; Chan, Catherine W S; Chan, Jonathan C H; Li, Q; Lai, Jimmy S M

    2014-08-01

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate the association between clinical measurements and glaucoma-specific quality of life in Chinese glaucoma patients. DESIGN. Cross-sectional study. SETTING. An academic hospital in Hong Kong. PATIENTS. A Chinese translation of the Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 questionnaire was completed by 51 consecutive patients with bilateral primary open-angle glaucoma. The binocular means of several clinical measurements were correlated with Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 findings using Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression. The measurements were the visual field index and pattern standard deviation from the Humphrey Field Analyzer, Snellen best-corrected visual acuity, presenting intra-ocular pressure, current intra-ocular pressure, average retinal nerve fibre layer thickness via optical coherence tomography, and the number of topical anti-glaucoma medications being used. RESULTS. In these patients, there was a significant correlation and linear relationship between a poorer Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 score and a lower visual field index (r=0.3, r(2)=0.1, P=0.01) and visual acuity (r=0.3, r(2)=0.1, P=0.03). A thinner retinal nerve fibre layer also correlated with a poorer Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 score, but did not attain statistical significance (r=0.3, P=0.07). There were no statistically significant correlations for the other clinical parameters with the Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 scores (all P values being >0.7). The three most problematic activities affecting quality of life were "adjusting to bright lights", "going from a light to a dark room or vice versa", and "seeing at night". CONCLUSION. For Chinese primary open-angle glaucoma patients, binocular visual field index and visual acuity correlated linearly with glaucoma-specific quality of life, and activities involving dark adaptation were the most problematic.

  7. Ligand field theory and the origin of life as an emergent feature of the periodic table of elements.

    PubMed

    Morowitz, Harold J; Srinivasan, Vijayasarathy; Smith, Eric

    2010-08-01

    The assumption that all biological catalysts are either proteins or ribozymes leads to an outstanding enigma of biogenesis-how to determine the synthetic pathways to the monomers for the efficient formation of catalytic macromolecules in the absence of any such macromolecules. The last 60 years have witnessed chemists developing an understanding of organocatalysis and ligand field theory, both of which give demonstrable low-molecular-weight catalysts. We assume that transition-metal-ligand complexes are likely to have occurred in the deep ocean trenches by the combination of naturally occurring oceanic metals and ligands synthesized from the emergent CO(2), H(2), NH(3), H(2)S, and H(3)PO(4). We are now in a position to investigate experimentally the metal-ligand complexes, their catalytic function, and the reaction networks that could have played a role in the development of metabolism and life itself.

  8. Changes in quality and biochemical parameters in 'Idared' apples during prolonged shelf life and 1-MCP treatment.

    PubMed

    Bizjak, Jan; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2012-12-01

    In this study, changes in quality and various biochemical parameters of 'Idared' apples during prolonged shelf life period after ultra-low oxygen (ULO) storage were investigated. Additionally, the impact of the postharvest application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on different parameters was evaluated. After the harvest, apples were stored in the ULO storage for 6 months and then exposed to room temperature. Fruit firmness, peel color, and changes in sugars, organic acids and phenolics were monitored during the 3 weeks of shelf life. Malic acid, sugars and firmness decreased at room temperature. However, the color of the apples remained unchanged. The level of citric and ascorbic acid remained constant. Levels of phenolics in the peel increased significantly, whereas remained constant in the pulp of apples. 1-MCP treatment resulted in higher amounts of fructose and glucose, malic acid and greater firmness of apples. However, 1-MCP did not influence the phenolic content, ascorbic acid or color. The results obtained indicate that the content of different health-promoting compounds of apples does not change dramatically at room temperature. At the same time these results suggest that 1-MCP could be useful for maintaining certain quality and biochemical parameters and might extend the shelf life of apples.

  9. The Rate-Size Trade-Off Structures Intraspecific Variation in Daphnia ambigua Life History Parameters

    PubMed Central

    DeLong, John P.; Hanley, Torrance C.

    2013-01-01

    The identification of trade-offs is necessary for understanding the evolution and maintenance of diversity. Here we employ the supply-demand (SD) body size optimization model to predict a trade-off between asymptotic body size and growth rate. We use the SD model to quantitatively predict the slope of the relationship between asymptotic body size and growth rate under high and low food regimes and then test the predictions against observations for Daphnia ambigua. Close quantitative agreement between observed and predicted slopes at both food levels lends support to the model and confirms that a ‘rate-size’ trade-off structures life history variation in this population. In contrast to classic life history expectations, growth and reproduction were positively correlated after controlling for the rate-size trade-off. We included 12 Daphnia clones in our study, but clone identity explained only some of the variation in life history traits. We also tested the hypothesis that growth rate would be positively related to intergenic spacer length (i.e. the growth rate hypothesis) across clones, but we found that clones with intermediate intergenic spacer lengths had larger asymptotic sizes and slower growth rates. Our results strongly support a resource-based optimization of body size following the SD model. Furthermore, because some resource allocation decisions necessarily precede others, understanding interdependent life history traits may require a more nested approach. PMID:24312518

  10. Integrating temperature-dependent life table data into a matrix projection model for Drosophila suzukii population estimation.

    PubMed

    Wiman, Nik G; Walton, Vaughn M; Dalton, Daniel T; Anfora, Gianfranco; Burrack, Hannah J; Chiu, Joanna C; Daane, Kent M; Grassi, Alberto; Miller, Betsey; Tochen, Samantha; Wang, Xingeng; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-dependent fecundity and survival data was integrated into a matrix population model to describe relative Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) population increase and age structure based on environmental conditions. This novel modification of the classic Leslie matrix population model is presented as a way to examine how insect populations interact with the environment, and has application as a predictor of population density. For D. suzukii, we examined model implications for pest pressure on crops. As case studies, we examined model predictions in three small fruit production regions in the United States (US) and one in Italy. These production regions have distinctly different climates. In general, patterns of adult D. suzukii trap activity broadly mimicked seasonal population levels predicted by the model using only temperature data. Age structure of estimated populations suggest that trap and fruit infestation data are of limited value and are insufficient for model validation. Thus, we suggest alternative experiments for validation. The model is advantageous in that it provides stage-specific population estimation, which can potentially guide management strategies and provide unique opportunities to simulate stage-specific management effects such as insecticide applications or the effect of biological control on a specific life-stage. The two factors that drive initiation of the model are suitable temperatures (biofix) and availability of a suitable host medium (fruit). Although there are many factors affecting population dynamics of D. suzukii in the field, temperature-dependent survival and reproduction are believed to be the main drivers for D. suzukii populations. PMID:25192013

  11. Integrating temperature-dependent life table data into a matrix projection model for Drosophila suzukii population estimation.

    PubMed

    Wiman, Nik G; Walton, Vaughn M; Dalton, Daniel T; Anfora, Gianfranco; Burrack, Hannah J; Chiu, Joanna C; Daane, Kent M; Grassi, Alberto; Miller, Betsey; Tochen, Samantha; Wang, Xingeng; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-dependent fecundity and survival data was integrated into a matrix population model to describe relative Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) population increase and age structure based on environmental conditions. This novel modification of the classic Leslie matrix population model is presented as a way to examine how insect populations interact with the environment, and has application as a predictor of population density. For D. suzukii, we examined model implications for pest pressure on crops. As case studies, we examined model predictions in three small fruit production regions in the United States (US) and one in Italy. These production regions have distinctly different climates. In general, patterns of adult D. suzukii trap activity broadly mimicked seasonal population levels predicted by the model using only temperature data. Age structure of estimated populations suggest that trap and fruit infestation data are of limited value and are insufficient for model validation. Thus, we suggest alternative experiments for validation. The model is advantageous in that it provides stage-specific population estimation, which can potentially guide management strategies and provide unique opportunities to simulate stage-specific management effects such as insecticide applications or the effect of biological control on a specific life-stage. The two factors that drive initiation of the model are suitable temperatures (biofix) and availability of a suitable host medium (fruit). Although there are many factors affecting population dynamics of D. suzukii in the field, temperature-dependent survival and reproduction are believed to be the main drivers for D. suzukii populations.

  12. Integrating Temperature-Dependent Life Table Data into a Matrix Projection Model for Drosophila suzukii Population Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Wiman, Nik G.; Walton, Vaughn M.; Dalton, Daniel T.; Anfora, Gianfranco; Burrack, Hannah J.; Chiu, Joanna C.; Daane, Kent M.; Grassi, Alberto; Miller, Betsey; Tochen, Samantha; Wang, Xingeng; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-dependent fecundity and survival data was integrated into a matrix population model to describe relative Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) population increase and age structure based on environmental conditions. This novel modification of the classic Leslie matrix population model is presented as a way to examine how insect populations interact with the environment, and has application as a predictor of population density. For D. suzukii, we examined model implications for pest pressure on crops. As case studies, we examined model predictions in three small fruit production regions in the United States (US) and one in Italy. These production regions have distinctly different climates. In general, patterns of adult D. suzukii trap activity broadly mimicked seasonal population levels predicted by the model using only temperature data. Age structure of estimated populations suggest that trap and fruit infestation data are of limited value and are insufficient for model validation. Thus, we suggest alternative experiments for validation. The model is advantageous in that it provides stage-specific population estimation, which can potentially guide management strategies and provide unique opportunities to simulate stage-specific management effects such as insecticide applications or the effect of biological control on a specific life-stage. The two factors that drive initiation of the model are suitable temperatures (biofix) and availability of a suitable host medium (fruit). Although there are many factors affecting population dynamics of D. suzukii in the field, temperature-dependent survival and reproduction are believed to be the main drivers for D. suzukii populations. PMID:25192013

  13. Life-Prediction Parameters of Sapphire Determined for the Design of a Space Station Combustion Facility Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    To characterize the stress corrosion parameters and predict the life of a sapphire window being considered for use in the International Space Station's Fluids and Combustion Facility, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center conducted stress corrosion tests, fracture toughness tests, and reliability analyses, as shown in the figures. Standardized test methods, developed and updated by the author under the auspices of American Society for Testing and Materials, were employed. One interesting finding is that sapphire exhibits a susceptibility to stress corrosion in water similar to that of glass. In addition to generating the stress corrosion parameters and fracture toughness data, closed-form expressions for the variances of the crack growth parameters were derived. The expressions allow confidence bands to be easily placed on life predictions of ceramic components. Brittle materials such as sapphire and quartz are required for windows in a variety of applications such as the Fluids and Combustion Facility. To minimize the launch weight of such facilities, researchers must design the windows to be as lightweight as possible. The safe use of lightweight, brittle windows in structural applications is limited by two factors: low fracture toughness and slow crack growth, or stress corrosion. Stress corrosion of these and other optical materials can occur in relatively common environments, such as humid air. Access to the data has been requested by designers for use in the life prediction of a Northrop Grumman F16 instrument window and a Jet Propulsion Laboratory instrument window. One Space Act Agreement has been formed. Future work includes the measurement of the life of subscale windows.

  14. Rating batteries for initial capacity, charging parameters and cycle life in the photovoltaic application

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, S.R.; Hund, T.D.

    1995-11-01

    Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems typically depend on battery storage to supply power to the load when there is cloudy weather or no sun. Reliable operation of the load is often dependent on battery performance. This paper presents test procedures for lead-acid batteries which identify initial battery preparation, battery capacity after preparation, charge regulation set-points, and cycle life based on the operational characteristics of PV systems.

  15. From dioramas to the dinner table: An ethnographic case study of the role of science museums in family life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellenbogen, Kirsten M.

    families use museums over time and the network of learning resources that support family life. This study suggests possible ways for museum professionals to reconsider the design of learning activities, museum environments, and a shift in focus from the learning institution of the science museum to the learning institution of the family.

  16. Linking Life Table and Predation Rate for Biological Control: A Comparative Study of Eocanthecona furcellata (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Fed on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin

    2016-02-01

    To better understand the predator-prey relationship and to compare predation rates, we studied the life table and predation rate of the predator Eocanthecona furcellata Wolff (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) when reared on two major crucifer pests, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate, and net predation rates of E. furcellata reared on P. xylostella were 292.4 offspring, 0.1389 d(-1), 1.1490 d(-1), and 644.1 third instars of P. xylostella, respectively. These values are significantly higher than those reared on S. litura, i.e., 272.3 offspring, 0.1220 d(-1), 1.1298 d(-1), and 863.1 third instars of S. litura. To evaluate the predation potential of E. furcellata fed on P. xylostella and S. litura, we combined both the growth rate and predation rate to calculate the finite predation rate (ω); our results showed that E. furcellata is an effective predator of both S. litura (ω = 1.6029) and P. xylostella (ω = 1.4277).

  17. Effects of changing demographic factors upon women's family status in China: a model of a family status life table and its application.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Y

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a life table model for China based on Bongaarts nuclear family model and the concept marker of the family, who is identified as the senior women in the family. The attached appendix details the calculations. The type and size of the family are determined by the status change of every marker in the family; the marital, parity, and maternal states. Co-residence in the 3 generation family as well as families maintaining close emotional and economic ties regardless of residence are included. Comparisons of demographic changes are made for 1950-70 and 1981. The following factors are relevant to understanding this model. 1) Fertility, mortality, and marriage rates by age group are considered artificially constant. 2) The Markov hypothesis operates in such a way that birth variations for women at specific age groups vary with marital status. 3) The model is female only. 4) The divorce and re-marriage rate is indirectly estimated. The findings indicate that along with provincial data, 82.3% remained single in 1981 before the recommended marriage at the mature age of 20. Although the multi birth rate appears low, the distribution of births for 50-year-olds indicates the 47.6% have 3 or more births and multi births still represent a serious problem.

  18. Effects of the bilateral isokinetic strengthening training on functional parameters, gait, and the quality of life in patients with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Büyükvural Şen, Sıdıka; Özbudak Demir, Sibel; Ekiz, Timur; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of the bilateral isokinetic strengthening training applied to knee and ankle muscles on balance, functional parameters, gait, and the quality of in stroke patients. Methods: Fifty patients (33 M, 17 F) with subacute-chronic stroke and 30 healthy subjects were included. Stroke patients were allocated into isokinetic and control groups. Conventional rehabilitation program was applied to all cases; additionally maximal concentric isokinetic strengthening training was applied to the knee-ankle muscles bilaterally to the isokinetic group 5 days a week for 3 weeks. Biodex System 3 Pro Multijoint System isokinetic dynamometer was used for isokinetic evaluation. The groups were assessed by Functional Independence Measure, Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale, Timed 10-Meter Walk Test, Six-Minute Walk Test, Stair-Climbing Test, Timed up&go Test, Berg Balance Scale, and Rivermead Mobility Index. Results: Compared with baseline, the isokinetic PT values of the knee and ankle on both sides significantly increased in all cases. PT change values were significantly higher in the isokinetic group than the control group (P<0.025). Furthermore, the quality of life, gait, balance and mobility index values improved significantly in both groups, besides the increase levels were found significantly higher in the isokinetic group (P<0.025, P<0.05). Conclusion: Bilateral isokinetic strengthening training in addition to conventional rehabilitation program after stroke seems to be effective on strengthening muscles on both sides, improving functional parameters, gait, balance and life quality. PMID:26629238

  19. Lysosomal response of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) coelomocytes to the fungicide copper oxychloride and relation to life-cycle parameters.

    PubMed

    Reinecke, Sophiè A; Helling, Beate; Reinecke, Adriaan J

    2002-05-01

    Juvenile specimens of the earthworm species Eisenia fetida Savigny, 1826, were exposed in the laboratory to a range of concentrations of the fungicide copper oxychloride. After an eight-week exposure period, the neutral-red retention (NRR) times were measured in the coelomocytes of all the worms that had matured. Life-cycle traits (survival, biomass change, cocoon production, cocoon mass, hatching of cocoons, number of hatchlings) were also monitored. Dose-related effects on NRR times, maturation, growth, and reproduction parameters were determined (one-way analysis of variance, p < 0.05). The lowest effect concentration for substrate copper (Cu) measured for the NRR time was 8.9 mg/kg (dry wt). Growth was severely affected at the highest exposure concentration (330 mg/kg substrate dry wt), at which no worms matured and no NRR times could be measured. Negative linear correlations (p < 0.05) were apparent between the NRR times and substrate and body Cu concentrations. Positive linear relationships were found between the NRR times and some life-cycle parameters (p < 0.05). This study showed that the NRR assay can indicate toxic stress due to Cu exposure at an early stage, and that NRR times can be linked to effects on certain life-cycle traits.

  20. Testing life history predictions in a long-lived seabird: a population matrix approach with improved parameter estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, P.F.; Schreiber, E.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Link, W.A.; Schenk, G.A.; Schreiber, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Life history theory and associated empirical generalizations predict that population growth rate (lambda) in long-lived animals should be most sensitive to adult survival; the rates to which lambda is most sensitive should be those with the smallest temporal variances; and stochastic environmental events should most affect the rates to which lambda is least sensitive. To date, most analyses attempting to examine these predictions have been inadequate, their validity being called into question by problems in estimating parameters, problems in estimating the variability of parameters, and problems in measuring population sensitivities to parameters. We use improved methodologies in these three areas and test these life-history predictions in a population of red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda). We support our first prediction that lambda is most sensitive to survival rates. However the support for the second prediction that these rates have the smallest temporal variance was equivocal. Previous support for the second prediction may be an artifact of a high survival estimate near the upper boundary of 1 and not a result of natural selection canalizing variances alone. We did not support our third prediction that effects of environmental stochasticity (El Ni?o) would most likely be detected in vital rates to which lambda was least sensitive and which are thought to have high temporal variances. Comparative data-sets on other seabirds, within and among orders, and in other locations, are needed to understand these environmental effects.

  1. Estimation of Material Parameters in Nonlinear Hardening Plasticity Models and Strain Life Curves for CuAg Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srnec Novak, J.; Benasciutti, D.; De Bona, F.; Stanojević, A.; De Luca, A.; Raffaglio, Y.

    2016-03-01

    This work investigates the cyclic response and low-cycle fatigue behaviour of a CuAg alloy used in crystallizer for continuous casting lines. Therefore isothermal strain-based fatigue tests are first performed on CuAg specimens at different temperature levels (20 °C, 250 °C, 300 °C). The evolution of stress-strain loops recorded during the cyclic tests is used for the parameter identification of several nonlinear hardening models (nonlinear kinematic, nonlinear isotropic). Cyclic stress-strain data from experiments are compared with results from numerical simulations with the identified material parameters, showing a satisfying agreement. Critical examination of numerical results from different models is also performed. Finally, the strain- life fatigue curves estimated from experimental data are compared with approximate strain-life equations (Universal Slopes Equation, 10% Rule) which are obtained from simple tensile tests. The material parameters determined in this work can conveniently be used as inputs in a elasto- plastic finite element simulations of a crystallizer.

  2. 26 CFR 1.807-1 - Mortality and morbidity tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... life insurance. 4a. Group life insurance disability income benefits (active life reserves) The tables... the Society of Actuaries. 4b. Group life insurance disability income benefits (disabled life reserves... life insurance; survivor income benefits insurance Same tables as are applicable to......

  3. Influence of machining parameters on cutting tool life while machining aluminum alloy fly ash composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, C. R. Prakash; chandra, Poorna; Kiran, R.; Asha, P. B.

    2016-09-01

    Metal matrix composites containing fly ash as reinforcement are primarily preferred because these materials possess lower density and higher strength to weight ratio. The metal matrix composites possess hetrogeneous microstructure which is due to the presence of hard ceramic particles. While turning composites, the catastrophic failure of cutting tools is attributed to the presence of hard particles. Selection of optimal cutting conditions for a given machining process and grade of cutting tools are of utmost importance to enhance the tool life during turning operation. Thus the research work was aimed at the experimental investigation of the cutting tool life while machining aluminum alloy composite containing 0-15% fly-ash. The experiments carried out following ISO3685 standards. The carbide inserts of grade K10 and style CGGN120304 were the turning tools. The cutting speed selected was between 200m/min to 500m/min in step of 100m/min, feed of 0.08 & 0.16 mm/revolution and constant depth of cut of 1.0 mm. The experimental results revealed that the performance of K10 grade carbide insert found better while machining composite containing 5% filler, at all cutting speeds and 0.08mm/revolution feed. The failures of carbide tools are mainly due to notch wear followed by built up edge and edge chipping.

  4. Standardized Pearson type 3 density function area tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, A. C.; Helm, F. R.; Sugg, M.

    1971-01-01

    Tables constituting extension of similar tables published in 1936 are presented in report form. Single and triple parameter gamma functions are discussed. Report tables should interest persons concerned with development and use of numerical analysis and evaluation methods.

  5. A Table! (At the Table).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert M.

    A review of French dining habits and table manners outlines: elements of the place setting, courtesies used at the table, serving conventions, restaurant tipping, the size and content of the different meals of the day, subtle differences in common foods, restaurant types, menu types, general wine and cheese choices, waiter-client communication,…

  6. Insecticide resistance and nutrition interactively shape life-history parameters in German cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kim; Ko, Alexander E; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules

    2016-06-27

    Fitness-related costs of evolving insecticide resistance have been reported in a number of insect species, but the interplay between evolutionary adaptation to insecticide pressure and variable environmental conditions has received little attention. We provisioned nymphs from three German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) populations, which differed in insecticide resistance, with either nutritionally rich or poor (diluted) diet throughout their development. One population was an insecticide-susceptible laboratory strain; the other two populations originated from a field-collected indoxacarb-resistant population, which upon collection was maintained either with or without further selection with indoxacarb. We then measured development time, survival to the adult stage, adult body size, and results of a challenge with indoxacarb. Our results show that indoxacarb resistance and poor nutritional condition increased development time and lowered adult body size, with reinforcing interactions. We also found lower survival to the adult stage in the indoxacarb-selected population, which was exacerbated by poor nutrition. In addition, nutrition imparted a highly significant effect on indoxacarb susceptibility. This study exemplifies how poor nutritional condition can aggravate the life-history costs of resistance and elevate the detrimental effects of insecticide exposure, demonstrating how environmental conditions and resistance may interactively impact individual fitness and insecticide efficacy.

  7. Insecticide resistance and nutrition interactively shape life-history parameters in German cockroaches

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kim; Ko, Alexander E.; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules

    2016-01-01

    Fitness-related costs of evolving insecticide resistance have been reported in a number of insect species, but the interplay between evolutionary adaptation to insecticide pressure and variable environmental conditions has received little attention. We provisioned nymphs from three German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) populations, which differed in insecticide resistance, with either nutritionally rich or poor (diluted) diet throughout their development. One population was an insecticide-susceptible laboratory strain; the other two populations originated from a field-collected indoxacarb-resistant population, which upon collection was maintained either with or without further selection with indoxacarb. We then measured development time, survival to the adult stage, adult body size, and results of a challenge with indoxacarb. Our results show that indoxacarb resistance and poor nutritional condition increased development time and lowered adult body size, with reinforcing interactions. We also found lower survival to the adult stage in the indoxacarb-selected population, which was exacerbated by poor nutrition. In addition, nutrition imparted a highly significant effect on indoxacarb susceptibility. This study exemplifies how poor nutritional condition can aggravate the life-history costs of resistance and elevate the detrimental effects of insecticide exposure, demonstrating how environmental conditions and resistance may interactively impact individual fitness and insecticide efficacy. PMID:27345220

  8. 40 CFR Appendix - Tables to Part 132

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT... Tables to Part 132 Table 1—Acute Water Quality Criteria for Protection of Aquatic Life in Ambient Water... is the CMC expressed as a total concentration. Table 2—Chronic Water Quality Criteria for...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix - Tables to Part 132

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT... Tables to Part 132 Table 1—Acute Water Quality Criteria for Protection of Aquatic Life in Ambient Water... is the CMC expressed as a total concentration. Table 2—Chronic Water Quality Criteria for...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix - Tables to Part 132

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT... Tables to Part 132 Table 1—Acute Water Quality Criteria for Protection of Aquatic Life in Ambient Water... is the CMC expressed as a total concentration. Table 2—Chronic Water Quality Criteria for...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix - Tables to Part 132

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT... Tables to Part 132 Table 1—Acute Water Quality Criteria for Protection of Aquatic Life in Ambient Water... is the CMC expressed as a total concentration. Table 2—Chronic Water Quality Criteria for...

  12. Life history parameters of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) at different environmental conditions on two bean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Maria R; van Lenteren, Joop C

    2009-01-01

    Life-history parameters of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), an important pest of bean crops in Colombia, were determined in environmental control chambers on two dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars (cv.). Trialeurodes vaporariorum longevity on cv. Chocho decreased as temperature increased from 22.6 d at 19 degrees C to 5.9 d at 26 degrees C. Fecundity was significantly lower at 19 degrees C (8.6 eggs/female), as compared to 22 degrees C (32.6 eggs/female) and 26 degrees C (33.3 eggs/female) on cv. Chocho. Fecundity on cv. ICA-Pijao was much higher (127.2 eggs/female) than on cv. Chocho (32.6 eggs/female) at 19 degrees C. The intrinsic rate of population increase (r m) was highest at 22 degrees C (0.061), intermediate at 19 degrees C (0.044) and lowest at 26 degrees C (0.035) on cv. Chocho, and was 0.072 on cv. ICA-Pijao at 19 degrees C. Life history parameters of T. vaporariorum are compared to those of one of its natural enemies, the parasitoid Amitus fuscipennis MacGown & Nebeker. Finally, data are presented on the distribution of the parasitoid related to the altitude for the Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

  13. A Multiple Decrement Life Table Reveals That Host Plant Resistance and Parasitism Are Major Causes of Mortality for the Wheat Stem Sawfly.

    PubMed

    Buteler, Micaela; Peterson, Robert K D; Hofland, Megan L; Weaver, David K

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the dynamics of parasitism, host plant resistance, pathogens, and predation on the demography of wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), developing in susceptible (hollow stem) and resistant (solid stem) wheat hosts. This study is also the first to investigate the prevalence and impact of cannibalism on wheat stem sawfly mortality. Wheat stem sawflies were sampled in two commercial wheat fields over 4 yr from the egg stage through adult emergence, and multiple decrement life tables were constructed and analyzed. Cannibalism, host plant resistance, or unknown factors were the most prevalent factors causing egg mortality. Summer mortality of prediapause larvae ranged from 28 to 84%, mainly due to parasitism by Bracon cephi (Gahan) and Bracon lissogaster Muesebeck, cannibalism, and host plant resistance. Winter mortality ranged from 6 to 54% of the overwintering larvae, mainly due to unknown factors or pathogens. Cannibalism is a major cause of irreplaceable mortality because it is absolute, with only a single survivor in every multiple infested stem. Subsequent to obligate cannibalism, mortality of feeding larvae due to host plant resistance was lower in hollow stem wheat than in solid stem wheat. Mortality from host plant resistance was largely irreplaceable. Irreplaceable mortality due to parasitoids was greater in hollow stem wheat than in solid stem wheat. Host plant resistance due to stem solidness and parasitism in hollow stems cause substantial mortality in populations of actively feeding larvae responsible for all crop losses. Therefore, enhancing these mortality factors is vital to effective integrated pest management of wheat stem sawfly. PMID:26314030

  14. Changes in faecal bacteria and metabolic parameters in foals during the first six weeks of life.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Juliane; Winterhoff, Nora; Wulf, Manuela; Schweigert, Florian J; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Aurich, Jörg E; Kutzer, Peter; Aurich, Christine

    2011-08-01

    Many foals develop diarrhoea within the first two weeks of life which has been suggested to coincide with postpartum oestrus in their dams. To analyse the pathogenesis of this diarrhoea we have determined faecal bacteria in foals and their dams (n=30 each), and serum IGF-1 and γ-globulins for 6 weeks after birth. In addition, effects of β-carotene supplementation to mares (group 1: 1000 mg/day, n=15, group 2: control, n=15) on diarrhoea in foals were studied. Diarrhoea occurred in 92 and 79% of foals in groups 1 and 2, respectively, but was not correlated with oestrus in mares. Beta-carotene supplementation was without effect on foal diarrhoea. In mares, bacterial flora remained stable. The percentage of foals with cultures positive for E. coli was low at birth but increased within one day, the percentage positive for Enterococcus sp. was low for 10 days and for Streptococcus sp. and Staphylococcus sp. was low for 2-4 weeks. By 4 weeks of age, bacterial flora in foals resembled an adult pattern. Concentration of serum IGF-1 was low at birth (group 1: 149 ± 11, group 2: 166 ± 17ng/ml), increased after day 1 (day 7 group 1: 384 ± 30, group 2: 372 ± 36) but at no time differed between groups. Serum γ-globulin concentration in foals was low before colostrum intake and highest on day 1 (p<0.001 over time). In conclusion, neonatal diarrhoea in foals does not coincide with postpartum oestrus in their dams but with changes in intestinal bacteria and is not influenced by β-carotene supplementation given to mares.

  15. Evaluation of marine subareas of Europe using life history parameters and trophic levels of selected fish populations.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, R P Prabath K; Amarasinghe, Upali S; Newton, Alice

    2015-12-01

    European marine waters include four regional seas that provide valuable ecosystem services to humans, including fish and other seafood. However, these marine environments are threatened by pressures from multiple anthropogenic activities and climate change. The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was adopted in 2008 to achieve good environmental status (GEnS) in European Seas by year 2020, using an Ecosystem Approach. GEnS is to be assessed using 11 descriptors and up to 56 indicators. In the present analysis two descriptors namely "commercially exploited fish and shellfish populations" and "food webs" were used to evaluate the status of subareas of FAO 27 area. Data on life history parameters, trophic levels and fisheries related data of cod, haddock, saithe, herring, plaice, whiting, hake and sprat were obtained from the FishBase online database and advisory reports of International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). Subareas inhabited by r and K strategists were identified using interrelationships of life history parameters of commercially important fish stocks. Mean trophic level (MTL) of fish community each subarea was calculated and subareas with species of high and low trophic level were identified. The Fish in Balance (FiB) index was computed for each subarea and recent trends of FiB indices were analysed. The overall environmental status of each subarea was evaluated considering life history trends, MTL and FiB Index. The analysis showed that subareas I, II, V, VIII and IX were assessed as "good" whereas subareas III, IV, VI and VII were assessed as "poor". The subareas assessed as "good" were subject to lower environmental pressures, (less fishing pressure, less eutrophication and more water circulation), while the areas with "poor" environment experienced excessive fishing pressure, eutrophication and disturbed seabed. The evaluation was based on two qualitative descriptors ("commercially exploited fish and shellfish

  16. Evaluation of marine subareas of Europe using life history parameters and trophic levels of selected fish populations.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, R P Prabath K; Amarasinghe, Upali S; Newton, Alice

    2015-12-01

    European marine waters include four regional seas that provide valuable ecosystem services to humans, including fish and other seafood. However, these marine environments are threatened by pressures from multiple anthropogenic activities and climate change. The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was adopted in 2008 to achieve good environmental status (GEnS) in European Seas by year 2020, using an Ecosystem Approach. GEnS is to be assessed using 11 descriptors and up to 56 indicators. In the present analysis two descriptors namely "commercially exploited fish and shellfish populations" and "food webs" were used to evaluate the status of subareas of FAO 27 area. Data on life history parameters, trophic levels and fisheries related data of cod, haddock, saithe, herring, plaice, whiting, hake and sprat were obtained from the FishBase online database and advisory reports of International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). Subareas inhabited by r and K strategists were identified using interrelationships of life history parameters of commercially important fish stocks. Mean trophic level (MTL) of fish community each subarea was calculated and subareas with species of high and low trophic level were identified. The Fish in Balance (FiB) index was computed for each subarea and recent trends of FiB indices were analysed. The overall environmental status of each subarea was evaluated considering life history trends, MTL and FiB Index. The analysis showed that subareas I, II, V, VIII and IX were assessed as "good" whereas subareas III, IV, VI and VII were assessed as "poor". The subareas assessed as "good" were subject to lower environmental pressures, (less fishing pressure, less eutrophication and more water circulation), while the areas with "poor" environment experienced excessive fishing pressure, eutrophication and disturbed seabed. The evaluation was based on two qualitative descriptors ("commercially exploited fish and shellfish

  17. Impact of Feeding on Contaminated Prey on the Life Parameters of Nesidiocoris Tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wanumen, Andrea Carolina; Sánchez-Ramos, Ismael; Viñuela, Elisa; Medina, Pilar; Adán, Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide selectivity to natural enemies is an important concern in integrated pest management programs. Although there is a wide range of information concerning pesticide lethal and sublethal effects on contaminated surfaces, little is known when the route of exposure occurs at a trophic level. This study evaluates this route of pesticide intake on the omnivorous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) for the first time. Under laboratory conditions, prey treated with six insecticides (flubendiamide, spirotetramat, deltamethrin, flonicamid, metaflumizone, and sulfoxaflor) were offered to N. tenuis adults for 3 days. Mortality (24, 48, and 72 h after treatment), offspring production (third until eighth day) and longevity were documented. Metaflumizone and sulfoxaflor were classified as moderately harmful products because although the percentage of mortality was only 28 and 36%, respectively, both products caused a severe decrease in offspring production and longevity. Flonicamid and flubendiamide were classified as slightly harmful products; although they did not have a lethal effect, sublethal impact was important on the parameters studied. Spirotetramat and deltamethrin were insecticides categorized as harmless. This information could be useful for selecting the most appropriate insecticides to control pests in tomato crops in which N. tenuis is a relevant biological control agent. PMID:27694345

  18. Impact of Feeding on Contaminated Prey on the Life Parameters of Nesidiocoris Tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wanumen, Andrea Carolina; Sánchez-Ramos, Ismael; Viñuela, Elisa; Medina, Pilar; Adán, Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide selectivity to natural enemies is an important concern in integrated pest management programs. Although there is a wide range of information concerning pesticide lethal and sublethal effects on contaminated surfaces, little is known when the route of exposure occurs at a trophic level. This study evaluates this route of pesticide intake on the omnivorous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) for the first time. Under laboratory conditions, prey treated with six insecticides (flubendiamide, spirotetramat, deltamethrin, flonicamid, metaflumizone, and sulfoxaflor) were offered to N. tenuis adults for 3 days. Mortality (24, 48, and 72 h after treatment), offspring production (third until eighth day) and longevity were documented. Metaflumizone and sulfoxaflor were classified as moderately harmful products because although the percentage of mortality was only 28 and 36%, respectively, both products caused a severe decrease in offspring production and longevity. Flonicamid and flubendiamide were classified as slightly harmful products; although they did not have a lethal effect, sublethal impact was important on the parameters studied. Spirotetramat and deltamethrin were insecticides categorized as harmless. This information could be useful for selecting the most appropriate insecticides to control pests in tomato crops in which N. tenuis is a relevant biological control agent.

  19. Probability: A Matter of Life and Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassani, Mehdi; Kippen, Rebecca; Mills, Terence

    2016-01-01

    Life tables are mathematical tables that document probabilities of dying and life expectancies at different ages in a society. Thus, the life table contains some essential features of the health of a population. Probability is often regarded as a difficult branch of mathematics. Life tables provide an interesting approach to introducing concepts…

  20. Side-effects of glyphosate on the life parameters of Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mirande, L; Haramboure, M; Smagghe, G; Piñeda, S; Schneider, M I

    2010-01-01

    In Argentina, transgenic soybean crop (Roundup Ready, RR) has undergone a major expansion over the last 15 years, with the consequent increase of glyphosate applications, a broad-spectrum and post emergence herbicide. Soybean crops are inhabited by several arthropods. Eriopis connexa Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) is a predator associated to soybean soft-bodies pest and have a Neotropical distribution. Nowadays, it is being considered a potentially biological control agent in South America. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the side-effects of glyphosate on larvae (third instar) and adults of this predator. Commercial compound and the maximum registered concentrations for field use were employed: GlifoGlex 48 (48% glyphosate, 192 mg a.i./litre, Gleba Argentina S.A.). The exposure was by ingestion through the treated prey (Rophalosiphum padi) or by drinking treated water during 48 h for treatment of the adult. The herbicide solutions were prepared using distilled water as solvent. The bioassays were carried out in the laboratory under controlled conditions: 23 +/- 0.5 degrees C, 75 +/- 5% RH and 16:8 (L:D) of photoperiod. Development time, weight of pupae, adult emergence, pre-oviposition period, fecundity and fertility were evaluated as endpoints. Larvae from glyphosate treatment molted earlier than controls. In addition, the weight of pupae, longevity, fecundity and fertility were drastically reduced in treated organisms. The reductions were more drastic when the treatments were performed at the third larval stage than as adult. The reproduction capacity of the predator was the most affected parameter and could be related to a hormonal disruption by glyphosate in the treated organisms. This work can confirm the deleterious effects of this herbicide on beneficial organisms. Also, it agrees with prior studies carried out on other predators associated to soybean pest, such as Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Alpaida veniliae (Araneae

  1. Evaluation of ultrasound based sterilization approaches in terms of shelf life and quality parameters of fruit and vegetable juices.

    PubMed

    Khandpur, Paramjeet; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-03-01

    The present work evaluates the performance of ultrasound based sterilization approaches for processing of different fruit and vegetable juices in terms of microbial growth and changes in the quality parameters during the storage. Comparison with the conventional thermal processing has also been presented. A novel approach based on combination of ultrasound with ultraviolet irradiation and crude extract of essential oil from orange peels has been used for the first time. Identification of the microbial growth (total bacteria and yeast content) in the juices during the subsequent storage and assessing the safety for human consumption along with the changes in the quality parameters (Brix, titratable acidity, pH, ORP, salt, conductivity, TSS and TDS) has been investigated in details. The optimized ultrasound parameters for juice sterilization were established as ultrasound power of 100 W and treatment time of 15 min for the constant frequency operation (20 kHz). It has been established that more than 5 log reduction was achieved using the novel combined approaches based on ultrasound. The treated juices using different approaches based on ultrasound also showed lower microbial growth and improved quality characteristics as compared to the thermally processed juice. Scale up studies were also performed using spinach juice as the test sample with processing at 5 L volume for the first time. The ultrasound treated juice satisfied the microbiological and physiochemical safety limits in refrigerated storage conditions for 20 days for the large scale processing. Overall the present work conclusively established the usefulness of combined treatment approaches based on ultrasound for maintaining the microbiological safety of beverages with enhanced shelf life and excellent quality parameters as compared to the untreated and thermally processed juices.

  2. Evaluation of ultrasound based sterilization approaches in terms of shelf life and quality parameters of fruit and vegetable juices.

    PubMed

    Khandpur, Paramjeet; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-03-01

    The present work evaluates the performance of ultrasound based sterilization approaches for processing of different fruit and vegetable juices in terms of microbial growth and changes in the quality parameters during the storage. Comparison with the conventional thermal processing has also been presented. A novel approach based on combination of ultrasound with ultraviolet irradiation and crude extract of essential oil from orange peels has been used for the first time. Identification of the microbial growth (total bacteria and yeast content) in the juices during the subsequent storage and assessing the safety for human consumption along with the changes in the quality parameters (Brix, titratable acidity, pH, ORP, salt, conductivity, TSS and TDS) has been investigated in details. The optimized ultrasound parameters for juice sterilization were established as ultrasound power of 100 W and treatment time of 15 min for the constant frequency operation (20 kHz). It has been established that more than 5 log reduction was achieved using the novel combined approaches based on ultrasound. The treated juices using different approaches based on ultrasound also showed lower microbial growth and improved quality characteristics as compared to the thermally processed juice. Scale up studies were also performed using spinach juice as the test sample with processing at 5 L volume for the first time. The ultrasound treated juice satisfied the microbiological and physiochemical safety limits in refrigerated storage conditions for 20 days for the large scale processing. Overall the present work conclusively established the usefulness of combined treatment approaches based on ultrasound for maintaining the microbiological safety of beverages with enhanced shelf life and excellent quality parameters as compared to the untreated and thermally processed juices. PMID:26585014

  3. Interval-parameter chance-constraint programming model for end-of-life vehicles management under rigorous environmental regulations.

    PubMed

    Simic, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    As the number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) is estimated to increase to 79.3 million units per year by 2020 (e.g., 40 million units were generated in 2010), there is strong motivation to effectively manage this fast-growing waste flow. Intensive work on management of ELVs is necessary in order to more successfully tackle this important environmental challenge. This paper proposes an interval-parameter chance-constraint programming model for end-of-life vehicles management under rigorous environmental regulations. The proposed model can incorporate various uncertainty information in the modeling process. The complex relationships between different ELV management sub-systems are successfully addressed. Particularly, the formulated model can help identify optimal patterns of procurement from multiple sources of ELV supply, production and inventory planning in multiple vehicle recycling factories, and allocation of sorted material flows to multiple final destinations under rigorous environmental regulations. A case study is conducted in order to demonstrate the potentials and applicability of the proposed model. Various constraint-violation probability levels are examined in detail. Influences of parameter uncertainty on model solutions are thoroughly investigated. Useful solutions for the management of ELVs are obtained under different probabilities of violating system constraints. The formulated model is able to tackle a hard, uncertainty existing ELV management problem. The presented model has advantages in providing bases for determining long-term ELV management plans with desired compromises between economic efficiency of vehicle recycling system and system-reliability considerations. The results are helpful for supporting generation and improvement of ELV management plans. PMID:27039124

  4. Interval-parameter chance-constraint programming model for end-of-life vehicles management under rigorous environmental regulations.

    PubMed

    Simic, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    As the number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) is estimated to increase to 79.3 million units per year by 2020 (e.g., 40 million units were generated in 2010), there is strong motivation to effectively manage this fast-growing waste flow. Intensive work on management of ELVs is necessary in order to more successfully tackle this important environmental challenge. This paper proposes an interval-parameter chance-constraint programming model for end-of-life vehicles management under rigorous environmental regulations. The proposed model can incorporate various uncertainty information in the modeling process. The complex relationships between different ELV management sub-systems are successfully addressed. Particularly, the formulated model can help identify optimal patterns of procurement from multiple sources of ELV supply, production and inventory planning in multiple vehicle recycling factories, and allocation of sorted material flows to multiple final destinations under rigorous environmental regulations. A case study is conducted in order to demonstrate the potentials and applicability of the proposed model. Various constraint-violation probability levels are examined in detail. Influences of parameter uncertainty on model solutions are thoroughly investigated. Useful solutions for the management of ELVs are obtained under different probabilities of violating system constraints. The formulated model is able to tackle a hard, uncertainty existing ELV management problem. The presented model has advantages in providing bases for determining long-term ELV management plans with desired compromises between economic efficiency of vehicle recycling system and system-reliability considerations. The results are helpful for supporting generation and improvement of ELV management plans.

  5. A Discussion of Oxygen Recovery Definitions and Key Performance Parameters for Closed-Loop Atmosphere Revitalization Life Support Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 55 years, NASA has evolved life support for crewed space exploration vehicles from simple resupply during Project Mercury to the complex and highly integrated system of systems aboard the International Space Station. As NASA targets exploration destinations farther from low Earth orbit and mission durations of 500 to 1000 days, life support systems must evolve to meet new requirements. In addition to having more robust, reliable, and maintainable hardware, limiting resupply becomes critical for managing mission logistics and cost. Supplying a crew with the basics of food, water, and oxygen become more challenging as the destination ventures further from Earth. Aboard ISS the Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) supplies the crew's oxygen demand by electrolyzing water. This approach makes water a primary logistics commodity that must be managed carefully. Chemical reduction of metabolic carbon dioxide (CO2) provides a method of recycling oxygen thereby reducing the net ARS water demand and therefore minimizing logistics needs. Multiple methods have been proposed to achieve this recovery and have been reported in the literature. However, depending on the architecture and the technology approach, "oxygen recovery" can be defined in various ways. This discontinuity makes it difficult to compare technologies directly. In an effort to clarify community discussions of Oxygen Recovery, we propose specific definitions and describe the methodology used to arrive at those definitions. Additionally, we discuss key performance parameters for Oxygen Recovery technology development including challenges with comparisons to state-of-the-art.

  6. Influence of environmental parameters on the life-history and population dynamics of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Stefanie; Valls, Maria; Hidalgo, Manuel; Quetglas, Antoni

    2014-05-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis constitutes an important fishery resource in the Mediterranean, where it is exploited by both the bottom trawl and small-scale fleet. However, there is currently scarce information on the Mediterranean stocks, since most studies on the population dynamics of this species have been undertaken in the northeast Atlantic. In this work we first analysed different aspects of the cuttlefish life-history from the western Mediterranean such as population structure, reproduction and the trade-offs between somatic condition and reproduction investments. Secondly, we investigated the effects of different environmental parameters (e.g. climate indices, sea surface temperature (SST), rainfall, chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) and moon phase) on these populations, analysing several landing time series spanning the last 45 years. Our results revealed that Mediterranean cuttlefish populations exhibit strong seasonal variations owing to a reproductive migration towards coastal waters. The positive relationships between somatic and reproductive condition pointed to an income breeder strategy; this was reinforced by the percentage of empty stomachs, which was lowest just before the reproductive period peak. Despite the putative high sensitivity of cephalopod populations to external abiotic factors, our results showed that Mediterranean cuttlefish populations were not affected by most of the environmental parameters investigated. Significant effects were found for SST and a local climatic index, but no or very weak influences were evident for other parameters such as large-scale climatic phenomena (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation, Mediterranean Oscillation) or other locally-related variables (e.g. rainfall, Chla). Our results revealed a shift in the cuttlefish population dynamics in the early 1980s, which could be related to important changes in the local hydroclimatology reported by previous authors.

  7. Life in the Pressure Cooker--School League Tables and English and Mathematics Teachers' Responses to Accountability in a Results-Driven Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perryman, Jane; Ball, Stephen; Maguire, Meg; Braun, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based on case-study research in four English secondary schools. It explores the pressure placed on English and mathematics departments because of their results being reported in annual performance tables. It examines how English and maths departments enact policies of achievement, the additional power and extra resources the pressure…

  8. Life-history parameters of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, on seven commercial cultivars of potato, Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Seyed Ali Asghar; Fakhr-Taha, Zoha; Razmjou, Jabraeil

    2013-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an important pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), crops in the Ardabil region of Iran. In this research, the life-history parameters of L. decemlineata were investigated on seven potato cultivars, namely Agria, Aozonia, Diamant, Cosmus, Kondor, Morene, and Savalan, in a greenhouse at 23 ± 1° C and 55 ± 5% RH under a natural photoperiod. The results indicated that the development time of larvae was longest on Savalan (18.3 days) among the tested potato cultivars. The survival rates (egg to adult) on Savalan and Morene were significantly lower than on the other studied cultivars. L. decemlineata reared on Savalan had the lowest fecundity (286.3 eggs/female) among the tested potato cultivars. The oviposition period of females was significantly shorter on Savalan and Diamant than on Kondor, Aozonia, Morene, Agria, and Cosmus. The values of intrinsic rate of natural increase and population growth rate were lowest on Savalan (0.055 and 1.056, respectively). The generation time and doubling time were significantly longest on Savalan (69.5 and 12.7 days, respectively). Based on these results, it can be concluded that Savalan is the least suitable cultivar for L. decemlineata among the ones tested. These results can be useful in integrated management of L. decemlineata in potato fields. PMID:24794138

  9. Life-history parameters of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, on seven commercial cultivars of potato, Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Seyed Ali Asghar; Fakhr-Taha, Zoha; Razmjou, Jabraeil

    2013-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an important pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), crops in the Ardabil region of Iran. In this research, the life-history parameters of L. decemlineata were investigated on seven potato cultivars, namely Agria, Aozonia, Diamant, Cosmus, Kondor, Morene, and Savalan, in a greenhouse at 23 ± 1° C and 55 ± 5% RH under a natural photoperiod. The results indicated that the development time of larvae was longest on Savalan (18.3 days) among the tested potato cultivars. The survival rates (egg to adult) on Savalan and Morene were significantly lower than on the other studied cultivars. L. decemlineata reared on Savalan had the lowest fecundity (286.3 eggs/female) among the tested potato cultivars. The oviposition period of females was significantly shorter on Savalan and Diamant than on Kondor, Aozonia, Morene, Agria, and Cosmus. The values of intrinsic rate of natural increase and population growth rate were lowest on Savalan (0.055 and 1.056, respectively). The generation time and doubling time were significantly longest on Savalan (69.5 and 12.7 days, respectively). Based on these results, it can be concluded that Savalan is the least suitable cultivar for L. decemlineata among the ones tested. These results can be useful in integrated management of L. decemlineata in potato fields.

  10. Vitamin K-dependent coagulation parameters during the first six days of life: incidence of PIVKA II in newborns.

    PubMed

    Boos, J; Pollmann, H; Dominick, H C

    1989-01-01

    The vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of the prothrombin precursor PIVKA II (protein induced by vitamin K absence analogous to Factor II) is essential for the synthesis of prothrombin. The noncarboxylated precursor is found in peripheral blood in the presence of vitamin K deficiency. In this study prothrombin time, Factor II and Factor VII activity, and PIVKA II were investigated in 57 newborns without vitamin K prophylaxis in order to assess their vitamin K status. Two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis demonstrated the presence of PIVKA II in 21% of the newborns, predominantly on the second day. The PIVKA-II positive group showed significantly lower prothrombin times than the PIVKA II-negative group. An oral dose of 3 mg vitamin K (Konakion) was administered to 35 healthy newborns in a second group with the first feeding. On the second day of life, these infants showed significantly higher vitamin K-dependent laboratory parameters than the group not given vitamin K; only 9% of the treated infants were positive for PIVKA II.

  11. Correlations between growth parameters of spoilage micro-organisms and shelf-life of pork stored under air and modified atmosphere at -2, 4 and 10 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Yang, Run-Qing; Li, Yun-Fei

    2006-09-01

    The correlations of the growth parameters (the initial cell number (N(0)), maximum cell number (N(max)), maximum specific growth rate (mu(max)), lag-phase (lambda)) of typical spoilage micro-organisms (lactic acid bacteria (LAB), coliforms, pseudomonads, Brochothrix thermosphacta) growing on sliced pork to the sensory shelf-life and microbial shelf-life were investigated. The changes in sensory quality and proliferation of micro-organisms on pork shoulder were studied at different atmosphere conditions (air and 40%CO(2)/59%N(2)/1%O(2)) and temperatures (-2, 4 and 10 degrees C). Microbial counts were fitted to the modified-Gompertz equation to obtain the growth parameters of different micro-organisms. B. thermosphacta and coliforms were predominant bacteria associated with spoilage of pork under all temperatures and air conditions. However, pseudomonads could only dominate under regular atmosphere condition. Using multiple linear regression, high correlations were found between the lag-time (lambda) of LAB (0.9814, 0.9830), B. thermosphacta (0.9895, 0.9849), or the maximum specific growth rate (mu(max)) of coliforms (-0.9583, -0.9695) and the microbial shelf-life and sensory shelf-life, respectively. The mu(max) and lambda of micro-organisms correlated well with microbial and sensory shelf-life. The shelf-life of pork is mainly correlated with the growth parameters of mu(max) and lambda than by N(max).

  12. Evaluation of medical and psychological parameters of quality of life in supraventricular tachyarrhythmia children. A comparison with healthy children

    PubMed Central

    Baszko, Artur; Bukowska-Posadzy, Anna; Moszura, Tomasz; Werner, Bożena; Siwińska, Aldona; Banach, Maciej; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Bobkowski, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are only a few available studies evaluating quality of life (QoL) in pediatric patients with cardiac arrhythmia. The aim of the study was to evaluate medical and psychological parameters of the QoL in children with a diagnosed supraventricular tachyarrhythmia (SVT) and to compare the obtained data with a group of healthy children (HC). Material and methods Inclusion criteria: children aged 7–18 with SVT, treated at Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Cardiology. The evaluation tools were the WHOQOL-BREF instrument and a questionnaire related to the patient's feelings and observations concerning arrhythmia (Pediatric Arrhythmia Related Score – PARS), developed by the authors and adjusted to the group of arrhythmia patients. Results The study included 180 SVT children and 83 HC. On the basis of WHOQOL-BREF the SVT group was found to have lower assessment values of QoL within the physical domain (Phd) (mean ± SD: 65.7 ±15.8 vs. 81.6 ±12.8; p < 0.0001) and psychological domain (Psd) (mean ± SD: 75.8 ±15.2 vs. 81.3 ±14.1; p < 0.005). No significant differences were found within the social relationships domain or the environment domain. On the basis of PARS in the SVT group the patients reported significantly increased symptoms within Phd (mean ± SD: 2.3 ±0.7 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3; p < 0.0001) as well as increased negative feelings within Psd (mean ± SD: 2.3 ±0.7 vs. 2.1 ± 0.6; p < 0.005). Conclusions Medical and psychological parameters of the QoL in SVT children are significantly lower in comparison with HC. A diagnosis of SVT has no influence on the social and environmental areas of QoL. The PARS appears to be a useful tool to supplement the generic questionnaire for QoL evaluation in SVT children.

  13. Evaluation of medical and psychological parameters of quality of life in supraventricular tachyarrhythmia children. A comparison with healthy children

    PubMed Central

    Baszko, Artur; Bukowska-Posadzy, Anna; Moszura, Tomasz; Werner, Bożena; Siwińska, Aldona; Banach, Maciej; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Bobkowski, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are only a few available studies evaluating quality of life (QoL) in pediatric patients with cardiac arrhythmia. The aim of the study was to evaluate medical and psychological parameters of the QoL in children with a diagnosed supraventricular tachyarrhythmia (SVT) and to compare the obtained data with a group of healthy children (HC). Material and methods Inclusion criteria: children aged 7–18 with SVT, treated at Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Cardiology. The evaluation tools were the WHOQOL-BREF instrument and a questionnaire related to the patient's feelings and observations concerning arrhythmia (Pediatric Arrhythmia Related Score – PARS), developed by the authors and adjusted to the group of arrhythmia patients. Results The study included 180 SVT children and 83 HC. On the basis of WHOQOL-BREF the SVT group was found to have lower assessment values of QoL within the physical domain (Phd) (mean ± SD: 65.7 ±15.8 vs. 81.6 ±12.8; p < 0.0001) and psychological domain (Psd) (mean ± SD: 75.8 ±15.2 vs. 81.3 ±14.1; p < 0.005). No significant differences were found within the social relationships domain or the environment domain. On the basis of PARS in the SVT group the patients reported significantly increased symptoms within Phd (mean ± SD: 2.3 ±0.7 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3; p < 0.0001) as well as increased negative feelings within Psd (mean ± SD: 2.3 ±0.7 vs. 2.1 ± 0.6; p < 0.005). Conclusions Medical and psychological parameters of the QoL in SVT children are significantly lower in comparison with HC. A diagnosis of SVT has no influence on the social and environmental areas of QoL. The PARS appears to be a useful tool to supplement the generic questionnaire for QoL evaluation in SVT children. PMID:27695497

  14. Mortality rates of 0-group plaice ( pleuronectes platessa L.) dab ( limanda limanda L.) and turbot ( scophthalmus maximus L.) in European waters . II. Comparison of mortality rates and construction of life table for 0-group plaice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beverton, R. J. H.; Iles, T. C.

    This paper collates and compares the available published and unpublished estimates of mortality rates of demersal 0-group plaice, dab and turbot on their nursery grounds of the North Sea and adjacent coastal waters. Seasonal and spatial variations account for some but not all of the observed differences. The consolidated phase mortality rates throughout the first year from hatching onwards are then checked against independent data of the total egg-production and numbers of age 1 recruits for the 1986, 1987 and 1988 year-classes of plaice. From this analysis a revised life-table for the first year of life of North Sea plaice is constructed. The mortality rate of dab from mid-summer to the end of the first year is well correlated with that of plaice in the same location at the same time, suggesting that the main causes of mortality during this phase of the life-history are the same in both species. The only available estimate of the mortality rate of demersal 0-group turbot is within the upper part of the range for plaice. The demographic implications of these findings are examined and significant gaps identified in the present knowledge of the quantitative early life-history of these species.

  15. Mesa = Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows two mesas on the northern plains of Mars. 'Mesa' is the Spanish word for 'table,' and that is a very good description of the two elliptical features captured in this MOC image. In both cases, the mesa tops and the material beneath them, down to the level of the surrounding, rugged plain, are remnants of a once more extensive layer (or layers) of material that has been largely eroded away. The circular feature near the center of the larger mesa is the site of a filled and buried impact crater.

    Location near: 53.5oN, 153.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  16. Les Tables de salon (Coffee Tables)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondina, Marisa; Gilbert, Rodrigue

    1977-01-01

    Terms for such things as furniture in English reflect function and are specific, not generic in nature. French equivalents are based on linguistic criteria. "Tables basses" or "tables de salon" are equivalents of "coffee tables"; they illustrate the tendency toward the generic of the French language. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  17. Influence of process parameters on rolling-contact-fatigue life of ion plated nickel-copper-silver lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Danyluk, Mike; Dhingra, Anoop

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, we present a connection between argon ion flux, element-mixing, and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) life of a thin film nickel-copper-silver lubricant on ball bearings. The film is deposited on the balls using an ion plating process and tested for RCF in high vacuum. The ion flux is measured using a Langmuir probe and the plane stress within the film during deposition is calculated using a thin film model. Experiments reveal that there is an inverse relationship between ion flux and RCF life for most deposition voltage and pressure combinations tested, specifically, 15.5-18.5 mTorr and 1.5-3.5 kV. For voltages up to 2.5 kV, RCF life decreases as ion flux increases due to increased compressive stress within the film, reaching as high as 2.6 GPa. For voltages between 2.5 and 3.5 kV, interlayer mixing of nickel and copper with the silver layer reduces RCF life due to contamination, even as ion flux and corresponding film compressive stress are reduced. A Monte Carlo-based simulation tool, SRIM is used to track collision cascades of the argon ions and metal atoms within the coating layers. At process voltages above 2.5 kV we observe elemental mixing of copper and nickel with the silver layer using Auger electron spectroscopy of coated steel and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls. The authors conclude that an ion flux greater than 5.0 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} leads to reduced RCF life due to high film stress. In addition, process voltages greater than 2.5 kV also reduce RCF life due to contamination and interlayer mixing of nickel and copper within the silver layer.

  18. Energy: It is life

    SciTech Connect

    Arques, P.

    1998-07-01

    The relationships that seem to exist between energy and man are presented in this paper. Habitually, social coefficients are connected to the gross domestic product; some parameters with correlations are: birth rate, infant mortality rate, death rate, literacy, etc. Along with energy these define the optimal energy consumption per capita; the author presents the correlation between these parameters and energy consumed per capita. There exists a high correlation between energy consumption per capita and gross domestic product per capita. The set of parameters considered are correlated with similar values relative to these two parameters. Using data collected on a group of the different countries of the world, a table of 165 countries and 22 variables has been drawn up. From the [Country x variable] matrix, a correlation table is calculated and a factorial analysis is applied to this matrix. The first factorial plan comprises 57% of the information contained in this table. Results from this first factorial plan are presented. These parameters are analyzed: influence of a country's latitude on its inhabitants' consumption; relationship between consumed energy and gross domestic product; women's fertility rate; birth rate per 1000 population; sex ratio; life expectancy at birth; rate of literacy; death rate; population growth rate. Finally, it is difficult to define precise criteria for: an optimal distribution of population according to age, but with a power consumed of above 300 W per capita, the population becomes younger; the birth rate per 1000 population; the total fertility rate per woman; the population growth rate. The authors determine that optimal energy is approximately between 200 W and 677 W inclusive.

  19. Sheep Milk Yogurt from a Short Food Supply Chain: Study of the Microbiological, Chemico-Physical and Organoleptic Parameters in Relation to Shelf-Life

    PubMed Central

    Marri, Nicla; Carfora, Virginia; Patriarca, Daniela; Veschetti, Maria Cristina; Giacinti, Giuseppina; Giangolini, Gilberto

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this work was to analyse some microbiological, chemico-physical and organoleptic parameters of sheep milk yogurt during and after its declared shelf-life. Five samples of a sheep’s milk yogurt of the same lot, collected from a short supply chain ovine dairy farm of the Roman province, were analysed. Declared shelf-life of the product was 30 days. The products were examined at 2, 14, 30, 35 and 40 days from the production date, performing the following microbiological analyses: enumeration of i) colony-forming units characteristic of the yogurt, ii) Enterobacteriaceae, iii) yeasts and/or moulds at 25°C. Microbiological identification was performed by miniature biochemical tests and for the lactic acid bacteria also by PCR. At every test interval, evaluation of organoleptic parameters and pH was also performed. The analysed product maintained an almost constant amount of lactic acid bacteria until the end of the declared shelf-life. Concerning lactic acid bacteria, a 100% concordance of the results observed by using biochemical identification methods and PCR assays was obtained. After 14 days from the production, the presence of yeasts (Candida famata) was revealed, while the presence of moulds was detected after 30 days. Ralstonia picketii, an environmental microorganism, was also isolated. The results obtained in this study indicate that yogurt spoilage is mainly due to the growth of specific microorganisms of spoilage, such as yeasts and moulds. PMID:27800350

  20. Inference on arthropod demographic parameters: computational advances using R.

    PubMed

    Maia, Aline De Holanda Nunes; Pazianotto, Ricardo Antonio De Almeida; Luiz, Alfredo José Barreto; Marinho-Prado, Jeanne Scardini; Pervez, Ahmad

    2014-02-01

    We developed a computer program for life table analysis using the open source, free software programming environment R. It is useful to quantify chronic nonlethal effects of treatments on arthropod populations by summarizing information on their survival and fertility in key population parameters referred to as fertility life table parameters. Statistical inference on fertility life table parameters is not trivial because it requires the use of computationally intensive methods for variance estimation. Our codes present some advantages with respect to a previous program developed in Statistical Analysis System. Additional multiple comparison tests were incorporated for the analysis of qualitative factors; a module for regression analysis was implemented, thus, allowing analysis of quantitative factors such as temperature or agrochemical doses; availability is granted for users, once it was developed using an open source, free software programming environment. To illustrate the descriptive and inferential analysis implemented in lifetable.R, we present and discuss two examples: 1) a study quantifying the influence of the proteinase inhibitor berenil on the eucalyptus defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) and 2) a study investigating the influence of temperature on demographic parameters of a predaceous ladybird, Hippodamia variegata (Goeze). PMID:24665730

  1. Physical body parameters of red-crowned cranes Grus japonensis by sex and life stage in eastern Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Masako; Shimura, Ryoji; Uebayashi, Akiko; Ikoma, Shinobu; Iima, Hiroko; Sumiyoshi, Takashi; Teraoka, Hiroki; Makita, Kohei; Hiraga, Takeo; Momose, Kunikazu; Masatomi, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Red-crowned (or Japanese) cranes Grus japonensis are native to eastern Hokkaido, Japan--the island population, and mainland Asia--the continental population that migrates from breeding grounds along the Amur River Basin to winter in east China and the Korean Peninsula. The island population was reduced to about 50-60 birds in early part of the 20th century. Since 1950s, the population has increased to more than 1,300 as a consequence of human-provided food in winter, resulted in change of their habitats and food resource. From the carcasses of 284 wild cranes from the island population, collected in Hokkaido since 1976 until 2010, we measured six physical parameters (body weight and lengths of body, wing, tarsus, tail and exposed culmen) and divided into groups by sex and three developmental stages (juvenile, yearling and adult). All parameters of males were larger than those of females at the same stage. Total body length of females tends to grow up earlier than males, in contrast to body weight. Obvious time trends were not observed in these all parameters during 34 years for these six categories measured, except total length of male juveniles, which showed a significant increasing trend. These results provide the first extensive data on body size and mass in the wild red-crowned cranes. PMID:23585489

  2. A 10-week memantine treatment in bipolar depression: a case report. Focus on depressive symptomatology, cognitive parameters and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Tabaszewska, Agnieszka; Barszcz, Zbigniew; Józefowicz, Olga; Kropiwnicki, Paweł; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta

    2013-12-01

    Memantine and other glutamatergic agents have been currently investigated in some off-label indications due to glutamatergic involvement in several psychoneurological disorders. We assumed that memantine similarly to ketamine may positively influence mood, moreover having a potential to improve cognition and general quality of life. We report a case of a 49-year-old male hospitalized during a manic and a subsequent moderate depressive episode. After an ineffective use of lithium, olanzapine and antidepressive treatment with mianserin, memantine was added up to 20 mg per day for 10 weeks. The mental state was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the Clinical Global Inventory, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale and psychological tests. After 10 weeks the patient achieved a partial symptomatic improvement in mood, anxiety and quality of sleep, but his activity remained insufficient. We also observed an improvement in the parameters of cognitive functioning and quality of life. There was neither significant mood variations during the memantine use nor mood changes after its termination. No significant side effects were noted during the memantine treatment. We conclude that using memantine in bipolar depression may improve mood, cognitive functioning and quality of life. PMID:24474993

  3. Gompertz-Makeham life expectancies: expressions and applications.

    PubMed

    Missov, Trifon I; Lenart, Adam

    2013-12-01

    In a population of individuals, whose mortality is governed by a Gompertz-Makeham hazard, we derive closed-form solutions to the life-expectancy integral, corresponding to the cases of homogeneous and gamma-heterogeneous populations, as well as in the presence/absence of the Makeham term. Derived expressions contain special functions that aid constructing high-accuracy approximations, which can be used to study the elasticity of life expectancy with respect to model parameters. Knowledge of Gompertz-Makeham life expectancies aids constructing life-table exposures.

  4. Transient Population Dynamics of Mosquitoes during Sterile Male Releases: Modelling Mating Behaviour and Perturbations of Life History Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The release of genetically-modified or sterile male mosquitoes offers a promising form of mosquito-transmitted pathogen control, but the insights derived from our understanding of male mosquito behaviour have not fully been incorporated into the design of such genetic control or sterile-male release methods. The importance of aspects of male life history and mating behaviour for sterile-male release programmes were investigated by projecting a stage-structured matrix model over time. An elasticity analysis of transient dynamics during sterile-male releases was performed to provide insight on which vector control methods are likely to be most synergistic. The results suggest that high mating competitiveness and mortality costs of released males are required before the sterile-release method becomes ineffective. Additionally, if released males suffer a mortality cost, older males should be released due to their increased mating capacity. If released males are of a homogenous size and size-assortative mating occurs in nature, this can lead to an increase in the abundance of large females and reduce the efficacy of the population-suppression effort. At a high level of size-assortative mating, the disease transmission potential of the vector population increases due to male releases, arguing for the release of a heterogeneously-sized male population. The female population was most sensitive to perturbations of density-dependent components of larval mortality and female survivorship and fecundity. These findings suggest source reduction might be a particularly effective complement to mosquito control based on the sterile insect technique (SIT). In order for SIT to realize its potential as a key component of an integrated vector-management strategy to control mosquito-transmitted pathogens, programme design of sterile-male release programmes must account for the ecology, behaviour and life history of mosquitoes. The model used here takes a step in this direction and can

  5. Effects of NaCl-stressed citrus plants on life-history parameters of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Aucejo-Romero, Sílvia; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Jacas-Miret, Josep-Anton

    2004-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae is an important pest of citrus, especially lemon and mandarin, under Mediterranean climate. Factors leading to this problem are poorly understood, but saline stress is suspected to contribute to spider mite outbreaks. In this study, the effect of NaCl concentration in nutritive solutions used to water potted young mandarin trees on population growth of T. urticae reared on leaf discs obtained from these plants was investigated. Although the differences observed between treated (5, 10, 30 and 60 mM NaCl) and control groups were in most cases not significant, when all biological parameters calculated were combined to obtain Ro, T and r(m), remarkable differences appeared, and a concentration-dependent effect was detected. Although high salt concentrations negatively affected T. urticae, at the lowest concentration tested the r(m) value was significantly higher than at the water control and this may contribute to the observed field explosions of T. urticae. PMID:15285138

  6. Changes in life history parameters of Rhopalosiphum maidis (Homoptera: Aphididae) under four different elevated temperature and CO2 combinations.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haicui; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Wenqiang; Wang, Zhenying; Ni, Xinzhi; Cai, Wanzhi; He, Kanglai

    2014-08-01

    Biological characteristics of corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), on barley, Hordeum vulgare L., were examined for two generations under four different elevated temperature and CO2 combinations. The developmental duration for each life stage was significantly reduced under the elevated temperature (+4 degrees C). The elevated CO2 (700-750 microl/liter) reduced only the development time of fourth-instar nymph. The overall duration of nymphal stage was reduced in the second generation. Thus, the temperature was the dominant factor to development duration of corn leaf aphid. The fecundity of corn leaf aphid was significantly increased under the elevated temperature and CO2, as well as in the later generation. Elevated temperature and CO2 increased the number of alate production, which may enhance the aphid migration or dispersal and the spread of plant viruses. Corn leaf aphid had the highest intrinsic rate of increase under the elevated temperature and CO2 combination in the second generation. These results indicate that the combined effects of both elevated temperature and CO2 on aphid biology may exacerbate aphid damage on barley under the climate change in accompany with elevated temperature and CO2 level. PMID:25195429

  7. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  8. Comparisons of life-history parameters between free-ranging and captive killer whale (Orcinus orca) populations for application toward species management

    PubMed Central

    Robeck, Todd R.; Willis, Kevin; Scarpuzzi, Michael R.; O’Brien, Justine K.

    2015-01-01

    Data collected on life-history parameters of known-age animals from the northern (NR) and southern resident (SR) killer whales (Orcinus orca) of the eastern North Pacific were compared with life-history traits of killer whales located at SeaWorld (SEA) facilities. For captive-born SEA animals, mean age and body length at 1st estrus was 7.5 years and 483.7cm, respectively. Estimated mean age at 1st conception was different (P < 0.001) for the combined data from both northern and southern resident (NSR) free-ranging populations (12.1 years) compared to SEA (9.8 years), as was the estimated mean age at 1st observed calf (SEA: 11.1 years, NSR: 14.2 years, P < 0.001). Average calf survival rate to 2 years of age for SEA animals (0.966) was significantly greater (P = 0.04) than that for SR (0.799). Annual survival rate (ASR) for SEA increased over approximately 15-year increments with rates in the most recent period (2000–2015 ASR: 0.976) improved (P < 0.05) over the first 2 periods of captivity (1965–1985: 0.906; 1985–2000: 0.941). The SR (0.966) and NR ASR (0.977) were higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of SEA until 2000, after which there were no inter-population differences. Based on ASR, median and average life expectancy were 28.8 and 41.6 years (SEA: 2000–2015), 20.1 and 29.0 years (SR), and 29.3 and 42.3 years (NR), respectively. The ASR for animals born at SEA (0.979) was higher (P = 0.02) than that of wild-caught SEA animals (0.944) with a median and average life expectancy of 33.1 and 47.7 years, respectively. These data present evidence for similar life-history parameters of free-ranging and captive killer whale populations and the reproductive potential and survivorship patterns established herein have application for use in future research concerning the overall health of both populations. PMID:26937049

  9. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  10. Hot cell examination table

    DOEpatents

    Gaal, Peter S.; Ebejer, Lino P.; Kareis, James H.; Schlegel, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    A table for use in a hot cell or similar controlled environment for use in examining specimens. The table has a movable table top that can be moved relative to a table frame. A shaft is fixedly mounted to the frame for axial rotation. A shaft traveler having a plurality of tilted rollers biased against the shaft is connected to the table top such that rotation of the shaft causes the shaft traveler to roll along the shaft. An electromagnetic drive is connected to the shaft and the frame for controllably rotating the shaft.

  11. Hot cell examination table

    SciTech Connect

    Gaal, P.S.; Ebjer, L.P.; Kareis, J.H.; Schlegel, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a table for use in a hot cell or similar controlled environment for use in examining specimens. The table has a movable table top that can be moved relative to a table frame. A shaft is fixedly mounted to the frame for axial rotation. A shaft traveler having a plurality of tilted rollers biased against the shaft is connected to the table top such that rotation of the shaft causes the shaft traveler to roll along the shaft. An electromagnetic drive is connected to the shaft and the frame for controllably rotating the shaft.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 439 - Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tables A Appendix A to Part 439... (CONTINUED) PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pt. 439, App. A Appendix A to Part 439—Tables... Cellosolve Dimethyl Sulfoxide 1 These parameters may be used as a surrogate to represent other parameters...

  13. Parameter Estimations of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) Model over the Life History of a Key Antarctic Species: The Antarctic Sea Star Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906.

    PubMed

    Agüera, Antonio; Collard, Marie; Jossart, Quentin; Moreau, Camille; Danis, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms in Antarctica are adapted to an extreme ecosystem including extremely stable temperatures and strong seasonality due to changes in day length. It is now largely accepted that Southern Ocean organisms are particularly vulnerable to global warming with some regions already being challenged by a rapid increase of temperature. Climate change affects both the physical and biotic components of marine ecosystems and will have an impact on the distribution and population dynamics of Antarctic marine organisms. To predict and assess the effect of climate change on marine ecosystems a more comprehensive knowledge of the life history and physiology of key species is urgently needed. In this study we estimate the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model parameters for key benthic Antarctic species the sea star Odontaster validus using available information from literature and experiments. The DEB theory is unique in capturing the metabolic processes of an organism through its entire life cycle as a function of temperature and food availability. The DEB model allows for the inclusion of the different life history stages, and thus, becomes a tool that can be used to model lifetime feeding, growth, reproduction, and their responses to changes in biotic and abiotic conditions. The DEB model presented here includes the estimation of reproduction handling rules for the development of simultaneous oocyte cohorts within the gonad. Additionally it links the DEB model reserves to the pyloric caeca an organ whose function has long been ascribed to energy storage. Model parameters described a slowed down metabolism of long living animals that mature slowly. O. validus has a large reserve that-matching low maintenance costs- allow withstanding long periods of starvation. Gonad development is continuous and individual cohorts developed within the gonads grow in biomass following a power function of the age of the cohort. The DEB model developed here for O. validus allowed us to

  14. Parameter Estimations of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) Model over the Life History of a Key Antarctic Species: The Antarctic Sea Star Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906.

    PubMed

    Agüera, Antonio; Collard, Marie; Jossart, Quentin; Moreau, Camille; Danis, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms in Antarctica are adapted to an extreme ecosystem including extremely stable temperatures and strong seasonality due to changes in day length. It is now largely accepted that Southern Ocean organisms are particularly vulnerable to global warming with some regions already being challenged by a rapid increase of temperature. Climate change affects both the physical and biotic components of marine ecosystems and will have an impact on the distribution and population dynamics of Antarctic marine organisms. To predict and assess the effect of climate change on marine ecosystems a more comprehensive knowledge of the life history and physiology of key species is urgently needed. In this study we estimate the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model parameters for key benthic Antarctic species the sea star Odontaster validus using available information from literature and experiments. The DEB theory is unique in capturing the metabolic processes of an organism through its entire life cycle as a function of temperature and food availability. The DEB model allows for the inclusion of the different life history stages, and thus, becomes a tool that can be used to model lifetime feeding, growth, reproduction, and their responses to changes in biotic and abiotic conditions. The DEB model presented here includes the estimation of reproduction handling rules for the development of simultaneous oocyte cohorts within the gonad. Additionally it links the DEB model reserves to the pyloric caeca an organ whose function has long been ascribed to energy storage. Model parameters described a slowed down metabolism of long living animals that mature slowly. O. validus has a large reserve that-matching low maintenance costs- allow withstanding long periods of starvation. Gonad development is continuous and individual cohorts developed within the gonads grow in biomass following a power function of the age of the cohort. The DEB model developed here for O. validus allowed us to

  15. Parameter Estimations of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) Model over the Life History of a Key Antarctic Species: The Antarctic Sea Star Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906

    PubMed Central

    Agüera, Antonio; Collard, Marie; Jossart, Quentin; Moreau, Camille; Danis, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms in Antarctica are adapted to an extreme ecosystem including extremely stable temperatures and strong seasonality due to changes in day length. It is now largely accepted that Southern Ocean organisms are particularly vulnerable to global warming with some regions already being challenged by a rapid increase of temperature. Climate change affects both the physical and biotic components of marine ecosystems and will have an impact on the distribution and population dynamics of Antarctic marine organisms. To predict and assess the effect of climate change on marine ecosystems a more comprehensive knowledge of the life history and physiology of key species is urgently needed. In this study we estimate the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model parameters for key benthic Antarctic species the sea star Odontaster validus using available information from literature and experiments. The DEB theory is unique in capturing the metabolic processes of an organism through its entire life cycle as a function of temperature and food availability. The DEB model allows for the inclusion of the different life history stages, and thus, becomes a tool that can be used to model lifetime feeding, growth, reproduction, and their responses to changes in biotic and abiotic conditions. The DEB model presented here includes the estimation of reproduction handling rules for the development of simultaneous oocyte cohorts within the gonad. Additionally it links the DEB model reserves to the pyloric caeca an organ whose function has long been ascribed to energy storage. Model parameters described a slowed down metabolism of long living animals that mature slowly. O. validus has a large reserve that—matching low maintenance costs- allow withstanding long periods of starvation. Gonad development is continuous and individual cohorts developed within the gonads grow in biomass following a power function of the age of the cohort. The DEB model developed here for O. validus allowed us to

  16. Life, Death, and Second Chances

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Life, Death, and Second Chances Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table ... New Asthma Guidelines: What You Should Know / Life, Death, and Second Chances / Asthma Research: The NIH-NJRC ...

  17. Correlations of life-span variation parameters in 128 successive generations of Drosophila melanogaster with changes in atmospheric pressure and geomagnetic activity.

    PubMed

    Izmaylov, D M; Obukhova, L K; Konradov, A A

    2005-05-01

    Correlations between the parameters of life-span (LS) distribution of Drosophila melanogaster, including mean LS (MLS) and the time of 10 and 90% population mortality, and some geophysical parameters that are usually beyond the control of researchers dealing with laboratory cultures, including atmospheric pressure, solar activity indices (Wolf's sunspot numbers and 2,800-MHz radio flux), and geomagnetic activity (planetary index, K(p)), were studied. Geophysical data were obtained from free-access official web sites of the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration of the US Department of Commerce and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism and Radiowave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The geophysical parameters were calculated only for the period corresponding to 10 days of preimaginal development of the flies from egg to imago. Canonical correlation analysis, calculation of the non-parametric Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients, and graphical data analysis were used. Highly significant correlations between parameters of LS distribution in males and females and environmental factors, such as the atmospheric pressure on the 4th and 5th day of development and geomagnetic activity indices (K(p)) on the 6th and 10th day of development were found, with correlation coefficients varying from 0.31 to 0.37 (P<0.02). Assuming a causal relationship between geophysical factors and LS, it may be hypothesized that energetically weak environmental factors determine the formation of LS oscillatory dynamics in laboratory populations. The possible mechanisms underlying the contribution of these environmental factors to the LS variation in successive generations are discussed.

  18. Influence of Life Diet on the Biology and Demographic Parameters of Agistemus olivi Romeih, a Specific Predator of Eriophyid Pest Mites (Acari: Stigmaeidae and Eriophyidae).

    PubMed

    Momen, Faten Mamdouh

    2012-05-01

    The influence of various life diets on the biology and demographic parameters of the predatory mite, Agistemus olivi Romeih, was studied under laboratory conditions. A. olivi successfully developed and reproduced on all of the tested eriophyid mites. Feeding on Aceria mangiferae Sayed enhanced the development of A. olivi, resulted in the shortest mean generation time and was the most commensurate food for the ovipostion of the predator, as exhibited by the highest fecundity and net reproductive rate. Preying on Aculops lycopersici (Massee) gave the lowest fecundity and net reproductive rate; therefore, this prey was the least suitable for the oviposition of A. olivi. Preying on Aculus fockeui (Nalepa et Trouessart) and A. mangiferae produced higher intrinsic rates of increase and finite rates of increase for the predator in comparison to A. lycopersici, which showed the lowest value. These differences in response to various eriophyid pests should be considered for the production of healthy cultures of A. olivi.

  19. Influence of Life Diet on the Biology and Demographic Parameters of Agistemus olivi Romeih, a Specific Predator of Eriophyid Pest Mites (Acari: Stigmaeidae and Eriophyidae)

    PubMed Central

    Momen, Faten Mamdouh

    2012-01-01

    The influence of various life diets on the biology and demographic parameters of the predatory mite, Agistemus olivi Romeih, was studied under laboratory conditions. A. olivi successfully developed and reproduced on all of the tested eriophyid mites. Feeding on Aceria mangiferae Sayed enhanced the development of A. olivi, resulted in the shortest mean generation time and was the most commensurate food for the ovipostion of the predator, as exhibited by the highest fecundity and net reproductive rate. Preying on Aculops lycopersici (Massee) gave the lowest fecundity and net reproductive rate; therefore, this prey was the least suitable for the oviposition of A. olivi. Preying on Aculus fockeui (Nalepa et Trouessart) and A. mangiferae produced higher intrinsic rates of increase and finite rates of increase for the predator in comparison to A. lycopersici, which showed the lowest value. These differences in response to various eriophyid pests should be considered for the production of healthy cultures of A. olivi. PMID:24575223

  20. Water buffalo mozzarella cheese stored in polysaccharide-based gels: correlation between prolongation of the shelf-life and physicochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Laurienzo, P; Malinconico, M; Mazzarella, G; Petitto, F; Piciocchi, N; Stefanile, R; Volpe, M G

    2008-04-01

    An innovative packaging system has been developed, based on natural gels, that has shown the peculiar characteristic to strongly increase the shelf life of water buffalo Mozzarella cheese. To explain the mechanism of action of the gel, measurements of Ca and Na in the cheese and in the storage liquid were carried out, together with pH determination. A correlation has been found between the constant level of Ca and pH in the cheese and the prolongation of nutritional characteristics; in fact, both parameters diminish significantly in the absence of gel. At the same time, the weight of the cheese in gel remained constant for as long as 30 d. Confocal laser microscopy gave direct evidence of the persistent physical structure of proteins and lipids of Mozzarella when stored in gel.

  1. A two-parameter model to predict fatigue life of high-strength steels in a very high cycle fatigue regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chengqi; Liu, Xiaolong; Hong, Youshi

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, ultrasonic (20 kHz) fatigue tests were performed on specimens of a high-strength steel in very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) regime. Experimental results showed that for most tested specimens failed in a VHCF regime, a fatigue crack originated from the interior of specimen with a fish-eye pattern, which contained a fine granular area (FGA) centered by an inclusion as the crack origin. Then, a two-parameter model is proposed to predict the fatigue life of high-strength steels with fish-eye mode failure in a VHCF regime, which takes into account the inclusion size and the FGA size. The model was verified by the data of present experiments and those in the literature. Furthermore, an analytic formula was obtained for estimating the equivalent crack growth rate within the FGA. The results also indicated that the stress intensity factor range at the front of the FGA varies within a small range, which is irrespective of stress amplitude and fatigue life.

  2. Quantifying Ecology: Constructing Life History Tables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balgopal, Meena M.; Ode, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    In the biology community there has been a call for integrating lessons on population growth rate and the human population crisis into biology classrooms. Ecologists fear that students do not understand the relationship between the magnitude of the human population growth and Earth's carrying capacity, as well as some basic ecological concepts. The…

  3. Table of radioactive elements

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    As has been the custom in the past, the Commission publishes a table of relative atomic masses and halflives of selected radionuclides. The information contained in this table will enable the user to calculate the atomic weight for radioactive materials with a variety of isotopic compositions. The atomic masses have been taken from the 1984 Atomic Mass Table. Some of the halflives have already been documented.

  4. Environmental regulatory update table

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.J.; Langston, M.E.; Tucker, C.S.; Reed, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  5. 1997 MWD comparison tables

    SciTech Connect

    Wiseman, K.

    1997-05-01

    This year`s MWD Comparison Tables include a Quick Reference Guide listing MWD sensors by collar size for each manufacturer. Following the Quick Reference Guide are the comparison tables, which list general, directional, gamma ray, resistivity, density and neutron data for each tool. The MWD Tables should only be used as a reference source. System specifications frequently change as tools are refined and developed. Consult MWD marketing representatives prior to making final tool selections. A contact key for all the companies listed in the tables appears on the last page.

  6. An Application-Oriented Periodic Table of the Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouma, J.

    1989-01-01

    A brief history of several of the early forms of the periodic table of the elements are discussed including those of Mendeleev, Meyer, Hubbard, Gmelin, Von Antropoff, and Strong. A more every-day-life form of the table is presented. (CW)

  7. Normal tissue complication probability model parameter estimation for xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients based on scintigraphy and quality of life assessments

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With advances in modern radiotherapy (RT), many patients with head and neck (HN) cancer can be effectively cured. However, xerostomia is a common complication in patients after RT for HN cancer. The purpose of this study was to use the Lyman–Kutcher–Burman (LKB) model to derive parameters for the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for xerostomia based on scintigraphy assessments and quality of life (QoL) questionnaires. We performed validation tests of the Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) guidelines against prospectively collected QoL and salivary scintigraphic data. Methods Thirty-one patients with HN cancer were enrolled. Salivary excretion factors (SEFs) measured by scintigraphy and QoL data from self-reported questionnaires were used for NTCP modeling to describe the incidence of grade 3+ xerostomia. The NTCP parameters estimated from the QoL and SEF datasets were compared. Model performance was assessed using Pearson’s chi-squared test, Nagelkerke’s R2, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and the Hosmer–Lemeshow test. The negative predictive value (NPV) was checked for the rate of correctly predicting the lack of incidence. Pearson’s chi-squared test was used to test the goodness of fit and association. Results Using the LKB NTCP model and assuming n=1, the dose for uniform irradiation of the whole or partial volume of the parotid gland that results in 50% probability of a complication (TD50) and the slope of the dose–response curve (m) were determined from the QoL and SEF datasets, respectively. The NTCP-fitted parameters for local disease were TD50=43.6 Gy and m=0.18 with the SEF data, and TD50=44.1 Gy and m=0.11 with the QoL data. The rate of grade 3+ xerostomia for treatment plans meeting the QUANTEC guidelines was specifically predicted, with a NPV of 100%, using either the QoL or SEF dataset. Conclusions Our study shows the agreement between the NTCP

  8. Exposure of Daphnia magna to trichloroethylene (TCE) and vinyl chloride (VC): evaluation of gene transcription, cellular activity, and life-history parameters.

    PubMed

    Houde, Magali; Douville, Mélanie; Gagnon, Pierre; Sproull, Jim; Cloutier, François

    2015-06-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous contaminant classified as a human carcinogen. Vinyl chloride (VC) is primarily used to manufacture polyvinyl chloride and can also be a degradation product of TCE. Very few data exist on the toxicity of TCE and VC in aquatic organisms particularly at environmentally relevant concentrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sub-lethal effects (10 day exposure; 0.1; 1; 10 µg/L) of TCE and VC in Daphnia magna at the gene, cellular, and life-history levels. Results indicated impacts of VC on the regulation of genes related to glutathione-S-transferase (GST), juvenile hormone esterase (JHE), and the vitelline outer layer membrane protein (VMO1). On the cellular level, exposure to 0.1, 1, and 10 µg/L of VC significantly increased the activity of JHE in D. magna and TCE increased the activity of chitinase (at 1 and 10 µg/L). Results for life-history parameters indicated a possible tendency of TCE to affect the number of molts at the individual level in D. magna (p=0.051). Measurement of VG-like proteins using the alkali-labile phosphates (ALP) assay did not show differences between TCE treated organisms and controls. However, semi-quantitative measurement using gradient gel electrophoresis (213-218 kDa) indicated significant decrease in VG-like protein levels following exposure to TCE at all three concentrations. Overall, results indicate effects of TCE and VC on genes and proteins related to metabolism, reproduction, and growth in D. magna.

  9. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  10. Mercury and selenium in blood and epidermis of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Sarasota Bay, FL: interaction and relevance to life history and hematologic parameters.

    PubMed

    Woshner, Victoria; Knott, Katrina; Wells, Randall; Willetto, Carla; Swor, Rhonda; O'Hara, Todd

    2008-09-01

    Blood and epidermal biopsies from free-ranging Tursiops truncatus captured and released during either summer or winter health assessments in Sarasota Bay, FL, were evaluated for concentrations of mercury, selenium, stable isotopes (d(13)C and d(15)N), and blood glutathione peroxidase activity in conjunction with routine hematology and serum chemistry panels. Major objectives were to: 1) quantify and describe relationships among mercury, selenium, glutathione peroxidase, and stable isotopes of C and N in blood and epidermis; 2) elucidate major parameters that influence blood mercury and glutathione peroxidase activity; 3) relate measures of tissue mercury, selenium, and glutathione peroxidase to specific ecological, hematological, morphological, or life history parameters, including season, sex, age, and trophic level. Mercury in both tissues examined is almost exclusively methylmercury. Epidermal concentrations of mercury and selenium reflect their respective amounts in blood, albeit at several times blood concentrations of mercury. The strong association between blood mercury and serum selenium, in conjunction with a lack of significant correlation between blood mercury and glutathione peroxidase, implies that a substantial proportion of blood mercury is affiliated with another selenium-containing moiety or is related to recent dietary intakes (e.g., trophic level, intensive fish consumption). Circulating blood mercury may be described in terms of serum selenium concentration, along with interaction terms among serum selenium, blood d(15)N, and age. Current selenium concentrations in Sarasota Bay dolphins appear adequate for maintenance of blood glutathione peroxidase activity. However, dolphins evidently are subject to seasonal exacerbation of oxidative stress, which might render them more vulnerable to toxic effects of mercury. PMID:19165553

  11. 1996 MWD comparison tables

    SciTech Connect

    Gastineau, J.

    1996-05-01

    Petroleum Engineer International`s ninth annual Measurement While Drilling Tables compare the different operating capabilities of survey and logging tools from 13 MWD vendors. This year`s MWD Comparison Tables include a Quick Reference Guide listing MWD sensors by collar size for each manufacturer. Following the Quick Reference Guide are the comparison tables, listing general, directional, gamma ray, resistivity, density and neutron data for each tool. The MWD Tables should serve only as a reference source. System specifications can change rapidly as tools are refined and developed. Consultation with MWD marketing representatives before making a final tool selection is recommended. A contact key for all of the companies listed in the tables is provided.

  12. 1994 MWD comparison tables

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    Twenty-eight measurement while drilling tools are listed in this year's MWD Comparison Tables. Updated data on tools listed last year and data on five new tools provide a convenient guide for choosing MWD systems. Future MWD technologies include sonic tools and tools that make measurements ahead of the bit. For the seventh year, Petroleum Engineer International presents the Measurement While Drilling (MWD) Tables comparing a variety of available tools from many different vendors. The 1994 Tables include two additional companies and five new MWD tools not found in last year's Tables. However, the tables should serve only as a reference source. System specifications can change rapidly as tools are refined and new technologies develop. Operators and contractors should consult designated MWD marketing representatives before making a final tool selection.

  13. An optimization study of the motion table performance.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Y F; Kuo, W M; Chang, Y T; Tarng, Y S

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimal selection of processing parameters for motion table performance. The main objective of the mechanism of a one-axis servo motor table is to avoid vibration, thereby reducing experimental error. This experimental controller uses a grey-based Taguchi method to make a quality evaluation of three table characteristics; displacement, arriving time, and torsion. It is shown that the multiple response performance characteristics are greatly improved through this study.

  14. RADIOACTIVE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS IN THE ATOMIC TABLE.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-08-13

    In the 1949 Report of the Atomic Weights Commission, a series of new elements were added to the Atomic Weights Table. Since these elements had been produced in the laboratory and were not discovered in nature, the atomic weight value of these artificial products would depend upon the production method. Since atomic weight is a property of an element as it occurs in nature, it would be incorrect to assign an atomic weight value to that element. As a result of that discussion, the Commission decided to provide only the mass number of the most stable (longest-lived) known isotope as the number to be associated with these entries in the Atomic Weights Table. As a function of time, the mass number associated with various elements has changed as longer-lived isotopes of a particular elements has been found in nature, or as improved half-life values of an element's isotopes might cause a shift in the longest-lived isotope from one mass number to another. In the 1957 Report of the Atomic Weights Commission, it was decided to discontinue the listing of the mass number in the Atomic Weights Table on the grounds that the kind of information supplied by the mass number is inconsistent with the primary purpose of the Table, i.e., to provide accurate values of ''these constants'' for use in chemical calculations. In addition to the Table of Atomic Weights, the Commission included an auxiliary Table of Radioactive Elements for the first time, where the entry would be the isotope of that element which was most stable, i.e., it had the longest known half-life. In their 1973 report, the Commission noted that the users of the Atomic Weights Table were dissatisfied with the omission of values in the Table for some elements and it was decided to reintroduce the mass number for elements. In their 1983 report, the Commission decided that radioactive elements were considered to lack a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition, from which an atomic weight value could be calculated to

  15. Age-at-death diagnosis and determination of life-history parameters by incremental lines in human dental cementum as an identification aid.

    PubMed

    Kagerer, P; Grupe, G

    2001-04-15

    Incremental lines in acellular extrinsic fiber cementum of 91 roots from 80 freshly extracted teeth have been investigated for a verification of the suitability of pathological teeth for a valid age-at-death diagnosis. Independent from tooth type, the accuracy of histological age-at-death diagnosis is clearly a function of a tooth's pathological state. Various periodontal diseases lead to a reduced number of incremental lines, while teeth with a sufficient nutritional support of their root showed a deviation of the histological age from the known actual age of 2-3 years only. For all patients, a detailed query concerning a variety of life-history parameters was established. We are able to show that especially previous pregnancies, skeletal traumata and renal diseases which all have a marked influence on the calcium metabolism result in hypomineralized incremental lines. The year of production of these hypomineralized lines could be dated precisely. Differential quality of incremental lines can, therefore, serve as a valuable tool in identification cases. PMID:11343858

  16. Relationship of the sexual functions with the clinical parameters, radiological scores and the quality of life in male patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Sariyildiz, Mustafa Akif; Batmaz, Ibrahim; Dilek, Banu; Inanir, Ahmet; Bez, Yasin; Tahtasiz, Mehmet; Em, Serda; Cevik, Remzi

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the impact of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and the disease-related variables on the patients' sexual function according to the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scoring system. A total of 70 sexually active male AS patients and 60 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Their demographic data were evaluated, and the pain was assessed according to the visual analogue scale (VAS). Laboratory tests were conducted in order to measure the C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR) of the patients. The disease activity was evaluated using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Functional statement was evaluated with the help of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and with the scores obtained from the spinal measurements with the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI). The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiology Index (BASRI) was used to evaluate the radiological damage. The disease-related quality of life was measured with the Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (ASQoL). The anxiety and depression level of the patients was revealed through the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). In comparison with the healthy control group, patients with AS had significantly lower scores in each of the 5 domains of the IIEF (p < 0.0001). The BASDAI, BASFI, BASMI, BASRI, ASQoL, HADS scores and CRP levels were negatively correlated with IIEF (p < 0.05). Orgasmic function and sexual desire scores were significantly lower in patients with peripheral arthritis (p < 0.05). No significant correlation was observed with the disease duration, smoking status, pain (VAS), and ESR levels when the total scores and the scores from the domains of IIEF were compared. The multivariate regression analyses indicated that BASFI and BASMI were independently associated with the sexual function. The sexual function is impaired in male patients

  17. a HARTREE-FOCK Nuclear Mass Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goriely, S.; Tondeur, F.; Pearson, J. M.

    2001-03-01

    We present the first complete nuclear mass table, HFBCS-1, to be based on the Hartree-Fock-BCS method. The force used, MSk7, is a 10-parameter Skyrme force, along with a 4-parameter δ-function pairing force and a 2-parameter phenomenological Wigner term. Our tabulation presents 9200 nuclei, including all those lying between the drip lines over the range Z, N≥8 and Z≤120. The root-mean-square error of our fit to the 1888 nuclei in this range for which measured masses are given in the 1995 Audi-Wapstra compilation is 0.738 MeV. In addition to the calculated masses, we show the calculated neutron- and proton-separation energies, and beta-decay energies. We also give for each nucleus in the table the calculated values for the deformation parameters and deformation energy (with axial and left-right symmetry assumed), and for the charge radius.

  18. Building Materials Property Table

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-16

    This information sheet describes a table of some of the key technical properties of many of the most common building materials taken from ASHRAE Fundamentals - 2001, Moisture Control in Buildings, CMHC, NRC/IRC, IEA Annex 24, and manufacturer data.

  19. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  20. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  1. Body Mass Index Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  2. Process Parameters for Successful Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes by Chemical Vapor Deposition: Implications for Chemical Mechanisms and Life-cycle Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Ke

    Manufacturing of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) calls for thermal treatment associated with gas-phase rearrangement and catalyst deposition to achieve high cost efficiency and limited influence on environmental impact. Taking advantage of higher degree of structure control and economical efficiency, catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) has currently become the most prevailing synthesis approach for the synthesis of large-scale pure CNTs in past years. Because the synthesis process of CNTs dominates the potential ecotoxic impacts, materials consumption, energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions should be further limited to efficiently reduce life cycle ecotoxicity of carbon naotubes. However, efforts to reduce energy and material requirements in synthesis of CNTs by CCVD are hindered by a lack of mechanistic understanding. In this thesis, the effect of operating parameters, especially the temperature, carbon source concentration, and residence time on the synthesis were studied to improve the production efficiency in a different angle. Thus, implications on the choice of operating parameters could be provided to help the synthesis of carbon nanotubes. Here, we investigated the typical operating parameters in conditions that have yielded successful CNT production in the published academic literature of over seventy articles. The data were filtered by quality of the resultant product and deemed either "successful" or "unsuccessful" according to the authors. Furthermore, growth rate data were tabulated and used as performance metric for the process whenever possible. The data provided us an opportunity to prompt possible and common methods for practioners in the synthesis of CNTs and motivate routes to achieve energy and material minimization. The statistical analysis revealed that methane and ethylene often rely on thermal conversion process to form direct carbon precursor; further, methane and ethylene could not be the direct

  3. [Life quality parameters in prenosologic evaluation of health state in residents of protective measures area near objects of storage and destruction of chemical weapons].

    PubMed

    Filippov, V L; Nechaeva, E N

    2014-01-01

    The article presents results of life quality assessment and subjective evaluation data on health state, used for prenosologic evaluation of health state in residents of protective measures area near objects of storage and destruction of chemical weapons. Considering specific features of residence near potentially dangerous objects, the authors conducted qualitative evaluation of satisfaction with various life facets, with taking into account the objects specificity, established correlation between life quality and self-evaluation of health with factors influencing public health state. PMID:25549460

  4. [Life quality parameters in prenosologic evaluation of health state in residents of protective measures area near objects of storage and destruction of chemical weapons].

    PubMed

    Filippov, V L; Nechaeva, E N

    2014-01-01

    The article presents results of life quality assessment and subjective evaluation data on health state, used for prenosologic evaluation of health state in residents of protective measures area near objects of storage and destruction of chemical weapons. Considering specific features of residence near potentially dangerous objects, the authors conducted qualitative evaluation of satisfaction with various life facets, with taking into account the objects specificity, established correlation between life quality and self-evaluation of health with factors influencing public health state.

  5. FastStats: Life Expectancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... years of age by sex, race and Hispanic origin Health, United States 2015, table 15 [PDF - 9.8 MB] Life expectancy at birth and at 65 years of age, by sex: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries Health, United States 2015, table 14 [PDF - 9. ...

  6. Estimation of Genetic Parameters and Trends for Length of Productive Life and Lifetime Production Traits in a Commercial Landrace and Yorkshire Swine Population in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Noppibool, Udomsak; Elzo, Mauricio A.; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Suwanasopee, Thanathip

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters and trends for length of productive life (LPL), lifetime number of piglets born alive (LBA), lifetime number of piglets weaned (LPW), lifetime litter birth weight (LBW), and lifetime litter weaning weight (LWW) in a commercial swine farm in Northern Thailand. Data were gathered during a 24-year period from July 1989 to August 2013. A total of 3,109 phenotypic records from 2,271 Landrace (L) and 838 Yorkshire sows (Y) were analyzed. Variance and covariance components, heritabilities and correlations were estimated using an Average Information Restricted Maximum Likelihood (AIREML) procedure. The 5-trait animal model contained the fixed effects of first farrowing year-season, breed group, and age at first farrowing. Random effects were sow and residual. Estimates of heritabilities were medium for all five traits (0.17±0.04 for LPL and LBA to 0.20±0.04 for LPW). Genetic correlations among these traits were high, positive, and favorable (p<0.05), ranging from 0.93±0.02 (LPL-LWW) to 0.99±0.02 (LPL-LPW). Sow genetic trends were non-significant for LPL and all lifetime production traits. Sire genetic trends were negative and significant for LPL (−2.54±0.65 d/yr; p = 0.0007), LBA (−0.12±0.04 piglets/yr; p = 0.0073), LPW (−0.14±0.04 piglets/yr; p = 0.0037), LBW (−0.13±0.06 kg/yr; p = 0.0487), and LWW (−0.69±0.31 kg/yr; p = 0.0365). Dam genetic trends were positive, small and significant for all traits (1.04±0.42 d/yr for LPL, p = 0.0217; 0.16±0.03 piglets/yr for LBA, p<0.0001; 0.12±0.03 piglets/yr for LPW, p = 0.0002; 0.29±0.04 kg/yr for LBW, p<0.0001 and 1.23±0.19 kg/yr for LWW, p<0.0001). Thus, the selection program in this commercial herd managed to improve both LPL and lifetime productive traits in sires and dams. It was ineffective to improve LPL and lifetime productive traits in sows. PMID:26954115

  7. CODATA thermodynamic tables

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, D.; Parker, V.B.; White, H.J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Recommended values are presented for chemical thermodynamic properties of selected compounds of calcium and their mixtures. These have been prepared in accord with a previously developed plan and as a test of it. All values in the present table are mutually consistent and are consistent with the CODATA Key Values for Thermodynamics. The values are recommended for general use. This work has been an activity of the CODATA Task Group on Chemical Thermodynamic Tables. The evaluated data are for common compounds of calcium (element, oxide, hydroxide, peroxide, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate and carbonate, their hydrates and their ions in aqueous solution) and for three systems: Ca-Mg, CaCl/sub 2/-KCl and CaCl/sub 2/-H/sub 2/O. Forty one tables of thermal functions (heat capacity, entropy, enthalpy, and Gibbs energy functions) are given for those compounds of magnesium, calcium and potassium for which the properties have been evaluated in this work. Twenty four tables of thermal functions are given for auxiliary substances. Each table spans the temperature range 0 to 4000 K, to the extent that data are available. Formation properties at 298.15 K (enthalpy and Gibbs energy of formation) are given for 68 compounds of calcium, magnesium and potassium plus the relevant values for 54 auxiliary substances.

  8. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Dddd of... - Continuous Compliance With the Compliance Options and Operating Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... parameters Collecting and recording the operating parameter monitoring system data listed in Table 2 to this... on THC CEMS data Collecting and recording the THC monitoring data listed in Table 2 to this subpart... Compliance Options and Operating Requirements 7 Table 7 to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of...

  9. Life support system definition study for long duration planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, T.; Meyer, P.; Reysa, R.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a mission planners life support systems (LSS) guidebook for providing data on the impact of various LSS on mission parameters such as mass, power, and volume is discussed. The factors utilized to define LSS case study mission drivers, and driver and mission impact parameter definitions are described. An example of a guidebook table for a specific set of LSS drivers is provided. Four approaches for physical/chemical closed-loop LSS are examined. A preliminary LSS guidebook for a lunar base is presented.

  10. Space station wardroom table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Inventor); Kaplicky, Jan (Inventor); Nixon, David A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A table top for use in constricted areas has a plurality of support arms abutting at one end to form a hub. The support arms are arranged in equidistant, spaced-apart relation to each other at the ends distal to the hub. A plurality of work surface leaf sections mounted between the support arms are individually pivotable through 360 degrees about their longitudinal axes. The table top additionally has a plurality of distal leaves, each distal leaf being attached to the distal end of one of the arms. The distal leaves are pivotable between an upright position level with the support arms and a stored position below the support arms.

  11. Query-Adaptive Reciprocal Hash Tables for Nearest Neighbor Search.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianglong; Deng, Cheng; Lang, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2016-02-01

    Recent years have witnessed the success of binary hashing techniques in approximate nearest neighbor search. In practice, multiple hash tables are usually built using hashing to cover more desired results in the hit buckets of each table. However, rare work studies the unified approach to constructing multiple informative hash tables using any type of hashing algorithms. Meanwhile, for multiple table search, it also lacks of a generic query-adaptive and fine-grained ranking scheme that can alleviate the binary quantization loss suffered in the standard hashing techniques. To solve the above problems, in this paper, we first regard the table construction as a selection problem over a set of candidate hash functions. With the graph representation of the function set, we propose an efficient solution that sequentially applies normalized dominant set to finding the most informative and independent hash functions for each table. To further reduce the redundancy between tables, we explore the reciprocal hash tables in a boosting manner, where the hash function graph is updated with high weights emphasized on the misclassified neighbor pairs of previous hash tables. To refine the ranking of the retrieved buckets within a certain Hamming radius from the query, we propose a query-adaptive bitwise weighting scheme to enable fine-grained bucket ranking in each hash table, exploiting the discriminative power of its hash functions and their complement for nearest neighbor search. Moreover, we integrate such scheme into the multiple table search using a fast, yet reciprocal table lookup algorithm within the adaptive weighted Hamming radius. In this paper, both the construction method and the query-adaptive search method are general and compatible with different types of hashing algorithms using different feature spaces and/or parameter settings. Our extensive experiments on several large-scale benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed techniques can significantly outperform both

  12. Guide to the Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a table that provides a snapshot of how employment is expected to change in 289 occupations. For each occupation, it shows estimated employment in 2008, the projected numeric change in employment (that is, how many jobs are expected to be gained or lost) over the 2008-18 decade, and the projected percent change in employment…

  13. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  14. The Dynamic Force Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, John B.; Black, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    We examine an experimental apparatus that is used to motivate the connections between the basic properties of vectors, potential functions, systems of nonlinear equations, and Newton's method for nonlinear systems of equations. The apparatus is an adaptation of a force table where we remove the center-pin and allow the center-ring to move freely.…

  15. The Aerodynamic Plane Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1924-01-01

    This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

  16. Novel edible coating based on aloe vera gel to maintain table grape quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Guillén, Fabián; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2005-10-01

    A novel edible coating based on Aloe vera gel obtained according to SP Patent Filed 200302937 has been used as a means of preservation to maintain the quality and safety of cv. Crimson Seedless table grapes during cold storage and subsequent shelf life. Table grapes have a crucial economic value as a dessert fruit, but once harvested show a reduction of shelf life due to a rapid loss of quality. Uncoated clusters showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf life period of 7 days at 1 degrees C plus 4 days at 20 degrees C, based on the fast weight loss, color changes, accelerated softening and ripening, rachis browning, and high incidence of berry decay. On the contrary, those clusters treated with A. vera gel significantly delayed the above parameters related to postharvest quality losses, and storability could be extended up to 35 days at 1 degrees C. Interestingly, this edible coating was able to reduce the initial microbial counts for both mesophillic aerobic and yeast and molds, which significantly increased in uncoated berries over storage. Moreover, the sensory analyses revealed beneficial effects in terms of delaying rachis browning and dehydration and maintenance of the visual aspect of the berry without any detrimental effect on taste, aroma, or flavors. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time A. vera gel has been used as an edible coating in fruits, which would be an innovative and interesting means for commercial application and an alternative to the use of postharvest chemical treatments. PMID:16190634

  17. Novel edible coating based on aloe vera gel to maintain table grape quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Guillén, Fabián; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2005-10-01

    A novel edible coating based on Aloe vera gel obtained according to SP Patent Filed 200302937 has been used as a means of preservation to maintain the quality and safety of cv. Crimson Seedless table grapes during cold storage and subsequent shelf life. Table grapes have a crucial economic value as a dessert fruit, but once harvested show a reduction of shelf life due to a rapid loss of quality. Uncoated clusters showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf life period of 7 days at 1 degrees C plus 4 days at 20 degrees C, based on the fast weight loss, color changes, accelerated softening and ripening, rachis browning, and high incidence of berry decay. On the contrary, those clusters treated with A. vera gel significantly delayed the above parameters related to postharvest quality losses, and storability could be extended up to 35 days at 1 degrees C. Interestingly, this edible coating was able to reduce the initial microbial counts for both mesophillic aerobic and yeast and molds, which significantly increased in uncoated berries over storage. Moreover, the sensory analyses revealed beneficial effects in terms of delaying rachis browning and dehydration and maintenance of the visual aspect of the berry without any detrimental effect on taste, aroma, or flavors. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time A. vera gel has been used as an edible coating in fruits, which would be an innovative and interesting means for commercial application and an alternative to the use of postharvest chemical treatments.

  18. Fast Mix Table Construction for Material Discretization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Seth R

    2013-01-01

    An effective hybrid Monte Carlo--deterministic implementation typically requires the approximation of a continuous geometry description with a discretized piecewise-constant material field. The inherent geometry discretization error can be reduced somewhat by using material mixing, where multiple materials inside a discrete mesh voxel are homogenized. Material mixing requires the construction of a ``mix table,'' which stores the volume fractions in every mixture so that multiple voxels with similar compositions can reference the same mixture. Mix table construction is a potentially expensive serial operation for large problems with many materials and voxels. We formulate an efficient algorithm to construct a sparse mix table in $O(\\text{number of voxels}\\times \\log \\text{number of mixtures})$ time. The new algorithm is implemented in ADVANTG and used to discretize continuous geometries onto a structured Cartesian grid. When applied to an end-of-life MCNP model of the High Flux Isotope Reactor with 270 distinct materials, the new method improves the material mixing time by a factor of 100 compared to a naive mix table implementation.

  19. Changes in life history parameters of corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidus (Homoptera: Aphididae), under four different elevated temperature and CO2 combinations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological characteristics of corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), on barley, Hordeum vulgare L., were examined for two generations under four different elevated temperature and CO2 combinations. The developmental duration for each life stage was significantly reduced under the elevated te...

  20. Parameters detected by geriatric and quality of life assessment in 195 older patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia are highly predictive for outcome.

    PubMed

    Deschler, Barbara; Ihorst, Gabriele; Platzbecker, Uwe; Germing, Ulrich; März, Eva; de Figuerido, Marcelo; Fritzsche, Kurt; Haas, Peter; Salih, Helmut R; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Selleslag, Dominik; Labar, Boris; de Witte, Theo; Wijermans, Pierre; Lübbert, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia exemplify the complexity of treatment allocation in older patients as options range from best supportive care, non-intensive treatment (e.g. hypomethylating agents) to intensive chemotherapy/hematopoietic cell transplantation. Novel metrics for non-disease variables are urgently needed to help define the best treatment for each older patient. We investigated the feasibility and prognostic value of geriatric/quality of life assessments aside from established disease-specific variables in 195 patients aged 60 years or over with myelodysplastic syndromes/acute myeloid leukemia. These patients were grouped according to treatment intensity and assessed. Assessment consisted of eight instruments evaluating activities of daily living, depression, mental functioning, mobility, comorbidities, Karnofsky Index and quality of life. Patients with a median age of 71 years (range 60-87 years) with myelodysplastic syndromes (n=63) or acute myeloid leukemia (n=132) were treated either with best supportive care (n=47), hypomethylating agents (n=73) or intensive chemotherapy/hematopoietic cell transplantation (n=75). After selection of variables, pathological activities of daily living and quality of life/fatigue remained highly predictive for overall survival in the entire patient group beyond disease-related risk factors adverse cytogenetics and blast count of 20% or over. In 107 patients treated non-intensively activities of daily living of less than 100 (hazard ratio, HR 2.94), Karnofsky Index below 80 (HR 2.34) and quality of life/'fatigue' of 50 or over (HR 1.77) were significant prognosticators. Summation of adverse features revealed a high risk of death (HR 9.36). In-depth evaluation of older patients prior to individual treatment allocation is feasible and provides additional information to standard assessment. Patients aged 60 years or over with newly diagnosed myelodysplastic syndromes/acute myeloid leukemia and

  1. 1995 MWD comparison tables

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The past year has been an exciting one for MWD technology. A 4 3/4-in. MWD logging tool was developed for slimhole applications, providing multiple depth of investigation resistivity data for 6 1/2-in. and 5 7/8-in. boreholes. An MWD sonic tool was introduced, combining real-time sonic porosity and lithology information with resistivity and nuclear measurements to help drillers identify lithology changes and anticipate overpressured zones. And resistivity imaging at the bit is available as part of an MWD measurement. All specifications in the MWD Tables are supplied to PEI by the appropriate vendors. However, the tables should serve only as a reference source. System specifications can change rapidly as tools are refined and new technologies are developed. Operators and contractors should consult designated MWD marketing representatives before making a final tool selection. Special thanks to the International MWD Society (IMS) for their contributions.

  2. Pyrolysis of Table Sugar

    PubMed Central

    Karagöz, Selhan

    2013-01-01

    Table sugars were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 400, and 500°C) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on yields of liquid, solid, and gaseous products was investigated. As expected the yield of liquid products gradually increased and the yield of solid products gradually decreased when the pyrolysis temperature was raised. The yield of liquid products was greatest (52 wt%) at 500°C. The composition of bio-oils extracted with diethyl ether was identified by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The following compounds were observed in bio-oils produced from the pyrolysis of table sugar at 500°C: 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-α-d-glucopyranose, 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural, 5-acetoxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, and cyclotetradecane liquid product. The relative concentration of 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural was the highest in bio-oils obtained from pyrolysis of table sugars at 500°C. PMID:24223500

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Hhhh of... - Minimum Requirements for Monitoring and Recordkeeping

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... monitoring and recordkeeping in the following table: You must monitor these parameters: At this frequency...-hour block averages. 2. Other process or control device parameters specified in your OMM b plan....

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Hhhh of... - Minimum Requirements for Monitoring and Recordkeeping

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... monitoring and recordkeeping in the following table: You must monitor these parameters: At this frequency...-hour block averages. 2. Other process or control device parameters specified in your OMM b plan....

  5. Interactive Conversion of Web Tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, Raghav Krishna; Jandhyala, Ramana Chakradhar; Krishnamoorthy, Mukkai; Nagy, George; Seth, Sharad; Silversmith, William

    Two hundred web tables from ten sites were imported into Excel. The tables were edited as needed, then converted into layout independent Wang Notation using the Table Abstraction Tool (TAT). The output generated by TAT consists of XML files to be used for constructing narrow-domain ontologies. On an average each table required 104 seconds for editing. Augmentations like aggregates, footnotes, table titles, captions, units and notes were also extracted in an average time of 93 seconds. Every user intervention was logged and audited. The logged interactions were analyzed to determine the relative influence of factors like table size, number of categories and various types of augmentations on the processing time. The analysis suggests which aspects of interactive table processing can be automated in the near term, and how much time such automation would save. The correlation coefficient between predicted and actual processing time was 0.66.

  6. Parameters detected by geriatric and quality of life assessment in 195 older patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia are highly predictive for outcome

    PubMed Central

    Deschler, Barbara; Ihorst, Gabriele; Platzbecker, Uwe; Germing, Ulrich; März, Eva; de Figuerido, Marcelo; Fritzsche, Kurt; Haas, Peter; Salih, Helmut R.; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Selleslag, Dominik; Labar, Boris; de Witte, Theo; Wijermans, Pierre; Lübbert, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia exemplify the complexity of treatment allocation in older patients as options range from best supportive care, non-intensive treatment (e.g. hypomethylating agents) to intensive chemotherapy/hematopoietic cell transplantation. Novel metrics for non-disease variables are urgently needed to help define the best treatment for each older patient. We investigated the feasibility and prognostic value of geriatric/quality of life assessments aside from established disease-specific variables in 195 patients aged 60 years or over with myelodysplastic syndromes/acute myeloid leukemia. These patients were grouped according to treatment intensity and assessed. Assessment consisted of eight instruments evaluating activities of daily living, depression, mental functioning, mobility, comorbidities, Karnofsky Index and quality of life. Patients with a median age of 71 years (range 60-87 years) with myelodysplastic syndromes (n=63) or acute myeloid leukemia (n=132) were treated either with best supportive care (n=47), hypomethylating agents (n=73) or intensive chemotherapy/hematopoietic cell transplantation (n=75). After selection of variables, pathological activities of daily living and quality of life/fatigue remained highly predictive for overall survival in the entire patient group beyond disease-related risk factors adverse cytogenetics and blast count of 20% or over. In 107 patients treated non-intensively activities of daily living of less than 100 (hazard ratio, HR 2.94), Karnofsky Index below 80 (HR 2.34) and quality of life/’fatigue’ of 50 or over (HR 1.77) were significant prognosticators. Summation of adverse features revealed a high risk of death (HR 9.36). In-depth evaluation of older patients prior to individual treatment allocation is feasible and provides additional information to standard assessment. Patients aged 60 years or over with newly diagnosed myelodysplastic syndromes/acute myeloid leukemia and

  7. Parameters of Technological Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Chauncey; Rudman, Richard

    1973-01-01

    Examines the factors involved in technological growth and identifies the key parameters as societal resources and societal expectations. Concludes that quality of life can only be maintained by reducing population growth, since this parameter is the product of material levels, overcrowding, food, and pollution. (JR)

  8. "Control Your Diabetes. For Life."

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetes "Control Your Diabetes. For Life." Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents For information about "Control Your Diabetes. For Life" campaign, visit www.YourDiabetesInfo.org or call toll-free 1-888-693-NDEP (6337). The ""Control Your ...

  9. Comparative demography of an epiphytic lichen: support for general life history patterns and solutions to common problems in demographic parameter estimation.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Robert K; Cutler, Kerry; Doak, Daniel F

    2012-09-01

    Lichens are major components in many terrestrial ecosystems, yet their population ecology is at best only poorly understood. Few studies have fully quantified the life history or demographic patterns of any lichen, with particularly little attention to epiphytic species. We conducted a 6-year demographic study of Vulpicida pinastri, an epiphytic foliose lichen, in south-central Alaska. After testing multiple size-structured functions to describe patterns in each V. pinastri demographic rate, we used the resulting estimates to construct a stochastic demographic model for the species. This model development led us to propose solutions to two general problems in construction of demographic models for many taxa: how to simply but accurately characterize highly skewed growth rates, and how to estimate recruitment rates that are exceptionally difficult to directly observe. Our results show that V. pinastri has rapid and variable growth and, for small individuals, low and variable survival, but that these traits are coupled with considerable longevity (e.g., >50 years mean future life span for a 4-cm(2) thallus) and little deviation of the stochastic population growth rate from the deterministic expectation. Comparisons of the demographic patterns we found with those of other lichen studies suggest that their relatively simple architecture may allow clearer generalities about growth patterns for lichens than for other taxa, and that the expected pattern of faster growth rates for epiphytic species is substantiated.

  10. Sandia Unstructured Triangle Table Generator

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-16

    The software generates data tables for thermodynamic and transport properties of materials as described by a set of input models. For each input model parameterization, an associated table is created on an unstructured triangular grid. These grids all conform to the same topology. A statistical accuracy guarantee is provided for the tabular representation of the model. Details of the model and table specification are given in a XML input deck.

  11. Deployable video conference table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Inventor); Lissol, Peter (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A deployable table is presented. The table is stowed in and deployed from a storage compartment based upon a non-self rigidizing, 4-hinge, arch support structure that folds upon itself to stow and that expands to deploy. The work surfaces bypass each other above and below to allow the deployment mechanism to operate. This assembly includes the following: first and second primary pivot hinges placed at the opposite ends of the storage compartment; first and second lateral frame members with proximal ends connected to the first and second pivot hinges; a medial frame member offset from and pivotally connected to distal ends of the first and second members through third and fourth medial pivot hinges; and left-side, right-side, and middle trays connected respectively to the first, second, and third frame members and being foldable into and out of the storage compartment by articulation of the first, second, third, and fourth joints. At least one of the third and fourth joints are locked to set the first, second, and third frame members in a desired angular orientation with respect to each other.

  12. Symbol Tables and Branch Tables: Linking Applications Together

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    This document explores the computer techniques used to execute software whose parts are compiled and linked separately. The computer techniques include using a branch table or indirect address table to connect the parts. Methods of storing the information in data structures are discussed as well as differences between C and C++.

  13. TableSeer: Automatic Table Extraction, Search, and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Tables are ubiquitous with a history that pre-dates that of sentential text. Authors often report a summary of their most important findings using tabular structure in documents. For example, scientists widely use tables to present the latest experimental results or statistical data in a condensed fashion. Along with the explosive development of…

  14. Life on other worlds : the twentieth century extraterrestrial life debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    1998-12-01

    List of illustrations; List of tables; Acknowledgements; Introduction; 1. From the physical world to the biological universe: Democritus to Lowell; 2. Life in the solar system; 3. Solar systems beyond; 4. Extraterrestrials in literature and the arts: the role of imagination; 5. The UFO controversy and the extraterrestrial hypothesis; 6. The origin and evolution of life in the extraterrestrial context; 7. SETI: the search for extraterrestrial intelligence; 8. The meaning of life; 9. Summary and conclusion: the biological universe; Select bibliographical essay; Index.

  15. Classroom Museums: Touchable Tables for Kids Grades 3-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Pamela

    This book provides ideas for table exhibits for grades 3-6 in nine different subject areas. These areas are: marine life; nature in the backyard; the history and uses of flags; impressionist painters and art; winter festivals around the world; fibers and fabrics; Native Americans in touch with the land; sugar and chocolate; and keeping the earth,…

  16. The long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate, given early in postnatal life, on both growth and various bone parameters in pigs.

    PubMed

    Andersen, N K; Tatara, M R; Krupski, W; Majcher, P; Harrison, A P

    2008-10-01

    The long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) given for 21-24 days post-partum, on the skeleton of commercial pigs, was investigated. In experiment A, 12 pigs were given AKG [0.1 g/kg of body weight (b.w.) per day per os], while 12 controls were administered vehicle. At day 169, the left and right femur, humerus and sixth ribs were analysed for mechanical and geometrical properties and quantitative computed tomography. In experiment B, 32 piglets were divided equally into an AKG group (0.3 g/kg of b.w. per day) or a control group. Blood, taken at days 24 and 53 was analysed for plasma 17 beta-oestradiol. The main bone effect of AKG was to increase bone length in the sixth rib (7.3%, p < 0.01), ultimate strength (23%, p < 0.05), Young s modulus (52%, p < 0.001) and maximum elastic strength (31%, p = 0.056) compared with controls. In both experiments, AKG preferentially increased the growth of female piglets, whilst for male piglets AKG had the opposite effect. In addition, AKG elevated plasma 17 beta-oestradiol levels compared to those of controls at the end of the period of treatment (20%, p = 0.002). It is concluded that AKG has long-term effects on rib properties when given early in postnatal life whilst it elevates plasma 17 beta-oestradiol levels only so long as it is being administered.

  17. Method and apparatus for automatically generating airfoil performance tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Dam, Cornelis P. (Inventor); Mayda, Edward A. (Inventor); Strawn, Roger Clayton (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    One embodiment of the present invention provides a system that facilitates automatically generating a performance table for an object, wherein the object is subject to fluid flow. The system operates by first receiving a description of the object and testing parameters for the object. The system executes a flow solver using the testing parameters and the description of the object to produce an output. Next, the system determines if the output of the flow solver indicates negative density or pressure. If not, the system analyzes the output to determine if the output is converging. If converging, the system writes the output to the performance table for the object.

  18. Table-top EUV reflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinze, U.; Chichkov, B.

    2006-03-01

    A novel compact EUV-reflectometer recently developed is presented. The designconcept relies on a flexible approach, thus this reflectometer can be set up as a compact table-top tool for a specified task as well as a full all-purpose reflectometer. As an EUV-source an electron-based microfocus EUV-tube is used. This EUV source is debris-free and provides a typical output of 30μW at 13.5 nm. The reflectometer benefits from the very good long-time stability and spatial stability of this tube. Reflectivity measurements from grazing incidence to nearly normal incidence as well as transmission studies can be realized in the same setup at a typical precision of measurements of 0.5%. A precise computer-controlled positioning unit allows to vary and scan all important parameters online, allowing for example complex surface scans and angle variations. The concept of the reflectometer is discussed and recent results are presented. This device can be purchased from the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V.

  19. Automated CFD for Generation of Airfoil Performance Tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawn, Roger; Mayda, E. Q.; vamDam, C. P.

    2009-01-01

    A method of automated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been invented for the generation of performance tables for an object subject to fluid flow. The method is applicable to the generation of tables that summarize the effects of two-dimensional flows about airfoils and that are in a format known in the art as C81. (A C81 airfoil performance table is a text file that lists coefficients of lift, drag, and pitching moment of an airfoil as functions of angle of attack for a range of Mach numbers.) The method makes it possible to efficiently generate and tabulate data from simulations of flows for parameter values spanning all operational ranges of actual or potential interest. In so doing, the method also enables filling of gaps and resolution of inconsistencies in C81 tables generated previously from incomplete experimental data or from theoretical calculations that involved questionable assumptions.

  20. Standard atmosphere - tables and data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S

    1926-01-01

    Detailed tables of pressures and densities are given for altitudes up to 20,000 meters and to 65,000 feet. In addition to the tables the various data pertaining to the standard atmosphere have been compiled in convenient form for ready reference. This report is an extension of NACA-TR-147.

  1. Double-Entry Expectancy Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesman, Alexander G.

    1966-01-01

    Double-entry expectancy tables are used to make admissions, guidance, or employment decisions based on two predictors. Examples of their use in showing relationships between high school and college performance are explained. The advantages of double-entry expectacy tables given are: (1) relative simplicity of preparation requiring no formal…

  2. Making flight motion tables invisible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMore, Louis A.; Hollinger, Paul; Hirsh, Gary

    2009-05-01

    Flight tables can add unwanted dynamics with increased phase lag and gain attenuation to the Hardware-In-The-Loop (HWIL) simulation. By making flight tables "invisible" we reduce the effects of these unwanted dynamics on the simulation giving the simulation engineer a much clearer picture of the test unit's capabilities. Past methods[1] relied on clever servo techniques to reduce these effects. In this paper we look at the mechanical aspects of the flight table; in particular, we study the effects of using composite materials in the fabrication of the flight table gimbals. The study shows that the use of composite gimbals significantly increases the invisibility of the flight table with the potential added benefit of reduced cost.

  3. Measuring the Quality of Life: Are We Making Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, David C.; Long, Cathryn J.

    1976-01-01

    Perspective on the term, "quality of life," is developed through reading and photographic selections, and ways of measuring life quality are suggested. Statistical tables offer comparative national and global data on indicators including population, literacy, nutrition, government expenditures. (AV)

  4. MCNPX Model/Table Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Hendricks

    2003-03-03

    MCNPX is a Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code extending the capabilities of MCNP4C. As with MCNP, MCNPX uses nuclear data tables to transport neutrons, photons, and electrons. Unlike MCNP, MCNPX also uses (1) nuclear data tables to transport protons; (2) physics models to transport 30 additional particle types (deuterons, tritons, alphas, pions, muons, etc.); and (3) physics models to transport neutrons and protons when no tabular data are available or when the data are above the energy range (20 to 150 MeV) where the data tables end. MCNPX can mix and match data tables and physics models throughout a problem. For example, MCNPX can model neutron transport in a bismuth germinate (BGO) particle detector by using data tables for bismuth and oxygen and using physics models for germanium. Also, MCNPX can model neutron transport in UO{sub 2}, making the best use of physics models and data tables: below 20 MeV, data tables are used; above 150 MeV, physics models are used; between 20 and 150 MeV, data tables are used for oxygen and models are used for uranium. The mix-and-match capability became available with MCNPX2.5.b (November 2002). For the first time, we present here comparisons that calculate radiation transport in materials with various combinations of data charts and model physics. The physics models are poor at low energies (<150 MeV); thus, data tables should be used when available. Our comparisons demonstrate the importance of the mix-and-match capability and indicate how well physics models work in the absence of data tables.

  5. Let Us Make the Table Periodic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Arthur

    1989-01-01

    An approach to teaching the properties of the elements and their arrangement in the periodic table is suggested. Discussed are symbols for the elements, format of the table, and coding the properties of the elements on the table. (CW)

  6. Where does the water table outcrop? Analysis of controlling factors across scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresciani, E.; Batelaan, O.

    2014-12-01

    The water table 'roughly' follows the topography. 'Roughly', because the water table intercepts the topography only in a few locations, such as along the gaining portions of streams and other surface discharge features, including drains, wetlands, seeps and the coastline. Elsewhere, the water table occurs below the land surface and is therefore controlled by recharge and hydraulic conductivity. Hence, the control of the topography on the water table arises through the occurrence of water table outcrops. This study analyses water table outcrops as a function of climatic, geologic and topographic factors in theoretical configurations, based on numerical simulations. The water table is treated as a free surface, whose position adapts to the parameters. The studied system is dimensionless and serves as a first-order approximation model for any scale. Varying the amplitude and frequency of topographic undulations, as well as recharge and hydraulic conductivity, relationships between key controlling factors and water table outcrops are investigated. The results provide fundamental understanding of water table shapes, and so of groundwater flow, under various conditions and without assuming the water table to be identical to the topography. Because water table outcrops also indicates areas of groundwater discharge and of interaction of groundwater with surface water, groundwater-dependent ecosystems and the atmosphere, the results have implications that go far beyond the scope of groundwater flow characterization. This includes the conceptualisation and modelling of stream baseflow, wetlands, riparian areas and water and energy exchanges between groundwater and the atmosphere.

  7. Radioactive Elements in the Standard Atomic Weights Table.

    SciTech Connect

    Holden,N.E.

    2007-08-04

    In the 1949 Report of the Atomic Weights Commission, a series of new elements were added to the Atomic Weights Table. Since these elements had been produced in the laboratory and were not discovered in nature, the atomic weight value of these artificial products would depend upon the production method. Since atomic weight is a property of an element as it occurs in nature, it would be incorrect to assign an atomic weight value to that element. As a result of that discussion, the Commission decided to provide only the mass number of the most stable (or longest-lived) known isotope as the number to be associated with these entries in the Atomic Weights Table. As a function of time, the mass number associated with various elements has changed as longer-lived isotopes of a particular element has been found in nature, or as improved half-life values of an element's isotopes might cause a shift in the longest-lived isotope from one mass to another. In the 1957 Report of the Atomic Weights Commission, it was decided to discontinue the listing of the mass number in the Atomic Weights Table on the grounds that the kind of information supplied by the mass number is inconsistent with the primary purpose of the Table, i.e., to provide accurate values of 'these constants' for use in various chemical calculations. In addition to the Table of Atomic Weights, the Commission included an auxiliary Table of Radioactive Elements for the first time, where the entry would be the isotope of that element which was the most stable, i.e., the one with the longest known half-life. In their 1973 Report, the Commission noted that the users of the main Table of Atomic Weights were dissatisfied with the omission of values for some elements in that Table and it was decided to reintroduce the mass number for the radioactive elements into the main Table. In their 1983 Report, the Commission decided that radioactive elements were considered to lack a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition

  8. Behavior of a shallow water table under periodic flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Nick; Nielsen, Peter; Perrochet, Pierre

    2009-03-01

    A new laboratory data set on the behavior of a shallow water table in a sand column aquifer subject to simple harmonic periodic forcing at its base is presented and discussed. The data are analyzed using the dynamic effective porosity, which is defined as the ratio of the rate of change in total moisture to the rate of change in water table elevation; thus, a reduction in this parameter means that the extent of moisture exchange has been reduced relative to a given water table fluctuation. The data show a clear decrease in the dynamic effective porosity with increasing proximity of the water table to the sand surface, which is consistent with previous research under a steadily rising or falling shallow water table. The observed reduction in moisture exchange due to shallowness of the water table has implications for periodic flow scenarios such as the propagation of water table waves in coastal and beach groundwater systems. That is, as moisture exchange is reduced, less work is being done by the flow, and thus, energy dissipation rates for shallow water tables will be reduced relative to the case of a deeper water table. At present no account of the influence of water table shallowness has been included in theories describing water table wave dispersion. The present experiments, in conjunction with the dynamic effective porosity concept, provide a framework in which this gap in knowledge can be further investigated. Additional experiments were designed such that the free surface transgressed the sand surface for part of the oscillation period to investigate the influence of meniscus formation and deformation at the sand surface on periodic flow dynamics. The observed behavior is consistent with previous observations of steady infiltration above shallow water tables, namely, a rapid drop (rise) in pore pressure with the onset of meniscus formation (deformation). A simple "wetting and drying" model is derived, accounting for the variation in effective porosity

  9. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Establishing Operating Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDDD, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart... computing the hourly averages using all of the 15-minute readings taken during each performance test. b... readings taken during each performance test. 2. HCl a. Wet scrubber operating parameters i. Establish...

  10. Table of tables: A database design tool for SYBASE

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.C.; Coulter, K.; Glass, H.D.; Glosson, R.; Hanft, R.W.; Harding, D.J.; Trombly-Freytag, K.; Walbridge, D.G.C.; Wallis, D.B. ); Allen, M.E. )

    1991-01-04

    The Table of Tables' application system captures in a set of SYBASE tables the basic design specification for a database schema. Specification of tables, columns (including the related defaults and rules for the stored values) and keys is provided. The feature which makes this application specifically useful for SYBASE is the ability to automatically generate SYBASE triggers. A description field is provided for each database object. Based on the data stored, SQL scripts for creating complete schema including the tables, their defaults and rules, their indexes, and their SYBASE triggers, are written by TOT. Insert, update and delete triggers are generated from TOT to guarantee integrity of data relations when tables are connected by single column foreign keys. The application is written in SYBASE's APT-SQL and includes a forms based data entry system. Using the features of TOT we can create a complete database schema for which the data integrity specified by our design is guaranteed by the SYBASE triggers generated by TOT. 3 refs.

  11. Impact of flavour solvent (propylene glycol or triacetin) on vanillin, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, 2,4-decadienal, 2,4-heptadienal, structural parameters and sensory perception of shortcake biscuits over accelerated shelf life testing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ni; Hort, Joanne; Linforth, Robert; Brown, Keith; Walsh, Stuart; Fisk, Ian D

    2013-11-15

    The influence of choice of flavour solvent, propylene glycol (PG) or triacetin (TA), was investigated during accelerated shelf life (ASL) testing of shortcake biscuits. Specifically, the differential effect on the stability of added vanillin, the natural baked marker compound 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF), specific markers of oxidative rancidity (2,4-decadienal, 2,4-heptadienal), and the structural parameters of hardness and fracturability. Significantly more HMF was formed during baking of biscuits prepared with TA; these biscuits were also more stable to oxidative degradation and loss of vanillin during ageing than biscuits prepared with PG. Fresh TA biscuits were significantly more brittle than fresh PG biscuits. There was no impact of solvent choice on hardness. Sensory evaluation of hardness, vanilla flavour and oily off-note was tested during ASL testing. There was no significant impact of storage on sensory ratings for either the PG or TA biscuits.

  12. Bayesian Full Rank Marginalization for Two-Way Contingency Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Tom; Novick, Melvin R.

    A general approach is proposed for modeling the structure of a two-way contingency table, and for drawing inferences about the marginal and interaction effects, cell parameters, and conditional probabilities. The prior distribution expresses uncertainty in a simple reduced model, in particular the independence model. The posterior estimates of the…

  13. Considerations in Using US-Based Laboratory Toxicity Tables to Evaluate Laboratory Toxicities Among Healthy Malawian and Ugandan Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lubega, Irene R.; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Musoke, Philippa M.; Elbireer, Ali; Bagenda, Danstan; Kafulafula, George; Ko, Jeanne; Mipando, Linda; Mubiru, Mike; Kumwenda, Newton; Taha, Taha; Jackson, J. Brooks; Guay, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine normal hematologic and selected blood chemistry values among healthy, full-term, non–HIV-exposed infants in Uganda and Malawi, and to determine the proportion of healthy babies with an apparent laboratory toxicity based on Division of AIDS toxicity tables. Design This was a cross-sectional laboratory study of infants from birth to 6 months of age. Methods Blood samples were collected from a total of 561 infants and analyzed according to age categories similar to those in the 2004 Division of AIDS toxicity tables. Select chemistry and hematology parameters were determined and values compared with those in the toxicity tables. Results In the first 56 days of life, there were few graded toxicities except for neutropenia in 2 of 10 (20%) Ugandan and 13 of 45 (29%) Malawian infants at birth. After 7 days, about 20% of the infants in Uganda and Malawi would have been classified as having a neutropenia whereas 47% and 53% of those more than 2 months of age in Uganda and Malawi respectively, would have been reported as having an abnormal hemoglobin. Chemistry findings were not different from US norms. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of establishing relevant local laboratory norms for infants. PMID:20588184

  14. Round Table on Chicano Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce-Novoa, Juan

    1975-01-01

    Themes covered by this round table include the genres in Chicano literature, publication problems for Chicanos; the social role of the Chicano author; the Chicano-Mexican relationship, and the theater festival in Mexico City in 1974. (Author/AM)

  15. Some economic tables for airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    During the course of the Southern California Aviation Council study on lighter than air it was determined that some form of economic base must be developed for estimation of costs of the airship. The tables are presented.

  16. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  17. STIL - Starlink Tables Infrastructure Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Mark

    STIL is a set of Java class libraries which allow input, manipulation and output of tabular data and metadata. Among its key features are support for many tabular formats (including VOTable, FITS, CDF, text-based formats and SQL databases) and support for dealing with very large tables in limited memory. As well as an abstract and format-independent definition of what constitutes a table, and an extensible framework for "pull-model" table processing, it provides a number of format-specific handlers which know how to serialize/deserialize tables. The framework for interaction between the core table manipulation facilities and the format-specific handlers is open and pluggable, so that handlers for new formats can easily be added, programmatically or at run-time. The VOTable handling in particular is provided by classes which perform efficient XML parsing and can read and write VOTables in any of the defined formats (TABLEDATA, BINARY or FITS). It supports table-aware SAX- or DOM-mode processing and may be used on its own for VOTable I/O without much reference to the format-independent parts of the library.

  18. RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS IN THE STANDARD ATOMIC WEIGHTS TABLE

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.; Holden, N.; Holden,N.E.

    2011-07-27

    In the 1949 Report of the Atomic Weights Commission, a series of new elements were added to the Atomic Weights Table. Since these elements had been produced in the laboratory and were not discovered in nature, the atomic weight value of these artificial products would depend upon the production method. Since atomic weight is a property of an element as it occurs in nature, it would be incorrect to assign an atomic weight value to that element. As a result of that discussion, the Commission decided to provide only the mass number of the most stable (or longest-lived) known isotope as the number to be associated with these entries in the Atomic Weights Table. As a function of time, the mass number associated with various elements has changed as longer-lived isotopes of a particular element has been found in nature, or as improved half-life values of an element's isotopes might cause a shift in the longest-lived isotope from one mass to another. In the 1957 Report of the Atomic Weights Commission, it was decided to discontinue the listing of the mass number in the Atomic Weights Table on the grounds that the kind of information supplied by the mass number is inconsistent with the primary purpose of the Table, i.e., to provide accurate values of 'these constants' for use in various chemical calculations. In addition to the Table of Atomic Weights, the Commission included an auxiliary Table of Radioactive Elements for the first time, where the entry would be the isotope of that element which was the most stable, i.e., the one with the longest known half-life. In their 1973 Report, the Commission noted that the users of the main Table of Atomic Weights were dissatisfied with the omission of values for some elements in that Table and it was decided to reintroduce the mass number for the radioactive elements into the main Table. In their 1983 Report, the Commission decided that radioactive elements were considered to lack a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition

  19. INTRODUCTION Outline of Round Tables Outline of Round Tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2010-12-01

    -canonical" turbulent processes, identified problems which are most appealing to a broad international and interdisciplinary TMB community, focused on selecting quantitative criteria for the estimation of the quality and information capacity of experimental and numerical data sets, and outlined the needs and requirements for the TMB cyber-infrastructure. Upon intense discussions, participants of the Round Table agreed that it is still unclear if Kolmogorov turbulence is an observable physical phenomenon. Even for canonical (e.g. local, isotropic and homogeneous) turbulent flows the corrections to Kolmogorov theory are essential to incorporate. Several definitions of canonical turbulence were considered. It was noted that in a vast variety of realistic problems (under high and low energy density conditions from microscopic to astrophysical scales) the flow conditions depart from the assumptions of Kolmogorov theory. It is uncertain whether these distinctions can be completely accounted for with some higher-order corrections to Kolmogorov theory, whether such corrections are "continuous" or "singular", and whether their quantitative influence on the values of observables in a given parameter regime is small. It was stressed that in experiments on canonical turbulence the conditions of isotropy, locality and homogeneity are hard to achieve. Numerical simulations can open exciting avenues for accurate studies of fundamental theoretical issues provided their accuracy and dynamic range, requiring computations of peta-scale and higher levels, are satisfactory. Participants of the Round Table stressed that realistic turbulent processes depart from classical scenarios. They are characterized by sharp gradients of pressure and density, and may be subject to spatially varying and time-dependent acceleration, rotation and shocks, and are often influenced by diffusion of species, heat release and changes in chemical composition. Their sensitivity to details and transient character of the dynamics

  20. Radiation-related quality of life parameters after targeted intraoperative radiotherapy versus whole breast radiotherapy in patients with breast cancer: results from the randomized phase III trial TARGIT-A

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is a new treatment approach for early stage breast cancer. This study reports on the effects of IORT on radiation-related quality of life (QoL) parameters. Methods Two hundred and thirty women with stage I-III breast cancer (age, 31 to 84 years) were entered into the study. A single-center subgroup of 87 women from the two arms of the randomized phase III trial TARGIT-A (TARGeted Intra-operative radioTherapy versus whole breast radiotherapy for breast cancer) was analyzed. Furthermore, results were compared to non-randomized control groups: n = 90 receiving IORT as a tumor bed boost followed by external beam whole breast radiotherapy (EBRT) outside of TARGIT-A (IORT-boost), and n = 53 treated with EBRT followed by an external-beam boost (EBRT-boost). QoL was collected using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaires C30 (QLQ-C30) and BR23 (QLQ-BR23). The mean follow-up period in the TARGIT-A groups was 32 versus 39 months in the non-randomized control groups. Results Patients receiving IORT alone reported less general pain (21.3 points), breast (7.0 points) and arm (15.1 points) symptoms, and better role functioning (78.7 points) as patients receiving EBRT (40.9; 19.0; 32.8; and 60.5 points, respectively, P < 0.01). Patients receiving IORT alone also had fewer breast symptoms than TARGIT-A patients receiving IORT followed by EBRT for high risk features on final pathology (IORT-EBRT; 7.0 versus 29.7 points, P < 0.01). There were no significant differences between TARGIT-A patients receiving IORT-EBRT compared to non-randomized IORT-boost or EBRT-boost patients and patients receiving EBRT without a boost. Conclusions In the randomized setting, important radiation-related QoL parameters after IORT were superior to EBRT. Non-randomized comparisons showed equivalent parameters in the IORT-EBRT group and the control groups. PMID:23294485

  1. Prediction of drug terminal half-life and terminal volume of distribution after intravenous dosing based on drug clearance, steady-state volume of distribution, and physiological parameters of the body.

    PubMed

    Berezhkovskiy, Leonid M

    2013-02-01

    The steady state, V(ss), terminal volume of distribution, V(β), and the terminal half-life, t(1/2), are commonly obtained from the drug plasma concentration-time profile, C(p)(t), following intravenous dosing. Unlike V(ss) that can be calculated based on the physicochemical properties of drugs considering the equilibrium partitioning between plasma and organ tissues, t(1/2) and V(β) cannot be calculated that way because they depend on the rates of drug transfer between blood and tissues. Considering the physiological pharmacokinetic model pertinent to the terminal phase of drug elimination, a novel equation that calculates t(1/2) (and consequently V(β)) was derived. It turns out that V(ss), the total body clearance, Cl, equilibrium blood-plasma concentration ratio, r; and the physiological parameters of the body such as cardiac output, and blood and tissue volumes are sufficient for determination of terminal kinetics. Calculation of t(1/2) by the obtained equation appears to be in good agreement with the experimentally observed vales of this parameter in pharmacokinetic studies in rat, monkey, dog, and human. The equation for the determination of the pre-exponent of the terminal phase of C(p)(t) is also found. The obtained equation allows to predict t(1/2) in human assuming that V(ss) and Cl were either obtained by allometric scaling or, respectively, calculated in silico or based on in vitro drug stability measurements. For compounds that have high clearance, the derived equation may be applied to calculate r just using the routine data on Cl, V(ss), and t(1/2), rather than doing the in vitro assay to measure this parameter.

  2. 30 CFR 250.1401 - Index table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Index table. 250.1401 Section 250.1401 Mineral... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Civil Penalties § 250.1401 Index table. The following table is an index of the sections in this subpart: § 250.1401Table...

  3. A multiplet table for Mn I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, S. J.; Svatek, G. F.; Van Winkler, K.; Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A mulitplet table of the atomic spectral lines of Mn I has been prepared. All of the known lines and many predicted lines of Mn I are included in the table. The methodology used to prepare the table is outlined and a sample page of the table is given.

  4. XPI: The Xanadu Parameter Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N.; Barrett, P.; Oneel, B.; Jacobs, P.

    1992-01-01

    XPI is a table driven parameter interface which greatly simplifies both command driven programs such as BROWSE and XIMAGE as well as stand alone single-task programs. It moves all of the syntax and semantic parsing of commands and parameters out of the users code into common code and externally defined tables. This allows the programmer to concentrate on writing the code unique to the application rather than reinventing the user interface and for external graphical interfaces to interface with no changes to the command driven program. XPI also includes a compatibility library which allows programs written using the IRAF host interface (Mandel and Roll) to use XPI in place of the IRAF host interface.

  5. [Uniform model and experimental method of anaerobic inhibition dynamics using table function].

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhong; Wang, Kai-Jun

    2008-05-01

    To figure out the problem, such as disunity of existent form in the model of traditional inhibition dynamic, and difficulty to obtain the parameters, we adopt the way of table function to formulate inhibition kinetics. Through indraught the way of table function to improve on the way of experiment in dynamic mensuration, DYNAMO software was used to process the data and simulate the inhibition phenomena of 2,4 dinitrophenol. The result shows that the table function is possible to simulate the inhibition phenomena. Compared with the traditional inhibition dynamic, the simulation curve of table function is much more close to the data of experiment, the modality is simple and unify, and simultaneously it solves the problem of parameter obtaining. When the complex inhibition phenomena is simulated, the table function shows obvious advantage, and may predigest the structure of model at a certain extent.

  6. Table of nuclear electric quadrupole moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, N. J.

    2016-09-01

    This Table is a compilation of experimental measurements of static electric quadrupole moments of ground states and excited states of atomic nuclei throughout the periodic table. To aid identification of the states, their excitation energy, half-life, spin and parity are given, along with a brief indication of the method and any reference standard used in the particular measurement. Experimental data from all quadrupole moment measurements actually provide a value of the product of the moment and the electric field gradient [EFG] acting at the nucleus. Knowledge of the EFG is thus necessary to extract the quadrupole moment. A single recommended moment value is given for each state, based, for each element, wherever possible, upon a standard reference moment for a nuclear state of that element studied in a situation in which the electric field gradient has been well calculated. For several elements one or more subsidiary EFG/moment reference is required and their use is specified. The literature search covers the period to mid-2015.

  7. The force of mortality by life lived is the force of increment by life left in stationary populations

    PubMed Central

    Riffe, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background The age distribution and remaining lifespan distribution are identical in stationary populations. The life table survival function is proportional to the age distribution in stationary populations. Objective We provide an alternative interpretation of the life table when viewed by remaining years of life. Conclusions The functions describing the mortality of birth cohorts over age are identical to the functions describing the growth of death cohorts as time to death decreases in stationary populations. PMID:26167131

  8. The Computerized Table Setting Test for Detecting Unilateral Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Byoung Seok; Lee, Hye Sun; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Song, Dongbeom; Kim, Young Dae; Heo, Ji Hoe; Nam, Hyo Suk

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with unilateral neglect fail to respond normally to stimuli on the left side. To facilitate the evaluation of unilateral spatial neglect, we developed a new application that runs on a tablet device and investigated its feasibility in stroke patients. Methods We made the computerized table setting test (CTST) to run on the tablet computer. Forty acute ischemic stroke patients (20 patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect, 10 patients with right hemispheric infarction without neglect, and 10 patients with left hemispheric infarction) and 10 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled to validate the CTST. The test requires subjects to set a table by dragging 12 dishes located below the table on the tablet screen. The horizontal deviation of the 12 dishes from the midline of the table, the selection tendency measured by the sequence of the dish selection, and the elapsed time for table setting were calculated automatically. Results Parameters measured by the CTST were correlated with the results of conventional neglect tests. The horizontal deviation was significantly higher in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the other groups. The selection tendency and elapsed time also were significantly different in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the left hemispheric infarction and control groups, but were similar to those with right hemispheric infarction without neglect. Conclusions The CTST is feasible to administer and comparable with conventional neglect tests. This new application may be useful for the initial diagnosis and follow-up of neglect patients. PMID:26771512

  9. General purpose steam table library :

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John H.; Belcourt, Kenneth Noel; Nourgaliev, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Completion of the CASL L3 milestone THM.CFD.P7.04 provides a general purpose tabular interpolation library for material properties to support, in particular, standardized models for steam properties. The software consists of three parts, implementations of analytic steam models, a code to generate tables from those models, and an interpolation package to interface the tables to CFD codes such as Hydra-TH. Verification of the standard model is maintained through the entire train of routines. The performance of interpolation package exceeds that of freely available analytic implementation of the steam properties by over an order of magnitude.

  10. Enhancing Table Interpretation Skills via Training in Table Creation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karazsia, Bryan T.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative and statistical literacy are core domains in the undergraduate psychology curriculum. An important component of such literacy includes interpretation of visual aids, such as tables containing results from statistical analyses. This article presents a new technique for enhancing student interpretation of American Psychological…

  11. Livelihood benefits of small improvements in the life table.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, J E

    1975-01-01

    This article proposes and illustrates a new lower bound on the economic benefits of reducing the number of deaths due to a particular cause and specifies the underlying economic and demographic assumptions. Unlike previous estimates of the increase in a population's output due to the extension of working lives, this new bound includes the present value to the existing population of avoiding future deaths from the cause. The estimated lower bound of $20 billion benefit from eliminating U.S. male deaths due to kidney and related diseases exceeds by an order of magnitude a previous estimate that considers only current deaths. PMID:1205867

  12. The water table: the shifting foundation of life on land.

    PubMed

    Glazer, Alexander N; Likens, Gene E

    2012-11-01

    Hyperarid, arid, and semi-arid lands represent over a third of the Earth's land surface, and are home to over 38 % of the increasing world population. Freshwater is a limiting resource on these lands, and withdrawal of groundwater substantially exceeds recharge. Withdrawals of groundwater for expanding agricultural and domestic use severely limit water availability for groundwater dependent ecosystems. We examine here, with emphasis on quantitative data, case histories of groundwater withdrawals at widely differing scales, on three continents, that range from the impact of a few wells, to the outcomes of total appropriation of flow in a major river system. The case histories provide a glimpse of the immense challenge of replacing groundwater resources once they are severely depleted, and put into sharp focus the question whether the magnitude of the current and future human, economic, and environmental consequences and costs of present practices of groundwater exploitation are adequately recognized.

  13. Astronomical, physical, and meteorological parameters for planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Travis, Larry D.

    1986-01-01

    A newly compiled table of astronomical, physical, and meteorological parameters for planetary atmospheres is presented. Formulae and explanatory notes for their application and a complete listing of sources are also given.

  14. Man Made Elements Periodic Table, Astronomical Periodic Table, Geographic Periodic Table-Dimitri Mendeleev Imitation in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struck, J.-T.

    2013-11-01

    A man made elements periodic table, including every single current element not just synthetic elements can be built differently than the naturally occurring element periodic table. Implications for knowing producible elements in space travel.

  15. Aerodynamic coefficients and transformation tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Joseph S

    1918-01-01

    The problem of the transformation of numerical values expressed in one system of units into another set or system of units frequently arises in connection with aerodynamic problems. Report contains aerodynamic coefficients and conversion tables needed to facilitate such transformation. (author)

  16. Sand and Water Table Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  17. 50 CFR Table 4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 4 Table 4 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Critical habitat for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of...

  18. 50 CFR Table 4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 4 Table 4 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Critical habitat for the southern Distinct Population Segment...

  19. 50 CFR Table 4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 4 Table 4 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale...

  20. 50 CFR Table 4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 4 Table 4 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Critical habitat for the southern Distinct Population Segment...

  1. What Price Statistical Tables Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Neville

    1997-01-01

    Describes the generation of all the tables required for school-level study of statistics using Microsoft's Excel spreadsheet package. Highlights cumulative binomial probabilities, cumulative Poisson probabilities, normal distribution, t-distribution, chi-squared distribution, F-distribution, random numbers, and accuracy. (JRH)

  2. Compressible Flow Tables for Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcher, Marie A.

    1947-01-01

    This paper contains a tabulation of functions of the Mach number which are frequently used in high-speed aerodynamics. The tables extend from M = 0 to M = 10.0 in increments of 0.01 and are based on the assumption that air is a perfect gas having a specific heat ratio of 1.400.

  3. A note on scrap in the 1992 U.S. input-output tables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swisko, George M.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction A key concern of industrial ecology and life cycle analysis is the disposal and recycling of scrap. One might conclude that the U.S. input-output tables are appropriate tools for analyzing scrap flows. Duchin, for instance, has suggested using input-output analysis for industrial ecology, indicating that input-output economics can trace the stocks and flows of energy and other materials from extraction through production and consumption to recycling or disposal. Lave and others use input-output tables to design life cycle assessment models for studying product design, materials use, and recycling strategies, even with the knowledge that these tables suffer from a lack of comprehensive and detailed data that may never be resolved. Although input-output tables can offer general guidance about the interdependence of economic and environmental processes, data reporting by industry and the economic concepts underlying these tables pose problems for rigorous material flow examinations. This is especially true for analyzing the output of scrap and scrap flows in the United States and estimating the amount of scrap that can be recycled. To show how data reporting has affected the values of scrap in recent input-output tables, this paper focuses on metal scrap generated in manufacturing. The paper also briefly discusses scrap that is not included in the input-output tables and some economic concepts that limit the analysis of scrap flows.

  4. 30 CFR 250.1401 - Index table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Civil Penalties § 250.1401 Index table. The following table...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1401 - Index table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Civil Penalties § 250.1401 Index table. The following table is an index of...

  6. 30 CFR 250.1401 - Index table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Civil Penalties § 250.1401 Index table. The following table is an index of...

  7. Stream Tables and Watershed Geomorphology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillquist, Karl D.; Kinner, Patricia W.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews copious stream tables and provides a watershed approach to stream table exercises. Results suggest that this approach to learning the concepts of fluvial geomorphology is effective. (Contains 39 references.) (DDR)

  8. Calibration of a high precision rotary table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Heyan; Xue, Zi; Shen, Ni; Huang, Yao

    2015-02-01

    In order to calibrate a high precision rotary table, a calibration system was established to measure the position error and repeatability of rotary table. The position error was measured with a polygon, an index table and an autocollimator to separate the angular error of the polygon from the position error of the rotary table, and the position error of rotary table was calculated using least square method. The rotary table was compensated and calibrated with the position error measured. The repeatability of the rotary table established through 10 times full circle rotations was 0.02 arc second. The measurement results indicated that the combination calibration method was suitable for the calibration of a high precision rotary table. It was found through the analysis that the angular measurement uncertainty was 0.08 arc second.

  9. The origins of Ptolemy's astronomical tables.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R. R.

    Following the line set by his earlier book 'The crime of Claudius Ptolemy' the author discusses here the numerous astronomical tables in Ptolemy's work that have been calculated with the aid of trigonometric tables, as well as a few that are nonlinear but that do not involve trigonometry. The purpose in this study is to determine, if possible, whether Ptolemy calculated these tables or whether he copied them from now-lost original works. The conclusion isthat Ptolemy made few if any original contributions to astronomy, either observational or computational.Contents: 1. Introduction; thetable of chords. 2. The tables of the latitude and of gnomon shadows.3. Tables of the Sun. 4. Astronomical geography. 5. The tables of theMoon. 6. Eclipse tables. 7. Tables of the planets. 8. The empirical basis for Hipparchus's mean motions of the Moon. 9. Summary and conclusions.

  10. Gear drive automatically indexes rotary table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, M. F.

    1966-01-01

    Combination indexer and drive unit drills equally spaced circular hole patterns on rotary tables. It automatically rotates the table a distance exactly equal to one hole spacing for each revolution of a special idler gear.

  11. Use of an Acid-Base Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Grover; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Identifies several ways in which an acid-base table can provide students with information about chemical reactions. Cites examples of the chart's use and includes a table which indicates the strengths of some common acids and bases. (ML)

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emission Intensities Based on Economic Input-Output Tables and Case Studies of Product LCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Oguchi, Masahiro; Amemiya, Kumiko; Kagami, Hideyo; Haruki, Kazuhito

    In this paper, emission intensity tables of greenhouse gas (especially HFC, PFC and SF6) are presented and LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) case studies using those tables are discussed. The emission intensity tables of greenhouse gas are derived from Economic Input-Output Tables (I/O tables) and several statistical data. The emission intensities derived from the total amount transferred between sections in I/O tables become larger than the intensities derived from the actual amount of gases transferred between sections. In order to calculate the intensities of these gases, certain sections of the I/O tables should be decomposed. The I/O tables are modified, adding these sections, which correspond to ″HFC″, ″PFC″, ″HCFC″ and ″SF6″ manufacturing industries. The emission intensities become large in not only ″HFC″, ″PFC″, ″HCFC″, ″SF6″ subsections, but also ″Semiconductor devices and integrated circuits″, ″Liquid crystal devices″ and ″Relay switches and switchboards″ sections. LCA case studies are conducted on a laptop PC and an air conditioner. The greenhouse gas emission at each stage of the life cycle is increased by about 20% for a laptop PC and by about 1% for an air conditioner with the CO2 equivalent compared with the result calculated by the emission intensity tables of CO2 and N2O.

  13. The Different Periodic Tables of Dmitrii Mendeleev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Between 1869 and 1905 the Russian chemist Dmitrii Mendeleev published several tables with different arrangements of the chemical elements. Four of these are compared with periodic tables by Russian scientists from 1934 and 1969. The difficulties caused by the lanthanoid elements are clearly seen in the table of 1905, which satisfactorily includes…

  14. 30 CFR 250.1401 - Index table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Index table. 250.1401 Section 250.1401 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS... Continental Shelf Lands Act Civil Penalties § 250.1401 Index table. The following table is an index of...

  15. Bridging Ground Validation and Algorithms: Using Scattering and Integral Tables to Incorporate Observed DSD Correlations into Satellite Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) raindrop size distribution (DSD) Working Group is composed of NASA PMM Science Team Members and is charged to "investigate the correlations between DSD parameters using Ground Validation (GV) data sets that support, or guide, the assumptions used in satellite retrieval algorithms." Correlations between DSD parameters can be used to constrain the unknowns and reduce the degrees-of-freedom in under-constrained satellite algorithms. Over the past two years, the GPM DSD Working Group has analyzed GV data and has found correlations between the mass-weighted mean raindrop diameter (Dm) and the mass distribution standard deviation (Sm) that follows a power-law relationship. This Dm-Sm power-law relationship appears to be robust and has been observed in surface disdrometer and vertically pointing radar observations. One benefit of a Dm-Sm power-law relationship is that a three parameter DSD can be modeled with just two parameters: Dm and Nw that determines the DSD amplitude. In order to incorporate observed DSD correlations into satellite algorithms, the GPM DSD Working Group is developing scattering and integral tables that can be used by satellite algorithms. Scattering tables describe the interaction of electromagnetic waves on individual particles to generate cross sections of backscattering, extinction, and scattering. Scattering tables are independent of the distribution of particles. Integral tables combine scattering table outputs with DSD parameters and DSD correlations to generate integrated normalized reflectivity, attenuation, scattering, emission, and asymmetry coefficients. Integral tables contain both frequency dependent scattering properties and cloud microphysics. The GPM DSD Working Group has developed scattering tables for raindrops at both Dual Precipitation Radar (DPR) frequencies and at all GMI radiometer frequencies less than 100 GHz. Scattering tables include Mie and T-matrix scattering with H- and V

  16. Life's Still Lifes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Harold V.

    The de Bruijn diagram describing those decompositions of the neighborhoods of a one dimensional cellular automaton which conform to predetermined requirements of periodicity and translational symmetry shows how to construct extended configurations satisfying the same requirements. Similar diagrams, formed by stages, describe higher dimensional automata, although they become more laborious to compute with increasing neighborhood size. The procedure is illustrated by computing some still lifes for Conway's game of Life, a widely known two dimensional cellular automaton. This paper is written in September 10, 1988.

  17. Managing Restaurant Tables using Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotto, Alfio; Brown, Kenneth N.; Beck, J. Christopher

    Restaurant table management can have significant impact on both profitability and the customer experience. The core of the issue is a complex dynamic combinatorial problem. We show how to model the problem as constraint satisfaction, with extensions which generate flexible seating plans and which maintain stability when changes occur. We describe an implemented system which provides advice to users in real time. The system is currently being evaluated in a restaurant environment.

  18. Two Problems with Table Saws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vautaw, William R.

    2008-01-01

    We solve two problems that arise when constructing picture frames using only a table saw. First, to cut a cove running the length of a board (given the width of the cove and the angle the cove makes with the face of the board) we calculate the height of the blade and the angle the board should be turned as it is passed over the blade. Second, to…

  19. Automatically operable self-leveling load table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A self-leveling load table is described which is automatically maintained level by selectively opening and closing solenoid valves for inserting and removing air from chambers under the table. The table is floated in a fluid by nine air chambers beneath the top of the table. These chambers are open at the bottom and four oppositely located chambers are used for leveling the table by having the air increased or decreased by means of a flexible hose. Air bearing pendulums are used for selectively energizing solenoid valves which either apply pressurized air to the chamber or evacuate air from the chamber by means of a vacuum source.

  20. [The evolution of life expectancy in the capital city of Warsaw in 1931-1980].

    PubMed

    Kedelski, M

    1983-03-01

    The author presents estimates of life expectancy in Warsaw, Poland, by age and sex for the period 1931-1980. The estimates involve modifications of previously calculated life tables for 1931 to ensure greater compatibility with more recent estimates.

  1. Clustering header categories extracted from web tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, George; Embley, David W.; Krishnamoorthy, Mukkai; Seth, Sharad

    2015-01-01

    Revealing related content among heterogeneous web tables is part of our long term objective of formulating queries over multiple sources of information. Two hundred HTML tables from institutional web sites are segmented and each table cell is classified according to the fundamental indexing property of row and column headers. The categories that correspond to the multi-dimensional data cube view of a table are extracted by factoring the (often multi-row/column) headers. To reveal commonalities between tables from diverse sources, the Jaccard distances between pairs of category headers (and also table titles) are computed. We show how about one third of our heterogeneous collection can be clustered into a dozen groups that exhibit table-title and header similarities that can be exploited for queries.

  2. TableBuster V1.0

    2003-06-06

    Brief Description:TableBuster enables Telelogic DOORS users to export tables with split merged cells from Microsoft Word into DOORS. Practical Application: Users of Telelogic DOORS will be more easily able to track and manage requirements that are initally defined in Microsoft Word tables containing split or merged cells. Method of Solution: TableSplitter contains two procedures. The Setup subroutine unlinks all Word fields in the active Word document. It next counts all the tables in the documentmore » and then calls the SplitCells subroutine. SplitCells splits the appropriate cells for each table, so a n row by m column table actually has n by m cells that DOORS can import.« less

  3. The Kepler False Positive Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kepler False Positive Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Space Telescope has detected thousands of candidate exoplanets by observing transit signals in a sample of more than 190,000 stars. Many of these transit signals are false positives, defined as a transit-like signal that is not due to a planet orbiting the target star (or a bound companion if the target is a multiple-star system). Astrophysical causes of false positives include background eclipsing binaries, planetary transits not associated with the target star, and non-planetary eclipses of the target star by stellar companions. The fraction of Kepler planet candidates that are false positives ranges from about 10% at high Galactic latitudes to 40% at low Galactic latitudes. Creating a high-reliability planet candidate catalog for statistical studies such as occurrence rate calculations requires removing clearly identified false positives.The Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive flags false positives, and will soon provide a high-level classification of false positives, but lacks detailed description of why a KOI was determined to be a false positive. The Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) examines each false positive in detail to certify that it is correctly identified as a false positive, and determines the primary reason(s) a KOI is classified as a false positive. The work of the FPWG will be published as the Kepler False Positive Table, hosted at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive.The Kepler False Positive Table provides detailed information on the evidence for background binaries, transits caused by stellar companions, and false alarms. In addition to providing insight into the Kepler false positive population, the false positive table gives information about the background binary population and other areas of astrophysical interest. Because a planet around a star not associated with the target star is considered a false positive, the false positive table likely contains further planet candidates

  4. TOPMODEL simulations of streamflow and depth to water table in Fishing Brook Watershed, New York, 2007-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Burns, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    TOPMODEL uses a topographic wetness index computed from surface-elevation data to simulate streamflow and subsurface-saturation state, represented by the saturation deficit. Depth to water table was computed from simulated saturation-deficit values using computed soil properties. In the Fishing Brook Watershed, TOPMODEL was calibrated to the natural logarithm of streamflow at the study area outlet and depth to water table at Sixmile Wetland using a combined multiple-objective function. Runoff and depth to water table responded differently to some of the model parameters, and the combined multiple-objective function balanced the goodness-of-fit of the model realizations with respect to these parameters. Results show that TOPMODEL reasonably simulated runoff and depth to water table during the study period. The simulated runoff had a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.738, but the model underpredicted total runoff by 14 percent. Depth to water table computed from simulated saturation-deficit values matched observed water-table depth moderately well; the root mean squared error of absolute depth to water table was 91 millimeters (mm), compared to the mean observed depth to water table of 205 mm. The correlation coefficient for temporal depth-to-water-table fluctuations was 0.624. The variability of the TOPMODEL simulations was assessed using prediction intervals grouped using the combined multiple-objective function. The calibrated TOPMODEL results for the entire study area were applied to several subwatersheds within the study area using computed hydrogeomorphic properties of the subwatersheds.

  5. Variable White Dwarf Data Tables

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, P. A.

    1997-12-31

    Below, I give a brief explanation of the information in these tables. In all cases, I list the WD {number_sign}, either from the catalog of McCook {ampersand} Sion (1987) or determined by me from the epoch 1950 coordinates. Next, I list the most commonly used name (or alias), then I list the variable star designation if it is available. If not, I list the constellation name and a V** or?? depending on what the last designated variable star for that constellation is. I present epoch 2000 coordinates for all of the stars, which I precessed from the 1950 ones in most cases. I do not include proper motion effects; this is negligible for all except the largest proper motion DAV stars, such as L 19-2, BPM 37093, B 808, and G 29-38. Even in these cases, the error is no more than 30` in declination and 2 s in right ascension. I culled effective temperatures from the latest work (listed under each table); they are now much more homogeneous than before. I pulled the magnitude estimates from the appropriate paper, and they are mean values integrated over several cycles. The amplitude given is for the height of a typical pulse in the light curve. The periods correspond the dominant ones found in the light curve. In some cases, there is a band of power in a given period range, or the light curve is very complex, and I indicate this in the table. In the references, I generally list the paper with the most comprehensive pulsation analysis for the star in question. In some cases, there is more than one good reference, and I list them as well.

  6. INTRODUCTION Outline of Round Tables Outline of Round Tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2010-12-01

    The Second International Conference and Advanced School 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', TMB-2009, was held at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, (ICTP), Trieste, Italy on 27 July-7 August 2009. TMB-2009 united over 180 participants ranging from students to members of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering, and including researchers at experienced and early stages of their carriers from leading scientific institutions in academia, national laboratories, corporations and industry worldwide. Responding to the community's inquiry and reaffirming the practices established at TMB-2007, two Round Tables were organized for the participants of TMB-2009 on 30 July 2009 and 6 August 2009 in the Oppenheimer Room at the Centre. The goals of the Round Tables were to encourage the information exchange among the members of the interdisciplinary and international TMB community, promote discussions regarding the state-of-the-art in TMB-related scientific areas, identify directions for frontier research, and articulate recommendations for future developments. This article is a summary of the collective work of the Round Table participants (listed alphabetically below by their last names), whose contributions form its substance and, as such, are greatly appreciated. Abarzhi, Snezhana I (University of Chicago, USA) Andrews, Malcolm (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA) Belotserkovskii, Oleg (Institute for Computer Aided Design of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia) Bershadskii, Alexander (ICAR, Israel) Brandenburg, Axel (Nordita, Denmark) Chumakov, Sergei (Stanford University, USA) Desai, Tara (University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy) Galperin, Boris (University of South Florida, USA) Gauthier, Serge (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, France) Gekelman, Walter (University of California at Los Angeles, USA) Gibson, Carl (University of California at San Diego, USA) Goddard III, William A (California Institute of Technology, USA) Grinstein, Fernando

  7. Table-top job analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to establish general training program guidelines for training personnel in developing training for operation, maintenance, and technical support personnel at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. TTJA is not the only method of job analysis; however, when conducted properly TTJA can be cost effective, efficient, and self-validating, and represents an effective method of defining job requirements. The table-top job analysis is suggested in the DOE Training Accreditation Program manuals as an acceptable alternative to traditional methods of analyzing job requirements. DOE 5480-20A strongly endorses and recommends it as the preferred method for analyzing jobs for positions addressed by the Order.

  8. Pseudomonas fluorescens' view of the periodic table.

    PubMed

    Workentine, Matthew L; Harrison, Joe J; Stenroos, Pernilla U; Ceri, Howard; Turner, Raymond J

    2008-01-01

    Growth in a biofilm modulates microbial metal susceptibility, sometimes increasing the ability of microorganisms to withstand toxic metal species by several orders of magnitude. In this study, a high-throughput metal toxicity screen was initiated with the aim of correlating biological toxicity data in planktonic and biofilm cells to the physiochemical properties of metal ions. To this end, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 was grown in the Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD) and biofilms and planktonic cells of this microorganism were exposed to gradient arrays of different metal ions. These arrays included 44 different metals with representative compounds that spanned every group of the periodic table (except for the halogens and noble gases). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) values were obtained after exposing the biofilms to metal ions for 4 h. Using these values, metal ion toxicity was correlated to the following ion-specific physicochemical parameters: standard reduction-oxidation potential, electronegativity, the solubility product of the corresponding metal-sulfide complex, the Pearson softness index, electron density and the covalent index. When the ions were grouped according to outer shell electron structure, we found that heavy metal ions gave the strongest correlations to these parameters and were more toxic on average than the other classes of the ions. Correlations were different for biofilms than for planktonic cells, indicating that chemical mechanisms of metal ion toxicity differ between the two modes of growth. We suggest that biofilms can specifically counter the toxic effects of certain physicochemical parameters, which may contribute to the increased ability of biofilms to withstand metal toxicity.

  9. Supergranular Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayashankar, Paniveni

    2016-07-01

    I study the complexity of supergranular cells using intensity patterns from Kodaikanal solar observatory. The chaotic and turbulent aspect of the solar supergranulation can be studied by examining the interrelationships amongst the parameters characterizing supergranular cells namely size, horizontal flow field, lifetime and physical dimensions of the cells and the fractal dimension deduced from the size data. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence. The Data consists of visually identified supergranular cells, from which a fractal dimension 'D' for supergranulation is obtained according to the relation P α AD/2 where 'A' is the area and 'P' is the perimeter of the supergranular cells. I find a fractal dimension close to about 1.3 which is consistent with that for isobars and suggests a possible turbulent origin. The cell circularity shows a dependence on the perimeter with a peak around (1.1-1.2) x 105 m. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence.

  10. Life on Other Worlds: The 20th- Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2001-06-01

    List of illustrations; List of tables; Acknowledgements; Introduction; 1. From the physical world to the biological universe: Democritus to Lowell; 2. Life in the solar system; 3. Solar systems beyond; 4. Extraterrestrials in literature and the arts: the role of imagination; 5. The UFO controversy and the extraterrestrial hypothesis; 6. The origin and evolution of life in the extraterrestrial context; 7. SETI: the search for extraterrestrial intelligence; 8. The meaning of life; 9. Summary and conclusion: the biological universe; Select bibliographical essay; Index.

  11. Acetic acid treatments to keep postharvest quality of "Regina" and "Taloppo" table grapes.

    PubMed

    Venditti, T; D'Hallewin, G; Dore, A; Molinu, M G; Fiori, P; Angiolino, C; Agabbio, M

    2008-01-01

    The most important postharvest pathogen for table grape is Botrytis cinerea (gray mold), which cause a rapid deterioration of fruit. An effective control of the disease during storage is difficult and remains an unsolved problem since no pesticide treatments are allowed by European legislation. GRAS compounds, employed with no restriction as preservatives in Europe and North America, are possible candidates to fulfil this gap. The aim of this work is to study the efficacy of Acetic Acid (AAC), used as postharvest treatment to control Botrytis cinerea on "Regina" and "Taloppo" table grapes, by Laboratory and storage tests. The activity of this compound was first assessed with laboratory tests, treating at different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75 and 100 microl/L) of AAC vapors, for 15 minutes, single berries inoculated with B. cinerea. After treatments fruit was incubated at 20 degrees C for one week. The in vivo experiment took place by using the most promising AAC concentrations (50, 75 and 100 microl/L) followed by eight weeks of storage at 5 degrees C and 95% of relative humidity (RH) and four days at 20 degrees C and 85% RH (simulated shelf-life conditions). At the end of the in vivo experiment decay, weight loss and visual assessment were evaluated. Almost all treatments, after eight weeks of storage, reduced the incidence of gray mould. The best results were achieved by using 50 ppm of AAC, gaining a reduction of decay, compared to untreated "Taloppo" and "Regina" grapes of 61.0% and 41.4%, respectively. Following the simulated shelf-life period differences between treated and untreated (control) became no significant for "Taloppo" grape, while the lowest decay percentage was reached with 50 microl/L of AAC for "Regina" grape (52% of reduction if compared to control). Regarding fruit weight loss all treatments did not affect significantly this parameter that ranged between 8.2% and 11.5% after eight weeks of storage and 13.5% and 18.2% after shelf-life

  12. CELSS engineering parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drysdale, Alan; Sager, John; Wheeler, Ray; Fortson, Russ; Chetirkin, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The most important Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) engineering parameters are, in order of decreasing importance, manpower, mass, and energy. The plant component is a significant contributor to the total system equivalent mass. In this report, a generic plant component is described and the relative equivalent mass and productivity are derived for a number of instances taken from the KSC CELSS Breadboard Project data and literature. Typical specific productivities (edible biomass produced over 10 years divided by system equivalent mass) for closed systems are of the order of 0.2.

  13. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, G.T.; Houlberg, L.M.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-02-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  14. Environmental regulatory update table, March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.; Langston, M.E.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  15. Environmental regulatory update table, July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    This Environmental Regulatory Update Table (July 1991) provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  16. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, G.T.; Houlberg, L.M.; Noghrei-Nikbakht, P.A.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  17. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, G.T.; Houlberg, L.M.; Noghrei-Nikbakht, P.A.; Salk, M.S.

    1990-12-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  18. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1990-10-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  19. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-11-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  20. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, October 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Noghrei-Nikbakht, P.A.; Salk, M.S.

    1990-11-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  1. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.; Langston, M.E.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1989-05-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  2. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Houlbert, L.M.; Langston, M.E. ); Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  3. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M., Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-09-01

    This Environmental Regulatory Update Table (August 1991) provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  4. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  5. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  6. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-10-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  7. Examining the Correlation between Objective Injury Parameters, Personality Traits, and Adjustment Measures among Burn Victims

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Oren; Domniz, Noam; Petashnick, Yoel R.; Gilboa, Dalia; Raviv, Tal; Barzilai, Liran; Farber, Nimrod; Harats, Moti; Winkler, Eyal; Haik, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Background: Burn victims experience immense physical and mental hardship during their process of rehabilitation and regaining functionality. We examined different objective burn-related factors as well as psychological ones, in the form of personality traits that may affect the rehabilitation process and its outcome. Objective: To assess the influence and correlation of specific personality traits and objective injury-related parameters on the adjustment of burn victims post-injury. Methods: Sixty-two male patients admitted to our burn unit due to burn injuries were compared with 36 healthy male individuals by use of questionnaires to assess each group’s psychological adjustment parameters. Multivariate and hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to identify differences between the groups. Results: A significant negative correlation was found between the objective burn injury severity (e.g., total body surface area and burn depth) and the adjustment of burn victims (p < 0.05, p < 0.001, Table 3). Moreover, patients more severely injured tend to be more neurotic (p < 0.001), and less extroverted and agreeable (p < 0.01, Table 4). Conclusion: Extroverted burn victims tend to adjust better to their post-injury life while the neurotic patients tend to have difficulties adjusting. This finding may suggest new tools for early identification of maladjustment-prone patients and therefore provide them with better psychological support in a more dedicated manner. PMID:25874193

  8. 14 CFR Table A to Part 117 - Maximum Flight Time Limits for Unaugmented Operations Table

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum Flight Time Limits for Unaugmented... FLIGHT AND DUTY LIMITATIONS AND REST REQUIREMENTS: FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS (EFF. 1-4-14) Pt. 117, Table A Table A to Part 117—Maximum Flight Time Limits for Unaugmented Operations Table Time of...

  9. Impact of water table fluctuations on water flow and solute transport in 1D column systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühle, F.; Stumpp, C.

    2012-04-01

    Although hydrological processes and mass fluxes in the unsaturated and saturated zone have been well studied separately, little is known about transition processes between these zones. Since the transition zone is dynamic and varies spatially and temporally with fluctuations of the water table, water flow and solute transport are believed to vary dynamically, too. This may influence the transport and fate of dissolved contaminants and consequently the quality of groundwater. In order to protect and maintain drinking water resources, improved understanding about hydrological processes at the dynamic interface between the unsaturated and saturated zone is needed. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of water table fluctuations on one-dimensional vertical flow and solute transport in laboratory column systems. Therefore, two flow-through columns were constantly irrigated with groundwater at an infiltration rate of 4.7 cm/d. In one column the water table was kept statically fixed in the middle, in the other column the water table was continually fluctuated by regularly raising and lowering the outflow tube. Several multi-tracer experiments were conducted and compared injecting the tracers bromide, deuterium and 18-oxygen at different water levels. Data modelling was performed with a lumped parameter model to simulate the hydrological fluxes. Our results showed that at static water table and similar water fluxes in both columns, structural heterogeneities due to packing lead to differences in solute transport, e.g. different dispersivity. Tracer breakthrough curves were well simulated with the lumped parameter model indicating that the systems were at steady state. When the water table was fluctuated small differences in solute transport were observed. Even with a fluctuating water table the lumped parameter model yielded high modelling accuracy and indicated that under certain hydrological conditions water table fluctuations lead to slightly

  10. 46 CFR 28.115 - Ring life buoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ring life buoys. 28.115 Section 28.115 Shipping COAST... VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.115 Ring life buoys. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... life buoy as specified in table 28.115. If the vessel is equipped with a ring life buoy, at least...

  11. 46 CFR 28.115 - Ring life buoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ring life buoys. 28.115 Section 28.115 Shipping COAST... VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.115 Ring life buoys. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... life buoy as specified in table 28.115. If the vessel is equipped with a ring life buoy, at least...

  12. 46 CFR 28.115 - Ring life buoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ring life buoys. 28.115 Section 28.115 Shipping COAST... VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.115 Ring life buoys. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... life buoy as specified in table 28.115. If the vessel is equipped with a ring life buoy, at least...

  13. 46 CFR 28.115 - Ring life buoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ring life buoys. 28.115 Section 28.115 Shipping COAST... VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.115 Ring life buoys. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... life buoy as specified in table 28.115. If the vessel is equipped with a ring life buoy, at least...

  14. A periodic table for cancer.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Cancers exhibit differences in metastatic behavior and drug sensitivity that correlate with certain tumor-specific variables such as differentiation grade, growth rate/extent and molecular regulatory aberrations. In practice, patient management is based on the past results of clinical trials adjusted for these biomarkers. Here, it is proposed that treatment strategies could be fine-tuned upfront simply by quantifying tumorigenic spatial (cell growth) and temporal (genetic stability) control losses, as predicted by genetic defects of cell-cycle-regulatory gatekeeper and genome-stabilizing caretaker tumor suppressor genes, respectively. These differential quantifications of tumor dysfunction may in turn be used to create a tumor-specific 'periodic table' that guides rational formulation of survival-enhancing anticancer treatment strategies.

  15. The taste of table salt.

    PubMed

    Roper, Stephen D

    2015-03-01

    Solutions of table salt (NaCl) elicit several tastes, including of course saltiness but also sweet, sour, and bitter. This brief review touches on some of the mileposts concerning what is known about taste transduction for the Na(+) ion, the main contributor to saltiness. Electrophysiological recordings, initially from single gustatory nerve fibers, and later, integrated impulse activity from gustatory nerves led researchers to predict that Na(+) ions interacted with a surface molecule. Subsequent studies have resolved that this molecule is likely to be an epithelial sodium channel, ENaC. Other Na(+) transduction mechanisms are also present in taste buds but have not yet been identified. The specific type(s) of taste cells responsible for salt taste also remains unknown.

  16. Some Reflections on the Periodic Table and Its Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernelius, W. Conard

    1986-01-01

    Discusses early periodic tables; effect on the periodic table of atomic numbers; the periodic table in relation to electron distribution in the atoms of elements; terms and concepts related to the table; and the modern basis of the periodic table. Additional comments about these and other topics are included. (JN)

  17. ‘Valley Pearl’ table grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Valley Pearl’ is an early to mid-season, white seedless table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for commercial table grape production where V. vinifera can be grown. Significant characteristics of ‘Valley Pearl’ are its high and consistent fruit production on spur pruned vines and large round berr...

  18. A New Compression Method for FITS Tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pence, William; Seaman, Rob; White, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    As the size and number of FITS binary tables generated by astronomical observatories increases, so does the need for a more efficient compression method to reduce the amount disk space and network bandwidth required to archive and down1oad the data tables. We have developed a new compression method for FITS binary tables that is modeled after the FITS tiled-image compression compression convention that has been in use for the past decade. Tests of this new method on a sample of FITS binary tables from a variety of current missions show that on average this new compression technique saves about 50% more disk space than when simply compressing the whole FITS file with gzip. Other advantages of this method are (1) the compressed FITS table is itself a valid FITS table, (2) the FITS headers remain uncompressed, thus allowing rapid read and write access to the keyword values, and (3) in the common case where the FITS file contains multiple tables, each table is compressed separately and may be accessed without having to uncompress the whole file.

  19. Online Periodic Table: A Cautionary Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izci, Kemal; Barrow, Lloyd H.; Thornhill, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to evaluate ten online periodic table sources for their accuracy and (b) to compare the types of information and links provided to users. Limited studies have been reported on online periodic table (Diener and Moore 2011; Slocum and Moore in "J Chem Educ" 86(10):1167, 2009). Chemistry students'…

  20. Relating Functional Groups to the Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struyf, Jef

    2009-01-01

    An introduction to organic chemistry functional groups and their ionic variants is presented. Functional groups are ordered by the position of their specific (hetero) atom in the periodic table. Lewis structures are compared with their corresponding condensed formulas. (Contains 5 tables.)

  1. Environmental regulatory update table, November 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, M.E.; Sharples, F.E.; Tucker, C.S.

    1987-11-01

    This report provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  2. Environmental regulatory update table, September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, M.E.; Sharples, F.E.; Tucker, C.S.

    1987-10-01

    This report provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  3. Designing a Table both Swinging and Stable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Greg N.

    2008-01-01

    Howard Eves captured people's imagination by proposing a hinged table whose top could swing around to be either an equilateral triangle or a square. But is Eves's mathematically motivated design actually good furniture design? This paper identifies potential design flaws in that hinged table and proposes an intriguing new design. Both the original…

  4. The Stream Table in Physical Geography Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikle, Thomas A.; Lightfoot, Dale R.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a number of activities to be conducted with a stream table (large wooden box filled with sediment and designed for water to pass through) in class. Activities illustrate such fluvial processes as stream meandering, erosion, transportation, and deposition. Includes a diagram for constructing a stream table. (MJP)

  5. Web Thermo Tables (WTT) - Professional Edition

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 203 NIST/TRC Web Thermo Tables (WTT) - Professional Edition (Online Subscription)   WTT - Professional Edition, a Web version of the TRC Thermodynamic Tables, represents a complete collection of critically evaluated thermodynamic property data primarily for pure organic compounds. As of Nov. 2011, WTT contains information on 23999 compounds.

  6. Web Thermo Tables (WTT) - Lite Edition

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 202 NIST/TRC Web Thermo Tables (WTT) - Lite Edition (Online Subscription)   WTT - Lite Edition, a Web version of the TRC Thermodynamic Tables, represents a collection of critically evaluated thermodynamic property data for 150 commonly-used (primarily organic) pure compounds.

  7. 21 CFR 892.1980 - Radiologic table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiologic table. 892.1980 Section 892.1980 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1980 Radiologic table. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1980 - Radiologic table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiologic table. 892.1980 Section 892.1980 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1980 Radiologic table. (a) Identification. A...

  9. 21 CFR 892.1980 - Radiologic table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiologic table. 892.1980 Section 892.1980 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1980 Radiologic table. (a) Identification. A...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1980 - Radiologic table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiologic table. 892.1980 Section 892.1980 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1980 Radiologic table. (a) Identification. A...

  11. 21 CFR 890.3760 - Powered table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered table. 890.3760 Section 890.3760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3760 Powered table. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 890.3750 - Mechanical table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mechanical table. 890.3750 Section 890.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3750 Mechanical table....

  13. 21 CFR 890.3750 - Mechanical table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mechanical table. 890.3750 Section 890.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3750 Mechanical table....

  14. 21 CFR 890.3760 - Powered table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered table. 890.3760 Section 890.3760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3760 Powered table. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 890.3750 - Mechanical table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mechanical table. 890.3750 Section 890.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3750 Mechanical table....

  16. 21 CFR 890.3760 - Powered table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered table. 890.3760 Section 890.3760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3760 Powered table. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3750 - Mechanical table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mechanical table. 890.3750 Section 890.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3750 Mechanical table....

  18. 21 CFR 890.3750 - Mechanical table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mechanical table. 890.3750 Section 890.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3750 Mechanical table....

  19. 21 CFR 890.3760 - Powered table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered table. 890.3760 Section 890.3760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3760 Powered table. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3760 - Powered table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered table. 890.3760 Section 890.3760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3760 Powered table. (a)...

  1. Benchmarking in Universities: League Tables Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, David

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the practice of benchmarking universities using a "league table" approach. Taking the example of the "Sunday Times University League Table", the author reanalyses the descriptive data on UK universities. Using a linear programming technique, data envelope analysis (DEA), the author uses the re-analysis to demonstrate the major…

  2. 29 CFR 1915.118 - Tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shipbreaking. Table E-1—Dimensions and Spacing of Wood Independent-Pole Scaffold Members Structural members... 2 x 6 or 1 x 8 Longitudinal braces 2 x 4 2 x 6 2 x 6 Table E-4—Safe Center Loads for Scaffold...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.118 - Tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shipbreaking. Table E-1—Dimensions and Spacing of Wood Independent-Pole Scaffold Members Structural members... 2 x 6 or 1 x 8 Longitudinal braces 2 x 4 2 x 6 2 x 6 Table E-4—Safe Center Loads for Scaffold...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.118 - Tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shipbreaking. Table E-1—Dimensions and Spacing of Wood Independent-Pole Scaffold Members Structural members... 2 x 6 or 1 x 8 Longitudinal braces 2 x 4 2 x 6 2 x 6 Table E-4—Safe Center Loads for Scaffold...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.118 - Tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shipbreaking. Table E-1—Dimensions and Spacing of Wood Independent-Pole Scaffold Members Structural members... or 1×8 Longitudinal braces 2×4 2×6 2×6 Table E-4—Safe Center Loads for Scaffold Plank of 1,100...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.118 - Tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shipbreaking. Table E-1—Dimensions and Spacing of Wood Independent-Pole Scaffold Members Structural members... or 1×8 Longitudinal braces 2×4 2×6 2×6 Table E-4—Safe Center Loads for Scaffold Plank of 1,100...

  7. Pinch Experiments in a Table Top Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, Jose; Soto, Leopoldo; Tarifeno, Ariel

    2009-01-21

    The design and construction of a table top multipurpose capacitor bank of hundred of Joules and hundred of kiloAmperes conceived to be used in small scale Z-pinch experiments is reported. A recent result on a Z-pinch gas embedded discharge using hollow conical electrodes done in a similar table top generator is also presented.

  8. Impact of water table fluctuations on water flow and solute transport in different porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühle, Franziska; Zentner, Nadine; Stumpp, Christine

    2013-04-01

    The interface between saturated and unsaturated zone is dynamic and varies spatially and temporally resulting in fluctuations of the water table. Still, little is known about transport processes under transient flow conditions at this interface and how the processes are affected by altering the water table. In order to understand transport and fate of dissolved contaminants into the groundwater and consequently the quality of groundwater, improved understanding about hydrological processes at the dynamic interface between unsaturated and saturated zone is needed. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of water table fluctuations on one-dimensional vertical flow and solute transport in different sediments. Therefore, flow-through columns (length=50cm, diameter=9cm), filled with glass beads of different grain sizes (smaller=0.4-0.6mm, coarser=1.0-1.5mm), were constantly irrigated at 12 cm/d. Several multi-tracer experiments were conducted with a statically fixed water table and compared to experiments where the water table was fluctuated in upward and downward direction. Data modeling was performed with a lumped parameter model to simulate hydrological fluxes and to determine transport parameters. Our results showed that most tracer breakthrough curves were well simulated indicating that the systems were at steady state. The results showed that under certain hydrological conditions water table fluctuations lead to increased dispersivity. It is suggested that a falling water table can cause increased spreading when the decline is faster than the water flux resulting in a more extensive solute distribution over depth. Further, it was observed that a rising water table can cause higher tracer spreading due to diffusive solute exchange in coarse sediments with immobile water regions. In conclusion, spatial and temporal variability of the interface between vadose zone and groundwater contribute to spreading of solutes and therefore have to be considered

  9. A life-history perspective on the demographic drivers of structured population dynamics in changing environments.

    PubMed

    Koons, David N; Iles, David T; Schaub, Michael; Caswell, Hal

    2016-09-01

    Current understanding of life-history evolution and how demographic parameters contribute to population dynamics across species is largely based on assumptions of either constant environments or stationary environmental variation. Meanwhile, species are faced with non-stationary environmental conditions (changing mean, variance, or both) created by climate and landscape change. To close the gap between contemporary reality and demographic theory, we develop a set of transient life table response experiments (LTREs) for decomposing realised population growth rates into contributions from specific vital rates and components of population structure. Using transient LTREs in a theoretical framework, we reveal that established concepts in population biology will require revision because of reliance on approaches that do not address the influence of unstable population structure on population growth and mean fitness. Going forward, transient LTREs will enhance understanding of demography and improve the explanatory power of models used to understand ecological and evolutionary dynamics. PMID:27401966

  10. Life's crucible.

    PubMed

    Radetsky, P

    1998-02-01

    Research by German chemists Gunter Wachtershauser and Claudia Huber about the origins of life is reviewed. Other theories about the beginning of life on Earth are examined with comments by noted researchers.

  11. Opal equation-of-state tables for astrophysical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, F.J.; Swenson, F.J.; Iglesias, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    OPAL opacities have recently helped to resolve a number of long-standing discrepancies between theory and observation. This success has made it important to provide the associated equation-of-state (EOS) data. The OPAL EOS is based on an activity expansion of the grand canonical partition function of the plasma in terms of its fundamental constituents (electrons and nuclei). The formation of composite particles and many-body effects on the internal bound states occur naturally in this approach. Hence, pressure ionization is a consequence of the theory. In contrast, commonly used approaches, all of which are based on minimization of free energy, are forced to assert the effect of the plasma on composite particles and must rely on an ad hoc treatment of pressure ionization. Another advantage of the OPAL approach is that it provides a systematic expansion in the Coulomb coupling parameter that includes subtle quantum effects generally not considered in other EOS calculations. Tables have been generated that provide pressure, internal energy, entropy, and a variety of derivative quantities. These tables cover a fairly broad range of conditions and compositions applicable to general stellar-evolution calculations for stars more massive than {approximately}0.8 {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}}. An interpolation code is provided along with the tables to facilitate their use. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Astronomical Society.}

  12. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Gunnison, Colorado. Appendix A to Attachment 3, Tables: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This volume contains the following tables: monitoring well information; static ground water levels; background ground water quality data by parameter; 1984 lysimeter tailings pore water quality by parameter; lysimeter tailings pore fluid quality data by parameter; and on site/downgradient ground water quality data by parameter.

  13. Nonthermal Pasteurization of Fermented Green Table Olives by means of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing

    PubMed Central

    Argyri, Anthoula A.; Panagou, Efstathios Z.; Nychas, George-John E.; Tassou, Chrysoula C.

    2014-01-01

    Green fermented olives cv. Halkidiki were subjected to different treatments of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing (400, 450, and 500 MPa for 15 or 30 min). Total viable counts, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts/moulds, and the physicochemical characteristics of the product (pH, colour, and firmness) were monitored right after the treatment and after 7 days of storage at 20°C to allow for recovery of injured cells. The treatments at 400 MPa for 15 and 30 min, 450 MPa for 15 and 30 min, and 500 MPa for 15 min were found insufficient as a recovery of the microbiota was observed. The treatment at 500 MPa for 30 min was effective in reducing the olive microbiota below the detection limit of the enumeration method after the treatment and after 1 week of storage and was chosen as being more appropriate for storing olives for an extended time period (5 months). After 5 months of storage at 20°C, no microbiota was detected in treated samples, while significant changes for both HHP treated and untreated olives were observed for colour parameters only (minor degradation). In conclusion, HHP treatment may introduce a reliable nonthermal pasteurization method to extend the microbiological shelf-life of fermented table olives. PMID:25243146

  14. Nonthermal pasteurization of fermented green table olives by means of high hydrostatic pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Argyri, Anthoula A; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Nychas, George-John E; Tassou, Chrysoula C

    2014-01-01

    Green fermented olives cv. Halkidiki were subjected to different treatments of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing (400, 450, and 500 MPa for 15 or 30 min). Total viable counts, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts/moulds, and the physicochemical characteristics of the product (pH, colour, and firmness) were monitored right after the treatment and after 7 days of storage at 20(°)C to allow for recovery of injured cells. The treatments at 400 MPa for 15 and 30 min, 450 MPa for 15 and 30 min, and 500 MPa for 15 min were found insufficient as a recovery of the microbiota was observed. The treatment at 500 MPa for 30 min was effective in reducing the olive microbiota below the detection limit of the enumeration method after the treatment and after 1 week of storage and was chosen as being more appropriate for storing olives for an extended time period (5 months). After 5 months of storage at 20(°)C, no microbiota was detected in treated samples, while significant changes for both HHP treated and untreated olives were observed for colour parameters only (minor degradation). In conclusion, HHP treatment may introduce a reliable nonthermal pasteurization method to extend the microbiological shelf-life of fermented table olives.

  15. Curtain Fabric Detail and Designed Furniture including Dining Table, Dining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Curtain Fabric Detail and Designed Furniture including Dining Table, Dining Chair, Coffee Table, End Table, and Ottoman - Cedric & Patricia Boulter House, 1 Rawson Woods Circle, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, OH

  16. Ergonomics: Requirements for Adjusting the Height of Laparoscopic Operating Tables

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Peter; Giebmeyer, Carsten; Rückauer, Klaus D.; Farthmann, Eduard H.

    2001-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In the last few years many new instruments and devices have been developed and introduced into the operating room (OR). A debate has been ongoing about the optimal ergonomic posture for the operating staff. From practical experience, we have learned that the operating tables cannot be adjusted adequately to allow surgeons of different stature to maintain a comfortable posture. The goal of this study was to establish the most ergonomic table height for the particular physique of the surgeon and the different types of laparoscopic instrument handles that he or she uses. Methods: In a simulated model, two probands of different stature (50th {BS 50} and 95th {BS 95} percentile) used laparoscopic instruments with four different handle designs (shank, pistol, axial, and rod). The instruments were inserted into a board in three different angles ({IA} = 20°, 30°, 40°). Additionally the elbow angles (EA) of the volunteers were fixed to either 90° or 120°. For every variable (size of surgeon and his or her elbow angle, design of handle, insertion angle of the instrument) the height of the board, as a parameter for the level of the abdominal wall of a patient with pneumoperitioneum, was measured from the floor. Results: All parameters had an effect on the optimal operating table height. The lowest required operating table level was 30 cm, the highest was 60.5 cm. In laparoscopic surgery–long shafted instruments and patients with pneumoperitoneum–the tabletops are too high for over 95% of all surgeons. As skin incision and wound suture are performed the conventional way, the operating tabletop must be adjustable up to the common height of 122 cm. The maximal difference between the optimal heights of the ORtable for one volunteer using two different handles with different insertion angles of the instruments (BS 95, EA 90°, IA 20°, rod handle to BS 50, EA 120°, IA 40°, axial handle) was about 27 cm. Conclusion: New operating tables with a

  17. Iso-effect table for radiation tolerance of the human spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, L.; Creditor, M.

    1981-07-01

    Available literature on radiation injury to the human spinal cord was collected into a comprehensive data set relating the incidence of myelopathy to dosage, number of fractions and total treatment time. The data was analyzed using a search program (RAD3) to derive best-fitting cell kinetic parameters on the assumption that radiation myelopathy arises from cellular depletion in the irradiated tissues. From these parameters iso-effect tables were constructed for a wide range of treatment schedules, including daily treatment as well as fractionation at longer intervals. The tables provide a set of limiting doses, above which the risk of radiation injury to the spinal cord becomes substantial. General application of NSD tolerance limits could lead to systematic overdosage of the spinal cord, especially with large individual fractions or short treatment times. We conclude that the computed iso-effect tables provide a more reliable clinical guide than conventional time-dose equations.

  18. 26 CFR 1.803-1 - Life insurance reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... estimated on the basis of recognized mortality or morbidity tables and assumed rates of interest. (b) In the.... (e) In the case of life insurance companies issuing policies covering life, health, and accident... subject to cancellation, it is required that reserve funds thereon be based upon recognized mortality...

  19. Kappa as a Parameter of a Symmetry Model for Rater Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Christof

    2001-01-01

    If two raters assign targets to categories, the ratings can be arranged in a two-dimensional contingency table. This article presents a model for the frequencies in such a contingency table for which Cohen's kappa is a parameter. Illustrates the model using data from a study of the psychobiology of depression. (Author/SLD)

  20. Visualize Your Data with Google Fusion Tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisbin, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    Google Fusion Tables is a modern data management platform that makes it easy to host, manage, collaborate on, visualize, and publish tabular data online. Fusion Tables allows users to upload their own data to the Google cloud, which they can then use to create compelling and interactive visualizations with the data. Users can view data on a Google Map, plot data in a line chart, or display data along a timeline. Users can share these visualizations with others to explore and discover interesting trends about various types of data, including scientific data such as invasive species or global trends in disease. Fusion Tables has been used by many organizations to visualize a variety of scientific data. One example is the California Redistricting Map created by the LA Times: http://goo.gl/gwZt5 The Pacific Institute and Circle of Blue have used Fusion Tables to map the quality of water around the world: http://goo.gl/T4SX8 The World Resources Institute mapped the threat level of coral reefs using Fusion Tables: http://goo.gl/cdqe8 What attendees will learn in this session: This session will cover all the steps necessary to use Fusion Tables to create a variety of interactive visualizations. Attendees will begin by learning about the various options for uploading data into Fusion Tables, including Shapefile, KML file, and CSV file import. Attendees will then learn how to use Fusion Tables to manage their data by merging it with other data and controlling the permissions of the data. Finally, the session will cover how to create a customized visualization from the data, and share that visualization with others using both Fusion Tables and the Google Maps API.

  1. A Classification Table for Achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chennaoui-Aoudjehane, H.; Larouci, N.; Jambon, A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    Classifying chondrites is relatively easy and the criteria are well documented. It is based on mineral compositions, textural characteristics and more recently, magnetic susceptibility. It can be more difficult to classify achondrites, especially those that are very similar to terrestrial igneous rocks, because mineralogical, textural and compositional properties can be quite variable. Achondrites contain essentially olivine, pyroxenes, plagioclases, oxides, sulphides and accessory minerals. Their origin is attributed to differentiated parents bodies: large asteroids (Vesta); planets (Mars); a satellite (the Moon); and numerous asteroids of unknown size. In most cases, achondrites are not eye witnessed falls and some do not have fusion crust. Because of the mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility similarity with terrestrial igneous rocks for some achondrites, it can be difficult for classifiers to confirm their extra-terrestrial origin. We -as classifiers of meteorites- are confronted with this problem with every suspected achondrite we receive for identification. We are developing a "grid" of classification to provide an easier approach for initial classification. We use simple but reproducible criteria based on mineralogical, petrological and geochemical studies. We presented the classes: acapulcoites, lodranites, winonaites and Martian meteorites (shergottite, chassignites, nakhlites). In this work we are completing the classification table by including the groups: angrites, aubrites, brachinites, ureilites, HED (howardites, eucrites, and diogenites), lunar meteorites, pallasites and mesosiderites. Iron meteorites are not presented in this abstract.

  2. 1998 MWD/LWD comparison tables

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This year`s comparison tables feature an updated Quick Reference Guide listing MWD sensors by collar size for each manufacturer. Following the Quick Reference Guide are the comparison tables, which list general, directional, gamma ray, resistivity, density and neutron data for each tool. The MWD Tables should only be used as a reference source. System specifications frequently change as tools are refined and developed. Please consult representatives for each company prior to making final tool selections. A contact key for all the companies is included.

  3. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart VVVVVV

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the NESHAP General Provisions (40 CFR part 63, subpart A) as shown in the following table...) Reserved No 63.8(c)(4) No Continuous parameter monitoring system (CPMS) requirements in 40 CFR part 63... 40 CFR part 63, subpart FFFF. 63.8(g)(5) No Data reduction requirements for CEMS are specified in...

  4. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart VVVVVV

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the NESHAP General Provisions (40 CFR part 63, subpart A) as shown in the following table...) Reserved No 63.8(c)(4) No Continuous parameter monitoring system (CPMS) requirements in 40 CFR part 63... 40 CFR part 63, subpart FFFF. 63.8(g)(5) No Data reduction requirements for CEMS are specified in...

  5. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart VVVVVV

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the NESHAP General Provisions (40 CFR part 63, subpart A) as shown in the following table...) Reserved No 63.8(c)(4) No Continuous parameter monitoring system (CPMS) requirements in 40 CFR part 63... 40 CFR part 63, subpart FFFF. 63.8(g)(5) No Data reduction requirements for CEMS are specified in...

  6. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, L. R. (Editor); Radtke, M. (Editor); Garshnek, V. (Editor); Rowe, J. E. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    This is the third issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. Abstracts are included for 46 Soviet periodical articles in 20 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology and published in Russian during the second third of 1985. Selected articles are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. In addition, translated introductions and tables of contents for seven Russian books on six topics related to NASA's life science concerns are presented. Areas covered are adaptation, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, endocrinology, exobiology, gravitational biology, habitability and environmental effects, health and medical treatment, immunology, life support systems, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system; neurophysiology, nutrition, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, and space physiology. Two book reviews translated from the Russian are included and lists of additional relevant titles available in English with pertinent ordering information are given.

  7. Food Composition Tables of Japan and the Nutrient Table/Database.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    A global food composition database has been constructed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) based on food composition tables from every country in the world. To improve this database, the FAO has organized the International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS). The most recent version of the food composition table for Japan was published by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and is presented in three books: "Standard Tables of Food Composition Japan-2010-," "Fatty Acid Composition of Foods-2005-," and "Amino Acid Composition of Foods-2010-." The Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan-2015- (Energy, General Components, Minerals, Vitamins, etc. Section; Fatty Acids Section; Amino Acids Section; Carbohydrates Section) will be published in 2015 and is expected to play an important role as one of the main tables of the East Asia food composition tables.

  8. Food Composition Tables of Japan and the Nutrient Table/Database.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    A global food composition database has been constructed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) based on food composition tables from every country in the world. To improve this database, the FAO has organized the International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS). The most recent version of the food composition table for Japan was published by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and is presented in three books: "Standard Tables of Food Composition Japan-2010-," "Fatty Acid Composition of Foods-2005-," and "Amino Acid Composition of Foods-2010-." The Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan-2015- (Energy, General Components, Minerals, Vitamins, etc. Section; Fatty Acids Section; Amino Acids Section; Carbohydrates Section) will be published in 2015 and is expected to play an important role as one of the main tables of the East Asia food composition tables. PMID:26598875

  9. Element No. 155 - an Equal Member of the Periodic Table of Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazan, Albert

    2011-04-01

    Properties of the elements of the Periodic Table of Elements were studied on the basis of experimental and theoretical data with use of the parameters of a suggested element No.155. The dependency ``atomic mass-number in the Table'' showed that the calculated equations of the intervals of elements No.1-54, No.55-118, and No.119-155 have a very high probability of 0.99-1.0, as well as the calculated line of the trend in No.1-118. Additionally, the other dependencies were studied for the intervals No.1-155 and No.1-104 (R2 = 0.9997; 0.999): the nucleus' radius - the number of the nucleons; the electrons' critical energy - the number of the protons; the nucleus' coupling energy - the mass number; the number of the neutrons - the nucleus' charge; the ionization potential of the atom - the nucleus' charge. The region of the ultimate high coupling energy of the nuclei in the Table (behind which the nuclei become instable) was calculated with use of the parameters of element No.155. The obtained results manifest: element No.155 should be considered as an equal member of the Periodic Table (Khazan A. Upper Limit in Mendeleev's Periodic Table - Element No.155. Svenska fysikarkivet, Stockholm, 2010).

  10. Water table fluctuation and its effects on vegetation in a semiarid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, L.; Liu, T.; Wang, X.; Luo, Y.; Wang, W.; Liu, X.

    2011-04-01

    A good understanding of water table fluctuation effects on vegetation is crucial for sustaining fragile hydrology and ecology of semiarid areas such as the Horqin Sandy Land (HSL) in northern China, but such understanding is not well documented in literature. The objectives of this study were to examine spatio-temporal variations of water table and their effects on vegetation in a semiarid environment. A 9.71 km2 area within the HSL was chosen and well-instrumented to continuously measure hydrometeorologic parameters (e.g., water table). The area comprises of meadow lands and sandy dunes as well as transitional zones in between. In addition to those measured data, this study also used Landsat TM and MODIS imageries and meteorological data at a station near the study area. The spatio-temporal variations were examined using visual plots and contour maps, while the effects on vegetation were determined by overlaying a water table depth map with a vegetation index map derived from the MODIS imageries. The results indicated that water table was mainly dependent on local topography, localized geological settings, and human activities (e.g., reclamation). At annual and monthly scales, water table was mainly a function of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. A region within the study area where depth to water table was smaller tended to have better (i.e., more dense and productive) vegetation cover. Further, the results revealed that water table fluctuation was more sensitive for vegetations in the meadow lands than in the transitional zones, but it was least sensitive for vegetations in the sandy dunes.

  11. Ecological periodic tables: In principle and practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical periodic table, the Linnaean system of classification and the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram are iconic information organizing structure in chemistry, biology and astronomy, respectively, because they are simple, exceptionally useful and they foster the expansion of sci...

  12. The periodic table: icon and inspiration.

    PubMed

    Poliakoff, Martyn; Tang, Samantha

    2015-03-13

    To start this discussion meeting on the new chemistry of the elements held on 12 May 2014, Martyn Poliakoff, Foreign Secretary of the Royal Society, was invited to give the opening remarks. As a chemist and a presenter of the popular online video channel 'The periodic table of videos', Martyn communicates his personal and professional interest in the elements to the public, who in turn use these videos both as an educational resource and for entertainment purposes. Ever since Mendeleev's first ideas for the periodic table were published in 1869, the table has continued to grow as new elements have been discovered, and it serves as both icon and inspiration; its form is now so well established that it is recognized the world over as a symbol for science. This paper highlights but a few of the varied forms that the table can take, such as an infographic, which can convey the shortage of certain elements with great impact. PMID:25666072

  13. Theodore William Richards and the Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conant, James B.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the contribution of Theodore Richards to the accurate determination of atomic weights of copper and other elements; his major contribution was to the building of the definitive periodic table of the elements. (BR)

  14. The periodic table: icon and inspiration.

    PubMed

    Poliakoff, Martyn; Tang, Samantha

    2015-03-13

    To start this discussion meeting on the new chemistry of the elements held on 12 May 2014, Martyn Poliakoff, Foreign Secretary of the Royal Society, was invited to give the opening remarks. As a chemist and a presenter of the popular online video channel 'The periodic table of videos', Martyn communicates his personal and professional interest in the elements to the public, who in turn use these videos both as an educational resource and for entertainment purposes. Ever since Mendeleev's first ideas for the periodic table were published in 1869, the table has continued to grow as new elements have been discovered, and it serves as both icon and inspiration; its form is now so well established that it is recognized the world over as a symbol for science. This paper highlights but a few of the varied forms that the table can take, such as an infographic, which can convey the shortage of certain elements with great impact.

  15. Toward an Organic Chemist's Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, H. K., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An analogy between electron transfer reactions of the elements and those of organic molecules is offered. Examples of organic electron transfer reactions are presented. The rationale of constructing an organic chemists' periodic table is also discussed. (HM)

  16. A Multiplet Table for Lines of Coii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, S. J.

    1992-11-01

    A multiplet table for Co II was created from the energy level compilation by Sugar & Corliss and the list of classified lines by Iglesias. The classifications are verified by comparison with the predicted wavelengths derived by differencing the energy levels.

  17. New Generation of Los Alamos Opacity Tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, James; Kilcrease, D. P.; Magee, N. H.; Sherrill, M. E.; Abdallah, J.; Hakel, P.; Fontes, C. J.; Guzik, J. A.; Mussack, K. A.

    2016-05-01

    We present a new generation of Los Alamos OPLIB opacity tables that have been computed using the ATOMIC code. Our tables have been calculated for all 30 elements from hydrogen through zinc and are publicly available through our website. In this poster we discuss the details of the calculations that underpin the new opacity tables. We also show several recent applications of the use of our opacity tables to solar modeling and other astrophysical applications. In particular, we demonstrate that use of the new opacities improves the agreement between solar models and helioseismology, but does not fully resolve the long-standing `solar abundance' problem. The Los Alamos National Laboratory is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC5206NA25396.

  18. Efficient Lookup Table Retrievals of Gas Abundance from CRISM Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toigo, A. D.; Smith, M. D.; Seelos, F. P.; CRISM Science; Operations Teams

    2011-12-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft has been collecting spectra in the visible to near-infrared on Mars for over 5 years (almost 3 Martian years). Observations consist of image cubes, with two main spectral samplings (approximately 70 and 550 spectral channels) and two main imaging resolutions (approximately 20 and 200 m/pixel). We present retrievals of gas abundances, specifically CO2, H2O, and CO, from spectra collected in all observation modes. The retrievals are efficiently performed using a lookup table, where the strength of gas absorption features are pre-calculated for an N-dimensional discrete grid of known input parameters (season, location, environment, viewing geometry, etc.) and the one unknown parameter to be retrieved (gas abundance). A reverse interpolation in the lookup table is used to match the observed strength of the gas absorption to the gas abundance. This algorithm is extremely fast compared to traditional radiative transfer computations that seek to recursively fit calculated results to an observed spectral feature, and can therefore be applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis to the tens of thousands of CRISM images, to examine cross-scene structure as well as to produce climatological averages.

  19. IUPAC Periodic Table of the Isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holden, N.E.; Coplen, T.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Wieser, M.E.; Singleton, G.; Walczyk, T.; Yoneda, S.; Mahaffy, P.G.; Tarbox, L.V.

    2011-01-01

    For almost 150 years, the Periodic Table of the Elements has served as a guide to the world of elements by highlighting similarities and differences in atomic structure and chemical properties. To introduce students, teachers, and society to the existence and importance of isotopes of the chemical elements, an IUPAC Periodic Table of the Isotopes (IPTI) has been prepared and can be found as a supplement to this issue.

  20. Online Periodic Table: A Cautionary Note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izci, Kemal; Barrow, Lloyd H.; Thornhill, Erica

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to evaluate ten online periodic table sources for their accuracy and (b) to compare the types of information and links provided to users. Limited studies have been reported on online periodic table (Diener and Moore 2011; Slocum and Moore in J Chem Educ 86(10):1167, 2009). Chemistry students' understanding of periodic table is vital for their success in chemistry, and the online periodic table has the potential to advance learners' understanding of chemical elements and fundamental chemistry concepts (Brito et al. in J Res Sci Teach 42(1):84-111, 2005). The ten sites were compared for accuracy of data with the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (HCP, Haynes in CRC handbook of chemistry and physics: a ready-reference book of chemical and physical data. CRC Press, Boca Raton 2012). The 10 sites are the most visited periodic table Web sites available. Four different elements, carbon, gold, argon, and plutonium, were selected for comparison, and 11 different attributes for each element were identified for evaluating accuracy. A wide variation of accuracy was found among the 10 periodic table sources. Chemicool was the most accurate information provider with 66.67 % accuracy when compared to the HCP. The 22 types of information including meaning of name and use in industry and society provided by these sites were, also, compared. WebElements, "Chemicool", "Periodic Table Live", and "the Photographic Periodic Table of the Elements" were the most information providers, providing 86.36 % of information among the 10 Web sites. "WebElements" provides the most links among the 10 Web sites. It was concluded that if an individual teacher or student desires only raw physical data from element, the Internet might not be the best choice.

  1. Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (Version 33)

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M. A.; Emery, K.; Hishikawa, Y.; Warta, W.

    2009-01-01

    Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined and new entries since July 2008 are reviewed. Efficiencies are updated to the new reference solar spectrum tabulated in IEC 60904-3 Ed. 2 revised in April 2008 and an updated list of recognised test centres is also included.

  2. Age-Related Vulnerability to Lethal Craniocerebral Crush Injuries from Electrical Beds/Tables.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Herbst, Jonathon; Langlois, Neil E I

    2016-09-01

    Vulnerability to accidents characterizes the extremes of life for reasons that may be similar in each age group. Two cases are reported to demonstrate increased risks of entrapment and crushing injury involving the use of electrically controlled beds/tables. Case 1: A frail 98-year-old woman with a history of dementia suffered a lethal crush injury to her head when she fell out of bed and accidentally activated its lowering mechanism. Case 2: An 18-month-old girl suffered a lethal crush injury to her head when she became trapped under a lowered electric massage table. Common devices may be dangerous if individuals do not have the mental or physical capabilities to deal with them. The forensic assessment of such deaths involves an evaluation of the neurocognitive level and physical strength of the decedent as documented in previous clinical assessments, in addition to a careful examination of the structure and function of the bed/table. PMID:27093332

  3. Sensitivity Analysis of Parameters Affecting Protection of Water Resources at Hanford WA

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, J.D.

    2002-02-08

    The scope of this analysis was to assess the sensitivity of contaminant fluxes from the vadose zone to the water table, to several parameters, some of which can be controlled by operational considerations.

  4. Bringing life sciences to life.

    PubMed

    David, L

    1996-03-01

    A brief review of the status of space life sciences research is provided with an emphasis on the contributions this research has made to life here on Earth. Physiological effects of weightlessness are discussed along with methods of prevention or treatment. Several technologies are described which have resulted in advances in improved health care and in other industries. In addition, the impact of space life sciences research on women's health issues and on future space travel are discussed.

  5. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

  6. Life sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  7. Writing life.

    PubMed

    Brant, B

    2000-01-01

    SUMMARY In her 1994 essay "Writing Life," Beth Brant discusses the role of writing in her life, the circumstances that surrounded her writing and editing endeavours, and her relationships with loved ones. Issues of racism, homophobia, and class oppression are explored through writing.

  8. Interference Fit Life Factors for Roller Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of hoop stresses in reducing cylindrical roller bearing fatigue life was determined for various classes of inner ring interference fit. Calculations were performed for up to seven interference fit classes for each of ten bearing sizes. Each fit was taken at tightest, average and loosest values within the fit class for RBEC-5 tolerance, thus requiring 486 separate analyses. The hoop stresses were superimposed on the Hertzian principal stresses created by the applied radial load to calculate roller bearing fatigue life. The method was developed through a series of equations to calculate the life reduction for cylindrical roller bearings based on interference fit. All calculated lives are for zero initial bearing internal clearance. Any reduction in bearing clearance due to interference fit was compensated by increasing the initial (unmounted) clearance. Results are presented as tables and charts of life factors for bearings with light, moderate and heavy loads and interference fits ranging from extremely light to extremely heavy and for bearing accuracy class RBEC 5 (ISO class 5). Interference fits on the inner bearing ring of a cylindrical roller bearing can significantly reduce bearing fatigue life. In general, life factors are smaller (lower life) for bearings running under light load where the unfactored life is highest. The various bearing series within a particular bore size had almost identical interference fit life factors for a particular fit. The tightest fit at the high end of the RBEC-5 tolerance band defined in ANSI/ABMA shaft fit tables produces a life factor of approximately 0.40 for an inner-race maximum Hertz stress of 1200 MPa (175 ksi) and a life factor of 0.60 for an inner-race maximum Hertz stress of 2200 MPa (320 ksi). Interference fits also impact the maximum Hertz stress-life relation.

  9. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Partially Soluble HAP 7 Table 7 to... Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63—Partially Soluble HAP As required... partially soluble HAP listed in the following table. Partially soluble HAP name CAS No. 1....

  10. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Partially Soluble HAP 7 Table 7 to... Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63—Partially Soluble HAP As required... partially soluble HAP listed in the following table. Partially soluble HAP name CAS No. 1....

  11. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Partially Soluble HAP 7 Table 7 to... Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63—Partially Soluble HAP As required... partially soluble HAP listed in the following table. Partially soluble HAP name CAS No. 1....

  12. 44 CFR 208.12 - Maximum Pay Rate Table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... tables/SSR/HTML/0290.asp. (ii) Engineers and Canine Handlers. DHS uses the latest General Schedule pay... rates used in the initial Table can be found at http://www.opm.gov/oca/03tables/html/gs.asp. (iii...://www.opm.gov/oca/03tables/locdef.asp. (3) Review and update. DHS will review and update the...

  13. 44 CFR 208.12 - Maximum Pay Rate Table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... tables/SSR/HTML/0290.asp. (ii) Engineers and Canine Handlers. DHS uses the latest General Schedule pay... rates used in the initial Table can be found at http://www.opm.gov/oca/03tables/html/gs.asp. (iii...://www.opm.gov/oca/03tables/locdef.asp. (3) Review and update. DHS will review and update the...

  14. 44 CFR 208.12 - Maximum Pay Rate Table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... tables/SSR/HTML/0290.asp. (ii) Engineers and Canine Handlers. DHS uses the latest General Schedule pay... rates used in the initial Table can be found at http://www.opm.gov/oca/03tables/html/gs.asp. (iii...://www.opm.gov/oca/03tables/locdef.asp. (3) Review and update. DHS will review and update the...

  15. 44 CFR 208.12 - Maximum Pay Rate Table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... tables/SSR/HTML/0290.asp. (ii) Engineers and Canine Handlers. DHS uses the latest General Schedule pay... rates used in the initial Table can be found at http://www.opm.gov/oca/03tables/html/gs.asp. (iii...://www.opm.gov/oca/03tables/locdef.asp. (3) Review and update. DHS will review and update the...

  16. 42 CFR Appendix - Table to Subpart J of Part 84

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Table to Subpart J of Part 84 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND.... 84, Subpt. J, Table Table to Subpart J of Part 84 Table 8—Air-Supply-Line Requirements and...

  17. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ooo - Fugitive Emission Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fugitive Emission Limits 3 Table 3 to... Processing Plants Subpt. OOO, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart OOO—Fugitive Emission Limits Table 3 to Subpart OOO...; andPeriodic inspections of water sprays according to § 60.674(b) and § 60.676(b); and A...

  18. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ooo - Fugitive Emission Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fugitive Emission Limits 3 Table 3 to... Processing Plants Subpt. OOO, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart OOO—Fugitive Emission Limits Table 3 to Subpart OOO...; andPeriodic inspections of water sprays according to § 60.674(b) and § 60.676(b); and A...

  19. [COSMOS motion design optimization in the CT table].

    PubMed

    Shang, Hong; Huang, Jian; Ren, Chao

    2013-03-01

    Through the CT Table dynamic simulation by COSMOS Motion, analysis the hinge of table and the motor force, then optimize the position of the hinge of table, provide the evidence of selecting bearing and motor, meanwhile enhance the design quality of the CT table and reduce the product design cost.

  20. 26 CFR 1.807-1 - Mortality and morbidity tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mortality and morbidity tables. 1.807-1 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Investment Income § 1.807-1 Mortality and morbidity tables. (a) Tables... the contract is issued, then the mortality and morbidity tables set forth in this subsection are...